Science.gov

Sample records for introducing modern bioenergy

  1. Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-20

    Scientists and engineers at Idaho National Laboratory are working with partners throughout the bioenergy industry in preprocessing and characterization to ensure optimum feedstock quality. This elite team understands that addressing feedstock variability is a critical component in the biofuel production process.

  2. Bioenergy

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Scientists and engineers at Idaho National Laboratory are working with partners throughout the bioenergy industry in preprocessing and characterization to ensure optimum feedstock quality. This elite team understands that addressing feedstock variability is a critical component in the biofuel production process.

  3. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  4. Use of Blood-Glucose Test Strips for Introducing Enzyme Electrodes and Modern Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Joseph; Macca, Carlo

    1996-08-01

    Electroanalytical experiments in teaching laboratories have traditionally relied on introducing classical polarography to the instrumental analysis laboratory. More modern experiments have been proposed to introduce advanced techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry or stripping analysis. Little attention, however, is given to the field of chemical sensors, despite the growing importance of these devices in real-life applications. In this article we introduce students to modern biosensor technology, and in paticular to disposable screen-printed glucose strips.

  5. Lexion: That Which Upholds or Bears an Archetype. "Introducing Lex and Lexion to Modern English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, Latin is a classical language that has influenced modern languages such as English, French, Italian and Spanish. With its Latin and Greek roots, this paper argues that the word lexion is an appropriate and necessary addition to the English language. Lex in Latin means, law, syllabus, statute and…

  6. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Amy; Moriarty, Kristi; Milbrandt, Anelia; Geiger, Jesse; Lewis, John

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  7. Bioenergy: America's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

    2014-07-31

    Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

  8. Bioenergy: America's Energy Future

    ScienceCinema

    Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

    2016-07-12

    Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

  9. Preface: Biocatalysis and Bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and bioenergy with emphasis on biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen and industrial products. Biocatalysis and bioenergy defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, b...

  10. Creating dedicated bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy is one of the current mechanisms of producing renewable energy to reduce our use of nonrenewable fossil fuels and to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Humans have been using bioenergy since we first learned to create and control fire - burning manure, peat, and wood to cook food...

  11. An Investigation of Changes in Pupil Attitude Toward Mathematics as a Result of Introducing a Modern Mathematics Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stibal, Willard O.

    This investigation attempted to determine how pupil attitudes toward mathematics might be changed by introducing the new Laidlaw Series in the Moscow Elementary School during the academic year of 1965-66. The Kansas Arithmetic Inventory for Elementary Pupils was administered as a pretest prior to the introduction of the new text and a post-test…

  12. Bioenergy applications for DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last several years there has been growing interest in producing bioenergy from many biomass feedstocks, including ethanol coproducts. In fact, many have asked about the possibility of burning DDGS. More specifically, some have proposed that ethanol plant efficiencies and energy balances c...

  13. Bioenergy: Agricultural Crop Residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing cost of fossil fuels especially natural gas and petroleum as well as a desire to curtail greenhouse gas emissions are driving the expansion of bioenergy. Plant biomass (woody, grain and nongrain) is a potential energy source. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, plant biomass was a maj...

  14. Chapter 9, Land and Bioenergy in Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), Bioenergy & Sustainability: bridging the gaps.

    SciTech Connect

    Woods J, Lynd LR; Laser, M; Batistella M, De Castro D; Kline, Keith L; Faaij, Andre

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we address the questions of whether and how enough biomass could be produced to make a material contribution to global energy supply on a scale and timeline that is consistent with prominent low carbon energy scenarios. We assess whether bioenergy provision necessarily conflicts with priority ecosystem services including food security for the world s poor and vulnerable populations. In order to evaluate the potential land demand for bioenergy, we developed a set of three illustrative scenarios using specified growth rates for each bioenergy sub-sector. In these illustrative scenarios, bioenergy (traditional and modern) increases from 62 EJ/yr in 2010 to 100, 150 and 200 EJ/yr in 2050. Traditional bioenergy grows slowly, increasing by between 0.75% and 1% per year, from 40 EJ/yr in 2010 to 50 or 60 EJ/ yr in 2050, continuing as the dominant form of bioenergy until at least 2020. Across the three scenarios, total land demand is estimated to increase by between 52 and 200 Mha which can be compared with a range of potential land availability estimates from the literature of between 240 million hectares to over 1 billion hectares. Biomass feedstocks arise from combinations of residues and wastes, energy cropping and increased efficiency in supply chains for energy, food and materials. In addition, biomass has the unique capability of providing solid, liquid and gaseous forms of modern energy carriers that can be transformed into analogues to existing fuels. Because photosynthesis fixes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, biomass supply chains can be configured to store at least some of the fixed carbon in forms or ways that it will not be reemitted to the atmosphere for considerable periods of time, so-called negative emissions pathways. These attributes provide opportunities for bioenergy policies to promote longterm and sustainable options for the supply of energy for the foreseeable future.

  15. Communicating about bioenergy sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Perla, Dr. Donna; Lucier, Dr. Al

    2013-01-01

    Defining and measuring sustainability of bioenergy systems are difficult because the systems are complex, the science is in early stages of development, and there is a need to generalize what are inherently context-specific enterprises. These challenges, and the fact that decisions are being made now, create a need for improved communications among scientists as well as between scientists and decision makers. In order for scientists to provide information that is useful to decision makers, they need to come to an agreement on how to measure and report potential risks and benefits of diverse energy alternatives, including problems and opportunities in various bioenergy production pathways. Scientists also need to develop approaches that contribute information relevant to policy and decision making. The need for clear communication is especially important at this time when there is a plethora of scientific papers and reports, and it is difficult for the public or decision makers to assess the merits of each analysis. We propose three communication guidelines for scientists whose work can contribute to decision making: (1) relationships between the question and the analytical approach should be clearly defined and make common sense; (2) the information should be presented in a manner that nonscientists can understand; and (3) the implications of methods, assumptions and limitations should be clear. The scientists job is to analyze information in order to build a better understanding of environmental, cultural and socioeconomic aspects of the sustainability of energy alternatives. The scientific process requires transparency, debate, review, and collaboration across disciplines and time. This paper serves as an introduction to the papers in the special issue on Sustainability of Bioenergy Systems: Cradle to Grave because scientific communication is essential to developing more sustainable energy systems. Together these four papers provide a framework under which the

  16. Pectins, Endopolygalacturonases, and Bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Latarullo, Mariana B. G.; Tavares, Eveline Q. P.; Maldonado, Gabriel P.; Leite, Débora C. C.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2016-01-01

    The precise disassembly of the extracellular matrix of some plant species used as feedstocks for bioenergy production continues to be a major barrier to reach reasonable cost effective bioethanol production. One solution has been the use of pretreatments, which can be effective, but increase even more the cost of processing and also lead to loss of cell wall materials that could otherwise be used in industry. Although pectins are known to account for a relatively low proportion of walls of grasses, their role in recalcitrance to hydrolysis has been shown to be important. In this mini-review, we examine the importance of pectins for cell wall hydrolysis highlighting the work associated with bioenergy. Here we focus on the importance of endopolygalacturonases (EPGs) discovered to date. The EPGs cataloged by CAZy were screened, revealing that most sequences, as well as the scarce structural work performed with EPGs, are from fungi (mostly Aspergillus niger). The comparisons among the EPG from different microorganisms, suggests that EPGs from bacteria and grasses display higher similarity than each of them with fungi. This compilation strongly suggests that structural and functional studies of EPGs, mainly from plants and bacteria, should be a priority of research regarding the use of pectinases for bioenergy production purposes. PMID:27703463

  17. Pectins, Endopolygalacturonases, and Bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Latarullo, Mariana B G; Tavares, Eveline Q P; Maldonado, Gabriel P; Leite, Débora C C; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2016-01-01

    The precise disassembly of the extracellular matrix of some plant species used as feedstocks for bioenergy production continues to be a major barrier to reach reasonable cost effective bioethanol production. One solution has been the use of pretreatments, which can be effective, but increase even more the cost of processing and also lead to loss of cell wall materials that could otherwise be used in industry. Although pectins are known to account for a relatively low proportion of walls of grasses, their role in recalcitrance to hydrolysis has been shown to be important. In this mini-review, we examine the importance of pectins for cell wall hydrolysis highlighting the work associated with bioenergy. Here we focus on the importance of endopolygalacturonases (EPGs) discovered to date. The EPGs cataloged by CAZy were screened, revealing that most sequences, as well as the scarce structural work performed with EPGs, are from fungi (mostly Aspergillus niger). The comparisons among the EPG from different microorganisms, suggests that EPGs from bacteria and grasses display higher similarity than each of them with fungi. This compilation strongly suggests that structural and functional studies of EPGs, mainly from plants and bacteria, should be a priority of research regarding the use of pectinases for bioenergy production purposes.

  18. Opportunities for renewable bioenergy using microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-06-01

    Global warming can be slowed, and perhaps reversed, only when society replaces fossil fuels with renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives. The best option is bioenergy: the sun's energy is captured in biomass and converted to energy forms useful to modern society. To make a dent in global warming, bioenergy must be generated at a very high rate, since the world today uses approximately 10 TW of fossil-fuel energy. And, it must do so without inflicting serious damage on the environment or disrupting our food supply. While most bioenergy options fail on both counts, several microorganism-based options have the potential to produce large amounts of renewable energy without disruptions. In one approach, microbial communities convert the energy value of various biomass residuals to socially useful energy. Biomass residuals come from agricultural, animal, and a variety of industrial operations, as well as from human wastes. Microorganisms can convert almost all of the energy in these wastes to methane, hydrogen, and electricity. In a second approach, photosynthetic microorganisms convert sunlight into biodiesel. Certain algae (eukaryotes) or cyanobacteria (prokaryotes) have high lipid contents. Under proper conditions, these photosynthetic microorganisms can produce lipids for biodiesel with yields per unit area 100 times or more than possible with any plant system. In addition, the non-lipid biomass can be converted to methane, hydrogen, or electricity. Photosynthetic microorganisms do not require arable land, an advantage because our arable land must be used to produce food. Algae or cyanobacteria may be the best option to produce bioenergy at rates high enough to replace a substantial fraction of our society's use of fossil fuels.

  19. Joint BioEnergy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay; Simmons, Blake; Tartaglino, Virginia; Baidoo, Edward; Kothari, Ankita

    2015-06-15

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center dedicated to developing advanced biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass that can replace gasoline, diesel and jet fuels.

  20. Joint BioEnergy Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Keasling, Jay; Simmons, Blake; Tartaglino, Virginia; Baidoo, Edward; Kothari, Ankita

    2016-07-12

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center dedicated to developing advanced biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass that can replace gasoline, diesel and jet fuels.

  1. Communicating About Bioenergy Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Perla, Donna; Lucier, Al

    2013-02-01

    Defining and measuring sustainability of bioenergy systems are difficult because the systems are complex, the science is in early stages of development, and there is a need to generalize what are inherently context-specific enterprises. These challenges, and the fact that decisions are being made now, create a need for improved communications among scientists as well as between scientists and decision makers. In order for scientists to provide information that is useful to decision makers, they need to come to an agreement on how to measure and report potential risks and benefits of diverse energy alternatives in a way that allows decision makers to compare options. Scientists also need to develop approaches that contribute information about problems and opportunities relevant to policy and decision making. The need for clear communication is especially important at this time when there is a plethora of scientific papers and reports and it is difficult for the public or decision makers to assess the merits of each analysis. We propose three communication guidelines for scientists whose work can contribute to decision making: (1) relationships between the question and the analytical approach should be clearly defined and make common sense; (2) the information should be presented in a manner that non-scientists can understand; and (3) the implications of methods, assumptions, and limitations should be clear. The scientists' job is to analyze information to build a better understanding of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic aspects of the sustainability of energy alternatives. The scientific process requires transparency, debate, review, and collaboration across disciplines and time. This paper serves as an introduction to the papers in the special issue on "Sustainability of Bioenergy Systems: Cradle to Grave" because scientific communication is essential to developing more sustainable energy systems. Together these four papers provide a framework under which

  2. Communicating about bioenergy sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Perla, Donna; Lucier, Al

    2013-02-01

    Defining and measuring sustainability of bioenergy systems are difficult because the systems are complex, the science is in early stages of development, and there is a need to generalize what are inherently context-specific enterprises. These challenges, and the fact that decisions are being made now, create a need for improved communications among scientists as well as between scientists and decision makers. In order for scientists to provide information that is useful to decision makers, they need to come to an agreement on how to measure and report potential risks and benefits of diverse energy alternatives in a way that allows decision makers to compare options. Scientists also need to develop approaches that contribute information about problems and opportunities relevant to policy and decision making. The need for clear communication is especially important at this time when there is a plethora of scientific papers and reports and it is difficult for the public or decision makers to assess the merits of each analysis. We propose three communication guidelines for scientists whose work can contribute to decision making: (1) relationships between the question and the analytical approach should be clearly defined and make common sense; (2) the information should be presented in a manner that non-scientists can understand; and (3) the implications of methods, assumptions, and limitations should be clear. The scientists' job is to analyze information to build a better understanding of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic aspects of the sustainability of energy alternatives. The scientific process requires transparency, debate, review, and collaboration across disciplines and time. This paper serves as an introduction to the papers in the special issue on "Sustainability of Bioenergy Systems: Cradle to Grave" because scientific communication is essential to developing more sustainable energy systems. Together these four papers provide a framework under which

  3. Halophytes As Bioenergy Crops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rita; Wungrampha, Silas; Singh, Vinay; Pareek, Ashwani; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops. PMID:27679645

  4. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  5. IEA Bioenergy Countries' Report: Bioenergy policies and status of implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Bacovsky, Dina; Ludwiczek, Nikolaus; Pointner, Christian; Verma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-08-05

    This report was prepared from IEA statistical data, information from IRENA, and IEA Bioenergy Tasks’ country reports, combined with data provided by the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee. All individual country reports were reviewed by the national delegates to the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee, who have approved the content. In the first section of each country report, national renewable energy targets are presented (first table in each country report), and the main pieces of national legislation are discussed. In the second section of each country report the total primary energy supply (TPES) by resources and the contribution of bioenergy are presented. All data is taken from IEA statistics for the year 2014. Where 2014 data was not available, 2013 data was used. It is worth noting that data reported in national statistics can differ from the IEA data presented, as the reporting categories and definitions are different. In the third section of each country report, the research focus related to bioenergy is discussed. Relevant funding programs, major research institutes and projects are described. In the fourth section, recent major bioenergy developments are described. Finally, in the fifth section, links to sources of information are provided.

  6. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Biomass Program and its partners combine advanced analysis with applied research to understand and address the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of bioenergy production.

  7. MODELING WORLD BIOENERGY CROP POTENTIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Kensuke; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Bioenergy is regarded as clean energy due to its characteristics and expected to be a new support of world energy de¬mand, but there are few integrated assessments of the potential of bioenergy considering sustainable land use. We esti¬mated the global bioenergy potential with an integrated global water resources model, the H08. It can simulate the crop yields on global-scale at a spatial resolution of 0.50.5. Seven major crops in the world were considered; namely, maize, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat, of which the first 5 are commonly used to produce biofuel now. Three different land-cover types were chosen as potential area for cultivation of biofuel-producing crop: fallow land, grassland, and portion of forests (excluding areas sensitive for biodiversity such as frontier forest). We attempted to estimate the maximum global bioenergy potential and it was estimated to be 1120EJ. Bioenergy potential depends on land-use limitations for the protection of bio-diversity and security of food. In another condition which assumed more land-use limitations, bioenergy potential was estimated to be 70-233EJ.

  8. Bioenergy sustainability in China: potential and impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Gentry, Randall W; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sayler, Gary S; Bickham, John W

    2010-10-01

    The sustainability implications of bioenergy development strategies are large and complex. Unlike conventional agriculture, bioenergy production provides an opportunity to design systems for improving eco-environmental services. Different places have different goals and solutions for bioenergy development, but they all should adhere to the sustainability requirements of the environment, economy, and society. This article serves as a brief overview of China's bioenergy development and as an introduction to this special issue on the impacts of bioenergy development in China. The eleven articles in this special issue present a range of perspectives and scenario analyses on bioenergy production and its impacts as well as potential barriers to its development. Five general themes are covered: status and goals, biomass resources, energy plants, environmental impacts, and economic and social impacts. The potential for bioenergy production in China is huge, particularly in the central north and northwest. China plans to develop a bioenergy capacity of 30GW by 2020. However, realization of this goal will require breakthroughs in bioenergy landscape design, energy plant biotechnology, legislation, incentive policy, and conversion facilities. Our analyses suggest that (1) the linkage between bioenergy, environment, and economy are often circular rather than linear in nature; (2) sustainability is a core concept in bioenergy design and the ultimate goal of bioenergy development; and (3) each bioenergy development scheme must be region-specific and designed to solve local environmental and agricultural problems.

  9. Bioenergy Sustainability in China: Potential and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jie; Gentry, Randall W.; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sayler, Gary S.; Bickham, John W.

    2010-10-01

    The sustainability implications of bioenergy development strategies are large and complex. Unlike conventional agriculture, bioenergy production provides an opportunity to design systems for improving eco-environmental services. Different places have different goals and solutions for bioenergy development, but they all should adhere to the sustainability requirements of the environment, economy, and society. This article serves as a brief overview of China’s bioenergy development and as an introduction to this special issue on the impacts of bioenergy development in China. The eleven articles in this special issue present a range of perspectives and scenario analyses on bioenergy production and its impacts as well as potential barriers to its development. Five general themes are covered: status and goals, biomass resources, energy plants, environmental impacts, and economic and social impacts. The potential for bioenergy production in China is huge, particularly in the central north and northwest. China plans to develop a bioenergy capacity of 30GW by 2020. However, realization of this goal will require breakthroughs in bioenergy landscape design, energy plant biotechnology, legislation, incentive policy, and conversion facilities. Our analyses suggest that (1) the linkage between bioenergy, environment, and economy are often circular rather than linear in nature; (2) sustainability is a core concept in bioenergy design and the ultimate goal of bioenergy development; and (3) each bioenergy development scheme must be region-specific and designed to solve local environmental and agricultural problems.

  10. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    scenario" under which more biomass feedstock can be produced and harvested, so that less area would be affected by harvesting and other management activities. Intensification through optimal forest management can lead to a substantial reduction of the area necessary for bioenergy feedstock supply. This in turn means that the "spared" area and the associated ecosystem services can be designated for conservation or other uses. This insight provides support to policy and decision makers in considering the optimal "mix" or "co-existence" of different ecosystem services and economic demands from a modern landscape management approach.

  11. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  12. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-29

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) is an online collaboration and geospatial analysis tool that allows researchers, policymakers, and investors to explore and engage the latest bioenergy research. This publication describes how the KDF harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that facilitates collaborative production, integration, and analysis of bioenergy-related information.

  13. Introducing Computed Tomography Standards for Age Estimation of Modern Australian Subadults Using Postnatal Ossification Timings of Select Cranial and Cervical Sites(.).

    PubMed

    Lottering, Nicolene; MacGregor, Donna M; Alston, Clair L; Watson, Debbie; Gregory, Laura S

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary, population-specific ossification timings of the cranium are lacking in current literature due to challenges in obtaining large repositories of documented subadult material, forcing Australian practitioners to rely on North American, arguably antiquated reference standards for age estimation. This study assessed the temporal pattern of ossification of the cranium and provides recalibrated probabilistic information for age estimation of modern Australian children. Fusion status of the occipital and frontal bones, atlas, and axis was scored using a modified two- to four-tier system from cranial/cervical DICOM datasets of 585 children aged birth to 10 years. Transition analysis was applied to elucidate maximum-likelihood estimates between consecutive fusion stages, in conjunction with Bayesian statistics to calculate credible intervals for age estimation. Results demonstrate significant sex differences in skeletal maturation (p < 0.05) and earlier timings in comparison with major literary sources, underscoring the requisite of updated standards for age estimation of modern individuals.

  14. Bioenergy in a Multifunctional Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Chad; Negri, Cristina; Ssegane, Herbert

    2015-10-23

    How can our landscapes be managed most effectively to produce crops for food, feed, and bioenergy, while also protecting our water resources by preventing the loss of nutrients from the soil? Dr. Cristina Negri and her team at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are tackling this question at an agricultural research site located in Fairbury, Illinois.

  15. Switchgrass for forage and bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is a native warm-season grass that has been used for hay, forage, and conservation purposes for decades and switchgrass research in Nebraska has been ongoing since 1936. Recently, switchgrass has been identified as a model perennial grass for bioenergy in the Great Plains and Midwest. Si...

  16. NREL National Bioenergy Center Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Thomas; Pienkos, Phil; Sluiter, Justin; Magrini, Kim; McMillan, Jim

    2014-07-28

    The demand for clean, sustainable, secure energy is growing... and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is answering the call. NREL's National Bioenergy Center is pioneering biofuels research and development and accelerating the pace these technologies move into the marketplace.

  17. NREL National Bioenergy Center Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Foust, Thomas; Pienkos, Phil; Sluiter, Justin; Magrini, Kim; McMillan, Jim

    2016-07-12

    The demand for clean, sustainable, secure energy is growing... and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is answering the call. NREL's National Bioenergy Center is pioneering biofuels research and development and accelerating the pace these technologies move into the marketplace.

  18. [Preface for special issue on bioenergy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dehua

    2011-03-01

    More and more attentions have been being paid to seeking alternatives for fossil fuels. Bioenergy, as a renewable energy, is one of the best solutions. Bioenergy has been developed rapidly in China, which became the third largest producer and consumer of fuel ethanol. In order to promote the research of bioenergy technology in China, this special issue includes latest reports and articles on the fields of bioethanol, biodiesel, microbial lipid and biofuel system analysis.

  19. Bioenergy in a Multifunctional Landscape

    ScienceCinema

    Watts, Chad; Negri, Cristina; Ssegane, Herbert

    2016-11-02

    How can our landscapes be managed most effectively to produce crops for food, feed, and bioenergy, while also protecting our water resources by preventing the loss of nutrients from the soil? Dr. Cristina Negri and her team at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are tackling this question at an agricultural research site located in Fairbury, Illinois.

  20. Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Thykaer, Jette; Adney, William S.; Brettin, T.; Brockman, Fred J.; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Martinez, Antonio D.; Miller, R. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Torok, Tamas; Tuskan, Gerald; Bennett, Joan W.; Berka, Randy; Briggs, Steve; Heitman, Joseph; Taylor, John; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Himmel, Michael E.

    2008-09-30

    To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions.

  1. The Interplay of Bioenergy Crop Production and Water Resource Availability in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale growing of bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), may introduce new challenges for water resource availability in the US. However, the strength of the interplay between bioenergy crop production and water resource availability is highly uncertain at the spatial scale and determined by (1) the spatial distribution of land cover types; (2) availability of soil water resources; (3) climate conditions and (4) biophysical characteristics of different bioenergy crops, such as water use efficiency (WUE), tolerances to extreme water and thermal conditions (dry, high temperature, low temperature etc.) and photoperiod adaptability, etc. To address potential water availability concerns the spatial distribution of bioenergy crops needs to be optimized by considering the maximum WUE and the minimum dependence and impact on water resource availability. To address this objective, we apply a coupled biophysical and biogeochemical model (ISAM), to investigate spatial variability in the interplay between water resources and bioenergy crop production in the US. The bioenergy crops considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock and Alamo switchgrasses, and corn (grain and stover). The interplay between bioenergy crop and corn production with water resources is quantitatively evaluated by calculating WUE and average water stress for different bioenergy crops and change in plant available soil water between bioenergy crops and natural vegetation. Our results indicate that low soil water availability limits production of bioenergy grasses in central and eastern Great Plains. Growing energy grasses here strengthens water depletion and limits its potential production. Miscanthus has the highest WUE in the central Midwest, followed by corn stover and Cave-in-Rock. However, growing Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock here strengthens soil water depletion and induces water stress on their production. Though production

  2. [Preface for special issue on bioenergy (2013)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Bioenergy, as a renewable energy, is one of the best solutions to substitute part of fossil fuels. Based on the 6th World Bioenergy Symposium, this special issue includes latest reports and articles on the fields of bioethanol, biodiesel, microbial lipid, biofuel standard and aviation biofuels.

  3. Growing and Sustaining Communities with Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Havill, Alice; Schultz, Donny; Falcon, Nigel; Reetz, Harold; Rowden, Jack; Van Horn, Ruth; Nordling, Debbie; Naig, Mike

    2015-10-21

    From Vero Beach, Florida, to Hugoton, Kansas, to Emmetsburg, Iowa, cellulosic ethanol biorefineries have had major impacts on communities and their residents. In other areas, bioenergy has significant potential to transform current and establish new industry. This short video illustrates how biorefineries and other bioenergy developments can benefit citizens, businesses, and whole communities, helping America’s rural economies grow and thrive.

  4. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  5. Establishing and managing perennial grasses for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is native to every U.S. state east of the Rocky Mountains, is the most advanced herbaceous perennial bioenergy feedstock, and best management practices (BMPs) have been developed for bioenergy production in most agro-ecoregions. Additionally, big bluestem (Andropogon g...

  6. The water footprint of bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; van der Meer, Theo H.

    2009-01-01

    All energy scenarios show a shift toward an increased percentage of renewable energy sources, including biomass. This study gives an overview of water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy from 12 crops that currently contribute the most to global agricultural production: barley, cassava, maize, potato, rapeseed, rice, rye, sorghum, soybean, sugar beet, sugar cane, and wheat. In addition, this study includes jatropha, a suitable energy crop. Since climate and production circumstances differ among regions, calculations have been performed by country. The WF of bioelectricity is smaller than that of biofuels because it is more efficient to use total biomass (e.g., for electricity or heat) than a fraction of the crop (its sugar, starch, or oil content) for biofuel. The WF of bioethanol appears to be smaller than that of biodiesel. For electricity, sugar beet, maize, and sugar cane are the most favorable crops [50 m3/gigajoule (GJ)]. Rapeseed and jatropha, typical energy crops, are disadvantageous (400 m3/GJ). For ethanol, sugar beet, and potato (60 and 100 m3/GJ) are the most advantageous, followed by sugar cane (110 m3/GJ); sorghum (400 m3/GJ) is the most unfavorable. For biodiesel, soybean and rapeseed show to be the most favorable WF (400 m3/GJ); jatropha has an adverse WF (600 m3/GJ). When expressed per L, the WF ranges from 1,400 to 20,000 L of water per L of biofuel. If a shift toward a greater contribution of bioenergy to energy supply takes place, the results of this study can be used to select the crops and countries that produce bioenergy in the most water-efficient way. PMID:19497862

  7. The water footprint of bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y; van der Meer, Theo H

    2009-06-23

    All energy scenarios show a shift toward an increased percentage of renewable energy sources, including biomass. This study gives an overview of water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy from 12 crops that currently contribute the most to global agricultural production: barley, cassava, maize, potato, rapeseed, rice, rye, sorghum, soybean, sugar beet, sugar cane, and wheat. In addition, this study includes jatropha, a suitable energy crop. Since climate and production circumstances differ among regions, calculations have been performed by country. The WF of bioelectricity is smaller than that of biofuels because it is more efficient to use total biomass (e.g., for electricity or heat) than a fraction of the crop (its sugar, starch, or oil content) for biofuel. The WF of bioethanol appears to be smaller than that of biodiesel. For electricity, sugar beet, maize, and sugar cane are the most favorable crops [50 m(3)/gigajoule (GJ)]. Rapeseed and jatropha, typical energy crops, are disadvantageous (400 m(3)/GJ). For ethanol, sugar beet, and potato (60 and 100 m(3)/GJ) are the most advantageous, followed by sugar cane (110 m(3)/GJ); sorghum (400 m(3)/GJ) is the most unfavorable. For biodiesel, soybean and rapeseed show to be the most favorable WF (400 m(3)/GJ); jatropha has an adverse WF (600 m(3)/GJ). When expressed per L, the WF ranges from 1,400 to 20,000 L of water per L of biofuel. If a shift toward a greater contribution of bioenergy to energy supply takes place, the results of this study can be used to select the crops and countries that produce bioenergy in the most water-efficient way.

  8. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  9. Biofuels and bioenergy production from municipal solid waste commingled with agriculturally-derived biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA in partnership with Salinas Valley Solid Waste Authority (SVSWA) and CR3, a technology holding company from Reno, NV, has introduced a biorefinery concept whereby agriculturally- derived biomass is commingled with municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce bioenergy. This team, which originally...

  10. Introducing Summer Camp Students to Modern Cryptography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    For countries to remain competitive in the global economy, it is important to cultivate the next generation of native mathematicians. However, this goal has been increasingly challenging in the United States where, despite the tremendous increase in university enrollment during recent decades, the number of students studying mathematics has…

  11. 2013 Bioenergy Technologies Office Peer Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office's Peer Review meeting.

  12. [Preface for special issue on bioenergy (2015)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dehua; Li, Changzhu

    2015-10-01

    Research and industrial application of bioenergy have developed quickly with the systematic and multifocal trends in recent years. The 4th International Conference on Biomass Energy Technologies-8th World Bioenergy Symposium (ICBT-WBS 2014) and Joint Biomass Energy Symposium of Chinese Renewable Energy Society (CRES) were held in Changsha, China, 17-19 October, 2014, with American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), Biomass Energy Innovation Alliance, European Biomass Industry Association, AIChE and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). This special issue on bioenergy is based on selected excellent papers from the submissions, together with free submissions. The special issue consists of reviews and original papers, mainly involving the aspects closely related to the bioenergy and related fields, including resource analyses, pretreatment, fuel/chemicals production, byproduct disposal and strategy investigation.

  13. Soil carbon changes for bioenergy crops.

    SciTech Connect

    Andress, D.

    2004-04-22

    Bioenergy crops, which displace fossil fuels when used to produce ethanol, biobased products, and/or electricity, have the potential to further reduce atmospheric carbon levels by building up soil carbon levels, especially when planted on lands where these levels have been reduced by intensive tillage. The purpose of this study is to improve the characterization of the soil carbon (C) sequestration for bioenergy crops (switchgrass, poplars, and willows) in the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model (Wang 1999) by using the latest results reported in the literature and by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Because soil carbon sequestration for bioenergy crops can play a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for cellulosic ethanol, it is important to periodically update the estimates of soil carbon sequestration from bioenergy crops as new and better data become available. We used the three-step process described below to conduct our study.

  14. Microfabricated devices in microbial bioenergy sciences.

    PubMed

    Han, Arum; Hou, Huijie; Li, Lei; Kim, Hyun Soo; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Microbes provide a platform for the synthesis of clean energy from renewable resources. Significant investments in discovering new microbial systems and capabilities, discerning the molecular mechanisms that mediate microbial bioenergy production, and optimizing existing microbial bioenergy systems have been made. However, further development is needed to achieve the economically feasible large-scale production of value-added energy products. Microfabricated lab-on-a-chip systems provide cost- and time-efficient opportunities for analyzing microbe-mediated bioenergy synthesis. Here, we review developments in the application of lab-on-a-chip systems to the bioenergy sciences. We focus on systems that support the analysis of microbial generation of bioelectricity, biogas, and liquid transportation fuels. We conclude by suggesting possible future directions.

  15. Confessions of a bioenergy advocate.

    PubMed

    Bungay, Henry R

    2004-02-01

    Feedstocks that deserve serious consideration for fuels and chemicals are sugarcane, corn, trees and algae. Commercialization of biomass refining is imminent but the wild claims of those who think that bioenergy can replace much of our dependence on foreign oil are appalling. It is naive to view biomass as the panacea for the coming energy crisis because there is not enough in practical locations and the costs involved in retrieving and refining it will be relatively high. The world will not run out of energy, but cheap energy might disappear, with its economics clouded by a myriad of subsidies for the competing energy sources and by world politics. This assessment of biomass supply and conversion technologies provides global perspectives and exposes some alternatives to be so impractical that they are almost fraudulent.

  16. Growing and Sustaining Communities with Bioenergy

    ScienceCinema

    Havill, Alice; Schultz, Donny; Falcon, Nigel; Reetz, Harold; Rowden, Jack; Van Horn, Ruth; Nordling, Debbie; Naig, Mike

    2016-10-19

    From Vero Beach, Florida, to Hugoton, Kansas, to Emmetsburg, Iowa, cellulosic ethanol biorefineries have had major impacts on communities and their residents. In other areas, bioenergy has significant potential to transform current and establish new industry. This short video illustrates how biorefineries and other bioenergy developments can benefit citizens, businesses, and whole communities, helping America’s rural economies grow and thrive.

  17. Bioenergy in Energy Transformation and Climate Management

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Steven K.; Kriegler, Elmar; Bibas, Ruben; Calvin, Katherine V.; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2014-04-01

    Unlike fossil fuels, biomass is a renewable resource that can sequester carbon during growth, be converted to energy, and then re-grown. Biomass is also a flexible fuel that can service many end-uses. This paper explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a model comparison of fifteen models, we characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run climate objectives—reducing radiative forcing to 3.7 and 2.8 W/m2 in 2100 (approximately 550 and 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent atmospheric concentrations). Model scenarios project, by 2050, bioenergy growth of 2 to 10% per annum reaching 5 to 35 percent of global primary energy, and by 2100, bioenergy becoming 15 to 50 percent of global primary energy. Non-OECD regions are projected to be the dominant suppliers of biomass, as well as consumers, with up to 35 percent of regional electricity from biopower by 2050, and up to 70 percent of regional liquid fuels from biofuels by 2050. Bioenergy is found to be valuable to many models with significant implications for mitigation costs and world consumption. The availability of bioenergy, in particular biomass with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), notably affects the cost-effective global emissions trajectory for climate management by accommodating prolonged near-term use of fossil fuels. We also find that models cost-effectively trade-off land carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for the long-run climate change management benefits of bioenergy. Overall, further evaluation of the viability of global large-scale bioenergy is merited.

  18. Bioenergy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    chlorophyll light Sugar/Cellulose Synthesis Light Reactions PSI and PSII Dark Reactions Triglyceride (Oil) Lipid Synthesis Microalgae ...H2 production in microalgae and cyanobacteria • Genetically engineer pathways to improve the H2 producing capacity of these phototrophs 10

  19. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr–1. However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data—measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.—to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr–1, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

  20. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity.

    PubMed

    Smith, W Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C; Reed, Sasha C; Miller, Norman L; Running, Steven W

    2012-03-20

    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr(-1). However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data-measured for every 1 km(2) of the 7.2 million km(2) of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.-to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr(-1), depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

  1. Neutron Technologies for Bioenergy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Langan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Neutron scattering is a powerful technique that can be used to probe the structures and dynamics of complex systems. It can provide a fundamental understanding of the processes involved in the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. A variety of neutron scattering technologies are available to elucidate both the organization and deconstruction of this complex composite material and the associations and morphology of the component polymers and the enzymes acting on them, across multiple length scales ranging from Angstroms to micrometers and time scales from microseconds to picoseconds. Unlike most other experimental techniques, neutron scattering is uniquely sensitive to hydrogen (and its isotope deuterium), an atom abundantly present throughout biomass and a key effector in many biological, chemical, and industrial processes for producing biofuels. Sensitivity to hydrogen, the ability to replace hydrogen with deuterium to alter scattering levels, the fact that neutrons cause little or no direct radiation damage, and the ability of neutrons to exchange thermal energies with materials, provide neutron scattering technologies with unique capabilities for bioenergy research. Further, neutrons are highly penetrating, making it possible to employ sample environments that are not suitable for other techniques. The true power of neutron scattering is realized when it is combined with computer simulation and modeling and contrast variation techniques enabled through selective deuterium labeling.

  2. Lignin modification to improve sorghum for cellulosic and thermal bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifying lignin content and composition are major targets for bioenergy feedstock improvement for both cellulosic and thermal bioenergy conversion. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is currently being developed as a dedicated bio-energy feedstock. Our goals are to improve sorghum biomass for both biochemic...

  3. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  4. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  5. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  6. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  7. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-01-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  8. Constraints to bio-energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis has prompted research and development of renewable, domestic, cost-effective and publicly acceptable energy alternatives. Among these are the bioconversion technologies. To date bio-energy research has been directed toward the mechanics of the conversion processes and technical assessment of the environmental impacts. However, there are other obstacles to overcome before biomass can be converted to more useful forms of energy that fit existing need. Barriers to bio-energy resource application in the US are identified. In addition, examples from several agricultural regions serve to illustrate site-specific resource problems.

  9. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  10. Bioenergy Sustainability at the Regional-Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Mulholland, Patrick J; Lowrance, Richard; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of bioenergy crops will affect ecological processes and their interactions and thus have an influence on ecosystem services provided by the lands on which these crops are grown. The regional-scale effects of bioenergy choices on ecosystem services need special attention because they often have been neglected yet can affect the ecological, social and economic aspects of sustainability. A regional-scale perspective provides the opportunity to make more informed choices about crop selection and management, particularly with regard to water quality and quantity issues, and also about other aspects of ecological, social, and economic sustainability. We give special attention to cellulosic feedstocks because of the opportunities they provide.

  11. Global climate niche estimates for bioenergy crops and invasive species of agronomic origin: potential problems and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Barney, Jacob N; DiTomaso, Joseph M

    2011-03-09

    The global push towards a more biomass-based energy sector is ramping up efforts to adopt regionally appropriate high-yielding crops. As potential bioenergy crops are being moved around the world an assessment of the climatic suitability would be a prudent first step in identifying suitable areas of productivity and risk. Additionally, this assessment also provides a necessary step in evaluating the invasive potential of bioenergy crops, which present a possible negative externality to the bioeconomy. Therefore, we provide the first global climate niche assessment for the major graminaceous (9), herbaceous (3), and woody (4) bioenergy crops. Additionally, we contrast these with climate niche assessments for North American invasive species that were originally introduced for agronomic purposes as examples of well-intentioned introductions gone awry. With few exceptions (e.g., Saccharum officinarum, Pennisetum purpureum), the bioenergy crops exhibit broad climatic tolerance, which allows tremendous flexibility in choosing crops, especially in areas with high summer rainfall and long growing seasons (e.g., southeastern US, Amazon Basin, eastern Australia). Unsurprisingly, the invasive species of agronomic origin have very similar global climate niche profiles as the proposed bioenergy crops, also demonstrating broad climatic tolerance. The ecoregional evaluation of bioenergy crops and known invasive species demonstrates tremendous overlap at both high (EI≥30) and moderate (EI≥20) climate suitability. The southern and western US ecoregions support the greatest number of invasive species of agronomic origin, especially the Southeastern USA Plains, Mixed Woods Plains, and Mediterranean California. Many regions of the world have a suitable climate for several bioenergy crops allowing selection of agro-ecoregionally appropriate crops. This model knowingly ignores the complex biotic interactions and edaphic conditions, but provides a robust assessment of the climate

  12. Global Climate Niche Estimates for Bioenergy Crops and Invasive Species of Agronomic Origin: Potential Problems and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Jacob N.; DiTomaso, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The global push towards a more biomass-based energy sector is ramping up efforts to adopt regionally appropriate high-yielding crops. As potential bioenergy crops are being moved around the world an assessment of the climatic suitability would be a prudent first step in identifying suitable areas of productivity and risk. Additionally, this assessment also provides a necessary step in evaluating the invasive potential of bioenergy crops, which present a possible negative externality to the bioeconomy. Therefore, we provide the first global climate niche assessment for the major graminaceous (9), herbaceous (3), and woody (4) bioenergy crops. Additionally, we contrast these with climate niche assessments for North American invasive species that were originally introduced for agronomic purposes as examples of well-intentioned introductions gone awry. With few exceptions (e.g., Saccharum officinarum, Pennisetum purpureum), the bioenergy crops exhibit broad climatic tolerance, which allows tremendous flexibility in choosing crops, especially in areas with high summer rainfall and long growing seasons (e.g., southeastern US, Amazon Basin, eastern Australia). Unsurprisingly, the invasive species of agronomic origin have very similar global climate niche profiles as the proposed bioenergy crops, also demonstrating broad climatic tolerance. The ecoregional evaluation of bioenergy crops and known invasive species demonstrates tremendous overlap at both high (EI≥30) and moderate (EI≥20) climate suitability. The southern and western US ecoregions support the greatest number of invasive species of agronomic origin, especially the Southeastern USA Plains, Mixed Woods Plains, and Mediterranean California. Many regions of the world have a suitable climate for several bioenergy crops allowing selection of agro-ecoregionally appropriate crops. This model knowingly ignores the complex biotic interactions and edaphic conditions, but provides a robust assessment of the climate

  13. Insect pests and diseases in bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and other grassy crops (e.g., grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, and hybrids involving sugarcane; sorghum; sudangrass, Sorghum bicolor ssp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) de Wet and Harlan, and others) with potential for bioenergy production are susceptible...

  14. Social Aspects of Bioenergy Sustainability Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Luchner, Sarah; Johnson, Kristen; Lindauer, Alicia; McKinnon, Taryn; Broad, Max

    2013-05-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office held a workshop on “Social Aspects of Bioenergy” on April 24, 2012, in Washington, D.C., and convened a webinar on this topic on May 8, 2012. The findings and recommendations from the workshop and webinar are compiled in this report.

  15. Replication concepts for bioenergy research experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While there are some large and fundamental differences among disciplines related to the conversion of biomass to bioenergy, all scientific endeavors involve the use of biological feedstocks. As such, nearly every scientific experiment conducted in this area, regardless of the specific discipline, is...

  16. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.; Volk, Timothy A.; Smith, C. Tattersall; Stupak, Inge

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we describe an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along the bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. In conclusion, devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns.

  17. Lignocellulosic Biofuels: Bioenergy Research at ARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth and long-term viability of bioenergy production in the Nation are impeded by a number of technical and commercial barriers. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) addresses technical barriers and does so by leveraging its strengths and unique capabilities to (1) pursue technical barriers th...

  18. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DOE PAGES

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.; ...

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we describe an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along themore » bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. In conclusion, devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns.« less

  19. Bioenergy Science Center KnowledgeBase

    DOE Data Explorer

    Syed, M. H.; Karpinets, T. V.; Parang, M.; Leuze, M. R.; Park, B. H.; Hyatt, D.; Brown, S. D.; Moulton, S. Galloway, M.D.; Uberbacher, E. C.

    The challenge of converting cellulosic biomass to sugars is the dominant obstacle to cost effective production of biofuels in s capable of significant enough quantities to displace U. S. consumption of fossil transportation fuels. The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) tackles this challenge of biomass recalcitrance by closely linking (1) plant research to make cell walls easier to deconstruct, and (2) microbial research to develop multi-talented biocatalysts tailor-made to produce biofuels in a single step. [from the 2011 BESC factsheet] The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) is a multi-institutional, multidisciplinary research (biological, chemical, physical and computational sciences, mathematics and engineering) organization focused on the fundamental understanding and elimination of biomass recalcitrance. The BESC Knowledgebase and its associated tools is a discovery platform for bioenergy research. It consists of a collection of metadata, data, and computational tools for data analysis, integration, comparison and visualization for plants and microbes in the center.The BESC Knowledgebase (KB) and BESC Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) enable bioenergy researchers to perform systemic research. [http://bobcat.ornl.gov/besc/index.jsp

  20. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  1. The role of renewable bioenergy in carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1993-12-31

    The use of renewable resources represents a sound approach to producing clean energy and reducing the dependence on diminishing reserves of fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the widespread interest in renewable energy in the 1970s, spurred by escalating fossil fuel prices, subsided with the collapse of energy prices in the mid 1980s. Today, it is largely to reverse alarming environmental trends, particularly the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than to reduce the cost of energy, that renewable energy resources are being pursued. This discussion focuses on a specific class of renewable energy resources - biomass. Unlike most other classes of renewable energy touted for controlling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, e.g., hydro, direct solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean thermal, which produce usable forms of energy while generating little or no carbon dioxide emissions, bioenergy almost always involves combustion and therefore generates carbon dioxide; however, if used on a sustained basis, bio-energy would not contribute to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide because the amount released in combustion would be balanced by that taken up via photosynthesis. It is in that context, i.e., sustained production of biomass as a modern energy carrier, rather than reforestation for carbon sequestration, that biomass is being discussed here, since biomass can play a much greater role in controlling global warming by displacing fossil fuels than by being used strictly for carbon sequestration (partly because energy crop production can reduce fossil carbon dioxide emissions indefinitely, whereas under the reforestation strategy, carbon dioxide abatement ceases at forest maturity).

  2. Optimization of bioenergy crop selection and placement based on a stream health indicator using an evolutionary algorithm.

    PubMed

    Herman, Matthew R; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Daneshvar, Fariborz; Abouali, Mohammad; Ross, Dennis M; Woznicki, Sean A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases continues to amplify the impacts of global climate change. This has led to the increased focus on using renewable energy sources, such as biofuels, due to their lower impact on the environment. However, the production of biofuels can still have negative impacts on water resources. This study introduces a new strategy to optimize bioenergy landscapes while improving stream health for the region. To accomplish this, several hydrological models including the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, Hydrologic Integrity Tool, and Adaptive Neruro Fuzzy Inference System, were linked to develop stream health predictor models. These models are capable of estimating stream health scores based on the Index of Biological Integrity. The coupling of the aforementioned models was used to guide a genetic algorithm to design watershed-scale bioenergy landscapes. Thirteen bioenergy managements were considered based on the high probability of adaptation by farmers in the study area. Results from two thousand runs identified an optimum bioenergy crops placement that maximized the stream health for the Flint River Watershed in Michigan. The final overall stream health score was 50.93, which was improved from the current stream health score of 48.19. This was shown to be a significant improvement at the 1% significant level. For this final bioenergy landscape the most often used management was miscanthus (27.07%), followed by corn-soybean-rye (19.00%), corn stover-soybean (18.09%), and corn-soybean (16.43%). The technique introduced in this study can be successfully modified for use in different regions and can be used by stakeholders and decision makers to develop bioenergy landscapes that maximize stream health in the area of interest.

