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  1. A systems biology approach to invasive behavior: comparing cancer metastasis and suburban sprawl development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite constant progress, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States. The ability of tumors to metastasize is central to this dilemma, as many studies demonstrate successful treatment correlating to diagnosis prior to cancer spread. Hence a better understanding of cancer invasiveness and metastasis could provide critical insight. Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesize that a systems biology-based comparison of cancer invasiveness and suburban sprawl will reveal similarities that are instructive. Testing the hypothesis We compare the structure and behavior of invasive cancer to suburban sprawl development. While these two systems differ vastly in dimension, they appear to adhere to scale-invariant laws consistent with invasive behavior in general. We demonstrate that cancer and sprawl have striking similarities in their natural history, initiating factors, patterns of invasion, vessel distribution and even methods of causing death. Implications of the hypothesis We propose that metastatic cancer and suburban sprawl provide striking analogs in invasive behavior, to the extent that conclusions from one system could be predictive of behavior in the other. We suggest ways in which this model could be used to advance our understanding of cancer biology and treatment. PMID:20181145

  2. Cadherin-11 Promotes Invasive Behavior of Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kiener, Hans P.; Niederreiter, Birgit; Lee, David M.; Jimenez-Boj, Esther; Smolen, Josef S.; Brenner, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To define the expression pattern of cadherin-11 in destructive pannus tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to determine if cadherin-11 expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes controls their invasive capacity. Methods Cadherin-11 expression in rheumatoid synovial tissue was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. To examine the role of cadherin-11 in regulating the invasive behavior of fibroblast-like synoviocytes, we generated L-cell clones expressing wild-type cadherin-11, mutant cadherin-11, and empty vector transfected controls. The invasive capacity of L-cell transfectants and cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes treated with a blocking cadherin-11-Fc protein or control immunoglobulin was determined in Matrigel invasion assays. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed that cadherin-11 is abundantly expressed in cells at the cartilage-pannus junction in rheumatoid synovitis. Invasion assays demonstrate a twofold increased invasive capacity of cadherin-11 transfected L-cells compared to L-cells transfected with E-cadherin or control vector. The invasive behavior of the L-cells stably transfected with a cadherin-11 construct that lacked the juxta-membrane cytoplasmic domain (cadherin-11 ΔJMD) was diminished to the level of vector control L-cells. Further, treatment with the cadherin-11-Fc fusion protein diminished the invasive capacity of fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Conclusion These in vitro studies implicate a role for cadherin-11 in promoting cell invasion and contribute insight into the invasive nature of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in chronic synovitis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:19404963

  3. Behavioral syndrome in a native and an invasive hymenoptera species.

    PubMed

    Monceau, Karine; Moreau, Jérôme; Poidatz, Juliette; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiéry, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have focused on the role of behavior in biological invasions. Individuals may differ consistently in time for several behavioral traits (personality) which covary (behavioral syndrome) resulting in different behavioral types, some of them favoring invasion. Social hymenopterans have a strong potential to be invaders and their success depends primarily on the foundresses' ability to found viable colonies. They are expected to be active, explorative and bold for optimally establishing their nest. In Europe, 2 hornet species coexist: the native Vespa crabro and the invasive Vespa velutina. These 2 species may compete for nesting sites and we suggest that the initial success of V. velutina has been favored by its behavior in outperforming V. crabro for the traits involved in nest initiation. Here, we (i) defined the personality of V. crabro and V. velutina, (ii) tested for the existence of behavioral syndrome in these species, and (iii) compared their performances using an open-field test. Our results show that V. crabro foundresses behave consistently but not V. velutina; this lack of consistency being mainly due to reduced variance among individuals. This result questions the possibility of detecting consistent behavioral differences in species having recently undergone a strong bottleneck. Both species exhibit the same correlations between activity, boldness and exploration and V. velutina clearly outperforms V. crabro for all traits. Our results suggest that activity, boldness, and exploration are implicated in both hornet nest initiation and invasion process which contributed to explain why social hymenopterans are so successful at colonization.

  4. Keratins significantly contribute to cell stiffness and impact invasive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Kristin; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Käs, Josef A.; Magin, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Cell motility and cell shape adaptations are crucial during wound healing, inflammation, and malignant progression. These processes require the remodeling of the keratin cytoskeleton to facilitate cell–cell and cell–matrix adhesion. However, the role of keratins for biomechanical properties and invasion of epithelial cells is only partially understood. In this study, we address this issue in murine keratinocytes lacking all keratins on genome engineering. In contrast to predictions, keratin-free cells show about 60% higher cell deformability even for small deformations. This response is compared with the less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization induced via latrunculin A. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and 3D growth assays. These experiments reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. Reexpression of a small amount of the keratin pair K5/K14 in keratin-free cells reverses the above phenotype for the invasion but does not with respect to cell deformability. Our data show a unique role of keratins as major players of cell stiffness, influencing invasion with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. This study supports the view that down-regulation of keratins observed during epithelial–mesenchymal transition directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells. PMID:24167274

  5. Keratins significantly contribute to cell stiffness and impact invasive behavior.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Kristin; Fritsch, Anatol W; Käs, Josef A; Magin, Thomas M

    2013-11-12

    Cell motility and cell shape adaptations are crucial during wound healing, inflammation, and malignant progression. These processes require the remodeling of the keratin cytoskeleton to facilitate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. However, the role of keratins for biomechanical properties and invasion of epithelial cells is only partially understood. In this study, we address this issue in murine keratinocytes lacking all keratins on genome engineering. In contrast to predictions, keratin-free cells show about 60% higher cell deformability even for small deformations. This response is compared with the less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization induced via latrunculin A. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and 3D growth assays. These experiments reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. Reexpression of a small amount of the keratin pair K5/K14 in keratin-free cells reverses the above phenotype for the invasion but does not with respect to cell deformability. Our data show a unique role of keratins as major players of cell stiffness, influencing invasion with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. This study supports the view that down-regulation of keratins observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells.

  6. The cytoskeleton significantly impacts invasive behavior of biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Anatol; Käs, Josef; Seltman, Kristin; Magin, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Cell migration is a key determinant of cancer metastasis and nerve regeneration. The role of the cytoskeleton for the epithelial-meschenymal transition (EMT), i.e, for invasive behavior of cells, is only partially understood. Here, we address this issue in cells lacking all keratins upon genome engineering. In contrast to prediction, keratin-free cells show a 60% higher deformability compared to less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and three-dimensional growth assays. These reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. This study supports the view that downregulation of keratins observed during EMT directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells. Cancer cells that effectively move through tissues are softer and more contractile than cells that stay local in tissues. Soft and contractile avoids jamming. Naturally, softness has to have its limits. So neuronal growth cones are too soft to carry large loads to move efficiently through scar tissue, which is required for nerve regeneration. In synopsis, the physical bounds that the functional modules of a moving cell experience in tissues may provide an overarching motif for novel approaches in diagnosis and therapy.

  7. [Invasive cardiovascular monitoring--four methods compared].

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Henning; Schmidt, Christoph; Hinder, Frank

    2006-09-01

    The impact of invasive hemodynamic monitoring on patient safety and outcome in perioperative medicine remains inadequately tested and unproven. The indications for the use of these tools should, therefore, be evaluated according to an individual risk-benefit analysis. The measurement of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) is of little invasiveness as most high-risk patients are instrumented with central venous catheters, and ScvO2 has been shown to improve outcome in patients with septic shock. Transpulmonary thermodilution (e.g. PiCCO-system) delivers information not only on global cardiac function and intravascular volume status but also helps to define the pulmonary consequences of cardiovascular therapy. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a valuable tool in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and represents the beside-method of choice for rapid assessment of acute life-threatening cardiovascular instability. Apart from special indications, these tools tend to replace the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) which has been shown to be of little value in various patient populations.

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Burke, William M.; Tergas, Ana I.; Hou, June Y.; Huang, Yongmei; Hu, Jim C.; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ananth, Cande V.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the potential benefits of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uterine cancer, population-level data describing the procedure’s safety in unselected patients are lacking. We examined the use of minimally invasive surgery and the association between the route of the procedure and long-term survival. Methods We used the SEER-Medicare database to identify women with stage I-III uterine cancer who underwent hysterectomy from 2006 to 2011. Patients who underwent abdominal hysterectomy were compared with those who had minimally invasive hysterectomy (laparoscopic and robot-assisted). Perioperative morbidity, use of adjuvant therapy, and long-term survival were examined after propensity score balancing. Results We identified 6,304 patients, including 4,139 (65.7%) who underwent abdominal hysterectomy and 2,165 (34.3%) who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy; performance of minimally invasive hysterectomy increased from 9.3% in 2006 to 61.7% in 2011. Robot-assisted procedures accounted for 62.3% of the minimally invasive operations. Compared with women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy, minimally invasive hysterectomy was associated with a lower overall complication rate (22.7% v 39.7%; P < .001), and lower perioperative mortality (0.6% v 1.1%), but these women were more likely to receive adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy (34.3% v 31.3%) and brachytherapy (33.6% v 31.0%; P < .05). The complication rate was higher after robot-assisted hysterectomy compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy (23.7% v 19.5%; P = .03). There was no association between the use of minimally invasive hysterectomy and either overall (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.04) or cancer-specific (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.16) mortality. Conclusion Minimally invasive hysterectomy does not appear to compromise long-term survival for women with endometrial cancer. PMID:26834057

  9. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.

  10. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop’s Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments. PMID:27168984

  11. Behavioral flexibility in an invasive bird is independent of other behaviors.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered important for a species to adapt to environmental change. However, it is unclear how behavioral flexibility works: it relates to problem solving ability and speed in unpredictable ways, which leaves an open question of whether behavioral flexibility varies with differences in other behaviors. If present, such correlations would mask which behavior causes individuals to vary. I investigated whether behavioral flexibility (reversal learning) performances were linked with other behaviors in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird. I found that behavioral flexibility did not significantly correlate with neophobia, exploration, risk aversion, persistence, or motor diversity. This suggests that great-tailed grackle performance in behavioral flexibility tasks reflects a distinct source of individual variation. Maintaining multiple distinct sources of individual variation, and particularly variation in behavioral flexibility, may be a mechanism for coping with the diversity of novel elements in their environments and facilitate this species' invasion success.

  12. Behavioral flexibility in an invasive bird is independent of other behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered important for a species to adapt to environmental change. However, it is unclear how behavioral flexibility works: it relates to problem solving ability and speed in unpredictable ways, which leaves an open question of whether behavioral flexibility varies with differences in other behaviors. If present, such correlations would mask which behavior causes individuals to vary. I investigated whether behavioral flexibility (reversal learning) performances were linked with other behaviors in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird. I found that behavioral flexibility did not significantly correlate with neophobia, exploration, risk aversion, persistence, or motor diversity. This suggests that great-tailed grackle performance in behavioral flexibility tasks reflects a distinct source of individual variation. Maintaining multiple distinct sources of individual variation, and particularly variation in behavioral flexibility, may be a mechanism for coping with the diversity of novel elements in their environments and facilitate this species’ invasion success. PMID:27478705

  13. Comparative patterns of plant invasions in the Mediterranean biome.

    PubMed

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Delipetrou, Pinelopi; Vilà, Montserrat; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Wardell-Johnson, Grant; Henderson, Lesley; Fuentes, Nicol; Ugarte-Mendes, Eduardo; Rundel, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world's five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period.

  14. Comparative Patterns of Plant Invasions in the Mediterranean Biome

    PubMed Central

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Delipetrou, Pinelopi; Vilà, Montserrat; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G.; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Wardell-Johnson, Grant; Henderson, Lesley; Fuentes, Nicol; Ugarte-Mendes, Eduardo; Rundel, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world’s five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period. PMID:24244443

  15. Behavioral responses to resource heterogeneity can accelerate biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Lutscher, Frithjof; Musgrave, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-14

    The abundance and spatial distribution of resources in a landscape and the behavioral response of individuals determines whether and how fast an invasive species spreads in an environment. Whether and how landscape manipulations can be used to slow invasive species is of great interest, in particular in forest ecosystems, where tree removal, thinning, and increasing tree diversity are discussed as management options. Classically, the focus is on availability and accessibility of resources; more recent considerations include individual-level behavioral movement responses to a spatially heterogeneous resource distribution. We derive a novel model for insect-host dynamics that includes three common behavioral aspects of foraging: higher movement rate in resource-poor areas, lower ovipositioning rate in resource poor areas, and movement preference for resource-rich areas. We show that each of these basic mechanisms can increase the speed of invasion in a source-sink landscape above that in a homogeneous landscape with larger overall resource availability. We parameterize our model and illustrate our results with data for Emerald ash borer, a recent highly destructive forest pest in North America. Our results highlight the importance of empirical work on movement behavior in different landscape types and near the interface between types. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the Minimally-Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) algorithm for non-invasive prenatal testing

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tianjiao; Shaw, Patricia A.; Yeniterzi, Suveyda; Dunkel, Mary; Rajkovic, Aleksander; Hogge, W. Allen; Bunce, Kimberly D.; Peters, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) was communicated in 2009 as a novel method for the non-invasive detection of fetal copy number anomalies in maternal plasma DNA. The original manuscript illustrated the potential of MINK using a model system in which fragmented genomic DNA obtained from a trisomy 21 male individual was mixed with that of his karyotypically normal mother at dilutions representing fetal fractions found in maternal plasma. Although it has been previously shown that MINK is able to non-invasively detect fetal microdeletions, its utility for aneuploidy detection in maternal plasma has not previously been demonstrated. The current study illustrates the ability of MINK to detect common aneuploidy in early gestation, compares its performance to other published third party methods (and related software packages) for prenatal aneuploidy detection and evaluates the performance of these methods across a range of sequencing read inputs. Plasma samples were obtained from 416 pregnant women between gestational weeks 8.1 and 34.4. Shotgun DNA sequencing was performed and data analyzed using MINK RAPIDR and WISECONDOR. MINK performed with greater accuracy than RAPIDR and WISECONDOR, correctly identifying 60 out of 61 true trisomy cases, and reporting only one false positive in 355 normal pregnancies. Significantly, MINK achieved accurate detection of trisomy 21 using just 2 million aligned input reads, whereas WISECONDOR required 6 million reads and RAPIDR did not achieve complete accuracy at any read input tested. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MINK provides an analysis pipeline for the detection of fetal aneuploidy in samples of maternal plasma DNA. PMID:28306738

  17. Effects of an alien ant invasion on abundance, behavior, and reproductive success of endemic island birds.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi E; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Green, Peter T; Nally, Ralph Mac

    2008-10-01

    Biological invaders can reconfigure ecological networks in communities, which changes community structure, composition, and ecosystem function. We investigated whether impacts caused by the introduced yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes), a pantropical invader rapidly expanding its range, extend to higher-order consumers by comparing counts, behaviors, and nesting success of endemic forest birds in ant-invaded and uninvaded rainforest on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Point counts and direct behavioral observations showed that ant invasion altered abundances and behaviors of the bird species we examined: the Island Thrush (Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus), Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica natalis), and Christmas Island White-eye (Zosterops natalis). The thrush, which frequents the forest floor, altered its foraging and reproductive behaviors in ant-invaded forest, where nest-site location changed, and nest success and juvenile counts were lower. Counts of the dove, which forages exclusively on the forest floor, were 9-14 times lower in ant-invaded forest. In contrast, counts and foraging success of the white-eye, a generalist feeder in the understory and canopy, were higher in ant-invaded forest, where mutualism between the ant and honeydew-secreting scale insects increased the abundance of scale-insect prey. These complex outcomes involved the interplay of direct interference by ants and altered resource availability and habitat structure caused indirectly by ant invasion. Ecological meltdown, rapidly unleashed by ant invasion, extended to these endemic forest birds and may affect key ecosystem processes, including seed dispersal.

  18. Experimental evidence of impacts of an invasive parakeet on foraging behavior of native birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Resource competition is one potential behavioral mechanism by which invasive species can impact native species, but detecting this competition can be difficult due to the interactions that variable environmental conditions can have on species behavior. This is particularly the case in urban habitats where the disturbed environment can alter natural behavior from that in undisturbed habitats. The rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri), is an increasingly common invasive species, predominantly associated with large urban centers. Using an experimental approach, we tested the behavioral responses of native garden birds in response to the presence of a rose-ringed parakeet versus the presence of a similarly sized and dominant native bird, the great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major). Parakeet presence significantly reduced feeding rates and increased vigilance among native birds compared with our control treatments. Of visits made by native birds in the presence of a parakeet, feeding was more likely to occur in sites within the parakeet range compared with sites outside, suggesting some habituation of native birds has occurred following prior exposure to parakeets but overall foraging behavior is still disrupted. The results of our study suggest that nonnative species can have complex and subtle impacts on native fauna and show that a nonnative competitor can impact native species simply through their presence near resources. PMID:24822022

  19. Comparing a non-invasive hemodynamic monitor with minimally invasive monitoring during major open abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Lawrence; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract As part of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol, the goal-directed fluid management with hemodynamic monitoring can effectively guide perioperative fluid use and significantly improve the outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing major surgeries. Several minimally invasive and non-invasive monitoring devices are commercially available for clinical use. As part of an internal evaluation, we reported the results from three different hemodynamic monitoring devices used in a patient undergoing a major abdominal surgery. PMID:25050116

  20. Contributions of behavioral primatology to veterinary science and comparative medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G; Clarke, A S

    1984-01-01

    Behavioral primatology is a subdiscipline of the research area referred to as primatology. Like primatology, behavioral primatology is an eclectic field of study made up of researchers from diverse basic disciplines having very different historical roots and employing extremely different methodologies biased by emphases and assumptions dictated by their histories. Psychologists, zoologists, anthropologists, and psychiatrists make up the majority of those currently active in behavioral primatology, but others, including those in veterinary science, are active in research in the area. Behavioral data can be useful to veterinary scientists and to those in comparative medicine and are interesting in their own right. Veterinarians and medical scientists may specialize in behavioral disorders. In addition, those not directly interested in behavior itself may still make use of behavioral indices of potential physiologic and morphologic abnormality. Often an animal may be inadvertently stressed by social and nonsocial environmental factors, and such stress effects may be first and best recognized by behavioral means. A recognition by those not in the behavioral sciences of the basic feral behavior of primates can go a long way toward prevention or alleviation of both behavioral and physical stress of primates in captivity. Studies of free-ranging but captive troops are sources of information almost as good as, and sometimes even better than, field studies. In addition, there is a growing realization that "natural experiments" on primates in zoos can be of value, especially since many species held in zoologic parks are those least well known in more traditional captive research settings. It must be recognized that the findings from research done on captive primates living in large field cages are not directly comparable to those derived from more directly invasive but more experimental laboratory settings. A comparative perspective on captive environments, as well as on

  1. Novel organisms: comparing invasive species, GMOs, and emerging pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Jonathan M; Keesing, Felicia; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    Invasive species, range-expanding species, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), synthetic organisms, and emerging pathogens increasingly affect the human environment. We propose a framework that allows comparison of consecutive stages that such novel organisms go through. The framework provides a common terminology for novel organisms, facilitating knowledge exchange among researchers, managers, and policy makers that work on, or have to make effective decisions about, novel organisms. The framework also indicates that knowledge about the causes and consequences of stage transitions for the better studied novel organisms, such as invasive species, can be transferred to more poorly studied ones, such as GMOs and emerging pathogens. Finally, the framework advances understanding of how climate change can affect the establishment, spread, and impacts of novel organisms, and how biodiversity affects, and is affected by, novel organisms.

  2. Comparative genomics and genome biology of invasive Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Skarp, C P A; Akinrinade, O; Nilsson, A J E; Ellström, P; Myllykangas, S; Rautelin, H

    2015-11-25

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major pathogen in bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and can cause bacteremia in severe cases. C. jejuni is highly structured into clonal lineages of which the ST677CC lineage has been overrepresented among C. jejuni isolates derived from blood. In this study, we characterized the genomes of 31 C. jejuni blood isolates and 24 faecal isolates belonging to ST677CC in order to study the genome biology related to C. jejuni invasiveness. We combined the genome analyses with phenotypical evidence on serum resistance which was associated with phase variation of wcbK; a GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase involved in capsular biosynthesis. We also describe the finding of a Type III restriction-modification system unique to the ST-794 sublineage. However, features previously considered to be related to pathogenesis of C. jejuni were either absent or disrupted among our strains. Our results refine the role of capsule features associated with invasive disease and accentuate the possibility of methylation and restriction enzymes in the potential of C. jejuni to establish invasive infections. Our findings underline the importance of studying clinically relevant well-characterized bacterial strains in order to understand pathogenesis mechanisms important in human infections.

  3. Eastern mosquitofish resists invasion by nonindigenous poeciliids through agonistic behaviors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Kevin A.; Hill, Jeffrey E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2012-01-01

    Florida is a hotspot for nonindigenous fishes with over 30 species established, although few of these are small-bodied species. One hypothesis for this pattern is that biotic resistance of native species is reducing the success of small-bodied, introduced fishes. The eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki is common in many freshwater habitats in Florida and although small-bodied (<50 mm), it is a predator and aggressive competitor. We conducted four mesocosm experiments to examine the potential for biotic resistance by eastern mosquitofish to two small-bodied nonindigenous fishes, variable platyfish (Xiphophorus variatus) and swordtail (X. hellerii). Experiments tested: (1) effect of eastern mosquitofish density on adult survival, (2) effect of eastern mosquitofish on a stage-structured population, (3) role of habitat structural complexity on nonindigenous adult survival, and (4) behavioral effects of eastern mosquitofish presence and habitat complexity. Eastern mosquitofish attacked and killed non-native poeciliids with especially strong effects on juveniles of both species. Higher eastern mosquitofish density resulted in greater effects. Predation on swordtails increased with increasing habitat complexity. Eastern mosquitofish also actively drove swordtails from cover, which could expose non-native fish to other predators under field conditions. Our results suggest that eastern mosquitofish may limit invasion success.

  4. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in “100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species”; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest “attack rates” a, shortest “handling times” h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach. PMID:26771658

  5. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T A; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species"; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest "attack rates" a, shortest "handling times" h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach.

  6. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  7. Invasive ants alter foraging and parental behaviors of a native bird

    PubMed Central

    Siefferman, Lynn; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduced species can exert outsized impacts on native biota through both direct (predation) and indirect (competition) effects. Ants frequently become established in new areas after being transported by humans across traditional biological or geographical barriers, and a prime example of such establishment is the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). Introduced to North America in the 1930's, red imported fire ants are now firmly established throughout the southeastern United States. Although these invasive predators can dramatically impact native arthropods, their effect on vertebrates through resource competition is essentially unknown. Using a paired experimental design, we compared patterns of foraging and rates of provisioning for breeding eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) in unmanipulated (control) territories to those in adjacent (treated) territories where fire ants were experimentally reduced. Bluebirds inhabiting treated territories foraged nearer their nests and provisioned offspring more frequently than bluebirds inhabiting control territories with unmanipulated fire ant levels. Additionally, nestlings from treated territories were in better condition than those from control territories, though these differences were largely confined to early development. The elimination of significant differences in body condition towards the end of the nestling period suggests that bluebird parents in control territories were able to make up the food deficit caused by fire ants, potentially by working harder to adequately provision their offspring. The relationship between fire ant abundance and bluebird behavior hints at the complexity of ecological communities and suggests negative effects of invasive species are not limited to taxa with which they have direct contact. PMID:22844172

  8. Comparative analysis of the invasion-associated genes expression pattern in first trimester trophoblastic (HTR-8/SVneo) and JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Suman, P; Gupta, S K

    2012-10-01

    Several cellular models of trophoblast have been proposed to understand their invasion. We had reported that JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cells show differential invasive behavior in response to IL-11 treatment. So, the present study aims to compare the expression of invasion-associated molecules in these two cell lines by performing cDNA microarray followed by quantitative RT-PCR. We have observed that HTR-8/SVneo cells have significantly higher invasiveness than JEG-3 cells, which might be due to higher expression of proteases and signaling intermediates of JAK/STAT and MAPK signaling pathways. Like extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), a higher expression of functionally significant proteases like MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, PLAU etc in HTR-8/SVneo cells, project them as a close mimic of EVTs under in vitro conditions.

  9. Evaluation of the behavior of murine and human embryonic stem cells in in vitro migration and invasion assays.

    PubMed

    T'Joen, V; Somers, P; Declercq, H; Cornelissen, M

    2013-04-01

    Cell migration and invasion are essential processes in a variety of physiological events in the body, but also in several patho-physiological events. In this paper, the behavior of murine and human embryonic stem cells is examined in in vitro migration and invasion models. mESC and hESC were applied as spheroids, also known as patches, and as single cells, to mimic possible cell therapy application strategies. Two known in vitro migration assays, the ECM (extracellular matrix) assay and the Boyden chamber migration assay were selected. These assays revealed that mESC are statistically significantly more infiltrative than hESC. Application as spheroid results in a slightly higher infiltrative capacity compared single cells. The PHF (precultured chick heart fragment) assay was selected as an invasion assay. In the PHF assay a more 3D examination of the infiltrative nature of the ESC can be observed. The mESC showed infiltrative behavior, as spheroids and as single cells. The hESC were infiltrative as single cells but not as spheroids. The results of these assays are mostly complementary and prove the applicability of these assays, which were originally applied in tumor biology, in migratory behavior studies regarding stem cells and their progeny in basic and other conditions.

  10. Symbiotic bacterial communities in ants are modified by invasion pathway bottlenecks and alter host behavior.

    PubMed

    Lester, Philip J; Sébastien, Alexandra; Suarez, Andrew V; Barbieri, Rafael F; Gruber, Monica A M

    2017-03-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to global biodiversity and provide unique opportunities to study ecological processes. Population bottlenecks are a common feature of biological invasions and the severity of these bottlenecks is likely to be compounded as an invasive species spreads from initial invasion sites to additional locations. Despite extensive work on the genetic consequences of bottlenecks, we know little about how they influence microbial communities of the invaders themselves. Due to serial bottlenecks, invasive species may lose microbial symbionts including pathogenic taxa (the enemy release hypothesis) and/or may accumulate natural enemies with increasing time after invasion (the pathogen accumulation and invasive decline hypothesis). We tested these alternate hypotheses by surveying bacterial communities of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile). We found evidence for serial symbiont bottlenecks: the bacterial community richness declined over the invasion pathway from Argentina to New Zealand. The abundance of some genera, such as Lactobacillus, also significantly declined over the invasion pathway. Argentine ants from populations in the United States shared the most genera with ants from their native range in Argentina, while New Zealand shared the least (120 vs. 57, respectively). Nine genera were present in all sites around the globe possibly indicating a core group of obligate microbes. In accordance with the pathogen accumulation and invasive decline hypothesis, Argentine ants acquired genera unique to each specific invaded country. The United States had the most unique genera, though even within New Zealand these ants acquired symbionts. In addition to our biogeographic sampling, we administered antibiotics to Argentine ants to determine if changes in the micro-symbiont community could influence behavior and survival in interspecific interactions. Treatment with the antibiotics spectinomycin and kanamycin only slightly increased Argentine ant

  11. A comparative study of candidal invasion in rabbit tongue mucosal explants and reconstituted human oral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) features of tissue invasion by three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis) in two different tissue culture models: rabbit tongue mucosal explants (RTME) and reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Tongue mucosal biopsies of healthy New Zealand rabbits were maintained in explant culture using a transwell system. RHOE was obtained from Skinethic Laboratory (Nice, France). RTME and RHOE were inoculated with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis separately and incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2), and 100% humidity up to 48 h. Light microscopic and SEM examinations of uninfected (controls) and infected tissues were performed at 24 and 48 h. C. albicans produced characteristic hallmarks of pathological tissue invasion in both tissue models over a period of 48 h. Hyphae penetrated through epithelial cells and intercellular gaps latter resembling thigmotropism. SEM showed cavitations on the epithelial cell surfaces particularly pronounced at sites of hyphal invasion. Some hyphae on RTME showed several clusters of blastospores attached in regular arrangements resembling "appareil sporifere". C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis produced few hyphae mainly on RTME but they did not penetrate either model. Our findings indicate that multiple host-fungal interactions such as cavitations, thigmotropism, and morphogenesis take place during candidal tissue invasion. RTME described here appears to be useful in investigations of such pathogenic processes of Candida active at the epithelial front.

  12. Applying behavioral theories to invasive animal management: Towards an integrated framework.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Please, Patricia M; Driver, Aaron B

    2015-09-15

    Invasive species wreak an estimated $1.4 trillion in damages globally, each year. To have any hope of reducing this damage, best-practice control strategies must incorporate behavior change interventions. Traditional interventions, based on the knowledge-transfer model, assume that if land managers are properly educated about risks and strategies, they will develop supportive attitudes and implement appropriate control strategies. However, the social sciences have produced a large number of behavioral models and frameworks that demonstrate that knowledge transfer, by itself, fails to change behavior. The challenge then lies in knowing which behavioral model to choose, and when, from a potentially overwhelming 'universe'. In this paper, we review nine behavior theories relevant to invasive species management. We then introduce the Behavior Change Wheel as a tool for integrating these theories into a single practical framework. This framework links drivers of and barriers to behavior change with intervention strategies and policies, in what we consider, from an applied perspective, to be an important advance.

  13. A Cathepsin-L is required for invasive behavior during Air Sac Primordium development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Brenneman, Breanna; Fields, Christopher; Srivastava, Ajay

    2015-10-07

    The Drosophila Air Sac Primordium (ASP) has emerged as an important structure where cellular, genetic and molecular events responsible for invasive behavior and branching morphogenesis can be studied. In this report we present data which demonstrate that a Cathepsin-L encoded by the gene CP1 in Drosophila is necessary for invasive behavior during ASP development. We find that CP1 is expressed in ASP and knockdown of CP1 results in suppression of migratory and invasive behavior observed during ASP development. We further show that CP1 possibly regulates invasive behavior by promoting degradation of Basement Membrane. Our data provide clues to the possible role of Cathepsin L in human lung development and tumor invasion, especially, given the similarities between human lung and Drosophila ASP development.

  14. Invasive plant species alters consumer behavior by providing refuge from predation.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Humberto P; Barnett, Kirk; Reinhardt, Jason R; Marquis, Robert J; Orrock, John L

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the effects of invasive plants on native consumers is important because consumer-mediated indirect effects have the potential to alter the dynamics of coexistence in native communities. Invasive plants may promote changes in consumer pressure due to changes in protective cover (i.e., the architectural complexity of the invaded habitat) and in food availability (i.e., subsidies of fruits and seeds). No experimental studies have evaluated the relative interplay of these two effects. In a factorial experiment, we manipulated cover and food provided by the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) to evaluate whether this plant alters the foraging activity of native mammals. Using tracking plates to quantify mammalian foraging activity, we found that removal of honeysuckle cover, rather than changes in the fruit resources it provides, reduced the activity of important seed consumers, mice in the genus Peromyscus. Two mesopredators, Procyon lotor and Didelphis virginiana, were also affected. Moreover, we found rodents used L. maackii for cover only on cloudless nights, indicating that the effect of honeysuckle was weather-dependent. Our work provides experimental evidence that this invasive plant species changes habitat characteristics, and in so doing alters the behavior of small- and medium-sized mammals. Changes in seed predator behavior may lead to cascading effects on the seeds that mice consume.

  15. Comparative studies and laboratory diagnosis of Vibrio vulnificus, an invasive Vibrio sp.

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, E P; Janda, J M; Adams, F I; Bottone, E J

    1984-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus was isolated from a bacteremic patient. This strain, together with other isolates of V. vulnificus, was compared with V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis, and V. parahaemolyticus with regard to growth characteristics on enteric agar media (enabling isolation and identification) and production of exoenzymes which could correlate with invasive potential. V. vulnificus grew well on MacConkey. Endo, xylose-lysine deoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agar plates. Because V. vulnificus colonies resembled those of lactose-fermenting strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae, however, isolation of this vibrio from mixed specimens or stools may require the use of thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. V. vulnificus produced numerous exoenzymes (protease, DNase, lipase, and esterase) but not elastase or lecithinase. Although differences in exoenzyme production were observed among the four vibrio species, no single exoenzyme could be linked to the invasive potential of V. vulnificus. Images PMID:6699140

  16. Blood Loss in the Minimally Invasive Posterior Approach to Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Jose Ricardo Negreiros; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; de Camargo, Olavo Pire

    2008-01-01

    AIMS Our primary aim was to evaluate whether there is really less bleeding in patients for whom the minimally invasive posterior approach is used in comparison with the direct lateral approach for primary total hip arthroplasty. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the clinical functional results after six months as well as the postoperative radiographic result. METHODS In a comparative non-random prospective study, 76 adult patients underwent elective total hip arthroplasty using one of two approaches. The minimally invasive posterior approach (34 cases; mini-incision group) was compared with the standard direct lateral approach (42 cases; control group). RESULTS Lower total estimated bleeding (means of 1083.5 ml versus 1682.3 ml; p < 0.001) and lower intraoperative bleeding (means of 745.6 ml versus 1282.8 ml; p < 0.001) were found in the mini-incision group. There was, however, no difference in the volume of blood drained after the operation (means of 340 ml and 399 ml; p = 0.77). There was also a difference between the two groups regarding the need for allogenic transfusion (8.8% in the mini-incision group versus 28.6%, p = 0.02). We observed a better clinical result in the mini-incision group (p = 0.002) despite the lack of difference between the two groups in relation to the radiographic result. DISCUSSION Our results draw attention to the possibility that other authors may have underestimated blood losses when using minimally invasive approaches. CONCLUSION The minimally invasive approach gave rise to a positive final impression with regard to lower blood loss. PMID:18568245

  17. Comparing Climate Change and Species Invasions as Drivers of Coldwater Fish Population Extirpations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sapna; Vander Zanden, M. Jake; Magnuson, John J.; Lyons, John

    2011-01-01

    Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) on cisco (Coregonus artedii) population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046–2065 and 2081–2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25–70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change. PMID:21860661

  18. Comparing climate change and species invasions as drivers of coldwater fish population extirpations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sapna; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Magnuson, John J; Lyons, John

    2011-01-01

    Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) on cisco (Coregonus artedii) population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25-70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change.

  19. Stress detection in bivalve mollusk using non-invasive bioelectric monitoring of myoneural behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.L.; Hardison, B.S.; Dawson, V.K.; Waller, D.; Waller, W.T.; Dickson, K.L.; Allen, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Few studies have demonstrated cause-and-effect linkages between extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic bioelectric action potentials of bivalve mollusk using non-invasive, non-destructive approaches. A non-invasive, external probe configuration and detection system, similar to one used previously with native unionids, was developed for continuously monitoring bioelectric activities of clams and mussels. Using remote probes and differential amplifiers, bioelectric activities were recorded for cardiac, adductor, siphon and foot responses using a computer equipped with integrating software. To test if remote, non-invasive probes would detect similar information to that recorded by invasive needle electrodes, two individuals of zebra mussel (Dreissenia polymorpha), and Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) were each configured with two sets of probes. One set was inserted between the valves and along the inside surface of the shelf; the other set was positioned remotely about the outside margins of the valves. Signal validation was made by simultaneously recording bioelectric responses for the same animal from both sets of probes. In preliminary stress tests monitored bivalves were subjected to changes in temperatures over 2 to 3 hr intervals from ambient to potentially lethal levels (20 to 30 C for zebra, 25 C to 40 C for corbicula). Dramatic increases resulted in both number and amplitude of cardiac events as temperature increased. Planned studies will use this approach to evaluate bivalve myoneural behavior patterns in response to chemical and non-chemical stimuli.

  20. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy following cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer: a prospective comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Skinner, D G; Daniels, J R; Russell, C A; Lieskovsky, G; Boyd, S D; Nichols, P; Kern, W; Sakamoto, J; Krailo, M; Groshen, S

    1991-03-01

    We assigned 91 patients with deeply invasive, pathological stage P3, P4 or N+ and Mo transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (with or without squamous or glandular differentiation) to adjuvant chemotherapy or to observation after radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. For most patients chemotherapy was planned as 4 courses at 28-day intervals of 100 mg./M.2 cisplatin, 60 mg./M.2 doxorubicin and 600 mg./M.2 cyclophosphamide. A significant delay was shown in the time to progression (p = 0.0010) with 70% of the patients assigned to chemotherapy free of disease at 3 years compared to 46% in the observation group. Median survival time for patients in the chemotherapy group was 4.3 years compared to 2.4 years in the observation group (p = 0.0062). In addition to treatment groups, important prognostic factors included age, gender and lymph node status. The number of involved lymph nodes was the single most important variable. We recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with invasive transitional cell carcinoma after definitive surgical resection.

  1. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

  2. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  3. Assessing the success of invasive species prevention efforts at changing the behaviors of recreational boaters.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ellen; Keller, Reuben P; Garbach, Kelly

    2016-12-15

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS) pose major conservation challenges in freshwater ecosystems. In response, conservation organizations invest considerable resources in outreach to encourage AIS prevention behaviors among recreational boaters. Despite this, remarkably little is known about whether these efforts catalyze significant changes in boaters' perceptions, or whether they cause changes in behaviors that reduce AIS risk. We interviewed managers at the 14 Illinois organizations active in AIS outreach to determine regional priorities for, and investment in, AIS outreach. The results show a network of collaboration that reinforces a limited set of conservation messages. Next, we surveyed 515 recreational boaters to evaluate access to outreach, knowledge of AIS, and consistency of prevention behavior. Boater recognition of prevention slogans and knowledge of AIS and AIS prevention behavior was similar across Illinois regions despite large regional differences in investment in outreach. Most boaters (94%) report never intentionally moving organisms among waterbodies. Fewer reported that they Always perform recommended actions to reduce risk of AIS spread on their boat interior (68%), boat exterior (63%), or fishing tackle (47%). Recognition of prevention slogans and the number of AIS recognized were significantly, positively, associated with Always performing AIS prevention behavior on the vectors of the boat exterior, and fishing tackle, respectively. Our results suggest that increasing knowledge may be a necessary condition for higher adoption of AIS prevention behaviors, but that this alone may not be sufficient. Instead, efforts targeted at boaters who do not currently practice the recommended actions are likely to be necessary.

  4. A trematode parasite alters growth, feeding behavior, and demographic success of invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus).

    PubMed

    Sargent, Lindsey W; Baldridge, Ashley K; Vega-Ross, Maraliz; Towle, Kevin M; Lodge, David M

    2014-07-01

    Nonindigenous species can cause major changes to community interactions and ecosystem processes. The strong impacts of these species are often attributed to their high demographic success. While the importance of enemy release in facilitating invasions has often been emphasized, few studies have addressed the role of parasites in the invasive range in controlling demographic success of potential invaders. Here we examine whether a trematode parasite (Microphallus spp.) can contribute to previously documented alternate states in the abundance of invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) in north temperate lakes in Wisconsin, USA. Microphallus infect O. rusticus after emerging from their first intermediate host, a hydrobiid snail. As previously documented, O. rusticus reduce densities of hydrobiid snails through direct predation and destruction of macrophyte habitat. Therefore, if Microphallus substantially reduce O. rusticus fitness, these parasites may reinforce a state of low crayfish abundance, and, at the other extreme, abundant crayfish may repress these parasites, reinforcing a state of high crayfish abundance. From samples collected from 109 sites in 16 lakes, we discovered (1) a positive relationship between crayfish infection intensity and hydrobiid snail abundance, (2) a negative relationship between parasite prevalence and crayfish abundance, and (3) a negative relationship between parasite prevalence and crayfish population growth. With experiments, we found that infection with Microphallus reduced foraging behavior and growth in O. rusticus, which may be the mechanisms responsible for the population reductions we observed. Overall results are consistent with the hypothesis that Microphallus contributes to alternate states in the abundance and impacts of O. rusticus.

  5. Effect of an invasive plant and moonlight on rodent foraging behavior in a coastal dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D; De León, Yesenia L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how invasive plants may alter predator avoidance behaviors is important for granivorous rodents because their foraging can trigger ripple effects in trophic webs. Previous research has shown that European beach grass Ammophila arenaria, an invasive species in coastal California, affects the predation of other seeds by the rodents Microtus californicus, Peromyscus maniculatus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis. This may be due to lower perceived predation risk by rodents foraging in close proximity to the cover provided by Ammophila, but this mechanism has not yet been tested. We examined the perceived predation risk of rodents by measuring the 'giving up density' of food left behind in experimental patches of food in areas with and without abundant cover from Ammophila and under varying amount of moonlight. We found strong evidence that giving up density was lower in the thick uniform vegetation on Ammophila-dominated habitat than it was in the more sparsely and diversely vegetated restored habitat. There was also evidence that moonlight affected giving up density and that it mediated the effects of habitat, although with our design we were unable to distinguish the effects of lunar illumination and moon phase. Our findings illustrate that foraging rodents, well known to be risk-averse during moonlit nights, are also affected by the presence of an invasive plant. This result has implications for granivory and perhaps plant demography in invaded and restored coastal habitats. Future research in this system should work to unravel the complex trophic links formed by a non-native invasive plant (i.e., Ammophila) providing cover favored by native rodents, which likely forage on and potentially limit the recruitment of native and non-native plants, some of which have ecosystem consequences of their own.

  6. Muscle tissue saturation in humans studied with two non-invasive optical techniques: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaharin, Alfi; Krite Svanberg, Emilie; Ellerström, Ida; Subash, Arman Ahamed; Khoptyar, Dmitry; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Åkeson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    Muscle tissue saturation (StO2) has been measured with two non-invasive optical techniques and the results were compared. One of the techniques is widely used in the hospitals - the CW-NIRS technique. The other is the photon timeof- flight spectrometer (pTOFS) developed in the Group of Biophotonics, Lund University, Sweden. The wavelengths used in both the techniques are 730 nm and 810 nm. A campaign was arranged to perform measurements on 21 (17 were taken for comparison) healthy adult volunteers (8 women and 13 men). Oxygen saturations were measured at the right lower arm of each volunteer. To observe the effects of different provocations on the oxygen saturation a blood pressure cuff was attached in the upper right arm. For CW-NIRS, the tissue saturation values were in the range from 70-90%, while for pTOFS the values were in the range from 55-60%.

  7. Comparative performance of invasive and native Celastrus species across environmental gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, S. A.; Silander, J.A.; Latimer, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the success of invasive plant species in their new ranges is increased when there is a sympatric native congener available for comparison. Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) is a liana introduced into the United States in the mid-1800s from East Asia as an ornamental plant. Its native congener, Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet), ranges from the east coast of the United States as far west as Wyoming. In the Northeastern United States, C. orbiculatus is continuing to expand its range while C. scandens appears to be in serious decline. One hypothesis for this decline is that C. scandens does not have such a wide range of ecological tolerances in the current landscape as C. orbiculatus, which seems to tolerate a greater range of resource conditions. To investigate this hypothesis, we transplanted these two species into ten sites that spanned a full range of light and soil moisture conditions to compare their establishment and performance in terms of aboveground growth (biomass and height) and mortality. After two years, C. orbiculatus showed significantly lower mortality and greater biomass across all resource conditions compared to C. scandens. In addition, C. orbiculatus preferred more mesic soil moisture conditions, while C. scandens performed better in drier soil moisture conditions. Since much of the Northeastern United States is now forested, this preference for mesic soil conditions could make it more successful than C. scandens in the region. This study shows the utility of manipulative experiments, particularly those using congeneric native species as benchmarks, for assessing the causes and predicting the course of invasions. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Commonly rare and rarely common: comparing population abundance of invasive and native aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Blum, Michael J; Clayton, Murray K; Hain, Ernie F; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S; McIntyre, Peter B; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies.

  9. Informing Parents about the Pharmacological and Invasive Behavior Management Techniques Used in Pediatric Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Paryab, Mehrysa; Afshar, Hossein; Mohammadi, Razie

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Parental acceptance and consent are important parameters in selecting the required behavior management technique during pediatric dental treatment. The present study sought to assess the effect of three different informing methods on the parental acceptance, consent and concern regarding the pharmacological and invasive behavior management techniques used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and methods. Ninety mothers of 3-6-year-old uncooperative children were selected and randomly assigned to three study groups. The parents in each group were initially asked to answer three questions related to their levels of 'acceptance','consent', and 'concern' toward the five behavior management techniques. Then, the information about the techniques was presented through a piece of writing in group I, verbal presentation in group II and showing a film in group III. At last, the parents answered the same three questions again. Score changes were analyzed by using ANOVA, correlations, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in score changes of parental acceptance, consent and concern between the three groups, overall and in relation to each behaviour management technique (P > 0.05). Mothers with aca-demic education revealed more statistically significant concern following presentation of information by film (P < 0.05). Conclusion. None of the presentation methods had a significant preference over the others; in selecting the behavioral management techniques, it is advisable to observe individual factors, such as the level of education of the mothers.

  10. Levels of novel hybridization in the saltcedar invasion compared over seven decades

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization is proposed as one process that can enhance a plant species’ invasive ability. We quantified the levels of hybridization of 180 saltcedar plants (Tamarix spp.) of varying ages that span the history of an invasion along the Green River, UT, USA. Plants ranging in establishment dates fro...

  11. Pollinator Behavior Mediates Negative Interactions between Two Congeneric Invasive Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suann; Ferrari, Matthew J; Shea, Katriona

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneously flowering plant species may indirectly interact with each other by influencing the quantity of pollinator visitation and/or the quality of pollen that is transferred. These effects on pollination may depend on how pollinators respond to floral resources at multiple levels. In this study, we demonstrate pollinator-mediated negative interactions between two invasive plants, Carduus acanthoides and Carduus nutans. Using constructed arrays of the two species, alone and in mixture, we quantified pollinator visitation at the patch and individual plant levels and measured seed production. We found that co-occurrence of our species led to a shift in pollinator services at both levels. Greater interference occurred when arrays were small and spacings between neighboring plants were large. A spatially explicit movement model suggests that pollinator foraging behavior, which mediates the interactions between plants, was driven by floral display size rather than species identity per se. Pollinator behavior significantly reduced the proportion of seed set for both species relative to that in single-species arrays. Overall, the dependence of pollinator behavior on patch size, spacing between plants, and patch composition can lead to pollinator-mediated plant interactions that range from facilitative to competitive.

  12. Comparative Gene Expression Analyses Identify Luminal and Basal Subtypes of Canine Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma That Mimic Patterns in Human Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Deepika; Paoloni, Melissa; Shukradas, Shweta; Choudhury, Dipanwita Roy; Craig, Bruce A; Ramos-Vara, José A; Hahn, Noah; Bonney, Patty L; Khanna, Chand; Knapp, Deborah W

    2015-01-01

    More than 160,000 people are expected to die from invasive urothelial carcinoma (iUC) this year worldwide. Research in relevant animal models is essential to improving iUC management. Naturally-occurring canine iUC closely resembles human iUC in histopathology, metastatic behavior, and treatment response, and could provide a relevant model for human iUC. The molecular characterization of canine iUC, however, has been limited. Work was conducted to compare gene expression array results between tissue samples from iUC and normal bladder in dogs, with comparison to similar expression array data from human iUC and normal bladder in the literature. Considerable similarities between enrichment patterns of genes in canine and human iUC were observed. These included patterns mirroring basal and luminal subtypes initially observed in human breast cancer and more recently noted in human iUC. Canine iUC samples also exhibited enrichment for genes involved in P53 pathways, as has been reported in human iUC. This is particularly relevant as drugs targeting these genes/pathways in other cancers could be repurposed to treat iUC, with dogs providing a model to optimize therapy. As part of the validation of the results and proof of principal for evaluating individualized targeted therapy, the overexpression of EGFR in canine bladder iUC was confirmed. The similarities in gene expression patterns between dogs and humans add considerably to the value of naturally-occurring canine iUC as a relevant and much needed animal model for human iUC. Furthermore, the finding of expression patterns that cross different pathologically-defined cancers could allow studies of dogs with iUC to help optimize cancer management across multiple cancer types. The work is also expected to lead to a better understanding of the biological importance of the gene expression patterns, and the potential application of the cross-species comparisons approach to other cancer types as well.

  13. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000)…

  14. Comparative phosphoproteomics reveals components of host cell invasion and post-transcriptional regulation during Francisella infection

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Tempel, Rebecca; Cambronne, Xiaolu A.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Jones, Marcus B.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Yang, Feng; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-09-22

    Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes the deadly disease tularemia. Most evidence suggests that Francisella is not well recognized by the innate immune system that normally leads to cytokine expression and cell death. In previous work, we identified new bacterial factors that were hyper-cytotoxic to macrophages. Four of the identified hyper-cytotoxic strains (lpcC, manB, manC and kdtA) had an impaired lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis and produced an exposed lipid A lacking the O-antigen. These mutants were not only hyper-cytotoxic but also were phagocytosed at much higher rates compared to the wild type parent strain. To elucidate the cellular signaling underlying this enhanced phagocytosis and cell death, we performed a large-scale comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of cells infected with wild-type and delta-lpcC F. novicida. Our data suggest that not only actin but also intermediate filaments and microtubules are important for F. novicida entry into the host cells. In addition, we observed differential phosphorylation of tristetraprolin (TTP), a key component of the mRNA-degrading machinery that controls the expression of a variety of genes including many cytokines. Infection with the delta-lpcC mutant induced the hyper-phosphorylation and inhibition of TTP, leading to the production of cytokines such as IL-1beta and TNF-alpha which may kill the host cells by triggering apoptosis. Together, our data provide new insights for Francisella invasion and a post-transcriptional mechanism that prevents the expression of host immune response factors that controls infection by this pathogen.

  15. Parasites alter freshwater communities in mesocosms by modifying invasive crayfish behavior.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Lindsey S; Lodge, David M

    2016-06-01

    Parasites can alter communities by reducing densities of keystone hosts, but few studies have examined how trait-mediated indirect effects of parasites can alter ecological communities. We test how trematode parasites (Microphallus spp.) that affect invasive crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) behavior alter how crayfish impact lake littoral communities. O. rusticus drive community composition in north temperate lakes, and predatory fish can reduce crayfish activity and feeding. In laboratory studies, Microphallus parasites also alter O. rusticus behavior: infected O. rusticus eat fewer macroinvertebrates and are bolder near predatory fish than uninfected individuals. We used a 2 x 2 factorial experiment to test how predatory fish and parasites affect O. rusticus impacts in large mesocosms over 4 weeks. We predicted (1) that when predators were absent, infected crayfish would have lower impacts than uninfected crayfish on macrophytes and macroinvertebrates (as well as reduced growth and higher mortality). However, (2) when predators were present but unable to consume crayfish, infected crayfish would have greater impacts (as well as greater growth and lower mortality) than uninfected crayfish because of increased boldness. Because of its effect on crayfish feeding behavior, we also predicted (3) that infection would alter macrophyte and macroinvertebrate community composition. In contrast to our first hypothesis, we found that infected and uninfected crayfish had similar impacts on lower trophic levels when predators were absent. Across all treatments, infected crayfish were more likely to be outside shelters and had greater growth than uninfected crayfish, suggesting that the reduced feeding observed in short-term experiments does not occur over longer timescales. However, in support of the second hypothesis, when predatory fish were present, infected crayfish ate more macroinvertebrates than did uninfected crayfish, likely due to increased boldness. We also observed a

  16. Effects of phosphate supplementation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasive behavior in burn wound infections: A simple approach to a big problem.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Kouroshfard, Shahriyar; Azarpira, Negar

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of inorganic phosphate supplementation on invasive behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn wound infections. An emulsion-based lotion containing sodium dihydrogen phosphate was formulated and then 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats with burn wounds were used to assess the effect of phosphate supplementation on swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. On the second day after burn, four groups of rats were inoculated with P. aeruginosa and one group was left as negative control. The treatment was started on day 3 and the animals were followed up for 4 weeks. Significant improvement in wound healing was observed in the phosphate-receiving group after the 4-week follow-up, compared to the negative control, positive control, and silver sulfadiazine-receiving groups. Histopathological assessment of the tissue samples also indicated the healing process in phosphate-enriched lotion receiving group. The results showed that inorganic phosphate supplementation results in alteration of the virulence behavior of P. aeruginosa and improvement in the wound healing process. In conclusion, phosphate supplementation would be a rational strategy in the eradication of P. aeruginosa wound infection.

  17. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: An Interventional Tool for Enhancing Behavioral Training after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Maximilian J.; Zimerman, Máximo; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability among adults. Motor deficit is the most common impairment after stroke. Especially, deficits in fine motor skills impair numerous activities of daily life. Re-acquisition of motor skills resulting in improved or more accurate motor performance is paramount to regain function, and is the basis of behavioral motor therapy after stroke. Within the past years, there has been a rapid technological and methodological development in neuroimaging leading to a significant progress in the understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor skill acquisition and functional recovery in stroke patients. Based on this and the development of novel non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, new adjuvant interventional approaches that augment the response to behavioral training have been proposed. Transcranial direct current, transcranial magnetic, and paired associative (PAS) stimulation are NIBS techniques that can modulate cortical excitability, neuronal plasticity and interact with learning and memory in both healthy individuals and stroke patients. These techniques can enhance the effect of practice and facilitate the retention of tasks that mimic daily life activities. The purpose of the present review is to provide a comprehensive overview of neuroplastic phenomena in the motor system during learning of a motor skill, recovery after brain injury, and of interventional strategies to enhance the beneficial effects of customarily used neurorehabilitation after stroke. PMID:26029083

  18. Comparable ecological dynamics underlie early cancer invasion and species dispersal, involving self-organizing processes

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Diana E.; Cannas, Sergio A.; Montemurro, Marcelo A.; Hu, Bo; Cheng, Shi-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Occupancy of new habitats through dispersion is a central process in nature. In particular, long-distance dispersal is involved in the spread of species and epidemics, although it has not been previously related with cancer invasion, a process that involves cell spreading to tissues far away from the primary tumour. Using simulations and real data we show that the early spread of cancer cells is similar to the species individuals spread and we suggest that both processes are represented by a common spatio-temporal signature of long-distance dispersal and subsequent local proliferation. This signature is characterized by a particular fractal geometry of the boundaries of patches generated, and a power-law scaled, disrupted patch size distribution. In contrast, invasions involving only dispersal but not subsequent proliferation (“physiological invasions”) like trophoblast cells invasion during normal human placentation did not show the patch size power-law pattern. Our results are consistent under different temporal and spatial scales, and under different resolution levels of analysis. We conclude that the scaling properties are a hallmark and a direct result of long-distance dispersal and proliferation, and that they could reflect homologous ecological processes of population self-organization during cancer and species spread. Our results are significant for the detection of processes involving long-range dispersal and proliferation like cancer local invasion and metastasis, biological invasions and epidemics, and for the formulation of new cancer therapeutical approaches. PMID:18930739

  19. Comparing open and minimally invasive surgical procedures for oesophagectomy in the treatment of cancer: the ROMIO (Randomised Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) feasibility study and pilot trial.

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Chris; Avery, Kerry; Berrisford, Richard; Barham, Paul; Noble, Sian M; Fernandez, Aida Moure; Hanna, George; Goldin, Robert; Elliott, Jackie; Wheatley, Timothy; Sanders, Grant; Hollowood, Andrew; Falk, Stephen; Titcomb, Dan; Streets, Christopher; Donovan, Jenny L; Blazeby, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Localised oesophageal cancer can be curatively treated with surgery (oesophagectomy) but the procedure is complex with a risk of complications, negative effects on quality of life and a recovery period of 6-9 months. Minimal-access surgery may accelerate recovery. OBJECTIVES The ROMIO (Randomised Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) study aimed to establish the feasibility of, and methodology for, a definitive trial comparing minimally invasive and open surgery for oesophagectomy. Objectives were to quantify the number of eligible patients in a pilot trial; develop surgical manuals as the basis for quality assurance; standardise pathological processing; establish a method to blind patients to their allocation in the first week post surgery; identify measures of postsurgical outcome of importance to patients and clinicians; and establish the main cost differences between the surgical approaches. DESIGN Pilot parallel three-arm randomised controlled trial nested within feasibility work. SETTING Two UK NHS departments of upper gastrointestinal surgery. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 18 years with histopathological evidence of oesophageal or oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma, squamous cell cancer or high-grade dysplasia, referred for oesophagectomy or oesophagectomy following neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. INTERVENTIONS Oesophagectomy, with patients randomised to open surgery, a hybrid open chest and minimally invasive abdomen or totally minimally invasive access. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The primary outcome measure for the pilot trial was the number of patients recruited per month, with the main trial considered feasible if at least 2.5 patients per month were recruited. RESULTS During 21 months of recruitment, 263 patients were assessed for eligibility; of these, 135 (51%) were found to be eligible and 104 (77%) agreed to participate, an average of five patients per month. In total, 41 patients were allocated to open surgery, 43 to the

  20. Extracellular matrix composition and rigidity regulate invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D pancreatic tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Gwendolyn; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedehrojin; Jones, Dustin P.; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and mechanical compliance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to serve as regulators of tumor growth and invasive behavior. These effects may be particularly relevant in tumors of the pancreas, noted for a profound desmoplastic reaction and an abundance of stroma rich in ECM. In view of recent progress in the clinical implementation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for pancreatic tumors, in this report we examine how ECM composition and rheological properties impact upon invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D multicellular pancreatic tumor spheroids in ECM environments with characterized rheological properties. Tumor spheroids were cultured initially in attachment-free conditions to form millimeter-sized spheroids that were transplanted into reconstituted ECM microenvironments (Matrigel and Type I Collagen) that were characterized using bulk oscillatory shear rheology. Analysis of growth behavior shows that the soft collagen ECM promoted growth and extensive invasion and this microenvironment was used in subsequent assessment of PDT and chemotherapy response. Evaluation of treatment response revealed that primary tumor nodule growth is inhibited more effectively with PDT, while verteporfin PDT response is significantly enhanced in the ECM-infiltrating populations that are non-responsive to oxaliplatin chemotherapy. This finding is potentially significant, suggesting the potential for PDT to target these clinically problematic invasive populations that are associated with aggressive metastatic progression and chemoresistance. Experiments to further validate and identify the mechanistic basis of this observation are ongoing.

  1. COMPARATIVE CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF TWO PALLADIUM CONTAINING TITANIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lian, T. Yashiki, T. Nakayama, T. Nakanishi, R. B. Rebak

    2006-07-23

    The ASTM standard B 265 provides the requirements for the chemical composition of titanium (Ti) alloys. It is planned to use corrosion resistant and high strength titanium alloys to fabricate the drip shield at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Titanium grade (Gr) 7 (R52400) and other Ti alloys are currently being characterized for this application. Ti Gr 7 contains 0.15% Palladium (Pd) to increase its corrosion performance. In this article we report results on the comparative short term corrosion behavior of Ti Gr 7 and a Ruthenium (Ru) containing alloy (Ti Gr 33). Ti Gr 33 also contains a small amount of Pd. Limited electrochemical testing such as polarization resistance and cyclic potentiodynamic curves showed that both alloys have a similar corrosion behavior in the tested environments.

  2. Comparative Corrosion Behavior of Two Palladium Containing Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, T; Yashiki, T; Nakayama, T; Nakanishi, T; Rebak, R B

    2006-02-05

    The ASTM standard B 265 provides the requirements for the chemical composition of titanium (Ti) alloys. It is planned to use corrosion resistant and high strength titanium alloys to fabricate the drip shield at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Titanium grade (Gr) 7 (R52400) and other Ti alloys are currently being characterized for this application. Ti Gr 7 contains 0.15% Palladium (Pd) to increase its corrosion performance. In this article we report results on the comparative short term corrosion behavior of Ti Gr 7 and a Ruthenium (Ru) containing alloy (Ti Gr 33). Ti Gr 33 also contains a small amount of Pd. Limited electrochemical testing such as polarization resistance and cyclic potentiodynamic curves showed that both alloys have a similar corrosion behavior in the tested environments.

  3. Prey-tracking behavior in the invasive terrestrial planarian Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida).

    PubMed

    Iwai, Noriko; Sugiura, Shinji; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-11-01

    Platydemus manokwari is a broadly distributed invasive terrestrial flatworm that preys heavily on land snails and has been credited with the demise of numerous threatened island faunas. We examined whether P. manokwari tracks the mucus trails of land snail prey, investigated its ability to determine trail direction, and evaluated prey preference among various land snail species. A plastic treatment plate with the mucus trail of a single species and a control plate without the trail were placed side by side at the exit of cages housing P. manokwari. All trials were then videotaped overnight. The flatworms moved along plates with mucus trails, but did not respond to plates without trails, blank control (distilled water), or with conspecific flatworm trails. When presented at the midpoint of a snail mucus trail, the flatworms followed the trail in a random direction. The flatworms showed a preference when choosing between two plates, each with a mucus trail of different land snail species. Our results suggest that P. manokwari follows snail mucus trails based on chemical cues to increase the chance of encountering prey; however, trail-tracking behavior showed no directionality.

  4. Prey-tracking behavior in the invasive terrestrial planarian Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Noriko; Sugiura, Shinji; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-11-01

    Platydemus manokwari is a broadly distributed invasive terrestrial flatworm that preys heavily on land snails and has been credited with the demise of numerous threatened island faunas. We examined whether P. manokwari tracks the mucus trails of land snail prey, investigated its ability to determine trail direction, and evaluated prey preference among various land snail species. A plastic treatment plate with the mucus trail of a single species and a control plate without the trail were placed side by side at the exit of cages housing P. manokwari. All trials were then videotaped overnight. The flatworms moved along plates with mucus trails, but did not respond to plates without trails, blank control (distilled water), or with conspecific flatworm trails. When presented at the midpoint of a snail mucus trail, the flatworms followed the trail in a random direction. The flatworms showed a preference when choosing between two plates, each with a mucus trail of different land snail species. Our results suggest that P. manokwari follows snail mucus trails based on chemical cues to increase the chance of encountering prey; however, trail-tracking behavior showed no directionality.