  3. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  4. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region.

    PubMed

    Kline, Keith L; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  5. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M. Cristina; Ssegane, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  6. Modeling Pollinator Community Response to Contrasting Bioenergy Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Ashley B.; Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation. PMID:25365559

  7. Modeling pollinator community response to contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Ashley B; Meehan, Timothy D; Gratton, Claudio; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, policy initiatives aimed at increasing sources of renewable energy are advancing bioenergy production, especially in the Midwest region, where agricultural landscapes dominate. While policy directives are focused on renewable fuel production, biodiversity and ecosystem services will be impacted by the land-use changes required to meet production targets. Using data from field observations, we developed empirical models for predicting abundance, diversity, and community composition of flower-visiting bees based on land cover. We used these models to explore how bees might respond under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios: annual bioenergy crop production and perennial grassland bioenergy production. In the two scenarios, 600,000 ha of marginal annual crop land or marginal grassland were converted to perennial grassland or annual row crop bioenergy production, respectively. Model projections indicate that expansion of annual bioenergy crop production at this scale will reduce bee abundance by 0 to 71%, and bee diversity by 0 to 28%, depending on location. In contrast, converting annual crops on marginal soil to perennial grasslands could increase bee abundance from 0 to 600% and increase bee diversity between 0 and 53%. Our analysis of bee community composition suggested a similar pattern, with bee communities becoming less diverse under annual bioenergy crop production, whereas bee composition transitioned towards a more diverse community dominated by wild bees under perennial bioenergy crop production. Models, like those employed here, suggest that bioenergy policies have important consequences for pollinator conservation.

  8. Results of the Finnish bioenergy research programme

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, D.A.; Helynen, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The aim of the Finnish Bioenergy Research Programme for the period 1993-1998 is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of biofuels. The main research areas are production methods of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass to bio-oils. The total funding of the Bioenergy Research Programme is estimated to be 50 million USD which includes the public funding and also funding from the industrial sources. The total number of the projects in 1994 were 60, and 23 of them were at universities and research institutes, 20 industrial and 17 demonstration projects. The integrated harvesting methods, which would produce both wood raw material for pulp mills and wood fuel for energy production, have been further developed and partly demonstrated. The Massahake method, based on several different successive separation phases, has showed a debarking result for birch and bark content below 1% and economical calculations show that the method can be profitable. A full scale Massahake demonstration plant started during the spring 1995. Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. Two new pressurized piston feeders, which could substitute lock-hopper systems and high inert gas consumption, have been designed and tested. IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle)-concepts for biomass need require a low moisture content of the fuel. A new dryer concept based on a fixed bed dryer ha been developed and tested. In research on conversion technology, new results have been created related to pyrolysis oil and upgrading processes for different pulp industry raw material producing bio-oils. Economical calculations showed that pyrolysis oil could be competitive compared to light fuel oil.

  9. DOE's bioenergy program sets optimistic goals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Bioenergy Program aims to produce the Btu equivalent of 1000 megawatts of electricity from wood and solid waste fuels by 1985-87. The group aims to promote the commercial use of bioenergy from direct combustion of wood, industrial cogeneration, and gasification. Two strategies will be to support projects that demonstrate the economic viability of using wood fuel, and to identify and overcome barriers and constraints. Other activities will include providing technical assistance and information. Data gathered since the beginning of the Bioenergy Program 1979 have indicated the availability of a large biomass resource base (10 to 28 million dry tons of wood per year). Use of the biomass resource has been shown to be economically competitive (40-50 mills per kWh for new thermal capacity). Top priority of the program is to determine how to get the estimated 200 megawatts of unused installed capacity in existing mills on-line as soon as possible. The 16 industrial facilities identified in a Rocket Reserach report as having a capacity of 272 to 359 megawatts will also be prime targets for the increased cogeneration effort. Compared to other power options, cogeneration facilities can be on-line more quickly, are more economically competitive and are more environmentally acceptable. They also have lower capital costs, shorter construction time, and higher energy efficiency.

  10. The High School Students' Perceptions and Attitudes toward Bioenergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özbas, Serap

    2016-01-01

    This research, which was tried with 217 high school students, was carried out to determine the perceptions and attitudes related to the usage of bioenergy. The research results showed that the students had the perception that there would be lack of food due to global warming, but bioenergy would prevent the world from global warming. Moreover,…

  11. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  12. Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Allen; Dale, Virginia H; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Garten Jr, Charles T; Kline, Keith L; Jager, Yetta; Mulholland, Patrick J; Parish, Esther S; Schweizer, Peter E; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Indicators are needed to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators will help in the quantification of benefits and costs of bioenergy options and resource uses. We identify 19 measurable indicators for soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gases, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity, building on existing knowledge and on national and international programs that are seeking ways to assess sustainable bioenergy. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major environmental effects of diverse feedstocks, management practices, and post-production processes. The importance of each indicator is identified. Future research relating to this indicator suite is discussed, including field testing, target establishment, and application to particular bioenergy systems. Coupled with such efforts, we envision that this indicator suite can serve as a basis for the practical evaluation of environmental sustainability in a variety of bioenergy systems.

  13. Impact of Bioenergy Crops in a Carbon Dioxide Constrained World: An Application of the MiniCAM Energy-Agriculture and Land Use Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gillingham, Kenneth; Smith, Steven J.; Sands, Ronald D.

    2007-10-01

    In the coming century, modern bioenergy crops have the potential to play a crucial role in the global energy mix, especially under policies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions as proposed by many in the international community. Previous studies have not fully addressed many of the dynamic interactions and effects of a policy-induced expansion of bioenergy crop production, particularly on crop yields and human food consumption. This study combines an updated agriculture and land use (AgLU) model with a well-developed energy-economic model to provide an analysis of the effects of bioenergy crops on energy, agricultural and land use systems. The results indicate that carbon mitigation policies can stimulate a large production of bioenergy crops, dependent on the severity of the policy. This production of bioenergy crops can lead to several impacts on the agriculture and land use system: decreases in forestland and unmanaged land, decreases in the average yield of food crops, increases in the prices of food crops, and decreases in the level of human consumption of calories.

  14. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  15. A Geospatial Approach to Mapping Bioenergy Potential of Perennial Crops in North American Tallgrass Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Fritschi, F. B.; Stacy, G.

    2009-12-01

    Biomass is the largest source of renewable energy in the United States and is expected to replace 30% of the domestic petroleum consumption by 2030. Corn ethanol currently constitutes 99% of the country’s biofuels. Extended annual crop planting for biofuel production, however, has raised concerns about long-term environmental, ecological and socio-economical consequences. More sustainable bioenergy resources might therefore be developed to meet the energy demand, food security and climate policy. The DOD has identified switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a model bioenergy crop. Switchgrass, along with other warm-season grasses, is native to the pre-colonial tallgrass prairie in North America. This study maps the spatial distributions of prairie grasses and marginal croplands in the tallgrass prairie with remote sensing and GIS techniques. In 2000-2008, the 8-day composition MODIS imagery was downloaded to calculate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). With pixel-level temporal trajectory of NDVI, time-series trend analysis was performed to identify native prairie grasses based on their phenological uniqueness. In a case study in southwest Missouri, this trajectory approach distinguished more than 80% of warm-season prairie grasslands from row crops and cool-season pastures (Figure 1). Warm season grasses dominated in the 19 public prairies in the study area in a range of 45-98%. This study explores the geographic context of current and potential perennial bioenergy supplies in the tallgrass prairie. Beyond the current findings, it holds promise for further investigations to provide quantitative economic and environmental information in assisting bioenergy policy decision-making. Figure 1 The distribution of grasslands in the study area. The "WSG", "CSG" and “non-grass” represent warm-season prairie grasses, introduced cool-season grasses and crops and other non-grasses.

  16. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ben

    culture raceway for biofuel production. According to the proposed flow field design of ARID-HV algal raceway, experiments and numerical simulation have been conducted to understand the enhancement of flow mixing in the flow field of ARID-HV raceway by cutting slots on top of the dam near the dead zones. A new method was proposed to quantitatively evaluate the flow mixing by using the statistics of temporal and spatial distribution of the massless fluid particles (centered in each cell at the inlet surface) in the raceway collecting the data of path-lines of fluid particles from CFD results. It is hoped that this method can be applied to assist the algal raceway flow field design as well as other engineering applications. The third part introduces the details about the construction work of a high temperature molten salt test loop. Because of the limited operating temperature of conventional synthetic oils, in order to obtain higher energy conversion efficiency, higher operating temperature is always desirable in a CSP plant which leads to the requirement of new generation of HTF. Currently, a halide salt eutectic mixture (NaCl-KCl-ZnCl2) as a potential HTF for future CSP applications has been proposed by a multi-institute research team, led by University of Arizona. The thermophysical properties of the halide eutectic salt have been measured. However, this new developed halide eutectic salt has not been tested in a circulating loop at a high operating temperature for the measurement of heat transfer coefficient. It is a significant effort to build such a test system due to extremely high operating temperature. As a consequence, in the third part of this dissertation, details about the design of the lab-scale test system and all the equipment items will be introduced. The investigations included in this dissertation for the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems are of particular interest to the renewable energy engineering community. It is expected

  17. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.

    2012-10-01

    Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

  18. Corn stalk as a bioenergy resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Paul E., Jr.

    Waste corn stalk has the potential to help reduce the nation's dependence upon foreign sources of petroleum by becoming a major bioenergy resource. There are many sources of biomass that could also be utilized for this endeavor. It is estimated that over 100 million tons of agricultural waste are produced in the United States alone. This represents a significant source of energy. Through gasification, this waste could be used to generate power, fuels, and/or products. This dissertation shows that the gasification of corn stalk can produce char, heat, synthesis gases (CO and H2), and can also be used for work to dry moist biomass. Through the integration of drying, gasification, and carbon production, waste corn stalk can be used as a significant bioenergy resource. Novel concepts included in this dissertation include: (1) using corn stalk as a gasification fuel, (2) using corn stalk to generate activated carbon, (3) using activated carbon from corn stalk to adsorb organic pollutants, (4) using the gasification of corn stalk in a new process to dry moist biomass, (5) using the "partial" gasification of moist corn stalk in another new process to dry moist biomass in a single step. Each concept could be integrated with existing gasification technology to increase the efficient utilization of energy from biomass.

  19. Perennial Forages as Second Generation Bioenergy Crops

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Matt A.; Adler, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The lignocellulose in forage crops represents a second generation of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. Some of the most extensively studied species for cellulosic feedstock production include forages such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). An advantage of using forages as bioenergy crops is that farmers are familiar with their management and already have the capacity to grow, harvest, store, and transport them. Forage crops offer additional flexibility in management because they can be used for biomass or forage and the land can be returned to other uses or put into crop rotation. Estimates indicate about 22.3 million ha of cropland, idle cropland, and cropland pasture will be needed for biomass production in 2030. Converting these lands to large scale cellulosic energy farming could push the traditional forage-livestock industry to ever more marginal lands. Furthermore, encouraging bioenergy production from marginal lands could directly compete with forage-livestock production. PMID:19325783

  20. Bioenergy Sustainability at the Regional Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Mulholland, Patrick J; Lowrance, Richard; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2010-11-01

    To meet national goals for biofuels production, there are going to be large increases in acreage planted to dedicated biofuels crops. These acreages may be in perennial grasses, annual crops, short rotation woody crops, or other types of vegetation and may involve use of existing cropland, marginal lands, abandoned lands or conversion of forest land. The establishment of bioenergy crops will affect ecological processes and their interactions and thus have an influence on ecosystem services provided by the lands on which these crops are grown. The regional-scale effects of bioenergy choices on ecosystem services need special attention because they often have been neglected yet can affect the ecological, social and economic aspects of sustainability. A regional-scale perspective provides the opportunity to make more informed choices about crop selection and management, particularly with regard to water quality and quantity issues, and also about other aspects of ecological, social, and economic sustainability. We give special attention to cellulosic feedstocks because of the opportunities they provide. Adopting an adaptive management approach for biofuels feedstock production planning will be possible to a certain extent if there is adequate monitoring data on the effects of changes in land use. Effects on water resources are used as an example and existing understanding of water resource effects are analyzed in detail. Current results indicate that there may be water quality improvements coupled with some decreases in available water for downstream uses.

  1. Interactions among bioenergy feedstock choices, landscape dynamics, and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Wright, Lynn L; Perlack, Robert D; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Landscape implications of bioenergy feedstock choices are significant and depend on land-use practices and their environmental impacts. Although land-use changes and carbon emissions associated with bioenergy feedstock production are dynamic and complicated, lignocellulosic feedstocks may offer opportunities that enhance sustainability when compared to other transportation fuel alternatives. For bioenergy sustainability, major drivers and concerns revolve around energy security, food production, land productivity, soil carbon and erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, air quality, and water quantity and quality. The many implications of bioenergy feedstock choices require several indicators at multiple scales to provide a more complete accounting of effects. Ultimately, the long-term sustainability of bioenergy feedstock resources (as well as food supplies) throughout the world depends on land-use practices and landscape dynamics. Land-management decisions often invoke trade-offs among potential environmental effects and social and economic factors as well as future opportunities for resource use. The hypothesis being addressed in this paper is that sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production can be achieved via appropriately designed crop residue and perennial lignocellulosic systems. We find that decision makers need scientific advancements and adequate data that both provide quantitative and qualitative measures of the effects of bioenergy feedstock choices at different spatial and temporal scales and allow fair comparisons among available options for renewable liquid fuels.

  2. Interactions among bioenergy feedstock choices, landscape dynamics, and land use.

    PubMed

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Wright, Lynn L; Perlack, Robert D; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin L

    2011-06-01

    Landscape implications of bioenergy feedstock choices are significant and depend on land-use practices and their environmental impacts. Although land-use changes and carbon emissions associated with bioenergy feedstock production are dynamic and complicated, lignocellulosic feedstocks may offer opportunities that enhance sustainability when compared to other transportation fuel alternatives. For bioenergy sustainability, major drivers and concerns revolve around energy security, food production, land productivity, soil carbon and erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, air quality, and water quantity and quality. The many implications of bioenergy feedstock choices require several indicators at multiple scales to provide a more complete accounting of effects. Ultimately, the long-term sustainability of bioenergy feedstock resources (as well as food supplies) throughout the world depends on land-use practices and landscape dynamics. Land-management decisions often invoke trade-offs among potential environmental effects and social and economic factors as well as future opportunities for resource use. The hypothesis being addressed in this paper is that sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production can be achieved via appropriately designed crop residue and perennial lignocellulosic systems. We find that decision makers need scientific advancements and adequate data that both provide quantitative and qualitative measures of the effects of bioenergy feedstock choices at different spatial and temporal scales and allow fair comparisons among available options for renewable liquid fuels.

  3. Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Peter J.; Sample, David W.; Williams, Carol L.; Turner, Monica G.

    2014-01-01

    Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes. PMID:25299593

  4. How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sarah C.; House, Joanna I.; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio A.; Molnar, Andras; Valin, Hugo; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2011-01-01

    Targets for bioenergy have been set worldwide to mitigate climate change. Although feedstock sources are often ambiguous, pledges in European nations, the United States and Brazil amount to more than 100 Mtoe of biorenewable fuel production by 2020. As a consequence, the biofuel sector is developing rapidly, and it is increasingly important to distinguish bioenergy options that can address energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation from those that cannot. This paper evaluates how bioenergy production affects land-use change (LUC), and to what extent land-use modelling can inform sound decision-making. We identified local and global internalities and externalities of biofuel development scenarios, reviewed relevant data sources and modelling approaches, identified sources of controversy about indirect LUC (iLUC) and then suggested a framework for comprehensive assessments of bioenergy. Ultimately, plant biomass must be managed to produce energy in a way that is consistent with the management of food, feed, fibre, timber and environmental services. Bioenergy production provides opportunities for improved energy security, climate mitigation and rural development, but the environmental and social consequences depend on feedstock choices and geographical location. The most desirable solutions for bioenergy production will include policies that incentivize regionally integrated management of diverse resources with low inputs, high yields, co-products, multiple benefits and minimal risks of iLUC. Many integrated assessment models include energy resources, trade, technological development and regional environmental conditions, but do not account for biodiversity and lack detailed data on the location of degraded and underproductive lands that would be ideal for bioenergy production. Specific practices that would maximize the benefits of bioenergy production regionally need to be identified before a global analysis of bioenergy-related LUC can be accomplished. PMID

  5. BioenergyKDF: Enabling Spatiotemporal Data Synthesis and Research Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Aaron T; Movva, Sunil; Karthik, Rajasekar; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; White, Devin A; Thomas, Neil; Chase, Adrian S Z

    2014-01-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.

  6. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    PubMed

    Blank, Peter J; Sample, David W; Williams, Carol L; Turner, Monica G

    2014-01-01

    Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  7. How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies?

    PubMed

    Davis, Sarah C; House, Joanna I; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio A; Molnar, Andras; Valin, Hugo; Delucia, Evan H

    2011-04-06

    Targets for bioenergy have been set worldwide to mitigate climate change. Although feedstock sources are often ambiguous, pledges in European nations, the United States and Brazil amount to more than 100 Mtoe of biorenewable fuel production by 2020. As a consequence, the biofuel sector is developing rapidly, and it is increasingly important to distinguish bioenergy options that can address energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation from those that cannot. This paper evaluates how bioenergy production affects land-use change (LUC), and to what extent land-use modelling can inform sound decision-making. We identified local and global internalities and externalities of biofuel development scenarios, reviewed relevant data sources and modelling approaches, identified sources of controversy about indirect LUC (iLUC) and then suggested a framework for comprehensive assessments of bioenergy. Ultimately, plant biomass must be managed to produce energy in a way that is consistent with the management of food, feed, fibre, timber and environmental services. Bioenergy production provides opportunities for improved energy security, climate mitigation and rural development, but the environmental and social consequences depend on feedstock choices and geographical location. The most desirable solutions for bioenergy production will include policies that incentivize regionally integrated management of diverse resources with low inputs, high yields, co-products, multiple benefits and minimal risks of iLUC. Many integrated assessment models include energy resources, trade, technological development and regional environmental conditions, but do not account for biodiversity and lack detailed data on the location of degraded and underproductive lands that would be ideal for bioenergy production. Specific practices that would maximize the benefits of bioenergy production regionally need to be identified before a global analysis of bioenergy-related LUC can be accomplished.

  8. Selecting Metrics for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Mulholland, Patrick J; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert; Wright, Lynn L

    2009-01-01

    Key decisions about land-use practices and dynamics in biofuel systems affect the long-term sustainability of biofuels. Choices about what crops are grown and how are they planted, fertilized, and harvested determine the effects of biofuels on native plant diversity, competition with food crops, and water and air quality. Those decisions also affect economic viability since the distance that biofuels must be transported has a large effect on the market cost of biofuels. The components of a landscape approach include environmental and socioeconomic conditions and the bioenergy features [type of fuel, plants species, management practices (e.g., fertilizer and pesticide applications), type and location of production facilities] and ecological and biogeochemical feedbacks. Significantly, while water (availability and quality) emerges as one of the most limiting factors to sustainability of bioenergy feedstocks, the linkage between water and bioenergy choices for land use and management on medium and large scales is poorly quantified. Metrics that quantify environmental and socioeconomic changes in land use and landscape dynamics provide a way to measure and communicate the influence of alternative bioenergy choices on water quality and other components of the environment. Cultivation of switchgrass could have both positive and negative environmental effects, depending on where it is planted and what vegetation it replaces. Among the most important environmental effects are changes in the flow regimes of streams (peak storm flows, base flows during the growing season) and changes in stream water quality (sediment, nutrients, and pesticides). Unfortunately, there have been few controlled studies that provide sufficient data to evaluate the hydrological and water quality impacts of conversion to switchgrass. In particular, there is a need for experimental studies that use the small watershed approach to evaluate the effects of growing a perennial plant as a biomass crop

  9. Biofuel Production Datasets from DOE's Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about]

    Holdings include datasets, models, and maps and the collections arel growing due to both DOE contributions and data uploads from individuals.

  10. Feedstock Logistics Datasets from DOE's Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. Holdings include datasets, models, and maps. [from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about

  11. Biofuel Distribution Datasets from the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about] Holdings include datasets, models, and maps and the collections are growing due to both DOE contributions and individuals' data uploads.

  12. Feedstock Production Datasets from the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about] Holdings include datasets, models, and maps and the collections are growing due to both DOE contributions and data uploads from individuals.

  13. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.

    2001-02-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a mission-oriented program of research and analysis whose goal is to develop and demonstrate cropping systems for producing large quantities of low-cost, high-quality biomass feedstocks for use as liquid biofuels, biomass electric power, and/or bioproducts. The program specifically supports the missions and goals of DOE's Office of Fuels Development and DOE's Office of Power Technologies. ORNL has provided technical leadership and field management for the BFDP since DOE began energy crop research in 1978. The major components of the BFDP include energy crop selection and breeding; crop management research; environmental assessment and monitoring; crop production and supply logistics operational research; integrated resource analysis and assessment; and communications and outreach. Research into feedstock supply logistics has recently been added and will become an integral component of the program.

  14. Policies to Enable Bioenergy Deployment: Key Considerations and Good Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Smolinksi, Sharon; Cox, Sadie

    2016-05-01

    Bioenergy is renewable energy generated from biological source materials, and includes electricity, transportation fuels and heating. Source materials are varied types of biomass, including food crops such as corn and sugarcane, non-edible lignocellulosic materials such as agricultural and forestry waste and dedicated crops, and municipal and livestock wastes. Key aspects of policies for bioenergy deployment are presented in this brief as part of the Clean Energy Solutions Center's Clean Energy Policy Brief Series.

  15. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2010-10-01

    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  16. Sustainable use of biotechnology for bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Abercrombie, Jason M; Kausch, Albert P; Stewart, C Neal

    2010-10-01

    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant's biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  17. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  18. Functional Genomics of Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hengfu; Chen, Rick; Yang, Jun; Weston, David; Chen, Jay; Muchero, Wellington; Ye, Ning; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan

    2014-01-01

    With the predicted trends in climate change, drought will increasingly impose a grand challenge to biomass production. Most of the bioenergy crops have some degree of drought susceptibility with low water-use efficiency (WUE). It is imperative to improve drought tolerance and WUE in bioenergy crops for sustainable biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions with minimal water input. Genetics and functional genomics can play a critical role in generating knowledge to inform and aid genetic improvement of drought tolerance in bioenergy crops. The molecular aspect of drought response has been extensively investigated in model plants like Arabidopsis, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops are limited. Crops exhibit various responses to drought stress depending on species and genotype. A rational strategy for studying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is to translate the knowledge from model plants and pinpoint the unique features associated with individual species and genotypes. In this review, we summarize the general knowledge about drought responsive pathways in plants, with a focus on the identification of commonality and specialty in drought responsive mechanisms among different species and/or genotypes. We describe the genomic resources developed for bioenergy crops and discuss genetic and epigenetic regulation of drought responses. We also examine comparative and evolutionary genomics to leverage the ever-increasing genomics resources and provide new insights beyond what has been known from studies on individual species. Finally, we outline future exploration of drought tolerance using the emerging new technologies.

  19. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

    2013-09-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

  20. Global land and water grabbing for food and bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing demand for food, fibers and biofuels, the consequently escalating prices of agricultural products, and the uncertainty of international food markets have recently drawn the attention of governments and corporations toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in developing countries. Since 2000 more than 37 million hectares of arable land have been purchased or leased by foreign investors worldwide. The targeted regions are typically located in areas where crop yields are relatively low because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale investments in agriculture and the consequent development of commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crop yield gaps. Recently, a number of studies and reports have documented the process of foreign land acquisition, while the associated appropriation of land based resources (e.g., water and crops) has remained poorly investigated. The amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still needs to be quantified. It is also unclear to what extent the acquired land will be used to for biofuel production and the role played by U.S. and E.U. bioenergy policies as drivers of the ongoing land rush. The environmental impacts of these investments in agriculture require adequate investigation. Here we provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of water and crop appropriation potentially associated with large scale land acquisitions. We evaluate the associated impacts on the food and energy security of both target and investors' countries, and highlight the societal and environmental implications of the land rush phenomenon.

  1. Yearbook 1993: Bioenergy Research Programme. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakangas, Eija

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of the energy technology programs of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. The aim of the program is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. R&D projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling, and utilization of biofuels. The total funding for 1993 was 45 million FIM and the number of projects 50. The research area of biomass conversion consists of 7 projects in 1993, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 10 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1993 and the plans for 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry and power plants than it is possible at present day appliances. The conversion research in 1993 was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extraction of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and combustion tests. The target of the bioenergy utilization research is to demonstrate three to four new utilization technologies or methods. Each of these plants should have a potential of 0.2 - 0.3 million toe. The 1993 projects consisted of three main categories: reduction of emissions from small-scale combustion equipment, development of different equipment and methods for new power plant technologies, and the studies concerning additional usage of wood fuels in forest industry.

  2. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    SciTech Connect

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the

  3. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S. Surendran; Kang, Shujiang; Zhang, Xuesong; Miguez, Fernando; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar; Post, Wilfred M; Dietze, Michael; Lynd, L.; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  4. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  5. 75 FR 45112 - Call for Information: Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Bioenergy and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Call for Information: Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Bioenergy and Other... greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy and other biogenic sources. Inadvertently, incorrect text...

  6. Modeling carbon dynamics and social drivers of bioenergy agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Natalie D.

    Meeting society's energy needs through bioenergy feedstock production presents a significant and urgent challenge, as it can aid in achieving energy independence goals and mitigating climate change. With federal biofuel production standards to be met within the next decade, and with no commercial scale production or markets currently in place, many questions regarding the sustainability and social feasibility of bioenergy still persist. Clarifying these uncertainties requires the incorporation of biogeochemical, biophysical, and socioeconomic modeling tools. Chapter 2 validated the biogeochemical cycling model AGRO-BGC by comparing model estimates with empirical observations from corn and perennial C4 grass systems across Wisconsin and Illinois. AGRO-BGC, in its first application to an annual cropping system, was found to be a robust model for simulating carbon dynamics of an annual cropping system. Chapter 3 investigated the long-term implications of bioenergy feedstock harvest on soil productivity and erosion in annual corn and perennial switchgrass agroecosystems using AGRO-BGC and the soil erosion model RUSLE2. Modeling environments included biophysical landscape characteristics and management practices of bioenergy feedstock production systems. This study found that intensifying aboveground residue harvest reduces soil productivity over time, and the magnitude of these losses is greater in corn than in switchgrass systems. Results of this study will aid in the design of sustainable bioenergy feedstock management practices. Chapter 4 provided evidence that combining biophysical crop canopy characteristics with satellite-derived vegetation indices offers suitable estimates of crop canopy phenology for corn and soybeans in Southwest Wisconsin farms. LANDSAT based vegetation indices, when combined with a light use efficiency model, provide yield estimates in agreement with farmer reports, providing an efficient and accurate means of estimating crop yields from

  7. Recent advances in membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Bagley, David M; Leung, Kam Tin; Liss, Steven N; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The bioeconomy, and in particular, biorefining and bioenergy production, have received considerable attention in recent years as a shift to renewable bioresources to produce similar energy and chemicals derived from fossil energy sources, represents a more sustainable path. Membrane technologies have been shown to play a key role in process intensification and products recovery and purification in biorefining and bioenergy production processes. Among the various separation technologies used, membrane technologies provide excellent fractionation and separation capabilities, low chemical consumption, and reduced energy requirements. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on membrane technologies related to various processes of biorefining and bioenergy production, including: (i) separation and purification of individual molecules from biomass, (ii) removal of fermentation inhibitors, (iii) enzyme recovery from hydrolysis processes, (iv) membrane bioreactors for bioenergy and chemical production, such as bioethanol, biogas and acetic acid, (v) bioethanol dehydration, (vi) bio-oil and biodiesel production, and (vii) algae harvesting. The advantages and limitations of membrane technologies for these applications are discussed and new membrane-based integrated processes are proposed. Finally, challenges and opportunities of membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production in the coming years are addressed.

  8. Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Keri B; Ducey, Thomas; Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G

    2008-11-01

    The use of biological and thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies in livestock waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels. The primary objective of this work is to present established and emerging energy conversion opportunities that can transform the treatment of livestock waste from a liability to a profit center. While biological production of methanol and hydrogen are in early research stages, anaerobic digestion is an established method of generating between 0.1 to 1.3m3m(-3)d(-1) of methane-rich biogas. The TCC processes of pyrolysis, direct liquefaction, and gasification can convert waste into gaseous fuels, combustible oils, and charcoal. Integration of biological and thermal-based conversion technologies in a farm-scale hybrid design by combining an algal CO2-fixation treatment requiring less than 27,000m2 of treatment area with the energy recovery component of wet gasification can drastically reduce CO2 emissions and efficiently recycle nutrients. These designs have the potential to make future large scale confined animal feeding operations sustainable and environmentally benign while generating on-farm renewable energy.

  9. Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    Folk, Richard

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  10. A life-cycle approach to low-invasion potential bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demand for energy has increased economic incentives to develop and deploy novel bioenergy crops for biomass production. Similarities in plant traits between many candidate bioenergy crops and known invasive species have raised concerns about the potential for bioenergy crops to escape pro...

  11. Meta Modernism: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces Hegel. From the triad (Hegelian Dialect), he briefly gives an overview of the history of philosophy. In true Hegelian form, it is now time to reform "Postmodernism" and replace it with "Meta modernism." Postmodern had a short life from 1950 to now and has left few adherents. It is confusing and…

  12. Using corngrass1 to engineer poplar as a bioenergy crop

    SciTech Connect

    Meilan, Richard; Rubinelli, Peter Marius; Chuck, George

    2016-05-10

    Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to new bioenergy crops and methods of creating new bioenergy crops. For example, genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are used to create transgenic crops. In some embodiments, over-expression of miRNA is used to produce transgenic perennials, such as trees, with altered lignin content or composition. In some embodiments, the transgenic perennials are Populus spp. In some embodiments, the miRNA is a member of the miR156 family. In some embodiments, the gene is Zea mays Cg1.

  13. LANL capabilities towards bioenergy and biofuels programs

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Jose A; Park, Min S; Unkefer, Clifford J; Bradbury, Andrew M; Waldo, Geoffrey S

    2009-01-01

    LANL invented technology for increasing growth and productivity of photosysnthetic organisms, including algae and higher plants. The technology has been extensively tested at the greenhouse and field scale for crop plants. Initial bioreactor testing of its efficacy on algal growth has shown promising results. It increases algal growth rates even under optimwn nutrient supply and careful pH control with CO{sub 2} continuously available. The technology uses a small organic molecule, applied to the plant surfaces or added to the algal growth medium. CO{sub 2} concentration is necessary to optimize algal production in either ponds or reactors. LANL has successfully designed, built and demonstrated an effective, efficient technology using DOE funding. Such a system would be very valuable for capitalizing on local inexpensive sources of CO{sub 2} for algal production operations. Furthermore, our protein engineering team has a concept to produce highly stable carbonic anhydyrase (CA) enzyme, which could be very useful to assure maximum utilization of the CO{sub 2} supply. Stable CA could be used either imnlobilized on solid supports or engineered into the algal strain. The current technologies for harvesting the algae and obtaining the lipids do not meet the needs for rapid, low cost separations for high volumes of material. LANL has obtained proof of concept for the high volume flowing stream concentration of algae, algal lysis and separation of the lipid, protein and water fractions, using acoustic platforms. This capability is targeted toward developing biosynthetics, chiral syntheses, high throughput protein expression and purification, organic chemistry, recognition ligands, and stable isotopes geared toward Bioenergy applications. Areas of expertise include stable isotope chemistry, biomaterials, polymers, biopolymers, organocatalysis, advanced characterization methods, and chemistry of model compounds. The ultimate realization of the ability to design and

  14. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  15. Bioenergy, the Carbon Cycle, and Carbon Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    The evolving energy and land-use policies across North America and Africa provide critical case studies in the relationship between regional development, the management of natural resources, and the carbon cycle. Over 50 EJ of the roughly 430 EJ total global anthropogenic energy budget is currently utilized in the form of direct biomass combustion. In North America 3 - 4 percent of total energy is derived from biomass, largely in combined heat and power (CHP) combustion applications. By contrast Africa, which is a major consumer of 'traditional' forms of biomass, uses far more total bioenergy products, but largely in smaller batches, with quantities of 0.5 - 2 tons/capita at the household level. Several African nations rely on biomass for well over 90 percent of household energy, and in some nations major portions of the industrial energy supply is also derived from biomass. In much of sub-Saharan Africa the direct combustion of biomass in rural areas is exceeded by the conversion of wood to charcoal for transport to the cities for household use there. There are major health, and environmental repercussions of these energy flows. The African, as well as Latin American and Asian charcoal trade has a noticeable signature on the global greenhouse gas cycles. In North America, and notably Scandinavia and India as well, biomass energy and emerging conversion technologies are being actively researched, and provide tremendous opportunities for the evolution of a sustainable, locally based, energy economy for many nations. This talk will examine aspects of these current energy and carbon flows, and the potential that gassification and new silvicultural practices hold for clean energy systems in the 21st century. North America and Africa will be examined in particular as both sources of innovation in this field, and areas with specific promise for application of these energy technologies and biomass/land use practices to further energy and global climate management.

  16. Modern Mathematics and the Mole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses several examples of the modern mathematics familiar to the pupils at the age where the mole concept is introduced, to help the teacher adopt an appropriate approach when dealing with this topic. (GA)

  17. Bio-energy Alliance High-Tonnage Bio-energy Crop Production and Conversion into Conventional Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Capareda, Sergio; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud; Hall, Kenneth R.; Holtzapple, Mark; Searcy, Royce; Thompson, Wayne H.; Baltensperger, David; Myatt, Robert; Blumenthal, Jurg

    2012-11-30

    Maintaining a predictable and sustainable supply of feedstock for bioenergy conversion is a major goal to facilitate the efficient transition to cellulosic biofuels. Our work provides insight into the complex interactions among agronomic, edaphic, and climatic factors that affect the sustainability of bioenergy crop yields. Our results provide science-based agronomic response measures that document how to better manage bioenergy sorghum production from planting to harvest. We show that harvest aids provide no significant benefit as a means to decrease harvest moisture or improve bioenergy yields. Our efforts to identify optimal seeding rates under varied edaphic and climatological conditions reinforce previous findings that sorghum is a resilient plant that can efficiently adapt to changing population pressures by decreasing or increasing the numbers of additional shoots or tillers – where optimal seeding rates for high biomass photoperiod sensitive sorghum is 60,000 to 70,000 seeds per acre and 100,000 to 120,000 seeds per acre for sweet varieties. Our varietal adaptability trials revealed that high biomass photoperiod sensitive energy sorghum consistently outperforms conventional photoperiod insensitive sweet sorghum and high biomass forage sorghum as the preferred bioenergy sorghum type, with combined theoretical yields of both cellulosic and fermentable water-soluble sugars producing an average yield of 1,035 gallons of EtOH per acre. Our nitrogen trials reveal that sweet sorghums produce ample amounts of water-soluble sugars with minimal increases in nitrogen inputs, and that excess nitrogen can affect minor increases in biomass yields and cellulosic sugars but decrease bioenergy quality by decreasing water-soluble sugar concentrations and increasing ash content, specifically when plant tissue nitrogen concentrations exceed 0.6 %, dry weight basis. Finally, through our growth and re-growth trials, we show that single-cut high biomass sorghum bioenergy yields

  18. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  19. Introducing the Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of the blues and presents a list of resources that are designed to introduce the blues, both as a feeling and as an influential part of American music and culture. Includes picture books and nonfiction for young readers, nonfiction for older readers, Web sites, and compact disks. (LRW)

  20. Field windbreaks for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tree windbreaks are a multi-benefit land use with the ability to mitigate climate change by modifying the local microclimate for improved crop growth and sequestering carbon in soil and biomass. Agroforestry practices are also being considered for bioenergy production by direct combustion or produci...

  1. A framework for selecting indicators of bioenergy sustainability

    DOE PAGES

    Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Kline, Keith L.; ...

    2015-05-11

    A framework for selecting and evaluating indicators of bioenergy sustainability is presented. This framework is designed to facilitate decision-making about which indicators are useful for assessing sustainability of bioenergy systems and supporting their deployment. Efforts to develop sustainability indicators in the United States and Europe are reviewed. The first steps of the framework for indicator selection are defining the sustainability goals and other goals for a bioenergy project or program, gaining an understanding of the context, and identifying the values of stakeholders. From the goals, context, and stakeholders, the objectives for analysis and criteria for indicator selection can be developed.more » The user of the framework identifies and ranks indicators, applies them in an assessment, and then evaluates their effectiveness, while identifying gaps that prevent goals from being met, assessing lessons learned, and moving toward best practices. The framework approach emphasizes that the selection of appropriate criteria and indicators is driven by the specific purpose of an analysis. Realistic goals and measures of bioenergy sustainability can be developed systematically with the help of the framework presented here.« less

  2. Optimizing Nutrient Management for Sustainable Bio-energy Feedstock Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn grain and stover are both being evaluated as feedstock sources for bio-energy production. To meet current and future demands for corn, both short- and long-term effects on nutrient cycling, physical properties, and biological activity in soils must be understood. Our project goal was to increas...

  3. Bio-energy: A taxonomy of land use impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, V. K. B.

    1981-02-01

    Potential land use impacts are identified from each of the four major bio-energy technology classes: anaerobic digestion; fermentation; gasification; and direct combustion. Each technology class is discussed with respect to each of the five major land use categories in the US: production of food and fiber; energy, industry, and commerce; housing and community; transportation and recreation; and open space.

  4. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: July 2014

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-09

    This is the May 2014 Update to the Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Office. It identifies the research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation.

  5. Biofuel Enduse Datasets from the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about]

    Holdings include datasets, models, and maps. This is a very new resource, but the collections will grow due to both DOE contributions and individualsÆ data uploads. Currently the Biofuel Enduse collection includes 133 items. Most of these are categorized as literature, but 36 are listed as datasets and ten as models.

  6. Design and development of synthetic microbial platform cells for bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes,non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass-degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy. PMID:23626588

  7. Assessing the Global Potential and Regional Implications of Promoting Bioenergy

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no simple answer to the question “are materials from bio-based feedstocks environmentally, and socially, preferable?” Bioenergy as an alternative energy source might be effective in reducing fossil fuel use, slowing global warming effects, and providing increased revenue...

  8. The Biogeochemistry of Bioenergy Landscapes: Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water Considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biogeochemical liabilities of grain-based crop production for bioenergy are no different from those of grain-based food production: excessive nitrate leakage, soil carbon and phosphorus loss, nitrous oxide production, and attenuated methane uptake. Contingent problems are well-known, increasingl...

  9. 75 FR 11836 - Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... advanced biofuel produced from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009. SUMMARY: RBS is announcing additional payments to advanced biofuel producers determined eligible in Fiscal Year 2009 for the Bioenergy... executed contract, but did not submit a request for payment for the advanced biofuel produced in FY...

  10. Soil surface carbon dioxide efflux of bioenergy cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on greenhouse gas emissions from such systems is needed to ensure environmental sustainability in the field. Since soil aeration properties are dynamic, high-resolution data are needed ...

  11. A framework for selecting indicators of bioenergy sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Kline, Keith L.; Davitt, Marcia S.

    2015-05-11

    A framework for selecting and evaluating indicators of bioenergy sustainability is presented. This framework is designed to facilitate decision-making about which indicators are useful for assessing sustainability of bioenergy systems and supporting their deployment. Efforts to develop sustainability indicators in the United States and Europe are reviewed. The first steps of the framework for indicator selection are defining the sustainability goals and other goals for a bioenergy project or program, gaining an understanding of the context, and identifying the values of stakeholders. From the goals, context, and stakeholders, the objectives for analysis and criteria for indicator selection can be developed. The user of the framework identifies and ranks indicators, applies them in an assessment, and then evaluates their effectiveness, while identifying gaps that prevent goals from being met, assessing lessons learned, and moving toward best practices. The framework approach emphasizes that the selection of appropriate criteria and indicators is driven by the specific purpose of an analysis. Realistic goals and measures of bioenergy sustainability can be developed systematically with the help of the framework presented here.

  12. Sorghum as a Versatile Feedstock for Bioenergy Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World economy development, population increase, and urban expansion accelerate the depletion of naturally preserved energy (fossil fuel), reduction in arable land, and trend of global climate change. Bioenergy, the forms of energy produced from materials of living organisms, holds special promise in...

  13. Role of arthropod communities in bioenergy crop litter decomposition†.

    PubMed

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Miresmailli, Saber; Nabity, Paul; Lawrance, Allen; Yanahan, Alan; Mitchell, Corey A; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; David, Mark B; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-10-01

    The extensive land use conversion expected to occur to meet demands for bioenergy feedstock production will likely have widespread impacts on agroecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Although arthropod detritivores are known to contribute to litter decomposition and thus energy flow and nutrient cycling in many plant communities, their importance in bioenergy feedstock communities has not yet been assessed. We undertook an experimental study quantifying rates of litter mass loss and nutrient cycling in the presence and absence of these organisms in three bioenergy feedstock crops-miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and a planted prairie community. Overall arthropod abundance and litter decomposition rates were similar in all three communities. Despite effective reduction of arthropods in experimental plots via insecticide application, litter decomposition rates, inorganic nitrogen leaching, and carbon-nitrogen ratios did not differ significantly between control (with arthropods) and treatment (without arthropods) plots in any of the three community types. Our findings suggest that changes in arthropod faunal composition associated with widespread adoption of bioenergy feedstock crops may not be associated with profoundly altered arthropod-mediated litter decomposition and nutrient release.

  14. Design and development of synthetic microbial platform cells for bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes,non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass-degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy.

  15. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Downing, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  16. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons. The data are species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  17. Greenhouse gas fluxes during growth of different bioenergy crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, K.; Don, A.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are expected to contribute to greenhouse gas mitigation by substituting fossil fuels. However, during production, processing and transport of bioenergy crops greenhouse gas emissions are generated that have to be taken into account when evaluating the role of bioenergy for climate mitigation. Especially nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during feedstock production determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy due to its strong global warming potential. This fact has often been ignored due to insufficient data and knowledge on greenhouse gas emission from cropland soils under bioenergy production. Therefore, we started to investigate the greenhouse gas emissions of major bioenergy crops maize, oil seed rape, grass (grass-clover, without N-fertilizer) and short rotation coppice (SRC, poplar hybrid) at two sites in Central Germany (near Göttingen and in Thuringia). The nitrous oxide and methane (CH4) fluxes from these sites have been determined by weekly chamber measurements since May 2011. The N2O emissions from all fields were low and without extreme peaks during the first five months of measurement (222 to 687 g N2O-N ha-1 for 5 months). The rape field near Göttingen emitted less N2O than the SRC, probably because SRC was newly established in spring 2011 and the rape has not been fertilized during the measurement period (cumulative emission over 5 months: rape seed 366 ± 188 g N2O-N ha-1, grassland 497 ± 153 g N2O-N ha-1, SRC 687 ± 124 g N2O-N ha-1). The maize field in Thuringia emitted more N2O than the SRC due to emission peaks related to the fertilization of maize (cumulative emission over 5 months: maize 492 ± 140 g N2O-N ha-1, grasslands 253 ± 87 and 361 ± 135 g N2O-N ha-1, new SRC 222 ± 90 g N2O-N ha-1, 4 years old SRC 340 ± 264 g N2O-N ha-1). All sites showed a net uptake of atmospheric methane throughout the summer season (104 to 862 g CH4-C ha-1 for 5 months). However, net-exchange of CH4 is of little importance for the greenhouse

  18. Modern thermoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gründler, Peter; Kirbs, Andreas; Dunsch, Lothar

    2009-08-03

    Thermoelectrochemistry as a branch of electrochemistry like photoelectrochemistry is reviewed in an integral treatment of the subject. Especially modern thermoelectrochemistry is focused on new techniques to vary the temperature as an independent variable. This review based on a definition of modern thermoelectrochemistry includes all the classical work which contributes to the formation of modern thermoelectrochemistry, among them high-temperature electrochemistry, subcritical- and supercritical electrochemistry and in-situ electrochemical calorimetry. The main focus is on modern techniques like fast electrode heating by lasers or by alternating current as well as on heating of solution spots by microwaves and related methods. Here the state of the art in modern thermoelectrochemistry is critically reviewed for the first time.