  5. Comparative Genome Sequencing Reveals Within-Host Genetic Changes in Neisseria meningitidis during Invasive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klughammer, Johanna; Dittrich, Marcus; Blom, Jochen; Mitesser, Vera; Vogel, Ulrich; Frosch, Matthias; Goesmann, Alexander; Müller, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Some members of the physiological human microbiome occasionally cause life-threatening disease even in immunocompetent individuals. A prime example of such a commensal pathogen is Neisseria meningitidis, which normally resides in the human nasopharynx but is also a leading cause of sepsis and epidemic meningitis. Using N. meningitidis as model organism, we tested the hypothesis that virulence of commensal pathogens is a consequence of within host evolution and selection of invasive variants due to mutations at contingency genes, a mechanism called phase variation. In line with the hypothesis that phase variation evolved as an adaptation to colonize diverse hosts, computational comparisons of all 27 to date completely sequenced and annotated meningococcal genomes retrieved from public databases showed that contingency genes are indeed enriched for genes involved in host interactions. To assess within-host genetic changes in meningococci, we further used ultra-deep whole-genome sequencing of throat-blood strain pairs isolated from four patients suffering from invasive meningococcal disease. We detected up to three mutations per strain pair, affecting predominantly contingency genes involved in type IV pilus biogenesis. However, there was not a single (set) of mutation(s) that could invariably be found in all four pairs of strains. Phenotypic assays further showed that these genetic changes were generally not associated with increased serum resistance, higher fitness in human blood ex vivo or differences in the interaction with human epithelial and endothelial cells in vitro. In conclusion, we hypothesize that virulence of meningococci results from accidental emergence of invasive variants during carriage and without within host evolution of invasive phenotypes during disease progression in vivo. PMID:28081260

  6. Flowering phenology of invasive alien plant species compared with native species in three Mediterranean-type ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Oscar; Richardson, David M.; Valladares, Fernando; Castro-Díez, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Flowering phenology is a potentially important component of success of alien species, since elevated fecundity may enhance invasiveness. The flowering patterns of invasive alien plant species and related natives were studied in three regions with Mediterranean-type climate: California, Spain and South Africa's Cape region. Methods A total of 227 invasive–native pairs were compared for seven character types across the regions, with each pair selected on the basis that they shared the same habitat type within a region, had a common growth form and pollination type, and belonged to the same family or genus. Key Results Invasive alien plant species have different patterns of flowering phenology from native species in the three regions. Whether the alien species flower earlier, later or at the same time as natives depends on the climatic regime in the native range of the aliens and the proportion of species in the invasive floras originating from different regions. Species invading at least two of the regions displayed the same flowering pattern, showing that flowering phenology is a conservative trait. Invasive species with native ranges in temperate climates flower earlier than natives, those from Mediterranean-type climates at the same time, and species from tropical climates flower later. In California, where the proportion of invaders from the Mediterranean Basin is high, the flowering pattern did not differ between invasive and native species, whereas in Spain the high proportion of tropical species results in a later flowering than natives, and in the Cape region early flowering than natives was the result of a high proportion of temperate invaders. Conclusions Observed patterns are due to the human-induced sympatry of species with different evolutionary histories whose flowering phenology evolved under different climatic regimes. The severity of the main abiotic filters imposed by the invaded regions (e.g. summer drought) has not been

  7. Projecting future expansion of invasive species: comparing and improving methodologies for species distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Kumar P; Warren, Dan L; Dhileepan, Kunjithapatham; McConnachie, Andrew; Strathie, Lorraine; Hassan, Gul; Karki, Debendra; Shrestha, Bharat B; Parmesan, Camille

    2015-12-01

    Modeling the distributions of species, especially of invasive species in non-native ranges, involves multiple challenges. Here, we developed some novel approaches to species distribution modeling aimed at reducing the influences of such challenges and improving the realism of projections. We estimated species-environment relationships for Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) with four modeling methods run with multiple scenarios of (i) sources of occurrences and geographically isolated background ranges for absences, (ii) approaches to drawing background (absence) points, and (iii) alternate sets of predictor variables. We further tested various quantitative metrics of model evaluation against biological insight. Model projections were very sensitive to the choice of training dataset. Model accuracy was much improved using a global dataset for model training, rather than restricting data input to the species' native range. AUC score was a poor metric for model evaluation and, if used alone, was not a useful criterion for assessing model performance. Projections away from the sampled space (i.e., into areas of potential future invasion) were very different depending on the modeling methods used, raising questions about the reliability of ensemble projections. Generalized linear models gave very unrealistic projections far away from the training region. Models that efficiently fit the dominant pattern, but exclude highly local patterns in the dataset and capture interactions as they appear in data (e.g., boosted regression trees), improved generalization of the models. Biological knowledge of the species and its distribution was important in refining choices about the best set of projections. A post hoc test conducted on a new Parthenium dataset from Nepal validated excellent predictive performance of our 'best' model. We showed that vast stretches of currently uninvaded geographic areas on multiple continents harbor highly suitable habitats for parthenium

  8. Impact comparative study of phone carcasses behavior by FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Cărăuşu; Plăvănescu, Simona; Dumitru, Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    A constant concern of scientific research is based on plastics replace with biodegradable materials that reduce the adverse impact of waste on the environment. A biodegradable material that arouses interest lately is Arboform which is made of lignin, a component of wood and woody plants. Replacing plastic with Arboform in carrying components of products requires technical and economic studies on the implications of such replacement. Numerical simulation methods are a fast and economical way of analyzing the behavior of a product in various mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic and so on. The paper presents comparative results of numerical simulation using the software package SolidWorks impact behavior through the “Drop Test” of half shells made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and of the Arboform LV3 Nature. Simulation watched the half-carcass behavior in three cases of accidental impact, “head”, “corner” and the “back side”. We analyzed the size and location of the maximum voltage and maximum deformation resulting from impact. Simulations have shown for all three cases a maximum voltage increase when using Arboform to use PEDH 93% for impact “forward” and “corner” and only 48.77% “back side” impact. If the maximum displacement, it increasing from carcasses of Arboform 4% for impact “head” and 6% for impact “corner”, but fell by 2.7% for the “back side” impact. The significant increase of stress can be attributed to the higher density of Arboform to PEDH, which led to different weights of the two half-carcasses.

  9. Impact of invasive aquatic macrophytes on the population and behavioral ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field survey, three outdoor cage enclosure experiments, and laboratory studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of the invasive aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipes (floating water hyacinth), Ludwigia hexapetala (emergent water yellow-primrose), and Egeria densa (submersed Brazilian waterweed)...

  10. Characterizing the behavior and reproductive biology of zoo-housed Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) using non-invasive techniques.

    PubMed

    Adkin, A; Bernier, D; Santymire, R M

    2012-08-01

    The Sichuan takin (takin; Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) is distributed in the Gansu and Sichuan providences of southern China and along eastern Tibet. Because of their ecology, few data on takin reproductive biology exist, with the exception of its mating season in the Sichuan province, which occurs from July through August. Therefore, the objectives were to: 1) characterize reproductive hormones in zoo-housed male and female takin, including pregnancy in the female, using non-invasive fecal steroid hormonal monitoring; 2) characterize behaviors of zoo-housed takin, emphasizing reproductive behaviors and activity budget; and 3) assess the influence of season on births in North America and reproductive hormonal and behavioral activity. Fecal samples were collected 3 to 5 times per week from two adult males and three adult females. Extracted hormones were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay for progestagen and androgen concentrations. Behavioral observations were collected for 2 yrs using an ethogram. In this study, season affected reproduction, specifically birth occurrences, reproductive cyclicity in females and androgen production in males. The duration of the estrous cycle was approximately 35 d and cycles occurred June through December. Androgen concentrations peaked in May through August. Season did not influence behavior; however, age and sex may affect some behaviors, including activity level, foraging and drinking, social affiliative behavior, and visibility from the visitor's viewpoint. In conclusion, fecal hormonal and behavioral analyses can provide information for management and conservation of this herd species.

  11. Psychosocial distress affecting patients with ductal carcinoma in situ compared to patients with early invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Judith Brown; Loftin, Adam; Seda, Julia S; Ehlenbeck, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Psychological distress in patients with a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or early invasive breast cancer (EIBC) can emanate from perceived risk of recurrence and is accompanied by perceived risk of death from the diseases. These factors can impart a lower quality of life that can result in poorer health outcomes. In addition, inaccurate risk perceptions can have an effect on decision making, psychosocial outcomes, and subsequent health behaviors. The purpose of this study is to assess patients with DCIS and EIBC and their perceived risk of recurrence and perceived risk of dying, and evaluate their outlook for the future, the degree of social support from spouses and significant others of patients who have been diagnosed with DCIS and EIBC, and the relationship to the patient's perceived risk perception of recurrence and dying from the diseases.

  12. Do invaders always perform better? Comparing the response of native and invasive shrimps to temperature and salinity gradients in south-west Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeusne, Christophe; Latchere, Oïhana; Petit, Nicolas; Rico, Ciro; Green, Andy J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species are often thought to benefit from climate change, outcompeting native species as temperatures increase. However, the physiological tolerance has been little explored as a potential mechanism explaining biological invasion success. In this study, we used empirical data from both invasive and native estuarine species as a case study to address the hypotheses that (1) invasive species show a better resistance to acute thermal stress, (2) invasive species present lower oxygen consumption rates owing to greater resistance to environmental stressors, and (3) native species have lower survival rates under chronic temperature and salinity stress. We conducted various comparative experiments on three sympatric and syntopic closely related shrimp species (one invasive Palaemon macrodactylus, and two natives Palaemon longirostris and Palaemonetes varians). We evaluated their critical temperature maxima, their oxygen consumption rates under different salinities and temperatures, and their survival rates under chronic salinity and temperature. We found that the invasive species was the most tolerant to rapid increase in temperature, and consistently consumed less oxygen over a broad range of temperatures and salinities. Palaemon macrodactylus also had lower mortality rates at high temperatures than P. longirostris. These results support previously reported differences in physiological tolerance between native and invasive species, with the invasive species always performing better. The consistently higher tolerance of the non-indigenous species to temperature variation suggests that climate change will increase the success of invaders.

  13. Behavioral Language Interventions for Children with Autism: Comparing Applied Verbal Behavior and Naturalistic Teaching Approaches

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Esch, John; Sidener, Tina M; Firth, Amanda M

    2006-01-01

    Several important behavioral intervention models have been developed for teaching language to children with autism and two are compared in this paper. Professionals adhering to Skinner's conceptualization of language refer to their curriculum and intervention programming as applied verbal behavior (AVB). Those primarily focused on developing and using strategies embedded in natural settings that promote generalization refer to their interventions as naturalistic teaching approaches (NTAs). The purpose of this paper is to describe each approach and discuss similarities and differences in terms of relevant dimensions of stimulus control. The discussion includes potential barriers to translation of terminology between the two approaches that we feel can be overcome to allow better communication and collaboration between the two communities. Common naturalistic teaching procedures are described and a Skinnerian conceptualization of these learning events is provided. PMID:22477343

  14. Behavioral language interventions for children with autism: comparing applied verbal behavior and naturalistic teaching approaches.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Linda A; Esch, John; Sidener, Tina M; Firth, Amanda M

    2006-01-01

    Several important behavioral intervention models have been developed for teaching language to children with autism and two are compared in this paper. Professionals adhering to Skinner's conceptualization of language refer to their curriculum and intervention programming as applied verbal behavior (AVB). Those primarily focused on developing and using strategies embedded in natural settings that promote generalization refer to their interventions as naturalistic teaching approaches (NTAs). The purpose of this paper is to describe each approach and discuss similarities and differences in terms of relevant dimensions of stimulus control. The discussion includes potential barriers to translation of terminology between the two approaches that we feel can be overcome to allow better communication and collaboration between the two communities. Common naturalistic teaching procedures are described and a Skinnerian conceptualization of these learning events is provided.

  15. Comparative and functional studies of Drosophila species invasion by the gypsy endogenous retrovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Mejlumian, Lucine; Pélisson, Alain; Bucheton, Alain; Terzian, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. Phylogenetic studies suggest that occasional horizontal transfer events of gypsy occur between Drosophila species. gypsy possesses infective properties associated with the products of the envelope gene that might be at the origin of these interspecies transfers. We report here the existence of DNA sequences putatively encoding full-length Env proteins in the genomes of Drosophila species other than D. melanogaster, suggesting that potentially infective gypsy copies able to spread between sexually isolated species can occur. The ability of gypsy to invade the genome of a new species is conditioned by its capacity to be expressed in the naive genome. The genetic basis for the regulation of gypsy activity in D. melanogaster is now well known, and it has been assigned to an X-linked gene called flamenco. We established an experimental simulation of the invasion of the D. melanogaster genome by gypsy elements derived from other Drosophila species, which demonstrates that these non- D. melanogaster gypsy elements escape the repression exerted by the D. melanogaster flamenco gene. PMID:11805056

  16. Efficacy of caspofungin as salvage therapy for invasive aspergillosis compared to standard therapy in a historical cohort.

    PubMed

    Hiemenz, J W; Raad, I I; Maertens, J A; Hachem, R Y; Saah, A J; Sable, C A; Chodakewitz, J A; Severino, M E; Saddier, P; Berman, R S; Ryan, D M; Dinubile, M J; Patterson, T F; Denning, D W; Walsh, T J

    2010-11-01

    In a non-comparative study, caspofungin was effective salvage therapy for approximately half of the patients refractory to or intolerant of standard antifungal agents for invasive aspergillosis. To establish a frame of reference for these results, we compared the response to caspofungin with responses to other antifungal agents in a historical cohort of similar patients. The efficacy could be evaluated in 83 patients who received caspofungin 50 mg daily after a 70-mg loading dose. The historical control group, identified through a retrospective review of medical records, included 214 evaluable patients possibly refractory to or intolerant of ≥1 week of standard antifungal therapy. All patients had documented invasive aspergillosis. Favorable response was defined as a complete or partial response to therapy. Underlying diseases, baseline neutropenia, corticosteroid use, and sites of infection were similar in both studies. Most patients had received amphotericin B formulations and/or itraconazole, and were refractory to standard therapy. Favorable response rates were 45% with caspofungin and 16% with standard therapy. The unadjusted odds ratio for a favorable response (caspofungin/standard therapy) was 4.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.2, 7.5). After adjusting for potential imbalances in the frequency of disseminated infection, neutropenia, steroid use, and bone marrow transplantation between groups, the odds ratio remained at 4.1 (2.1, 7.9). Although only tentative conclusions about relative efficacy can be drawn from retrospective comparisons, caspofungin appeared to be at least as efficacious as an amphotericin B formulation and/or itraconazole for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of their initial antifungal therapy.

  17. Power-law rheology and flow behavior of low-invasion coring fluids

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-08-01

    An improved pressure coring system has been developed in which an extremely viscous polymer mud is extruded by the core and is used to seal and protect the core from flushing by drilling fluids. The polymer mud must be extremely viscous to minimize invasion, yet must be extruded through a long, narrow annular gap with a minimum of pressure buildup. A highly non-Newtonian shear-thinning polymer is utilized in the low invasion coring fluid. This paper describes the measurement and modeling of non-Newtonian rheology from rotary viscometer data in detail since the simplified equations which are generally used with these instruments can be grossly in error. The development of both an approximate analytical solution and an exact numerical solution of the non-Newtonian extrusion process is presented. These solutions were used to optimize the non-Newtonian rheology of the low-invasion fluid which will be used in actual coring operations.

  18. Physiological and behavioral responses of the invasive amphipod, Dikerogammarus villosus, to ammonia.

    PubMed

    Normant-Saremba, Monika; Becker, Jochen; Winkelmann, Carola

    2015-11-01

    We studied the physiological and behavioral responses of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus during exposure to four total ammonia concentrations (NH3+NH4(+); TotAmm): 0.003 (control), 0.06, 1.6, and 7.0 mmol L(-1) (0.042, 0.84, 22.4, and 98.0 mg L(-1)) for a period of up to 12 h at 21 °C. During the transition period from the control to treatment concentration as well as during the first hour of exposure to 0.06 and 1.6 mmol L(-1), gammarids increased their locomotor activity, which was manifested in significantly higher routine metabolic rates compared to control conditions. At control conditions, the resting metabolic rate amounted to 0.98±0.26 mW g(-1) and significantly increased by 19 and 37% at 0.06 and 1.6 mmol L(-1), respectively. The highest examined [TotAmm] caused a rapid and significant increase in resting metabolic rate by 37% within the first 4 h of exposure before gammarids died. The exposure to elevated [TotAmm] also resulted in a significant decreased RNA:DNA ratio and significantly higher glycogen concentrations compared to the control. We conclude that even a short exposure to TotAmm of 0.06 mmol L(-1), which may occur in natural habitats, disturbs the physiology and behavior of D. villosus and leads to increased metabolic costs of the maintenance and reduced protein synthesis.

  19. Selenium exposure results in reduced reproduction in an invasive ant species and altered competitive behavior for a native ant species.

    PubMed

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Trumble, John T

    2016-06-01

    Competitive ability and numerical dominance are important factors contributing to the ability of invasive ant species to establish and expand their ranges in new habitats. However, few studies have investigated the impact of environmental contamination on competitive behavior in ants as a potential factor influencing dynamics between invasive and native ant species. Here we investigated the widespread contaminant selenium to investigate its potential influence on invasion by the exotic Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, through effects on reproduction and competitive behavior. For the fecundity experiment, treatments were provided to Argentine ant colonies via to sugar water solutions containing one of three concentrations of selenium (0, 5 and 10 μg Se mL(-1)) that fall within the range found in soil and plants growing in contaminated areas. Competition experiments included both the Argentine ant and the native Dorymyrmex bicolor to determine the impact of selenium exposure (0 or 15 μg Se mL(-1)) on exploitation- and interference-competition between ant species. The results of the fecundity experiment revealed that selenium negatively impacted queen survival and brood production of Argentine ants. Viability of the developing brood was also affected in that offspring reached adulthood only in colonies that were not given selenium, whereas those in treated colonies died in their larval stages. Selenium exposure did not alter direct competitive behaviors for either species, but selenium exposure contributed to an increased bait discovery time for D. bicolor. Our results suggest that environmental toxins may not only pose problems for native ant species, but may also serve as a potential obstacle for establishment among exotic species.

  20. Lung cancer with chest wall invasion: retrospective analysis comparing en-bloc resection and ‘resection in bird cage’

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Invasion of the chest wall per se is not a contraindication for tumor resection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), provided there is no mediastinal lymph node or vital structure involvement. Although widely known to Brazilian surgeons, the ‘resection in bird cage’ technique has never been widely studied in terms of patient survival. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the postoperative consequences and overall survival of extra-musculoperiosteal resection compared with en-bloc resection in NSCLC patients with invasion of the endothoracic fascia. Methods Between January 1990 and December 2009, 33 NSCLC patients with invasion of the thoracic wall who underwent pulmonary resection were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 33 patients evaluated, 20 patients underwent en-bloc resection and 13 underwent ‘resection in bird cage.’ For each patient, a retrospective case note review was made. Results The median age at surgery, gender, indication, rate of comorbidities, tumor size and the degree of uptake in the costal margin were similar for both groups. The rate of postoperative complications and the duration of hospitalization did not differ between the groups. Regarding the outcome variables, the disease-free interval, rate of local recurrence, metastasis-free time after surgery, overall mortality rate, mortality rate related to metastatic disease, duration following surgery in which deaths occurred, and overall survival were also similar between groups. The cumulative survival curves between the ‘resection in bird cage’ and en-bloc resection and between stages Ia + Ib and IIb + IIIa + IV were not significantly different (p = 0.68 and p = 0.64, respectively). The cumulative metastasis-free survival curves were not significantly different between the two types of surgery (p = 0.38). Conclusions In NSCLC patients with invasion of the endothoracic fascia, ‘resection in bird cage’ is a less aggressive procedure

  1. Biology, behavior and management of chilli thrips, and other invasive thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in south Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rich vegetation and Neotropical climate of Florida make the state suitable for the invasion and establishment of exotic flora and fauna. In the past two decades, there are multiple thrips species which have invaded Florida and are considered serious pests owing to the economic or aesthetic damag...

  2. Comparing the Invasibility of Experimental “Reefs” with Field Observations of Natural Reefs and Artificial Structures

    PubMed Central

    Dafforn, Katherine A.; Glasby, Tim M.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2012-01-01

    Natural systems are increasingly being modified by the addition of artificial habitats which may facilitate invasion. Where invaders are able to disperse from artificial habitats, their impact may spread to surrounding natural communities and therefore it is important to investigate potential factors that reduce or enhance invasibility. We surveyed the distribution of non-indigenous and native invertebrates and algae between artificial habitats and natural reefs in a marine subtidal system. We also deployed sandstone plates as experimental ‘reefs’ and manipulated the orientation, starting assemblage and degree of shading. Invertebrates (non-indigenous and native) appeared to be responding to similar environmental factors (e.g. orientation) and occupied most space on artificial structures and to a lesser extent reef walls. Non-indigenous invertebrates are less successful than native invertebrates on horizontal reefs despite functional similarities. Manipulative experiments revealed that even when non-indigenous invertebrates invade vertical “reefs”, they are unlikely to gain a foothold and never exceed covers of native invertebrates (regardless of space availability). Community ecology suggests that invertebrates will dominate reef walls and algae horizontal reefs due to functional differences, however our surveys revealed that native algae dominate both vertical and horizontal reefs in shallow estuarine systems. Few non-indigenous algae were sampled in the study, however where invasive algal species are present in a system, they may present a threat to reef communities. Our findings suggest that non-indigenous species are less successful at occupying space on reef compared to artificial structures, and manipulations of biotic and abiotic conditions (primarily orientation and to a lesser extent biotic resistance) on experimental “reefs” explained a large portion of this variation, however they could not fully explain the magnitude of differences. PMID

  3. French invasive Asian tiger mosquito populations harbor reduced bacterial microbiota and genetic diversity compared to Vietnamese autochthonous relatives

    PubMed Central

    Minard, G.; Tran, F. H.; Van, Van Tran; Goubert, C.; Bellet, C.; Lambert, G.; Kim, Khanh Ly Huynh; Thuy, Trang Huynh Thi; Mavingui, P.; Valiente Moro, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is one of the most significant pathogen vectors of the twenty-first century. Originating from Asia, it has invaded a wide range of eco-climatic regions worldwide. The insect-associated microbiota is now recognized to play a significant role in host biology. While genetic diversity bottlenecks are known to result from biological invasions, the resulting shifts in host-associated microbiota diversity has not been thoroughly investigated. To address this subject, we compared four autochthonous Ae. albopictus populations in Vietnam, the native area of Ae. albopictus, and three populations recently introduced to Metropolitan France, with the aim of documenting whether these populations display differences in host genotype and bacterial microbiota. Population-level genetic diversity (microsatellite markers and COI haplotype) and bacterial diversity (16S rDNA metabarcoding) were compared between field-caught mosquitoes. Bacterial microbiota from the whole insect bodies were largely dominated by Wolbachia pipientis. Targeted analysis of the gut microbiota revealed a greater bacterial diversity in which a fraction was common between French and Vietnamese populations. The genus Dysgonomonas was the most prevalent and abundant across all studied populations. Overall genetic diversities of both hosts and bacterial microbiota were significantly reduced in recently established populations of France compared to the autochthonous populations of Vietnam. These results open up many important avenues of investigation in order to link the process of geographical invasion to shifts in commensal and symbiotic microbiome communities, as such shifts may have dramatic impacts on the biology and/or vector competence of invading hematophagous insects. PMID:26441903

  4. The impacts of an invasive species citizen science training program on participant attitudes, behavior, and science literacy.

    PubMed

    Crall, Alycia W; Jordan, Rebecca; Holfelder, Kirstin; Newman, Gregory J; Graham, Jim; Waller, Donald M

    2013-08-01

    Citizen science can make major contributions to informal science education by targeting participants' attitudes and knowledge about science while changing human behavior towards the environment. We examined how training associated with an invasive species citizen science program affected participants in these areas. We found no changes in science literacy or overall attitudes between tests administered just before and after a one-day training program, matching results from other studies. However, we found improvements in science literacy and knowledge using context-specific measures and in self-reported intention to engage in pro-environmental activities. While we noted modest change in knowledge and attitudes, we found comparison and interpretation of these data difficult in the absence of other studies using similar measures. We suggest that alternative survey instruments are needed and should be calibrated appropriately to the pre-existing attitudes, behavior, and levels of knowledge in these relatively sophisticated target groups.

  5. Impact of Data Availability on Site Assessment and Predictive Behavior of Aquatic Invasive Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    before predicting which specific sites will be susceptible to invasion. Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Current distribution: Established...populations in California (Chinese Mitten Crab Working Group (CMCWG) 2003; Hanson and Sytsma 2008; U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2008). Reports from the...and introduced ranges of Chinese mitten crabs . Invaded estuaries varied in size from 200 to 1328 km (average 602 km), tidal intrusion varied from 100

  6. Comparing the ecological impacts of native and invasive crayfish: could native species' translocation do more harm than good?

    PubMed

    James, J; Slater, F M; Vaughan, I P; Young, K A; Cable, J

    2015-05-01

    Biological invasions are a principal threat to global biodiversity. Omnivores, such as crayfish, are among the most important groups of invaders. Their introduction often results in biodiversity loss, particularly of their native counterparts. Managed relocations of native crayfish from areas under threat from invasive crayfish into isolated 'ark sites' are sometimes suggested as a conservation strategy for native crayfish; however, such relocations may have unintended detrimental consequences for the recipient ecosystem. Despite this, there have been few attempts to quantify the relative impacts of native and invasive crayfish on aquatic ecosystems. To address this deficiency we conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of native and invasive crayfish on nine ecosystem components: decomposition rate, primary productivity, plant biomass, invertebrate density, biomass and diversity, fish biomass and refuge use, and amphibian larval survival. Native and invasive crayfish significantly reduced invertebrate density and biomass, fish biomass and amphibian survival rate and significantly increased decomposition rates. Invasive crayfish also significantly reduced plant biomass and invertebrate diversity and increased primary productivity. These results show that native and invasive crayfish have wide-ranging impacts on aquatic ecosystems that may be exacerbated for invasive species. Subsequent analysis showed that the impacts of invasive crayfish were significantly greater, in comparison to native crayfish, for decomposition and primary productivity but not invertebrate density, biomass and diversity. Overall, our findings reconfirm the ecosystem altering abilities of both native and invasive crayfish, enforcing the need to carefully regulate managed relocations of native species as well as to develop control programs for invasives.

  7. A comparative analysis of three non-invasive human-machine interfaces for the disabled.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vikram; Castellini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of rehabilitation robotics, a major role is played by the human-machine interface (HMI) used to gather the patient's intent from biological signals, and convert them into control signals for the robotic artifact. Surprisingly, decades of research have not yet declared what the optimal HMI is in this context; in particular, the traditional approach based upon surface electromyography (sEMG) still yields unreliable results due to the inherent variability of the signal. To overcome this problem, the scientific community has recently been advocating the discovery, analysis, and usage of novel HMIs to supersede or augment sEMG; a comparative analysis of such HMIs is therefore a very desirable investigation. In this paper, we compare three such HMIs employed in the detection of finger forces, namely sEMG, ultrasound imaging, and pressure sensing. The comparison is performed along four main lines: the accuracy in the prediction, the stability over time, the wearability, and the cost. A psychophysical experiment involving ten intact subjects engaged in a simple finger-flexion task was set up. Our results show that, at least in this experiment, pressure sensing and sEMG yield comparably good prediction accuracies as opposed to ultrasound imaging; and that pressure sensing enjoys a much better stability than sEMG. Given that pressure sensors are as wearable as sEMG electrodes but way cheaper, we claim that this HMI could represent a valid alternative/augmentation to sEMG to control a multi-fingered hand prosthesis.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Three Non-Invasive Human-Machine Interfaces for the Disabled

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, Vikram; Castellini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of rehabilitation robotics, a major role is played by the human–machine interface (HMI) used to gather the patient’s intent from biological signals, and convert them into control signals for the robotic artifact. Surprisingly, decades of research have not yet declared what the optimal HMI is in this context; in particular, the traditional approach based upon surface electromyography (sEMG) still yields unreliable results due to the inherent variability of the signal. To overcome this problem, the scientific community has recently been advocating the discovery, analysis, and usage of novel HMIs to supersede or augment sEMG; a comparative analysis of such HMIs is therefore a very desirable investigation. In this paper, we compare three such HMIs employed in the detection of finger forces, namely sEMG, ultrasound imaging, and pressure sensing. The comparison is performed along four main lines: the accuracy in the prediction, the stability over time, the wearability, and the cost. A psychophysical experiment involving ten intact subjects engaged in a simple finger-flexion task was set up. Our results show that, at least in this experiment, pressure sensing and sEMG yield comparably good prediction accuracies as opposed to ultrasound imaging; and that pressure sensing enjoys a much better stability than sEMG. Given that pressure sensors are as wearable as sEMG electrodes but way cheaper, we claim that this HMI could represent a valid alternative/augmentation to sEMG to control a multi-fingered hand prosthesis. PMID:25386135

  9. Comparing Child-Centered and Psychoeducational Groups for Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison between Child-Centered Group Play Counseling (CCGPC), a psychoeducational group and a non-therapeutic control group resulted in three of four hypotheses being supported. Participants included 79 second and third graders, with one fourth grader, from seven elementary schools. The children had behavioral and social skills difficulties…

  10. Metabolic activity and behavior of the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and two common Central European gammarid species (Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii): Low metabolic rates may favor the invader.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jochen; Ortmann, Christian; Wetzel, Markus A; Koop, Jochen H E

    2016-01-01

    The Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus is one of the most successful invaders in Central European rivers. Contrary to studies on its ecology, ecophysiological studies comparing the species' physiological traits are scarce. In this context, in particular the metabolic activity of the invasive species has rarely been considered and, moreover, the few existing studies on this species report strongly deviating results. The purpose of this study was to assess the metabolic activity and behavior of D. villosus and other common European amphipod species (Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii) in relation to temperatures covering the thermal regime of the invaded habitats. Based on direct calorimetric measurements of metabolic heat dissipation at three temperature levels (5°C, 15°C and 25°C), we found the routine metabolic rate of D. villosus to be significantly lower than that of the other studied gammarid species at the medium temperature level. The estimated resting metabolic rate indicated a similar trend. At 5°C and 25°C, both routine and resting metabolic rate did not differ between species. Compared to G. fossarum and G. roeselii, D. villosus exhibited lower locomotor activity at the low and medium temperatures (5°C and 15°C). In contrast, its locomotor activity increased at the high experimental temperature (25°C). G. fossarum and G. roeselii were apparently more active than D. villosus at all studied temperatures. We conclude that D. villosus has both physiological and behavioral adaptations that lead to a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure, which is assumed to be beneficial and might contribute to its invasive success.

  11. Osteopontin-a splice variant is overexpressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma and modulates invasive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Tavares, Catarina; Pestana, Ana; Pereira, Catarina Leite; Eloy, Catarina; Pinto, Marta Teixeira; Castro, Patricia; Batista, Rui; Rios, Elisabete; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Pereira Gimba, Etel Rodrigues; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein overexpressed in cancer cells and modulates tumorigenesis and metastasis, including in thyroid cancer (TC). The contribution of each OPN splice variant (OPN-SV), named OPNa, OPNb and OPNc, in TC is currently unknown. This study evaluates the expression of total OPN (tOPN) and OPN-SV in TC tissues and cell lines, their correlation with clinicopathological, molecular features and their functional roles. We showed that tOPN and OPNa are overexpressed in classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC) in relation to adjacent thyroid, adenoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (fvPTC) tissues. In cPTC, OPNa overexpression is associated with larger tumor size, vascular invasion, extrathyroid extension and BRAFV600E mutation. We found that TC cell lines overexpressing OPNa exhibited increased proliferation, migration, motility and in vivo invasion. Conditioned medium secreted from cells overexpressing OPNa induce MMP2 and MMP9 metalloproteinases activity. In summary, we described the expression pattern of OPN-SV in cPTC samples and the key role of OPNa expression on activating TC tumor progression features. Our findings highlight OPNa variant as TC biomarker, besides being a putative target for cPTC therapeutic approaches. PMID:27409830

  12. Suppression of growth and invasive behavior of human prostate cancer cells by ProstaCaid™: mechanism of activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Eliaz, Isaac; Sliva, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Since the use of dietary supplements as alternative treatments or adjuvant therapies in cancer treatment is growing, a scientific verification of their biological activity and the detailed mechanisms of their action are necessary for the acceptance of dietary supplements in conventional cancer treatments. In the present study we have evaluated the anti-cancer effects of dietary supplement ProstaCaid™ (PC) which contains mycelium from medicinal mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, Phellinus linteus), saw palmetto berry, pomegranate, pumpkin seed, green tea [40% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)], Japanese knotweed (50% resveratrol), extracts of turmeric root (BCM-95®), grape skin, pygeum bark, sarsaparilla root, Scutellaria barbata, eleuthero root, Job's tears, astragalus root, skullcap, dandelion, coptis root, broccoli, and stinging nettle, with purified vitamin C, vitamin D3, selenium, quercetin, citrus bioflavonoid complex, β sitosterolzinc, lycopene, α lipoic acid, boron, berberine and 3.3'-diinodolymethane (DIM). We show that PC treatment resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation of the highly invasive human hormone refractory (independent) PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 56.0, 45.6 and 39.0 µg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. DNA-microarray analysis demonstrated that PC inhibits proliferation through the modulation of expression of CCND1, CDK4, CDKN1A, E2F1, MAPK6 and PCNA genes. In addition, PC also suppresses metastatic behavior of PC-3 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion, which was associated with the down-regulation of expression of CAV1, IGF2, NR2F1, and PLAU genes and suppressed secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from PC-3 cells. In conclusion, the dietary supplement PC is a promising natural complex with the potency to inhibit invasive human prostate cancer.

  13. New York Times First Day Coverage of Two U.S. Caribbean Invasions: A Comparative Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tino, Richard

    A study examined reports of the American invasions of the Dominican Republic (1965) and Grenada (1983) to determine whether there were substantive differences in coverage as a result of differing journalistic conditions. First-day New York Times reports of both invasions were analyzed both quantitatively (number of stories published, amount of…

  14. The Multiple Benefits of Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery: Results Comparing Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Posterior Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Starkweather, Angela R.; Witek-Janusek, Linda; Nockels, Russ P.; Peterson, Jonna; Mathews, Herb L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) offers equivalent postoperative fusion rates compared to posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) and minimizes the amount of iatrogenic injury to the spinal muscles. The objective of this study was to examine the difference in pain perception, stress, mood disturbance, quality of life, and immunological indices throughout the perioperative course among patients undergoing TLIF and PLF. A prospective, nonrandomized descriptive design was used to evaluate these measures among patients undergoing TLIF (n = 17) or PLF (n = 18) at 1 week prior to surgery (T1), the day of surgery (T2), 24 hours postoperatively (T3), and 6 weeks postoperatively (T4). Among TLIF patients, pain, stress, fatigue, and mood disturbance were significantly decreased at the 6-week follow-up visit (T4) compared to patients who underwent PLF. The TLIF group also demonstrated significantly higher levels (near baseline) of CD8 cells atT4 than the PLF group. Interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in the TLIF group as well, which may be an indicator of ongoing nerve regeneration and healing. Knowledge concerning the effect of pain and the psychological experience on immunity among individuals undergoing spinal fusion can help nurses tailor interventions to improve outcomes, regardless of the approach used. PMID:18330408

  15. Comparative Effects of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Migration and Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer, by Gas Type

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Un; Seo, Seong Jin; Kim, Yeon Soo; Shin, Yoo Seob; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chang Min; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo; Moon, Eunpyo; Kang, Hami; Ryeo, Jeong Beom; Lee, Yuijina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The fourth state of matter, plasma is known as an ionized gas with electrons, radicals and ions. The use of non-thermal plasma (NTP) in cancer research became possible because of the progresses in plasma medicine. Previous studies on the potential NTP-mediated cancer therapy have mainly concentrated on cancer cell apoptosis. In the present study, we compared the inhibitory effect of NTP on cell migration and invasion in the oral squamous cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods We used oral squamous cancer cell lines (SCC1483, MSKQLL1) and different gases (N2, He, and Ar). To investigate the mechanism of plasma treatment, using different gases (N2, He, and Ar) which induces anti-migration and anti-invasion properties, we performed wound healing assay, invasion assay and gelatin zymography. Results The results showed that NTP inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion of oral squamous cancer cell. In addition, focal adhesion kinase expression and matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activity were also inhibited. Conclusion The suppression of cancer cell invasion by NTP varied depending on the type of gas. Comparison of the three gases revealed that N2 NTP inhibited cell migration and invasion most potently via decreased expression of focal adhesion kinase and matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:28120556

  16. Socially Responsible Knowledge and Behaviors: Comparing Upper vs. Lower Classmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Joy M.; Connell, Kim Y. Hiller

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a sample of undergraduate students and survey research methods, this study examined knowledge on issues of social responsibility within the apparel and textiles industry, comparing the sophistication among upper- versus lower-classmen. The study also investigated the differences between students in their socially responsible apparel…

  17. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1 globally alters mRNA and miRNA to enhance myoblast invasion

    PubMed Central

    Loupe, J M; Miller, P J; Bonner, B P; Maggi, E C; Vijayaraghavan, J; Crabtree, J S; Taylor, C M; Zabaleta, J; Hollenbach, A D

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, one of the most common childhood sarcomas, is comprised of two main subtypes, embryonal and alveolar (ARMS). ARMS, the more aggressive subtype, is primarily characterized by the t(2;13)(p35;p14) chromosomal translocation, which fuses two transcription factors, PAX3 and FOXO1 to generate the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1. Patients with PAX3-FOXO1-postitive tumors have a poor prognosis, in part due to the enhanced local invasive capacity of these cells, which leads to the increased metastatic potential for this tumor. Despite this knowledge, little is known about the role that the oncogenic fusion protein has in this increased invasive potential. In this report we use large-scale comparative transcriptomic analyses in physiologically relevant primary myoblasts to demonstrate that the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 is sufficient to alter the expression of 70 mRNA and 27 miRNA in a manner predicted to promote cellular invasion. In contrast the expression of PAX3 alters 60 mRNA and 23 miRNA in a manner predicted to inhibit invasion. We demonstrate that these alterations in mRNA and miRNA translate into changes in the invasive potential of primary myoblasts with PAX3-FOXO1 increasing invasion nearly 2-fold while PAX3 decreases invasion nearly 4-fold. Taken together, these results allow us to build off of previous reports and develop a more expansive molecular model by which the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 alters global gene regulatory networks to enhance the local invasiveness of cells. Further, the global nature of our observed changes highlights the fact that instead of focusing on a single-gene target, we must develop multi-faceted treatment regimens targeting multiple genes of a single oncogenic phenotype or multiple genes that target different oncogenic phenotypes for tumor progression. PMID:27454080

  18. Comparative behavior of plutonium and americium in the equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inventories of /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The amount of /sup 239 +240/Pu mobilized to solution at the atolls can be predicted from a distribution coefficient K/sub d/ of 2.3 x 10/sup 5/ and the mean sediment concentrations. The mobilized /sup 239 +240/Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Characteristics of /sup 239 +240/Pu described at one location may not necessarily describe its behavior elsewhere. The relative amounts of /sup 241/Am to /sup 239 +240/Pu may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay.

  19. Children's Deviant Behavior in Primary Education: Comparing Physical Educator's Implicit Theory With Diagnostic Criteria.

    PubMed

    Efstratopoulou, Maria A; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-06-11

    Objective: Physical educators' implicit theory of children's deviant behavior in primary education was investigated and compared with diagnostic criteria. Method: A total of 60 physical education (PE) teachers reported deviant behaviors during lessons. Experts sorted these behaviors together with the official diagnostic criteria into categories based on perceived similarity in content. Results: Hierarchical cluster analysis on the derived similarity matrix among the behaviors suggested that PE teachers focus more on attention problems, disobedience, and aggressiveness when internalizing behaviors, such as anxiety and low energy, were less reported. Conclusion: PE teachers may be important and useful informants on children's behavior in school settings. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX).

  20. Investigating Issues in the Laboratory: The Behavior of Red Swamp Crayfish as an Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Krissi M.; Kayes, Lori J.; Hubert, David; Chouinard, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Recent reform initiatives in undergraduate biology call for curricula that prepare students for dealing with real-world issues and making important links between science and society. In response to this call, we have developed an issues-based laboratory module that uses guided inquiry to integrate the concepts of animal behavior and population…

  1. Comparative Study of: Non-Invasive Conservative Treatments with Local Steroid Injection in the Management of Planter Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Iraqi, Aftab Ahmed; Narula, Kusum; Katyal, Rashmi; Saxena, Mridul Shanker

    2014-01-01

    Background: Planter Fasciitis is an annoying and painful condition that limits function. There is pain and tenderness in the sole of the foot, mostly under the heel, with standing or walking and is considered a self limiting condition. Symptoms resolve in 80% to 90% of cases within ten months. However, this long interval is frustrating for both patients and clinicians. Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the two different modalities of non operative treatment: Non- invasive conservative methods: NSAID’s, Soft Insoles, Stretching, Ultrasound therapy and Contrast baths versus local Steroid injection therapy. Materials and Methods: Patients by random sampling were divided in two groups. Group A as: Conservative group and Group B as Local Steroid Injections group, 100 patients in each. Patients were assessed as per Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at the start of treatment and then after 4 wk and 8 wk duration on follow up. Statistical analysis used: SPSS for Windows (version 10.0) by the Chi-Square test. Results: The difference in the distribution of subjects belonging to either of the treatment modalities regarding the treatment outcome at four and eight week was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: As both treatment modalities are at par on comparison of their treatment outcome it is better to go for conservative approach because this can save the patients from the complications of steroid therapy. PMID:25386470

  2. Non-invasive administration of 17β-estradiol rapidly increases aggressive behavior in non-breeding, but not breeding, male song sparrows.

    PubMed

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Ferris, Jennifer K; Soma, Kiran K

    2015-03-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) acts in the brain via genomic and non-genomic mechanisms to influence physiology and behavior. There is seasonal plasticity in the mechanisms by which E2 activates aggression, and non-genomic mechanisms appear to predominate during the non-breeding season. Male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) display E2-dependent territorial aggression throughout the year. Field studies show that song sparrow aggression during a territorial intrusion is similar in the non-breeding and breeding seasons, but aggression after an intrusion ends differs seasonally. Non-breeding males stop behaving aggressively within minutes whereas breeding males remain aggressive for hours. We hypothesize that this seasonal plasticity in the persistence of aggression relates to seasonal plasticity in E2 signaling. We used a non-invasive route of E2 administration to compare the non-genomic (within 20min) effects of E2 on aggressive behavior in captive non-breeding and breeding season males. E2 rapidly increased barrier contacts (attacks) during an intrusion by 173% in non-breeding season males only. Given that these effects were observed within 20min of E2 administration, they likely occurred via a non-genomic mechanism of action. The present data, taken together with past work, suggest that environmental cues associated with the non-breeding season influence the molecular mechanisms through which E2 influences behavior. In song sparrows, transient expression of aggressive behavior during the non-breeding season is highly adaptive: it minimizes energy expenditure and maximizes the amount of time available for foraging. In all, these data suggest the intriguing possibility that aggression in the non-breeding season may be activated by a non-genomic E2 mechanism due to the fitness benefits associated with rapid and transient expression of aggression.

  3. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended.

  4. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps.

    PubMed

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2017-03-15

    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0.01) and over 35-fold when planktonic food was added (P < 0.001). Next, we showed that of nine food filtrates, the one containing chemicals released by spirulina, a type of cyanobacterium, was the most potent planktonic component for both species. The potency of filtrates varied between species in ways that reflected their different chemical compositions. While L-amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  5. Differences in the recurrence pattern after neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared to surgery alone in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Koie, Takuya; Ohyama, Chikara; Yamamoto, Hayato; Imai, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoneyama, Tohru; Tobisawa, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    In patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) confers a survival benefit compared to radical cystectomy (RC) alone. Recurrence is observed in many cases and is the most common cause of death in MIBC patients. However, the rate and pattern of recurrence after NAC in MIBC patients remain unclear. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 348 consecutive patients who underwent RC and bilateral pelvic node dissection between May 1994 and July 2012. Our study focused on patients with MIBC who had histologically confirmed stage T2-T4a urothelial carcinoma of the bladder without lymph node or distant metastasis. Accordingly, 265 patients were included in this analysis, of whom 130 received NAC and 135 underwent RC alone. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for potential selection biases associated with treatment type. Recurrence was defined as local recurrence and distant metastasis, according to site. Propensity score matching analysis identified 130 matched pairs from the two groups. For the neoadjuvant gemcitabine and carboplatin (GCarbo) and RC alone groups, the 5-year overall survival rates were 89.2 and 51.4 %, respectively (P < 0.0001), and the recurrence-free survival rates were 85.4 and 57.0 %, respectively (P < 0.0001). However, the total number of local recurrences was markedly lower in the neoadjuvant GCarbo group than in the RC alone group. Neoadjuvant GCarbo was associated with improved oncological outcomes and a different recurrence pattern in MIBC patients compared to RC alone.

  6. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry - comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, A. R.; Karuna, Y. M.; Yavagal, C.; Deepak, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. Settings and Designs: Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: The study included Group I (Control), Group II (A. vera) and Group III (propolis). Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. Results: In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. Conclusions: Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry. PMID:25821369

  7. Investigation of gender role behaviors in boys with hypospadias: comparative study with unaffected boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Yean; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang Hee

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate gender role behaviors of boys with hypospadias compared with groups of unaffected boys and girls using parental reports and direct observations; and (2) to directly observe effects of socialization (mothers' presence) on children's gender role behaviors. Ages of 19 children with hypospadias ranged from 3 to 7 years, and each of them were matched to controls of unaffected boys and girls by age. All the children participated with their mothers. Children's gender role behaviors and their mothers' behaviors were evaluated using an observation coding system. Mothers also completed questionnaires regarding their children's gender role behaviors. Results indicated no atypical gender role behavior for the boys with hypospadias and no direct effects of socialization on their gender role behaviors. However, differences were found in negative communicative behaviors between boys with hypospadias and unaffected boys, suggesting a possible role of socialization.

  8. Biophysical control of invasive tumor cell behavior by extracellular matrix microarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Shawn P.; Kraning-Rush, Casey M.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrillar collagen gels, which are used extensively in vitro to study tumor-microenvironment interactions, are composed of a cell-instructive network of interconnected fibers and pores whose organization is sensitive to polymerization conditions such as bulk concentration, pH, and temperature. Using confocal reflectance microscopy and image autocorrelation analysis to quantitatively assess gel microarchitecture, we show that additional polymerization parameters including culture media formulation and gel thickness significantly affect the dimensions and organization of fibers and pores in collagen gels. These findings enabled the development of a three-dimensional culture system in which cell-scale gel microarchitecture was decoupled from bulk gel collagen concentration. Interestingly, morphology and migration characteristics of embedded MDA-MB-231 cells were sensitive to gel microarchitecture independently of collagen gel concentration. Cells adopted a polarized, motile phenotype in gels with larger fibers and pores and a rounded or stellate, less motile phenotype in gels with small fibers and pores regardless of bulk gel density. Conversely, cell proliferation was sensitive to gel concentration but not microarchitecture. These results indicate that cell-scale gel microarchitecture may trump bulk-scale gel density in controlling specific cell behaviors, underscoring the biophysical role of gel microarchitecture in influencing cell behavior. PMID:22405848

  9. Non-invasive manipulation of Drosophila behavior by two-photon excited red-activatable channelrhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Po-Yen; Tsai, Chia-Lun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Lin, Yen-Yin; Yang, Shang-Da; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2015-01-01

    Scattering and absorption limit light penetration through inhomogeneous tissue. To reduce scattering, biochemists have shifted the wavelengths of excitation light for optogenetic actuators and fluorescent proteins to the orange-red range, while physicists have developed multiphoton technologies for deep tissue stimulation. We have built a rapid multiphoton spectroscopic screening system of genetically encoded red-activatable channelrhodopsin (ReaChR), and considered specific behaviors in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster as readouts to optimize the laser parameters for two-photon optogenetic activation. A wavelength-tunable optical parametric amplifier was adopted as the major light source for widefield two-photon excitation (TPE) of ReaChR. Our assays suggest that the optimized TPE wavelength of ReaChR is 1250 nm. Exploiting its capacity for optogenetic manipulation to induce macroscopic behavioral change, we realized rapid spectroscopic screening of genetically encoded effectors or indicators in vivo, and used modulation of ReaChR in the fly as a successful demonstration of such a system. PMID:26601000

  10. Biophysical control of invasive tumor cell behavior by extracellular matrix microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Carey, Shawn P; Kraning-Rush, Casey M; Williams, Rebecca M; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2012-06-01

    Fibrillar collagen gels, which are used extensively in vitro to study tumor-microenvironment interactions, are composed of a cell-instructive network of interconnected fibers and pores whose organization is sensitive to polymerization conditions such as bulk concentration, pH, and temperature. Using confocal reflectance microscopy and image autocorrelation analysis to quantitatively assess gel microarchitecture, we show that additional polymerization parameters including culture media formulation and gel thickness significantly affect the dimensions and organization of fibers and pores in collagen gels. These findings enabled the development of a three-dimensional culture system in which cell-scale gel microarchitecture was decoupled from bulk gel collagen concentration. Interestingly, morphology and migration characteristics of embedded MDA-MB-231 cells were sensitive to gel microarchitecture independently of collagen gel concentration. Cells adopted a polarized, motile phenotype in gels with larger fibers and pores and a rounded or stellate, less motile phenotype in gels with small fibers and pores regardless of bulk gel density. Conversely, cell proliferation was sensitive to gel concentration but not microarchitecture. These results indicate that cell-scale gel microarchitecture may trump bulk-scale gel density in controlling specific cell behaviors, underscoring the biophysical role of gel microarchitecture in influencing cell behavior.

  11. Environmental temperatures, physiology and behavior limit the range expansion of invasive Burmese pythons in southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elliott R; Barker, David G; Barker, Tracy M; Mauldin, Richard; Avery, Michael L; Engeman, Richard; Secor, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    A well-established population of Burmese pythons resides in the Everglades of southern Florida. Prompted in part by a report that identified much of southern USA as suitable habitat for expansion or establishment of the Burmese python, we examined the plausibility of this snake to survive winters at sites north of the Everglades. We integrated daily low and high temperatures recorded from October to February from 2005-2011 at Homestead, Orlando and Gainesville, Florida; and Aiken, South Carolina, with minimum temperatures projected for python digestion (16 °C), activity (5 °C) and survival (0 °C). Mean low and high temperatures decreased northward from Homestead to Aiken and the number of days of freezing temperatures increased northward. Digestion was impaired or inhibited for 2 months in the Everglades and up to at least 5 months in Aiken, and activity was increasingly limited northward during these months. Reports of overwinter survivorship document that a single bout of low and freezing temperatures results in python death. The capacity for Burmese pythons to successfully overwinter in more temperate regions of the USA is seemingly prohibited because they lack the behaviors to seek refuge from, and the physiology to tolerate, cold temperatures. As tropical Southeast Asia is the source of the Everglades Burmese pythons, we predict it is unlikely that they will be able to successfully expand to or colonize more temperate areas of Florida and adjoining states due to their lack of behavioral and physiological traits to seek refuge from cold temperatures.

  12. Comparative pathogenicity, biocontrol efficacy, and multilocus sequence typing of Verticillium nonalfalfae from the invasive Ailanthus altissima and other hosts.

    PubMed

    Kasson, M T; Short, D P G; O'Neal, E S; Subbarao, K V; Davis, D D

    2014-03-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium nonalfalfae, is currently killing tens of thousands of highly invasive Ailanthus altissima trees within the forests in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia and is being considered as a biological control agent of Ailanthus. However, little is known about the pathogenicity and virulence of V. nonalfalfae isolates from other hosts on Ailanthus, or the genetic diversity among V. nonalfalfae from confirmed Ailanthus wilt epicenters and from locations and hosts not associated with Ailanthus wilt. Here, we compared the pathogenicity and virulence of several V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae isolates, evaluated the efficacy of the virulent V. nonalfalfae isolate VnAa140 as a biocontrol agent of Ailanthus in Pennsylvania, and performed multilocus sequence typing of V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae. Inoculations of seven V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae isolates from six plant hosts on healthy Ailanthus seedlings revealed that V. nonalfalfae isolates from hosts other than Ailanthus were not pathogenic on Ailanthus. In the field, 100 canopy Ailanthus trees were inoculated across 12 stands with VnAa140 from 2006 to 2009. By 2011, natural spread of the fungus had resulted in the mortality of >14,000 additional canopy Ailanthus trees, 10,000 to 15,000 Ailanthus sprouts, and nearly complete eradication of Ailanthus from several smaller inoculated stands, with the exception of a few scattered vegetative sprouts that persisted in the understory for several years before succumbing. All V. nonalfalfae isolates associated with the lethal wilt of Ailanthus, along with 18 additional isolates from 10 hosts, shared the same multilocus sequence type (MLST), MLST 1, whereas three V. nonalfalfae isolates from kiwifruit shared a second sequence type, MLST 2. All V. alfalfae isolates included in the study shared the same MLST and included the first example of V. alfalfae infecting a non-lucerne host. Our results indicate that V. nonalfalfae is host adapted and

  13. A Comparative Study of Group Contingencies and Randomized Reinforcers to Reduce Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation employed an alternating treatments design to (1) examine the efficacy of group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior, and (2) compare the effects of independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior in adolescent males identified with serious emotional…

  14. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  15. Rhythmic motor behavior of preambulatory motor impaired, Down syndrome and nondisabled children: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    MacLean, W E; Ellis, D N; Galbreath, H N; Halpern, L F; Baumeister, A A

    1991-06-01

    The developmental course of rhythmic motor behavior was followed longitudinally for three groups of preambulatory children--normally developing, Down syndrome, and those with profound motor impairment. The groups differed in chronological age but were comparable with respect to motor age. The motor impaired subjects displayed significantly less rhythmic motor behavior than the nondisabled and Down syndrome groups. In comparing particular subtypes of rhythmic motor behavior, differences were found in both the average number of bouts and duration of subtypes among the groups. Longitudinal analyses of the data over the entire observation period revealed that the rhythmic motor behavior of the children with Down syndrome was more similar to that exhibited by the nondisabled children than was the rhythmic motor behavior of the children with motor impairment. However, there was considerable variability among the groups in several particular subtypes.

  16. Comparing Versions of the Good Behavior Game: Can a Positive Spin Enhance Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Wahl, Elaine; Hawkins, Renee O; Haydon, Todd; Marsicano, Richard; Morrison, Julie Q

    2016-07-01

    Disruptions can prevent the classroom from being an effective learning environment. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a group contingency that has been proven to effectively prevent disruptions and increase engagement. However, the traditional methods of the GBG include teacher scanning for negative student behaviors, and may not align with Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), which is becoming widely adopted in many schools. Extending the findings of Wright and McCurdy, the current study compared the effects of the GBG and a positive version of the GBG, called the Caught Being Good Game (CBGG), on student behavior, including engagement and off-task behaviors, as well as teachers' use of positive and negative statements. Results showed both the GBG and the CBGG improved student behavior, with data not clearly indicating one was superior. Neither intervention led to an increase in positive teacher statements. Implications for teachers and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  17. Differential effect of the expression of TGF-β pathway inhibitors, Smad-7 and Ski, on invasive breast carcinomas: relation to biologic behavior.

    PubMed

    Theohari, Irini; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Magkou, Christina; Nomikos, Alexandros; Melissaris, Savvas; Nakopoulou, Lydia

    2012-02-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of Smad-7 and Ski proteins in invasive breast carcinomas, to determine their clinicopathological value and their influence on carcinomas biologic behavior. Immunohistochemistry was applied on 150 invasive breast carcinomas to detect the expression of Smad-7 and Ski. Their correlation to clinicopathologic parameters and markers of metastasis was statistically processed using chi-squared test. Overall and disease-free survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier test and log-rank statistics. Smad-7 was immunodetected in the cytoplasm of cancer cells in 60%, whereas Ski was immunodetected in the cytoplasm and nuclei in 44.5% and 17.6% of the cases, respectively. Smad-7 expression was positively correlated with tumor size, stage, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and MMP-14. Cytoplasmic Ski expression was negatively associated with tumor size, stage, and lymph node status, and its nuclear expression was negatively related to histologic grade. Cytoplasmic Ski expression was associated with longer overall and disease-free survival. It appears that two negative regulators of the transforming growth factor-β pathway, Smad-7 and Ski, behave differentially in invasive breast carcinomas. Smad-7 appears to be related with an aggressive phenotype, whereas Ski expression is related to a less aggressive behavior and positively influences patients' survival.

  18. A systematic review comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Nadine S; Dürsteler-Macfarland, Kenneth M; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Petitjean, Sylvie A

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence. Contingency management alone reliably reduced cocaine use during active treatment in all cited trials, whereas the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerged after treatment in 3 of 5 trials. Synergistic effects of the combination of contingency management plus cognitive-behavioral therapy are shown in 2 trials, but another 3 trials found no additive effects. Positive, rapid, and enduring effects on cocaine use are reliably seen with contingency management interventions, whereas measurable effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerge after treatment and are not as reliable as effects with contingency management.

  19. Parenting and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: A Comparative Study of Sons and Daughters in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Miller, Brenda A.; Cupp, Pamela K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates parenting practices and the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among Thai adolescents, by focusing on the difference between sons and daughters. Data were derived from 420 families whose adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from seven districts in Bangkok using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one adolescent. Female adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental rules, communication about sex and parental disapproval of sex, as compared to males. There were no gender differences in the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among the adolescents. For males, high levels of parental monitoring, greater perception of parent disapproval of sex, and being raised by authoritative parents were associated with less delinquent behaviors. Among females, parental monitoring and parental closeness served as protective factors against sexual and delinquent behaviors. These findings should be useful for developing a body of knowledge and understanding on adolescent rearing among Thai parents. PMID:20420103

  20. Gender identification of Grasshopper Sparrows comparing behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ammer, F.K.; Wood, P.B.; McPherson, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct gender identification in monomorphic species is often difficult especially if males and females do not display obvious behavioral and breeding differences. We compared gender specific morphology and behavior with recently developed DNA techniques for gender identification in the monomorphic Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Gender was ascertained with DNA in 213 individuals using the 2550F/2718R primer set and 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Field observations using behavior and breeding characteristics to identify gender matched DNA analyses with 100% accuracy for adult males and females. Gender was identified with DNA for all captured juveniles that did not display gender specific traits or behaviors in the field. The molecular techniques used offered a high level of accuracy and may be useful in studies of dispersal mechanisms and winter assemblage composition in monomorphic species.