  19. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Surendran Nair, Sujith; Kang, Shujiang; Zhang, Xuesong; Miguez, Fernando; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Post, W. M.; Dietze, Michael; Lynd, Lee R.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2012-03-15

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source of renewable energy are making available critical information for the development, validation, and use of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been developed and validated for herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops adapted to arid lands. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane as plant function types at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). A model of biomass production in CAM plants has been developed (EPI), but lacks the sophistication of the other models. Except for CAM plants, all the models include representations of leaf area dynamics, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few of the models are capable of simulating soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle processes, making them especially useful for assessing environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the field-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. Similar to other process-based models, simulations are challenged by computing and data management issues and an integrated framework for model testing and inter-comparison is needed. Considerable work remains concerning the development of models for unconventional bioenergy crops like CAM plants, generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation, and development of an integrated framework for efficient execution of large-scale simulations for use in planning regional to global sustainable bioenergy production systems.

  20. Alternative scenarios of bioenergy crop production in an agricultural landscape and implications for bird communities.

    PubMed

    Blank, Peter J; Williams, Carol L; Sample, David W; Meehan, Timothy D; Turner, Monica G

    2016-01-01

    Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs among alternative land uses. We developed spatially explicit landscape scenarios of increased bioenergy crop production in an 80-km radius agricultural landscape centered on a potential biomass-processing energy facility and evaluated the consequences of each scenario for bird communities. Our scenarios included conversion of existing annual row crops to perennial bioenergy grasslands and conversion of existing grasslands to annual bioenergy row crops. The scenarios explored combinations of four biomass crop types (three potential grassland crops along a gradient of plant diversity and one annual row crop [corn]), three land conversion percentages to bioenergy crops (10%, 20%, or 30% of row crops or grasslands), and three spatial configurations of biomass crop fields (random, clustered near similar field types, or centered on the processing plant), yielding 36 scenarios. For each scenario, we predicted the impact on four bird community metrics: species richness, total bird density, species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) density, and SGCN hotspots (SGCN birds/ha ≥ 2). Bird community metrics consistently increased with conversion of row crops to bioenergy grasslands and consistently decreased with conversion of grasslands to bioenergy row crops. Spatial arrangement of bioenergy fields had strong effects on the bird community and in some cases was more influential than the amount converted to bioenergy crops. Clustering grasslands had a stronger positive influence on the bird community than locating grasslands near the central plant or at random. Expansion of bioenergy grasslands onto marginal agricultural lands will

  1. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options and prospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits.

    PubMed

    Feltus, Frank Alex; Vandenbrink, Joshua P

    2012-11-02

    For lignocellulosic bioenergy to become a viable alternative to traditional energy production methods, rapid increases in conversion efficiency and biomass yield must be achieved. Increased productivity in bioenergy production can be achieved through concomitant gains in processing efficiency as well as genetic improvement of feedstock that have the potential for bioenergy production at an industrial scale. The purpose of this review is to explore the genetic and genomic resource landscape for the improvement of a specific bioenergy feedstock group, the C4 bioenergy grasses. First, bioenergy grass feedstock traits relevant to biochemical conversion are examined. Then we outline genetic resources available bioenergy grasses for mapping bioenergy traits to DNA markers and genes. This is followed by a discussion of genomic tools and how they can be applied to understanding bioenergy grass feedstock trait genetic mechanisms leading to further improvement opportunities.

  2. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options and prospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For lignocellulosic bioenergy to become a viable alternative to traditional energy production methods, rapid increases in conversion efficiency and biomass yield must be achieved. Increased productivity in bioenergy production can be achieved through concomitant gains in processing efficiency as well as genetic improvement of feedstock that have the potential for bioenergy production at an industrial scale. The purpose of this review is to explore the genetic and genomic resource landscape for the improvement of a specific bioenergy feedstock group, the C4 bioenergy grasses. First, bioenergy grass feedstock traits relevant to biochemical conversion are examined. Then we outline genetic resources available bioenergy grasses for mapping bioenergy traits to DNA markers and genes. This is followed by a discussion of genomic tools and how they can be applied to understanding bioenergy grass feedstock trait genetic mechanisms leading to further improvement opportunities. PMID:23122416

  3. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  4. Introducing the CTA concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, B. S.; Actis, M.; Aghajani, T.; Agnetta, G.; Aguilar, J.; Aharonian, F.; Ajello, M.; Akhperjanian, A.; Alcubierre, M.; Aleksić, J.; Alfaro, R.; Aliu, E.; Allafort, A. J.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Amato, E.; Anderson, J.; Angüner, E. O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Armstrong, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Arrabito, L.; Asano, K.; Ashton, T.; Asorey, H. G.; Awane, Y.; Baba, H.; Babic, A.; Baby, N.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balbo, M.; Balis, D.; Balkowski, C.; Bamba, A.; Bandiera, R.; Barber, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basili, A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Baushev, A.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K. C.; Becker Tjus, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Belluso, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernard, F.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bhat, N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Bitossi, M.; Blake, S.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Blasi, P.; Bobkov, A.; Boccone, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bogacz, L.; Bogart, J.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix Gargallo, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borgland, A.; Borkowski, J.; Bose, R.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bouchet, L.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M.; Bringmann, T.; Brook, P.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buanes, T.; Buckley, J.; Buehler, R.; Bugaev, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Camprecios, J.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Casanova, S.; Casiraghi, M.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chabanne, E.; Chadwick, P.; Champion, C.; Chen, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiappetti, L.; Chikawa, M.; Chitnis, V. R.; Chollet, F.; Chudoba, J.; Cieślar, M.; Cillis, A.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colin, P.; Colome, J.; Colonges, S.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Conforti, V.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corona, P.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Crimi, G.; Criswell, S. J.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Dafonseca, M.; Dale, O.; Daniel, M.; Darling, J.; Davids, I.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caprio, V.; De Frondat, F.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de la Calle, I.; De La Vega, G. A.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Luca, A.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Naurois, M.; de Oliveira, Y.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; Decock, G.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Della Volpe, D.; Demange, P.; Depaola, G.; Dettlaff, A.; Di Paola, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickherber, R.; Dickinson, H.; Diez-Blanco, V.; Digel, S.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Dohmke, M.; Domainko, W.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donat, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Drake, G.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Dumas, D.; Dumm, J.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Ebr, J.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Einecke, S.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Evans, P.; Falcone, A.; Fantinel, D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Fasola, G.; Favill, B.; Fede, E.; Federici, S.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Ferrando, P.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Fiorini, M.; Firpo Curcoll, R.; Flores, H.; Florin, D.; Focke, W.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, L.; Fontaine, G.; Fornasa, M.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Franckowiak, A.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G.; Frei, R.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gabriele, R.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gallant, Y.; Gámez-García, J.; García, B.; Garcia López, R.; Gardiol, D.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Gebremedhin, L.; Geffroy, N.; Gerard, L.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Giannakaki, E.; Gianotti, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Gika, V.; Giommi, P.; Girard, N.; Giro, E.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Godinovic, N.; Golev, V.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gómez-Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, M. M.; González, A.; González, F.; González Muñoz, A.; Gothe, K. S.; Gougerot, M.; Graciani, R.; Grandi, P.; Grañena, F.; Granot, J.; Grasseau, G.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grégoire, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzinska, M.; Gruev, V.; Grünewald, S.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a new observatory for very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. CTA has ambitions science goals, for which it is necessary to achieve full-sky coverage, to improve the sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, to span about four decades of energy, from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV with enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1000 members from 27 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and North and South America. In 2010 the CTA Consortium completed a Design Study and started a three-year Preparatory Phase which leads to production readiness of CTA in 2014. In this paper we introduce the science goals and the concept of CTA, and provide an overview of the project.

  5. The Influence of Climate on Sustainable North American Bioenergy Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, J. E.; Cuadra, S.; Drewry, D.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Bioenergy agroecosystems are increasingly being investigated and implemented as an important source of sustainable and secure liquid fuel. In the U.S. the current bioenergy market is dominated by ethanol derived from maize, which has limited carbon benefits and multiple environmental concerns. In 2012, a record ~40% of the maize crop went to ethanol production despite persistent drought conditions reducing yields across much of the growing region. This has led to questions of the future value of devoting such a large fraction of the most valuable arable land to ethanol production with the frequency of these extreme conditions expected to increase with climate change. A proposed solution is the development of 2nd-generation bioenergy crops including miscanthus, switchgrass, and energy cane on marginal or abandoned croplands that have limited value for food production. However, the future potential for these lands to provide sufficient bioenergy production has uncertainty associated with changing climate. In this study, we use a newly available suite of dynamically downscaled climate data sets, estimates of marginal and abandoned cropland derived in part from satellite observations, and an extended version of the Agro-IBIS LSM to estimate the impact of climate change on North American bioenergy potential. In particular, we assess how temperature and precipitation are likely to change over marginal and abandoned croplands, and how these changes may impact the range and yields of maize, miscanthus, switchgrass, and energy cane. We extend the Agro-IBIS model with mechanistic multilayer vegetation, and validate the model using published yield, leaf area, and surface flux observations. The extended Agro-IBIS model is driven with weather conditions from the near-past (1971-2000) and future (2041-2070) using 30-year dynamically downscaled climate estimates from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), and CO2 concentrations specified from

  6. Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, high US gasoline prices and national security concerns have prompted a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources to meet increasing energy demands, particularly by the transportation sector. Food and animal feed crops, such as corn and soybean, sugarcane, residue from these crops, and cellulosic perennial crops grown specifically to produce bioenergy (e.g. switchgrass, Miscanthus, mixed grasses), and fast growing trees (e.g. hybrid poplar) are expected to provide the majority of the biofeedstock for energy production. One of the grand challenges in supplying large quantities of grain-based and lignocellulosic materials for the production of biofuels is ensuring that they are produced in environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. Feedstock selection will vary geographically based on regional adaptability, productivity, and reliability. Changes in land use and management practices related to biofeedstock production may have potential impacts on water quantity and quality, sediments, and pesticides and nutrient losses, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. We have made many improvements in the currently available biophysical models (e.g. Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT model) to evaluate sustainability of energy crop production. We have utilized the improved model to evaluate impacts of both annual (e.g. corn) and perennial bioenergy crops (e.g. Miscanthus and switchgrass at) on hydrology and water quality under the following plausible bioenergy crop production scenarios: (1) at highly erodible areas; (2) at agriculturally marginal areas; (3) at pasture areas; (4) crop residue (corn stover) removal; and (5) combinations of above scenarios. Overall results indicated improvement in water quality with introduction of perennial energy crops. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced under energy crop production scenarios and ranged between 0.3% and 5% across scenarios. Erosion and sediment

  7. Teaching Modern Dance: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enghauser, Rebecca Gose

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual approach to teaching modern dance can broaden the awareness and deepen the understanding of modern dance in the educational arena in general, and in dance education specifically. This article describes a unique program that dance teachers can use to introduce modern dance to novice dancers, as well as more experienced dancers,…

  8. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    DOE PAGES

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; ...

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. Furthermore, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollutionmore » from power plants.« less

  9. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. Furthermore, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollution from power plants.

  10. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan. March 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Amy

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office is one of the 10 technology development offices within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at the U.S. Department of Energy. This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (the Office). It identifies the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D), and market transformation and crosscutting activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation. This MYPP is intended for use as an operational guide to help the Office manage and coordinate its activities, as well as a resource to help communicate its mission and goals to stakeholders and the public.

  11. The DOE Bioenergy Research Centers: History, Operations, and Scientific Output

    DOE PAGES

    Slater, Steven C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Rogers, Tamara S.; ...

    2015-08-20

    Over the past 7 years, the US Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research has funded three Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs). These centers have developed complementary and collaborative research portfolios that address the key technical and economic challenges in biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. All three centers have established a close, productive relationship with DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). This special issue of Bioenergy Research samples the breadth of basic science and engineering work required to underpin a diverse, sustainable, and robust biofuel industry. In this report, which was collaboratively produced by all three BRCs, we discuss themore » BRC contributions over their first 7 years to the development of renewable transportation fuels. In additon, we also highlight the BRC research published in the current issue and discuss technical challenges in light of recent progress.« less

  12. Bioenergy Ecosystem Land-Use Modelling and Field Flux Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Niall; Bottoms, Emily; Donnison, Iain; Dondini, Marta; Farrar, Kerrie; Finch, Jon; Harris, Zoe; Ineson, Phil; Keane, Ben; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Morison, James; Perks, Mike; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca; Smith, Pete; Sohi, Saran; Tallis, Mat; Taylor, Gail; Yamulki, Sirwan

    2013-04-01

    Climate change impacts resulting from fossil fuel combustion and concerns about the diversity of energy supply are driving interest to find low-carbon energy alternatives. As a result bioenergy is receiving widespread scientific, political and media attention for its potential role in both supplying energy and mitigating greenhouse (GHG) emissions. It is estimated that the bioenergy contribution to EU 2020 renewable energy targets could require up to 17-21 million hectares of additional land in Europe (Don et al., 2012). There are increasing concerns that some transitions into bioenergy may not be as sustainable as first thought when GHG emissions from the crop growth and management cycle are factored into any GHG life cycle assessment (LCA). Bioenergy is complex and encapsulates a wide range of crops, varying from food crop based biofuels to dedicated second generation perennial energy crops and forestry products. The decision on the choice of crop for energy production significantly influences the GHG mitigation potential. It is recognised that GHG savings or losses are in part a function of the original land-use that has undergone change and the management intensity for the energy crop. There is therefore an urgent need to better quantify both crop and site-specific effects associated with the production of conventional and dedicated energy crops on the GHG balance. Currently, there is scarcity of GHG balance data with respect to second generation crops meaning that process based models and LCAs of GHG balances are weakly underpinned. Therefore, robust, models based on real data are urgently required. In the UK we have recently embarked on a detailed program of work to address this challenge by combining a large number of field studies with state-of-the-art process models. Through six detailed experiments, we are calculating the annual GHG balances of land use transitions into energy crops across the UK. Further, we are quantifying the total soil carbon gain or

  13. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time.

  14. The DOE Bioenergy Research Centers: History, Operations, and Scientific Output

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Steven C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Rogers, Tamara S.; Phillips, Margaret F.; Nordahl, Kristy; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-08-20

    Over the past 7 years, the US Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research has funded three Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs). These centers have developed complementary and collaborative research portfolios that address the key technical and economic challenges in biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. All three centers have established a close, productive relationship with DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). This special issue of Bioenergy Research samples the breadth of basic science and engineering work required to underpin a diverse, sustainable, and robust biofuel industry. In this report, which was collaboratively produced by all three BRCs, we discuss the BRC contributions over their first 7 years to the development of renewable transportation fuels. In additon, we also highlight the BRC research published in the current issue and discuss technical challenges in light of recent progress.

  15. Alternative Bioenergy: Small Scale Pellet Production from Forest Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Audra S.

    Forests can readily supply feedstock for alternative bioenergy production. Feedstock removal has the potential to benefit forest health and provide ecosystem services, while also generating profit for landowners, contractors and forest managers. However, many landowners are faced with the challenge of managing forest residuals to meet slash compliances and fire regulations. Currently, most residuals are burned or left on site to decompose. Every year, the north-central Idaho region produces over 16 million dry tons of unutilized forest residues. In a time where alternative energy sources are growing in demand, new approaches to utilize these residuals for bioenergy production are being examined. One approach is a portable, small-scale wood pellet mill that can be taken directly to the logging site. Utilizing forest residues for pellet production reduces residue burning and its potential negative impacts on air quality. This presentation focuses on the quality of wood pellets manufactured by a portable wood pellet mill utilizing various forms of forest residuals.

  16. Tradeoffs in ecosystem services of prairies managed for bioenergy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarchow, Meghann Elizabeth

    The use of perennial plant materials as a renewable source of energy may constitute an important opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of managed land. Currently, the production of energy from agricultural products is primarily in the form of ethanol from corn grain, which used more than 45% of the domestic U.S. corn crop in 2011. Concomitantly, using corn grain to produce ethanol has promoted landscape simplification and homogenization through conversion of Conservation Reserve Program grasslands to annual row crops, and has been implicated in increasing environmental damage, such as increased nitrate leaching into water bodies and increased rates of soil erosion. In contrast, perennial prairie vegetation has the potential to be used as a bioenergy feedstock that produces a substantial amount of biomass as well as numerous ecosystem services. Reincorporating prairies to diversify the landscape of the Midwestern U.S. at strategic locations could provide more habitat for animals, including beneficial insects, and decrease nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment movement into water bodies. In this dissertation, I present data from two field experiments that examine (1) how managing prairies for bioenergy production affects prairie ecology and agronomic performance and (2) how these prairie systems differ from corn systems managed for bioenergy production. Results of this work show that there are tradeoffs among prairie systems and between corn and prairie systems with respect to the amount of harvested biomass, root production, nutrient export, feedstock characteristics, growing season utilization, and species and functional group diversity. These results emphasize the need for a multifaceted approach to fully evaluate bioenergy feedstock production systems.

  17. Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    arise. Wild Rose manure digester facility in Wisconsin, Dairyland Power Cooperative Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States...all stages of biomass tech- nology, this Roadmap update discusses policy measures and related efforts to assist with market penetration of biofuels...barriers be overcome in all stages of the life cycle of developing biomass feedstocks and converting them to biobased fuels, power, and products

  18. An Assessment of Bio-Energy Crops Use in Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A.; Khanna, M.; Barman, R.; Yang, X.; Dhungana, B.; Chen, X.

    2007-12-01

    Growing concern about climate change and energy security has led to increasing interest in developing domestically available renewable energy sources for meeting the electricity, heating and fuel needs in the United States. Illinois has a significant potential to grow perennial grasses that can provide bio-energy. Two perennial grasses, Switchgrass and Miscanthus, have been identified as among the best choices for low input bio-energy production in the US and Europe. The purpose of this talk is two fold. First, we will examine the optimal areas in Illinois to locate perennial grasses as feedstocks. These areas will be determined based on biophysical conditions (such as heterogeneity in soil quality and climatic factors) and costs of production and costs of land that differ across locations. Second, we will determine the CO2 mitigation benefits to be provided by bioenergy crops, both in the form of soil carbon sequestration and displacement of carbon emissions from gasoline. This analysis will be undertaken using detailed GIS data on soil quality, climate and land use for 0.1deg by 0.1deg grid cells in Illinois. This data will be used together with the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), a terrestrial ecosystem model, to estimate the yields of Switchgrass and Miscanthus as well as their potential to sequester carbon in the soil. Yield for row crops will be based on historical data and will be used to determine the opportunity cost of converting land currently under corn and soybean production to perennial grasses. Costs of production for the alternative crops here include expenses incurred by farmers on fertilizer inputs, machinery, harvesting and transportation and will be used to determine the profitability of alternative land uses in each grid cell. The framework developed here will be used to examine the optimal locations to grow bio-energy crops to achieve various carbon mitigation targets cost-effectively.

  19. Global bioenergy capacity as constrained by observed biospheric productivity rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. K.; Zhao, M.; Running, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Virtually all global energy forecasts include an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial energy source for the future. Multiple current estimates of global bioenergy potential (GBP) range from 500-1,500 EJ yr-1 or 100-300% of 2009 global primary energy consumption (GPEC09), suggesting bioenergy could conceivably replace fossil fuels entirely. However, these estimates are based on extrapolation of plot-level production rates which largely neglect complex global climatic and land-use constraints. We estimated GBP using satellite-derived, observed global primary productivity data from 2000-2006, which integrates global climate data and detects seasonal vegetation dynamics. Land-use constraints were then applied to account for current crop and forestry harvest requirements, human-controlled pasturelands, remote regions, and nature conservation areas. We show GBP is limited to 52-248 EJ yr-1 or 10-49% of GPEC09, a range lower than many current GBP estimates by a factor of four. Even attaining the low-end of this range requires utilization of all harvest residues over 31 million km2 (Mkm2), while the high-end requires additional harvest over 41 Mkm2, an area roughly three times current global cropland extent. Although, exploitation of pasture and remote land could significantly contribute to GBP, the availability of these land areas remains controversial due to critical concerns regarding indirect land-use change and carbon debt. Future energy policy is of unparalleled importance to humanity, and our results are critical in estimating quantitative limitations on the overall potential for global bioenergy production.

  20. Threshold dynamics in soil carbon storage for bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Woo, Dong K; Quijano, Juan C; Kumar, Praveen; Chaoka, Sayo; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2014-10-21

    Because of increasing demands for bioenergy, a considerable amount of land in the midwestern United States could be devoted to the cultivation of second-generation bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass and miscanthus. The foliar carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) in these bioenergy crops at harvest is significantly higher than the ratios in replaced crops, such as corn or soybean. We show that there is a critical soil organic matter C/N ratio, where microbial biomass can be impaired as microorganisms become dependent upon net immobilization. The simulation results show that there is a threshold effect in the amount of aboveground litter input in the soil after harvest that will reach a critical organic matter C/N ratio in the soil, triggering a reduction of the soil microbial population, with significant consequences in other microbe-related processes, such as decomposition and mineralization. These thresholds are approximately 25 and 15% of aboveground biomass for switchgrass and miscanthus, respectively. These results suggest that values above these thresholds could result in a significant reduction of decomposition and mineralization, which, in turn, would enhance the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the topsoil and reduce inorganic nitrogen losses when compared to a corn-corn-soybean rotation.

  1. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-02-02

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2(-1) (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2(-1) for GTP, and 2.14·10(-14) ± 0.11·10(-14) °C (kg yr(-1))(-1) for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales.

  2. Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D.

    2011-03-01

    Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

  3. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; van Zelm, Rosalie; van der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-02-01

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 for GTP, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1 for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales.

  4. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Peter D.

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds

  5. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  6. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  7. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    To increase security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the European Commission set out a long-term strategy for renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Bioenergy from forestry and agriculture plays a key role for both. Since the last decade a significant increase of biomass energy plantations has been observed in Europe. Concurrently, the EU agreed to halt the loss of biodiversity within its member states. One measure is the Natura2000 network of important nature sites that actually covers about 20% of the EU land surface. However, to fulfil the biodiversity target more nature conservation and restoration sites need to be designated. There are arising concerns that an increased cultivation of bioenergy crops will decrease the land available for nature reserves and for "traditional" agriculture and forestry. In the following the economic and ecological impacts of structural land use changes are demonstrated by two examples. First, a case study of land use changes on the Eiderstedt peninsula in Schleswig-Holstein/Germany evaluates the impacts of grassland conversion into bioenergy plantations under consideration of selected meadow birds. Scenarios indicate not only a quantitative loss of habitats but also a reduction of habitat quality. The second study assesses the role of bioenergy production in light of possible negative impacts on potential wetland conservation sites in Europe. By coupling the spatial wetland distribution model "SWEDI" (cf. SCHLEUPNER 2007) to the European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (EUFASOM; cf. SCHNEIDER ET AL. 2008) economic and environmental aspects of land use are evaluated simultaneously. This way the costs and benefits of the appropriate measures and its consequences for agriculture and forestry are investigated. One aim is to find the socially optimal balance between alternative wetland uses by integrating biological benefits - in this case wetlands - and economic opportunities - here

  8. Preliminary assessment of dual use bioenergy-forage potential of exotic and native grasses in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some bioenergy grasses may have dual use potential as livestock feed or bioenergy feedstock. We conducted two studies on exotic and native grasses thought to have primary use as either livestock forage [‘Bumpers’ eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) and ‘Alamo’ switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)] ...

  9. Land-Use and Environmental Pressures Resulting from Current and Future Bioenergy Crop Expansion: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyake, Saori; Renouf, Marguerite; Peterson, Ann; McAlpine, Clive; Smith, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Recent energy and climate policies, particularly in the developed world, have increased demand for bioenergy as an alternative, which has led to both direct and indirect land-use changes and an array of environmental and socio-economic concerns. A comprehensive understanding of the land-use dynamics of bioenergy crop production is essential for…

  10. Multi-utilization of swine manure as a bioenergy feedstock: Carbonization and combustion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of animal manure and other organic-based waste products as bioenergy feedstocks is gaining interest for waste-to-bioenergy conversion processes. While thermochemical conversion of animal manure via combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification is becoming a new frontier of manure treatment; there ...

  11. [Reflection on developing bio-energy industry of large oil company].

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    China's energy supply becomes more serious nowadays and the development of bio-energy becomes a major trend. Large oil companies have superb technology, rich experience and outstanding talent, as well as better sales channels for energy products, which can make full use of their own advantages to achieve the efficient complementary of exist energy and bio-energy. Therefore, large oil companies have the advantages of developing bio-energy. Bio-energy development in China is in the initial stage. There exist some problems such as available land, raw material supply, conversion technologies and policy guarantee, which restrict bio-energy from industrialized development. According to the above key issues, this article proposes suggestions and methods, such as planting energy plant in the marginal barren land to guarantee the supply of bio-energy raw materials, cultivation of professional personnel, building market for bio-energy counting on large oil companies' rich experience and market resources about oil industry, etc, aimed to speed up the industrialized process of bio-energy development in China.

  12. Genomic selection and genome-wide association analyses for bioenergy traits in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass, a relatively high-yielding and environmentally sustainable biomass crop, has been chosen by the USDA and the USDOE as one of the main sources of bioenergy in the US. However, further genetic gains in biomass yield and quality must be achieved to make it an economically viable bioenergy ...

  13. Cellulosic and grain bioenergy crops reduce net greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset GHG emissions, but quantifying that offset is complex. Adler et al. (2007, Ecol. Appl. 17:675-691) conducted a life cycle assessment of the net greenhouse gas flux from bioenergy cropping systems. Compared with the life cycle of gasoline and diesel, ethan...

  14. Fostering the Bioeconomic Revolution in Biobased Products and Bioenergy: An Environmental Approach

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-01-01

    This document is a product of the Biomass Research and Development Board and presents a high-level summary of the emerging national strategy for biobased products and bioenergy. It provides the first integrated approach to policies and procedures that will promote R&D and demonstration leading to accelerated production of biobased products and bioenergy.

  15. The biophysical link between climate, water, and vegetation in bioenergy agro-ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use change for bioenergy feedstocks is likely to intensify as energy demand rises simultaneously with increased pressure to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Initial assessments of the impact of adopting bioenergy crops as a significant energy source have largely focused on the potential for b...

  16. Stakeholder Database from the Center for Bioenergy Sustainability (Learn who the experts are)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Center for BioEnergy Sustainability (CBES) is a leading resource for dealing with the environmental impacts and the ultimate sustainability of biomass production for conversion to biofuels and bio-based products. Its purpose is to use science and analysis to understand the sustainability (environmental, economic, and social) of current and potential future bioenergy production and distribution; to identify approaches to enhance bioenergy sustainability; and to serve as an independent source of the highest quality data and analysis for bioenergy stakeholders and decision makers. ... On the operational level, CBES is a focal point and business-development vehicle for ORNL’s capabilities related to bioenergy sustainability and socioeconomic analyses. As such, it complements the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), also located at ORNL, which focuses on the problem of converting lignocellulosic biomass into reactive intermediaries necessary for the cellulosic biofuel industry. Together, these centers provide a strong integrating mechanism and business-development tool for ORNL's science and technology portfolio in bioenergy [taken and edited from http://web.ornl.gov/sci/ees/cbes/. The Stakeholder Database allows you to find experts in bioenergy by their particular type of expertise, their affiliations or locations, their specific research areas or research approaches, etc.

  17. Indicators: Wetland Vegetation (Introduced Species)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduced plants are indicators of the ecological integrity of waters and evidence of increased human-caused disturbance in the watershed. Introduced species that cause economic or environmental harm, or harm to human health, are called invasive species.

  18. Introducing HEP to schools through educational scenaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkoumelis, C.; Vourakis, S.

    2015-05-01

    Recent activities, towards the goal of introducing High Energy Physics in the school class, are reviewed. The most efficient method is a half or a full day workshop where the students are introduced to one of the large LHC experiments, follow a "virtual visit" to the experiment's Control Room and perform an interactive analysis of real data. Science cafes and visits to the CERN expositions are also very helpful, provided that the tours/discussions are led by an active scientist and/or a trained teacher. Several EU outreach projects provide databases rich with education scenaria and data analysis tools ready to be used by the teachers in order to bridge the gap between modern research and technology and school education.

  19. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-01-01

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2−1 (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2−1 for GTP, and 2.14·10−14 ± 0.11·10−14 °C (kg yr−1)−1 for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26830755

  20. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO{sub 2} emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels.

  1. Bioenergy Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is accelerating the commercialization of first-of-a-kind technologies that use our nation’s abundant renewable biomass resources for the production of advanced biofuels and biobased products. Non-food sources of biomass, such as algae, agricultural residues and forestry trimmings, and energy crops like switchgrass, are being used in BETO-supported, cutting-edge technologies to produce drop-in biofuels, including renewable gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. BETO is also investigating how to improve the economics of biofuel production by converting biomass into higher-value chemicals and products that historically have always been derived from petroleum.

  2. The Dynamic Bioenergy of Animals with a Digestive Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxnes, John F.; Hausken, Kjell

    This paper provides a mathematical dynamic description of the bioenergetic time history of bilataria (multicellular animals with a digestive tract) during feeding, growth and activity. We analyze the dynamics of bioenergy using ordinary differential equations on a compartment model, which we believe could constitute a mathematical foundation. Allometric scaling laws of the quarter type are assumed for all scaling relations in accordance with fractal theory. The paper demonstrates the dynamics by which bilataria respond to activity and feeding. The model is tested against some well-known experiments for fishes.

  3. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  4. SRWC bioenergy productivity and economic feasibility on marginal lands.

    PubMed

    Ghezehei, Solomon B; Shifflett, Shawn D; Hazel, Dennis W; Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie

    2015-09-01

    Evolving bioenergy markets necessitate consideration of marginal lands for woody biomass production worldwide particularly the southeastern U.S., a prominent wood pellet exporter to Europe. Growing short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) on marginal lands minimizes concerns about using croplands for bioenergy production and reinforces sustainability of wood supply to existing and growing global biomass markets. We estimated mean annual aboveground green biomass increments (MAIs) and assessed economic feasibility of various operationally established (0.5 ha-109 ha) SRWC stands on lands used to mitigate environmental liabilities of municipal wastewater, livestock wastewater and sludge, and subsurface contamination by petroleum and pesticides. MAIs (Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) had no consistent relationship with stand density or age. Non-irrigated Populus, Plantanus occidentalis L. and Pinus taeda L. stands produced 2.4-12.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). Older, irrigated Taxodium distchum L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica L., and coppiced P. occidentalis stands had higher MAIs (10.6-21.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) than irrigated Liquidambar styraciflua L. and non-coppiced, irrigated P. occidentalis (8-18 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Natural hardwood MAIs at 20-60 years were less than hardwood and P. taeda productivities at 5-20 years. Unlike weed control, irrigation and coppicing improved managed hardwood productivity. Rotation length affected economic outcomes although the returns were poor due to high establishment and maintenance costs, low productivities and low current stumpage values, which are expected to quickly change with development of robust global markets.

  5. Cellulose factories: advancing bioenergy production from forest trees.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A

    2012-04-01

    Fast-growing, short-rotation forest trees, such as Populus and Eucalyptus, produce large amounts of cellulose-rich biomass that could be utilized for bioenergy and biopolymer production. Major obstacles need to be overcome before the deployment of these genera as energy crops, including the effective removal of lignin and the subsequent liberation of carbohydrate constituents from wood cell walls. However, significant opportunities exist to both select for and engineer the structure and interaction of cell wall biopolymers, which could afford a means to improve processing and product development. The molecular underpinnings and regulation of cell wall carbohydrate biosynthesis are rapidly being elucidated, and are providing tools to strategically develop and guide the targeted modification required to adapt forest trees for the emerging bioeconomy. Much insight has already been gained from the perturbation of individual genes and pathways, but it is not known to what extent the natural variation in the sequence and expression of these same genes underlies the inherent variation in wood properties of field-grown trees. The integration of data from next-generation genomic technologies applied in natural and experimental populations will enable a systems genetics approach to study cell wall carbohydrate production in trees, and should advance the development of future woody bioenergy and biopolymer crops.

  6. Scenarios of bioenergy development impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation increases agricultural productivity, but it also stresses water resources (Huffaker and Hamilton 2007). Drought and the potential for drier conditions resulting from climate change could strain water supplies in landscapes where human populations rely on finite groundwater resources for drinking, agriculture, energy, and industry (IPCC 2007). For instance, in the North American Great Plains, rowcrops are utilized for livestock feed, food, and bioenergy production (Cassman and Liska 2007), and a large portion is irrigated with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system (McGuire 2011). Under projected future climatic conditions, greater crop water use requirements and diminished groundwater recharge rates could make rowcrop irrigation less feasible in some areas (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Sophocleous 2005). The Rainwater Basin region of south central Nebraska, United States, is an intensively farmed and irrigated Great Plains landscape dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production (Bishop and Vrtiska 2008). Ten starch-based ethanol plants currently service the region, producing ethanol from corn grain (figure 1). In this study, we explore the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a drought-tolerant alternative bioenergy feedstock, to impact regional annual groundwater withdrawals for irrigation under warmer and drier future conditions. Although our research context is specific to the Rainwater Basin and surrounding North American Great Plains, we believe the broader research question is internationally pertinent and hope that this study simulates similar research in other areas.

  7. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. The theory of bio-energy transport in the protein molecules and its properties.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiao-feng

    2011-10-01

    The bio-energy transport is a basic problem in life science and related to many biological processes. Therefore to establish the mechanism of bio-energy transport and its theory have an important significance. Based on different properties of structure of α-helical protein molecules some theories of bio-energy transport along the molecular chains have been proposed and established, where the energy is released by hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A brief survey of past researches on different models and theories of bio-energy, including Davydov's, Takeno's, Yomosa's, Brown et al.'s, Schweitzer's, Cruzeiro-Hansson's, Forner's and Pang's models were first stated in this paper. Subsequently we studied and reviewed mainly and systematically the properties, thermal stability and lifetimes of the carriers (solitons) transporting the bio-energy at physiological temperature 300 K in Pang's and Davydov's theories. From these investigations we know that the carrier (soliton) of bio-energy transport in the α-helical protein molecules in Pang's model has a higher binding energy, higher thermal stability and larger lifetime at 300 K relative to those of Davydov's model, in which the lifetime of the new soliton at 300 K is enough large and belongs to the order of 10(-10) s or τ/τ(0)≥700. Thus we can conclude that the soliton in Pang's model is exactly the carrier of the bio-energy transport, Pang's theory is appropriate to α-helical protein molecules.

  9. The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints.

    PubMed

    Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

    2010-12-01

    Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets ('technical potential'). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ≈30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160-270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization ('cascade utilization') of biomass flows.

  10. Applying genetic algorithms to space optimization decision of farmland bio-energy intensive utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Xia; Zhuo, Li; Tao, Haiyan; Xia, Lihua

    2008-10-01

    The development of bio-energy intensive utilization of farmland is to solve China's emerging issues related to energy and environment in an important way. Given the spatial distribution of bio-energy is scattered, not continuous, the intensive utilization of farmland bio-energy is different from that of the traditional energy, i.e. coal, oil, natural gas, etc.. The estimation of biomass, the spatial distribution and the space optimization study are the key for practical applications to develop bio-energy intensive utilization. Based on a case study conducted in Guangdong province, China, this paper provides a framework that estimates available biomass and analyzes its distribution pattern in the established NPP model quickly; it also builds the primary collection ranges by Thiessen polygon in different scales. The application of Genetic Algorithms (GA) to the optimization and space decision of bio-energy intensive utilization is one of the key deliveries. The result shows that GA and GIS integration model for resolving domain-point supply and field demand has obvious advantages. A key finding presents that the model simulation results have enormous impact by the MUAP. When Thiessen polygon scale with 10 KM proximal threshold is established as the primary collecting scope of bioenergy, the fitness value can be maximized in the optimized process. In short, the optimized model can provide an effective solution to farmland bio-energy spatial optimization.

  11. The theory of bio-energy transport in the protein molecules and its properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-feng

    2011-10-01

    The bio-energy transport is a basic problem in life science and related to many biological processes. Therefore to establish the mechanism of bio-energy transport and its theory have an important significance. Based on different properties of structure of α-helical protein molecules some theories of bio-energy transport along the molecular chains have been proposed and established, where the energy is released by hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A brief survey of past researches on different models and theories of bio-energy, including Davydov's, Takeno's, Yomosa's, Brown et al.'s, Schweitzer's, Cruzeiro-Hansson's, Forner's and Pang's models were first stated in this paper. Subsequently we studied and reviewed mainly and systematically the properties, thermal stability and lifetimes of the carriers (solitons) transporting the bio-energy at physiological temperature 300 K in Pang's and Davydov's theories. From these investigations we know that the carrier (soliton) of bio-energy transport in the α-helical protein molecules in Pang's model has a higher binding energy, higher thermal stability and larger lifetime at 300 K relative to those of Davydov's model, in which the lifetime of the new soliton at 300 K is enough large and belongs to the order of 10 -10 s or τ/τ⩾700. Thus we can conclude that the soliton in Pang's model is exactly the carrier of the bio-energy transport, Pang's theory is appropriate to α-helical protein molecules.

  12. The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets (‘technical potential’). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ≈30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160–270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization (‘cascade utilization’) of biomass flows. PMID:24069093

  13. Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, Betty Kay; Alton, Anita Jean; Andrews, Shirley H; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn; Casey, Denise; Martin, Sheryl A; Mills, Marissa; Nylander, Kim; Wyrick, Judy M; Drell, Dr. Daniel; Weatherwax, Sharlene; Carruthers, Julie

    2006-08-01

    In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new capabilities, but it is

  14. Can the Results of Biodiversity-Ecosystem Productivity Studies Be Translated to Bioenergy Production?

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Timothy L.; Gross, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity experiments show that increases in plant diversity can lead to greater biomass production, and some researchers suggest that high diversity plantings should be used for bioenergy production. However, many methods used in past biodiversity experiments are impractical for bioenergy plantings. For example, biodiversity experiments often use intensive management such as hand weeding to maintain low diversity plantings and exclude unplanted species, but this would not be done for bioenergy plantings. Also, biodiversity experiments generally use high seeding densities that would be too expensive for bioenergy plantings. Here we report the effects of biodiversity on biomass production from two studies of more realistic bioenergy crop plantings in southern Michigan, USA. One study involved comparing production between switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monocultures and species-rich prairie plantings on private farm fields that were managed similarly to bioenergy plantings. The other study was an experiment where switchgrass was planted in monoculture and in combination with increasingly species-rich native prairie mixtures. Overall, we found that bioenergy plantings with higher species richness did not produce more biomass than switchgrass monocultures. The lack of a positive relationship between planted species richness and production in our studies may be due to several factors. Non-planted species (weeds) were not removed from our studies and these non-planted species may have competed with planted species and also prevented realized species richness from equaling planted species richness. Also, we found that low seeding density of individual species limited the biomass production of these individual species. Production in future bioenergy plantings with high species richness may be increased by using a high density of inexpensive seed from switchgrass and other highly productive species, and future efforts to translate the results of biodiversity experiments

  15. Can the Results of Biodiversity-Ecosystem Productivity Studies Be Translated to Bioenergy Production?

    PubMed

    Dickson, Timothy L; Gross, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity experiments show that increases in plant diversity can lead to greater biomass production, and some researchers suggest that high diversity plantings should be used for bioenergy production. However, many methods used in past biodiversity experiments are impractical for bioenergy plantings. For example, biodiversity experiments often use intensive management such as hand weeding to maintain low diversity plantings and exclude unplanted species, but this would not be done for bioenergy plantings. Also, biodiversity experiments generally use high seeding densities that would be too expensive for bioenergy plantings. Here we report the effects of biodiversity on biomass production from two studies of more realistic bioenergy crop plantings in southern Michigan, USA. One study involved comparing production between switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monocultures and species-rich prairie plantings on private farm fields that were managed similarly to bioenergy plantings. The other study was an experiment where switchgrass was planted in monoculture and in combination with increasingly species-rich native prairie mixtures. Overall, we found that bioenergy plantings with higher species richness did not produce more biomass than switchgrass monocultures. The lack of a positive relationship between planted species richness and production in our studies may be due to several factors. Non-planted species (weeds) were not removed from our studies and these non-planted species may have competed with planted species and also prevented realized species richness from equaling planted species richness. Also, we found that low seeding density of individual species limited the biomass production of these individual species. Production in future bioenergy plantings with high species richness may be increased by using a high density of inexpensive seed from switchgrass and other highly productive species, and future efforts to translate the results of biodiversity experiments

  16. Can the Results of Biodiversity-Ecosystem Productivity Studies Be Translated to Bioenergy Production?

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Timothy L.; Gross, Katherine L.

    2015-09-11

    Biodiversity experiments show that increases in plant diversity can lead to greater biomass production, and some researchers suggest that high diversity plantings should be used for bioenergy production. However, many methods used in past biodiversity experiments are impractical for bioenergy plantings. For example, biodiversity experiments often use intensive management such as hand weeding to maintain low diversity plantings and exclude unplanted species, but this would not be done for bioenergy plantings. Also, biodiversity experiments generally use high seeding densities that would be too expensive for bioenergy plantings. Here we report the effects of biodiversity on biomass production from two studies of more realistic bioenergy crop plantings in southern Michigan, USA. One study involved comparing production between switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monocultures and species-rich prairie plantings on private farm fields that were managed similarly to bioenergy plantings. The other study was an experiment where switchgrass was planted in monoculture and in combination with increasingly species-rich native prairie mixtures. Overall, we found that bioenergy plantings with higher species richness did not produce more biomass than switchgrass monocultures. The lack of a positive relationship between planted species richness and production in our studies may be due to several factors. Non-planted species (weeds) were not removed from our studies and these non-planted species may have competed with planted species and also prevented realized species richness from equaling planted species richness. Also, we found that low seeding density of individual species limited the biomass production of these individual species. Finally, production in future bioenergy plantings with high species richness may be increased by using a high density of inexpensive seed from switchgrass and other highly productive species, and future efforts to translate the results of biodiversity

  17. Can the Results of Biodiversity-Ecosystem Productivity Studies Be Translated to Bioenergy Production?

    DOE PAGES

    Dickson, Timothy L.; Gross, Katherine L.

    2015-09-11

    Biodiversity experiments show that increases in plant diversity can lead to greater biomass production, and some researchers suggest that high diversity plantings should be used for bioenergy production. However, many methods used in past biodiversity experiments are impractical for bioenergy plantings. For example, biodiversity experiments often use intensive management such as hand weeding to maintain low diversity plantings and exclude unplanted species, but this would not be done for bioenergy plantings. Also, biodiversity experiments generally use high seeding densities that would be too expensive for bioenergy plantings. Here we report the effects of biodiversity on biomass production from two studiesmore » of more realistic bioenergy crop plantings in southern Michigan, USA. One study involved comparing production between switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monocultures and species-rich prairie plantings on private farm fields that were managed similarly to bioenergy plantings. The other study was an experiment where switchgrass was planted in monoculture and in combination with increasingly species-rich native prairie mixtures. Overall, we found that bioenergy plantings with higher species richness did not produce more biomass than switchgrass monocultures. The lack of a positive relationship between planted species richness and production in our studies may be due to several factors. Non-planted species (weeds) were not removed from our studies and these non-planted species may have competed with planted species and also prevented realized species richness from equaling planted species richness. Also, we found that low seeding density of individual species limited the biomass production of these individual species. Finally, production in future bioenergy plantings with high species richness may be increased by using a high density of inexpensive seed from switchgrass and other highly productive species, and future efforts to translate the results of

  18. Bio-Energy during Finals: Stress Reduction for a University Community.

    PubMed

    Running, Alice; Hildreth, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To re-examine the effectiveness of a bio-energy intervention on self-reported stress for a convenience sample of university students during dead week, a quasi-experimental, single-group pretest-posttest design was used. Thirty-three students participated, serving as their own controls. After participants had consented, a 15-min Healing Touch intervention followed enrollment. Self-reported stress was significantly reduced after the bio-energy (Healing Touch) intervention. Bio-energy therapy has shown to be beneficial in reducing stress for students during dead week, the week before final examinations. Further research is needed.

  19. Synergies between agriculture and bioenergy in Latin American countries: A circular economy strategy for bioenergy production in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Vega-Quezada, Cristhian; Blanco, María; Romero, Hugo

    2016-06-07

    This study quantifies the synergies between agriculture and bioenergy considering biodiesel production as part of a set of systemic initiatives. We present a case study in Ecuador taking into account the recent government measures aimed at developing the bioenergy sector. Four scenarios have been evaluated through a newly designed systemic scheme of circular-economy initiatives. These scenarios encompass three production pathways covering three energy crops: palm oil (PO), microalgae in open ponds (M1) and microalgae in laminar photobioreactors (M2). We have applied Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) methodology considering the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) as the main evaluation criteria. In terms of private investment, biodiesel production from PO is more attractive than from M2. However, regarding efficiency and effectiveness of public funds, M2 is superior to PO because the public BCR and NPV are higher, and the pressure on agricultural land is lower. Moreover, M2 as part of a systemic approach presents a better carbon balance. These findings show that, under a systemic approach based on circular economy, strategies like the one analyzed in this study are economically feasible and may have a promising future.