  1. Comparative morphometric and chemical analyses of phenotypes of two invasive ambrosia beetles (Euwallacea spp.) in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Dallara, Paul L; Nelson, Lori J; Coleman, Tom W; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Carrillo, Daniel; Seybold, Steven J

    2016-03-02

    The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), Euwallacea sp., was first detected in 2003 in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Recently, this invasive species has become a major pest of many hardwood trees in urban and wildland forests throughout southern California. PSHB is nearly identical in morphology and life history to the tea shot hole borer (TSHB), Euwallacea fornicatus, an invasive pest of hardwoods in Florida, USA and many other parts of the world. However, molecular studies have suggested that the taxa are different species. We conducted morphometric and chemical analyses of the phenotypes of Euwallacea sp. collected in southern California (Los Angeles Co.) and E. fornicatus collected in Florida (Miami-Dade Co.). Our analyses indicated that PSHB has three larval instars. The third larval instar was separated from the first two instars by head capsule width with zero probability of misclassification. The body length, head width, and pronotal width of PSHB adult males were significantly less than those of females. Head width and pronotal width of female PSHB were significantly less than those of female TSHB. In contrast, body length, and ratio of body length to pronotal width of PSHB females were significantly greater than those of TSHB females. However, females of these two species could not be separated completely by these four measurements because of the overlapping ranges. Cuticular hydrocarbons detected in both species were exclusively alkanes (i.e., n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, and trimethylalkanes). Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of PSHB males and females were similar, but they both differed from that of TSHB females. Cuticular hydrocarbons of PSHB were predominantly internally branched dimethylalkanes with backbones of 31 and 33 carbons, whereas cuticular hydrocarbons of TSHB females were dominated by internally branched monomethyl- and dimethylalkanes with backbones of 29 carbons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  2. Performance of dual-source CT with high pitch spiral mode for coronary stent patency compared with invasive coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xia; Yu, Qiang; Dong, Wei; Fu, Zhen-Hong; Yang, Jun-Jue; Guo, Jun; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the performance of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) using high-pitch spiral (HPS) mode for coronary stents patency. Methods We conducted a prospective study on 120 patients with 260 previous stents implanted due to recurred suspicious symptoms of angina scheduled for invasive coronary angiography (ICA), while DSCT were conducted using HPS mode. Results There was no significant impact of age, body mass index or heat rate (HR) on image quality (P > 0.05), while HR variability had a slight impact on that (P < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of DSCT in detection of in-stent restenosis (ISR) based per-patient were 92.3%, 96.7%, 88.9%, and 97.8%, respectively. And those based per-stent were 87%, 96.8%, 83.3%, and 97.7% with un-assessment stents, 97.4%, 99.5%, 97.4%, and 99.5% without un-assessment stents. There was significant difference on sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV between diameter ≥ 3.0 mm group (93.3%, 97.9%, 87.5%, and 98.9%) and diameter < 3.0 mm group (80%, 93.3%, 80.0%, and 93.3%) (P < 0.05), and that between stent number ≥ 3 group (82.3%, 77.8%, 66.7%, and 60%) with < 3 group (97.3%, 80%, 96.5%, and 75%). The effective dose of DSCT (1.4 ± 0.5 mSv) is significantly less than that by invasive coronary angiography [4.0 ± 0.8 mSv (P < 0.01)]. Conclusion DSCT using HPS mode provides good diagnostic performance on stent patency with lower effective dose in patients with HR < 65 beats/min. PMID:27928222

  3. The ichnologic record of the continental invertebrate invasion: evolutionary trends in environmental expansion, ecospace utilization, and behavioral complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Genise, J.F.; Taylor, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    The combined study of continental trace fossils and associated sedimentary facies provides valuable evidence of colonization trends and events throughout the Phanerozoic. Colonization of continental environments was linked to the exploitation of empty or under-utilized ecospace. Although the nonmarine trace fossil record probably begins during the Late Ordovician, significant invasion of nonmarine biotopes began close to the Silurian-Devonian transition with the establishment of a mobile arthropod epifauna (Diplichnites ichnoguild) in coastal marine to alluvial plain settings. Additionally, the presence of vertical burrows in Devonian high-energy fluvial deposits reflects the establishment of a stationary, deep suspension-feeding infauna of the Skolithos ichnoguild. The earliest evidence of plant-arthropod interaction occurred close to the Silurian-Devonian boundary, but widespread and varied feeding patterns are known from the Carboniferous. During the Carboniferous, permanent subaqueous lacustrine settings were colonized by a diverse, mobile detritus-feeding epifauna of the Mermia ichnoguild, which reflects a significant palaeoenvironmental expansion of trace fossils. Paleozoic ichnologic evidence supports direct routes to the land from marginal marine environments, and migration to lakes from land settings. All nonmarine sedimentary environments were colonized by the Carboniferous, and subsequent patterns indicate an increase in ecospace utilization within already colonized depositional settings. During the Permian, back-filled traces of the Scoyenia ichnoguild record the establishment of a mobile, intermediate-depth, deposit-feeding in-fauna in alluvial and transitional alluvial-lacustrine sediment. Diversification of land plants and the establishment of ecologically diverse plant communities through time provided new niches to be exploited by arthropods. Nevertheless, most ot the evolutionary feeding innovations took place relatively early, during the Late

  4. Endoscopic diagnosis of invasion depth for early colorectal carcinomas: a prospective comparative study of narrow-band imaging, acetic acid, and crystal violet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Gu, Li-Yang; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Gao, Yun-Jie; Ge, Zhi-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Bo

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have validated the effectiveness of narrow-band imaging (NBI) in estimating invasion depth of early colorectal cancers. However, comparative diagnostic accuracy between NBI and chromoendoscopy remains unclear. Other than crystal violet, use of acetic acid as a new staining method to diagnose deep submucosal invasive (SM-d) carcinomas has not been extensively evaluated. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement of NBI, acetic acid enhancement, and crystal violet staining in predicting invasion depth of early colorectal cancers. A total of 112 early colorectal cancers were prospectively observed by NBI, acetic acid, and crystal violet staining in sequence by 1 expert colonoscopist. All endoscopic images of each technique were stored and reassessed. Finally, 294 images of 98 lesions were selected for evaluation by 3 less experienced endoscopists. The accuracy of NBI, acetic acid, and crystal violet for real-time diagnosis was 85.7%, 86.6%, and 92.9%, respectively. For image evaluation by novices, NBI achieved the highest accuracy of 80.6%, compared with that of 72.4% by acetic acid, and 75.8% by crystal violet. The kappa values of NBI, acetic acid, and crystal violet among the 3 trainees were 0.74 (95% CI 0.65-0.83), 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.77), and 0.70 (95% CI 0.61-0.79), respectively. For diagnosis of SM-d carcinoma, NBI was slightly inferior to crystal violet staining, when performed by the expert endoscopist. However, NBI yielded higher accuracy than crystal violet staining, in terms of less experienced endoscopists. Acetic acid enhancement with pit pattern analysis was capable of predicting SM-d carcinoma, comparable to the traditional crystal violet staining.

  5. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  6. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  7. Comparing Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Problem Solving Therapy, and Treatment as Usual in a High Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Carment D.; Quinn, Andrea; Plever, Sally; Emmerson, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), or treatment as usual (TAU) were compared in the management of suicide attempters. Participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire at pre- and posttreatment. Both CBT and PST…

  8. Developmental Differences in Parenting Behavior: Comparing Adolescent, Emerging Adult, and Adult Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    The nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort data set was used to compare parenting behaviors of adolescent mothers (less than 19 years old), emerging adult mothers (19-25 years old), and adult mothers (greater than 25 years old) when their children were 2 years old. Regression models controlling for socioeconomic…

  9. Prompting Safety Belt Use: Comparative Impact on the Target Behavior and Relevant Body Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Matthew G.; Geller, E. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Researchers used two behavioral prompts to compare increases in safety belt use: a Click It or Ticket prompt or a Flash-for-Life prompt. Participants were 1,822 unbuckled drivers exiting two student parking lots of a large university. Research assistants identified unbuckled drivers, flashed one of the two prompts, and recorded whether drivers…

  10. Comparing Classroom Interactive Behaviors of Science and Non-Science Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel; Morphew, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study compared classroom interactive behaviors of science pre-service teachers and pre-service teachers of other subjects. Participants included pre-service teachers enrolled in a general methods course for secondary educators and its school-based fieldwork counterpart. Statistical tests found that science pre-service teachers had fewer…

  11. A Comparative Study of the Seriousness Attributed to Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotzens, Concepcion; Badia, Mar; Genovard, Candido; Dezcallar, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we present a comparative analysis of three samples of teachers from Coimbra, Barcelona and Murcia that provides insight into the importance teachers attach to disruptive behavior and how different perspectives and values affect their daily work. Method: This research is framed within a quantitative empirical-analytic…

  12. Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, C. Ronald

    A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…

  13. PANI and Graphene/PANI Nanocomposite Films — Comparative Toluene Gas Sensing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Mitesh; Balamurugan, Chandran; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2013-01-01

    The present work discusses and compares the toluene sensing behavior of polyaniline (PANI) and graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite (C-PANI) films. The graphene–PANI ratio in the nanocomposite polymer film is optimized at 1:2. For this, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent is used to prepare PANI-NMP solution as well as graphene-PANI-NMP solution. The films are later annealed at 230 °C, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tested for their sensing behavior towards toluene. The sensing behaviors of the films are analyzed at different temperatures (30, 50 and 100 °C) for 100 ppm toluene in air. The nanocomposite C-PANI films have exhibited better overall toluene sensing behavior in terms of sensor response, response and recovery time as well as repeatability. Although the sensor response of PANI (12.6 at 30 °C, 38.4 at 100 °C) is comparatively higher than that of C-PANI (8.4 at 30 °C, 35.5 at 100 °C), response and recovery time of PANI and C-PANI varies with operating temperature. C-PANI at 50 °C seems to have better toluene sensing behavior in terms of response time and recovery time. PMID:24300600

  14. COMPARING SAFE VS. AT-RISK BEHAVIORAL DATA TO PREDICT ACCIDENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2001-11-01

    The Safety Observations Achieve Results (SOAR) program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) encourages employees to perform in-field observations of each other’s behaviors. One purpose for performing these observations is that it gives the observers the opportunity to correct, if needed, their co-worker’s at-risk work practices and habits (i.e., behaviors). The underlying premise of doing this is that major injuries (e.g., OSHA-recordable events) are prevented from occurring because the lower level at-risk behaviors are identified and corrected before they can propagate into culturally accepted unsafe behaviors that result in injuries or fatalities. However, unlike other observation programs, SOAR also emphasizes positive reinforcement for safe behaviors observed. The underlying premise of doing this is that positive reinforcement of safe behaviors helps establish a strong positive safety culture. Since the SOAR program collects both safe and at-risk leading indicator data, this provides a unique opportunity to assess and compare the two kinds of data in terms of their ability to predict future adverse safety events. This paper describes the results of analyses performed on SOAR data to assess their relative predictive ability. Implications are discussed.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for Adaptive Learning in Changing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Marković, Dimitrije; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic models of decision making under various forms of uncertainty have been applied in recent years to numerous behavioral and model-based fMRI studies. These studies were highly successful in enabling a better understanding of behavior and delineating the functional properties of brain areas involved in decision making under uncertainty. However, as different studies considered different models of decision making under uncertainty, it is unclear which of these computational models provides the best account of the observed behavioral and neuroimaging data. This is an important issue, as not performing model comparison may tempt researchers to over-interpret results based on a single model. Here we describe how in practice one can compare different behavioral models and test the accuracy of model comparison and parameter estimation of Bayesian and maximum-likelihood based methods. We focus our analysis on two well-established hierarchical probabilistic models that aim at capturing the evolution of beliefs in changing environments: Hierarchical Gaussian Filters and Change Point Models. To our knowledge, these two, well-established models have never been compared on the same data. We demonstrate, using simulated behavioral experiments, that one can accurately disambiguate between these two models, and accurately infer free model parameters and hidden belief trajectories (e.g., posterior expectations, posterior uncertainties, and prediction errors) even when using noisy and highly correlated behavioral measurements. Importantly, we found several advantages of Bayesian inference and Bayesian model comparison compared to often-used Maximum-Likelihood schemes combined with the Bayesian Information Criterion. These results stress the relevance of Bayesian data analysis for model-based neuroimaging studies that investigate human decision making under uncertainty. PMID:27148030

  16. Very-late-antigen-4 (VLA-4)-mediated brain invasion by neutrophils leads to interactions with microglia, increased ischemic injury and impaired behavior in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Jens; Riek-Burchardt, Monika; Herz, Josephine; Doeppner, Thorsten R; König, Rebecca; Hütten, Heiko; Etemire, Eloho; Männ, Linda; Klingberg, Anika; Fischer, Thomas; Görtler, Michael W; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Reichardt, Peter; Schraven, Burkhart; Hermann, Dirk M; Reymann, Klaus G; Gunzer, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal injury from ischemic stroke is aggravated by invading peripheral immune cells. Early infiltrates of neutrophil granulocytes and T-cells influence the outcome of stroke. So far, however, neither the timing nor the cellular dynamics of neutrophil entry, its consequences for the invaded brain area, or the relative importance of T-cells has been extensively studied in an intravital setting. Here, we have used intravital two-photon microscopy to document neutrophils and brain-resident microglia in mice after induction of experimental stroke. We demonstrated that neutrophils immediately rolled, firmly adhered, and transmigrated at sites of endothelial activation in stroke-affected brain areas. The ensuing neutrophil invasion was associated with local blood-brain barrier breakdown and infarct formation. Brain-resident microglia recognized both endothelial damage and neutrophil invasion. In a cooperative manner, they formed cytoplasmic processes to physically shield activated endothelia and trap infiltrating neutrophils. Interestingly, the systemic blockade of very-late-antigen-4 immediately and very effectively inhibited the endothelial interaction and brain entry of neutrophils. This treatment thereby strongly reduced the ischemic tissue injury and effectively protected the mice from stroke-associated behavioral impairment. Behavioral preservation was also equally well achieved with the antibody-mediated depletion of myeloid cells or specifically neutrophils. In contrast, T-cell depletion more effectively reduced the infarct volume without improving the behavioral performance. Thus, neutrophil invasion of the ischemic brain is rapid, massive, and a key mediator of functional impairment, while peripheral T-cells promote brain damage. Acutely depleting T-cells and inhibiting brain infiltration of neutrophils might, therefore, be a powerful early stroke treatment.

  17. Toxicity of an herbicide and adjuvant to saltmarsh invertebrates in the management of invasive grass; Comparative laboratory and field tests.

    PubMed

    Kleinhenz, Linda S; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Verspaandonk, Emily R; Coombes, Darcy C; Howe, Steffan; Shimeta, Jeff

    2016-08-15

    Coastal weeds are often treated with herbicides without knowledge of non-target impacts, and toxicity data from standardized test species can have limited applicability. We evaluated toxicity to invertebrates from Fusilade Forte® and the adjuvant Hasten® in the control of invasive salt marsh grass, Spartina anglica. For 3 of 4 local invertebrates, Fusilade Forte® was moderately toxic (96h LC50 5.4-144mgL(-1)), whereas Hasten® was less toxic (14.2-450mgL(-1)). For most species, the mixture was more toxic than the herbicide alone, with 96h LC50 reduced 23-45%. However, a field experiment applying typical concentrations (1000×the lowest 96h LC50) showed low concentrations of herbicide residues and no detrimental impacts on invertebrates over 6months. The results reveal the importance of testing locally relevant species for potential toxicity, and of comparison tests with field exposures to determine the realised toxicity in nature.

  18. A comparative study of sexual function, behavior, and cognitions of women with lifelong vaginismus.

    PubMed

    Cherner, Rebecca A; Reissing, Elke D

    2013-11-01

    Vaginismus is classified as a sexual dysfunction, yet limited research is available on the sexual function and behavior of women with this condition. Comparing women with lifelong vaginismus to women with lifelong dyspareunia and women with no pain during intercourse, this study explored sexual function, anxiety, and behavior along with cognitions related to vaginal penetration. A total of 152 women completed an online survey that included a series of validated questionnaires. Main findings indicated that, relative to both comparison groups, women in the vaginismus group reported a more limited range of sexual behavior across the lifespan and more maladaptive cognitions related to fear of losing control of one's body and the situation during penetration. Compared to the no-pain group, both symptomatic groups reported more difficulties across several indicators of sexual function, more limited sexual behavior in the past year and past month, and more maladaptive cognitions related to vaginal penetration. However, women with vaginismus reported more sexual desire and less difficulty with lubrication compared to women with dyspareunia. Numerous sexual problems extending beyond vaginal penetration difficulties were confirmed, suggesting a need for broader treatment approaches not limited to the experience of vaginal penetration. Results were discussed as they relate to the fear-avoidance model of vaginismus.

  19. Establishing the behavioral basis for an attract-and-kill strategy to manage the invasive Halyomorpha halys in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) is an invasive, polyphagous insect that inflicts serious economic injury on specialty crops in the United States. Growers have been forced to respond by increasing the frequency of broad-spectrum insecticide applications. One strategy to reduce reliance on insecticides is ...

  20. Investigating Invasives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  1. Perceptions of relationship satisfaction and addictive behavior: Comparing pornography and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Tara M; Bridges, Ana J

    2012-12-01

    Background and aims Research indicates that excessive pornography use can negatively impact romantic relationships. However, it is unclear whether these negative outcomes are different than negative outcomes produced by other compulsive or addictive behaviors, such as drug use. This study compared perceptions of relationship outcomes from either a romantic partner's excessive marijuana or pornography use. Furthermore, this study experimentally manipulated four factors potentially related to perceptions of relationship satisfaction and addictive behavior. Methods A total of 186 college-aged women read 16 scenarios describing heterosexual romantic relationships in which one partner used either pornography or marijuana. Each scenario varied on four variables: relationship commitment, secrecy of partner's behavior, frequency of partner's behavior, and context of partner's behavior. Results Results suggest that partner pornography and marijuana use are perceived to impact romantic relationships similarly and are influenced by similar factors, such as greater frequency, higher secrecy, and partner's availability for interaction. Conclusions Such findings are consistent with recommendations by professionals that compulsive pornography use be considered worthy of treatment intervention.

  2. Comparative cranial morphology in living and extinct platypuses: Feeding behavior, electroreception, and loss of teeth

    PubMed Central

    Asahara, Masakazu; Koizumi, Masahiro; Macrini, Thomas E.; Hand, Suzanne J.; Archer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The modern platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, has an eye structure similar to aquatic mammals; however, platypuses also have a “sixth sense” associated with the bill electro- and mechanoreception that they use without opening their eyes underwater. We hypothesize that Ornithorhynchus and the Miocene taxon Obdurodon have different sensory capacities, which may have resulted from differences in foraging behavior. To estimate differences in foraging, sensory systems, and anatomical divergence between these monotremes, we compared their skull morphologies. Results indicate that the bill of Obdurodon is more dorsally deflected than that of Ornithorhynchus, suggesting a pelagic foraging behavior in Obdurodon compared to the bottom-feeding behavior in Ornithorhynchus. The infraorbital foramen of Obdurodon, through which the maxillary nerve passes sensory data from the bill to the brain, is relatively less developed than that of Ornithorhynchus. Whereas bill-focused sensory perception was likely shared among Mesozoic monotremes, the highly developed electrosensory system of Ornithorhynchus may represent an adaptation to foraging in cloudy water. Computed tomography imagery indicates that the enlarged infraorbital canal of Ornithorhynchus restricts the space available for maxillary tooth roots. Hence, loss of functional teeth in Ornithorhynchus may possibly have resulted from a shift in foraging behavior and coordinate elaboration of the electroreceptive sensory system. Well-developed electroreceptivity in monotremes is known at least as far back as the early Cretaceous; however, there are differences in the extent of elaboration of the feature among members of the ornithorhynchid lineage. PMID:27757425

  3. Prompting safety belt use: comparative impact on the target behavior and relevant body language.

    PubMed

    Cox, Matthew G; Geller, E Scott

    2010-01-01

    ResearcherS used two behavioral prompts to compare increases in safety belt use: a Click It or Ticket prompt or a Flash-for-Life prompt. Participants were 1,822 unbuckled drivers exiting two student parking lots of a large university. Research assistants identified unbuckled drivers, flashed one of the two prompts, and recorded whether drivers buckled after the prompt and the drivers' facial expressions and hand gestures. Findings and implications are discussed.

  4. Meta-analysis Comparing Different Behavioral Treatments for Late-Life Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Steven R.; Ayers, Catherine R.; Nuevo, Roberto; Stoddard, Jill A.; Sorrell, John T.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of different types of behavioral treatments for geriatric anxiety [cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone, CBT with relaxation training (RT), and RT alone]. Method We compared effect sizes from 19 trials. Analyses were based on uncontrolled outcomes (comparing post-treatment and pre-treatment scores) and effects relative to control conditions on both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results Treatments for older adults with anxiety symptoms were, on average, more effective than active control conditions. Effect sizes were comparable to those reported elsewhere for CBT for anxiety in the general population or for pharmacotherapy in anxious older adults. CBT (alone or augmented with RT) does not appear to add anything beyond RT alone, although a direct comparison is challenging given differences in control conditions. Effects on depressive symptoms were smaller, with no differences among treatment types. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioral treatments are effective for older adults with anxiety disorders and symptoms. Results must be interpreted with caution given the limitations of the literature, including differing sample characteristics and control conditions across studies. PMID:19155744

  5. Unique behavior of Trypanosoma cruzi mevalonate kinase: A conserved glycosomal enzyme involved in host cell invasion and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Éden Ramalho; Horjales, Eduardo; Bonfim-Melo, Alexis; Cortez, Cristian; da Silva, Claudio Vieira; De Groote, Michel; Sobreira, Tiago José Paschoal; Cruz, Mário Costa; Lima, Fabio Mitsuo; Cordero, Esteban Mauricio; Yoshida, Nobuko; da Silveira, José Franco; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Bahia, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase (MVK) is an essential enzyme acting in early steps of sterol isoprenoids biosynthesis, such as cholesterol in humans or ergosterol in trypanosomatids. MVK is conserved from bacteria to mammals, and localizes to glycosomes in trypanosomatids. During the course of T. cruzi MVK characterization, we found that, in addition to glycosomes, this enzyme may be secreted and modulate cell invasion. To evaluate the role of TcMVK in parasite-host cell interactions, TcMVK recombinant protein was produced and anti-TcMVK antibodies were raised in mice. TcMVK protein was detected in the supernatant of cultures of metacyclic trypomastigotes (MTs) and extracellular amastigotes (EAs) by Western blot analysis, confirming its secretion into extracellular medium. Recombinant TcMVK bound in a non-saturable dose-dependent manner to HeLa cells and positively modulated internalization of T. cruzi EAs but inhibited invasion by MTs. In HeLa cells, TcMVK induced phosphorylation of MAPK pathway components and proteins related to actin cytoskeleton modifications. We hypothesized that TcMVK is a bifunctional enzyme that in addition to playing a classical role in isoprenoid synthesis in glycosomes, it is secreted and may modulate host cell signaling required for T. cruzi invasion. PMID:27113535

  6. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  7. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species. PMID:26635567

  8. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species.

  9. Comparative analysis of the behavioral and biomolecular parameters of four mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Nesher, Elimelech; Peskov, Vladimir; Rylova, Anna; Raz, Olga; Pinhasov, Albert

    2012-02-01

    The use of mice as experimental models in pharmacological and biochemical research began over 100 years ago, during which time different mice strains with specific features were developed. Numerous studies demonstrate that the pharmacological efficacy of various compounds significantly varies among different animal strains, a factor which must be considered when analyzing experimental data. The Sabra strain, developed more than 35 years ago, is widely used for research in Israel but has an unclear origin and is not characterized as well as other strains. Comparative analyses of the molecular characteristics of Sabra and other strains should help to understand their characteristics and to enhance the validity of their experimental use. Thus, four mouse strains-outbred ICR and Sabra as well as inbred C57Bl/6J and Balb/c were compared. Animals' weight, blood corticosterone and hippocampal BDNF mRNA levels were measured, and animals' behavior was compared using the EPM, open field, FST, and hot plate tests. We found that although Sabra mice are bigger and heavier than other tested lines, this is not reflected in behavior or in biomolecular features, wherein Sabra mice lay within the diapason of other tested animals. Thus, behavioral tests of anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity revealed that Sabra mice scored close to the mean of all tested lines. Analysis of blood corticosterone levels did not show significant differences among tested strains. We also found a correlation between general and locomotor activity of the tested strains and their hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression. In summary, we may conclude that Sabra mice have traits similar to the better known lines, and therefore they are good subjects for neuroscience research.

  10. On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

  11. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

    2014-02-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou.

  12. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities

    PubMed Central

    Yingying, Huang; Abler, Laurie; Suiming, Pan; Henderson, Gail E.; Xin, Wang; Xingliang, Yao; Parish, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, STI/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n=398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n=2186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

  13. Unpredictable chronic mild stress induced behavioral deficits: a comparative study in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Muhammad; Ikram, Huma; Kanwal, Sumera; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2014-07-01

    Stress is an important precipitant factor for depression. Changes in various body systems that occur in depression are similar to those observed in response to stress. Chronic stress may alter behavioral, neurochemical and physiological responses to drug challenges and novel stressors. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) also produces alteration in the serotonergic (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) could be used as an animal model of depression. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of UCMS can be reversed by antidepressant agents, suggesting an important role of serotonin. In rodents, UCMS can elicit depression-like symptoms. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the behavioral deficits induced by chronic mild stress in male and female rats and finding out the vulnerability of the two groups. Male and female rats exposed to UCMS exhibited a significant decrease in cumulative food intake as well as in growth rate. Loco motor activity in home cage and open field was also decreased. Results may contribute to our understanding of the interaction between stress and behavioral functions have to depressive disorders.

  14. Comparing Thin Slices of Verbal Communication Behavior of Varying Number and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Carcone, April Idalski; Naar-King, Sylvie; Eggly, Susan; Foster, Tanina; Albrecht, Terrance; Brogan, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of thin slices to characterize the verbal communication behavior of counselors and patients engaged in Motivational Interviewing sessions relative to fully coded sessions. Methods Four thin slice samples that varied in number (four versus six slices) and duration (one- versus two-minutes) were extracted from a previously coded dataset. In the parent study, an observational code scheme was used to characterize specific counselor and patient verbal communication behaviors. For the current study, we compared the frequency of communication codes and the correlations among the full dataset and each thin slice sample. Results Both the proportion of communication codes and strength of the correlation demonstrated the highest degree of accuracy when a greater number (i.e., six versus four) and duration (i.e., two- versus one-minute) of slices were extracted. Conclusion These results suggest that thin slice sampling may be a useful and accurate strategy to reduce coding burden when coding specific verbal communication behaviors within clinical encounters. Practice Implications We suggest researchers interested in using thin slice sampling in their own work conduct preliminary research to determine the number and duration of thin slices required to accurately characterize the behaviors of interest. PMID:25441095

  15. Sexual predators and prey: a comparative study of the hunting behavior of rapists and child molesters.

    PubMed

    Rebocho, Maria Francisca; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2012-09-01

    Although there has been an increase in research on sex offenders' modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior, most studies still tend to emphasize criminal motivation while overlooking the role of situational and environmental factors. Studies of mixed samples of rapists and child molesters typically neglect to conduct comparative analyses. Consequently, the full nature of their distinction is not clear. This is particularly problematic for the understanding of crossover or polymorphous sex offenders, who target victims from various age groups. Using a sample of 216 incarcerated sexual offenders, hunting behavior patterns were identified and tested to establish which hunting behavior patterns were associated with each type of offender. Relationships between modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior were also examined. Three types of offender were identified: (a) manipulative; (b) opportunist; and (c) coercive. The manipulative offender is typically a child molester. The coercive offender is typically a rapist. The opportunist offender includes both rapists and child molesters. These findings emphasize the relevance of polymorphous, crossover, or versatile sex offenders and suggest new ways of conceptualizing sex offenders and their study.

  16. The ubiquitous plasmid pXap41 in the invasive phytopathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni: complete sequence and comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pothier, Joël F; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Pühler, Alfred; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2011-10-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the 41 102-bp plasmid pXap41 from the invasive plant pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni CFBP 5530 was determined and its 44 coding regions were annotated. Comparative analysis with 15 Xanthomonas plasmids and 19 complete genomes revealed that nearly one-fourth of this plasmid has high sequence identity to plasmid pXAC64 and an 8.8-kb chromosomal region of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri strain 306 carrying genes that encode type III effectors and helper proteins. The presence of pXap41 in all X. arboricola pv. pruni genotypes was confirmed for eight strains by plasmid profiling and for 35 X. arboricola pv. pruni isolates with a new plasmid multiplex PCR assay. This plasmid was not detected in any other X. arboricola pathovars (n=12), indicating the potential for the application of the pXap41 PCR method as a pathovar-level detection and identification tool.

  17. Comparative metabolic behavior and interrelationships of Tc and S in soybean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.; Fellows, R.J. )

    1989-08-01

    The comparative behavior of sulfur (S) and technetium (Tc) in soybean seedlings shows gross subcellular distributions to be similar for these oxyanions. More than 75% of the tissue-deposited Tc remains soluble and extractable. Differences in Tc fixation/incorporation were noted for the nuclear and chloroplast fractions of leaf and root cells. Pulse studies showed that soluble protein and nitrate reductase levels rose in response to Tc accumulation by sink leaves but not source leaves. In vitro assay of chloroplast-based S reduction and incorporation systems showed Tc to be reduced and incorporated into amino nitrogen-containing products. A hypothesis related to the metabolic behavior of Tc in plants is presented.

  18. Invasive Species

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  19. Invasive Candidiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida . Unlike Candida ... mouth and throat (also called “thrush”) or vaginal “yeast infections,” invasive candidiasis is a serious infection that ...

  20. Adoptive and Nonadoptive Mother–Child Behavioral Interaction: A Comparative Study at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518

  1. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides in relation to different water availability, compared to its native congener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yu-Peng; Pan, Xiao-Yun; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2006-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genetic differentiation are two possible mechanisms that plants use to cope with varying environments. Although alligator weed ( Alternanthera philoxeroides) possesses very low genetic diversity, this alien weed has successfully invaded diverse habitats with considerably varying water availability (from swamps to dry lands) in China. In contrast, its native congener ( Alternanthera sessilis) has a much narrower ecological breadth, and is usually found in moist habitats. To understand the mechanisms underlying the contrasting pattern, we performed a greenhouse experiment to compare the reaction norms of alligator weed with those of its native congener, in which water availability was manipulated. Our results revealed that the two congeners had similar direction of phenotypic plasticity. However, A. philoxeroides showed greater plasticity in amount than did A. sessilis in many traits examined during the switch from wet to drought treatment. Nearly all of the phenotypic variance in A. philoxeroides could be ascribed to plasticity, while A. sessilis had a much higher fraction of phenotypic variance that could be explained by genotypic variation. These interspecific differences in plastic responses to variable water availability partially explained the difference in spatial distribution of the two congeners.

  2. VOLTAGE CLAMP BEHAVIOR OF IRON-NITRIC ACID SYSTEM AS COMPARED WITH THAT OF NERVE MEMBRANE

    PubMed Central

    Tasaki, I.; Bak, A. F.

    1959-01-01

    The current-voltage relation for the surface layer of an iron wire immersed in nitric acid was investigated by the voltage clamp technique. Comparing the phase of nitric acid to the axoplasm and the metallic phase to the external fluid medium for the nerve fiber, a striking analogy was found between the voltage clamp behavior of the iron-nitric acid system and that of the nerve membrane. The current voltage curve was found to consist of three parts: (a) a straight line representing the behavior of the resting (passive) membrane, (b) a straight line representing the fully excited (active) state, and (c) an intermediate zone connecting (a) and (b). It was shown that in the intermediate zone, the surface of iron consisted of a fully active patch (or patches) surrounded by a remaining resting area. The phenomenon corresponding to "repetitive firing of responses under voltage clamp" in the nerve membrane was demonstrated in the intermediate zone. The behavior of the cobalt electrode system was also investigated by the same technique. An attempt was made to interpret the phenomenon of initiation and abolition of an active potential on the basis of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. PMID:13654740

  3. Flight and fight: a comparative view of the neurophysiology and genetics of honey bee defensive behavior.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G J

    2007-05-01

    Honey bee nest defense involves guard bees that specialize in olfaction-based nestmate recognition and alarm-pheromone-mediated recruitment of nestmates to sting. Stinging is influenced by visual, tactile and olfactory stimuli. Both quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and behavioral studies point to guarding behavior as a key factor in colony stinging response. Results of reciprocal F1 crosses show that paternally inherited genes have a greater influence on colony stinging response than maternally inherited genes. The most active alarm pheromone component, isoamyl acetate (IAA) causes increased respiration and may induce stress analgesia in bees. IAA primes worker bees for 'fight or flight', possibly through actions of neuropeptides and/or biogenic amines. Studies of aggression in other species lead to an expectation that octopamine or 5-HT might play a role in honey bee defensive response. Genome sequence and QTL mapping identified 128 candidate genes for three regions known to influence defensive behavior. Comparative bioinformatics suggest possible roles of genes involved in neurogenesis and central nervous system (CNS) activity, and genes involved in sensory tuning through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as an arrestin (AmArr4) and the metabotropic GABA(B) receptor (GABA-B-R1).

  4. Comparative RNA-seq analysis of early-infected peach leaves by the invasive phytopathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni.

    PubMed

    Socquet-Juglard, Didier; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Christen, Danilo; Gessler, Cesare; Duffy, Brion; Patocchi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine bacterial pathogen that threatens peach production by causing necrotic spots on leaves and fruits, thus with the potential of severely reducing yields. The current understanding of the host plant defense responses to the pathogen is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression was analyzed at two time points, 2 h and 12 h post inoculation (hpi), by comparing the inoculated samples to their respective controls. On the total of 19,781 known peach genes that were expressed in all time points and conditions, 34 and 263 were differentially expressed at 2 and 12 hpi, respectively. Of those, 82% and 40% were up-regulated, respectively; and 18% and 60% were down-regulated, respectively. The functional annotation based on gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes involved in metabolic process and response to stress were particularly represented at 2 hpi whereas at 12 hpi cellular and metabolic processes were the categories with the highest number of genes differentially expressed. Of particular interest among the differentially expressed genes identified were several pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptors, disease resistance genes including several RPM1-like and pathogenesis related thaumatin encoding genes. Other genes involved in photosynthesis, in cell wall reorganization, in hormone signaling pathways or encoding cytochrome were also differentially expressed. In addition, novel transcripts were identified, providing another basis for further characterization of plant defense-related genes. Overall, this study gives a first insight of the peach defense mechanisms during the very early stages of infection with a bacterial disease in the case of a compatible interaction.

  5. Comparative Pathology and Ecological Implications of Two Myxosporean Parasites in Native Australian Frogs and the Invasive Cane Toad

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Dhand, Navneet K.; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan; Phalen, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus axonis and C. australis are pathogens of native and exotic Australian frog species. The pathology and ecological outcomes of infection with these parasites were investigated in this study. Gliosis was correlated to Cystodiscus axonis plasmodia in the brains of (9/60) tadpoles and (3/9) adult endangered Green and golden bell frogs using ordinal regression. Severe host reactions to C. axonis (haemorrhage, necrosis, and vasulitis) were observed in the brains of threatened Southern bell frogs (8/8), critically endangered Booroolong frogs (15/44) and Yellow spotted bell frogs (3/3). Severe brain lesions were associated with behavioural changes, neurological dysfunction, and spontaneous death. Both C. axonis and C. australis develop in the bile ducts of tadpoles, the plasmodia were significantly associated with biliary hyperplasia, inflammation and the loss of hepatocytes in (34/72) Green and golden bell frog tadpoles using ordinal regression. These lesions were so severe that in some cases 70% of the total liver was diseased. Normal liver function in tadpoles is necessary for metamorphosis, metabolism, and immune function. We postulate that this extensive liver damage would have significant host health impacts. Severe hepatic myxosporidiosis was more prevalent in tadpoles examined in autumn and winter (overwintered), suggestive of delayed metamorphosis in infected tadpoles, which would have serious flow-on effects in small populations. We compared the sensitivity of histopathology and species-specific PCR in the detection of C. australis and C. axonis. PCR was determined to be the most sensitive method (detection limit 1 myxospore equivalent of ribosomal DNA). Histology, however, had the advantage of assessing the impact of the parasite on the host. It was concluded that these parasites have the potential for significant ecological impacts, because of their high prevalence of infection and their ability to cause disease in some frogs

  6. Conspicuous by Their Absence: Studies Comparing and Combining Risperidone and Applied Behavior Analysis to Reduce Challenging Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Marc; Ehrhardt, Kristal; Poling, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Both risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, and function-based behavior-analytic interventions are popular and empirically validated treatments for reducing challenging behavior in children with autism. The kind of research that supports their effectiveness differs, however, and no published study has directly compared their effects or…

  7. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  8. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Ewing Sarcoma Compared to Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Low miR-31 Expression with Effects on Proliferation and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Karnuth, Bianca; Dedy, Nicolas; Spieker, Tilmann; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Ranft, Andreas; Dirksen, Uta; Jürgens, Heribert; Bräuninger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma, the second most common bone tumor in children and young adults, is an aggressive malignancy with a strong potential to metastasize. Ewing sarcoma is characterised by translocations encoding fusion transcription factors with an EWSR1 transactivation domain fused to an ETS family DNA binding domain. microRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and aberrantly expressed microRNAs have been identified as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in most cancer types. To identify potential oncogenic and tumor suppressor microRNAs in Ewing sarcoma, we determined and compared the expression of 377 microRNAs in 40 Ewing sarcoma biopsies, 6 Ewing sarcoma cell lines and mesenchymal stem cells, the putative cellular origin of Ewing sarcoma, from 6 healthy donors. Of the 35 differentially expressed microRNAs identified (fold change >4 and q<0.05), 19 were higher and 16 lower expressed in Ewing sarcoma. In comparisons between Ewing sarcoma samples with EWS-FLI or EWS-ERG translocations, with differing dissemination characteristics and of primary samples and metastases no significantly differential expressed microRNAs were detected using various stringency criteria. For miR-31, the microRNA with lowest expression in comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, functional analyses were performed to determine its potential as a tumor suppressor in Ewing sarcoma. Two of four miR-31 transfected Ewing sarcoma cell lines showed a significantly reduced proliferation (19% and 33% reduction) due to increased apoptosis in one and increased length of G1-phase in the other cell line. All three tested miR-31 transfected Ewing sarcoma cell lines showed significantly reduced invasiveness (56% to 71% reduction). In summary, we identified 35 microRNAs differentially expressed in Ewing sarcoma and demonstrate that miR-31 affects proliferation and invasion of Ewing sarcoma cell lines in ex vivo assays. PMID:24667836

  9. Use and Limits of (1-3)-β-d-Glucan Assay (Fungitell), Compared to Galactomannan Determination (Platelia Aspergillus), for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Porcher, Raphael; Bergeron, Anne; Touratier, Sophie; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Menotti, Jean; Derouin, Francis; Ribaud, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the performance of the Fungitell β-glucan (BG) assay, to compare it with that of the galactomannan (GM) test for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematological malignancies, and to examine the rates of false-positive BG and GM test results due to β-lactam antibiotics among sera of patients with Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteremia and selected sera with false-positive results from the GM test. Serum samples from 105 patients with proven (n = 14) or probable (n = 91) IA, 97 hematology patients at risk for invasive fungal infections, 50 healthy blood donors, and 60 patients with bacteremia were used to study the sensitivities and specificities of the assays. The GM test was more specific than the BG assay (97% versus 82%, respectively; P = 0.0001) and the BG assay was more sensitive than the GM test (81% versus 49%, respectively; P < 0.0001) for IA diagnosis. The study of 49 separate batches of β-lactam antibiotics showed high and very similar rates of false-positive results for the GM and BG assays (29 and 33%, respectively; P = 0.82) but with an almost complete lack of concordance between the 2 assays. For patients with bacteremia, the rate of false-positive results was much higher with the BG test than with the GM test (37% versus 2%, respectively; P < 0.0001), with no significant difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteremia. In conclusion, the BG test may be useful for the diagnosis of IA because of its high sensitivity in comparison with the GM test, but the overall benefit of this assay remains limited because of its inadequate specificity and its cost. PMID:24740084

  10. Plasma etching behavior of Y2O3 ceramics: Comparative study with Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu-Chao; Zhao, Lei; Luo, Jin; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Yokota, Hiroki; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Li, Jing-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The plasma etching behavior of Y2O3 coating was investigated and compared with that of Al2O3 coating under various conditions, including chemical etching, mixing etching and physical etching. The etching rate of Al2O3 coating declined with decreasing CF4 content under mixing etching, while that of Y2O3 coating first increased and then decreased. In addition, the Y2O3 coating demonstrated higher erosion-resistance than Al2O3 coating after exposing to fluorocarbon plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formations of YF3 and AlF3 on the Y2O3 and Al2O3 coatings, respectively, which acted as the protective layer to prevent the surface from further erosion with fluorocarbon plasma. It was revealed that the etching behavior of Y2O3 depended not only on the surface fluorination but also on the removal of fluoride layer. To analyze the effect of porosity, Y2O3 bulk samples with high density were prepared by spark plasma sintering, and they demonstrated higher erosion-resistances compared with Y2O3 coating.

  11. Comparative Study of the Activity of Brain Behavioral Systems in Methamphetamine and Opiate Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Alemikhah, Marjan; Faridhosseini, Farhad; Kordi, Hassan; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Shahini, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Substance dependency is a major problem for the general health of a society. Different approaches have investigated the substance dependency in order to explain it. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) is an advanced and important neuropsychological theory in this area. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare three systems of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory the behavioral activation system (r-BAS), the revised behavioral inhibition system (r-BIS), and the revised fight/flight/freezing system (r-FFFS) between patients dependent on methamphetamine and opiates, and a group of controls. Patients and Methods: This research was a causal-comparative study that was conducted in the first six months of 2012. The population of the study was males of Mashhad city, who were dependent on methamphetamine or opiates, and ruling out psychotic disorders and prominent Axis II. Twenty-five people were selected by the convenient sampling method. Also, 25 non-dependent people from the patients’ relatives were selected and matched for the variables of age, gender, and education to participate in this study. Participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview (SCID) for DSM-IV, demographic questionnaire information, and a Jackson-5 questionnaire (2009). Data were analyzed by Chi-square, K-S, and independent t-test. Results: The methamphetamine dependent group had a higher sensitivity in the r-BAS, r-BIS, and the r-Fight and r-Freezing systems compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in r-Flight between the two groups (P > 0.05). “The scores of r-BIS were also significantly higher in the methamphetamine-dependent group than the opioid-dependent and control groups. For the r-Fight variable, the methamphetamine-dependent group was higher than the opioid-dependent group”. Conclusions: The personality patterns of patients dependent on methamphetamines were different from the controls

  12. Use of Comparative Genomics and Eukaryotic Cell Adherence/Invasion Assays of the Food-Borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni for the Identification of Putative Virulence Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, the leading bacterial etiology of acute humans gastroenteritis, is commonly associated with the handling/consumption of poultry. Eukaryotic cell adhesion/invasion assays were performed on fifty-one C. jejuni isolates. A range of adhesion/invasion abilities was exhibited. To identify ...

  13. Enhanced non invasive trans-tympanic delivery of ciprofloxacin through encapsulation into nano-spanlastic vesicles: Fabrication, in-vitro characterization, and comparative ex-vivo permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahallawi, Abdulaziz Mohsen; Khowessah, Omneya Mohammed; Shoukri, Raguia Ali

    2017-03-07

    The aim of this research was to encapsulate ciprofloxacin, a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic, into Span 60 based nano-elastic vesicles, nano-spanlastics, for accomplishing improved non invasive trans-tympanic delivery, providing means for ototopical treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). To achieve this purpose, ciprofloxacin-loaded nano-spanlastics were prepared by thin film hydration (TFH) technique, using several non-ionic edge activators (EAs) according to full factorial design (3(2)). The investigation of the effect of formulation variables on nano-spanlastic characteristics and selection of the optimum formula were performed using Design-Expert(®) software. The selected formulation was also subjected to comparative ex-vivo permeation studies through tympanic membrane (TM) of rabbits. Results revealed that the optimal nano-spanlastic formulation (S-2; containing 20% Brij 35 as an EA) exhibited nano-sized spherical vesicles (287.55±9.97nm), relatively high entrapment efficiency percent (51.81±1.57%), and good physical stability after six months of storage at 4-8°C. Ex-vivo TM permeation studies demonstrated the superiority of the optimal nano-spanlastic formulation over the commercial Ciprocin(®) drops. However, when compared to lipid-based elastic vesicles, nano-transfersomes, nano-spanlastics exhibited lower drug permeation through the TM. Concisely, the obtained results suggested that nano-spanlastics can be promising for improving trans-tympanic delivery of ciprofloxacin.

  14. [Cognitive training and strategy behavior: comparative evaluation of 2 cognitive training programs].

    PubMed

    Hager, W; Hübner, S

    1998-01-01

    Combining a non-comparative with a comparative evaluation, two modern programs for fostering inductive reasoning, namely the German version of the "Cognitive training for children" by Klauer and Phye (1994; Klauer 1989), and the "DenkMit" by Sydow and Meincke (1994), are compared to each other and to a control program which intends to enhance aspects of memory instead of inductive reasoning. The programs were performed with N = 49 children between six and eight years who had been postponed from regular school because of various reasons or who had been selected as especially in need for particular interventions from first classes. Besides the psychometric test often used for assessing inductive reasoning, i.e. three subtests of the German form of the Culture Fair Test by Cattell (Weiss a. Osterland 1980), tasks of concept formation were applied for assessing changes in strategic behavior of children--a type of task which has been used in connection with inductive reasoning since many years. Counter to expectations, the children whose memory was trained, showed changes in performance in the psychometric test in a similar size as the children whose inductive reasoning was trained. These effects are interpreted in terms of special attention directed to the children during the intervention situation. Moreover, it was found that despite the authors claim to the opposite the DenkMit did not cause any changes in visual perception. In contrast to the author's intentions, the "Cognitive Training for Children" did cause some substantive changes in the area of visual perception. The pattern of results with the concept formation tasks, however, overall indicates that the reasoning programs caused some changes in strategic behaviors of the children. Although these changes are not very impressive, they cannot be attributed to extraneous factors such as special attention.

  15. Unexpected morphological and karyological changes in invasive Carpobrotus (Aizoaceae) in Provence (S-E France) compared to native South African species.

    PubMed

    Verlaque, Régine; Affre, Laurence; Diadema, Katia; Suehs, Carey M; Médail, Frédéric

    2011-04-01

    Hybridization processes can lead to evolutionary changes, particularly in co-introduced congeneric plant species, such as Carpobrotus spp. which are recognized as invasive in Mediterranean climate regions. Morphological and karyological comparisons have therefore been made between native Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in South Africa and their invasive counterparts in Provence (C. edulis and C. aff. acinaciformis). Morphological data exhibited the most significant differences in invasive C. aff. acinaciformis that forms a new phenotypic variant. Unexpected chromosomal restructuring has been highlighted for both taxa in Provence, with in particular a clear decrease in asymmetry, an increase in the intraspecific variability, and an interspecific convergence of karyotypes. These changes suggest a drift that has facilitated various crosses, and has been amplified through hybridization/introgression. Furthermore, several morphological and karyological transgressive characters have been found in the two invasive taxa. These results stress the important role and the rapidity of karyological changes in invasive processes.

  16. The sexual attitudes and behavior of private and public school students: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bernache-Baker, B

    1987-01-01

    This study reports the results of a questionnaire and interview-based study designed to test the often-stated claims of college preparatory schools, i.e., "prep schools" that, along with a high-quality education, they also instill a superior system of values than is possible in a public school. Comparisons are made between "preppies" and college-bound public school students in terms of sexual attitudes and behavior as well as with the earlier studies of Kinsey, Pomeroy et al., Sorensen, and Haas. The results indicate that, even when measured by the standards of the schools themselves, preppies rank lower in many areas, especially attitudinal, than their public school counterparts. Despite the enormous amount of faculty energy expended to prevent it, the sexual activity of the prep school student, both in amount and degree of sophistication, is significantly greater than is found in public school students. Further, in terms of sex-related drug use, exploitiveness, female self-image, homophobia and sexism, preppies do not compare favorably with public school students. Hypotheses are advanced to account for the differences detected and suggestions made for future research. It is also suggested that the research technique used in this study has great potential for future study of adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior that, in the past, have been extremely difficult to perform.

  17. The 'good mother'--a comparative study of Swedish, Italian and American maternal behavior and goals.

    PubMed

    Welles-Nyström, B; New, R; Richman, A

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on a comparative, psychologically informed ethnographic study of maternal goals and infant care during the first year of life for 20 mothers and infants in each of three Western settings: Stockholm, Sweden, outside Rome, Italy, and suburban Boston, in the United States. Two research questions were posed to consider cultural ideas and ideals about mothering; How was the 'good mother' defined? How did sample women themselves, mother? Research hypotheses were that definitions of a good mother would be culture-specific with minimal within-culture variance. Furthermore, the frequency of maternal behaviors would also exhibit culture specific patterns. Research methods included event based behavioral observations of infant-caregiver interactions in the home, daily routine questionnaires, maternal attitude interviews, and ethnographic observations of community and family life. Research hypothesis were confirmed. Results revealed culture-specific variation in conceptions of the 'good mother'. Cultural differences were reflected in the short- and long-term goals which the sample women described for their children. Patterns of infant care, in turn, were consistent with the cultural values expressed, as well as the cultural norms of social interaction.

  18. Comparing Perceptions with Actual Reports of Close Friend's HIV Testing Behavior Among Urban Tanzanian Men.

    PubMed

    Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina J; Balvanz, Peter; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Men have lower rates of HIV testing and higher rates of AIDS-related mortality compared to women in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess whether there is an opportunity to increase men's uptake of testing by correcting misperceptions about testing norms, we compare men's perceptions of their closest friend's HIV testing behaviors with the friend's actual testing self-report using a unique dataset of men sampled within their social networks (n = 59) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the accuracy and bias of perceptions among men who have tested for HIV (n = 391) and compare them to the perceptions among men who never tested (n = 432). We found that testers and non-testers did not differ in the accuracy of their perceptions, though non-testers were strongly biased towards assuming that their closest friends had not tested. Our results lend support to social norms approaches designed to correct the biased misperceptions of non-testers to promote men's HIV testing.

  19. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  20. Clinical-Pathologic Features and Long-Term Outcomes of Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast Compared With Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gene-Fu F.; Yang Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.; Moran, Meena S.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate our institutional experience of treating tubular carcinoma of the breast (TC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with conservative surgery and radiation therapy, to compare clinical-pathologic features and long-term outcomes. Methods and Materials: A review of our institution's tumor registry from 1975 to 2007, followed by a central pathology review of available slides, yielded 71 cases of Stage I/II TC and 2,238 cases of Stage I/II IDC treated with breast conservation therapy. Clinical-pathologic features and outcomes were analyzed by subtype to detect significant differences. Results: The median follow-up was 7 years. The TC cohort presented more frequently with pT1 disease (97% vs. 80%, p = 0.0007), pN0 disease (95% vs. 74%, p = 0.0004), hormone-receptor positivity (ER+, 89% vs. 62%, p = 0.0001; PR+, 81% vs. 52%, p = 0.0001), and HER-2 negativity (89% vs. 71%, p = 0.04). Clinical outcomes also favored the TC cohort, with lower rates of breast cancer-related death (1% vs. 10%; p = 0.0109) and distant metastasis (1% vs. 13%; p = 0.0028) and higher rates of 10-year overall (90% vs. 80%; p = 0.033), cause-specific (99% vs. 86%; p = 0.011), and disease-free (99% vs. 82%; p = 0.003) survival. There was a nonsignificant trend toward improved breast cancer relapse-free survival for the TC cohort (95% vs. 87%; p = 0.062) but no difference in nodal relapse-free survival or contralateral breast cancer relapse-free survival (all p values >0.05) between the cohorts. Conclusion: Our institutional experience suggests that TC, when compared with IDC, is associated with more favorable clinical-pathologic features and comparable, if not superior, outcomes after breast conservation therapy, suggesting the appropriateness of a conservative approach to this rare subtype.

  1. Modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by hyaluronan is dependent on NF-kappaB activity in lymphoma cell lines with dissimilar invasive behavior.

    PubMed

    Alaniz, Laura; García, Mariana; Cabrera, Paula; Arnaiz, María; Cavaliere, Victoria; Blanco, Guillermo; Alvarez, Elida; Hajos, Silvia

    2004-11-12

    Expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) as well as its relationship with hyaluronan (HA) and NF-kappaB activity were analyzed in two murine lymphoma cell lines with dissimilar migration and invasive behavior. MMP activity was evaluated by zymograms in supernatants, membrane extracts of tumor cells, and in the organs invaded by these cells. The more aggressive LBLa cell line showed MMP-9 activity in vitro, which increased after HA treatment and was blocked by anti-CD44 mAb. Such activity was not found in the less aggressive LBLc. MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity was found in organs invaded by both cell lines, although differential MMP-9 activity was observed in lung infiltrated only by LBLa cell line. NF-kappaB activation was evaluated to determine whether differential activity of MMP-9 was dependent on downstream signaling pathway, showing higher NF-kappaB activity in the more aggressive LBLa cell line. Our results showed that MMP-9 activity modulated by HA through NF-kappaB signaling pathway may be involved in the aggressive behavior of LBLa.

  2. The Outcomes of Minimally Invasive versus Open Posterior Approach Spinal Fusion in Treatment of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: The Current Evidence from Prospective Comparative Studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ai-Min; Chen, Chun-Hui; Shen, Zhi-Hao; Feng, Zhen-Hua; Weng, Wan-Qing; Li, Shu-Min; Chi, Yong-Long; Yin, Li-Hui; Ni, Wen-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the evidence of minimally invasive (MI) versus open (OP) posterior lumbar fusion in treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis from current prospective literatures. Methods. The electronic literature database of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library was searched at April 2016. The data of operative time, estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay, visual analog scale (VAS) of both lower back pain and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), SF-36 PCS (physical component scores) and SF-36 MCS (mental component scores), complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery were extracted and analyzed by STATA 12.0 software. Results. Five nonrandom prospective comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the MI group had a significantly longer operative time than OP group, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay. No significant difference was found in back pain, leg pain, ODI, SF-36 PCS, SF-36 MCS, complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery between MI and OP groups. Conclusion. The prospective evidence suggested that MI posterior fusion for spondylolisthesis had less EBL and hospital stay than OP fusion; however it took more operative time. Both MI and OP fusion had similar results in pain and functional outcomes, complication, fusion rate, and secondary surgery.

  3. The Outcomes of Minimally Invasive versus Open Posterior Approach Spinal Fusion in Treatment of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: The Current Evidence from Prospective Comparative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ai-Min; Chen, Chun-Hui; Shen, Zhi-Hao; Feng, Zhen-Hua; Weng, Wan-Qing; Li, Shu-Min; Chi, Yong-Long; Yin, Li-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the evidence of minimally invasive (MI) versus open (OP) posterior lumbar fusion in treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis from current prospective literatures. Methods. The electronic literature database of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library was searched at April 2016. The data of operative time, estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay, visual analog scale (VAS) of both lower back pain and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), SF-36 PCS (physical component scores) and SF-36 MCS (mental component scores), complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery were extracted and analyzed by STATA 12.0 software. Results. Five nonrandom prospective comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the MI group had a significantly longer operative time than OP group, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay. No significant difference was found in back pain, leg pain, ODI, SF-36 PCS, SF-36 MCS, complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery between MI and OP groups. Conclusion. The prospective evidence suggested that MI posterior fusion for spondylolisthesis had less EBL and hospital stay than OP fusion; however it took more operative time. Both MI and OP fusion had similar results in pain and functional outcomes, complication, fusion rate, and secondary surgery. PMID:28154826

  4. Comparative analysis of basal lamina type IV collagen α chains, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 expressions in oral dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tamamura, Ryo; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Siar, Chong Huat; Katase, Naoki; Naito, Ichiro; Sado, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Noriyuki

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of basal lamina (BL) collagen IV α chains and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in oral dysplasia (OED) and invasive carcinoma. Ten cases each of OEDs, carcinomas-in situ and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Another 5 cases, each of normal and hyperplastic oral mucosa, served as controls. Results showed that α1(IV)/α2(IV) and α5(IV)/α6(IV) chains were intact in BLs of control and OEDs. In BLs of carcinoma-in situ, α1(IV)/α2(IV) chains preceded α5(IV)/α6(IV) chains in showing incipient signs of disruption. OSCCs exhibited varying degrees of collagen α(IV) chain degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were absent in controls and OED, but weakly detectable in carcinoma-in situ. In OSCC, these proteolytic enzymes were expressed in areas corresponding to collagen α(IV) chain loss. Enzymatic activity was enhanced in higher grade OSCC, and along the tumor advancing front. Overall the present findings suggest that loss of BL collagen α(IV) chains coincided with gain of expression for MMP-2 and MMP-9, and that these protein alterations are crucial events during progression from OED to OSCC.

  5. A prospective clinical trial to compare the performance of dried blood spots prenatal screening for Down's syndrome with conventional non-invasive testing technology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiying; Jiang, Yulin; Zhang, Minghui; Liu, Shanying; Hao, Na; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Xiaojin; Ma, Liangkun

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate, side by side, the efficiency of dried blood spots (DBSs) against serum screening for Down's syndrome, and then, to construct a two-tier strategy by topping up the fetal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) secondary screening over the high-risk women marked by the primary blood testing to build a practical screening tactic to identify fetal Down's syndrome. One thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven low-risk Chinese women, with singleton pregnancy, were enrolled for the study. Alpha-fetoprotein and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin were measured for the serum as well as for the parallel DBS samples. Partial high-risk pregnant women identified by primary blood testing (n = 38) were also subject to the secondary cfDNA screening. Diagnostic amniocentesis was utilized to confirm the screening results. The true positive rate for Down's syndrome detection was 100% for both blood screening methods; however, the false-positive rate was 3.0% for DBS and 4.0% for serum screening, respectively. DBS correlated well with serum screening on Down's syndrome detection. Three out of 38 primary high-risk women displayed chromosomal abnormalities by cfDNA analysis, which were confirmed by amniocentesis. Either the true detection rate or the false-positive rate for Down's syndrome between DBS and the serum test is comparable. In addition, blood primary screening aligned with secondary cfDNA analysis, a "before and after" two-tier screening strategy, can massively decrease the false-positive rate, which, then, dramatically reduces the demand for invasive diagnostic operation. Impact statement Children born with Down's syndrome display a wide range of mental and physical disability. Currently, there is no effective treatment to ease the burden and anxiety of the Down's syndrome family and the surrounding society. This study is to evaluate the efficiency of dried blood spots against serum screening for Down's syndrome and to construct a two-tier strategy by topping up the fetal

  6. Dynamic and coordinated single-molecular interactions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomains guide invasive behaviors in 2- and 3-dimensional environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Kwon, Sojung; Nam, Seo Hee; Jung, Jae Woo; Kang, Minkyung; Ryu, Jihye; Kim, Ji Eon; Cheong, Jin-Gyu; Cho, Chang Yun; Kim, Somi; Song, Dae-Geun; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Tai Young; Jung, Min-Kyo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Pack, Chan-Gi; Lee, Jung Weon

    2017-04-01

    Membrane proteins sense extracellular cues and transduce intracellular signaling to coordinate directionality and speed during cellular migration. They are often localized to specific regions, as with lipid rafts or tetraspanin-enriched microdomains; however, the dynamic interactions of tetraspanins with diverse receptors within tetraspanin-enriched microdomains on cellular surfaces remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated effects of tetraspan(in) TM4SF5 (transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5)-enriched microdomains (T5ERMs) on the directionality of cell migration. Physical association of TM4SF5 with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin α5 was visualized by live fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy and higher-resolution microscopy at the leading edge of migratory cells, presumably forming TM4SF5-enriched microdomains. Whereas TM4SF5 and EGFR colocalized at the migrating leading region more than at the rear, TM4SF5 and integrin α5 colocalized evenly throughout cells. Cholesterol depletion and disruption in TM4SF5 post-translational modifications, including N-glycosylation and palmitoylation, altered TM4SF5 interactions and cellular localization, which led to less cellular migration speed and directionality in 2- or 3-dimensional conditions. TM4SF5 controlled directional cell migration and invasion, and importantly, these TM4SF5 functions were dependent on cholesterol, TM4SF5 post-translational modifications, and EGFR and integrin α5 activity. Altogether, we showed that TM4SF5 dynamically interacted with EGFR and integrin α5 in migratory cells to control directionality and invasion.-Kim, H.-J., Kwon, S., Nam, S. H., Jung, J. W., Kang, M., Ryu, J., Kim, J. E., Cheong, J.-G., Cho, C. Y., Kim, S., Song, D.-G., Kim, Y.-N., Kim, T. Y., Jung, M.-K., Lee, K.-M., Pack, C.-G., Lee, J. W. Dynamic and coordinated single-molecular interactions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomains guide invasive behaviors in 2- and 3-dimensional environments.

  7. Comparing Reactivation Behavior of TIG and Laser Beam Welded Alloy 690

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Geogy J.; Bhambroo, Rajan; Kain, V.; Dey, G. K.; Raja, V. S.

    2013-02-01

    The nickel base Alloy 690 was subjected to simulated autogenous welding treatment employing two different techniques, laser beam welding (LBW) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. The resultant weld fusion zone (WFZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) were compared by studying the reactivation behavior. The chromium depletion effect was assessed by measuring the degree of sensitization (DOS) from the electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR) test. A double-loop EPR test for Alloy 690 was employed to measure the DOS at different regions of weldments by masking the remaining regions. The results clearly demonstrated that Alloy 690 showed no sensitization in the parent material and the WFZ region of both TIG and laser weldments. However, it exhibited reactivation in the HAZ region of both the weldments. The DOS values measured for Alloy 690 were very low for all the regions of the LBW weldment as compared to that in the TIG weldment. The HAZ region of the LBW weldment showed the highest DOS value in any region of the weldment but even this value was quite low indicating absence of sensitization in LBW weldment. The attack along the grain boundaries for the weldments after EPR experiments were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Effects of an occlusal splint compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment on sleep bruxism activity.

    PubMed

    Ommerborn, Michelle A; Schneider, Christine; Giraki, Maria; Schäfer, Ralf; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Raab, Wolfgang H-M

    2007-02-01

    The impact of an occlusal splint (OS) compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) on the management of sleep bruxism (SB) has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an OS with CBT in SB patients. Following a randomized assignment, the OS group consisted of 29, and the CBT group of 28, SB patients. The CBT comprised problem-solving, progressive muscle relaxation, nocturnal biofeedback, and training of recreation and enjoyment. The treatment took place over a period of 12 wk, and the OS group received an OS over the same time period. Both groups were examined pretreatment, post-treatment, and at 6 months of follow-up for SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity and associated symptoms, psychological impairment, and individual stress-coping strategies. The analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity, and psychological impairment, as well as an increase of positive stress-coping strategies in both groups. However, the effects were small and no group-specific differences were seen in any dependent variable. This is an initial attempt to compare CBT and OS in SB patients, and the data collected substantiate the need for further controlled evaluations, using a three-group randomized design with repeated measures to verify treatment effects.