  20. Challenges When Introducing Electronic Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuikka, Matti; Kitola, Markus; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Time pressures often necessitate the use of more efficient exam tools, such as electronic exams (e-exams), instead of traditional paper exams. However, teachers may face challenges when introducing e-exams in a higher education context. This paper describes what kinds of challenges teachers may face when introducing e-exams, based on experiences…

  1. Investigating Sustainability Impacts of Bioenergy Usage Within the Eisenwurzen Region in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzhuber, F.; Hasenauer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Within the past few years sustainability and bioenergy usage become a key term in emphasizing the relationship between economic progress and the protection of the environment. One key difficulty is the definition of criteria and indicators for assessing sustainability issues and their change over time. This work introduces methods to create linear parametric models of the sustainable impact issues relevant in the establishment of new bio-energetic heating systems. Our application example is the Eisenwurzen region in Austria. The total area covers 5743 km km² and includes 99 municipalities. A total of 11 impact issues covering the economic, social and environmental areas are proposed for developing the linear parametric models. The indicator selection for deriving the impact issues is based on public official data from 68 indicators, as well as stakeholder interviews and the impact assessment framework. In total we obtained 415 variables from the 99 municipalities to create the 68 indicators for the Local Administration Unit 2 (LAU2) over the last (if available) 25 years. The 68 indicators are on a relative scale to address the size differences of the municipalities. The idea of the analysis is to create linear models which derive 11 defined impact issues related to the establishment of new bio-energetic heating systems. Each analysis follows a strict statistical procedure based on (i) independent indicator selection, (ii) remove indicators with higher VIF value grater then 6, (iii) remove indicators with α higher than 0,05, (iv) possible linear transformation, (v) remove the non-significant indicators (p-value >0,05), (vi) model valuation, (vii) remove the out-lines plots and (viii) test of the normality distribution of the residual with a Kolmogorov- Smirnov test. The results suggest that for the 11 sustainable impact issues 21 of the 68 indicators are significant drives. The models revealed that it is possible to create tools for assessing impact issues in a

  2. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, Gregg

    2010-12-01

    Researchers have recently argued that there is a 'critical climate accounting error' and that we should say 'goodbye to carbon neutral' for bioenergy. Many other analysts have published opionions on the same topic, and the US Environmental Protection Agency posted a specific call for information. The currently burning questions for carbon accounting is how to deal with bioenergy. The questions arises because, unlike for fossil fuels, burning of biomass fuels represents part of a cycle in which combustion releases back to the atmosphere carbon that was earlier removed from the atmosphere by growing plants. In a sustainable system, plants will again remove the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the atmosphere. Conceptually, it is clear that there are no net emissions of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} if biomass is harvested and combusted at the same rate that biomass grows and removes CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. The problem lies in the fact that growth and combustion do not occur at the same time or in the same place, and our accounting system boundaries - spatial and temporal - frequently do not provide full and balanced accounting. When the first comprehensive guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were put together by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, they noted that it has been argued that CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from bioenergy consumption should not be included in a country's official emission inventory because there are no net emissions if the biomass is produced sustainably, and if the biomass is not produced sustainably, the loss of carbon will be captured as part of the accounting for emissions from land-use change. In the same philosophical vein, the Kyoto Protocol provides that emissions or sinks of CO{sub 2} from land-use change and forestry activities be measured as the 'verifiable changes in carbon stocks'. From these has grown the convention that emissions from biomass fuels are generally not

  3. Dual-Use Bioenergy-Livestock Feed Potential of Giant Miscanthus, Giant Reed, and Miscane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High yielding perennial grasses could integrate bioenergy-livestock operations, thereby, offsetting diversions of cropland to lignocellulosic crops, but research is needed to determine chemical composition and digestibility of leaf and stem fractions that might affect downstream uses. The objective...

  4. Biomass production from native warm-season grass monocultures and polycultures managed for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass monocultures grown for Bioenergy lack plant species diversity and may not optimize ecosystem services. However, switchgrass monocultures are generally perceived to be more productive and provide fewer establishment and management challenges than polycultures. Our objective was to compare...

  5. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor. PMID:22546368

  6. National Bioenergy Center--Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-12-01

    Fall 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: rapid analysis models for compositional analysis of intermediate process streams; engineered arabinose-fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strain.

  7. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #26, January - March 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-04-01

    January-March, 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: understanding and improving sugar measurements in biomass hydrolysates; expansion of the NREL/DOE Biochemical Pilot Plant.

  8. Root biomass and soil carbon response to growing perennial grasses for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dedicated bioenergy crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), miscanthus [Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg)], indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash], and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) can provide cellulosic feedstock for biofuel production while maintaining or improving soil and en...

  9. Trade-offs of different land and bioenergy policies on the path to achieving climate targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-10-16

    Many papers have shown that bioenergy and land-use are potentially important elements in a strategy to limit anthropogenic climate change. But, significant expansion of bioenergy production can have a large terrestrial footprint. In this paper, we test the implications for land use, the global energy system, carbon cycle, and carbon prices of meeting a specific climate target, using a single fossil fuel and industrial sector policy instrument—the carbon tax, but with five alternative bioenergy and land-use policy architectures. We find that the policies we examined have differing effects on the different segments of the economy. Comprehensive land policies can reduce land-use change emissions, increasing allowable emissions in the energy system, but have implications for the cost of food. Bioenergy taxes and constraints, on the other hand, have little effect on food prices, but can result in increased carbon and energy prices.

  10. Evolution and Ecology of Actinobacteria and Their Bioenergy Applications.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Gina R; Carlos, Camila; Chevrette, Marc G; Horn, Heidi A; McDonald, Bradon R; Stankey, Robert J; Fox, Brian G; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-09-08

    The ancient phylum Actinobacteria is composed of phylogenetically and physiologically diverse bacteria that help Earth's ecosystems function. As free-living organisms and symbionts of herbivorous animals, Actinobacteria contribute to the global carbon cycle through the breakdown of plant biomass. In addition, they mediate community dynamics as producers of small molecules with diverse biological activities. Together, the evolution of high cellulolytic ability and diverse chemistry, shaped by their ecological roles in nature, make Actinobacteria a promising group for the bioenergy industry. Specifically, their enzymes can contribute to industrial-scale breakdown of cellulosic plant biomass into simple sugars that can then be converted into biofuels. Furthermore, harnessing their ability to biosynthesize a range of small molecules has potential for the production of specialty biofuels.

  11. Functional genomics of bio-energy plants and related patent activities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    With dwindling fossil oil resources and increased economic growth of many developing countries due to globalization, energy driven from an alternative source such as bio-energy in a sustainable fashion is the need of the hour. However, production of energy from biological source is relatively expensive due to low starch and sugar contents of bioenergy plants leading to lower oil yield and reduced quality along with lower conversion efficiency of feedstock. In this context genetic improvement of bio-energy plants offers a viable solution. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current status of functional genomics studies and related patent activities in bio-energy plants. Currently, genomes of considerable bio-energy plants have been sequenced or are in progress and also large amount of expression sequence tags (EST) or cDNA sequences are available from them. These studies provide fundamental data for more reliable genome annotation and as a result, several genomes have been annotated in a genome-wide level. In addition to this effort, various mutagenesis tools have also been employed to develop mutant populations for characterization of genes that are involved in bioenergy quantitative traits. With the progress made on functional genomics of important bio-energy plants, more patents were filed with a significant number of them focusing on genes and DNA sequences which may involve in improvement of bio-energy traits including higher yield and quality of starch, sugar and oil. We also believe that these studies will lead to the generation of genetically altered plants with improved tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses.

  12. Global bioenergy potentials from agricultural land in 2050: Sensitivity to climate change, diets and yields

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Krausmann, Fridolin; Bondeau, Alberte; Lauk, Christian; Müller, Christoph; Plutzar, Christoph; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that the interrelations between agriculture, food, bioenergy, and climate change have to be better understood in order to derive more realistic estimates of future bioenergy potentials. This article estimates global bioenergy potentials in the year 2050, following a “food first” approach. It presents integrated food, livestock, agriculture, and bioenergy scenarios for the year 2050 based on a consistent representation of FAO projections of future agricultural development in a global biomass balance model. The model discerns 11 regions, 10 crop aggregates, 2 livestock aggregates, and 10 food aggregates. It incorporates detailed accounts of land use, global net primary production (NPP) and its human appropriation as well as socioeconomic biomass flow balances for the year 2000 that are modified according to a set of scenario assumptions to derive the biomass potential for 2050. We calculate the amount of biomass required to feed humans and livestock, considering losses between biomass supply and provision of final products. Based on this biomass balance as well as on global land-use data, we evaluate the potential to grow bioenergy crops and estimate the residue potentials from cropland (forestry is outside the scope of this study). We assess the sensitivity of the biomass potential to assumptions on diets, agricultural yields, cropland expansion and climate change. We use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL to evaluate possible impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and elevated CO2 on agricultural yields. We find that the gross (primary) bioenergy potential ranges from 64 to 161 EJ y−1, depending on climate impact, yields and diet, while the dependency on cropland expansion is weak. We conclude that food requirements for a growing world population, in particular feed required for livestock, strongly influence bioenergy potentials, and that integrated approaches are needed to optimize food and bioenergy supply

  13. Global bioenergy potentials from agricultural land in 2050: Sensitivity to climate change, diets and yields.

    PubMed

    Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Krausmann, Fridolin; Bondeau, Alberte; Lauk, Christian; Müller, Christoph; Plutzar, Christoph; Steinberger, Julia K

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing recognition that the interrelations between agriculture, food, bioenergy, and climate change have to be better understood in order to derive more realistic estimates of future bioenergy potentials. This article estimates global bioenergy potentials in the year 2050, following a "food first" approach. It presents integrated food, livestock, agriculture, and bioenergy scenarios for the year 2050 based on a consistent representation of FAO projections of future agricultural development in a global biomass balance model. The model discerns 11 regions, 10 crop aggregates, 2 livestock aggregates, and 10 food aggregates. It incorporates detailed accounts of land use, global net primary production (NPP) and its human appropriation as well as socioeconomic biomass flow balances for the year 2000 that are modified according to a set of scenario assumptions to derive the biomass potential for 2050. We calculate the amount of biomass required to feed humans and livestock, considering losses between biomass supply and provision of final products. Based on this biomass balance as well as on global land-use data, we evaluate the potential to grow bioenergy crops and estimate the residue potentials from cropland (forestry is outside the scope of this study). We assess the sensitivity of the biomass potential to assumptions on diets, agricultural yields, cropland expansion and climate change. We use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL to evaluate possible impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and elevated CO(2) on agricultural yields. We find that the gross (primary) bioenergy potential ranges from 64 to 161 EJ y(-1), depending on climate impact, yields and diet, while the dependency on cropland expansion is weak. We conclude that food requirements for a growing world population, in particular feed required for livestock, strongly influence bioenergy potentials, and that integrated approaches are needed to optimize food and bioenergy supply.

  14. Environmental and economic evaluation of bioenergy in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; Habibi, Shiva; MacLean, Heather L

    2007-08-01

    We examined life cycle environmental and economic implications of two near-term scenarios for converting cellulosic biomass to energy, generating electricity from cofiring biomass in existing coal power plants, and producing ethanol from biomass in stand-alone facilities in Ontario, Canada. The study inventories near-term biomass supply in the province, quantifies environmental metrics associated with the use of agricultural residues for producing electricity and ethanol, determines the incremental costs of switching from fossil fuels to biomass, and compares the cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions abatement achieved through the use of the bioenergy. Implementing a biomass cofiring rate of 10% in existing coal-fired power plants would reduce annual GHG emissions by 2.3 million metric tons (t) of CO2 equivalent (7% of the province's coal power plant emissions). The substitution of gasoline with ethanol/gasoline blends would reduce annual provincial lightduty vehicle fleet emissions between 1.3 and 2.5 million t of CO2 equivalent (3.5-7% of fleet emissions). If biomass sources other than agricultural residues were used, additional emissions reductions could be realized. At current crude oil prices ($70/barrel) and levels of technology development of the bioenergy alternatives, the biomass electricity cofiring scenario analyzed is more cost-effective for mitigating GHG emissions ($22/t of CO2 equivalent for a 10% cofiring rate) than the stand-alone ethanol production scenario ($92/t of CO2 equivalent). The economics of biomass cofiring benefits from existing capital, whereas the cellulosic ethanol scenario does not. Notwithstanding this result, there are several factors that increase the attractiveness of ethanol. These include uncertainty in crude oil prices, potential for marked improvements in cellulosic ethanol technology and economics, the province's commitment to 5% ethanol content in gasoline, the possibility of ethanol

  15. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, Greg; Alcorn-Windy Boy, Jessica; Abedin, Md. Joynal; Maglinao, Randy

    2014-09-30

    MSU-Northern established the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) into a Regional Research Center of Excellence to address the obstacles concerning biofuels, feedstock, quality, conversion process, economic viability and public awareness. The Center built its laboratories and expertise in order to research and support product development and commercialization for the bio-energy industry in our region. The Center wanted to support the regional agricultural based economy by researching biofuels based on feedstock’s that can be grown in our region in an environmentally responsible manner. We were also interested in any technology that will improve the emissions and fuel economy performance of heavy duty diesel engines. The Center had a three step approach to accomplish these goals: 1. Enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities 2. Develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops. 3. Educate and outreach for public understanding and acceptance of new technology. The Center was very successful in completing the tasks as outlined in the project plan. Key successes include discovering and patenting a new chemical conversion process for converting camelina oil to jet fuel, as well as promise in developing a heterogeneous Grubs catalyst to support the new chemical conversion process. The Center also successfully fragmented and deoxygenated naturally occurring lignin with a Ni-NHC catalyst, showing promise for further exploration of using lignin for fuels and fuel additives. This would create another value-added product for lignin that can be sourced from beetle kill trees or waste products from cellulose ethanol fuel facilities.

  16. Standard Flow Liquid Chromatography for Shotgun Proteomics in Bioenergy Research

    PubMed Central

    González Fernández-Niño, Susana M.; Smith-Moritz, A. Michelle; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Adams, Paul D.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Petzold, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the bioenergy field has realized significant achievements that have encouraged many follow on efforts centered on biosynthetic production of fuel-like compounds. Key to the success of these efforts has been transformational developments in feedstock characterization and metabolic engineering of biofuel-producing microbes. Lagging far behind these advancements are analytical methods to characterize and quantify systems of interest to the bioenergy field. In particular, the utilization of proteomics, while valuable for identifying novel enzymes and diagnosing problems associated with biofuel-producing microbes, is limited by a lack of robustness and limited throughput. Nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled to high-mass accuracy, high-resolution mass spectrometers has become the dominant approach for the analysis of complex proteomic samples, yet such assays still require dedicated experts for data acquisition, analysis, and instrument upkeep. The recent adoption of standard flow chromatography (ca. 0.5 mL/min) for targeted proteomics has highlighted the robust nature and increased throughput of this approach for sample analysis. Consequently, we assessed the applicability of standard flow liquid chromatography for shotgun proteomics using samples from Escherichia coli and Arabidopsis thaliana, organisms commonly used as model systems for lignocellulosic biofuels research. Employing 120 min gradients with standard flow chromatography, we were able to routinely identify nearly 800 proteins from E. coli samples; while for samples from Arabidopsis, over 1,000 proteins could be reliably identified. An examination of identified peptides indicated that the method was suitable for reproducible applications in shotgun proteomics. Standard flow liquid chromatography for shotgun proteomics provides a robust approach for the analysis of complex samples. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to validate the standard

  17. Introducing Chemical Formulae and Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chris; Rowell, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Discusses when the writing of chemical formula and equations can be introduced in the school science curriculum. Also presents ways in which formulae and equations learning can be aided and some examples for balancing and interpreting equations. (HM)

  18. Introducing the Ginga FITS Viewer and Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, E.; Inagaki, T.; Kackley, R.

    2013-10-01

    We introduce Ginga, a new open-source FITS viewer and toolkit based on Python astronomical packages such as pyfits, numpy, scipy, matplotlib, and pywcs. For developers, we present a set of Python classes for viewing FITS files under the modern Gtk and Qt widget sets and a more full-featured viewer that has a plugin architecture. We further describe how plugins can be written to extend the viewer with many different capabilities. The software may be of interest to software developers who are looking for a solution for integrating FITS visualization into their Python programs and end users interested in a new and different FITS viewer that is not based on Tcl/Tk widget technology. The software has been released under a BSD license.

  19. Synergistic microbial consortium for bioenergy generation from complex natural energy sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Victor Bochuan; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chua, Song-Lin; Zhang, Qichun; Cao, Bin; Chye, Joachim Loo Say; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species have evolved diverse mechanisms for utilization of complex carbon sources. Proper combination of targeted species can affect bioenergy production from natural waste products. Here, we established a stable microbial consortium with Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to produce bioenergy from an abundant natural energy source, in the form of the sarcocarp harvested from coconuts. This component is mostly discarded as waste. However, through its usage as a feedstock for MFCs to produce useful energy in this study, the sarcocarp can be utilized meaningfully. The monospecies S. oneidensis system was able to generate bioenergy in a short experimental time frame while the monospecies E. coli system generated significantly less bioenergy. A combination of E. coli and S. oneidensis in the ratio of 1:9 (v:v) significantly enhanced the experimental time frame and magnitude of bioenergy generation. The synergistic effect is suggested to arise from E. coli and S. oneidensis utilizing different nutrients as electron donors and effect of flavins secreted by S. oneidensis. Confocal images confirmed the presence of biofilms and point towards their importance in generating bioenergy in MFCs.

  20. Advancing Sustainable Bioenergy: Evolving Stakeholder Interests and the Relevance of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Lawrence; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Dodder, Rebecca S.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Ozge Kaplan, P.; Andrew Miller, C.

    2013-02-01

    The sustainability of future bioenergy production rests on more than continual improvements in its environmental, economic, and social impacts. The emergence of new biomass feedstocks, an expanding array of conversion pathways, and expected increases in overall bioenergy production are connecting diverse technical, social, and policy communities. These stakeholder groups have different—and potentially conflicting—values and cultures, and therefore different goals and decision making processes. Our aim is to discuss the implications of this diversity for bioenergy researchers. The paper begins with a discussion of bioenergy stakeholder groups and their varied interests, and illustrates how this diversity complicates efforts to define and promote "sustainable" bioenergy production. We then discuss what this diversity means for research practice. Researchers, we note, should be aware of stakeholder values, information needs, and the factors affecting stakeholder decision making if the knowledge they generate is to reach its widest potential use. We point out how stakeholder participation in research can increase the relevance of its products, and argue that stakeholder values should inform research questions and the choice of analytical assumptions. Finally, we make the case that additional natural science and technical research alone will not advance sustainable bioenergy production, and that important research gaps relate to understanding stakeholder decision making and the need, from a broader social science perspective, to develop processes to identify and accommodate different value systems. While sustainability requires more than improved scientific and technical understanding, the need to understand stakeholder values and manage diversity presents important research opportunities.

  1. Advancing sustainable bioenergy: evolving stakeholder interests and the relevance of research.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy Lawrence; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Dodder, Rebecca S; Hilliard, Michael R; Kaplan, P Ozge; Miller, C Andrew

    2013-02-01

    The sustainability of future bioenergy production rests on more than continual improvements in its environmental, economic, and social impacts. The emergence of new biomass feedstocks, an expanding array of conversion pathways, and expected increases in overall bioenergy production are connecting diverse technical, social, and policy communities. These stakeholder groups have different-and potentially conflicting-values and cultures, and therefore different goals and decision making processes. Our aim is to discuss the implications of this diversity for bioenergy researchers. The paper begins with a discussion of bioenergy stakeholder groups and their varied interests, and illustrates how this diversity complicates efforts to define and promote "sustainable" bioenergy production. We then discuss what this diversity means for research practice. Researchers, we note, should be aware of stakeholder values, information needs, and the factors affecting stakeholder decision making if the knowledge they generate is to reach its widest potential use. We point out how stakeholder participation in research can increase the relevance of its products, and argue that stakeholder values should inform research questions and the choice of analytical assumptions. Finally, we make the case that additional natural science and technical research alone will not advance sustainable bioenergy production, and that important research gaps relate to understanding stakeholder decision making and the need, from a broader social science perspective, to develop processes to identify and accommodate different value systems. While sustainability requires more than improved scientific and technical understanding, the need to understand stakeholder values and manage diversity presents important research opportunities.

  2. The limits of bioenergy for mitigating global life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staples, Mark D.; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2017-01-01

    The size of the global bioenergy resource has been studied extensively; however, the corresponding life-cycle greenhouse gas benefit of bioenergy remains largely unexplored at the global scale. Here we quantify the optimal use of global bioenergy resources to offset fossil fuels in 2050. We find that bioenergy could reduce life-cycle emissions from fossil fuel-derived electricity and heat, and liquid fuels, by a maximum of 4.9-38.7 Gt CO2e, or 9-68%, and that offsetting electricity and heat with bioenergy is on average 1.6-3.9 times more effective for emissions mitigation than offsetting liquid fuels. At the same time, liquid fuels make up 18-49% of the optimal allocation of bioenergy in our results for 2050, indicating that a mix of bioenergy end-uses maximizes life-cycle emissions reductions. Finally, emissions reductions are maximized by limiting deployment of total available primary bioenergy to 29-91% in our analysis, demonstrating that life-cycle emissions are a constraint on the usefulness of bioenergy for mitigating global climate change.

  3. An Exercise to Introduce Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Edith; Liu, Yali

    2013-01-01

    In introductory statistics courses, the concept of power is usually presented in the context of testing hypotheses about the population mean. We instead propose an exercise that uses a binomial probability table to introduce the idea of power in the context of testing a population proportion. (Contains 2 tables, and 2 figures.)

  4. Five Perspectives for Introducing Hemingway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillinghast, B. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that the works of Ernest Hemingway can introduce young readers to (1) an intense expression of the joy of life, (2) heroic models, (3) original use of language, (4) a sharp sense of time and place, and (5) literature that can be understood at many levels. (MM)

  5. Prompting Strategies for Introducing Opera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to introduce opera to students through the use of prompting strategies. Explains that these strategies encourage active participation by students and help to improve listening skills. Focuses on prompting strategies, such as matching characters to songs, identifying, and sequencing songs. (CMK)

  6. Introducing Group Theory through Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    The central ideas of postcalculus mathematics courses offered in college are difficult to introduce in middle and secondary schools, especially through the engineering and sciences examples traditionally used in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry textbooks. However, certain concepts in music theory can be used to expose students to interesting…

  7. Introducing Ethics Using Structured Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wareham, David; Elefsiniotis, Takis P.; Elms, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method of introducing ethics to a second-year class of civil engineering students. The method, known as a "structured controversy", takes the form of a workshop where the students assume the identity of stakeholders having an interest in a proposed development in an environmentally sensitive region. The instructor…

  8. Introducing Synchrotrons Into the Classroom

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Brookhaven's Introducing Synchrotrons Into the Classroom (InSynC) program gives teachers and their students access to the National Synchrotron Light Source through a competitive proposal process. The first batch of InSynC participants included a group of students from Islip Middle School, who used the massive machine to study the effectiveness of different what filters.

  9. Introduce XBRL to Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkern, Sheree M.; Morgan, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper informs business instructors and educators about XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language) so that they can introduce it to their students and expand their students' understanding of how it relates to the accounting profession. Even though the financial community has entered a new age with this standardized reporting language, many…

  10. Projected gains and losses of wildlife habitat from bioenergy-induced landscape change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, Nathan M.; Rubino, Matthew J.; Costanza, Jennifer K.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime; Abt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic and foreign renewable energy targets and financial incentives have increased demand for woody biomass and bioenergy in the southeastern United States. This demand is expected to be met through purpose-grown agricultural bioenergy crops, short-rotation tree plantations, thinning and harvest of planted and natural forests, and forest harvest residues. With results from a forest economics model, spatially explicit state-and-transition simulation models, and species–habitat models, we projected change in habitat amount for 16 wildlife species caused by meeting a renewable fuel target and expected demand for wood pellets in North Carolina, USA. We projected changes over 40 years under a baseline ‘business-as-usual’ scenario without bioenergy production and five scenarios with unique feedstock portfolios. Bioenergy demand had potential to influence trends in habitat availability for some species in our study area. We found variation in impacts among species, and no scenario was the ‘best’ or ‘worst’ across all species. Our models projected that shrub-associated species would gain habitat under some scenarios because of increases in the amount of regenerating forests on the landscape, while species restricted to mature forests would lose habitat. Some forest species could also lose habitat from the conversion of forests on marginal soils to purpose-grown feedstocks. The conversion of agricultural lands on marginal soils to purpose-grown feedstocks increased habitat losses for one species with strong associations with pasture, which is being lost to urbanization in our study region. Our results indicate that landscape-scale impacts on wildlife habitat will vary among species and depend upon the bioenergy feedstock portfolio. Therefore, decisions about bioenergy and wildlife will likely involve trade-offs among wildlife species, and the choice of focal species is likely to affect the results of landscape-scale assessments. We offer general principals

  11. Sustainability analysis of bioenergy based land use change under climate change and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.; Brouder, S. M.; Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Frankenberger, J.; Goforth, R. R.; Gramig, B. M.; Volenec, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability analyses of futuristic plausible land use and climate change scenarios are critical in making watershed-scale decisions for simultaneous improvement of food, energy and water management. Bioenergy production targets for the US are anticipated to impact farming practices through the introduction of fast growing and high yielding perennial grasses/trees, and use of crop residues as bioenergy feedstocks. These land use/land management changes raise concern over potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crop production scenarios, both in terms of water availability and water quality; impacts that may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. The objective of the study was to assess environmental, economic and biodiversity sustainability of plausible bioenergy scenarios for two watersheds in Midwest US under changing climate scenarios. The study considers fourteen sustainability indicators under nine climate change scenarios from World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3). The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate perennial bioenergy crops such as Miscanthus and switchgrass, and corn stover removal at various removal rates and their impacts on hydrology and water quality. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) developed to evaluate stream fish response to hydrology and water quality changes associated with land use change were used to quantify biodiversity sustainability of various bioenergy scenarios. The watershed-scale sustainability analysis was done in the St. Joseph River watershed located in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio; and the Wildcat Creek watershed, located in Indiana. The results indicate streamflow reduction at watershed outlet with increased evapotranspiration demands for high-yielding perennial grasses. Bioenergy crops in general improved in-stream water quality compared to conventional cropping systems (maize-soybean). Water

  12. Microbial nitrogen cycling response to forest-based bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Minick, Kevan J; Strahm, Brian D; Fox, Thomas R; Sucre, Eric B; Leggett, Zakiya H

    2015-12-01

    Concern over rising atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases due to fossil fuel combustion has intensified research into carbon-neutral energy production. Approximately 15.8 million ha of pine plantations exist across the southeastern United States, representing a vast land area advantageous for bioenergy production without significant landuse change or diversion of agricultural resources from food production. Furthermore, intercropping of pine with bioenergy grasses could provide annually harvestable, lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks along with production of traditional wood products. Viability of such a system hinges in part on soil nitrogen (N) availability and effects of N competition between pines and grasses on ecosystem productivity. We investigated effects of intercropping loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on microbial N cycling processes in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Soil samples were collected from bedded rows of pine and interbed space of two treatments, composed of either volunteer native woody and herbaceous vegetation (pine-native) or pure switchgrass (pine-switchgrass) in interbeds. An in vitro 15N pool-dilution technique was employed to quantify gross N transformations at two soil depths (0-5 and 5-15 cm) on four dates in 2012-2013. At the 0-5 cm depth in beds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was two to three times higher in November and February compared to the pine-native treatment, resulting in increased NH4(+) availability. Gross and net nitrification were also significantly higher in February in the same pine beds. In interbeds of the pine-switchgrass treatment, gross N mineralization was lower from April to November, but higher in February, potentially reflecting positive effects of switchgrass root-derived C inputs during dormancy on microbial activity. These findings indicate soil N cycling and availability has increased in pine beds of the pine

  13. Network technology for depot modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  14. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Sasha C.; Smith, William K.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Question/Methods Currently, the United States (U.S.) supplies roughly half the world’s biofuel (secondary bioenergy), with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) stipulating an additional three-fold increase in annual production by 2022. Implicit in such energy targets is an associated increase in annual biomass demand (primary bioenergy) from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 exajoules (EJ; 1018 Joules). Yet, many of the factors used to estimate future bioenergy potential are relatively unresolved, bringing into question the practicality of the EISA’s ambitious bioenergy targets. Here, our objective was to constrain estimates of primary bioenergy potential (PBP) for the conterminous U.S. using satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data (measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S) as the most geographically explicit measure of terrestrial growth capacity. Results/Conclusions We show that the annual primary bioenergy potential (PBP) of the conterminous U.S. realistically ranges from approximately 5.9 (± 1.4) to 22.2 (± 4.4) EJ, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents current harvest residuals, an attractive potential energy source since no additional harvest land is required. In contrast, the high end represents an annual harvest over an additional 5.4 million km2 or 75% of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S. While we identify EISA energy targets as achievable, our results indicate that meeting such targets using current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current croplands or the conversion of 60% of total rangelands. Our results differ from previous evaluations in that we use high resolution, satellite-derived NPP as an upper-envelope constraint on bioenergy potential, which removes the need for extrapolation of plot-level observed yields over large spatial areas. Establishing realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential seems a

  15. Simulation of biomass yield and soil organic carbon under bioenergy sorghum production.

    PubMed

    Dou, Fugen; Wight, Jason P; Wilson, Lloyd T; Storlien, Joseph O; Hons, Frank M

    2014-01-01

    Developing sustainable management practices including appropriate residue removal and nitrogen (N) fertilization for bioenergy sorghum is critical. However, the effects of residue removal and N fertilization associated with bioenergy sorghum production on soil organic carbon (SOC) are less studied compared to other crops. The objective of our research was to assess the impacts of residue removal and N fertilization on biomass yield and SOC under biomass sorghum production. Field measurements were used to calibrate the DNDC model, then verified the model by comparing simulated results with measured results using the field management practices as agronomic inputs. Both residue removal and N fertilization affected bioenergy sorghum yields in some years. The average measured SOC at 0-50 cm across the treatments and the time-frame ranged from 47.5 to 78.7 Mg C ha-1, while the simulated SOC was from 56.3 to 67.3 Mg C ha-1. The high correlation coefficients (0.65 to 0.99) and low root mean square error (3 to 18) between measured and simulated values indicate the DNDC model accurately simulated the effects of residue removal with N fertilization on bioenergy sorghum production and SOC. The model predictions revealed that there is, in the long term, a trend for higher SOC under bioenergy sorghum production regardless of residue management.

  16. Perennial grasslands enhance biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services in bioenergy landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Werling, Ben P.; Dickson, Timothy L.; Isaacs, Rufus; Gaines, Hannah; Gratton, Claudio; Gross, Katherine L.; Liere, Heidi; Malmstrom, Carolyn M.; Meehan, Timothy D.; Ruan, Leilei; Robertson, Bruce A.; Robertson, G. Philip; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Schrotenboer, Abbie C.; Teal, Tracy K.; Wilson, Julianna K.; Landis, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is being challenged to provide food, and increasingly fuel, for an expanding global population. Producing bioenergy crops on marginal lands—farmland suboptimal for food crops—could help meet energy goals while minimizing competition with food production. However, the ecological costs and benefits of growing bioenergy feedstocks—primarily annual grain crops—on marginal lands have been questioned. Here we show that perennial bioenergy crops provide an alternative to annual grains that increases biodiversity of multiple taxa and sustain a variety of ecosystem functions, promoting the creation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes. We found that switchgrass and prairie plantings harbored significantly greater plant, methanotrophic bacteria, arthropod, and bird diversity than maize. Although biomass production was greater in maize, all other ecosystem services, including methane consumption, pest suppression, pollination, and conservation of grassland birds, were higher in perennial grasslands. Moreover, we found that the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem services is dependent not only on the choice of bioenergy crop but also on its location relative to other habitats, with local landscape context as important as crop choice in determining provision of some services. Our study suggests that bioenergy policy that supports coordinated land use can diversify agricultural landscapes and sustain multiple critical ecosystem services. PMID:24474791

  17. Bioenergy Development Policy and Practice Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic Impacts: Lessons from the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, David W.; de Moraes, Márcia M. G. Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S.; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G.; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M.; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource impacts of bioenergy production—from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling impacts to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for impact assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research.

  18. Bioenergy harvesting impacts on ecologically important stand structure and habitat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Caitlin E; Keeton, William S

    2012-10-01

    Demand for forest bioenergy fuel is increasing in the northern forest region of eastern North America and beyond, but ecological impacts, particularly on habitat, of bioenergy harvesting remain poorly explored in the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we evaluated the impacts of bioenergy harvests on stand structure, including several characteristics considered important for biodiversity and habitat functions. We collected stand structure data from 35 recent harvests in northern hardwood-conifer forests, pairing harvested areas with unharvested reference areas. Biometrics generated from field data were analyzed using a multi-tiered nonparametric uni- and multivariate statistical approach. In analyses comparing harvested to reference areas, sites that had been whole-tree harvested demonstrated significant differences (relative negative contrasts, P < 0.05) in snag density, large live-tree density, well-decayed downed coarse woody debris volume, and structural diversity index (H) values, while sites that had not been whole-tree harvested did not exhibit significant differences. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses suggested that the strongest predictors of structural retention, as indicated by downed woody debris volumes and H index, were silvicultural treatment and equipment type rather than the percentage of harvested volume allocated to bioenergy uses. In general, bioenergy harvesting impacts were highly variable across the study sites, suggesting a need for harvesting guidelines aimed at encouraging retention of ecologically important structural attributes.

  19. Simulation of Biomass Yield and Soil Organic Carbon under Bioenergy Sorghum Production

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fugen; Wight, Jason P.; Wilson, Lloyd T.; Storlien, Joseph O.; Hons, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Developing sustainable management practices including appropriate residue removal and nitrogen (N) fertilization for bioenergy sorghum is critical. However, the effects of residue removal and N fertilization associated with bioenergy sorghum production on soil organic carbon (SOC) are less studied compared to other crops. The objective of our research was to assess the impacts of residue removal and N fertilization on biomass yield and SOC under biomass sorghum production. Field measurements were used to calibrate the DNDC model, then verified the model by comparing simulated results with measured results using the field management practices as agronomic inputs. Both residue removal and N fertilization affected bioenergy sorghum yields in some years. The average measured SOC at 0–50 cm across the treatments and the time-frame ranged from 47.5 to 78.7 Mg C ha−1, while the simulated SOC was from 56.3 to 67.3 Mg C ha−1. The high correlation coefficients (0.65 to 0.99) and low root mean square error (3 to 18) between measured and simulated values indicate the DNDC model accurately simulated the effects of residue removal with N fertilization on bioenergy sorghum production and SOC. The model predictions revealed that there is, in the long term, a trend for higher SOC under bioenergy sorghum production regardless of residue management. PMID:25531758

  20. Bioenergy Development Policy and Practice Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic Impacts: Lessons from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Watkins, David W; de Moraes, Márcia M G Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation practices, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource impacts of bioenergy production-from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling impacts to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for impact assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research.

  1. Perennial grasslands enhance biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services in bioenergy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Werling, Ben P; Dickson, Timothy L; Isaacs, Rufus; Gaines, Hannah; Gratton, Claudio; Gross, Katherine L; Liere, Heidi; Malmstrom, Carolyn M; Meehan, Timothy D; Ruan, Leilei; Robertson, Bruce A; Robertson, G Philip; Schmidt, Thomas M; Schrotenboer, Abbie C; Teal, Tracy K; Wilson, Julianna K; Landis, Douglas A

    2014-01-28

    Agriculture is being challenged to provide food, and increasingly fuel, for an expanding global population. Producing bioenergy crops on marginal lands--farmland suboptimal for food crops--could help meet energy goals while minimizing competition with food production. However, the ecological costs and benefits of growing bioenergy feedstocks--primarily annual grain crops--on marginal lands have been questioned. Here we show that perennial bioenergy crops provide an alternative to annual grains that increases biodiversity of multiple taxa and sustain a variety of ecosystem functions, promoting the creation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes. We found that switchgrass and prairie plantings harbored significantly greater plant, methanotrophic bacteria, arthropod, and bird diversity than maize. Although biomass production was greater in maize, all other ecosystem services, including methane consumption, pest suppression, pollination, and conservation of grassland birds, were higher in perennial grasslands. Moreover, we found that the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem services is dependent not only on the choice of bioenergy crop but also on its location relative to other habitats, with local landscape context as important as crop choice in determining provision of some services. Our study suggests that bioenergy policy that supports coordinated land use can diversify agricultural landscapes and sustain multiple critical ecosystem services.

  2. Bioenergy research: a new paradigm in multidisciplinary research

    PubMed Central

    Kalluri, Udaya C.; Keller, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The field of biology is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary and cross-cutting. This changing research atmosphere is creating the way for a new kind of enquiry that while building upon the traditional research establishment is providing a new multidisciplinary framework to more effectively address scientific grand challenges. Using the US Department of Energy sponsored BioEnergy Science Center as an example, we highlight how impactful breakthroughs in biofuel science can be achieved within a large cross-disciplinary team environment. Such transformational insights are key to furthering our understanding and in generating models, theories and processes that can be used to overcome recalcitrance of biomass for sustainable biofuel production. Multidisciplinary approaches have an increasingly greater role to play in meeting rising demands for food, fibre, energy, clean environment and good health. Discoveries achieved by diverse minds and cross-applications of tools and analytical approaches have tremendous potential to fill existing knowledge gaps, clear roadblocks and facilitate translation of basic sciences discoveries as solutions towards addressing some of the most pressing global issues. PMID:20542958

  3. Redesigning photosynthesis to sustainably meet global food and bioenergy demand.

    PubMed

    Ort, Donald R; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Alric, Jean; Barkan, Alice; Blankenship, Robert E; Bock, Ralph; Croce, Roberta; Hanson, Maureen R; Hibberd, Julian M; Long, Stephen P; Moore, Thomas A; Moroney, James; Niyogi, Krishna K; Parry, Martin A J; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; Prince, Roger C; Redding, Kevin E; Spalding, Martin H; van Wijk, Klaas J; Vermaas, Wim F J; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Weber, Andreas P M; Yeates, Todd O; Yuan, Joshua S; Zhu, Xin Guang

    2015-07-14

    The world's crop productivity is stagnating whereas population growth, rising affluence, and mandates for biofuels put increasing demands on agriculture. Meanwhile, demand for increasing cropland competes with equally crucial global sustainability and environmental protection needs. Addressing this looming agricultural crisis will be one of our greatest scientific challenges in the coming decades, and success will require substantial improvements at many levels. We assert that increasing the efficiency and productivity of photosynthesis in crop plants will be essential if this grand challenge is to be met. Here, we explore an array of prospective redesigns of plant systems at various scales, all aimed at increasing crop yields through improved photosynthetic efficiency and performance. Prospects range from straightforward alterations, already supported by preliminary evidence of feasibility, to substantial redesigns that are currently only conceptual, but that may be enabled by new developments in synthetic biology. Although some proposed redesigns are certain to face obstacles that will require alternate routes, the efforts should lead to new discoveries and technical advances with important impacts on the global problem of crop productivity and bioenergy production.

  4. Competition--supporting or preventing an increased use of bioenergy?

    PubMed

    Thrän, Daniela; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2007-12-01

    The intensified use of biomass as an energy source is an often-repeated goal of the German and European climate protection policy. Therefore, framework conditions have been created in recent years, which allow for a wider use of biomass within the energy system especially for a provision of electricity and fuels. Due to this policy, Germany, for example, has emerged as the leading producer of biogas from energy crops and fatty methyl ester (FAME) in Europe. However, due to the high energy price level, the use of biomass for heating purposes and as a renewable raw material have increased at the same time. To supply the obviously increased demand for biomass or biobased energy carriers cost efficiently, nationwide and to some extend even global markets are under development at present. As the demand for biomass is expected to continue to increase strongly, it is feared that an increasing competition with the use for food and fodder as well as a raw material might occur in the years to come. Against this background we have analyzed the competitions that can be expected, and the influence that they may have on the further expansion of the use of biomass for energy production. Experiences from Germany are provided exemplarily. Based on this, it is concluded that measures need to be taken to support an efficient and sustainable use of bioenergy in the future.

  5. Redesigning photosynthesis to sustainably meet global food and bioenergy demand

    PubMed Central

    Ort, Donald R.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Alric, Jean; Barkan, Alice; Blankenship, Robert E.; Bock, Ralph; Croce, Roberta; Hanson, Maureen R.; Hibberd, Julian M.; Long, Stephen P.; Moore, Thomas A.; Moroney, James; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Prince, Roger C.; Redding, Kevin E.; Spalding, Martin H.; van Wijk, Klaas J.; Vermaas, Wim F. J.; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Weber, Andreas P. M.; Yeates, Todd O.; Yuan, Joshua S.; Zhu, Xin Guang

    2015-01-01

    The world’s crop productivity is stagnating whereas population growth, rising affluence, and mandates for biofuels put increasing demands on agriculture. Meanwhile, demand for increasing cropland competes with equally crucial global sustainability and environmental protection needs. Addressing this looming agricultural crisis will be one of our greatest scientific challenges in the coming decades, and success will require substantial improvements at many levels. We assert that increasing the efficiency and productivity of photosynthesis in crop plants will be essential if this grand challenge is to be met. Here, we explore an array of prospective redesigns of plant systems at various scales, all aimed at increasing crop yields through improved photosynthetic efficiency and performance. Prospects range from straightforward alterations, already supported by preliminary evidence of feasibility, to substantial redesigns that are currently only conceptual, but that may be enabled by new developments in synthetic biology. Although some proposed redesigns are certain to face obstacles that will require alternate routes, the efforts should lead to new discoveries and technical advances with important impacts on the global problem of crop productivity and bioenergy production. PMID:26124102

  6. Bioenergy from willow. 1995 Annual report, November 1987--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1997-07-01

    Experiments were established at Tully, New York, by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, in cooperation with the University of Toronto and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, to assess the potential of willows for wood biomass production. Specific objectives included determining the effects of clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation on biomass production. Production was high, with willow clone SV1 yielding nearly 32 oven dry tons per acre (odt ac{sup -1}) with three-year harvest cycle, irrigation, and fertilization. Clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation all significantly affected biomass production. Willow clone-site trials planted at Massena, and Tully, NY in 1993 grew well during 1994 and 1995, but some clones in the Massena trial were severely damaged by deer browse. Several new cooperators joined the project, broadening the funding base, and enabling establishment of additional willow plantings. Willow clone-site trials were planted at Himrod, King Ferry, Somerset, and Tully, NY, during 1995. A willow cutting orchard was planted during 1995 at the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Saratoga Tree Nursery in Saratoga, NY. Plans are to begin site preparation for a 100+ acre willow bioenergy demonstration farm in central New York, and additional clone-site trials, in 1996.

  7. Nitrogen recycling and flowering time in perennial bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christopher; Amasino, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Perennials have a number of traits important for profitability and sustainability of a biofuel crop. Perennialism is generally defined as the ability to grow and reproduce in multiple years. In temperate climates, many perennial plants enter dormancy during winter and recycle nutrients, such as nitrogen, to below ground structures for the next growing season. Nitrogen is expensive to produce and application of nitrogen increases the potent greenhouse gas NO x . Perennial bioenergy crops have been evaluated for biomass yields with nitrogen fertilization, location, year, and genotype as variables. Flowering time and dormancy are closely related to the N recycling program. Substantial variation for flowering time and dormancy has been identified in the switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) species, which provides a source to identify the genetic components of N recycling, and for use in breeding programs. Some studies have addressed recycling specifically, but flowering time and developmental differences were largely ignored, complicating interpretation of the results. Future studies on recycling need to appreciate plant developmental stage to allow comparison between experiments. A perennial/annual model(s) and more environmentally controlled experiments would be useful to determine the genetic components of nitrogen recycling. Increasing biomass yield per unit of nitrogen by maximizing recycling might mean the difference for profitability of a biofuel crop and has the added benefit of minimizing negative environmental effects from agriculture.

  8. Synthetic polynucleotides as endosomolytic agents and bioenergy sources.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hana; Lee, Young Ju; Bae, You Han; Kang, Han Chang

    2015-10-28

    Nucleotides (NTs), such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), are signaling and bioenergy molecules to mediate a range of cellular pathways. We recently reported their significant endosomolytic activity. To evaluate whether polymeric NTs keep endosomolytic and bioenergetic functions of NTs in drug delivery and cell survival, NTs were polymerized by a coupling reaction to form polynucleotides (pNTs: pATP and pGTP) with their molecular weights around 500kDa. The cellular toxicity, indicated by IC50, of pNT was as low as that of corresponding monomeric NT. pNTs were degraded by an intracellular enzyme, alkaline phosphatase. Introduction of pNTs in a polycation-gene complex (polyplex) enhanced the extent of gene expression in cancerous, non-cancerous, and stem cells, up to 1500-fold higher than that of pNT-free polyplex. In addition, cells stored in a pATP solution resulted in a significantly higher survival rate (e.g., up to 20% increase) when exposed to low temperatures than pATP-free solution. The presence of pNT in polyplexes prevented the reduction of transfection efficiency induced by a low temperature. The findings in this study suggest that endosomolytic and bioenergetic pNTs serve as a non-toxic gene carrier component and protect cells from a cold shock or energy depletion.

  9. IEA Bioenergy Task 40Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade:Securing Supply and Demand Country Report 2014—United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J. Richard; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Heath, Brendi

    2015-01-01

    Logistical barrier are tied to feedstock harvesting, collection, storage and distribution. Current crop harvesting machinery is unable to selectively harvest preferred components of cellulosic biomass while maintaining acceptable levels of soil carbon and minimizing erosion. Actively managing biomass variability imposes additional functional requirements on biomass harvesting equipment. A physiological variation in biomass arises from differences in genetics, degree of crop maturity, geographical location, climatic events, and harvest methods. This variability presents significant cost and performance risks for bioenergy systems. Currently, processing standards and specifications for cellulosic feedstocks are not as well-developed as for mature commodities. Biomass that is stored with high moisture content or exposed to moisture during storage is susceptible to spoilage, rotting, spontaneous combustion, and odor problems. Appropriate storage methods and strategies are needed to better define storage requirements to preserve the volume and quality of harvested biomass over time and maintain its conversion yield. Raw herbaceous biomass is costly to collect, handle, and transport because of its low density and fibrous nature. Existing conventional, bale-based handling equipment and facilities cannot cost-effectively deliver and store high volumes of biomass, even with improved handling techniques. Current handling and transportation systems designed for moving woodchips can be inefficient for bioenergy processes due to the costs and challenges of transporting, storing, and drying high-moisture biomass. The infrastructure for feedstock logistics has not been defined for the potential variety of locations, climates, feedstocks, storage methods, processing alternatives, etc., which will occur at a national scale. When setting up biomass fuel supply chains, for large-scale biomass systems, logistics are a pivotal part in the system. Various studies have shown that long

  10. Enhanced bio-energy recovery in a two-stage hydrogen/methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J; Song, J H; Hwang, S J

    2009-01-01

    A two-stage hydrogen/methane fermentation process has emerged as a feasible engineering system to recover bio-energy from wastewater. Hydrogen-producing bacteria (HPB) generate hydrogen from readily available carbohydrates, and organic acids produced during the hydrogen fermentation step can be degraded to generate methane in the following step. Three strong acids, HCl, H(2)SO(4), and HNO(3), were tested to determine the appropriate pre-treatment method for enhanced hydrogen production. The hydrogen production rates of 230, 290, and 20 L/kg(-glucose)/day was observed for the sludge treated with HCl, H(2)SO(4), and HNO(3), respectively, indicating that the acid pre-treatment using either HCl or H(2)SO(4) resulted in a significant increase in hydrogen production. The fluorescent in situ hybridization method indicated that the acid pre-treatment selectively enriched HPB including Clostridium sp. of cluster I from inoculum sludge. After hydrogen fermentation was terminated, the sludge was introduced to a methane fermentation reactor. This experiment showed methane production rates of 100, 30, and 13 L/kg(-glucose)/day for the sludge pre-treated with HCl, H(2)SO(4), and HNO(3), respectively, implying that both sulfate and nitrate inhibited the activity of methane-producing bacteria. Consequently, the acid pre-treatment might be a feasible option to enhance biogas recovery in the two-stage fermentation process, and HCl was selected as the optimal strong acid for the enrichment of HPB and the continuous production of methane.

  11. The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Bauer, Nico; Krause, Michael; Beringer, Tim; Gerten, Dieter; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-07-01

    Biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops is expected to play a substantial role in future energy systems, especially if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements and land availability for biomass plantations. This letter, by applying a modelling framework with detailed economic representation of the land and energy sector, explores the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low-carbon transition, paying special attention to implications for the land system. In this modelling framework, bioenergy competes directly with other energy technology options on the basis of costs, including implicit costs due to biophysical constraints on land and water availability. As a result, we find that bioenergy from specialized grassy and woody bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, can contribute approximately 100 EJ in 2055 and up to 300 EJ of primary energy in 2095. Protecting natural forests decreases biomass availability for energy production in the medium, but not in the long run. Reducing the land available for agricultural use can partially be compensated for by means of higher rates of technological change in agriculture. In addition, our trade-off analysis indicates that forest protection combined with large-scale cultivation of dedicated bioenergy is likely to affect bioenergy potentials, but also to increase global food prices and increase water scarcity. Therefore, integrated policies for energy, land use and water management are needed.

  12. Ecological Modernisation and Discourses on Rural Non-Wood Bioenergy Production in Finland from 1980 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Rural bioenergy production is currently a much debated question worldwide. It is closely connected to questions of environmental protection and rural development in both developing and industrial world. In Finland, rural bioenergy production has traditionally meant the production of wood fuels for heating purposes. The utilisation of forest…

  13. Productivity and water use efficiency of Agave americana in the first field trial as bioenergy feedstock on arid lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agave species are known as high-yielding crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, some of which have been grown commercially in the past and are recognized as potential bioenergy species for dry regions of the world. This study is the first field trial of Agave species for bioenergy in the United ...

  14. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah

    2016-01-01

    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  15. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  16. Introducing Locality-Aware Computation into OpenMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Lei; Jin, Haoqiang; Chapman, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents our idea to introduce data locality feature into OpenMP. Given the facts that the memory systems are hierarchical while OpenMP is at, we believe that it is important to introduce new features to OpenMF to provide Open MP programmer capability to manage the data layout and align tasks and data as close as possible in modern architectures. We present the syntax and examples of the proposed features in this paper, and hope to enable further discussion of useful language features to keep OpenMP scalable in emerging architectures.

  17. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: a consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes.

    PubMed

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-12-18

    In the endeavor of optimizing the sustainability of bioenergy production in Denmark, this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental impacts associated with the production of heat and electricity from one hectare of Danish arable land cultivated with three perennial crops: ryegrass (Lolium perenne), willow (Salix viminalis) and Miscanthus giganteus. For each, four conversion pathways were assessed against a fossil fuel reference: (I) anaerobic co-digestion with manure, (II) gasification, (III) combustion in small-to-medium scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow and Miscanthus co-firing, allowed for an improvement as compared with the reference (-82 and -45 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, respectively). The indirect land use changes impact was quantified as 310 ± 170 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, representing a paramount average of 41% of the induced greenhouse gas emissions. The uncertainty analysis confirmed the results robustness and highlighted the indirect land use changes uncertainty as the only uncertainty that can significantly change the outcome of the LCA results.

  18. A Course in Modern Mathematical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekeres, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Presenting an introduction to the mathematics of modern physics for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this textbook introduces the reader to modern mathematical thinking within a physics context. Topics covered include tensor algebra, differential geometry, topology, Lie groups and Lie algebras, distribution theory, fundamental analysis and Hilbert spaces. The book also includes exercises and proofed examples to test the students' understanding of the various concepts, as well as to extend the text's themes.

  19. Life cycle assessment of bioenergy systems: state of the art and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Francesco; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2011-01-01

    The use of different input data, functional units, allocation methods, reference systems and other assumptions complicates comparisons of LCA bioenergy studies. In addition, uncertainties and use of specific local factors for indirect effects (like land-use change and N-based soil emissions) may give rise to wide ranges of final results. In order to investigate how these key issues have been addressed so far, this work performs a review of the recent bioenergy LCA literature. The abundance of studies dealing with the different biomass resources, conversion technologies, products and environmental impact categories is summarized and discussed. Afterwards, a qualitative interpretation of the LCA results is depicted, focusing on energy balance, GHG balance and other impact categories. With the exception of a few studies, most LCAs found a significant net reduction in GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption when bioenergy replaces fossil energy.

  20. Bioenergy Watershed Restoration in Regions of the West: What are the Environmental/Community Issues?

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Huff, D.D.; Kaufmann, M.R.; Shepperd, W.D.; Sheehan, J.

    1999-07-01

    Throughout the western mountainous regions, wildfire risks are elevated due to both fire suppression activities which have changed the forest structure making it more susceptible to stand-killing fires and the expansion of human structures (houses, light commercial) into these same forests, By providing a market for currently noncommercial but flammable materials (small trees, tops, and branches), new and existing bioenergy industries could be a key factor in reducing the regional forest fuel loads. Although bioenergy would appear to be an ideal answer to the problem in many ways, the situation is complicated and numerous issues need resolution. A public fearful of logging in these regions needs assurance that harvesting for bioenergy is an environmentally and socially responsible solution to the current fuel build up in these forests. This is especially important given that biomass harvesting cannot pay its own way under current energy market conditions and would have to be supported in some fashion.

  1. Irrigation with Treated Urban Wastewater for Bioenergy Crop Production in the Far West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjegunte, G. K.; Clark, J. A.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent years, interest in biobased fuels is increasing and the congressionally mandated goal is to use at least 36 billion gallons of bio-based transportation fuels by 2022. However, in 2009 the U.S. produced about 10.75 billion gallons of ethanol, primarily as corn starch ethanol and 550 million gallons of biodiesel. Thus, there is a huge gap between the current capacity and the mandated goal. USDA estimates that about 27 million acres of land has to be brought under bioenergy crops to produce 36 billion gallons of bio-based fuels. Meeting the challenge of bridging this huge gap requires a comprehensive regional strategy that includes bringing addition area from different regions within the country under bioenergy crops. In the southwest U.S. region such as west Texas or southern New Mexico, bringing vast abandoned crop lands and areas having permeable soils under bioenergy crops can be a part of such a regional strategy. While the region has adequate supply of land, finding reliable source of water to produce bioenergy crops is the main challenge. This challenge can be met by developing marginal quality water sources for bioenergy crops production. Use of marginal quality waters such as treated urban wastewater/saline groundwater to irrigate bioenergy crops may prove beneficial, if the bioenergy crops can grow under elevated salinity and the effects on soil and shallow groundwater can be minimized by appropriate management. The region has enormous potential for marginal quality water irrigation to produce bioenergy crops for a greater farm return. For example, at present, in El Paso alone, the total volume of treated municipal and industrial wastewater is about 65,000 acre-feet/year, of which only 13% is being reused for industrial processes and irrigating urban landscapes. The major concern associated with treated wastewater irrigation is its salinity (electrical conductivity or EC which measures salinity ranges from 1.8 to 2.1 dS m-1) and sodicity

  2. A review of biogeophysical impacts of bioenergy-induced LULCC and associated climate metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, R. M.; O'Halloran, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    In addition to aerosols, carbon, and other trace gases, land use and land cover changes (LULCC) affect fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum exchanged between the land surface and atmosphere which in turn affects climate. Although long recognized scientifically as being important, these so-called biogeophysical climate forcings are rarely included in climate policies for bioenergy and other land management projects due to challenges involved in their quantification, and, in some cases, due to their large uncertainties. Here, I review observation- and modeling-based studies linking biogeophysical impacts to bioenergy policies, identifying the dominant physical mechanism(s) and the temporal and spatial scale and extent of the impact(s). Quantitative methods and/or metrics for characterizing and attributing biogeophysical climate impacts to bioenergy systems are also reviewed and evaluated in terms of their complexity, scientific uncertainty, and policy relevancy.

  3. Lessons Learned in Introducing MBSE: 2009 to 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-GD-0734 4. Lessons Learned in Introducing MBSE : 2009 to 2012 – A. Peter Campbell University of South Australia Abstract An...overview of the lessons that are emerging from recent efforts to employ MBSE in the development of large complex projects in both the defence and...civilian sectors. A broad interpretation of MBSE will be taken to encompass tool systems that embody the spirit of MBSE , if not the specific modern

  4. Bioenergy production and forest landscape change in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costanza, Jennifer K.; Abt, Robert C.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Production of woody biomass for bioenergy, whether wood pellets or liquid biofuels, has the potential to cause substantial landscape change and concomitant effects on forest ecosystems, but the landscape effects of alternative production scenarios have not been fully assessed. We simulated landscape change from 2010 to 2050 under five scenarios of woody biomass production for wood pellets and liquid biofuels in North Carolina, in the southeastern United States, a region that is a substantial producer of wood biomass for bioenergy and contains high biodiversity. Modeled scenarios varied biomass feedstocks, incorporating harvest of ‘conventional’ forests, which include naturally regenerating as well as planted forests that exist on the landscape even without bioenergy production, as well as purpose-grown woody crops grown on marginal lands. Results reveal trade-offs among scenarios in terms of overall forest area and the characteristics of the remaining forest in 2050. Meeting demand for biomass from conventional forests resulted in more total forest land compared with a baseline, business-as-usual scenario. However, the remaining forest was composed of more intensively managed forest and less of the bottomland hardwood and longleaf pine habitats that support biodiversity. Converting marginal forest to purpose-grown crops reduced forest area, but the remaining forest contained more of the critical habitats for biodiversity. Conversion of marginal agricultural lands to purpose-grown crops resulted in smaller differences from the baseline scenario in terms of forest area and the characteristics of remaining forest habitats. Each scenario affected the dominant type of land-use change in some regions, especially in the coastal plain that harbors high levels of biodiversity. Our results demonstrate the complex landscape effects of alternative bioenergy scenarios, highlight that the regions most likely to be affected by bioenergy production are also critical for

  5. Is a substantial global bioenergy system feasible? A spatial analysis using a dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbrecht, T.; Lucht, W.; Lotze-Campem, H.

    2007-12-01

    Avoiding dangerous climate change requires drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the global demand for energy is projected to grow by more than 50 % until 2030 (IEA, 2006) and therefore actions are urgently required to decarbonize the global economy. Second generation bioenergy systems are promoted as a way forward to displace large amounts of fossil fuels with renewable materials, thereby increasing energy security and stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. At the same time, concerns are being raised regarding the sustainability of large-scale dedicated biomass plantations with regard to extensive mono- cultures, irrigation and fertilization requirements. We use a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) including current agriculture to simulate the effects of rising competition for land when an additional spatially extensive production system for a new commodity, bioenergy, is added to the global land use mix under continued increase in global population size as well as per capita energy consumption. How much land is needed for a significant bioenergy generation if sufficient food production is warranted and what are the consequences for the terrestrial biosphere? To assess the potential impacts of a significant global bioenergy sector, we produced a selection of scenarios based on prior assumptions of total bioenergy demand, progress in conversion technologies and the availability of cultivable land limited by food requirements and biodiversity protection. We present the corresponding land use patterns as well as their impacts on the terrestrial carbon balance, evapotranspiration fluxes and irrigation demand. We find that an area of up to 50 % the size of current agricultural land is needed for the cultivation of ligno-cellulosic crops to satisfy high bioenergy demands. Carbon fluxes into the atmosphere caused by the removal of natural vegetation can equal those of 8 years of fossil fuel combustion.

  6. Pest-suppression potential of midwestern landscapes under contrasting bioenergy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Timothy D; Werling, Ben P; Landis, Douglas A; Gratton, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Biomass crops grown on marginal soils are expected to fuel an emerging bioenergy industry in the United States. Bioenergy crop choice and position in the landscape could have important impacts on a range of ecosystem services, including natural pest-suppression (biocontrol services) provided by predatory arthropods. In this study we use predation rates of three sentinel crop pests to develop a biocontrol index (BCI) summarizing pest-suppression potential in corn and perennial grass-based bioenergy crops in southern Wisconsin, lower Michigan, and northern Illinois. We show that BCI is higher in perennial grasslands than in corn, and increases with the amount of perennial grassland in the surrounding landscape. We develop an empirical model for predicting BCI from information on energy crop and landscape characteristics, and use the model in a qualitative assessment of changes in biocontrol services for annual croplands on prime agricultural soils under two contrasting bioenergy scenarios. Our analysis suggests that the expansion of annual energy crops onto 1.2 million ha of existing perennial grasslands on marginal soils could reduce BCI between -10 and -64% for nearly half of the annual cropland in the region. In contrast, replacement of the 1.1 million ha of existing annual crops on marginal land with perennial energy crops could increase BCI by 13 to 205% on over half of the annual cropland in the region. Through comparisons with other independent studies, we find that our biocontrol index is negatively related to insecticide use across the Midwest, suggesting that strategically positioned, perennial bioenergy crops could reduce insect damage and insecticide use on neighboring food and forage crops. We suggest that properly validated environmental indices can be used in decision support systems to facilitate integrated assessments of the environmental and economic impacts of different bioenergy policies.

  7. Short and long-term carbon balance of bioenergy electricity production fueled by forest treatments

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kallie L; Ryan, Michael G; Neff, Jason C

    2014-01-01

    Background Forests store large amounts of carbon in forest biomass, and this carbon can be released to the atmosphere following forest disturbance or management. In the western US, forest fuel reduction treatments designed to reduce the risk of high severity wildfire can change forest carbon balance by removing carbon in the form of biomass, and by altering future potential wildfire behavior in the treated stand. Forest treatment carbon balance is further affected by the fate of this biomass removed from the forest, and the occurrence and intensity of a future wildfire in this stand. In this study we investigate the carbon balance of a forest treatment with varying fates of harvested biomass, including use for bioenergy electricity production, and under varying scenarios of future disturbance and regeneration. Results Bioenergy is a carbon intensive energy source; in our study we find that carbon emissions from bioenergy electricity production are nearly twice that of coal for the same amount of electricity. However, some emissions from bioenergy electricity production are offset by avoided fossil fuel electricity emissions. The carbon benefit achieved by using harvested biomass for bioenergy electricity production may be increased through avoided pyrogenic emissions if the forest treatment can effectively reduce severity. Conclusion Forest treatments with the use of harvested biomass for electricity generation can reduce carbon emissions to the atmosphere by offsetting fossil fuel electricity generation emissions, and potentially by avoided pyrogenic emissions due to reduced intensity and severity of a future wildfire in the treated stand. However, changes in future wildfire and regeneration regimes may affect forest carbon balance and these climate-induced changes may influence forest carbon balance as much, or more, than bioenergy production. PMID:25187788

  8. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program Year Book; 1992-1993 Yearbook with 1994 Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy administers five Regional Bioenergy Programs to encourage regionally specific application of biomass and municipal waste-to-energy technologies to local needs, opportunities and potentials. The Pacific Northwest and Alaska region has taken up a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided its five participating state energy programs. This report describes the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, and related projects of the state energy agencies, and summarizes the results of technical studies. It also considers future efforts of this regional program to meet its challenging assignment.

  9. A global conversation about energy from biomass: the continental conventions of the global sustainable bioenergy project.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul; de Brito Cruz, Carlos Henrique; Chimphango, Annie Fabian Abel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Faaij, Andre; Greene, Nathanael; Keller, Martin; Osseweijer, Patricia; Richard, Tom L; Sheehan, John; Chugh, Archana; van der Wielen, Luuk; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2011-04-06

    The global sustainable bioenergy (GSB) project was formed in 2009 with the goal of providing guidance with respect to the feasibility and desirability of sustainable, bioenergy-intensive futures. Stage 1 of this project held conventions with a largely common format on each of the world's continents, was completed in 2010, and is described in this paper. Attended by over 400 persons, the five continental conventions featured presentations, breakout sessions, and drafting of resolutions that were unanimously passed by attendees. The resolutions highlight the potential of bioenergy to make a large energy supply contribution while honouring other priorities, acknowledge the breadth and complexity of bioenergy applications as well as the need to take a systemic approach, and attest to substantial intra- and inter-continental diversity with respect to needs, opportunities, constraints and current practice relevant to bioenergy. The following interim recommendations based on stage 1 GSB activities are offered: - Realize that it may be more productive, and also more correct, to view the seemingly divergent assessments of bioenergy as answers to two different questions rather than the same question. Viewed in this light, there is considerably more scope for reconciliation than might first be apparent, and it is possible to be informed rather than paralysed by divergent assessments.- Develop established and advanced bioenergy technologies such that each contributes to the other's success. That is, support and deploy in the near-term meritorious, established technologies in ways that enhance rather than impede deployment of advanced technologies, and support and deploy advanced technologies in ways that expand rather than contract opportunities for early adopters and investors.- Be clear in formulating policies what mix of objectives are being targeted, measure the results of these policies against these objectives and beware of unintended consequences

  10. Biomass Conversion Task IV 1987 program of work: International Energy Agency Bioenergy Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.J.

    1986-12-01

    Biomass is a major, renewable energy resource through out the world, and extensive research is being conducted by many countries on bioenergy technologies. In an effort to improve communications and cooperation in the area of biomass energy, several nations have agreed to a cooperative program of work under the International Energy Agency's Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA). Three areas of major importance have been identified including Short Rotation Forestry, Conventional Forestry, and Biomass Conversion. This document describes the 1987 Program of Work for cooperative activities in the area of Biomass Conversion. The background of the cooperation and descriptions of specific conversion projects are presented. Details of activity funding are also provided. 3 tabs.

  11. A global conversation about energy from biomass: the continental conventions of the global sustainable bioenergy project

    PubMed Central

    Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul; de Brito Cruz, Carlos Henrique; Chimphango, Annie Fabian Abel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Faaij, Andre; Greene, Nathanael; Keller, Martin; Osseweijer, Patricia; Richard, Tom L.; Sheehan, John; Chugh, Archana; van der Wielen, Luuk; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2011-01-01

    The global sustainable bioenergy (GSB) project was formed in 2009 with the goal of providing guidance with respect to the feasibility and desirability of sustainable, bioenergy-intensive futures. Stage 1 of this project held conventions with a largely common format on each of the world's continents, was completed in 2010, and is described in this paper. Attended by over 400 persons, the five continental conventions featured presentations, breakout sessions, and drafting of resolutions that were unanimously passed by attendees. The resolutions highlight the potential of bioenergy to make a large energy supply contribution while honouring other priorities, acknowledge the breadth and complexity of bioenergy applications as well as the need to take a systemic approach, and attest to substantial intra- and inter-continental diversity with respect to needs, opportunities, constraints and current practice relevant to bioenergy. The following interim recommendations based on stage 1 GSB activities are offered: — Realize that it may be more productive, and also more correct, to view the seemingly divergent assessments of bioenergy as answers to two different questions rather than the same question. Viewed in this light, there is considerably more scope for reconciliation than might first be apparent, and it is possible to be informed rather than paralysed by divergent assessments.— Develop established and advanced bioenergy technologies such that each contributes to the other's success. That is, support and deploy in the near-term meritorious, established technologies in ways that enhance rather than impede deployment of advanced technologies, and support and deploy advanced technologies in ways that expand rather than contract opportunities for early adopters and investors.— Be clear in formulating policies what mix of objectives are being targeted, measure the results of these policies against these objectives and beware of unintended consequences

  12. Productivity and nutrient cycling in bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard

    One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem

  13. Potential Environmental Benefits from Increased Use of Bioenergy in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 × 108 metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 × 108 metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 × 108 t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 × 108 t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 × 108 t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 × 108 t/y of coal and 3.75 × 106 t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO2 by 11.6 × 106 t/y, NOX by 1.48 × 106 t/y, CO2 by 1.07 × 109 t/y, and CH4 by 50 × 106 t/y. The reduced SO2 emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats.

  14. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  15. Potential environmental benefits from increased use of bioenergy in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 x 10(8) metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 x 10(8) metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 x 10(8) t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 x 10(8) t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 x 10(8) t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 x 10(8) t/y of coal and 3.75 x 10(6) t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO(2 )by 11.6 x 10(6) t/y, NO(X) by 1.48 x 10(6) t/y, CO2 by 1.07 x 10(9) t/y, and CH4 by 50 x 10(6) t/y. The reduced SO(2) emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats.

  16. Diversification and use of bioenergy to maintain future grasslands.

    PubMed

    Donnison, Iain S; Fraser, Mariecia D

    2016-05-01

    Grassland agriculture is experiencing a number of threats including declining profitability and loss of area to other land uses including expansion of the built environment as well as from cropland and forestry. The use of grassland as a natural resource either in terms of existing vegetation and land cover or planting of new species for bioenergy and other nonfood applications presents an opportunity, and potential solution, to maintain the broader ecosystem services that perennial grasslands provide as well as to improve the options for grassland farmers and their communities. This paper brings together different grass or grassland-based studies and considers them as part of a continuum of strategies that, when also combined with improvements in grassland production systems, will improve the overall efficiency of grasslands as an important natural resource and enable a greater area to be managed, replanted or conserved. These diversification options relate to those most likely to be available to farmers and land owners in the marginally economic or uneconomic grasslands of middle to northern Europe and specifically in the UK. Grasslands represent the predominant global land use and so these strategies are likely to be relevant to other areas although the grass species used may vary. The options covered include the use of biomass derived from the management of grasses in the urban and semi urban environment, semi-natural grassland systems as part of ecosystem management, pasture in addition to livestock production, and the planting and cropping of dedicated energy grasses. The adoption of such approaches would not only increase income from economically marginal grasslands, but would also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production and help fund conservation of these valuable grassland ecosystems and landscapes, which is increasingly becoming a challenge.

  17. Global bioenergy potential from high-lignin agricultural residue.

    PubMed

    Mendu, Venugopal; Shearin, Tom; Campbell, J Elliott; Stork, Jozsef; Jae, Jungho; Crocker, Mark; Huber, George; DeBolt, Seth

    2012-03-06

    Almost one-quarter of the world's population has basic energy needs that are not being met. Efforts to increase renewable energy resources in developing countries where per capita energy availability is low are needed. Herein, we examine integrated dual use farming for sustained food security and agro-bioenergy development. Many nonedible crop residues are used for animal feed or reincorporated into the soil to maintain fertility. By contrast, drupe endocarp biomass represents a high-lignin feedstock that is a waste stream from food crops, such as coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell, which is nonedible, not of use for livestock feed, and not reintegrated into soil in an agricultural setting. Because of high-lignin content, endocarp biomass has optimal energy-to-weight returns, applicable to small-scale gasification for bioelectricity. Using spatial datasets for 12 principal drupe commodity groups that have notable endocarp byproduct, we examine both their potential energy contribution by decentralized gasification and relationship to regions of energy poverty. Globally, between 24 million and 31 million tons of drupe endocarp biomass is available per year, primarily driven by coconut production. Endocarp biomass used in small-scale decentralized gasification systems (15-40% efficiency) could contribute to the total energy requirement of several countries, the highest being Sri Lanka (8-30%) followed by Philippines (7-25%), Indonesia (4-13%), and India (1-3%). While representing a modest gain in global energy resources, mitigating energy poverty via decentralized renewable energy sources is proposed for rural communities in developing countries, where the greatest disparity between societal allowances exist.

  18. Predicting the impacts of bioenergy production on farmland birds.

    PubMed

    Rivas Casado, Monica; Mead, Andrew; Burgess, Paul J; Howard, David C; Butler, Simon J

    2014-04-01

    Meeting European renewable energy production targets is expected to cause significant changes in land use patterns. With an EU target of obtaining 20% of energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020, national and local policy makers need guidance on the impact of potential delivery strategies on ecosystem goods and services to ensure the targets are met in a sustainable manner. Within agroecosystems, models are available to explore consequences of such policy decisions for food, fuel and fibre production but few can describe the effect on biodiversity. This paper describes the integration and application of a farmland bird population model within a geographical information system (GIS) to explore the consequences of land use changes arising from different strategies to meet renewable energy production targets. Within a 16,000 ha arable dominated case study area in England, the population growth rates of 19 farmland bird species were predicted under baseline land cover, a scenario maximising wheat production for bioethanol, and a scenario focused on mix of bioenergy sources. Both scenarios delivered renewable energy production targets for the region (>12 kWh per person per day) but, despite differences in resultant landscape composition, the response of the farmland bird community as a whole to each scenario was small and broadly similar. However, this similarity in overall response masked significant intra- and inter-specific variations across the study area and between scenarios suggesting contrasting mechanisms of impact and highlighting the need for context dependent, species-level assessment of land use change impacts. This framework provides one of the first systematic attempts to spatially model the effect of policy driven land use change on the population dynamics of a suite of farmland birds. The GIS framework also facilitates its integration with other ecosystem service models to explore wider synergies and trade offs arising from national or local

  19. Global bioenergy potential from high-lignin agricultural residue

    PubMed Central

    Mendu, Venugopal; Shearin, Tom; Campbell, J. Elliott; Stork, Jozsef; Jae, Jungho; Crocker, Mark; Huber, George; DeBolt, Seth

    2012-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of the world's population has basic energy needs that are not being met. Efforts to increase renewable energy resources in developing countries where per capita energy availability is low are needed. Herein, we examine integrated dual use farming for sustained food security and agro-bioenergy development. Many nonedible crop residues are used for animal feed or reincorporated into the soil to maintain fertility. By contrast, drupe endocarp biomass represents a high-lignin feedstock that is a waste stream from food crops, such as coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell, which is nonedible, not of use for livestock feed, and not reintegrated into soil in an agricultural setting. Because of high-lignin content, endocarp biomass has optimal energy-to-weight returns, applicable to small-scale gasification for bioelectricity. Using spatial datasets for 12 principal drupe commodity groups that have notable endocarp byproduct, we examine both their potential energy contribution by decentralized gasification and relationship to regions of energy poverty. Globally, between 24 million and 31 million tons of drupe endocarp biomass is available per year, primarily driven by coconut production. Endocarp biomass used in small-scale decentralized gasification systems (15–40% efficiency) could contribute to the total energy requirement of several countries, the highest being Sri Lanka (8–30%) followed by Philippines (7–25%), Indonesia (4–13%), and India (1–3%). While representing a modest gain in global energy resources, mitigating energy poverty via decentralized renewable energy sources is proposed for rural communities in developing countries, where the greatest disparity between societal allowances exist. PMID:22355123

  20. Bioenergy costs and potentials with special attention to implications for the land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, A.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Dietrich, J.; Klein, D.; Bauer, N.; Krause, M.; Beringer, T.; Gerten, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the coming decades, an increasing competition for global land and water resources can be expected, due to rising demand for agricultural products, goals of nature conservation, and changing production conditions due to climate change. Especially biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, is being proposed to play a substantial role in future energy systems if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements, land availability for biomass plantations, and implications for the land system. In order to explore the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low carbon transition with special attention to implications for the land system, we present a modeling framework with detailed biophysical and economic representation of the land and energy sector: We have linked the global dynamic vegetation and water balance model LPJmL (Bondeau et al. 2007, Rost et al. 2008), the global land and water use model MAgPIE (Lotze-Campen et al. 2008, Popp et al. 2010), and the global energy-economy-climate model ReMIND (Leimbach et al. 2009). In this modeling framework LPJmL supplies spatially explicit (0.5° resolution) agricultural yields as well as carbon and water stocks and fluxes. Based on this biophysical input MAgPIE delivers cost-optimized land use patterns (0.5° resolution), associated GHG emissions and rates of future yield increases in agricultural production. Moreover, shadow prices are calculated for irrigation water (as an indicator for water scarcity), food commodities, and bioenergy (as an indicator for changes in production costs) under different land use constraints such as forest conservation for climate change mitigation and as a contribution to biodiversity conservation. The energy-economy-climate model ReMIND generates the demand for

  1. Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a guided exercise, rather than just telling them the facts.1 The inclination and nodes may be found by direct observation, monitoring carefully the position of the Moon among the stars. Even the regression of the nodes may be discovered in this way2 To find the eccentricity from students' observations is also possible,3 but that requires considerable time and effort. if a whole class should discover it in a short time, here is a method more suitable for a one-day class or home assignment. The level I aim at is, more or less, advanced high school or first-year college students. I assume them to be acquainted with celestial coordinates and the lunar phases, and to be able to use algebra and trigonometry.

  2. Minerals Bill introduced in House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A bill that aims to strengthen a national minerals policy and to establish a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of this policy was introduced in the House of Representatives on April 30 by James D. Santini (D-Nev.). Entitled the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), the legislation, if passed, also would amend tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic minerals; it would provide the means for the Secretary of the Interior to make withdrawn public lands available for mineral development; and it would create a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals.Santini estimates that 4 billion tons of minerals are needed annually to sustain the nation's economy. Much of the minerals are supplied by other nations, however; Santini wants to see an end to the United States' dependence on foreign countries, especially those that seem relatively unstable politically. ‘The U.S. has placed its national security in the hands of a few foreign nations,’ Santini said in a recent press conference. ‘We are heavily dependent on the region of southern Africa for 76% of our cobalt, 93% of our platinum, 48% of our chromium, and a host of other strategic and critical minerals. Without these minerals, we cannot build jet aircraft, weapons, or other military hardware vitally important to our national security.’

  3. Introducing Astronomy into Mozambican Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Paulo, C. M.; Besteiro, A. M. A. R.; Geraldes, H.; Maphossa, A. M.; Nhanonbe, F. A.; Uaissine, A. J. R.

    2011-06-01

    Mozambique has been proposed as a host for one of the future Square Kilometre Array stations in Southern Africa. However, Mozambique does not possess a university astronomy department and only recently has there been interest in developing one. South Africa has been funding students at the MSc and PhD level, as well as researchers. Additionally, Mozambicans with Physics degrees have been funded at the MSc level. With the advent of the International Year of Astronomy, there has been a very strong drive, from these students, to establish a successful astronomy department in Mozambique. The launch of the commemorations during the 2008 World Space Week was very successful and Mozambique is to be used to motivate similar African countries who lack funds but are still trying to take part in the International Year of Astronomy. There hare been limited resources and funding, however there is a strong will to carry this momentum into 2009 and, with this, influence the Government to introduce Astronomy into its national curriculum and at University level. Mozambique's motto for the International Year of Astronomy is ``Descobre o teu Universo''.

  4. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  5. Cover crops for enriching soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) can be enriched with cover crops under agronomic crops, but little is known about their enrichment under bioenergy crops. Legume (hairy vetch [Vicia villosa Roth]), nonlegume (rye [Secaele cereale L.]), a mixture of legume and nonlegume (hairy vetch and rye) and a co...

  6. Impacts of increased bioenergy demand on global food markets: an AgMIP economic model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Kyle, G. Page; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Havlik, Petr; van Meijl, Hans; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Popp, Alexander; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk; Wise, Marshall A.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Assessment studies have shown that meeting ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation targets will require substantial amounts of bioenergy as part of the future energy mix. In the course of the Agricultural Model Comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), five global agro-economic models were used to analyze a future scenario with global demand for ligno-cellulosic bioenergy rising to about 100 ExaJoule in 2050. From this exercise a tentative conclusion can be drawn that ambitious climate change mitigation need not drive up global food prices much, if the extra land required for bioenergy production is accessible or if the feedstock, e.g. from forests, does not directly compete for agricultural land. Agricultural price effects across models by the year 2050 from high bioenergy demand in an RCP2.6-type scenario appear to be much smaller (+5% average across models) than from direct climate impacts on crop yields in an RCP8.5-type scenario (+25% average across models). However, potential future scarcities of water and nutrients, policy-induced restrictions on agricultural land expansion, as well as potential welfare losses have not been specifically looked at in this exercise.

  7. Enhancing biomass utilization for bioenergy-crop rotation systems and alternative conversion processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass for bioenergy has a great deal of potential for decreasing our dependence upon fossil fuels and decreasing the net CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. Crop residues are often promoted as a means of meeting the total biomass goals to provide sufficient amounts of materials for liquid fuel pro...

  8. Biogeochemical research priorities for sustainable biofuel and bioenergy feedstock production in the Americas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid expansion in biomass production for biofuels and bioenergy in the Americas is increasing demands on the ecosystem resources required to sustain soil and site productivity. We review the current state of knowledge and highlight gaps in research on biogeochemical processes and ecosystem sustaina...

  9. National Bioenergy Center - Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2011-02-01

    Winter 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program topic areas; results from reactive membrane extraction of inhibitors from dilute-acid pretreated corn stover; list of 2010 task publications.

  10. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed perennial grasses from Conservation Reserve Program de...

  11. Forage and bioenergy feedstock production from hybrid forage sorghum and sorghum x sudangrass hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the bioenergy industry expands, producers choosing to shift current forage crop production to dedicated biomass crops will find it advantageous to grow low risk multi-purpose crops that maximize management options. Hybrid forage sorghums (HFS) and sorghum by sudangrass hybrids (SSG) are capable...

  12. Genetic Modification in Dedicated Bioenergy Crops and Strategies for Gene Confinement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of dedicated bioenergy crops is in its infancy; however, there are numerous advantages to the use of these tools to improve crops used for biofuels. Potential improved traits through genetic engineering (GE) include herbicide resistance, pest, drought, cold and salt tolerance, l...

  13. Fluid fertilizer's role in sustaining soils used for bio-energy feedstock production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of corn (Zea mays L.) as a bio-energy feedstock has attracted the attention of many producers. Recently, the focus has shifted from grain-based to cellulose-based ethanol production. In addition to biological conversion of corn stover to ethanol, thermal conversion (pyrolysis) of stover is b...

  14. Improvement of perennial forage species as feedstock for bio-energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both native and non-native forage grasses other than switchgrass are less commonly considered as potential lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for bioenergy in the United States. The forage grasses consist of temperate cool-season (most commonly C3) grasses as well as the tropical or sub-tropical an...

  15. Quantum-Mechanical Method for the Soliton Transported Bio-energy in Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiaofeng

    1993-07-01

    The equations of motion of the soliton transported bio-energy in the protein, were heretofore already obtained by a combination of quantum-mechanical and classical methods, but here have been derived based completely on quantum mechanics. And we point out the shortcoming of no self-consistency of the Davydov theory. Some interesting results have also been got.

  16. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: March 2015 Update

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-03-01

    This is the March 2015 Update to the Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office. It identifies the RDD&D activities the Office will focus on over the next four years.

  17. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: November 2014 Update

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    This is the November 2014 Update to the Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office. It identifies the RDD&D activities the Office will focus on over the next four years.

  18. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #28, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Spring 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program sessions and special topic sessions; assessment of waste water treatment needs; and an update on new arabinose-to-ethanol fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strains.

  19. The Implications of Growing Bioenergy Crops on Water Resources, Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A. K.; Song, Y.; Kheshgi, H. S.; Landuyt, W.

    2015-12-01

    The bioenergy crops, Corn, Miscanthus and switchgrass have a potential to meet future energy demands in the US and mitigate climate change by partially replacing fossil fuels. However, the large-scale cultivation of these bioenergy crops may also impact climate change through changes in albedo, evapotranspiration (ET), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Whether these climate effects will mitigate or exacerbate climate change in the short and long terms is uncertain. The uncertainties come from our incomplete understanding of the effects of expanded bioenergy crop production on terrestrial water and energy balance, carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and their interactions. This study aims to understand the implications of growing large scale bioenergy crops on water resources, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the United States using a data- modeling framework (ISAM) that we developed. Our study indicates that both Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock switchgrass can attain high and stable yield over parts of the Midwest, however, this high production is attained at the cost of increased soil water loss as compared to current natural vegetation. Alamo switchgrass can attain high and stable yield in the southern US without significant influence on soil water quantity.

  20. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #27, April - June 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-07-01

    April-June, 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: understanding performance of alternative process configurations for producing ethanol from biomass; investigating Karl Fischer Titration for measuring water content of pretreated biomass slurries.

  1. Candidate perennial bioenergy grasses have a higher albedo than annual row crops in the Midwestern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy presents the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as climate ‘regulators’ due to a number of biogeochemical and biogeophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observati...

  2. Optimal bioenergy power generation for climate change mitigation with or without carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes; Lee, David R.

    2016-10-01

    Restricting global warming below 2 °C to avoid catastrophic climate change will require atmospheric carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Current integrated assessment models (IAMs) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios assume that CDR within the energy sector would be delivered using bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Although bioenergy-biochar systems (BEBCS) can also deliver CDR, they are not included in any IPCC scenario. Here we show that despite BECCS offering twice the carbon sequestration and bioenergy per unit biomass, BEBCS may allow earlier deployment of CDR at lower carbon prices when long-term improvements in soil fertility offset biochar production costs. At carbon prices above $1,000 Mg-1 C, BECCS is most frequently (P>0.45, calculated as the fraction of Monte Carlo simulations in which BECCS is the most cost effective) the most economic biomass technology for climate-change mitigation. At carbon prices below $1,000 Mg-1 C, BEBCS is the most cost-effective technology only where biochar significantly improves agricultural yields, with pure bioenergy systems being otherwise preferred.

  3. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Desaubies, Yves; Henze, Mogens; Hertel, Ole; Johnson, Richard K.; Kastrup, Ulrike; Laconte, Pierre; Lange, Eckart; Novak, Peter; Paavola, Jouni; Reenberg, Anette; van den Hove, Sybille; Vermeire, Theo; Wadhams, Peter; Searchinger, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Many international policies encourage a switch from fossil fuels to bioenergy based on the premise that its use would not result in carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. Frequently cited bioenergy goals would at least double the present global human use of plant material, the production of which already requires the dedication of roughly 75% of vegetated lands and more than 70% of water withdrawals. However, burning biomass for energy provision increases the amount of carbon in the air just like burning coal, oil or gas if harvesting the biomass decreases the amount of carbon stored in plants and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of ‘additional biomass’ – biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy – can reduce carbon emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy. PMID:23576835

  4. Management factors affecting establishment and yield of bioenergy miscanthus on claypan soil landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus has been well studied for its establishment and yield in Europe and certain parts of the US Midwest but little has been done to investigate these properties when grown on degraded soils, which are typified as being less productive, and consequently, economically...

  5. The Economic Impacts of Bioenergy Crop Production on U.S. Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Daniel De La Torre Ugarte

    2000-07-01

    The oil embargoes of the 1970s raised concerns about energy security. Large scale production of bioenergy crops could have significant impacts on the US agricultural sector in terms of quantities, prices and production location of traditional crops as well as farm income. USDA, UT and ORNL modified an agricultural sector model to include switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow.

  6. On the long-term hydroclimatic sustainability of perennial bioenergy crop expansion over the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale cultivation of perennial bioenergy crops (e.g., miscanthus and switchgrass) offers unique opportunities to mitigate climate change through avoided fossil fuel use and associated greenhouse gas reduction. Although conversion of existing agriculturally intensive lands (e.g., maize and soy)...

  7. Assessing the global potential and regional implications of promoting bio-energy

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is no simple answer to the question “are materials from bio-based feedstocks environmentally, and socially, preferable?” Bioenergy as an alternative energy source might be effective in reducing fossil fuel use, slowing global warming effects, and providing increased revenue...

  8. N fertilizer and harvest impacts on bioenergy crop contributions to SOC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant contributions to belowground biomass and soil C stocks are important for developing accurate bioenergy lifecycle models. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native perennial, cellulosic biofuel feedstock with greater root production compared to corn (Zea mays L.,) and potentially contribute...

  9. Bioenergy crops grown for hyperaccumulation of phosphorus in the delmarva peninsula and their biofuels potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbaceous bioenergy crops, including sorghum, switchgrass, and miscanthus, were evaluated for their potential as phytoremedators for the uptake of phosphorus in the Delmarva Peninsula and their subsequent conversion to biofuel intermediates (bio-oil) by fast pyrolysis using pyrolysis-gas chromatogr...

  10. Optimal bioenergy power generation for climate change mitigation with or without carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes; Lee, David R

    2016-10-21

    Restricting global warming below 2 °C to avoid catastrophic climate change will require atmospheric carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Current integrated assessment models (IAMs) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios assume that CDR within the energy sector would be delivered using bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Although bioenergy-biochar systems (BEBCS) can also deliver CDR, they are not included in any IPCC scenario. Here we show that despite BECCS offering twice the carbon sequestration and bioenergy per unit biomass, BEBCS may allow earlier deployment of CDR at lower carbon prices when long-term improvements in soil fertility offset biochar production costs. At carbon prices above $1,000 Mg(-1) C, BECCS is most frequently (P>0.45, calculated as the fraction of Monte Carlo simulations in which BECCS is the most cost effective) the most economic biomass technology for climate-change mitigation. At carbon prices below $1,000 Mg(-1) C, BEBCS is the most cost-effective technology only where biochar significantly improves agricultural yields, with pure bioenergy systems being otherwise preferred.

  11. State-of-the-Art of Fast Pyrolysis in IEA Bioenergy Member Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Dietrich; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Preto, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass is becoming increasingly important in some member countries of the International Energy Agency(IEA). Six countries have joined the IEA Task 34 of the Bioenergy Activity: Canada, Finland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, and USA. The National Task Leaders give an overview of the current activities in their countries both on research, pilot and demonstration level.

  12. Conservation Considerations for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production: If, What, Where, and How Much?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased awareness of the need to achieve energy independence and security has resulted in many questions regarding the use of agricultural products as feedstock for bioenergy production. Initial efforts with grain crops, though successful, raised many more questions regarding sustainability and po...

  13. National Bioenergy Center, Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Summer 2011 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    Summer 2011 issue of the National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly update. Issue topics: evaluating new analytical techniques for measuring soluble sugars in the liquid portion of biomass hydrolysates, and measurement of the fraction of insoluble solids in biomass slurries.

  14. Best management practices: Managing cropping systems for soil protection and bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased. Crop residue such as corn stover or wheat straw can be used for bioenergy including a substitution for natural gas or coal. Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed to protect the soil and future soil productivity. The amount of bi...

  15. Can we balance biomass harvest for bioenergy and protect soil quality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in bioenergy is exploding. The numbers of plants fermenting corn grain for ethanol are expanding. In addition, crop biomass is being considered as feedstock for ethanol production as a replacement for natural gas and other thermochemical platforms. Utilization of biomass for energy presents...