  9. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  10. Separating the Domains of Oppositional Behavior: Comparing Latent Models of the Conners' Oppositional Subscale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuny, Ana V.; Althoff, Robert R.; Copeland, William; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Baer, Julie; Hudziak, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) that may…

  11. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance…

  12. Examining the Correlates of Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Men Compared With Women.

    PubMed

    Nikoloudakis, Irene A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille E

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic, health behavior, health status, and social media use correlates of online health-seeking behaviors among men and women. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from 1,289 Australian adults participating in the Queensland Social Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of online health information seeking for men and women. Differences in the strength of the relation of these correlates were tested using equality of regression coefficient tests. For both genders, the two strongest correlates were social media use (men: odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.78, 3.71]; women: OR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.92, 4.45]) and having a university education (men: OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.37, 5.56]; women: OR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.66, 4.51]). Not being a smoker and being of younger age were also associated with online health information seeking for both men and women. Reporting poor health and the presence of two chronic diseases were positively associated with online health seeking for women only. Correlates of help seeking online among men and women were generally similar, with exception of health status. Results suggest that similar groups of men and women are likely to access health information online for primary prevention purposes, and additionally that women experiencing poor health are more likely to seek health information online than women who are relatively well. These findings are useful for analyzing the potential reach of online health initiatives targeting both men and women.

  13. Comparative mRNA analysis of behavioral and genetic mouse models of aggression.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Tosto, Maria G; Pain, Oliver; Sluyter, Frans; Mineur, Yann S; Crusio, Wim E; de Boer, Sietse; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; Kesserwani, Jad; Robinson, Edward; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Asherson, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Mouse models of aggression have traditionally compared strains, most notably BALB/cJ and C57BL/6. However, these strains were not designed to study aggression despite differences in aggression-related traits and distinct reactivity to stress. This study evaluated expression of genes differentially regulated in a stress (behavioral) mouse model of aggression with those from a recent genetic mouse model aggression. The study used a discovery-replication design using two independent mRNA studies from mouse brain tissue. The discovery study identified strain (BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J) × stress (chronic mild stress or control) interactions. Probe sets differentially regulated in the discovery set were intersected with those uncovered in the replication study, which evaluated differences between high and low aggressive animals from three strains specifically bred to study aggression. Network analysis was conducted on overlapping genes uncovered across both studies. A significant overlap was found with the genetic mouse study sharing 1,916 probe sets with the stress model. Fifty-one probe sets were found to be strongly dysregulated across both studies mapping to 50 known genes. Network analysis revealed two plausible pathways including one centered on the UBC gene hub which encodes ubiquitin, a protein well-known for protein degradation, and another on P38 MAPK. Findings from this study support the stress model of aggression, which showed remarkable molecular overlap with a genetic model. The study uncovered a set of candidate genes including the Erg2 gene, which has previously been implicated in different psychopathologies. The gene networks uncovered points at a Redox pathway as potentially being implicated in aggressive related behaviors.

  14. Comparative Efficacy of Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Chronic Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Bélanger, Lynda; Talbot, Lisa; Eidelman, Polina; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Ivers, Hans; Lamy, Manon; Hein, Kerrie; Soehner, Adriane M.; Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the unique contribution of behavior therapy (BT) and cognitive therapy (CT) relative to the full cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for persistent insomnia. Method Participants were 188 adults (117 women; M age = 47.4 years old, SD=12.6) with persistent insomnia (average of 14.5 years duration). They were randomized to eight, weekly, individual sessions consisting of BT (n = 63), CT (n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). Results Full CBT was associated with greatest improvements, the improvements associated with BT were faster but not as sustained and the improvements associated with CT were slower and sustained. The proportion of treatment responders was significantly higher in the CBT (67.3%) and BT (67.4%) relative to CT (42.4%) groups at post treatment, while 6-months later CT made significant further gains (62.3%), BT had significant loss (44.4%) and CBT retained its initial response (67.6%). Remission rates followed a similar trajectory, with higher remission rates at post treatment in CBT (57.3%) relative to CT (30.8%), with BT falling in between (39.4%); CT made further gains from post treatment to follow up (30.9% to 51.6%). All three therapies produced improvements of daytime functioning at both post treatment and follow up, with few differential changes across groups. Conclusions Full CBT is the treatment of choice. Both BT and CT are effective, with a more rapid effect for BT and a delayed action for CT. These different trajectories of changes provide unique insights into the process of behavior change via behavioral versus cognitive routes. PMID:24865869

  15. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  16. Exploratory behavior of two species of murid rodents, Acomys cahirinus and Mus musculus: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Birke, L I; D'Udine, B; Albonetti, M E

    1985-03-01

    The exploratory behavior of two species of murid rodents, Acomys cahirinus and Mus musculus, was compared in four experiments: In the first, the responses of the two species to a novel arena were studied. Mus was found to take longer to enter the arena, and to spend more time in the relatively familiar or safer start box, than was Acomys. The results suggest that Acomys may persevere longer in exploring particular areas, whereas Mus appear to explore in the open arena by using frequent shifts of attention. The second experiment investigated species differences in response to the addition of a small novel object. Although the species did respond differently, the major species differences seemed to be related more to the open arena than to the object. The third experiment tested the hypothesis that both species would explore more if there was somewhere to hide (e.g., an artificial burrow) than if there was not. It was found that Acomys treated the available artificial burrow as another novel object, while Mus, as predicted, spent more time hiding inside it than did Acomys. The fourth experiment investigated burrow use when a model "predator" was introduced: Both species increased their use of the burrow but some species differences were found. Mus responded to the model more by freezing, or running immediately into the burrow; Acomys responded more by fleeing.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Pdf-Mediated Circadian Behaviors Between Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis

    PubMed Central

    Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    A group of small ventrolateral neurons (s-LNv's) are the principal pacemaker for circadian locomotor rhythmicity of Drosophila melanogaster, and the pigment-dispersing factor (Pdf) neuropeptide plays an essential role as a clock messenger within these neurons. In our comparative studies on Pdf-associated circadian rhythms, we found that daily locomotor activity patterns of D. virilis were significantly different from those of D. melanogaster. Activities of D. virilis adults were mainly restricted to the photophase under light:dark cycles and subsequently became arrhythmic or weakly rhythmic in constant conditions. Such activity patterns resemble those of Pdf01 mutant of D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, endogenous D. virilis Pdf (DvPdf) expression was not detected in the s-LNv-like neurons in the adult brains, implying that the Pdf01-like behavioral phenotypes of D. virilis are attributed in part to the lack of DvPdf in the s-LNv-like neurons. Heterologous transgenic analysis showed that cis-regulatory elements of the DvPdf transgene are capable of directing their expression in all endogenous Pdf neurons including s-LNv's, as well as in non-Pdf clock neurons (LNd's and fifth s-LNv) in a D. melanogaster host. Together these findings suggest a significant difference in the regulatory mechanisms of Pdf transcription between the two species and such a difference is causally associated with species-specific establishment of daily locomotor activity patterns. PMID:19153257

  18. A Comparative Study of Material Flow Behavior in Friction Stir Welding Using Laminar and Turbulent Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadian, Arun Kumar; Biswas, Pankaj

    2015-10-01

    Friction stir welding has been quite successful in joining aluminum alloy which has gained importance in almost all industrial sectors over the past two decades. It is a newer technique and therefore needs more attention in many sectors, flow of material being one among them. The material flow pattern actually helps in deciding the parameters required for particular tool geometry. The knowledge of material flow is very significant in removing defects from the weldment. In the work presented in this paper, the flow behavior of AA6061 under a threaded tool has been studied. The convective heat loss has been considered from all the surfaces, and a comparative study has been made with and without the use of temperature-dependent properties and their significance in the finite volume method model. The two types of models that have been implemented are turbulent and laminar models. Their thermal histories have been studied for all the cases. The material flow velocity has been analyzed to predict the flow of material. A swirl inside the weld material has been observed in all the simulations.

  19. Comparative fatigue behavior and toughness of remelted and annealed highly crosslinked polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Medel, Francisco J; Peña, P; Cegoñino, José; Gómez-Barrena, E; Puértolas, J A

    2007-11-01

    Highly cross-linked polyethylenes (HXLPEs) have been incorporated into the hip replacement armamentarium based on their improved wear resistance. However, two different methods of thermal treatment separate the orthopedic community as strategies to control potential long-term oxidation, and controversy remains with problems in the long-term use of acetabular liners (long-term oxidation, rim fracture after impingement, etc.). Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of HXLPEs that may alleviate these problems are still unclear. On the other hand, HXLPEs are scarcely used in knee replacements, as there exists concern about the probably reduced fatigue and fracture performances of these materials. Thus, our aim was to compare the effects of both thermal treatment regimes on mechanical properties and to associate these findings with the material microstructure. The fatigue behavior of annealed and remelted HXLPEs was characterized using short-term cyclic stress-strain, long-term fatigue, and fatigue crack propagation tests. On the other hand, impact tests, tensile experiments, and the J-integral multispecimen method allowed us to assess toughness. Microstructure features such as crosslink density, crystallinity percentage, and lamellar thickness were investigated by swelling measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. This study confirms that annealing preserves mechanical properties better than remelting from both fatigue and fracture resistance points of view, and it remarks that a suitable selection of irradiation and stabilization conditions is needed to achieve optimal mechanical performances of ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes for each specific total joint replacement.

  20. Comparing Self-Regulation-Associated Event Related Potentials in Preschool Children with and without High Levels of Disruptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L; Tardif, Twila; Thompson, Meaghan C; Gehring, William J

    2016-11-28

    Deficient self-regulation plays a key role in the etiology of early onset disruptive behavior disorders and signals risk for chronic psychopathology. However, to date, there has been no research comparing preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with specific self-regulation sub-processes. We examined 15 preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior (35 % female) and 20 peers with low disruptive behavior (50 % female) who completed a Go/No-go task that provided emotionally valenced feedback. We tested whether 4 ERP components: the Error Related Negativity, the Error Positivity, the Feedback Related Negativity, and the No-go N2, differed in preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior. Preschoolers with high levels of disruptive behavior showed less differentiation between the Error Positivity and corresponding waveforms following correct responses at posterior sites. Preschoolers with high and low disruptive behavior also showed differences in Go/No-go N2 waveform amplitudes across electrodes. These findings suggest that preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior may show abnormal brain activity during certain self-regulation sub-processes, informing potential advances in conceptualizing and treating early disruptive behavior.

  1. Making a stronger case for comparative research to investigate the behavioral and neurological bases of three-dimensional navigation.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Daniele; Bingman, Verner P

    2013-10-01

    The rich diversity of avian natural history provides exciting possibilities for comparative research aimed at understanding three-dimensional navigation. We propose some hypotheses relating differences in natural history to potential behavioral and neurological adaptations possessed by contrasting bird species. This comparative approach may offer unique insights into some of the important questions raised by Jeffery et al.

  2. Invasion front-specific expression and prognostic significance of microRNA in colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Christoph; Klupp, Fee; Brand, Karsten; Lasitschka, Felix; Diederichs, Sven; Kirchberg, Johanna; Rahbari, Nuh; Dutta, Shamik; Bork, Ulrich; Fritzmann, Johannes; Reissfelder, Christoph; Koch, Moritz; Weitz, Juergen

    2011-10-01

    The tumor edge of colorectal cancer and its adjacent peritumoral tissue is characterized by an invasion front-specific expression of genes that contribute to angiogenesis or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Dysregulation of these genes has a strong impact on the invasion behavior of tumor cells. However, the invasion front-specific expression of microRNA (miRNA) still remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate miRNA expression patterns at the invasion front of colorectal liver metastases. Laser microdissection of colorectal liver metastases was performed to obtain separate tissue compartments from the tumor center, tumor invasion front, liver invasion front and pure liver parenchyma. Microarray expression analysis revealed 23 miRNA downregulated in samples from the tumor invasion front with respect to the same miRNA in the liver, the liver invasion front or the tumor center. By comparing samples from the liver invasion front with samples from pure liver parenchyma, the tumor invasion front and the tumor center, 13 miRNA were downregulated. By quantitative RT-PCR, we validated the liver invasion front-specific downregulation of miR-19b, miR-194, let-7b and miR-1275 and the tumor invasion front-specific downregulation of miR-143, miR- 145, let-7b and miR-638. Univariate analysis demonstrated that enhanced expression of miR-19b and miR-194 at the liver invasion front, and decreased expression of let-7 at the tumor invasion front, is an adverse prognostic marker of tumor recurrence and overall survival. In conclusion, the present study suggests that invasion front-specific downregulation of miRNA in colorectal liver metastases plays a pivotal role in tumor progression.

  3. [Behavioral functions of serotonin and octopamine: some paradoxes of comparative physiology].

    PubMed

    D'iakonova, V E

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of recent data on monoaminergic control of invertebrate behavior suggests that behavioral functions of serotonin in molluscs and octopamine in insects are remarkably similar. Specifically, in the respective taxa, these monoamines are responsible for activation of food searching and intense locomotion, increase in food consumption and general activity, enhancement of cardial and respiratory rhythms, facilitation of learning, sensitization of sensory circuits. At the same time, in insects, behavioral effects of serotonin are opposite to those of octopamine. It seems thus that two monoamines have exchanged their behavioral roles in the two major invertebrate taxa. Possible reasons of this paradoxical inversion touches inevitably upon basic questions of signal molecular evolution.

  4. Measuring mortality due to HIV-associated tuberculosis among adults in South Africa: Comparing verbal autopsy, minimally-invasive autopsy, and research data

    PubMed Central

    Tlali, Mpho; Fielding, Katherine L.; Charalambous, Salome; Chihota, Violet N.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Johnson, Suzanne; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Martinson, Neil A.; Omar, Tanvier; Kahn, Kathleen; Chandramohan, Daniel; Grant, Alison D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to reduce tuberculosis (TB) deaths by 95% by 2035; tracking progress requires accurate measurement of TB mortality. International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes do not differentiate between HIV-associated TB and HIV more generally. Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate cause of death (CoD) patterns but has mostly been validated against a suboptimal gold standard for HIV and TB. This study, conducted among HIV-positive adults, aimed to estimate the accuracy of VA in ascertaining TB and HIV CoD when compared to a reference standard derived from a variety of clinical sources including, in some, minimally-invasive autopsy (MIA). Methods and findings Decedents were enrolled into a trial of empirical TB treatment or a cohort exploring diagnostic algorithms for TB in South Africa. The WHO 2012 instrument was used; VA CoD were assigned using physician-certified VA (PCVA), InterVA-4, and SmartVA-Analyze. Reference CoD were assigned using MIA, research, and health facility data, as available. 259 VAs were completed: 147 (57%) decedents were female; median age was 39 (interquartile range [IQR] 33–47) years and CD4 count 51 (IQR 22–102) cells/μL. Compared to reference CoD that included MIA (n = 34), VA underestimated mortality due to HIV/AIDS (94% reference, 74% PCVA, 47% InterVA-4, and 41% SmartVA-Analyze; chance-corrected concordance [CCC] 0.71, 0.42, and 0.31, respectively) and HIV-associated TB (41% reference, 32% PCVA; CCC 0.23). For individual decedents, all VA methods agreed poorly with reference CoD that did not include MIA (n = 259; overall CCC 0.14, 0.06, and 0.15 for PCVA, InterVA-4, and SmartVA-Analyze); agreement was better at population level (cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy 0.78, 0.61, and 0.57, for the three methods, respectively). Conclusions Current VA methods underestimate mortality due to HIV-associated TB. ICD and VA methods need modifications that allow for more specific

  5. Pupil Control Behavior, Classroom Robustness, and Self-Control: Public and Military High Schools Compared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Mary Ann; Bauske, Terri; Lunenburg, Fred C.

    This study investigates students' perceptions of teachers' pupil control behavior, classroom robustness, and student self-control. Results reveal an association between humanistic pupil control behavior of teachers and high levels of classroom robustness, high levels of classroom robustness and high student self-control, and teacher humanism in…

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Hyperactive Boys: Comparative and Combined Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of two interventions on hyperactive children's (N=24) social behavior. Results indicated that both methylphenidate (Ritalin) and reinforced self-evaluation were superior to the contrast treatments. Medication plus cognitive-behavioral self-evaluation proved optimal, and placebo plus reinforcement alone was significantly worse…

  7. Comparing Main and Collateral Effects of Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be…

  8. Differences in Health Behaviors of Overweight or Obese College Students Compared to Healthy Weight Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, M. Rachel; Ickes, Melinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in college students, yet research is warranted to determine whether obesity increases the likelihood of risky health behaviors in this population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors in college students. Methods: A…

  9. A Comparative Study of Educational Leadership Behavior by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sonya B.

    2010-01-01

    The philosophies and behaviors of a leader constitute his or her leadership style. Historically, studies of educational leadership have focused on the philosophies and behaviors of white males. Over the past forty years, there have been a number of studies conducted that seek to identify differences between male and female leadership styles.…

  10. Comparative Effectiveness of Three Approaches to Changing Dental Hygiene Behaviors of Seventh Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albino, Judith E.; And Others

    This study evaluates two approaches to changing dental care behaviors of seventh graders. After receiving instruction in brushing and flossing, students in one experimental group were confronted with inconsistencies between expressed beliefs and actual oral hyginene behaviors, as demonstrated with photographs of their own mouths. Data analyses…

  11. Comparing the Contribution of Teacher versus Tutor Ratings of Inattentive Behavior in Predicting Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Amelia S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of teacher and tutor ratings of inattentive behavior in two different instructional settings in predicting students' performance on fraction concepts and whole-number calculations. Classroom teachers rated each student's attentive behavior in a whole-class setting and tutors rated…

  12. Comparing infant and juvenile behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    De Lathouwers, Mieke; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-10-01

    The dichotomy between the two Pan species, the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) has been strongly emphasized until very recently. Given that most studies were primarily based on adult individuals, we shifted the "continuity versus discontinuity" discussion to the infant and juvenile stage. Our aim was to test quantitatively, some conflicting statements made in literature considering species differences between immature bonobos and chimpanzees. On one hand it is suggested that infant bonobos show retardation in motor and social development when compared with chimpanzees. Additionally it is expected that the weaning process is more traumatic to chimpanzee than bonobo infants. But on the other hand the development of behaviors is expected to be very similar in both species. We observed eight mother-infant pairs of each species in several European zoos. Our preliminary research partially confirms that immature chimpanzees seem spatially more independent, spending more time at a larger distance from their mother than immature bonobos. However, the other data do not seem to support the hypothesis that bonobo infants show retardation of motor or social development. The development of solitary play, environmental exploration, social play, non-copulatory mounts and aggressive interactions do not differ between the species. Bonobo infants in general even groom other group members more than chimpanzee infants. We also found that older bonobo infants have more nipple contact than same aged chimpanzees and that the weaning process seems to end later for bonobos than for immature chimpanzee. Additionally, although immature bonobos show in general more signs of distress, our data suggest that the weaning period itself is more traumatic for chimpanzees.

  13. Comparative genetic approaches to the evolution of human brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Vallender, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    With advances in genomic technologies, the amount of genetic data available to scientists today is vast. Genomes are now available or planned for 14 different primate species and complete resequencing of numerous human individuals from numerous populations is underway. Moreover, high-throughput deep sequencing is quickly making whole genome efforts within the reach of single laboratories allowing for unprecedented studies. Comparative genetic approaches to the identification of the underlying basis of human brain, behavior, and cognitive ability are moving to the forefront. Two approaches predominate: inter-species divergence comparisons and intra-species polymorphism studies. These methodological differences are useful for different time scales of evolution and necessarily focus on different evolutionary events in the history of primate and hominin evolution. Inter-species divergence is more useful in studying large scale primate, or hominoid, evolution whereas intra-species polymorphism can be more illuminating of recent hominin evolution. These differences in methodological utility also extend to studies of differing genetic substrates; current divergence studies focus primarily on protein evolution whereas polymorphism studies are substrate ambivalent. Some of the issues inherent in these studies can be ameliorated by current sequencing capabilities whereas others remain intractable. New avenues are also being opened that allow for the incorporation of novel substrates and approaches. In the post-genomic era, the study of human evolution, specifically as it relates to the brain, is becoming more complete focusing increasingly on the totality of the system and better conceptualizing the entirety of the genetic changes that have lead to the human phenotype today.

  14. Using radiative kernels to compare feedback behavior over different time scales in CMIP output and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shell, K. M.; Flink, M. M.; Jonko, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate climate projections require an understanding of feedback behavior on centennial timescales. Unfortunately, satellite and reanalysis observations are available only for the last few decades. We seek to determine the extent to which the relatively short observation-based records can constrain model estimates of long-term (century-scale) climate change in response to anthropogenic forcing. The radiative kernel technique allows us to study feedbacks related to temperature, water vapor, surface albedo, and clouds in a consistent fashion. We are using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) simulations to determine whether (modeled) feedbacks differ for interannual- and decadal-scale versus centennial-scale climate change. We also are comparing short-term feedbacks derived from satellite (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS) and reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data with modeled feedbacks. We use two strategies. The first is the standard kernel technique where feedbacks are determined by differencing mean variables between two states. Preliminary work with CMIP3 indicates that averaging periods (e.g., 10 years versus 20 years) can change feedback estimates by more 20%. In general, we expect longer averaging periods to result in more accurate estimates of feedbacks. However, transient GCMs runs (as well as observational data sets) may be only a few decades long. In these cases, we must determine the best averaging period to balance the increase of noise caused by a shorter averaging period and the decrease of climate signal resulting from averaging periods that are closer together. To address this issue, the second strategy is a modified kernel technique where anomalies from the mean climate are combined with the kernel for every month of the time series. This technique is more appropriate in cases where there is not a large external forcing. We are calculating feedbacks in the CMIP5 simulations using both strategies with different averaging periods and start

  15. Evaluating potential artefacts of photo-reversal on behavioral studies with nocturnal invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, Matthew; Imre, Istvan; Wagner, Michael C.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L., 1758) are nocturnal, so experiments evaluating their behaviour to chemosensory cues have typically been conducted at night. However, given the brief timeframe each year that adult P. marinus are available for experimentation, we investigated whether P. marinus exposed to a 12 h shifted diurnal cycle (reversed photoperiod) could be tested in a darkened arena during the day and show the same response to chemosensory cues as natural photoperiod P. marinus that were tested during the night. Ten replicates of 10 P. marinus, from each photoperiod, were exposed to deionized water (negative control), 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl, putative predator cue), or P. marinus whole-body extract (conspecific alarm cue). All P. marinus demonstrated a significant avoidance response to both cues. No significant differences were found in avoidance to PEA HCl between photoperiods. Avoidance of P. marinus whole-body extract was significantly stronger in natural compared with reversed photoperiod P. marinus. The use of reversed photoperiod subjects is suitable for examining the presence or absence of avoidance in response to novel chemosensory alarm cues, or the change in the magnitude of antipredator response. Studies investigating the natural magnitude of antipredator response should use natural photoperiod experimental subjects.

  16. Comparative water fluxes through leaf litter of tropical plantation trees and the invasive grass Saccharum spontaneum in the Republic of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Andrew; Friesen, Patrick; Serrud, Aneth Aracelly Sarmiento

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThe hydrological properties of leaf litter layers remain relatively unexplored, especially in tropical vegetation communities. In this paper we explore the hydrological dynamics of litter samples from reforestation plots of tropical hardwoods and the invasive sugar cane Saccharum spontaneum, which these trees were planted to replace. Water holding capacity (WHC) and drying rates were compared under controlled conditions, and throughfall interception, drainage and calculated evaporation were measured in two field experiments (A and B) conducted with different sets of samples. The WHC of samples varied from 3.4 to 6.5 mm in experiment A, and from 1.6 to 7.1 mm in experiment B. Drainage through the litter samples averaged 78.3 ± 34.4% and 61.2 ± 34.70% TF in experiments A and B, respectively. Daily water storage was 70.8 ± 14.25% of total WHC in experiment A and 78.6 ± 25.35% of total WHC in experiment B. Estimated evaporation averaged 34.8 ± 12.52% of WHC in experiment A and 34.3 ± 14.91% of WHC in experiment B. Although significant interspecific differences in WHC, interception of TF and evaporation were recorded, species rankings tended to be different in experiments A and B. The exception was litter from the leguminous tree Gliricidia sepium, which maintained the lowest WHC and water storage in the field in both experiments, but which evaporated water more rapidly than other species. The depth of throughfall draining through litter samples in the field was similar among all species in both experiments. Comparisons of regression slopes also showed that drainage depth increased with increasing throughfall at similar rates among species. On the other hand, both slopes and slope elevations differed among species when drainage was expressed in l kg -1. Patterns of water storage and drainage in our samples were in broad agreement with those of other studies, although WHC and litter necromass in our young tree plantations fell into the lower end of the range

  17. Comparing main and collateral effects of extinction and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior.

    PubMed

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be outweighed by the reported negative side effects that result. However, these collateral effects have rarely been measured or reported. DRA produced the most rapid reductions in behavior for 4 of the 5 participants. Other behaviors were measured for changes and showed that the desirable collateral effect of academic engagement tended to be higher during EXT than DRA. No evidence of EXT bursts was present with any participant, although EXT-induced aggression occurred with 1 participant.

  18. Sexual behavior and perceived peer norms: comparing perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-affected youth.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2009-09-01

    A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51% female; ages 9-16) perinatally exposed to HIV (61% HIV+). Using logistic regression, we tested the association between sexual behavior and HIV status, demographic characteristics, and peer influences regarding sexual behavior. PHIV youth were less likely to be sexually active. Among sexually active youth, PHIV youth were more likely to engage in touching behavior than HIV-negative youth and were less likely to engage in penetrative sex. Youths reporting that a greater number of their peers believed that sexually active boys were "cool" or "popular" were more likely to report sexual behavior. The association between sexual behavior and peers believing sexually active girls were "cool" or "popular" varied by age, gender, and HIV status. Furthermore, friends' sexual activity was associated with sexual intercourse. Prevention programs should strengthen messages addressing peer norms regarding sexuality, as well as address specific issues related to adolescent HIV.

  19. Comparing the unmatched count technique and direct self-report for sensitive health-risk behaviors in HIV+ adults

    PubMed Central

    Arentoft, Alyssa; Van Dyk, Kathleen; Thames, April D.; Sayegh, Philip; Thaler, Nicholas; Schonfeld, Daniel; LaBrie, Joseph; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often rely on self-report measures to assess sensitive health-risk behaviors in HIV+ individuals, yet the accuracy of self-report has been questioned, particularly when inquiring about behaviors that may be embarrassing, risky, and/or taboo. We compared an anonymous reporting method—the Unmatched Count Technique (UCT)—to direct self-report in order to assess reporting differences for several health-risk behaviors related to medication adherence and sexual risk. Contrary to hypotheses, the UCT only produced a significantly higher estimated base rate for one sensitive behavior: reporting medication adherence to one's physician, which may have been contextually-primed by our study design. Our results suggest that anonymous reporting methods may not increase disclosure compared to direct self-report when assessing several health-risk behaviors in HIV+ research volunteers. However, our results also suggest that contextual factors should be considered and investigated further, as they may influence perception of sensitive behavior. PMID:26856321

  20. Scientific practices and social behaviors in managing landslide risks: comparing experiences between developing and developed countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    A successful landslide risk reduction program requires that the society is aware and understand the landslide problems within the geographic area involved. Central organizations that manage national landslide risks should: a) create and systematically applied natural hazard laws/national landslide strategies, where roles and limits of responsibilities of federal, state, provincial, municipal and private entities are well defined; c) establish fruitful multidisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration among scientists; d) provide good risk assessments in which landslide experts report transparently what is really known and the limitations of methods and tools used; e) share and systematically communicate their knowledge more effectively with all private and public stakeholders involved, paying attention to providing balanced information about risks and addressing inevitable uncertainties; f) support the mass-media in spreading correct scientific information; g) perform serious risk and cost-benefit analyses before mitigation measures are realized; h) assist local authorities in the application of land-use planning policies and g) built trust and confidence by means of a continuous contact and communication with the public and local authorities. However, this is not yet achieved, not even in developed countries where, in theory, more economical resources are available and people are better educated then in developing countries. Herein I make some observations on how national landslide prevention efforts are being organized in two countries (Nicaragua and Norway), where I have been worked at governmental agencies as landslide expert in the last 10 years. I start describing similarities and differences between the countries and try to compare practices and experiences. The analysis was motivated by the following questions: Why after so many years of landslide mapping and investigations, landslide prevention is not good and effective as it should be? Is this

  1. Can a virtual supermarket bring realism into the lab? Comparing shopping behavior using virtual and pictorial store representations to behavior in a physical store.

    PubMed

    van Herpen, Erica; van den Broek, Eva; van Trijp, Hans C M; Yu, Tian

    2016-12-01

    Immersive virtual reality techniques present new opportunities for research into consumer behavior. The current study examines whether the increased realism of a virtual store compared to pictorial (2D) stimuli elicits consumer behavior that is more in line with behavior in a physical store. We examine the number, variety, and type of products selected, amount of money spent, and responses to price promotions and shelf display, in three product categories (fruit & vegetables, milk, and biscuits). We find that virtual reality elicits behavior that is more similar to behavior in the physical store compared to the picture condition for the number of products selected (Milk: Mstore = 1.19, Mvirtual = 1.53, Mpictures = 2.58) and amount of money spent (Milk: Mstore = 1.27, Mvirtual = 1.53, Mpictures = 2.60 Euro), and for the selection of products from different areas of the shelf, both vertically (purchases from top shelves, milk and biscuits: Pstore = 21.6%, Pvirtual = 33.4%, Ppictures = 50.0%) and horizontally (purchase from left shelf, biscuits: Pstore = 35.5%, Pvirtual = 53.3%, Ppictures = 66.7%). This indicates that virtual reality can improve realism in responses to shelf allocation. Virtual reality was not able to diminish other differences between lab and physical store: participants bought more products and spent more money (for biscuits and fruit & vegetables), bought more national brands, and responded more strongly to price promotions in both virtual reality and pictorial representations than in the physical store. Implications for the use of virtual reality in studies of consumer food choice behavior as well as for future improvement of virtual reality techniques are discussed.

  2. Behavioral responses of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål) to traps baited with stereoisomeric mixtures of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-OL.