  16. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policymaking remains limited.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Althaus, Hans-Jörg; Berndes, Göran; Bolwig, Simon; Corbera, Esteve; Creutzig, Felix; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Geddes, Anna; Gregg, Jay S; Haberl, Helmut; Hanger, Susanne; Harper, Richard J; Hunsberger, Carol; Larsen, Rasmus K; Lauk, Christian; Leitner, Stefan; Lilliestam, Johan; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Muys, Bart; Nordborg, Maria; Ölund, Maria; Orlowsky, Boris; Popp, Alexander; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Reinhard, Jürgen; Scheiffle, Lena; Smith, Pete

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited scientific basis for policymaking. Our results indicate that knowledge on the sustainable development impacts of bioenergy production is concentrated in a few well-studied countries, focuses on environmental and economic impacts, and mostly relates to dedicated agricultural biomass plantations. The scope and methodological approaches in studies differ widely and only a small share of the studies sufficiently reports on context and/or baseline conditions, which makes it difficult to get a general understanding of the attribution of impacts. Nevertheless, we identified regional patterns of positive or negative impacts for all categories - environmental, economic, institutional, social and technological. In general, economic and technological impacts were more frequently reported as positive, while social and environmental impacts were more frequently reported as negative (with the exception of impacts on direct substitution of GHG emission from fossil fuel). More focused and transparent research is needed to validate these patterns and develop a strong science underpinning for establishing policies and governance agreements that prevent/mitigate negative and promote positive impacts from bioenergy production.

  17. The Interplay Between Bioenergy Grass Production and Water Resources in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Cervarich, Matthew; Jain, Atul K; Kheshgi, Haroon S; Landuyt, William; Cai, Ximing

    2016-03-15

    We apply a land surface model to evaluate the interplay between potential bioenergy grass (Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock, and Alamo) production, water quantity, and nitrogen leaching (NL) in the Central and Eastern U.S. Water use intensity tends to be lower where grass yields are modeled to be high, for example in the Midwest for Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock and the upper southeastern U.S. for Alamo. However, most of these regions are already occupied by crops and forests and substitution of these biome types for ethanol production implies trade-offs. In general, growing Miscanthus consumes more water, Alamo consumes less water, and Cave-in-Rock consumes approximately the same amount of water as existing vegetation. Bioenergy grasses can maintain high productivity over time, even in water limited regions, because their roots can grow deeper and extract the water from the deep, moist soil layers. However, this may not hold where there are frequent and intense drought events, particularly in regions with shallow soil depths. One advantage of bioenergy grasses is that they mitigate nitrogen leaching relative to row crops and herbaceous plants when grown without applying N fertilizer; and bioenergy grasses, especially Miscanthus, generally require less N fertilizer application than row crops and herbaceous plants.

  18. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses.

  19. The importance of pre-conversion technologies for coupling sustainable bioenergy land use to biomass trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large scale bioenergy development will shift current land use dynamics in the agricultural sector. The establishment of biofuel and biopower feedstock markets has great potential for encouraging more sustainable land use practices. Work has been done showing that strategically integrating food, feed...

  20. Babassu nut residues: potential for bioenergy use in the North and Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Paula Protásio, Thiago; Fernando Trugilho, Paulo; da Silva César, Antônia Amanda; Napoli, Alfredo; Alves de Melo, Isabel Cristina Nogueira; Gomes da Silva, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Babassu is considered the largest native oil resource worldwide and occurs naturally in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of babassu nut residues (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp) for bioenergy use, especially for direct combustion and charcoal production. The material was collected in the rural area of the municipality of Sítio Novo do Tocantins, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analyses were performed considering jointly the three layers that make up the babassu nut shell. The following chemical characterizations were performed: molecular (lignin, total extractives and holocellulose), elemental (C, H, N, S and O), immediate (fixed carbon, volatiles and ash), energy (higher heating value and lower heating value), physical (basic density and energy density) and thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), besides the morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Babassu nut residues showed a high bioenergy potential, mainly due to their high energy density. The use of this biomass as a bioenergy source can be highly feasible, given their chemical and thermal characteristics, combined with a low ash content. Babassu nut shell showed a high basic density and a suitable lignin content for the sustainable production of bioenergy and charcoal, capable of replacing coke in Brazilian steel plants.

  1. Establishment and yield of perennial grass monocultures and binary mixtures for bioenergy in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop appropriate bioenergy production systems to match site-specific situations, establishment and yield were evaluated for switchgrass, intermediate wheatgrass, tall wheatgrass, and three binary mixtures at four sites in North Dakota from 2006 to 2011. Canopy cover at harvest for intermediat...

  2. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Desaubies, Yves; Henze, Mogens; Hertel, Ole; Johnson, Richard K; Kastrup, Ulrike; Laconte, Pierre; Lange, Eckart; Novak, Peter; Paavola, Jouni; Reenberg, Anette; van den Hove, Sybille; Vermeire, Theo; Wadhams, Peter; Searchinger, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    Many international policies encourage a switch from fossil fuels to bioenergy based on the premise that its use would not result in carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. Frequently cited bioenergy goals would at least double the present global human use of plant material, the production of which already requires the dedication of roughly 75% of vegetated lands and more than 70% of water withdrawals. However, burning biomass for energy provision increases the amount of carbon in the air just like burning coal, oil or gas if harvesting the biomass decreases the amount of carbon stored in plants and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of 'additional biomass' - biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy - can reduce carbon emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy.

  3. Land conversion to bioenergy production: water budget and sediment output in a semiarid grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass based bioenergy production has been considered a feasible alternative of land use for the mixed-grass prairie and marginal croplands in the High Plains. However, little is known of the effect of this land use change on the water cycle and associated sediment output in this water controll...

  4. Introducing the Atmospheric Visualization Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, C. M.; Andrew, K.; Mace, G. G.; McCollum, T.; Gobble, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Atmospheric Visualization Collection is a digital library collection, a section in the NSF's National Science Digital Library. The collection has two essential components. The first is an archive of images based on data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The second is a collection of educational material based on atmospheric science concepts that use these data images. The data image archive focuses on the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which has the largest collection of ground-based remote-sensing atmospheric instruments. Our visualization tools are automated to create the data images for both archival and real-time uses. ARM instrument mentors and ARM scientist as well as other scientists involved in campaigns at the ARM SGP site review our visualization work for scientific quality. While the archive of weather images was initially created for scientists, collaboration with teachers has identified many of the barriers to educational use. This revealed the need for more educationally friendly interfaces into our weather images and the need for greater documentation. One of the results is our geophysical focus area interface, allowing teachers and students to access these data images. The visualization tools used to produce these data images are available through an open source repository. Testing with undergraduate students has demonstrated the usability of these tools with data from the ARM Archive for class projects. While the task of reviewing and improving user interfaces continues, we have reached a stage where educators and students can easily access our atmospheric data images. An initial set of peer reviewed lesson plans based on these data images has been the basis for workshops to introduce teachers to the AVC. To further involve these teachers a Lesson Plan Sandbox. The Lesson Plan Sandbox allows teachers to submit their lesson plans to share with others, to review lesson plans submitted by other teachers, and to add

  5. Bioenergy residues as novel sorbents to clean up pesticide pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, water contamination from agricultural use of pesticides has received increasing attention within the last decades. In general, sources of pesticide water pollution are categorized into diffuse (stemming from treated fields) and point sources (stemming from farmyards and spillages). Research has demonstrated that 40 to 90% of surface water pesticide contamination is due to point source pollution. To reduce point pollution from farm yards, where the spray equipment is washed, biobed or biofilter systems are used to treat the washing water. The organic material usually used in these systems is often not environmentally sustainable (e.g. peat) and incorporated organic material such as straw leads to a highly heterogeneous water flow, with negative effects on the retention and degradation behavior of the pesticides. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the suitability of alternative materials based on bioenergy residues (biochar and digestate) for use in biofilters. To this aim the sorption-desorption potential of three contrasting pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) on mixtures of soil with digestate and/or biochar were investigated in laboratory batch equilibrium experiments. The results indicate that the mixture of digestate and biochar increased pesticide sorption potential, whereby in all cases, the Kd des / Kf des values were lower than the Kd ads / Kf ads values indicating that the retention of the pesticides was weak. Thus, as Kf des were lower than the Kf ads values and H values were below 1, it can be concluded that the biomixtures presented negative desorption (higher hysteresis) in those cases. A higher Kd (>78 L kg-1), Kf (>400 μM1-1/nf L1/nfkg-1) and KL (>40 L kg-1) was obtained for all pesticides for the digestate and biochar based mixtures, which had a higher organic matter content. However, lower sorption of the pesticides was observed in blank soil compared to the other biomixtures, which was attributed to the

  6. The biogeochemistry of bioenergy landscapes: carbon, nitrogen, and water considerations.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G Philip; Hamilton, Stephen K; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J

    2011-06-01

    The biogeochemical liabilities of grain-based crop production for bioenergy are no different from those of grain-based food production: excessive nitrate leakage, soil carbon and phosphorus loss, nitrous oxide production, and attenuated methane uptake. Contingent problems are well known, increasingly well documented, and recalcitrant: freshwater and coastal marine eutrophication, groundwater pollution, soil organic matter loss, and a warming atmosphere. The conversion of marginal lands not now farmed to annual grain production, including the repatriation of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and other conservation set-aside lands, will further exacerbate the biogeochemical imbalance of these landscapes, as could pressure to further simplify crop rotations. The expected emergence of biorefinery and combustion facilities that accept cellulosic materials offers an alternative outcome: agricultural landscapes that accumulate soil carbon, that conserve nitrogen and phosphorus, and that emit relatively small amounts of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Fields in these landscapes are planted to perennial crops that require less fertilizer, that retain sediments and nutrients that could otherwise be transported to groundwater and streams, and that accumulate carbon in both soil organic matter and roots. If mixed-species assemblages, they additionally provide biodiversity services. Biogeochemical responses of these systems fall chiefly into two areas: carbon neutrality and water and nutrient conservation. Fluxes must be measured and understood in proposed cropping systems sufficient to inform models that will predict biogeochemical behavior at field, landscape, and regional scales. Because tradeoffs are inherent to these systems, a systems approach is imperative, and because potential biofuel cropping systems and their environmental contexts are complex and cannot be exhaustively tested, modeling will be instructive. Modeling alternative biofuel cropping systems converted

  7. Water Quality Effects of Miscanthus as a Bioenergy Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, T.; Eheart, J. W.; Cai, X.

    2009-12-01

    There is increasing interest in perennial grasses as a renewable source of bioenergy and biofuels. Under the right conditions, environmental advantages of cultivating such crops, relative to conventional row crops, include reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and waterborne pollutants, increased biodiversity and improved soil properties. This study focuses on the riverine nitrate load of cultivating miscanthus in lieu of conventional crops. Miscanthus has been identified as a high-yielding, low-input perennial grass suitable as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production and power generation by biomass combustion. To achieve the objective of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model runoff and stream water quality in the Salt Creek watershed in East-Central Illinois. The watershed is agricultural and its nitrogen export, like that of most other agricultural watersheds in the region, is a major contributor to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. SWAT is a hydrologic model with a built-in crop growth component. However, as miscanthus is relatively new as a crop of interest, data for the SWAT crop growth parameters for it are lacking. This study reports an evaluation of those parameters and an application of them to estimate the potential reduction in nitrate load from miscanthus cultivation under various scenarios. The miscanthus growth parameters are divided into three subsets. The first subset contains those parameters describing optimal growth under zero stress conditions, while the second contains those used to estimate nitrogen stress. Those parameters that are remaining (namely, maximum root depth and phosphorus and temperature stress parameters) are included in the third subset. To calibrate for the parameters in the first subset, simulated data from another miscanthus growth model are used. That other model is highly mechanistic and has been validated (no calibration is necessary because of its degree of mechanisticity) using

  8. Short and Long Term Impacts of Forest Bioenergy Production on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.; Thornton, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    Temperate forest annual net uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere is equivalent to ~16% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in the United States. Mitigation strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of energy including forest biomass. The prospect of forest derived bioenergy has led to implementation of new forest management strategies based on the assumption that they will reduce total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by simultaneously reducing the risk of wildfire and substituting for fossil fuels. The benefit of managing forests for bioenergy substitution of fossil fuels versus potential carbon sequestration by reducing harvest needs to be evaluated. This study uses a combination of Federal Forest Inventory data (FIA), remote sensing, and a coupled carbon-nitrogen ecosystem process model (CLM4-CN) to predict net atmospheric CO2 emissions from forest thinning for bioenergy production in Oregon under varying future management and climate scenarios. We use life-cycle assessment (LCA) incorporating both the forest and forest product sinks and sources of carbon dioxide. Future modeled results are compared with a reduced harvest scenario to determine the potential for increased carbon sequestration in forest biomass. We find that Oregon forests are a current strong sink of 7.5 ± 1.7 Tg C yr-1 or 61 g C m-2 yr-1. (NBP; NEP minus removals from fire and harvest). In the short term, we find that carbon dynamics following harvests for fire prevention and large-scale bioenergy production lead to 2-15% higher emissions over the next 20 years compared to current management, assuming 100% effectiveness of fire prevention. Given the current sink strength, analysis of the forest sector in Oregon demonstrates that increasing harvest levels by all practices above current business-as-usual levels increases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as long as the region's sink persists. In the long-term, we find that projected changes in

  9. How can accelerated development of bioenergy contribute to the future UK energy mix? Insights from a MARKAL modelling exercise

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Donna; Jablonski, Sophie; Moran, Brighid; Anandarajah, Gabrial; Taylor, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Background This work explores the potential contribution of bioenergy technologies to 60% and 80% carbon reductions in the UK energy system by 2050, by outlining the potential for accelerated technological development of bioenergy chains. The investigation was based on insights from MARKAL modelling, detailed literature reviews and expert consultations. Due to the number and complexity of bioenergy pathways and technologies in the model, three chains and two underpinning technologies were selected for detailed investigation: (1) lignocellulosic hydrolysis for the production of bioethanol, (2) gasification technologies for heat and power, (3) fast pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production, (4) biotechnological advances for second generation bioenergy crops, and (5) the development of agro-machinery for growing and harvesting bioenergy crops. Detailed literature searches and expert consultations (looking inter alia at research and development needs and economic projections) led to the development of an 'accelerated' dataset of modelling parameters for each of the selected bioenergy pathways, which were included in five different scenario runs with UK-MARKAL (MED). The results of the 'accelerated runs' were compared with a low-carbon (LC-Core) scenario, which assesses the cheapest way to decarbonise the energy sector. Results Bioenergy was deployed in larger quantities in the bioenergy accelerated technological development scenario compared with the LC-Core scenario. In the electricity sector, solid biomass was highly utilised for energy crop gasification, displacing some deployment of wind power, and nuclear and marine to a lesser extent. Solid biomass was also deployed for heat in the residential sector from 2040 in much higher quantities in the bioenergy accelerated technological development scenario compared with LC-Core. Although lignocellulosic ethanol increased, overall ethanol decreased in the transport sector in the bioenergy accelerated technological

  10. Landscape patterns of bioenergy in a changing climate: implications for crop allocation and land-use competition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Rose A; Pearson, Scott M; Turner, Monica G

    2016-03-01

    Rural landscapes face changing climate, shifting development pressure, and loss of agricultural land. Perennial bioenergy crops grown on existing agricultural land may provide an opportunity to conserve rural landscapes while addressing increased demand for biofuels. However, increased bioenergy production and changing land use raise concerns for tradeoffs within the food-energy-environment trilemma. Heterogeneity of climate, soils, and land use complicate assessment of bioenergy potential in complex landscapes, creating challenges to evaluating future tradeoffs. The hypothesis addressed herein is that perennial bioenergy production can provide an opportunity to avoid agricultural land conversion to development. Using a process-based crop model, we assessed potential bioenergy crop growth through 2100 in a southern Appalachian Mountain region and asked: (1) how mean annual yield differed among three crops (switchgrass Panicum virgatum, giant miscanthus Miscanthus x giganteus, and hybrid poplar Populus x sp.) under current climate and climate change scenarios resulting from moderate and very high greenhouse gas emissions; (2) how maximum landscape yield, spatial allocation of crops, and bioenergy hotspots (areas with highest potential yield) varied among climate scenarios; and (3) how bioenergy hotspots overlapped with current crop production or lands with high development pressure. Under both climate change scenarios, mean annual yield of perennial grasses decreased (-4% to -39%), but yield of hybrid poplar increased (+8% to +20%) which suggests that a switch to woody crops would maximize bioenergy crop production. In total, maximum landscape yield increased by up to 90 000 Mg/yr (6%) in the 21st century due to increased poplar production. Bioenergy hotspots (> 18 Mg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) consistently overlapped with high suburban/exurban development likelihood and existing row crop production. If bioenergy production is constrained to marginal (non-crop) lands

  11. Global land-use and market interactions between climate and bioenergy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, A.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past few years, interest in bioenergy has boomed with higher oil prices and concerns about energy security, farm incomes, and mitigation of climate change. Large-scale commercial bioenergy production could have far reaching implications for regional and global land use and output markets associated with food, forestry, chemical, and energy sectors, as well as household welfare. Similarly, there is significant interest in international agricultural and forestry based carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, which could also provide revenue to developing countries and farmers in exchange for modifying land management practices. However, bioenergy and climate policies are being formulated largely independent of one another. Understanding the interaction between these potentially competing policy objectives is important for identifying possible constraints that one policy might place on the other, potential complementarities that could be exploited in policy design, and net land-use change and management implications over time. This study develops a new dynamic global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model GDyn-E-AEZ to assess the interaction between biofuels production and climate mitigation policies. The model is built on several existing CGE platforms, including 1) GTAP-AEZ-GHG model (Golub et al., 2009), 2) GTAP-BIO (Birur et al., 2008; Taheripour and Tyner, 2011), and 3) GDyn framework (Ianchovichina and McDougall, 2001) extended to investigate the role of population and per capita income growth, changing consumption patterns, and global economic integration in determining long-run patterns of land-use change. The new model is used to assess the effects of domestic and global bioenergy expansion on future land use, as well as sectoral, regional and global GHG emissions mitigation potential. Do bioenergy programs facilitate or constrain GHG mitigation opportunities? For instance, Golub et al. (2009) estimate substantial GHG

  12. Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattejee, T. K. C.

    2006-08-01

    Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

  13. Bioenergy from forestry and changes in atmospheric CO2: reconciling single stand and landscape level approaches.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Francesco; Guest, Geoffrey; Strømman, Anders H

    2013-11-15

    Analyses of global warming impacts from forest bioenergy systems are usually conducted either at a single stand level or at a landscape level, yielding findings that are sometimes interpreted as contrasting. In this paper, we investigate and reconcile the scales at which environmental impact analyses of forest bioenergy systems are undertaken. Focusing on the changes caused in atmospheric CO2 concentration of forest bioenergy systems characterized by different initial states of the forest, we show the features of the analyses at different scales and depict the connections between them. Impacts on atmospheric CO2 concentration at a single stand level are computed through impulse response functions (IRF). Results at a landscape level are elaborated through direct application of IRFs to the emission profile, so to account for the fluxes from all the stands across time and space. Impacts from fossil CO2 emissions are used as a benchmark. At a landscape level, forest bioenergy causes an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration for the first decades that is similar to the impact from fossil CO2, but then the dynamics clearly diverge because while the impact from fossil CO2 continues to rise that from bioenergy stabilizes at a certain level. These results perfectly align with those obtained at a single stand for which characterization factors have been developed. In the hypothetical case of a sudden cessation of emissions, the change caused in atmospheric CO2 concentration from biogenic CO2 emissions reverses within a couple of decades, while that caused by fossil CO2 emissions remains considerably higher for centuries. When counterfactual aspects like the additional sequestration that would have occurred in the forest if not harvested and the theoretical displacement of fossil CO2 are included in the analysis, results can widely differ, as the CO2 debt at a landscape level ranges from a few years to several centuries (depending on the underlying assumptions considered).

  14. Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Samuel Garner

    The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy

  15. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

    2012-11-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black

  16. A Genomic Resource for the Development, Improvement, and Exploitation of Sorghum for Bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, Zachary W.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Mathew T.; Boyles, Richard E.; Shakoor, Nadia; Zielinski, Kelsey J.; Rauh, Bradley L.; Bridges, William C.; Morris, Geoffrey P.; Kresovich, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    With high productivity and stress tolerance, numerous grass genera of the Andropogoneae have emerged as candidates for bioenergy production. To optimize these candidates, research examining the genetic architecture of yield, carbon partitioning, and composition is required to advance breeding objectives. Significant progress has been made developing genetic and genomic resources for Andropogoneae, and advances in comparative and computational genomics have enabled research examining the genetic basis of photosynthesis, carbon partitioning, composition, and sink strength. To provide a pivotal resource aimed at developing a comparative understanding of key bioenergy traits in the Andropogoneae, we have established and characterized an association panel of 390 racially, geographically, and phenotypically diverse Sorghum bicolor accessions with 232,303 genetic markers. Sorghum bicolor was selected because of its genomic simplicity, phenotypic diversity, significant genomic tools, and its agricultural productivity and resilience. We have demonstrated the value of sorghum as a functional model for candidate gene discovery for bioenergy Andropogoneae by performing genome-wide association analysis for two contrasting phenotypes representing key components of structural and non-structural carbohydrates. We identified potential genes, including a cellulase enzyme and a vacuolar transporter, associated with increased non-structural carbohydrates that could lead to bioenergy sorghum improvement. Although our analysis identified genes with potentially clear functions, other candidates did not have assigned functions, suggesting novel molecular mechanisms for carbon partitioning traits. These results, combined with our characterization of phenotypic and genetic diversity and the public accessibility of each accession and genomic data, demonstrate the value of this resource and provide a foundation for future improvement of sorghum and related grasses for bioenergy production

  17. A Genomic Resource for the Development, Improvement, and Exploitation of Sorghum for Bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Brenton, Zachary W; Cooper, Elizabeth A; Myers, Mathew T; Boyles, Richard E; Shakoor, Nadia; Zielinski, Kelsey J; Rauh, Bradley L; Bridges, William C; Morris, Geoffrey P; Kresovich, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    With high productivity and stress tolerance, numerous grass genera of the Andropogoneae have emerged as candidates for bioenergy production. To optimize these candidates, research examining the genetic architecture of yield, carbon partitioning, and composition is required to advance breeding objectives. Significant progress has been made developing genetic and genomic resources for Andropogoneae, and advances in comparative and computational genomics have enabled research examining the genetic basis of photosynthesis, carbon partitioning, composition, and sink strength. To provide a pivotal resource aimed at developing a comparative understanding of key bioenergy traits in the Andropogoneae, we have established and characterized an association panel of 390 racially, geographically, and phenotypically diverse Sorghum bicolor accessions with 232,303 genetic markers. Sorghum bicolor was selected because of its genomic simplicity, phenotypic diversity, significant genomic tools, and its agricultural productivity and resilience. We have demonstrated the value of sorghum as a functional model for candidate gene discovery for bioenergy Andropogoneae by performing genome-wide association analysis for two contrasting phenotypes representing key components of structural and non-structural carbohydrates. We identified potential genes, including a cellulase enzyme and a vacuolar transporter, associated with increased non-structural carbohydrates that could lead to bioenergy sorghum improvement. Although our analysis identified genes with potentially clear functions, other candidates did not have assigned functions, suggesting novel molecular mechanisms for carbon partitioning traits. These results, combined with our characterization of phenotypic and genetic diversity and the public accessibility of each accession and genomic data, demonstrate the value of this resource and provide a foundation for future improvement of sorghum and related grasses for bioenergy production.

  18. Effects on aquatic and human health due to large scale bioenergy crop expansion.

    PubMed

    Love, Bradley J; Einheuser, Matthew D; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the environmental impacts of large scale bioenergy crops were evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Daily pesticide concentration data for a study area consisting of four large watersheds located in Michigan (totaling 53,358 km²) was estimated over a six year period (2000-2005). Model outputs for atrazine, bromoxynil, glyphosate, metolachlor, pendimethalin, sethoxydim, triflualin, and 2,4-D model output were used to predict the possible long-term implications that large-scale bioenergy crop expansion may have on the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and humans. Threshold toxicity levels were obtained for the bluegill and for human consumption for all pesticides being evaluated through an extensive literature review. Model output was compared to each toxicity level for the suggested exposure time (96-hour for bluegill and 24-hour for humans). The results suggest that traditional intensive row crops such as canola, corn and sorghum may negatively impact aquatic life, and in most cases affect the safe drinking water availability. The continuous corn rotation, the most representative rotation for current agricultural practices for a starch-based ethanol economy, delivers the highest concentrations of glyphosate to the stream. In addition, continuous canola contributed to a concentration of 1.11 ppm of trifluralin, a highly toxic herbicide, which is 8.7 times the 96-hour ecotoxicity of bluegills and 21 times the safe drinking water level. Also during the period of study, continuous corn resulted in the impairment of 541,152 km of stream. However, there is promise with second-generation lignocellulosic bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, which resulted in a 171,667 km reduction in total stream length that exceeds the human threshold criteria, as compared to the base scenario. Results of this study may be useful in determining the suitability of bioenergy crop rotations and aid in decision making regarding the adaptation of large

  19. Fire regimes and potential bioenergy loss from agricultural lands in the Indo-Gangetic Plains.

    PubMed

    Vadrevu, Krishna; Lasko, Kristofer

    2015-01-15

    Agricultural fires in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) are a major cause of air pollution. In this study, we evaluate fire regimes and quantify the potential of agricultural residues in generating bioenergy that otherwise are subject to burning by local farmers in the region. For characterizing the fire regimes, we used MODIS satellite datasets in conjunction with IRS-AWiFS classified data. We collected crop statistical data for area, production, and yield for 31 different crops and mapped the bioenergy potential of agricultural residues. We also tested the MODIS net primary production (NPP) dataset potential for crop yield estimation and thereby bioenergy calculations. Results from land use-fire analysis suggested that 88.13% of fires occurred in agricultural areas. Relatively more fires and burnt areas were recorded during the winter rice residue burning season than the summer wheat residue burning season. Monte Carlo analysis suggested that nearly 16.5 Tg of crop residues are burned at 60% probability. MODIS NPP data could explain 62% of variation in field-level crop yield estimates. Our analysis revealed that in the IGP nearly 73.28 Tg of crop residue biomass is available for recycling. The energy equivalent from these residues is estimated to be 1110.77 PJ. From the residues, the biogas potential production is estimated to be 1165.1098 million m(3), the electric power potential at 20% efficiency is estimated at 61698.9 kWh, and the total bioethanol production potential at 21.0 billion liters. Results also highlight geographic locations of bioenergy resources in the IGP useful for energy planning. Controlling agricultural residue burning and promoting the bioenergy sector is an attractive "win-win" strategy in the IGP.

  20. A Dynamical Successor to Modernism and Postmodernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Don

    2008-01-01

    The author introduces an emerging worldview that could affect counseling concepts and methods greatly in the relatively near future. The worldview, dynamicalism, incorporates essential features of modernism and postmodernism. It also incorporates cutting-edge concepts from physics and philosophy. The synthesis of these ideas provides a conceptual…

  1. 2010 Army Modernization Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    details outlined in Chapter 4 will describe the following modernization objectives: With night vision goggles our Soldiers “own the night .” 10 2010 ARMY...modern armor-capable truck versus a non-armor capable truck? What percentage of our Night Vision Devices must be the most modern variant? The Army...Soldier weapons sight and sensors so they operate within the GSS framework. Systems such as the Digital Enhanced Night Vision Goggle could allow

  2. An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R A

    2011-04-06

    This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent 'disequilibrium' behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers.

  3. Net land-atmosphere flows of biogenic carbon related to bioenergy: towards an understanding of systemic feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Haberl, Helmut

    2013-07-01

    The notion that biomass combustion is carbon neutral vis-a-vis the atmosphere because carbon released during biomass combustion is absorbed during plant regrowth is inherent in the greenhouse gas accounting rules in many regulations and conventions. But this 'carbon neutrality' assumption of bioenergy is an oversimplification that can result in major flaws in emission accounting; it may even result in policies that increase, instead of reduce, overall greenhouse gas emissions. This commentary discusses the systemic feedbacks and ecosystem succession/land-use history issues ignored by the carbon neutrality assumption. Based on recent literature, three cases are elaborated which show that the C balance of bioenergy may range from highly beneficial to strongly detrimental, depending on the plants grown, the land used (including its land-use history) as well as the fossil energy replaced. The article concludes by proposing the concept of GHG cost curves of bioenergy as a means for optimizing the climate benefits of bioenergy policies.

  4. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  5. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  6. History of Modern Applied Mathematics in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the integration of history of modern applied mathematics in mathematics education as well as the possible teaching and learning benefits of introducing a newer history of mathematics over an old(er) one--something that seems to be done most often when integrating history. Three cases of the history of modern applied…

  7. SORGHUM BIOMASS/FEEDSTOCK GENOMICS RESEARCH FOR BIOENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, William L.; Mullet, John E.; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Steven; Ware, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The specific objectives of this project were to: (1) annotate genes, pathways and regulatory networks identified in the sorghum genome sequence that are important for biomass generation, and (2) identify, map and clarify the function of trait loci that modulate accumulation and quality of biomass in sorghum. Approach: Objective 1: Genes encoding proteins involved in biochemical pathways important for biomass generation and plant composition related to biofuel production (i.e., starch, lignin, sugar, cellulose and hemicellulose) were identified and projected onto biochemical pathways using the database MetaCyc (SorgCyc). The pathway projections provide a baseline of information on sorghum genes involved in biochemical pathways thus aiding our downstream analysis of QTL and traits. In addition, the information on sorghum biochemical pathways in Gramene can be readily compared to information on other cereals and other organisms via Gramene’s comparative mapping tools. This information helped identify gaps in the current knowledge of sorghum biochemistry and identified pathways and genes that may be useful to deploy in sorghum for biomass/bioenergy generation. Objective 2: Grain, biomass, and carbohydrate yields were measured in germplasm and a population consisting of 175 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (F5:6) from the cross of BTx623 (a high yielding early flowering grain sorghum) × Rio (a high biomass sweet sorghum). Plant growth parameters were analyzed to obtain a baseline for downstream meta-analysis including plant height, flowering time and tillering, traits that likely modulate carbohydrate partitioning in various tissues and total biomass. Traits that affect grain yield, biomass (i.e. the tissue harvest index and distribution of grain, stem, and leaf weight), the composition of structural and non-structural carbohydrates, and the overall energy gain of the plant were evaluated. A genetic map of this population was created and QTL analysis will

  8. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region to be part of Special Issue on Biofuels in the Americas

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Keith L; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camilia Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar de Silva; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil, regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  9. CO2 CH4 and N20 fluxes during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenone, T.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 CH4 and N20 fluxes during land conversion in early bioenergy systems Terenzio Zenone1-2, Jiquan Chen1-2, Ilya Gelfand3-4, G. Philip Robertson3-4 1 Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH USA 2 Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI USA 3 W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners, MI USA 4Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI USA Environmental sustainability of bioenergy crop cultivation represents an important challenge and is a topic of intensive scientific and political debate worldwide due to increasing societal needs for renewable energy. Despite the increasing knowledge related to potential bioenergy systems, the effect of land use change (LUC) on GHG fluxes during the conversion remains poorly understood but is likely to be substantial. In order to tackle this issue the Great lake Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a field experiment and deployed a cluster of eddy-covariance towers to quantify the magnitude and changes of ecosystem carbon assimilation, loss, and balance during the conversion and establishment years in a permanent prairie and four types of candidate biofuel systems [Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grassland, switchgrass, mixed-species restored prairie and corn]. Six sites were converted to soybean in 2009 before establishing the bioenergy systems in 2010 while one site was kept grassland as reference. Soil N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured biweekly with static chambers in four replicate locations in each fields, within the footprint of the eddy covariance tower using static chamber GHG flux protocols of the KBS LTER site. Our field observations, made between January 2009 through December 2010, showed that conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year that ranging from 288 g C m-2, to 173 g C m-2 . while

  10. Combination Effects of Structure Nonuniformity of Proteins on the Soliton Transported Bio-Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Jia-Feng; Lao, Yu-Hui

    Combination effects of structure disorder of protein molecules containing the fluctuations of spring constant, dipole-dipole interaction constant and exciton-phonon coupling constant and diagonal disorder, resulting from nonuniform distribution of masses of amino acid residues and impurities, on the soliton transported the bio-energy in the proteins have been numerically simulated by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method in the improved model. The results obtained show that these structure disorders can change the states of solitons but as the solitons are quite robust against these disorder effects, they can only be dispersed or disrupted in the cases of quite large structure disorders. From these results and the properties of molecular structure of biological proteins we can conclude that the new soliton in the improved model is quite stable in normal conditions. Thus the soliton is possibly a carrier of bio-energy transport in the protein molecules.

  11. Managing Bioenergy Production on Arable Field Margins for Multiple Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarini, Andrea; Serra, Paolo; Amaducci, Stefano; Trevisan, Marco; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    Growing crops for bioenergy is increasingly viewed as conflicting with food production. However, energy use continues to rise and food production requires fuel inputs, which have increased with intensification. The debate should shift from "food or fuel" to the more challenging target: how the increasing demand for food and energy can be met in the future, particularly when water and land availability will be limited. As for food crops, also for bioenergy crops it is questioned whether it is preferable to manage cultivation to enhance ecosystem services ("land sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand ("land sparing" strategy). Energy crop production systems differ greatly in the supply of ecosystem services. The use of perennial biomass (e.g. Switchgrass, Mischantus, Giant reed) for energy production is considered a promising way to reduce net carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. In addition, regulating and supporting ecosystem services could be provided when specific management of bioenergy crops is implemented. The idea of HEDGE-BIOMASS* project is to convert the arable field margins to bioenergy crop production fostering a win-win strategy at landscape level. Main objective of the project is to improve land management to generate environmental benefits and increase farmer income. The various options available in literature for an improved field boundary management are presented. The positive/unknown/negative effects of growing perennial bioenergy crops on field margins will be discussed relatively to the following soil-related ecosystem services: (I) biodiversity conservation and enhancement, (II) soil nutrient cycling, (III) climate regulation (reduction of GHG emissions and soil carbon sequestration/stabilization, (IV) water regulation (filtering and buffering), (V) erosion regulation, (VI) pollination and pest regulation. From the analysis of available

  12. Global climate impacts of bioenergy from forests: implications from biogenic CO2 fluxes and surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bright, Ryan; Strømman, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Production of biomass for bioenergy can alter biogeochemical and biogeophysical mechanisms, thus affecting local and global climate. Recent scientific developments mainly embraced impacts from land use changes resulting from area-expanded biomass production, with several extensive insights available. Comparably less attention, however, is given to the assessment of direct land surface-atmosphere climate impacts of bioenergy systems under rotation such as in plantations and forested ecosystems, whereby land use disturbances are only temporary. In this work, we assess bioenergy systems representative of various biomass species (spruce, pine, aspen, etc.) and climatic regions (US, Canada, Norway, etc.), for both stationary and vehicle applications. In addition to conventional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through life cycle activities (harvest, transport, processing, etc.), we evaluate the contributions to global warming of temporary effects resulting from the perturbation in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration caused by the timing of biogenic CO2 fluxes and in surface reflectivity (albedo). Biogenic CO2 fluxes on site after harvest are directly measured through Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) chronosequences from flux towers established at the interface between the forest canopy and the atmosphere and are inclusive of all CO2 exchanges occurring in the forest (e.g., sequestration of CO2 in growing trees, emissions from soil respiration and decomposition of dead organic materials). These primary data based on empirical measurements provide an accurate representation of the forest carbon sink behavior over time, and they are used in the elaboration of high-resolution IRFs for biogenic CO2 emissions. Chronosequence of albedo values from clear-cut to pre-harvest levels are gathered from satellite data (MODIS black-sky shortwave broadband, Collection 5, MCD43A). Following the cause-effect chain from emissions to damages, through radiative forcing and changes

  13. Willow biomass-bioenergy industry development in New York: Sustainability and environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Robison, D.J.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1996-12-31

    Biomass-for-bioenergy cropping and production systems based on willow (and poplar) planted and managed at high densities and short (3 to 4 year) coppice harvest cycles, providing fuel for co-firing with coal (or other types of energy conversion) can be economically, ecologically and environmentally sustainable. All of these areas are crucial to the successful commercialization of this biomass-bioenergy system. Current knowledge and ongoing research and development indicate that the production and utilization systems involved are environmentally and ecologically acceptable. Therefore two of the primary constraints to commercialization have been met. The remaining constraint is economic viability based on cost of production and use, the value of environmental externalities (such as atmospheric emissions), and potential government public policy actions to promote this system of providing a locally produced and renewable farm crop and fuel. Developments needed to overcome the economic constraints are known, and should be bolstered by the environmental and ecological quality of the system.

  14. Scaling laws and technology development strategies for biorefineries and bioenergy plants.

    PubMed

    Jack, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    The economies of scale of larger biorefineries or bioenergy plants compete with the diseconomies of scale of transporting geographically distributed biomass to a central location. This results in an optimum plant size that depends on the scaling parameters of the two contributions. This is a fundamental aspect of biorefineries and bioenergy plants and has important consequences for technology development as "bigger is better" is not necessarily true. In this paper we explore the consequences of these scaling effects via a simplified model of biomass transportation and plant costs. Analysis of this model suggests that there is a need for much more sophisticated technology development strategies to exploit the consequences of these scaling effects. We suggest three potential strategies in terms of the scaling parameters of the system.

  15. Biotechnology and synthetic biology approaches for metabolic engineering of bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Shih, Patrick M; Liang, Yan; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    The Green Revolution has fuelled an exponential growth in human population since the mid-20th century. Due to population growth, food and energy demands will soon surpass supply capabilities. To overcome these impending problems, significant improvements in genetic engineering will be needed to complement breeding efforts in order to accelerate the improvement of agronomical traits. The new field of plant synthetic biology has emerged in recent years and is expected to support rapid, precise, and robust engineering of plants. In this review, we present recent advances made in the field of plant synthetic biology, specifically in genome editing, transgene expression regulation, and bioenergy crop engineering, with a focus on traits related to lignocellulose, oil, and soluble sugars. Ultimately, progress and innovation in these fields may facilitate the development of beneficial traits in crop plants to meet society's bioenergy needs.

  16. European greenhouse gas fluxes from land use: the impact of expanding the use of dedicated bioenergy crops.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Astley; Böttcher, Hannes; Clifton-Brown, John; Fuchs, Richard; Hillier, Jon; Jones, Ed; Obersteiner, Michael; Pogson, Mark; Richards, Mark; Smith, Pete

    2013-04-01

    Bioenergy derived from vegetation cycles carbon to and from the atmosphere using the chemical energy fixed by the plants by photosynthesis using solar energy. However bioenergy is not carbon neutral as energy is used and greenhouse gasses (GHG) are emitted in the process of growing bioenergy feeedstocks and processing them into a usable fuel, whether it is biomass or liquid fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol. Using bio instead of fossil fuels replaces greenhouse gas emissions from coal, oil and gas by those of the biofuel. To estimate the impact on European greenhouse gas fluxes of expanding the use of bioenergy, it is necessary to quantify the difference between the GHG emissions associated with producing and using the biofuel and the fossil fuel it replaces, and to take into account any emissions associated with the change from the original land use to that of growing the bioenergy feedstock. This involves estimating any displacement of food, fibre and timber production to other geographical areas. Here we report on a study of the GHG emissions from the potential increasing use of a variety of biofuels produced from feedstocks grown in the EU countries. The GHG emissions of the historical land use of EU27 have been modelled using ECOSSE on a 1 km grid to estimate the impact the agriculture intensification and land use change of the last 50 years and the associated crop yield gains. The excess land made available from the yield gains is considered to be available for use for bioenergy, and the yields of potential bioenergy feedstocks are estimated from EUROSTAT data or modelled using the bioenergy crop growth model MISCANFOR. These yields are used to calculate the energy used and GHG emissions associated with the use of the resulting biofuel using a life cycle analysis, and to estimate the organic matter input into the soil. The ECOSSE model is then used to estimate the soil carbon change and GHG emissions associated with the land use change to growing the

  17. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production

    PubMed Central

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C.; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration. PMID:26963623

  18. Toward a "bio-energy supplement" -- a prototype for functional orthomolecular supplementation.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1981-04-01

    A broad-spectrum approach to the nutritional optimization of bioenergetics is discussed as a specific example of the principle of functional orthomolecular supplementation. Experimental and clinical studies with "metavitamins" such as lipoic acid, carnitine, coenzyme Q, and creatine, and with mitochondrial antioxidants, indicate that many nutritional agents involved in bioenergetics are often functionally sub-saturated. Numerous therapeutic applications for a well-designed "bio-energy supplement" can be postulated.

  19. Life-cycle assessment of net greenhouse-gas flux for bioenergy cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Adler, Paul R; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J

    2007-04-01

    Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset greenhouse gas emissions, but quantifying that offset is complex. Bioenergy crops offset carbon dioxide emissions by converting atmospheric CO2 to organic C in crop biomass and soil, but they also emit nitrous oxide and vary in their effects on soil oxidation of methane. Growing the crops requires energy (e.g., to operate farm machinery, produce inputs such as fertilizer) and so does converting the harvested product to usable fuels (feedstock conversion efficiency). The objective of this study was to quantify all these factors to determine the net effect of several bioenergy cropping systems on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. We used the DAYCENT biogeochemistry model to assess soil GHG fluxes and biomass yields for corn, soybean, alfalfa, hybrid poplar, reed canarygrass, and switchgrass as bioenergy crops in Pennsylvania, USA. DAYCENT results were combined with estimates of fossil fuels used to provide farm inputs and operate agricultural machinery and fossil-fuel offsets from biomass yields to calculate net GHG fluxes for each cropping system considered. Displaced fossil fuel was the largest GHG sink, followed by soil carbon sequestration. N20 emissions were the largest GHG source. All cropping systems considered provided net GHG sinks, even when soil C was assumed to reach a new steady state and C sequestration in soil was not counted. Hybrid poplar and switchgrass provided the largest net GHG sinks, >200 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass conversion to ethanol, and >400 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass gasification for electricity generation. Compared with the life cycle of gasoline and diesel, ethanol and biodiesel from corn rotations reduced GHG emissions by approximately 40%, reed canarygrass by approximately 85%, and switchgrass and hybrid poplar by approximately 115%.

  20. Development and use of bioenergy feedstocks for semi-arid and arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, John C.; Davis, Sarah C.; Yang, Xiaohan; Borland, Anne M.

    2015-04-01

    Here we report that global climate change is predicted to increase heat, drought, and soil-drying conditions, and thereby increase crop sensitivity to water vapour pressure deficit, resulting in productivity losses. Increasing competition between agricultural freshwater use and municipal or industrial uses suggest that crops with greater heat and drought durability and greater water-use efficiency will be crucial for sustainable biomass production systems in the future. Agave (Agavaceae) and Opuntia (Cactaceae) represent highly water-use efficient bioenergy crops that could diversify bioenergy feedstock supply yet preserve or expand feedstock production into semi-arid, abandoned, or degraded agricultural lands, and reclaim drylands. Agave and Opuntia are crassulacean acid metabolism species that can achieve high water-use efficiencies and grow in water-limited areas with insufficient precipitation to support traditional C3 or C4 bioenergy crops. Both Agave and Opuntia have the potential to produce above-ground biomass rivalling that of C3 and C4 crops under optimal growing conditions. The low lignin and high amorphous cellulose contents of Agave and Opuntia lignocellulosic biomass will be less recalcitrant to deconstruction than traditional feedstocks, as confirmed by pretreatments that improve saccharification of Agave. Refined environmental productivity indices and geographical information systems modelling have provided estimates of Agave and Opuntia biomass productivity and terrestrial sequestration of atmospheric CO2; however, the accuracy of such modelling efforts can be improved through the expansion of field trials in diverse geographical settings. Lastly, we note that life cycle analysis indicates that Agave would have productivity, life cycle energy, and greenhouse gas balances comparable or superior to those of traditional bioenergy feedstocks, but would be far more water-use efficient.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy's Genomics: GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission and goals.

  2. Development and use of bioenergy feedstocks for semi-arid and arid lands.

    PubMed

    Cushman, John C; Davis, Sarah C; Yang, Xiaohan; Borland, Anne M

    2015-07-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase heat, drought, and soil-drying conditions, and thereby increase crop sensitivity to water vapour pressure deficit, resulting in productivity losses. Increasing competition between agricultural freshwater use and municipal or industrial uses suggest that crops with greater heat and drought durability and greater water-use efficiency will be crucial for sustainable biomass production systems in the future. Agave (Agavaceae) and Opuntia (Cactaceae) represent highly water-use efficient bioenergy crops that could diversify bioenergy feedstock supply yet preserve or expand feedstock production into semi-arid, abandoned, or degraded agricultural lands, and reclaim drylands. Agave and Opuntia are crassulacean acid metabolism species that can achieve high water-use efficiencies and grow in water-limited areas with insufficient precipitation to support traditional C3 or C4 bioenergy crops. Both Agave and Opuntia have the potential to produce above-ground biomass rivalling that of C3 and C4 crops under optimal growing conditions. The low lignin and high amorphous cellulose contents of Agave and Opuntia lignocellulosic biomass will be less recalcitrant to deconstruction than traditional feedstocks, as confirmed by pretreatments that improve saccharification of Agave. Refined environmental productivity indices and geographical information systems modelling have provided estimates of Agave and Opuntia biomass productivity and terrestrial sequestration of atmospheric CO2; however, the accuracy of such modelling efforts can be improved through the expansion of field trials in diverse geographical settings. Lastly, life cycle analysis indicates that Agave would have productivity, life cycle energy, and greenhouse gas balances comparable or superior to those of traditional bioenergy feedstocks, but would be far more water-use efficient.

  3. Hydrological and sedimentation implications of landscape changes in a Himalayan catchment due to bioenergy cropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remesan, Renji; Holman, Ian; Janes, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    There is a global effort to focus on the development of bioenergy and energy cropping, due to the generally increasing demand for crude oil, high oil price volatility and climate change mitigation challenges. Second generation energy cropping is expected to increase greatly in India as the Government of India has recently approved a national policy of 20 % biofuel blending by 2017; furthermore, the country's biomass based power generation potential is estimated as around ~24GW and large investments are expected in coming years to increase installed capacity. In this study, we have modelled the environmental influences (e.g.: hydrology and sediment) of scenarios of increased biodiesel cropping (Jatropha curcas) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a northern Indian river basin. SWAT has been applied to the River Beas basin, using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) meteorological data to simulate the river regime and crop yields. We have applied Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2 (SUFI-2) to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow modelling. The model evaluation statistics for daily river flows at the Jwalamukhi and Pong gauges show good agreement with measured flows (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.70 and PBIAS of 7.54 %). The study has applied two land use change scenarios of (1) increased bioenergy cropping in marginal (grazing) lands in the lower and middle regions of catchment (2) increased bioenergy cropping in low yielding areas of row crops in the lower and middle regions of the catchment. The presentation will describe the improved understanding of the hydrological, erosion and sediment delivery and food production impacts arising from the introduction of a new cropping variety to a marginal area; and illustrate the potential prospects of bioenergy production in Himalayan valleys.

  4. Support for the 4th Pan-American Congress on Plants and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-25

    Intellectual Merit: Following the success of the first three Pan-American Congresses on Plants and BioEnergy held biennially, the 4th congress will be held at the University of Guelph, Canada June 4-7, 2014. We aim to continue a tradition of showcasing major advances in energy crop improvement yet keep in perspective the realities of the economic drivers and pressures that govern the translation of scientific success into a commercial success. The congress is endorsed by the American Society of Plant Biologists and the Canadian Society of Plant Biologists. The program will cover a range of disciplines, including algal and plant systems for bioenergy, plant genetics and genomics, gene discovery for improvement of bioenergy production and quality, regulatory mechanisms of synthesis and degradation, strategies for 3rd generation biofuel production and the promise of synthetic biology in production of biofuels and bio-based products, cropping systems and productivity for biomass production, and mitigation of environmental impacts of bioenergy production. Broader Impacts: We are requesting support to generate stipends for domestic and permanent-resident students, post-doctorals, and pre-tenured faculty members to attend and benefit from the outstanding program. The stipends will be limited to registration and on-site lodging costs, with partial support for travel in instances of great need. So that as great a number can benefit as possible, airfare costs will be provided for only applicants with great need. ASPB has endorsed this meeting and will assist in advertising and promoting the meeting. ASPB has a long-standing commitment to increase participation and advance the careers in plant biology of women, minorities and underrepresented scientists, and they will assist us in identifying worthy candidates.

  5. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    PubMed

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration.

  6. Changes in N-transforming archaea and bacteria in soil during the establishment of bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuejian; Yannarell, Anthony C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2011-01-01

    Widespread adaptation of biomass production for bioenergy may influence important biogeochemical functions in the landscape, which are mainly carried out by soil microbes. Here we explore the impact of four potential bioenergy feedstock crops (maize, switchgrass, Miscanthus X giganteus, and mixed tallgrass prairie) on nitrogen cycling microorganisms in the soil by monitoring the changes in the quantity (real-time PCR) and diversity (barcoded pyrosequencing) of key functional genes (nifH, bacterial/archaeal amoA and nosZ) and 16S rRNA genes over two years after bioenergy crop establishment. The quantities of these N-cycling genes were relatively stable in all four crops, except maize (the only fertilized crop), in which the population size of AOB doubled in less than 3 months. The nitrification rate was significantly correlated with the quantity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) not bacteria (AOB), indicating that archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers. Deep sequencing revealed high diversity of nifH, archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nosZ and 16S rRNA genes, with 229, 309, 330, 331 and 8989 OTUs observed, respectively. Rarefaction analysis revealed the diversity of archaeal amoA in maize markedly decreased in the second year. Ordination analysis of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing results showed that the N-transforming microbial community structures in the soil under these crops gradually differentiated. Thus far, our two-year study has shown that specific N-transforming microbial communities develop in the soil in response to planting different bioenergy crops, and each functional group responded in a different way. Our results also suggest that cultivation of maize with N-fertilization increases the abundance of AOB and denitrifiers, reduces the diversity of AOA, and results in significant changes in the structure of denitrification community.

  7. Subsurface Drainage Nitrate and Total Reactive Phosphorus Losses in Bioenergy-Based Prairies and Corn Systems.

    PubMed

    Daigh, Aaron L M; Zhou, Xiaobo; Helmers, Matthew J; Pederson, Carl H; Horton, Robert; Jarchow, Meghann; Liebman, Matt

    2015-09-01

    We compare subsurface-drainage NO-N and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) concentrations and yields of select bioenergy cropping systems and their rotational phases. Cropping systems evaluated were grain-harvested corn-soybean rotations, grain- and stover-harvested continuous corn systems with and without a cover crop, and annually harvested reconstructed prairies with and without the addition of N fertilizer in an Iowa field. Drainage was monitored when soils were unfrozen during 2010 through 2013. The corn-soybean rotations without residue removal and continuous corn with residue removal produced similar mean annual flow-weighted NO-N concentrations, ranging from 6 to 18.5 mg N L during the 4-yr study. In contrast, continuous corn with residue removal and with a cover crop had significantly lower NO-N concentrations of 5.6 mg N L when mean annual flow-weighted values were averaged across the 4 yr. Prairies systems with or without N fertilization produced significantly lower concentrations below <1 mg NO-N L than all the row crop systems throughout the study. Mean annual flow-weighted TRP concentrations and annual yields were generally low, with values <0.04 mg TRP L and <0.14 kg TRP ha, and were not significantly affected by any cropping systems or their rotational phases. Bioenergy-based prairies with or without N fertilization and continuous corn with stover removal and a cover crop have the potential to supply bioenergy feedstocks while minimizing NO-N losses to drainage waters. However, subsurface drainage TRP concentrations and yields in bioenergy systems will need further evaluation in areas prone to higher levels of P losses.

  8. Development and use of bioenergy feedstocks for semi-arid and arid lands

    DOE PAGES

    Cushman, John C.; Davis, Sarah C.; Yang, Xiaohan; ...

    2015-04-01

    Here we report that global climate change is predicted to increase heat, drought, and soil-drying conditions, and thereby increase crop sensitivity to water vapour pressure deficit, resulting in productivity losses. Increasing competition between agricultural freshwater use and municipal or industrial uses suggest that crops with greater heat and drought durability and greater water-use efficiency will be crucial for sustainable biomass production systems in the future. Agave (Agavaceae) and Opuntia (Cactaceae) represent highly water-use efficient bioenergy crops that could diversify bioenergy feedstock supply yet preserve or expand feedstock production into semi-arid, abandoned, or degraded agricultural lands, and reclaim drylands. Agave andmore » Opuntia are crassulacean acid metabolism species that can achieve high water-use efficiencies and grow in water-limited areas with insufficient precipitation to support traditional C3 or C4 bioenergy crops. Both Agave and Opuntia have the potential to produce above-ground biomass rivalling that of C3 and C4 crops under optimal growing conditions. The low lignin and high amorphous cellulose contents of Agave and Opuntia lignocellulosic biomass will be less recalcitrant to deconstruction than traditional feedstocks, as confirmed by pretreatments that improve saccharification of Agave. Refined environmental productivity indices and geographical information systems modelling have provided estimates of Agave and Opuntia biomass productivity and terrestrial sequestration of atmospheric CO2; however, the accuracy of such modelling efforts can be improved through the expansion of field trials in diverse geographical settings. Lastly, we note that life cycle analysis indicates that Agave would have productivity, life cycle energy, and greenhouse gas balances comparable or superior to those of traditional bioenergy feedstocks, but would be far more water-use efficient.« less

  9. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge; Correa, Jose

    1999-10-01

    Due to the lack of laboratories for introductory modern physics classes, Dr. Jorge A. Lopez and Mr. Jose Ricardo Correa from the UTEP Physics Department work in the development of computer simulations of important modern physics experiments for the aforementioned physics classes. The presentation will inform the audience about this resource in the instruction of introductory modern physics as well as the success it has had. Introductory modern physics classes expose students to radically new concepts that defy common sense. As if this was not hard enough, students encounter a lack of hands-on activities due to the lack of lab equipment for their modern physics class. This is to be understood since most of the experiments cannot be performed in the conditions university laboratories provide and at the undergraduate level organization. Therefore, much time and effort have been devoted to the development of computer simulations of key modern physics experiments. These virtual experiments are a great alternative that will alleviate the limitations physics professors face when teaching introductory modern physics courses in addition to enchance student understanding.

  10. The Use of Modern Pedagogical Techniques When Introducing Information Technology Students to Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardede, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design of teaching and learning activities (TLAs) in an entrepreneurship subject offered to Information Technology (IT) students. We describe the challenges that we have encountered. Within one teaching semester, the students are expected to achieve a high level of applied knowledge in an area where they have little…

  11. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical Framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Kline, Keith L; Nair, S. Surendran; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Post, Wilfred M; Brandt, Craig C; Wullschleger, Stan D; Wei, Yaxing; Singh, Nagendra

    2013-01-01

    A global energy crop productivity model that provides geospatially explicit quantitative details on biomass potential and factors affecting sustainability would be useful, but does not exist now. This study describes a modeling platform capable of meeting many challenges associated with global-scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed an analytical framework for bioenergy crops consisting of six major components: (i) standardized natural resources datasets, (ii) global field-trial data and crop management practices, (iii) simulation units and management scenarios, (iv) model calibration and validation, (v) high-performance computing (HPC) simulation, and (vi) simulation output processing and analysis. The HPC-Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (HPC-EPIC) model simulated a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), estimating feedstock production potentials and effects across the globe. This modeling platform can assess soil C sequestration, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nonpoint source pollution (e.g., nutrient and pesticide loss), and energy exchange with the atmosphere. It can be expanded to include additional bioenergy crops (e.g., miscanthus, energy cane, and agave) and food crops under different management scenarios. The platform and switchgrass field-trial dataset are available to support global analysis of biomass feedstock production potential and corresponding metrics of sustainability.

  12. Challenges and models in supporting logistics system design for dedicated-biomass-based bioenergy industry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xueping; Yao, Qingzhu; Chen, Yuerong

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the uniqueness and challenges in designing the logistics system for dedicated biomass-to-bioenergy industry, which differs from the other industries, due to the unique features of dedicated biomass (e.g., switchgrass) including its low bulk density, restrictions on harvesting season and frequency, content variation with time and circumambient conditions, weather effects, scattered distribution over a wide geographical area, and so on. To design it, this paper proposed a mixed integer linear programming model. It covered from planting and harvesting switchgrass to delivering to a biorefinery and included the residue handling, concentrating on integrating strategic decisions on the supply chain design and tactical decisions on the annual operation schedules. The present numerical examples verified the model and demonstrated its use in practice. This paper showed that the operations of the logistics system were significantly different for harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, and that under the well-designed biomass logistics system, the mass production with a steady and sufficient supply of biomass can increase the unit profit of bioenergy. The analytical model and practical methodology proposed in this paper will help realize the commercial production in biomass-to-bioenergy industry.

  13. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Nunes, Clemente Pedro

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs.

  14. Greenhouse gas implications of a 32 billion gallon bioenergy landscape in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, E. H.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Wang, W.; Khanna, M.; Long, S.; Dwivedi, P.; Parton, W. J.; Hartman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable bioenergy for transportation fuel and greenhouse gas (GHGs) reductions may require considerable changes in land use. Perennial grasses have been proposed because of their potential to yield substantial biomass on marginal lands without displacing food and reduce GHG emissions by storing soil carbon. Here, we implemented an integrated approach to planning bioenergy landscapes by combining spatially-explicit ecosystem and economic models to predict a least-cost land allocation for a 32 billion gallon (121 billion liter) renewable fuel mandate in the US. We find that 2022 GHG transportation emissions are decreased by 7% when 3.9 million hectares of eastern US land are converted to perennial grasses supplemented with corn residue to meet cellulosic ethanol requirements, largely because of gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage. If renewable fuel production is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by 12%, because it induces more cellulosic biofuel and land under perennial grasses (10 million hectares) than under the mandate alone. While GHG reducing bioenergy landscapes that meet RFS requirements and do not displace food are possible, the reductions in GHG emissions are 50% less compared to previous estimates that did not account for economically feasible land allocation.

  15. Stakeholder engagement in scenario development process - bioenergy production and biodiversity conservation in eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Haatanen, Anniina; den Herder, Michael; Leskinen, Pekka; Lindner, Marcus; Kurttila, Mikko; Salminen, Olli

    2014-03-15

    In this study participatory approaches were used to develop alternative forest resource management scenarios with particular respect to the effects on increased use of forest bioenergy and its effect on biodiversity in Eastern Finland. As technical planning tools, we utilized a forest management planning system (MELA) and the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) to visualize the impacts of the scenarios. We organized a stakeholder workshop where group discussions were used as a participatory method to get the stakeholder preferences and insights concerning forest resource use in the year 2030. Feedback from the workshop was then complemented with a questionnaire. Based on the results of the workshop and a questionnaire we developed three alternative forest resource scenarios: (1) bioenergy 2030 - in which energy production is more centralized and efficient; (2) biodiversity 2030 - in which harvesting methods are more nature friendly and protected forests make up 10% of the total forest area; and (3) mixed bioenergy + biodiversity 2030 scenario - in which wood production, recreation and nature protection are assigned to the most suitable areas. The study showed that stakeholder engagement combined with the MELA and ToSIA tools can be a useful approach in scenario development.

  16. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S. Surendran; Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences}; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Wullschleger, Stan D; Kline, Keith L; Wei, Yaxing; Singh, Nagendra; Kang, Shujiang

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.

  17. Energy sorghum--a genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Mullet, John; Morishige, Daryl; McCormick, Ryan; Truong, Sandra; Hilley, Josie; McKinley, Brian; Anderson, Robert; Olson, Sara N; Rooney, William

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum is emerging as an excellent genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. Annual energy Sorghum hybrids also serve as a source of biomass for bioenergy production. Elucidation of Sorghum's flowering time gene regulatory network, and identification of complementary alleles for photoperiod sensitivity, enabled large-scale generation of energy Sorghum hybrids for testing and commercial use. Energy Sorghum hybrids with long vegetative growth phases were found to accumulate more than twice as much biomass as grain Sorghum, owing to extended growing seasons, greater light interception, and higher radiation use efficiency. High biomass yield, efficient nitrogen recycling, and preferential accumulation of stem biomass with low nitrogen content contributed to energy Sorghum's elevated nitrogen use efficiency. Sorghum's integrated genetics-genomics-breeding platform, diverse germplasm, and the opportunity for annual testing of new genetic designs in controlled environments and in multiple field locations is aiding fundamental discovery, and accelerating the improvement of biomass yield and optimization of composition for biofuels production. Recent advances in wide hybridization between Sorghum and other C4 grasses could allow the deployment of improved genetic designs of annual energy Sorghums in the form of wide-hybrid perennial crops. The current trajectory of energy Sorghum genetic improvement indicates that it will be possible to sustainably produce biofuels from C4 grass bioenergy crops that are cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels.

  18. Genome-wide association study reveals putative regulators of bioenergy traits in Populus deltoides

    DOE PAGES

    Fahrenkrog, Annette M.; Neves, Leandro G.; Resende, Jr., Marcio F. R.; ...

    2016-09-06

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been used extensively to dissect the genetic regulation of complex traits in plants. These studies have focused largely on the analysis of common genetic variants despite the abundance of rare polymorphisms in several species, and their potential role in trait variation. Here, we conducted the first GWAS in Populus deltoides, a genetically diverse keystone forest species in North America and an important short rotation woody crop for the bioenergy industry. We searched for associations between eight growth and wood composition traits, and common and low-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected by targeted resequencing of 18 153 genesmore » in a population of 391 unrelated individuals. To increase power to detect associations with low-frequency variants, multiple-marker association tests were used in combination with single-marker association tests. Significant associations were discovered for all phenotypes and are indicative that low-frequency polymorphisms contribute to phenotypic variance of several bioenergy traits. Our results suggest that both common and low-frequency variants need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic regulation of complex traits, particularly in species that carry large numbers of rare polymorphisms. Lastly, these polymorphisms may be critical for the development of specialized plant feedstocks for bioenergy.« less

  19. Assessing multimetric aspects of sustainability: Application to a bioenergy crop production system in East Tennessee

    DOE PAGES

    Parish, Esther S.; Dale, Virginia H.; English, Burton C.; ...

    2016-02-26

    This paper connects the science of sustainability theory with applied aspects of sustainability deployment. A suite of 35 sustainability indicators spanning six environmental, three economic, and three social categories has been proposed for comparing the sustainability of bioenergy production systems across different feedstock types and locations. A recent demonstration-scale switchgrass-to-ethanol production system located in East Tennessee is used to assess the availability of sustainability indicator data and associated measurements for the feedstock production and logistics portions of the biofuel supply chain. Knowledge pertaining to the available indicators is distributed within a hierarchical decision tree framework to generate an assessment ofmore » the overall sustainability of this no-till switchgrass production system relative to two alternative business-as-usual scenarios of unmanaged pasture and tilled corn production. The relative contributions of the social, economic and environmental information are determined for the overall trajectory of this bioenergy system s sustainability under each scenario. Within this East Tennessee context, switchgrass production shows potential for improving environmental and social sustainability trajectories without adverse economic impacts, thereby leading to potential for overall enhancement in sustainability within this local agricultural system. Given the early stages of cellulosic ethanol production, it is currently difficult to determine quantitative values for all 35 sustainability indicators across the entire biofuel supply chain. This case study demonstrates that integration of qualitative sustainability indicator ratings may increase holistic understanding of a bioenergy system in the absence of complete information.« less

  20. Assessing multimetric aspects of sustainability: Application to a bioenergy crop production system in East Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Esther S.; Dale, Virginia H.; English, Burton C.; Jackson, Samuel W.; Tyler, Donald D.

    2016-02-26

    This paper connects the science of sustainability theory with applied aspects of sustainability deployment. A suite of 35 sustainability indicators spanning six environmental, three economic, and three social categories has been proposed for comparing the sustainability of bioenergy production systems across different feedstock types and locations. A recent demonstration-scale switchgrass-to-ethanol production system located in East Tennessee is used to assess the availability of sustainability indicator data and associated measurements for the feedstock production and logistics portions of the biofuel supply chain. Knowledge pertaining to the available indicators is distributed within a hierarchical decision tree framework to generate an assessment of the overall sustainability of this no-till switchgrass production system relative to two alternative business-as-usual scenarios of unmanaged pasture and tilled corn production. The relative contributions of the social, economic and environmental information are determined for the overall trajectory of this bioenergy system s sustainability under each scenario. Within this East Tennessee context, switchgrass production shows potential for improving environmental and social sustainability trajectories without adverse economic impacts, thereby leading to potential for overall enhancement in sustainability within this local agricultural system. Given the early stages of cellulosic ethanol production, it is currently difficult to determine quantitative values for all 35 sustainability indicators across the entire biofuel supply chain. This case study demonstrates that integration of qualitative sustainability indicator ratings may increase holistic understanding of a bioenergy system in the absence of complete information.

  1. DOE-INES New Planet Bioenergy Technical Report Final Public Version 7-22-16

    SciTech Connect

    Niederschulte, Mark; Russell, Kelly; Connors, Keith

    2016-07-22

    INEOS Bio and New Planet Energy Florida formed a joint venture company called INEOS New Planet BioEnergy (“INPB”) in 2009. This venture’s intent was to demonstrate at commercial scale INEOS Bio’s third-generation technology (the “Bio Process”) that converts a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks into bioethanol and renewable electricity. INPB applied for and was awarded a $50,000,000 Department of Energy (“DOE”) grant in 2009 to support the construction of the commercial demonstration plant. The grant was a cost-sharing arrangement requiring at least 50% equity participation by the grantee. INPB completed construction of the Indian River BioEnergy Center in Vero Beach, Florida in June, 2012. The facility is designed to produce 8 million gallons per year of fuel-grade bioethanol and 6MW of electrical power, with upwards of 2MW exported to the electrical grid. Construction of the Indian River BioEnergy Center was completed on-time and within its capital budget of $121 million.

  2. Kinetic analyses and pyrolytic behavior of Para grass (Urochloa mutica) for its bioenergy potential.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajjad; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Al Ayed, Omar S; Ye, Guangbin; Luo, Huibo; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Rashid, Umer; Arbi Nehdi, Imededdine; Qadir, Ghulam

    2017-01-01

    The biomass of Urochloa mutica was subjected to thermal degradation analyses to understand its pyrolytic behavior for bioenergy production. Thermal degradation experiments were performed at three different heating rates, 10, 30 and 50°Cmin(-1) using simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric analyzer, under an inert environment. The kinetic analyses were performed using isoconversional models of Kissenger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO). The high heating value was calculated as 15.04MJmol(-1). The activation energy (E) values were shown to be ranging from 103 through 233 kJmol(-1). Pre-exponential factors (A) indicated the reaction to follow first order kinetics. Gibbs free energy (ΔG) was measured to be ranging from 169 to 173kJmol(-1) and 168 to 172kJmol(-1), calculated by KAS and FWO methods, respectively. We have shown that Para grass biomass has considerable bioenergy potential comparable to established bioenergy crops such as switchgrass and miscanthus.

  3. Impact of different bioenergy crops on N-cycling bacterial and archaeal communities in soil.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuejian; Yannarell, Anthony C; Davis, Sarah C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2013-03-01

    Biomass production for bioenergy may change soil microbes and influence ecosystem properties. To explore the impact of different bioenergy cropping systems on soil microorganisms, the compositions and quantities of soil microbial communities (16S rRNA gene) and N-cycling functional groups (nifH, bacterial amoA, archaeal amoA and nosZ genes) were assessed under maize, switchgrass and Miscanthus x giganteus at seven sites representing a climate gradient (precipitation and temperature) in Illinois, USA. Overall, the site-to-site variation in community composition surpassed the variation due to plant type, and microbial communities under each crop did not converge on a 'typical' species assemblage. Fewer than 5% of archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nifH and nosZ OTUs were significantly different among these crops, but the largest differences observed at each site were found between maize and the two perennial grasses. Quantitative PCR revealed that the abundance of the nifH gene was significantly higher in the perennial grasses than in maize, and we also found significantly higher total N in the perennial grass soils than in maize. Thus, we conclude that cultivation of these perennial grasses, instead of maize, as bioenergy feedstocks can improve soil ecosystem nitrogen sustainability by increasing the population size of N-fixing bacteria.

  4. Carbon dioxide exchange of a perennial bioenergy crop cultivation on a mineral soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, S. E.; Shurpali, N. J.; Peltola, O.; Mammarella, I.; Hyvönen, N.; Maljanen, M.; Räty, M.; Virkajärvi, P.; Martikainen, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    One of the strategies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector is to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as bioenergy crops. Bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during biomass production, field management and transportation. The present study focuses on the cultivation of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae L.), a perennial bioenergy crop, on a mineral soil. To quantify the CO2 exchange of this RCG cultivation system, and to understand the key factors controlling its CO2 exchange, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) was measured during three years using the eddy covariance (EC) method. The RCG cultivation thrived well producing yields of 6200 and 6700 kg DW ha-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Gross photosynthesis (GPP) was controlled mainly by radiation from June to September. Vapour pressure deficit (VPD), air temperature or soil moisture did not limit photosynthesis during the growing season. Total ecosystem respiration (TER) increased with soil temperature, green area index and GPP. Annual NEE was -262 and -256 g C m-2 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Throughout the studied period, cumulative NEE was -575 g C m-2. When compared to the published data for RCG on an organic soil, the cultivation of this crop on a mineral soil had higher capacity to take up CO2 from the atmosphere.

  5. Genome-wide association study reveals putative regulators of bioenergy traits in Populus deltoides.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrog, Annette M; Neves, Leandro G; Resende, Márcio F R; Vazquez, Ana I; de Los Campos, Gustavo; Dervinis, Christopher; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark; Davenport, Ruth; Barbazuk, William B; Kirst, Matias

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been used extensively to dissect the genetic regulation of complex traits in plants. These studies have focused largely on the analysis of common genetic variants despite the abundance of rare polymorphisms in several species, and their potential role in trait variation. Here, we conducted the first GWAS in Populus deltoides, a genetically diverse keystone forest species in North America and an important short rotation woody crop for the bioenergy industry. We searched for associations between eight growth and wood composition traits, and common and low-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected by targeted resequencing of 18 153 genes in a population of 391 unrelated individuals. To increase power to detect associations with low-frequency variants, multiple-marker association tests were used in combination with single-marker association tests. Significant associations were discovered for all phenotypes and are indicative that low-frequency polymorphisms contribute to phenotypic variance of several bioenergy traits. Our results suggest that both common and low-frequency variants need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic regulation of complex traits, particularly in species that carry large numbers of rare polymorphisms. These polymorphisms may be critical for the development of specialized plant feedstocks for bioenergy.

  6. Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, David J.; Bryden, Kenneth Mark; Nelson, R. G.

    2012-10-06

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10–100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.

  7. More food, more bioenergy and fewer greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) - is it possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Global demand for our four major food and feed crops is beginning to out-strip supply, at a time when year-on-year yield per unit area increases are stagnating and while emerging climate trends may further threaten supply. In this context it seems unlikely that in the medium term the continued use of land suited to food and feed production for bioenergy will be either socially acceptable or economically viable. It will be argued that the use of food crops, which have been developed to meet nutritional needs, for bioenergy is environmentally flawed and sub-optimal with respect to net GHGe. It will be shown that using Miscanthus, canes, agave and poplars as examples, there are many opportunities, some partially realized, to achieve very substantial quantities of bioenergy on abandoned or non-agricultural land, globally, with positive GHGe benefits and without unsustainable impacts on food production. Achieving all three goals will depend on new policies based on a holistic view of these demands on land rather than the disaggregated policy development based on single issues, which has characterised this arena in recent years.

  8. Bioenergy market competition for biomass: A system dynamics review of current policies

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in the United States and abroad to increase the use of biomass as an energy source due to environmental and energy security benefits. In the United States, the biofuel and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and different agencies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets based on varying policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand for biomass in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Petr P.

    2006-12-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad

  10. Biomass, Bioenergy and the Sustainability of Soils and Climate: What Role for Biochar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohi, Saran

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is the solid, carbon rich product of heating biomass with the exclusion of air (pyrolysis). Whereas charcoal is derived from wood, biochar is a co-product of energy capture and can derive from waste or non-waste, virgin or non-virgin biomass resources. But also, biochar is not a fuel - rather it is intended for the beneficial amendment of soil in agriculture, forestry and horticulture. This results in long-term storage of plant-derived carbon that could improve yield or efficiency of crop production, and/or mitigate trace gas emissions from the land. Life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that pyrolysis bioenergy with biochar production should offer considerably more carbon abatement than combustion, or gasification of the same feedstock. This has potential to link climate change mitigation to bioenergy and sustainable use of soil. But, in economic terms, the opportunity cost of producing biochar (reflecting the calorific value of its stored carbon) is inflated by bioenergy subsidies. This, combined with a lack of clear regulatory position and no mature pyrolysis technologies at large scale, means that pyrolysis-biochar systems (PBS) remain largely conceptual at the current time. Precise understanding of its function and an ability to predict its impact on different soils and crops with certainty, biochar should acquire a monetary value. Combining such knowledge with a system that monetizes climate change mitigation potential (such as carbon markets), could see schemes for producing and using biochar escalate - including a context for its deployment in biomass crops, or through pyrolysis of residues from other bioenergy processes. This talk explores the opportunity, challenges and risks in pursuing biochar production in various bioenergy contexts including enhanced sustainability of soil use in biomass crop production, improving the carbon balance and value chain in biofuel production, and using organic waste streams more effectively (including the processing of

  11. Multi-criteria decision analysis for bioenergy in the Centre Region of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, T. C. J.; Cabral, P.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Teixeira, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    With the consumption of fossil fuels, the resources essential to Man's survival are being rapidly contaminated. A sustainable future may be achieved by the use of renewable energies, allowing countries without non-renewable energy resources to guarantee energetic sovereignty. Using bioenergy may mean a steep reduction and/or elimination of the external dependency, enhancing the countries' capital and potentially reducing of the negative effects that outcome from the use of fossil fuels, such as loss of biodiversity, air, water, and soil pollution, … This work's main focus is to increase bioenergy use in the centre region of Portugal by allying R&D to facilitate determination of bioenergy availability and distribution throughout the study area.This analysis is essential, given that nowadays this knowledge is still very limited in the study area. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was the main tool used to asses this study, due to its unseeingly ability to integrate various types of information (such as alphanumerical, statistical, geographical, …) and various sources of biomass (forest, agricultural, husbandry, municipal and industrial residues, shrublands, used vegetable oil and energy crops) to determine the bioenergy potential of the study area, as well as their spatial distribution. By allying GIS with multi-criteria decision analysis, the initial table-like information of difficult comprehension is transformed into tangible and easy to read results: both intermediate and final results of the created models will facilitate the decision making process. General results show that the major contributors for the bioenergy potential in the Centre Region of Portugal are forest residues, which are mostly located in the inner region of the study area. However, a more detailed analysis should be made to analyze the viability to use energy crops. As a main conclusion, we can say that, although this region may not use only this type of energy to be completely

  12. GPS Status and Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    11 GPS IIA • 12 GPS IIR • 7 GPS IIR-M • 4 additional satellites in residual status • 1 additional IIR-M waiting to be set healthy • Global GPS ...AEP) Next Generation Control Segment (OCX) Legacy Control System 7 GPS Modernization – Ground • Architecture Evolution Plan (AEP) • Transitioned in 2007...Modern distributed system replaced 1970’s mainframes • Increased capacity for monitoring of GPS signals • Increased worldwide commanding

  13. U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Research Centers An Overview of the Science

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    production, DOE established three Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs) in September 2007. Each center is pursuing the basic research underlying a range of high-risk, high-return biological solutions for bioenergy applications. Advances resulting from the BRCs are providing the knowledge needed to develop new biobased products, methods, and tools that the emerging biofuel industry can use (see sidebar, Bridging the Gap from Fundamental Biology to Industrial Innovation for Bioenergy, p. 6). The DOE BRCs have developed automated, high-throughput analysis pipelines that will accelerate scientific discovery for biology-based biofuel research. The three centers, which were selected through a scientific peer-review process, are based in geographically diverse locations - the Southeast, the Midwest, and the West Coast - with partners across the nation (see U.S. map, DOE Bioenergy Research Centers and Partners, on back cover). DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory leads the DOE Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) in California; DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory leads the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) in Tennessee; and the University of Wisconsin-Madison leads the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC). Each center represents a multidisciplinary partnership with expertise spanning the physical and biological sciences, including genomics, microbial and plant biology, analytical chemistry, computational biology and bioinformatics, and engineering. Institutional partners include DOE national laboratories, universities, private companies, and nonprofit organizations.

  14. Geospatial assessment of bioenergy land use and its impacts on soil erosion in the U.S. Midwest.

    PubMed

    SooHoo, William M; Wang, Cuizhen; Li, Huixuan

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural land use change, especially corn expansion since 2000s, has been accelerating to meet the growing bioenergy demand of the United States. This study identifies the environmentally sensitive lands (ESLs) in the U.S. Midwest using the distance-weighted Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) associated with bioenergy land uses extracted from USDA Cropland Data Layers. The impacts of soil erosion to downstream wetlands and waterbodies in the river basin are counted in the RUSLE with an inverse distance weighting approach. In a GIS-ranking model, the ESLs in 2008 and 2011 (two representative years of corn expansion) are ranked based on their soil erosion severity in crop fields. Under scenarios of bioenergy land use change (corn to grass and grass to corn) on two land types (ESLs and non-ESLs) at three magnitudes (5%, 10% and 15% change), this study assesses the potential environmental impacts of bioenergy land use at a basin level. The ESL distributions and projected trends vary geographically responding to different agricultural conversions. Results support the idea of re-planting native prairie grasses in the identified High and Severe rank ESLs for sustainable bioenergy management in this important agricultural region.

  15. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability.

    PubMed

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26-141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture.

  16. Forest bioenergy or forest carbon? Assessing trade-offs in greenhouse gas mitigation with wood-based fuels.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Chen, Jiaxin; Mabee, Warren; MacLean, Heather L

    2011-01-15

    The potential of forest-based bioenergy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when displacing fossil-based energy must be balanced with forest carbon implications related to biomass harvest. We integrate life cycle assessment (LCA) and forest carbon analysis to assess total GHG emissions of forest bioenergy over time. Application of the method to case studies of wood pellet and ethanol production from forest biomass reveals a substantial reduction in forest carbon due to bioenergy production. For all cases, harvest-related forest carbon reductions and associated GHG emissions initially exceed avoided fossil fuel-related emissions, temporarily increasing overall emissions. In the long term, electricity generation from pellets reduces overall emissions relative to coal, although forest carbon losses delay net GHG mitigation by 16-38 years, depending on biomass source (harvest residues/standing trees). Ethanol produced from standing trees increases overall emissions throughout 100 years of continuous production: ethanol from residues achieves reductions after a 74 year delay. Forest carbon more significantly affects bioenergy emissions when biomass is sourced from standing trees compared to residues and when less GHG-intensive fuels are displaced. In all cases, forest carbon dynamics are significant. Although study results are not generalizable to all forests, we suggest the integrated LCA/forest carbon approach be undertaken for bioenergy studies.

  17. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. PMID:23576836

  18. Biogeochemical and biophysical climate regulation services from converting native grassland to bioenergy production in the US Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Abraha, M.; Gelfand, I.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Thomson, A. M.; Hamilton, S. K.; Chen, J.; Robertson, P.; Xu, M.; Liang, X. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Land use conversion to bioenergy crops production not only alters biogeochemical cycles, but also modifies surface biophysics, such as albedo and and leaf area. These biophysical perturbations subsequently change radiation budget at land surface and land-atmosphere exchange in water and energy, and ultimately influence local/regional climate. Here, we combine long-term in situ field measurements, remote sensing observations, and regional earth system modeling to improve our understanding of changes in biophysical climate regulation services from converting native grassland to perennial bioenergy crops. In the US Midwest, albedo change as a result of cultivating native grassland for cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks could enhance the net greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation benefit of cellulosic bioenergy production (116.5 MgCO2 ha-1) by 20% over a time horizon of 50 years. With an integrated climate-agroecosystem model, parameterized with in situ and remote sensing data, we further demonstrate that cultivating native grassland may result in noticeable difference in simulated regional climate (e.g. precipitation, temperature, and radiation budget), highlighting the importance of additionally including biophysical climate services in evaluating land-based climate mitigation activities, such as bioenergy production.

  19. Modern NMR spectroscopy: a guide for chemists

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.K.M.; Hunter, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the authors of Modern NMR Spectroscopy is to bridge the communication gap between the chemist and the spectroscopist. The approach is nonmathematical, descriptive, and pictorial. To illustrate the ideas introduced in the text, the authors provide original spectra obtained specially for this purpose. Examples include spectroscopy of protons, carbon, and less receptive nuclei of interest to inorganic chemists. The authors succeed in making high-resolution NMR spectroscopy comprehensible for the average student or chemist.

  20. Introducing Large-Scale Innovation in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Riviou, Katherina; Cherouvis, Stephanos; Chelioti, Eleni; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    Education reform initiatives tend to promise higher effectiveness in classrooms especially when emphasis is given to e-learning and digital resources. Practical changes in classroom realities or school organization, however, are lacking. A major European initiative entitled Open Discovery Space (ODS) examined the challenge of modernizing school…

  1. Introducing CFD in Introductory Undergraduate Fluid Mechanics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimbala, John M.

    2005-11-01

    Many instructors want to introduce CFD into their introductory junior-level fluid mechanics course, but cannot because it requires several hours of class time at the cost of displacement of other basic material. A simple but effective method is now available that has been used successfully at Penn State since Spring 2005. It requires minimal instructor preparation time and only about one class period. Namely, immediately after solving the Navier-Stokes equation analytically for simple flows such as Couette and Poiseuille flow, CFD is introduced as a modern tool for solving the same equations numerically. The application of CFD (grid generation, boundary conditions, etc.), rather than numerical algorithms, is stressed. Homework problems are then assigned using pre-defined templates for FlowLab, a student-friendly analysis and visualization package created by Fluent, Inc. The templates and exercises are designed to support and emphasize the theory and concepts taught in class and in the textbook. For example, the new textbook by Cengel and Cimbala (McGraw-Hill 2006) contains 46 end-of-chapter homework problems that are used in conjunction with 42 FlowLab templates. Each exercise has been designed with two major learning objectives in mind: (1) enhance student understanding of a specific fluid mechanics concept, and (2) introduce the student to a specific capability and/or limitation of CFD through hands-on practice.

  2. Scenarios of global agricultural biomass harvest reveal conflicts and trade-offs for bioenergy with CCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Tom; Lenton, Tim

    2013-04-01

    We assess the quantitative potential for future land management to help rebalance the global carbon cycle by actively removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere with simultaneous bio-energy offsets of CO2 emissions, whilst meeting global food demand, preserving natural ecosystems and minimising CO2 emissions from land use change. Four alternative future scenarios are considered out to 2050 with different combinations of high or low technology food production and high or low meat diets. Natural ecosystems are protected except when additional land is necessary to fulfil the dietary demands of the global population. Dedicated bio-energy crops can only be grown on land that is already under management but is no longer needed for food production. We find that there is only room for dedicated bio-energy crops if there is a marked increase in the efficiency of food production (sustained annual yield growth of 1%, shifts towards more efficient animals like pigs and poultry, and increased recycling of wastes and residues). If there is also a return to lower meat diets, biomass energy with carbon storage (BECS) as CO2 and biochar could remove up to 4.0 Pg C per year in 2050. With the current trend to higher meat diets there is only room for limited expansion of bio-energy crops after 2035 and instead BECS must be based largely on biomass residues, removing up to 1.5 Pg C per year in. A high-meat, low-efficiency future would be a catastrophe for natural ecosystems (and thus for the humans that depend on their services) with around 8.5 Gha under cultivation in 2050. When included in a simple earth system model with a technological mitigation CO2 emission baseline these produce atmospheric CO2 concentrations of ~ 450-525ppm in 2050. In addition we assess the potential for future biodiversity loss under the scenarios due to three interacting factors; energy withdrawal from ecosystems due to biomass harvest, habitat loss due to land-use change, and climate change

  3. Introducing the Notion of Bare and Effective Mass via Newton's Second Law of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Marcus Benghi

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of bare and effective mass are widely used within modern physics. Their meaning is discussed in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses such as solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum field theory. Here I discuss how these concepts may be introduced together with the discussion of Newton's second law of motion. The…

  4. Assembly of a Vacuum Chamber: A Hands-On Approach to Introduce Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussie`re, Guillaume; Stoodley, Robin; Yajima, Kano; Bagai, Abhimanyu; Popowich, Aleksandra K.; Matthews, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    Although vacuum technology is essential to many aspects of modern physical and analytical chemistry, vacuum experiments are rarely the focus of undergraduate laboratories. We describe an experiment that introduces students to vacuum science and mass spectrometry. The students first assemble a vacuum system, including a mass spectrometer. While…

  5. Balance between climate change mitigation benefits and land use impacts of bioenergy: conservation implications for European birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Laura; Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Hof, Andries; Cabeza, Mar

    2015-07-01

    Both climate change and habitat modification exert serious pressure on biodiversity. Although climate change mitigation has been identified as an important strategy for biodiversity conservation, bioenergy remains a controversial mitigation action due to its potential negative ecological and socio-economic impacts which arise through habitat modification by land-use change. While the debate continues, the separate or simultaneous impacts of both climate change and bioenergy on biodiversity have not yet been compared. We assess projected range shifts of 156 European bird species by 2050 under two alternative climate change trajectories: a baseline scenario, where the global mean temperature increases by 4°C by the end of the century, and a 2 degrees scenario, where global concerted effort limits the temperature increase to below 2°C. For the latter scenario, we also quantify the pressure exerted by increased cultivation of energy biomass as modelled by IMAGE2.4, an integrated land-use model. The global bioenergy use in this scenario is in the lower end of the range of previously estimated sustainable potential. Under the assumptions of these scenarios, we find that the magnitude of range shifts due to climate change is far greater than the impact of land conversion to woody bioenergy plantations within the European Union, and that mitigation of climate change reduces the exposure experienced by species. However, we identified potential for local conservation conflict between priority areas for conservation and bioenergy production. These conflicts must be addressed by strict bioenergy sustainability criteria that acknowledge biodiversity conservation needs beyond existing protected areas and apply also to biomass imported from outside the European Union.

  6. Balance between climate change mitigation benefits and land use impacts of bioenergy: conservation implications for European birds

    PubMed Central

    Meller, Laura; Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Hof, Andries; Cabeza, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Both climate change and habitat modification exert serious pressure on biodiversity. Although climate change mitigation has been identified as an important strategy for biodiversity conservation, bioenergy remains a controversial mitigation action due to its potential negative ecological and socio-economic impacts which arise through habitat modification by land-use change. While the debate continues, the separate or simultaneous impacts of both climate change and bioenergy on biodiversity have not yet been compared. We assess projected range shifts of 156 European bird species by 2050 under two alternative climate change trajectories: a baseline scenario, where the global mean temperature increases by 4°C by the end of the century, and a 2 degrees scenario, where global concerted effort limits the temperature increase to below 2°C. For the latter scenario, we also quantify the pressure exerted by increased cultivation of energy biomass as modelled by IMAGE2.4, an integrated land-use model. The global bioenergy use in this scenario is in the lower end of the range of previously estimated sustainable potential. Under the assumptions of these scenarios, we find that the magnitude of range shifts due to climate change is far greater than the impact of land conversion to woody bioenergy plantations within the European Union, and that mitigation of climate change reduces the exposure experienced by species. However, we identified potential for local conservation conflict between priority areas for conservation and bioenergy production. These conflicts must be addressed by strict bioenergy sustainability criteria that acknowledge biodiversity conservation needs beyond existing protected areas and apply also to biomass imported from outside the European Union. PMID:26681982

  7. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  8. Comparing bioenergy production sites in the Southeastern US regarding ecosystem service supply and demand.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus A; Chand, Tanzila; Priess, Joerg A

    2015-01-01

    Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS). This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification schemes are governance

  9. Live wires: direct extracellular electron exchange for bioenergy and the bioremediation of energy-related contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, DR

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms that can form direct electrical connections with insoluble minerals, electrodes, or other microorganisms can play an important role in some traditional as well as novel bioenergy strategies and can be helpful in the remediation of environmental contamination resulting from the use of more traditional energy sources. The surprising discovery that microorganisms in the genus Geobacter are capable of forming highly conductive networks of filaments that transfer electrons along their length with organic metallic-like conductivity, rather than traditional molecule to molecule electron exchange, provides an explanation for the ability of Geobacter species to grow in subsurface environments with insoluble Fe(III) oxides as the electron acceptor, and effectively remediate groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbon fuels or uranium and similar contaminants associated with the mining and processing of nuclear fuel. A similar organic metallic-like conductivity may be an important mechanism for microorganisms to exchange electrons in syntrophic associations, such as those responsible for the conversion of organic wastes to methane in anaerobic digesters, a proven bioenergy technology. Biofilms with conductivities rivaling those of synthetic polymers help Geobacter species generate the high current densities in microbial fuel cells producing electric current from organic compounds. Electron transfer in the reverse direction, i.e. from electrodes to microbes, is the basis for microbial electrosynthesis, in which microorganisms reduce carbon dioxide to fuels and other useful organic compounds with solar energy in a form of artificial photosynthesis that is more efficient and avoids many of the environmental sustainability concerns associated with biomass-based bioenergy strategies. The ability of Geobacter species to produce highly conductive electronic networks that function in water opens new possibilities in the emerging field of bioelectronics.

  10. Comparing Bioenergy Production Sites in the Southeastern US Regarding Ecosystem Service Supply and Demand

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Markus A.; Chand, Tanzila; Priess, Joerg A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS). This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification schemes are

  11. Farm-level feasibility of bioenergy depends on variations across multiple sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, Mitchell; Barford, Carol

    2013-03-01

    The potential supply of bioenergy from farm-grown biomass is uncertain due to several poorly understood or volatile factors, including land availability, yield variability, and energy prices. Although biomass production for liquid fuel has received more attention, here we present a case study of biomass production for renewable heat and power in the state of Wisconsin (US), where heating constitutes at least 30% of total energy demand. Using three bioenergy systems (50 kW, 8.8 MW and 50 MW) and Wisconsin farm-level data, we determined the net farm income effect of producing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a feedstock, either for on-farm use (50 kW system) or for sale to an off-farm energy system operator (8.8 and 50 MW systems). In southern counties, where switchgrass yields approach 10 Mg ha-1 yr-1, the main determinants of economic feasibility were the available land area per farm, the ability to utilize bioheat, and opportunity cost assumptions. Switchgrass yield temporal variability was less important. For the state median farm size and switchgrass yield, at least 25% (50 kW system) or 50% (8.8 MW system) bioheat utilization was required to economically offset propane or natural gas heat, respectively, and purchased electricity. Offsetting electricity only (50 MW system) did not generate enough revenue to meet switchgrass production expenses. Although the opportunity cost of small-scale (50 kW) on-farm bioenergy generation was higher, it also held greater opportunity for increasing farm net income, especially by replacing propane-based heat.

  12. An integrated landscape designed for commodity and bioenergy crops for a tile-drained agricultural watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M. Cristina

    2016-09-16

    Here, locating bioenergy crops on strategically selected subfield areas of marginal interest for commodity agriculture can increase environmental sustainability. Location and choice of bioenergy crops should improve environmental benefits with minimal disruption of current food production systems. We identified subfield soils of a tile-drained agricultural watershed as marginal if they had areas of low crop productivity index (CPI), were susceptible to nitrate-nitrogen (NO3–N) leaching, or were susceptible to at least two other forms of environmental degradation (marginal areas). In the test watershed (Indian Creek watershed, IL) with annual precipitation of 852 mm, 3% of soils were CPI areas and 22% were marginal areas. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to forecast the impact of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), willow (Salix spp.), and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman) in these subfield areas on annual grain yields, NO3–N and sediment exports, and water yield. Simulated conversion of CPI areas from current land use to bioenergy crops had no significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on grain production and reduced NO3–N and sediment exports by 5.0 to 6.0% and 3.0%, respectively. Conversion of marginal areas from current land use to switchgrass forecasted the production of 34,000 t of biomass and reductions in NO3–N (26.0%) and sediment (33.0%) exports. Alternatively, conversion of marginal areas from current land use to willow forecasted similar reductions as switchgrass for sediment but significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower reductions in annual NO3–N export (18.0 vs. 26.0%).

  13. An integrated landscape designed for commodity and bioenergy crops for a tile-drained agricultural watershed

    DOE PAGES

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M. Cristina

    2016-09-16

    Here, locating bioenergy crops on strategically selected subfield areas of marginal interest for commodity agriculture can increase environmental sustainability. Location and choice of bioenergy crops should improve environmental benefits with minimal disruption of current food production systems. We identified subfield soils of a tile-drained agricultural watershed as marginal if they had areas of low crop productivity index (CPI), were susceptible to nitrate-nitrogen (NO3–N) leaching, or were susceptible to at least two other forms of environmental degradation (marginal areas). In the test watershed (Indian Creek watershed, IL) with annual precipitation of 852 mm, 3% of soils were CPI areas and 22%more » were marginal areas. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to forecast the impact of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), willow (Salix spp.), and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman) in these subfield areas on annual grain yields, NO3–N and sediment exports, and water yield. Simulated conversion of CPI areas from current land use to bioenergy crops had no significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on grain production and reduced NO3–N and sediment exports by 5.0 to 6.0% and 3.0%, respectively. Conversion of marginal areas from current land use to switchgrass forecasted the production of 34,000 t of biomass and reductions in NO3–N (26.0%) and sediment (33.0%) exports. Alternatively, conversion of marginal areas from current land use to willow forecasted similar reductions as switchgrass for sediment but significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower reductions in annual NO3–N export (18.0 vs. 26.0%).« less

  14. Increasing in-stream nitrogen concentrations under different bioenergy crop management practices in central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Thraen, Daniela; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in land use and agriculture practices is crucial for improving instream water quality prediction. In central Germany, expansion of bioenergy crops such as maize and rape for ethanol production during the last decade led to increasing of fertilizer application rates. To examine the effect of these changes, surface water quality of a drinking water reservoir catchment was investigated for more than 30 years. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. For the period 2004-2012, the share of maize and rape has been increased by 52% and 20%, respectively, for enhancing bioenergy production. To achieve our gaols, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was calibrated for discharge and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (IN) during the period 1997-2000.The model was validated successfully (with lowest performance of NSE = 0.78 and PBIAS = 3.74% for discharge) for three different periods 1983-1987, 1989-1996 and 2000-2003, which are charaterized by different fertilizer application rates. Results showed that the HYPE model reproduced reasonably well discharge and IN daily loads (with lowest NSE = 0.64 for IN-load). In addition, the HYPE model was evaluated successfully to predict the discharge and IN concentrations for the period 2004-2012, where detailed input data in terms of crops management (field-specific survey) have been considered. Land use and crop rotations scenarios, with high hypothetical percentage of acceptance by the farmers, revealed that continuous conversion of agricultural land into bioenergy crops, will most likely, lead to an enrichment of in-stream nitrogen, especially after spring storms.

  15. Advantages and limitations of exergy indicators to assess sustainability of bioenergy and biobased materials

    SciTech Connect

    Maes, Dries Van Passel, Steven

    2014-02-15

    Innovative bioenergy projects show a growing diversity in biomass pathways, transformation technologies and end-products, leading to complex new processes. Existing energy-based indicators are not designed to include multiple impacts and are too constrained to assess the sustainability of these processes. Alternatively, indicators based on exergy, a measure of “qualitative energy”, could allow a more holistic view. Exergy is increasingly applied in analyses of both technical and biological processes. But sustainability assessments including exergy calculations, are not very common and are not generally applicable to all types of impact. Hence it is important to frame the use of exergy for inclusion in a sustainability assessment. This paper reviews the potentials and the limitations of exergy calculations, and presents solutions for coherent aggregation with other metrics. The resulting approach is illustrated in a case study. Within the context of sustainability assessment of bioenergy, exergy is a suitable metric for the impacts that require an ecocentric interpretation, and it allows aggregation on a physical basis. The use of exergy is limited to a measurement of material and energy exchanges with the sun, biosphere and lithosphere. Exchanges involving services or human choices are to be measured in different metrics. This combination provides a more inclusive and objective sustainability assessment, especially compared to standard energy- or carbon-based indicators. Future applications of this approach in different situations are required to clarify the potential of exergy-based indicators in a sustainability context. -- Highlights: • Innovative bioenergy projects require more advanced sustainability assessments to incorporate all environmental impacts. • Exergy-based indicators provide solutions for objective and robust measurements. • The use of exergy in a sustainability assessment is limited to material exchanges, excluding exchanges with society

  16. Is genetic engineering ever going to take off in forage, turf and bioenergy crop breeding?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zeng-Yu; Brummer, E. Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering offers the opportunity to generate unique genetic variation that is either absent in the sexually compatible gene pool or has very low heritability. The generation of transgenic plants, coupled with breeding, has led to the production of widely used transgenic cultivars in several major cash crops, such as maize, soybean, cotton and canola. The process for regulatory approval of genetically engineered crops is slow and subject to extensive political interference. The situation in forage grasses and legumes is more complicated. Scope Most widely grown forage, turf and bioenergy species (e.g. tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, switchgrass, alfalfa, white clover) are highly self-incompatible and outcrossing. Compared with inbreeding species, they have a high potential to pass their genes to adjacent plants. A major biosafety concern in these species is pollen-mediated transgene flow. Because human consumption is indirect, risk assessment of transgenic forage, turf and bioenergy species has focused on their environmental or ecological impacts. Although significant progress has been made in genetic modification of these species, commercialization of transgenic cultivars is very limited because of the stringent and costly regulatory requirements. To date, the only transgenic forage crop deregulated in the US is ‘Roundup Ready’ (RR) alfalfa. The approval process for RR alfalfa was complicated, involving several rounds of regulation, deregulation and re-regulation. Nevertheless, commercialization of RR alfalfa is an important step forward in regulatory approval of a perennial outcrossing forage crop. As additional transgenic forage, turf and bioenergy crops are generated and tested, different strategies have been developed to meet regulatory requirements. Recent progress in risk assessment and deregulation of transgenic forage and turf species is summarized and discussed. PMID:22378838

  17. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henner, Dagmar N.; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall P.

    2015-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy with higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by the unpredictable climate change currently going on. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers as many ecosystem services as possible at a Continental level including biodiversity, water, GHG emissions, soil, and cultural services. The distribution and production of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), is currently being modelled, and ecosystem models will be used to examine the impacts of these crops on ecosystem services. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be utilised. Research will focus on optimisation of land use change feedbacks on ecosystem services and biodiversity, and weighting of the importance of the individual ecosystem services. Energy crops will be modelled using low, medium and high climate change scenarios for the years between 2015 and 2050. We will present first results for GHG emissions and soil organic carbon change after different land use change scenarios (e.g. arable to Miscanthus, forest to SRF), and with different climate warming scenarios. All this will be complemented by the presentation of a matrix

  18. An Integrated Landscape Designed for Commodity and Bioenergy Crops for a Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed.

    PubMed

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Locating bioenergy crops on strategically selected subfield areas of marginal interest for commodity agriculture can increase environmental sustainability. Location and choice of bioenergy crops should improve environmental benefits with minimal disruption of current food production systems. We identified subfield soils of a tile-drained agricultural watershed as marginal if they had areas of low crop productivity index (CPI), were susceptible to nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) leaching, or were susceptible to at least two other forms of environmental degradation (marginal areas). In the test watershed (Indian Creek watershed, IL) with annual precipitation of 852 mm, 3% of soils were CPI areas and 22% were marginal areas. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to forecast the impact of growing switchgrass ( L.), willow ( spp.), and big bluestem ( Vitman) in these subfield areas on annual grain yields, NO-N and sediment exports, and water yield. Simulated conversion of CPI areas from current land use to bioenergy crops had no significant ( 0.05) impact on grain production and reduced NO-N and sediment exports by 5.0 to 6.0% and 3.0%, respectively. Conversion of marginal areas from current land use to switchgrass forecasted the production of 34,000 t of biomass and reductions in NO-N (26.0%) and sediment (33.0%) exports. Alternatively, conversion of marginal areas from current land use to willow forecasted similar reductions as switchgrass for sediment but significantly ( 0.01) lower reductions in annual NO-N export (18.0 vs. 26.0%).

  19. Carbon dioxide exchange of a perennial bioenergy crop cultivation on a mineral soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Saara E.; Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Peltola, Olli; Mammarella, Ivan; Hyvönen, Niina; Maljanen, Marja; Räty, Mari; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2016-03-01

    One of the strategies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector is to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as bioenergy crops. Bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during biomass production, field management and transportation. The present study focuses on the cultivation of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.), a perennial bioenergy crop, on a mineral soil. To quantify the CO2 exchange of this RCG cultivation system, and to understand the key factors controlling its CO2 exchange, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) was measured from July 2009 until the end of 2011 using the eddy covariance (EC) method. The RCG cultivation thrived well producing yields of 6200 and 6700 kg DW ha-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Gross photosynthesis (GPP) was controlled mainly by radiation from June to September. Vapour pressure deficit (VPD), air temperature or soil moisture did not limit photosynthesis during the growing season. Total ecosystem respiration (TER) increased with soil temperature, green area index and GPP. Annual NEE was -262 and -256 g C m-2 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Throughout the study period from July 2009 until the end of 2011, cumulative NEE was -575 g C m-2. Carbon balance and its regulatory factors were compared to the published results of a comparison site on drained organic soil cultivated with RCG in the same climate. On this mineral soil site, the RCG had higher capacity to take up CO2 from the atmosphere than on the comparison site.

  20. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  1. Introducing Relativity: Less May Be More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogborn, Jon

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how relativity can be introduced in four stages, each building on those before it, but the teacher can choose to stop after whichever stage he/she believes the pupils are capable of tackling.

  2. Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Roger F.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions after sewage sludge fertilization of a bio-energy plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenrud, Anna; Achberger, Christine; Klemedtsson, Leif; Lindroth, Anders

    2013-04-01

    The use of sewage sludge as fertilizer after harvest of bio-energy plantations gives rise to high emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is a powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential almost 300 times larger than that of carbon dioxide and an atmospheric life-span of over 100 years. Plantations of e.g. willow (Salix) and poplar (Populus) species are today grown and used for bio-energy purposes. They could serve as carbon and nitrogen sinks, thus lowering greenhouse gas emissions and helping to mitigate a change in climate. However, since N2O is such a powerful greenhouse gas it can have a large impact on the total emission of greenhouse gases from a bio-energy plantation. The magnitude of N2O emissions after fertilization using sludge from sewage treatment plants is therefore important to investigate. This study concerns N2O emissions from a conventionally grown bio-energy plantation of Salix. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer after harvest, and its effect on emissions of N2O from the soil ecosystem. The field site is a Salix plantation in south-western Sweden, a representative site in management practices and abiotic conditions. Emissions of N2O were monitored using automatic chambers (height 1.05 m, volume 0.2625 m3) and a trace gas analyzer (TGA100, Campbell Scientific, USA) during approximately one (1) year. After harvest, N2O emissions from control plots without application of sewage sludge (non-fertilized plots) were compared to plots with sewage sludge application (fertilized plots). Preliminary results show that emissions of N2O were continuously very low throughout the measurement period, except for peak emissions after harvest and fertilization. These peak emissions of N2O were observed at both fertilized and non-fertilized plots in connection to the fertilization events. The results indicate that heavy precipitation could be the cause of induced emissions of N2O at non

  4. Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy: from model calibrations to policy options (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamers, P.

    2013-12-01

    Programs to stimulate biomass use for the production of heating/cooling and electricity have been implemented in many countries as part of their greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Critiques claim however that the use of forest biomass, e.g. as a replacement of hard-coal in large-scale power plants or mineral oil fuelled residential heating boilers, countervails carbon saving and thus also climate change mitigation strategies, at least in the short-term, as forest biomass combustion releases previously stored biogenic carbon back into the atmosphere. While there seems general agreement that carbon emitted from bioenergy combustion was and will again be sequestered from the atmosphere given a sustainable biomass management system, there is inherent concern that carbon release and sequestration rates may not be in temporal balance with each other and eventually jeopardize mid-century carbon/temperature/climate targets. So far, biomass carbon accounting systems (including those that are part of regulatory standards) have not incorporated this potential temporal imbalance or ';carbon debt'. The potential carbon debt caused by wood harvest and the resulting time spans needed to reach pre-harvest carbon levels (payback) or those of a reference case (parity) have become important parameters for climate and bioenergy policy developments. The present range of analyses however varies in assumptions, regional scopes, and conclusions. Policy makers are confronted with this portfolio while needing to address the temporal carbon aspect in current regulations. In order to define policies for our carbon constrained world, it is critical to better understand the dimensions and regional differences of these carbon cycles. This paper/presentation discusses to what extent and under which circumstances (i.e. bioenergy systems) a temporal forest carbon imbalance could jeopardize future temperature and eventually climate targets. It further reviews the current state of

  5. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  6. Increasing of Food and Bioenergy Potato Resources by Microbial Influence on Tubers Phytohormonal Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiprushkina, Elena I.; Baranenko, Denis A.

    2014-12-01

    Potato and its by-products became a promising both food and bioenergy resource. The determination of the bacteriaantagonists influence on phytohormone status and productivity of potato tubers was studied. The indole-3-acetic acid content during the dormancy end and germinating in the tubers treated with Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 was fewer than in the control samples. L-tryptophan significant quantity compared to the control was found in the treated tubers in a state of physiological dormancy (more than 2-fold) and especially during active germination (43 times greater). Average potato yield increase at treated fields was of 18.8 %.

  7. Microarray Transcriptomics Data from the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) is a multi-institutional (18 partner), multidisciplinary research (biological, chemical, physical and computational sciences, mathematics and engineering) organization focused on the fundamental understanding and elimination of biomass recalcitrance. BESC's approach to improve accessibility to the sugars within biomass involves 1) designing plant cell walls for rapid deconstruction and 2) developing multitalented microbes for converting plant biomass into biofuels in a single step (consolidated bioprocessing). Addressing the roadblock of biomass recalcitrance will require a multiscale understanding of plant cell walls from biosynthesis to deconstruction pathways. This integrated understanding would generate models, theories and finally processes that will be used to understand and overcome biomass recalcitrance.

  8. National Bioenergy Center, Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2011-2012 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Winter 2011-2012 issue of the National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly update. Issue topics: 34th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals; feasibility of NIR spectroscopy-based rapid feedstock reactive screening; demonstrating integrated pilot-scale biomass conversion. The Biochemical Process Integration Task focuses on integrating the processing steps in enzyme-based lignocellulose conversion technology. This project supports the U.S. Department of Energy's efforts to foster development, demonstration, and deployment of 'biochemical platform' biorefineries that economically produce ethanol or other fuels, as well as commodity sugars and a variety of other chemical products, from renewable lignocellulosic biomass.

  9. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  10. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    PubMed

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH4(+)-N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm(-1)) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm(-1)) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by

  11. Introduced species and their missing parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, Mark E.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2003-01-01

    Damage caused by introduced species results from the high population densities and large body sizes that they attain in their new location. Escape from the effects of natural enemies is a frequent explanation given for the success of introduced species. Because some parasites can reduce host density and decrease body size, an invader that leaves parasites behind and encounters few new parasites can experience a demographic release and become a pest. To test whether introduced species are less parasitized, we have compared the parasites of exotic species in their native and introduced ranges, using 26 host species of molluscs, crustaceans, fishes, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles. Here we report that the number of parasite species found in native populations is twice that found in exotic populations. In addition, introduced populations are less heavily parasitized (in terms of percentage infected) than are native populations. Reduced parasitization of introduced species has several causes, including reduced probability of the introduction of parasites with exotic species (or early extinction after host establishment), absence of other required hosts in the new location, and the host-specific limitations of native parasites adapting to new hosts.

  12. Modern aspects of electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bockris, J.M.; Conway, B.E.; White, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: perspectives in electrochemical physics; modern state of double layer study of solid metals; photoelectrolysis and photoelectrochemical catalysis; electron transfer reactions on oxide-covered metal electrodes; and interfacial electrostatics and electrodynamics in disperse systems.

  13. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  14. Deconstructing Modern Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses modern educational technology, including postmodernism; deconstruction; the Shannon-Weaver Model for telecommunication apparatus and the epistemology of educational technology; the systems approach; and possible demands of postmodern educational technology, including technoscience, instructional design issues, and cultural aspects.…

  15. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  16. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  17. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  18. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  19. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  20. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  1. Modernizing Mechanical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman L.

    Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

  2. Modern vs. Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenhui, Rao

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  3. Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)

  4. Modern School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2008-01-01

    There was much enthusiasm when the phrase "Modern School Mathematics" was coined shortly after the 1958 National Defense Education Act was passed. Many federally funded study groups came into being. Presently, criticisms in secondary teaching are just as great as it was in 1958. The innovations recommended by federally funded study groups has had…

  5. Industrial technology modernization (ITM) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, M. R.

    The Industrial Technology Modernization (ITM) program represents an F-16 technology modernization program for subcontractors. The original F-16 Technology Modernization Program was conceived to establish a manufacturing environment which would minimize the manufacturing costs of F-16 aircraft. The success of this program led to the expansion of the concept of modernization to include key F-16 subcontractors. The phases in the ITM program structure are related to analysis and conceptual design, detailed factory modernization designs, and the implementation of factory medernization. Attention is also given to aspects of program documentation, and details regarding the contracting mechanics established for initiating subcontractor technology modernization.

  6. Undetectable Firearms Modernization Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Israel, Steve [D-NY-3

    2013-04-10

    04/30/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. School Food Modernization Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Latham, Tom [R-IA-3

    2013-04-26

    07/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Evaluation of Integrated Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrothermal Carbonization for Bioenergy Production

    PubMed Central

    Reza, M. Toufiq; Werner, Maja; Pohl, Marcel; Mumme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most abundant yet underutilized renewable energy resources. Both anaerobic digestion (AD) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) are promising technologies for bioenergy production from biomass in terms of biogas and HTC biochar, respectively. In this study, the combination of AD and HTC is proposed to increase overall bioenergy production. Wheat straw was anaerobically digested in a novel upflow anaerobic solid state reactor (UASS) in both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Wet digested from thermophilic AD was hydrothermally carbonized at 230 °C for 6 hr for HTC biochar production. At thermophilic temperature, the UASS system yields an average of 165 LCH4/kgVS (VS: volatile solids) and 121 L CH4/kgVS at mesophilic AD over the continuous operation of 200 days. Meanwhile, 43.4 g of HTC biochar with 29.6 MJ/kgdry_biochar was obtained from HTC of 1 kg digestate (dry basis) from mesophilic AD. The combination of AD and HTC, in this particular set of experiment yield 13.2 MJ of energy per 1 kg of dry wheat straw, which is at least 20% higher than HTC alone and 60.2% higher than AD only. PMID:24962786

  9. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Allison Ray; Jeffrey Lacey; Marnie Cortez; Courtney Payne; Doug Karlen; Stuart Birrell; David Laird; Robert Kallenbach; Josh Egenolf; Matthew Sousek; Thomas Voigt

    2014-11-01

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe reported in the United States. It is necessary to explore the effects of drought on the quality attributes of current and potential bioenergy feedstocks. Compositional analysis data for corn stover, Miscanthus, and CRP grasses from one or more locations for years 2010 (normal precipitation levels) and 2012 (a known severe drought year nationally) was collected. Results & discussion: The general trend for samples that experienced drought was an increase in extractives and a decrease in structural sugars and lignin. The TEY yields were calculated to determine the drought effects on ethanol production. All three feedstocks had a decrease of 12-14% in TEY when only decreases of carbohydrate content was analyzed. When looking at the compounded effect of both carbohydrate content and the decreases in dry matter loss for each feedstock there was a TEY decrease of 25%-59%. Conclusion: Drought had a significant impact on the quality of all three bioenergy crops. In all cases where drought was experienced both the quality of the feedstock and the yield decreased. These drought induced effects could have significant economic impacts on biorefineries.

  10. Application of sequence-independent amplification (SIA) for the identification of RNA viruses in bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Agindotan, Bright O; Ahonsi, Monday O; Domier, Leslie L; Gray, Michael E; Bradley, Carl A

    2010-10-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus, energycane, and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) are three potential biomass crops being evaluated for commercial cellulosic ethanol production. Viral diseases are potentially significant threats to these crops. Therefore, identification of viruses infecting these bioenergy crops is important for quarantine purposes, virus resistance breeding, and production of virus-free planting materials. The application is described of sequence-independent amplification, for the identification of RNA viruses in bioenergy crops. The method involves virus partial purification from a small amount of infected leaf tissue (miniprep), extraction of viral RNA, amplification of randomly primed cDNAs, cloning, sequencing, and BLAST searches for sequence homology in the GenBank. This method has distinct advantage over other virus characterization techniques in that it does not require reagent specific to target viruses. Using this method, a possible new species was identified in the genus Marafivirus in switchgrass related to Maize rayado fino virus, its closest relative currently in GenBank. Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), genus Potyvirus, was identified in M.xgiganteus, energycane, corn (Zea mays), and switchgrass. Other viruses identified were: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), genus Potyvirus, in johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense); Soil borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), genus Furovirus, in wheat (Triticum aestivum); and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), genus Comovirus, in soybean (Glycine max). The method was as sensitive as conventional RT-PCR. This is the first report of a Marafivirus infecting switchgrass, and SCMV infecting both energycane and M. x giganteus.

  11. Changing patterns of health in communities impacted by a bioenergy project in northern Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Astrid M; Hodges, Mary H; Bah, Mohamed S; Kamara, Habib I; Kargbo, Anita; Paye, Jusufu; Turay, Hamid; Nyorkor, Emmanuel D; Divall, Mark J; Zhang, Yaobi; Utzinger, Jürg; Winkler, Mirko S

    2014-12-01

    Large private sector investments in low- and middle-income countries are often critically evaluated with regards to their environmental, social, human rights, and health impacts. A health impact assessment, including a baseline health survey, was commissioned by the Addax Bioenergy Sierra Leone project in 2010. As part of the monitoring, a follow-up survey was conducted three years later. A set of health indicators was assessed at six impacted and two control sites. Most of these indices improved, particularly at the impacted sites. The prevalences of stunting, wasting, and Plasmodium falciparum in children under five years of age decreased significantly at impacted sites (all p < 0.05) and non-significantly at control sites. Anemia in children and in women of reproductive age (15-49 years) decreased significantly at impacted and control sites (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Health facility-based deliveries increased significantly at the impacted sites (p < 0.05). The prevalences of helminth infections in children aged 10-15 years remained approximately at the same levels, although focal increases at the impacted sites were noted. Access to improved sanitation decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at control and non-significantly at impacted sites. Water quality remained poor without significant changes. The epidemiologic monitoring of a bioenergy project provides a useful contribution for evidence-based decision-making.

  12. Arundo donax L.: a non-food crop for bioenergy and bio-compound production.

    PubMed

    Corno, Luca; Pilu, Roberto; Adani, Fabrizio

    2014-12-01

    Arundo donax L., common name giant cane or giant reed, is a plant that grows spontaneously in different kinds of environments and that it is widespread in temperate and hot areas all over the world. Plant adaptability to different kinds of environment, soils and growing conditions, in combination with the high biomass production and the low input required for its cultivation, give to A. donax many advantages when compared to other energy crops. A. donax can be used in the production of biofuels/bioenergy not only by biological fermentation, i.e. biogas and bio-ethanol, but also, by direct biomass combustion. Both its industrial uses and the extraction of chemical compounds are largely proved, so that A. donax can be proposed as the feedstock to develop a bio-refinery. Nowadays, the use of this non-food plant in both biofuel/bioenergy and bio-based compound production is just beginning, with great possibilities for expanding its cultivation in the future. To this end, this review highlights the potential of using A. donax for energy and bio-compound production, by collecting and critically discussing the data available on these first applications for the crop.

  13. Changing Patterns of Health in Communities Impacted by a Bioenergy Project in Northern Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Hodges, Mary H.; Bah, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Habib I.; Kargbo, Anita; Paye, Jusufu; Turay, Hamid; Nyorkor, Emmanuel D.; Divall, Mark J.; Zhang, Yaobi; Utzinger, Jürg; Winkler, Mirko S.

    2014-01-01

    Large private sector investments in low- and middle-income countries are often critically evaluated with regards to their environmental, social, human rights, and health impacts. A health impact assessment, including a baseline health survey, was commissioned by the Addax Bioenergy Sierra Leone project in 2010. As part of the monitoring, a follow-up survey was conducted three years later. A set of health indicators was assessed at six impacted and two control sites. Most of these indices improved, particularly at the impacted sites. The prevalences of stunting, wasting, and Plasmodium falciparum in children under five years of age decreased significantly at impacted sites (all p < 0.05) and non-significantly at control sites. Anemia in children and in women of reproductive age (15–49 years) decreased significantly at impacted and control sites (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Health facility-based deliveries increased significantly at the impacted sites (p < 0.05). The prevalences of helminth infections in children aged 10–15 years remained approximately at the same levels, although focal increases at the impacted sites were noted. Access to improved sanitation decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at control and non-significantly at impacted sites. Water quality remained poor without significant changes. The epidemiologic monitoring of a bioenergy project provides a useful contribution for evidence-based decision-making. PMID:25514152

  14. Direct climate effects of perennial bioenergy crops in the United States.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Matei; Lobell, David B; Field, Christopher B

    2011-03-15

    Biomass-derived energy offers the potential to increase energy security while mitigating anthropogenic climate change, but a successful path toward increased production requires a thorough accounting of costs and benefits. Until recently, the efficacy of biomass-derived energy has focused primarily on biogeochemical consequences. Here we show that the biogeophysical effects that result from hypothetical conversion of annual to perennial bioenergy crops across the central United States impart a significant local to regional cooling with considerable implications for the reservoir of stored soil water. This cooling effect is related mainly to local increases in transpiration, but also to higher albedo. The reduction in radiative forcing from albedo alone is equivalent to a carbon emissions reduction of , which is six times larger than the annual biogeochemical effects that arise from offsetting fossil fuel use. Thus, in the near-term, the biogeophysical effects are an important aspect of climate impacts of biofuels, even at the global scale. Locally, the simulated cooling is sufficiently large to partially offset projected warming due to increasing greenhouse gases over the next few decades. These results demonstrate that a thorough evaluation of costs and benefits of bioenergy-related land-use change must include potential impacts on the surface energy and water balance to comprehensively address important concerns for local, regional, and global climate change.

  15. Bioenergy and the importance of land use policy in a carbon-constrained world

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2010-06-01

    Policies aimed at limiting anthropogenic climate change would result in significant transformations of the energy and land-use systems. However, increasing the demand for bioenergy could have a tremendous impact on land use, and can result in land clearing and deforestation. Wise et al. (2009a,b) analyzed an idealized policy to limit the indirect land use change emissions from bioenergy. The policy, while effective, would be difficult, if not impossible, to implement in the real world. In this paper, we consider several different land use policies that deviate from this first-best, using the Joint Global Change Research Institute’s Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Specifically, these new frameworks are (1) a policy that focuses on just the above-ground or vegetative terrestrial carbon rather than the total carbon, (2) policies that focus exclusively on incentivizing and protecting forestland, and (3) policies that apply an economic penalty on the use of biomass as a proxy to limit indirect land use change emissions. For each policy, we examine its impact on land use, land-use change emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, agricultural supply, and food prices.

  16. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  17. Evaluation of integrated anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal carbonization for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Reza, M Toufiq; Werner, Maja; Pohl, Marcel; Mumme, Jan

    2014-06-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most abundant yet underutilized renewable energy resources. Both anaerobic digestion (AD) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) are promising technologies for bioenergy production from biomass in terms of biogas and HTC biochar, respectively. In this study, the combination of AD and HTC is proposed to increase overall bioenergy production. Wheat straw was anaerobically digested in a novel upflow anaerobic solid state reactor (UASS) in both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Wet digested from thermophilic AD was hydrothermally carbonized at 230 °C for 6 hr for HTC biochar production. At thermophilic temperature, the UASS system yields an average of 165 LCH4/kgVS (VS: volatile solids) and 121 L CH4/kgVS at mesophilic AD over the continuous operation of 200 days. Meanwhile, 43.4 g of HTC biochar with 29.6 MJ/kgdry_biochar was obtained from HTC of 1 kg digestate (dry basis) from mesophilic AD. The combination of AD and HTC, in this particular set of experiment yield 13.2 MJ of energy per 1 kg of dry wheat straw, which is at least 20% higher than HTC alone and 60.2% higher than AD only.

  18. Pyrolysis and kinetic analyses of Camel grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) for bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Ye, Guangbin; Luo, Huibo; Liu, Chenguang; Malik, Sana; Afzal, Ifrah; Xu, Jianren; Ahmad, Muhammad Sajjad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal degradation of grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) under an inert environment at three heating rates, including 10, 30, and 50°Cmin(-1) in order to evaluate its bioenergy potential. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in a simultaneous Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry analyzer. Thermal data were used to analyze kinetic parameters through isoconversional models of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissenger-Akahira-Sunose (KSA) methods. The pre-exponential factors values have shown the reaction to follow first order kinetics. Activation energy values were shown to be 84-193 and 96-192kJmol(-1) as calculated by KSA and FWO methods, respectively. Differences between activation energy and enthalpy of reaction values (∼5 to 6kJmol(-1)) showed product formation is favorable. The Gibb's free energy (173-177kJmol(-1)) and High Heating Value (15.00MJkg(-1)) have shown the considerable bioenergy potential of this low-cost biomass.

  19. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

    2011-04-01

    Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

  20. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production

    SciTech Connect

    Lijó, Lucía; González-García, Sara; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic monodigestion and codigestion were compared. • The environmental advantages of suitable waste management were proved. • The use of cereal crops as feedstock improves biogas yield. • Cultivation step implies the most important environmental hotspot. • Digestate management options were evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions.

  1. Potential bioenergy production and climate change mitigation in marginal lands of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Z.; Zhuang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Growing feedstocks from marginal lands is becoming an increasingly attractive choice for producing biofuel as an alternative energy to fossil fuels. Here we used a biogeochemical model to estimate bioenergy potential and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from bioenergy crops grown on marginal lands in the United States. Two broadly tested cellulosic crops, switchgrass and Miscanthus, were assumed to be grown on the abandoned land and mixed crop-vegetation land with marginal productivity. Production of biomass and biofuel as well as net carbon exchange and nitrous oxide emissions were estimated in a spatially explicit manner. We found that, cellulosic crops, especially Miscanthus, could produce a considerable amount of biomass, thus ethanol on these marginal lands. For every hectare of marginal land, switchgrass and Miscanthus could produce 1.4-2.3 kL and 4.1-6.9 kL ethanol, respectively. The actual amount of ethanol production depends on nitrogen fertilization rate and biofuel conversion efficiency. Switchgrass has high global warming intensity (100-190 g CO2eq L-1 ethanol), in terms of GHG emissions per unit ethanol produced. Miscanthus, however, emits only 21-36 g CO2eq to produce every liter of ethanol. To reach the mandated cellulosic ethanol target of 21 billion gallons by 2022 in the United States, growing Miscanthus on the marginal lands could save a large amount of land and reduce GHG emissions in comparison to growing switchgrass.

  2. Assessing the potential of bioenergy. Final report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, J.; Badin, J.

    1998-12-31

    As electricity restructuring proceeds, traditional concepts of how energy is produced, transported, and utilized are likely to change dramatically. Marketplace, policy, and regulatory changes will shape both the domestic and global energy industry, improving opportunities for clean, low-cost energy, competitively priced fuels, and environmentally responsible power systems. Many of these benefits may be obtained by commercial deployment of advanced biomass power conversion technologies. The United BioEnergy Commercialization Association represents the US biomass power industry. Its membership includes investor-owned and public utilities, independent power producers, state and regional bioenergy, equipment manufacturers, and biomass energy developers. To carry out its mission, UBECA has been carrying out the following activities: production of informational and educational materials on biomass energy and distribution of such materials at public forums; technical and market analyses of biomass energy fuels, conversion technologies, and market issues; monitoring of issues affecting the biomass energy community; and facilitating cooperation among members to leverage the funds available for biomass commercialization activities.

  3. Logistics system design for biomass-to-bioenergy industry with multiple types of feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yao, Qingzhu

    2011-12-01

    It is technologically possible for a biorefinery to use a variety of biomass as feedstock including native perennial grasses (e.g., switchgrass) and agricultural residues (e.g., corn stalk and wheat straw). Incorporating the distinct characteristics of various types of biomass feedstocks and taking into account their interaction in supplying the bioenergy production, this paper proposed a multi-commodity network flow model to design the logistics system for a multiple-feedstock biomass-to-bioenergy industry. The model was formulated as a mixed integer linear programming, determining the locations of warehouses, the size of harvesting team, the types and amounts of biomass harvested/purchased, stored, and processed in each month, the transportation of biomass in the system, and so on. This paper demonstrated the advantages of using multiple types of biomass feedstocks by comparing with the case of using a single feedstock (switchgrass) and analyzed the relationship of the supply capacity of biomass feedstocks to the output and cost of biofuel.

  4. Use of the SWAT model to evaluate the sustainability of bioenergy production at a National scale

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, Latha Malar; Jager, Yetta; Schweizer, Peter E; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2009-01-01

    As the US begins to integrate biomass crops and residues into its mix of energy feedstocks, tools are needed to measure the long-term sustainability of these feedstocks. Two aspects of sustainability are long-term potential for profitably producing energy and protection of ecosystems influenced by energy-related activities. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is an important model used in the efforts to quantify both aspects. To quantify potential feedstock production, they used SWAT to estimate switchgrass yields at a national scale. The results from this analysis produced a map of the potential switchgrass yield along its natural eastern range. To quantify ecological protection, they are using the SWAT model to forecast changes in water quality and fish richness as a result of landscape alterations due to incorporating bioenergy crops. They have implemented the SWAT model in the Arkansas-Red-White region, which drains into the Mississippi River, and they present their methods here. They identified two sub-watersheds for sensitivity analysis and calibration of the water quality results, and then, explored ways to apply the calibration results to the whole region and validate the model setup. They also present an overview of their research in which results from the calibrated regional SWAT model were used to analyze potential changes in fish biodiversity. Only by evaluating the energy and environmental implications of landscape changes can we make informed decisions about bioenergy at the national scale, and the SWAT model will enable us to reach that goal.

  5. Harmonising conflicts between science, regulation, perception and environmental impact: the case of soil conditioners from bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Riding, Matthew J; Herbert, Ben M J; Ricketts, Lois; Dodd, Ian; Ostle, Nick; Semple, Kirk T

    2015-02-01

    As the global population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, humanity needs to balance an ever increasing demand for food, energy and natural resources, with sustainable management of ecosystems and the vital services that they provide. The intensification of agriculture, including the use of fertilisers from finite sources, has resulted in extensive soil degradation, which has increased food production costs and CO2 emissions, threatening food security. The Bioenergy sector has significant potential to contribute to the formation of a circular economy. This paper presents the scientific, regulatory and socioeconomic barriers to the use of the nutrient waste streams from biomass thermal conversion (ash) and anaerobic digestion (digestate) as sustainable soil amendments for use in place of traditional fertilisers. It is argued that whilst the ability of combined ash and digestate to remedy many threats to ecosystems and provide a market to incentivise the renewable bio-energy schemes is promising, a step-change is required to alter perceptions of 'waste', from an expensive problem, to a product with environmental and economic value. This can only be achieved by well-informed interactions between scientists, regulators and end users, to improve the spread and speed of innovation with this sector.

  6. FmMDb: A Versatile Database of Foxtail Millet Markers for Millets and Bioenergy Grasses Research

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Gopal; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) including its small genome size, short life cycle, inbreeding nature, and phylogenetic proximity to various biofuel crops have made this crop an excellent model system to investigate various aspects of architectural, evolutionary and physiological significances in Panicoid bioenergy grasses. After release of its whole genome sequence, large-scale genomic resources in terms of molecular markers were generated for the improvement of both foxtail millet and its related species. Hence it is now essential to congregate, curate and make available these genomic resources for the benefit of researchers and breeders working towards crop improvement. In view of this, we have constructed the Foxtail millet Marker Database (FmMDb; http://www.nipgr.res.in/foxtail.html), a comprehensive online database for information retrieval, visualization and management of large-scale marker datasets with unrestricted public access. FmMDb is the first database which provides complete marker information to the plant science community attempting to produce elite cultivars of millet and bioenergy grass species, thus addressing global food insecurity. PMID:23951158

  7. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Lijó, Lucía; González-García, Sara; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal association enhances drought tolerance potential of promising bioenergy grass (Saccharum arundinaceum retz.).

    PubMed

    Mirshad, P P; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-07-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus spp.) on some physiological and biochemical characteristics of bioenergy grass Saccharum arundinaceum subjected to drought stress was studied. The symbiotic association of Glomus spp. was established with S. arundinaceum, a potential bioenergy grass as evident from the increase in percentage of root infection and distribution frequency of vesicles when compared with non-arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. AMF-treated plants exhibited an enhanced accumulation of osmolytes such as sugars and proline and also increased protein content under drought. AMF association significantly increased the accumulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants like phenols, ascorbate and glutathione as well as enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD (superoxide dismutase), APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase) resulting in reduced lipid peroxidation in S. arundinaceum. AMF symbiosis also ameliorated the drought-induced reduction of total chlorophyll content and activities of photosystem I and II. The maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (F v/F m) and potential photochemical efficiency (F v/F o) were higher in AMF plants as compared to non-AMF plants under drought stress. These results indicate that AMF association alleviate drought stress in S. arundinaceum by the accumulation of osmolytes and non-enzymatic antioxidants and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, and hence, the photosynthetic efficiency is improved resulting in increased biomass production. AMF association with energy grasses also improves the acclimatization of S. arundinaceum for growing in marginal lands of drought-affected soils.

  9. Topographic and soil influences on root productivity of three bioenergy cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Ontl, Todd A; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Cambardella, Cynthia A; Schulte, Lisa A; Kolka, Randall K

    2013-08-01

    Successful modeling of the carbon (C) cycle requires empirical data regarding species-specific root responses to edaphic characteristics. We address this need by quantifying annual root production of three bioenergy systems (continuous corn, triticale/sorghum, switchgrass) in response to variation in soil properties across a toposequence within a Midwestern agroecosystem. Using ingrowth cores to measure annual root production, we tested for the effects of topography and 11 soil characteristics on root productivity. Root production significantly differed among cropping systems. Switchgrass root productivity was lowest on the floodplain position, but root productivity of annual crops was not influenced by topography or soil properties. Greater switchgrass root production was associated with high percent sand, which explained 45% of the variation. Percent sand was correlated negatively with soil C and nitrogen and positively with bulk density, indicating this variable is a proxy for multiple important soil properties. Our results suggest that easily measured soil parameters can be used to improve model predictions of root productivity in bioenergy switchgrass, but the edaphic factors we measured were not useful for predicting root productivity in annual crops. These results can improve C cycling modeling efforts by revealing the influence of cropping system and soil properties on root productivity.

  10. Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal for Bioenergy: A Spatially Comprehensive National Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden; R. G. Nelson

    2013-02-01

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainably removable agricultural residues across the conterminous United States. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10 – 100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time.

  11. Army Equipment Modernization Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    transition , we must continue to provide the Nation with the best equipped, most modernized, and highly capable Army to prevail in any operational...interoperability. • Conducted the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOTE) for WIN-T Inc 2 provid- ing an initial on-the-move capability to BCTs and...the Joint Air to Ground Missile (JAGM) which supports the transition of Army Hellfire missile to a joint missile system and replaces the Marine

  12. Modernizing public health law.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-07-01

    The rapid spread of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli throughout Europe highlights the need for modern and flexible public health laws to identify, control and treat infections and contamination that give significant concern for the health of the population. In this article, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah outline the amendments to the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 that adopt an all-hazards approach to threats to public health.

  13. Neanderthals and Modern Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Clive

    2004-04-01

    The Neanderthals were a people native to Europe during the Pleistocene period, who became extinct between forty and thirty thousand years ago. Challenging the commonly held view that extinction was caused by the arrival of our ancestors, Clive Finlayson provides evidence that their extinction actually occurred because the Neanderthals could not adapt fast enough to changing ecological and environmental conditions, not their relationship with modern humans.

  14. Modern HF Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    AD-A131 163 MODERN HF COUNICATIONS(U) ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE (FRANCE) d AARONS ET AL. MAY 83 AGARD...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (ORGANISATION DU TRAITE DE L’ATLANTIQUE NORD) AGARD Lecture...other NATO bodies and to member nation-, in connection with research aind development problems in the aerospace field: Plros iding assistance to

  15. U.S, Department of Energy's Bioenergy Research Centers An Overview of the Science

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-01

    is bringing together scientists in diverse fields to understand the complex biology underlying solutions to DOE missions in energy production, environmental remediation, and climate change science. New interdisciplinary research communities are emerging, as are knowledgebases and scientific and computational resources critical to advancing large-scale, genome-based biology. To focus the most advanced biotechnology-based resources on the biological challenges of biofuel production, DOE established three Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs) in September 2007. Each center is pursuing the basic research underlying a range of high-risk, high-return biological solutions for bioenergy applications. Advances resulting from the BRCs will provide the knowledge needed to develop new biobased products, methods, and tools that the emerging biofuel industry can use. The scientific rationale for these centers and for other fundamental genomic research critical to the biofuel industry was established at a DOE workshop involving members of the research community (see sidebar, Biofuel Research Plan, below). The DOE BRCs have developed automated, high-throughput analysis pipelines that will accelerate scientific discovery for biology-based biofuel research. The three centers, which were selected through a scientific peer-review process, are based in geographically diverse locations--the Southeast, the Midwest, and the West Coast--with partners across the nation. DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory leads the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) in Tennessee; the University of Wisconsin-Madison leads the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC); and DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory leads the DOE Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) in California. Each center represents a multidisciplinary partnership with expertise spanning the physical and biological sciences, including genomics, microbial and plant biology, analytical chemistry, computational biology and bioinformatics, and

  16. Introducing the Computer to Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Petreman, Mel

    1984-01-01

    The medical profession has been far more reluctant than the general business community to adopt the computer as a useful business tool. The experience of a group of five family physicians who have been using a computer since 1979 demonstrates that it is possible to achieve significant financial benefits, and to reduce the stress and workload of both physicians and office staff. The computerization of medical records, scheduling, and patient billing is discussed in detail. Physicians have controlled the paper load of the modern medical office by pioneering their own medical software system. PMID:21279036

  17. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  18. Spatial and temporal dynamics of soil-surface carbon dioxide emissions in bioenergy corn rotations and reconstructed prairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-surface CO2 efflux is a major export of carbon from the soil system. The interest in bioenergy cropping systems has raised questions as to the potential of management strategies to deteriorate soil carbon pools and soil quality. The objective of this research was to evaluate dynamic soil-surfac...

  19. Field-based estimates of global warming potential in bioenergy systems of Hawaii: Crop choice and deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level bal...

  20. Standards, Certification, and Indicators for Biofuel Sustainability: A review of the CSBP, BMAS and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable biomass feedstock supplies are needed globally for emerging bioenergy and bio-product development, but how can society know these materials are being produced, harvested, and transported in a sustainable manner? This presentation examines three different programs in the U.S. focused on p...