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Khrimian, Ashot; Weber, Donald C; Aldrich, Jeffrey C; Short, Brent D; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Morrison, William R

    2015-04-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive insect in the United States that is capable of inflicting significant yield losses for fruit, vegetable, and soybean growers. Recently, a male-produced aggregation pheromone of H. halys was identified as a 3.5:1 mixture of (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, two stereoisomers of a natural sesquiterpene with a bisabolane skeleton, potentially existing in 16 stereoisomeric forms. In this study, we assessed attraction to pheromonal and non-pheromonal stereoisomeric mixtures of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, which are easier to synthesize than single isomers, and evaluated dose-dependent responses to attractive mixtures in field trials. Some treatments not containing the natural pheromone components were moderately active in field-trapping studies, signifying that some stereoisomers of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol are sufficiently similar to the true pheromone in structure to trigger behavioral responses. Importantly, we found that mixtures of stereoisomers containing pheromone components were also highly attractive to H. halys, even in the presence of multiple "unnatural" stereoisomers. Further, adult and nymphal captures were dose-dependent, regardless of whether the lure contained pheromonal or non-pheromonal components. Our findings of attraction to pheromonal and non-pheromonal stereoisomers and lack of inhibition from non-pheromonal stereoisomers of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol increase the flexibility of developing pheromone-based products for H. halys.

  3. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Behavioral Objectives on Class Performance and Retention in Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert Charles; Lockard, J. David

    Presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) in April, 1972, in Chicago, this study compared the achievement and retention of ninth grade physical science classes receiving instruction with a prior knowledge of behavioral objectives with ninth grade classes taught the same material without…

  4. Couple and Individual Adjustment for 2 Years Following a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Traditional versus Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H.; George, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Follow-up data across 2 years were obtained on 130 of 134 couples who were originally part of a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy (TBCT vs. IBCT; A. Christensen et al., 2004). Both treatments produced similar levels of clinically significant improvement at 2 years posttreatment (69% of…

  5. Comparative study of the corrosion behavior of MA-956 and conventional metallic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M L; López, M F; Ruiz, J; García-Alonso, M C; Canahua, H

    1996-07-01

    In this work the corrosion behavior of a new biomaterial, the MA-956 superalloy, immersed in Hank's solution is evaluated. A comparison with conventional metallic alloys used as articular implants is established. To determine the corrosion behavior we employed electrochemical methods: evaluation of corrosion potential Ecorr, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and anodic polarization curves. The corrosion resistance of the MA-956 superalloy preoxidized at 1100 degrees C during 100 h is at least two orders of magnitude higher than for the other alloys. This satisfactory behavior is stationary with time. Also the probability of the appearance of the pitting corrosion process is very low. When cracking is generated in the alpha-alumina layer the repassivation process is assured because of the high Cr content in the superalloy. This study is the first step in proposing this new alloy as a biomaterial. The low toxicity of these metallic alloys in the physiological environment suggests that in vivo their biocompatibility could be satisfactory.

  6. Black Unwed Adolescent Fathers: A Comparative Study of Their Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Leo E.; Howard, Cleopatra S.; Caesar, Patricia P.

    1981-01-01

    This research examines the kinds of problems these young fathers are likely to seek help for and addresses itself to the question: Is there a difference in the help-seeking behavior of unwed adolescent fathers who reside in different cities? Despite the complexity and diversity of their difficulties, it was clear from the analyses that the young fathers were likely to have emotional as well as concrete needs. Additionally, it was found that the unmarried adolescent fathers in this research were more similar than they were different in their help-seeking behavior. PMID:7277520

  7. Invasive Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Todd P; Pappas, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a collective term that refers to a group of infectious syndromes caused by a variety of species of Candida, 5 of which cause most cases. Candidemia is the most commonly recognized syndrome associated with invasive candidiasis. Certain conditions may influence the likelihood for one species versus another in a specific clinical scenario, and this can have important implications for selection of antifungal therapy and the duration of treatment. Molecular diagnostic technology plays an ever-increasing role as an adjunct to traditional culture-based diagnostics, offering significant potential toward improvement in patient care.

  8. Dopamine and Opioid Neurotransmission in Behavioral Addictions: A Comparative PET Study in Pathological Gambling and Binge Eating.

    PubMed

    Majuri, Joonas; Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Voon, Valerie; Alakurtti, Kati; Parkkola, Riitta; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Hirvonen, Jussi; Arponen, Eveliina; Forsback, Sarita; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2017-04-01

    Although behavioral addictions share many clinical features with drug addictions, they show strikingly large variation in their behavioral phenotypes (such as in uncontrollable gambling or eating). Neurotransmitter function in behavioral addictions is poorly understood, but has important implications in understanding its relationship with substance use disorders and underlying mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy. Here, we compare opioid and dopamine function between two behavioral addiction phenotypes: pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED). Thirty-nine participants (15 PG, 7 BED, and 17 controls) were scanned with [(11)C]carfentanil and [(18)F]fluorodopa positron emission tomography using a high-resolution scanner. Binding potentials relative to non-displaceable binding (BPND) for [(11)C]carfentanil and influx rate constant (Ki) values for [(18)F]fluorodopa were analyzed with region-of-interest and whole-brain voxel-by-voxel analyses. BED subjects showed widespread reductions in [(11)C]carfentanil BPND in multiple subcortical and cortical brain regions and in striatal [(18)F]fluorodopa Ki compared with controls. In PG patients, [(11)C]carfentanil BPND was reduced in the anterior cingulate with no differences in [(18)F]fluorodopa Ki compared with controls. In the nucleus accumbens, a key region involved in reward processing, [(11)C]Carfentanil BPND was 30-34% lower and [(18)F]fluorodopa Ki was 20% lower in BED compared with PG and controls (p<0.002). BED and PG are thus dissociable as a function of dopaminergic and opioidergic neurotransmission. Compared with PG, BED patients show widespread losses of mu-opioid receptor availability together with presynaptic dopaminergic defects. These findings highlight the heterogeneity underlying the subtypes of addiction and indicate differential mechanisms in the expression of pathological behaviors and responses to treatment.

  9. Comparative cost-effectiveness of the components of a behavior change communication campaign on HIV/AIDS in North India.

    PubMed

    Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally.

  10. A Cooperative Training Program for Students with Severe Behavior Problems: Description and Comparative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reganick, Karol A.

    The Cooperative Training Program was implemented with 20 students having severe behavior problems, to augment a classroom employability curriculum. Educators and business managers at a local Perkins restaurant worked cooperatively to design a new curriculum and recruitment procedure to benefit both students and the business. A continuous and…

  11. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  12. The Influence of Place-Based Communities on Information Behavior: A Comparative Grounded Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Amelia N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of experiential place and local community on information access and behavior for two communities of parents of children with Down syndrome. It uncovers substantive issues associated with health information seeking, government and education-related information access, and information overload and avoidance within the…

  13. Deformation Behaviors of HIPped Foil Compared with Those of Sheet Titanium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Micromechanics-based modeling of composite material behaviors requires an accurate assessment of the constituent properties and behaviors. For the specific case of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) manufactured from a foil/fiber/foil process, much emphasis has been placed on characterizing foil-based matrix materials that have been fabricated in the same way as the composite. Such materials are believed to yield mechanical properties and behaviors that are representative of the matrix constituent within the composite (in situ matrix). Therefore, these materials are desired for micromechanics modeling input. Unfortunately, such foils are extremely expensive to fabricate and procure because of the labor-intensive rolling process needed to produce them. As a potential solution to this problem that would maintain appropriately representative in situ properties, the matrix constituent could be characterized with sheet-based materials, which are considerably less expensive to manufacture than foils, are more readily procured, and result in fewer plies to obtain a desired panel thickness. The critical question is, however, does the consolidated sheet material exhibit the same properties and behaviors as do the consolidated foils? Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center's Life Prediction Branch completed a detailed experimental investigation to answer this question for three titanium alloys commonly used in metal matrix composite form.

  14. Social Validation of Services for Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Kathleen M.; Knuth, Richard; Benner, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of 302 building administrators regarding their building level programs serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Comparisons were made between administrators of schools that housed self-contained programs and administrators from schools without self-contained programs on factors…

  15. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

  16. Bullying Behaviors and Self Efficacy among Nursing Students at Clinical Settings: Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Awatef Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nursing students who experienced bullying behaviors feel anger and missing their concentration, their capability to achieve a desired outcome. Also self-efficacy, often referred to as self-confidence, is essential to nursing students' ability and performance in the clinical setting. Aim: Study aimed to examine relation between bullying…

  17. Sexual Behavior and Perceived Peer Norms: Comparing Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Affected Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51%…

  18. A Comparative Study of Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among University Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John

    2011-01-01

    Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…

  19. Perceptions and Experiences of Intrusive Behavior and Stalking: Comparing LGBTIQ and Heterosexual Groups.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine P; Scott, Adrian J; Campbell, Amy M

    2016-05-27

    The present research employed a mixed-methods approach and quasi-experimental design to examine perceptions and experiences of intrusive behavior (comprising 47 individual intrusive activities) within individuals identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or queer (LGBTIQ) with a matched (in terms of age, sex, and income) sample of individuals identifying as heterosexual (N = 214). Despite only minor differences between the LGBTIQ and heterosexual groups concerning perceptions of the acceptability of intrusive behavior, the LGBTIQ group was more likely to report experiencing a range of individual intrusive activities and to report experiencing stalking victimization (self-reported rates of 35.5% vs. 15.0%). Participant sex and personal experience of being stalked were minimally associated with perceptions of the acceptability of intrusive behavior. Sexual orientation significantly predicted whether a person had experienced stalking victimization, whereas participant sex did not. The qualitative analysis revealed that the two groups shared some experiences of intrusive behavior, whereas others represented a unique subset of intrusions that related to sexual orientation.

  20. A Comparative Study of Two Different Teaching and Curricular Agreements in Human Behavior and Social Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, William C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The use of social work faculty to teach human behavior and social environment content to undergraduate social work students vs using faculty from other departments is examined in this research study. The data suggest there were no significant differences between groups of students. (Author/MLW)

  1. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  2. Sexual Predators and Prey: A Comparative Study of the Hunting Behavior of Rapists and Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebocho, Maria Francisca; Goncalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been an increase in research on sex offenders' modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior, most studies still tend to emphasize criminal motivation while overlooking the role of situational and environmental factors. Studies of mixed samples of rapists and child molesters typically neglect to conduct…

  3. A comparative study of monoclonal antibodies. 1. Phase behavior and protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Lewus, Rachael A; Levy, Nicholas E; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Sandler, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    Protein phase behavior is involved in numerous aspects of downstream processing, either by design as in crystallization or precipitation processes, or as an undesired effect, such as aggregation. This work explores the phase behavior of eight monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that exhibit liquid-liquid separation, aggregation, gelation, and crystallization. The phase behavior has been studied systematically as a function of a number of factors, including solution composition and pH, in order to explore the degree of variability among different antibodies. Comparisons of the locations of phase boundaries show consistent trends as a function of solution composition; however, changing the solution pH has different effects on each of the antibodies studied. Furthermore, the types of dense phases formed varied among the antibodies. Protein-protein interactions, as reflected by values of the osmotic second virial coefficient, are used to correlate the phase behavior. The primary findings are that values of the osmotic second virial coefficient are useful for correlating phase boundary locations, though there is appreciable variability among the antibodies in the apparent strengths of the intrinsic protein-protein attraction manifested. However, the osmotic second virial coefficient does not provide a clear basis to predict the type of dense phase likely to result under a given set of solution conditions.

  4. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  5. Comparative Study of Several Behaviors in Caenorhabditis Elegans Following High-Let Radiation Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya

    Learning and behavioral impairments following ionizing radiation exposure are an important potential risk in manned space missions. We previously reported the effects of γ-ray exposure on olfactory adaptation [1], salt chemotaxis learning [2], and locomotion - learning behavior relationship [3] in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, little is known about the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We investigated various behavioral responses of wellfed adult Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to accelerated carbon ions (1 2C, 18.3M eV /u, LET = 113.3keV /µm). Following carbon-ion irradiation, locomotion, basal slowing response and salt chemotaxis learning were not significantly affected, whereas chemosensation to NaCl of animals during learning was altered. These results suggest that sensitivity of the C. elegans nervous system to high-LET heavy ions differs with the types of behaviors. References: [1] Sakashita et al., Biol. Sci. Space 21, 117-20 (2007), [2] Sakashita et al., FASEB J 22, 713-20 (2008), [3] Sakashita et al., J. Radiat. Res. 49, in press (2008).

  6. Determining the Presence of a Problem: Comparing Two Approaches for Detecting Youth Behavioral Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphaus, R. W.; DiStefano, Christine; Dowdy, Erin; Eklund, Katie; Dunn, Alnita Rettig

    2010-01-01

    Universal screening has been routinely advised for determining the presence of problems for initiating problem-solving processes and models. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two screener development methods on the validity of score inferences for two teacher screeners of child behavioral and emotional risk. The reliability and…

  7. Behavioral features of Williams Beuren syndrome compared to Fragile X syndrome and subjects with intellectual disability without defined etiology.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, D; Granero, R; Gallastegui, F; Pérez-Jurado, L A; Brun-Gasca, C

    2011-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a heterozygous deletion of 26-28 genes on chromosome band 7q11.23. During the past few years, researchers and clinicians have significantly contributed to define the phenotype of the syndrome, including its cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, it is not well known yet whether the psychological problems are specific to the syndrome or secondary to the intellectual disability (ID). The aim of our study was to better define the psychopathological profile of WBS and whether or not it is related with IQ or anxiety symptoms. Twenty-five subjects (12 girls, 13 boys) with a diagnosis of WBS were compared to 27 boys with Fragile X Syndrome and to 24 boys with ID of non-specific etiology using the Child Behavior Checklist. Anxiety, depression and attention problems were the main behavioral problems found in WBS with no gender differences. Significant differences between cohorts were observed in somatic complaints, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior, and externalizing problems. Some associations between IQ and anxiety items were found. The findings are discussed in terms of behavioral phenotypes, genetic implications and ID.

  8. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation.

  9. Social Support Behaviors and Work Stressors among Nurses: A Comparative Study between Teaching and Non-Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Amarneh, Basil Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of “work stressors” has been well studied. However, in the field of nursing, studies concerning social support behaviors are limited. The aim of this study was to compare nurse work stressors, social support behaviors, and predictors of these variables among nurses in Jordanian teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Design: A convenience sampling technique and a comparative quantitative research design were used in the current study. Two hundred and ninety-one nurses were recruited from five teaching hospitals, and 172 were recruited from eight non-teaching hospitals in Jordan. Methods: The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Inventory of Social Supportive Behaviors (ISSB) were used to collect data. Results: The studied variables differed across hospitals. In some subscales, as well as in some individual items of the scales, nurse work stressors and social support behaviors differed between teaching and non-teaching hospitals. In teaching hospitals, the work shift was the only predictor of nurses’ work stressors, whereas the work shift and model of nursing care were predictors of social support behaviors. In non-teaching hospitals, the work shift, level of education, and model of nursing care were predictors of nurse work stressors. Predictors of social support behaviors were marital status, model of nursing, and organizational structure. Conclusions: Regardless of the type of hospital, nurse stressors should be assessed and, once identified, managed by providing various social support behaviors. Clinical relevance: By turning a work environment into a healthy workplace, researchers and nurse leaders believe that improvements can be realized in recruitment and patient safety and quality. PMID:28146045

  10. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    PubMed

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  11. Reconstructing the behaviors of extinct species: an excursion into comparative paleoneurology.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Scott W

    2005-05-01

    How can the behavior of an extinct species be reconstructed-say a dinosaur such as Allosaurus? Despite the relatively abundant fossilized remains of this and other dinosaurs, the incompleteness of the fossil record has permitted room for considerable speculation, mythology, and perhaps a bit of unsettling reflection on what factors contributed to the eventual fate of these remarkably successful animals. Among the speculations is how these 'bigger-than-life' creatures behaved, a topic that itself can attain equal diversity and grandeur. With recent advancements in measuring the relatedness of living organisms, how genetics contribute to brain development and how this relates to behavior, combined with the availability of newly discovered high quality fossils and imaging methods to exploit their secrets, novel insights into how extinct creatures such as Allosaurus intermingled with its many relatives over 100 million years ago are beginning to emerge.

  12. [Joy riding and dyssocial behavior. A comparative study based on 84 members of a delinquent group].

    PubMed

    Knecht, T

    1996-01-01

    Joy riding is the technical term for a specific behavioral pattern consisting of stealing a car without money-making purposes but in order to take it for fast and exciting rides, partially in combination with alcohol or drug consumption. In several cases this behavior can show addiction-like traits. American studies from earlier decades have shown that Joy riding seems to be a typical teenage offense committed by youths stemming from orderly social backgrounds, showing basically prosocial attitudes and seldom ending up in criminal careers. However, the present study provides evidence that Joy riding can also be part of an antisocial lifestyle. The characteristics of the joy riders examined in this trial differed just gradually from the control group of juvenile delinquents. It remains open a question, whether the differences found between our sample and American joy riders are due to sociocultural factors or rather are a consequence of different selection modes.

  13. Tools to Compare Diving-Animal Kinematics with Acoustic Behavior and Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    field tests of the 3B were being planned, contacts with the Vancouver Aquarium began in hopes of conducting joint captive studies with beluga whales ...Bioacoustic Probes and Acousondes have been employed as simple seafloor recorders in several studies, including a behavioral study of beluga - whale ...survey of beluga - whale populations in Knik Arm, Alaska (abstract). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117:2524. [published] Chadwick, W. W., K. V. Cashman, R. W

  14. Tools to Compare Diving-Animal Kinematics With Acoustic Behavior and Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    in several studies, including a behavioral study of beluga - whale habitat usage (Burgess et al., 2005), a geoacoustic study of sediment properties...of beluga - whale populations in Knik Arm, Alaska (abstract). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117:2524. [published] Chadwick, W. W., K. V. Cashman, R. W. Embley...GOALS Intense international concern has arisen over the potential effects of anthropogenic sound on protected marine wildlife. To study this issue

  15. Tools to Compare Diving-Animal Kinematics with Acoustic Behavior and Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    vehicle. Bioacoustic Probes have been employed as simple seafloor recorders in several studies, including a behavioral study of beluga - whale habitat usage...2005. Miniature self-contained acoustic recorders applied in a survey of beluga - whale populations in Knik Arm, Alaska (abstract). J. Acoust. Soc. Am...blue whales . Mar. Ecol-Prog. Ser. 330:269–284. [published, refereed] Tang, D. 2005. Inverting for sandy sediment sound speed in very shallow water

  16. A Comparative Study on the Hot Working Behavior of Inconel 718 and ALLVAC 718 Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Amir; Abbasi, Seyed Mehdi; Morakabati, Maryam; Badri, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Hot compression tests were performed on Inconel 718 and ALLVAC 718 PLUS (718+) at temperatures and strain rates in ranges of 1223 K to 1373 K (950 °C to 1100 °C) and 0.001-1 s-1, respectively. Discontinuous yield behavior was observed in the flow curves of both alloys. For both alloys, the drop in stress at the yield point (yield drop) was maximized at 0.01 to 1 s-1. The alloy 718+ showed larger yield drop than 718 over the studied deformation conditions. The different yield behaviors were attributed to the various chemical compositions. The peak strain for both alloys increased in temperature range of 1223 K to 1273 K (950 to 1000 °C) and strain rates of 0.01 to 1 s-1. This uncommon behavior was ascribed to the change in the mechanism of microstructural evolution from continuous to discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The kinetics of DRX was described by the Avrami equation and the exponent was determined at different deformation conditions. The Avrami exponent increased in the middle values of Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameters, i.e., 29.3 < lnZ < 32.9 for 718 and 31.4 < lnZ < 34.5 for 718+. The unusual variation of the Avrami exponent was attributed to the change in the mechanism of DRX.

  17. A Comparative Study on the Hot Working Behavior of Inconel 718 and ALLVAC 718 Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Amir; Abbasi, Seyed Mehdi; Morakabati, Maryam; Badri, Hasan

    2017-03-01

    Hot compression tests were performed on Inconel 718 and ALLVAC 718 PLUS (718+) at temperatures and strain rates in ranges of 1223 K to 1373 K (950 °C to 1100 °C) and 0.001-1 s-1, respectively. Discontinuous yield behavior was observed in the flow curves of both alloys. For both alloys, the drop in stress at the yield point (yield drop) was maximized at 0.01 to 1 s-1. The alloy 718+ showed larger yield drop than 718 over the studied deformation conditions. The different yield behaviors were attributed to the various chemical compositions. The peak strain for both alloys increased in temperature range of 1223 K to 1273 K (950 to 1000 °C) and strain rates of 0.01 to 1 s-1. This uncommon behavior was ascribed to the change in the mechanism of microstructural evolution from continuous to discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The kinetics of DRX was described by the Avrami equation and the exponent was determined at different deformation conditions. The Avrami exponent increased in the middle values of Zener-Hollomon ( Z) parameters, i. e., 29.3 < ln Z < 32.9 for 718 and 31.4 < ln Z < 34.5 for 718+. The unusual variation of the Avrami exponent was attributed to the change in the mechanism of DRX.

  18. Comparative thermodynamic and experimental study of some heavy metal behaviors during automotive shredder residues incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Trouve, G.; Kauffmann, A.; Delfosse, L.

    1998-12-31

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the behavior of some heavy metals were undertaken during Automotive Shredder Residues (ASR) incineration. A thermodynamic study at equilibrium was performed using a software minimizing the free Gibbs energy. The metals studied were barium, copper, lead and zinc. The studies were performed mostly at two temperatures: 1123 and 1373 K. The thermodynamic study showed that the chlorine content is the most important parameter influencing the volatility of the studied metals. It also showed that in default of chlorine in a system containing several metals, barium chloride in its condensed form is the most easily formed. Other metals remained in their metallic form or in the form of oxides. The presence of hydrogen in the system has a general limiting influence on the metal volatility because, especially at high temperatures, hydrogen chloride is more likely to be formed. In the experimental field, the behaviors of metals were studied using commercial polymers as waste models: a PVC mastic, a polyurethane mastic and a rubber powder. Copper and barium presented a non volatile behavior during the incineration of waste matrixes as ASR, being present also in residual ash. On the other hand, lead was completely formed in the gas phase and zinc showed an equal partitioning between the two principal phases of the treatment.

  19. Foraging and ranging behavior during a fallback episode: Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii compared.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Erin R; Haag, Livia; Mitra-Setia, Tatang; van Schaik, Carel P; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2009-12-01

    Periodic episodes of food scarcity may highlight the adaptive value of certain anatomical traits, particularly those that facilitate the acquisition and digestion of exigent fallback foods. To better understand the selective pressures that favored the distinctive dental and locomotor morphologies of gibbons and orangutans, we examined the foraging and ranging behavior of sympatric Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii during an episode of low fruit availability at Tuanan, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. We found that Hylobates ranged 0.5 km day(-1) or 33% farther than did Pongo, but the overall daily ranging of both species did not vary as fruit availability decreased by as much as 50%. Among gibbons, we observed dietary switching to fallback foods; in particular, there was a progressively greater reliance on figs, liana products, and unripe fruit. Orangutans relied heavily on unripe fruit and fracture-resistant bark and pith tissues. Despite these divergent fallback patterns, the stiffness of fruit mesocarp consumed by Hylobates and Pongo did not differ. We discuss canine and molar functional morphology with respect to dietary mechanics. Next, to contextualize these results, we discuss our findings with respect to forest structure. The rain forests of Southeast Asia have been described as having open, discontinuous canopies. Such a structure may inform our understanding of the ranging behavior and distinctive locomotion of apes in the region, namely richochetal brachiation and quadrumanous clambering. Our approach of integrating behavioral ecology with physical measures of food may be a powerful tool for understanding the functional adaptations of primates.

  20. Measuring and validating physical activity and sedentary behavior comparing a parental questionnaire to accelerometer data and diaries.

    PubMed

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Kriemler, Susi; Grize, Leticia; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2012-05-01

    Accurately measuring children's physical activity and their sedentary behavior is challenging. The present study compared 189 parental responses to a questionnaire surveying physical activity and sedentary behavior of children aged 6-14 years, to accelerometer outputs and time activity diaries for the same group. Responses were analyzed taking age, sex and maternal education into account. Correlation coefficients between questionnaire reports and accelerometer-based physical activity across all age groups were acceptable (up to r = .55). Yet, adjustment for age markedly attenuated these associations, suggesting concomitant influences of biological and behavioral processes linked to age. The comparisons of general time indications in the questionnaire with 24h-diary records suggested that parents tended to under- and over-report single activities, possibly due to social desirability. We conclude that physical activity questionnaires need to be designed for specific age groups and be administered in combination with objective measurements.

  1. A comparative study of wide plate behavior of a range of structural steels using the failure assessment diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, A.C.; Harrison, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the field of structural integrity assessments, attention is currently focused on the ability of such methods to conservatively predict the deformation and fracture behavior of structural steels and their weldments. In the current paper, the results of a series of wide plate tests on a range of structural steels are presented and the results assessed in terms of CTOD-strain relationships, BS PD 6493 Levels 2 and 3, and the crack driving force approach. The behavior of the large scale tests and the results of the various analyses are assessed with regard to the stress-strain characteristics of the individual steels. In a second step, the approach is extended to the assessment of a number of wide plate tests comprising welded joints with mismatched strength levels. Over, under and even-matched welded plates are compared with the behavior of normalized and Quenched and Tempered parent plates. The study demonstrates that the behavior of parent material wide plate tests can vary widely depending on the stress-strain characteristics of the material. The different behavior is a result of the consecutive effects of different steel processing conditions, microstructure, yield to tensile strength ratio and strain hardening exponent. These features are also manifested, to a lesser or greater extent, in the results of wide plate tests on welded plates of mismatched strength. Studies on mismatch effects should therefore include equal attention to the stress-strain characteristics of the parent materials as this may, in some circumstances, dominate any effects of weld strength mismatch.

  2. Comparing an Emotion- and a Behavior-Focused Parenting Program as Part of a Multsystemic Intervention for Child Conduct Problems.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.

  3. Comparative evaluation of pan-fungal real-time PCR, galactomannan and (1-3)-β-D-glucan assay for invasive fungal infection in paediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prashant; Ahmad, Abrar; Khare, Vineeta; Kumar, Archana; Banerjee, Gopa; Verma, Nitya; Singh, Mastan

    2017-04-01

    Limited specific data and investigations are available for the diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infection (IFI) in paediatrics cancer patients. Three non-invasive tests; Platelia Aspergillus EIA for galactomannan (GM), β-D-glucan (BDG) assay and pan-fungal real-time PCR for fungal DNA in blood were evaluated. One hundred twenty-five paediatrics cancer patients at the high risk of IFI were enrolled. Single blood and serum samples were evaluated by all the three methods. Patients were classified into 10 proven, 52 probable and 63 no IFI cases in accordance with EORTC MSG 2008 revised guidelines. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of all the three tests in proven, probable and no IFIs cases were analysed singly and in combination. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of GM, BDG and pan-fungal real-time PCR were: 87%, 61%, 81%, 69.5% for GM, 88%, 59.5%, 81%, 71.4% for BDG and 89%, 69.2%, 85%, 67.5% for PCR (95% CI). Among different combinations, best combination was found to be GM and PCR with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 98.2%, 89.3%, 97.1% and 90% respectively. Single samples must be evaluated by combination of tests.

  4. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation as a Problem Behavior: A Comparative Study of Five Nations

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using a Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) framework, this paper examines the extent to which psychosocial correlates of early sexual initiation (before age 16) vary across developed nations. Methods Fifteen-year-old participants (n=5,624) in the 1997-1998 WHO collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children survey (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland) and the 1996 US Add Health survey self-reported substance use (alcohol and tobacco), school attachment, positive parental communication, and early sexual intercourse experience. Stratifying by gender, we performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses controlling for family socioeconomic status, family structure, and nation fixed effects. Results Self-reported early sexual experience, substance use, school attachment and positive communication with parents varied significantly across nations for both boys and girls. In both crude and adjusted analyses, substance use was positively associated with early sexual experience among boys and girls across nations, although associations were stronger in Europe than the US (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range 1.56-3.74). School attachment was similarly inversely related to early sexual experience among boys and girls across nations (AOR range 0.63-0.94). However, positive parent communication was significantly inversely related to early sexual experience only among US females (AOR 0.50). Conclusions Findings overall supported the fit of early adolescent sexual initiation as a risk behavior within a PBT framework cross-nationally, suggesting that similar factors could be targeted to prevent early sexual initiation across some developed nations. However further research is warranted examining the temporality of these relationships. PMID:20864009

  5. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    PubMed

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  6. Experimental co-expression of vimentin and keratin intermediate filaments in human breast cancer cells results in phenotypic interconversion and increased invasive behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, M. J.; Seftor, E. A.; Seftor, R. E.; Trevor, K. T.

    1997-01-01

    The expression of intermediate filament proteins is remarkably tissue specific, which suggests that the intermediate filament type(s) present in cells is somehow related to their biological function. However, in some cancers, particularly malignant breast carcinoma, there is a strong indication that vimentin is co-expressed with keratins, thus presenting as a dedifferentiated or interconverted (between epithelial and mesenchymal) phenotype. In the present study, we recapitulated the interconverted phenotype by developing stable transfectants of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, termed MoVi clones, to express both vimentin and keratins. Overexpression of vimentin in these cells led to augmentation of motility and invasiveness in vitra. These activities could be transiently down-regulated by vimentin antisense oligonucleotides in MoVi clones and MDA-MB-231 cells (which constitutively co-express keratins and vimentin). Furthermore, in the MoVi experimental transfectants expressing the highest percentage of vimentin-positive cells, their proliferative capacity, clonogenic potential, and tumorigenicity increased. However, the metastatic ability of the MoVi transfectants remained unchanged compared with MCF-7neo controls. The MDA-MB-231 cells metastasized to axillary lymph nodes in a SCID mouse model. Finally, we explored the possibility that potential changes could occur with respect to cell surface integrins. These studies revealed a decrease in the alpha 2- and alpha 3-containing promiscuous integrins, in addition to beta 1 containing integrins, concomitant with an increase in the alpha 6-containing laminin receptor integrin. Further functional analysis of the alpha 6 observation showed an increase in the baptotactic migration of MoVi transfectants toward a laminin substrate. From these data, it is postulated that the ability to co-express vimentin and keratins confers a selective advantage to breast cancer cells in their interpretation of signaling cues from the

  7. Comparative analyses of amplicon migration behavior in differing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, D. J.; Kemp, D. W.; Sampayo, E. M.; Schmidt, G. W.

    2010-03-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is commonly utilized to identify and quantify microbial diversity, but the conditions required for different electrophoretic systems to yield equivalent results and optimal resolution have not been assessed. Herein, the influence of different DGGE system configuration parameters on microbial diversity estimates was tested using Symbiodinium, a group of marine eukaryotic microbes that are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems. To accomplish this, bacterial clone libraries were constructed and sequenced from cultured isolates of Symbiodinium for the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. From these, 15 clones were subjected to PCR with a GC clamped primer set for DGGE analyses. Migration behaviors of the resulting amplicons were analyzed using a range of conditions, including variation in the composition of the denaturing gradient, electrophoresis time, and applied voltage. All tests were conducted in parallel on two commercial DGGE systems, a C.B.S. Scientific DGGE-2001, and the Bio-Rad DCode system. In this context, identical nucleotide fragments exhibited differing migration behaviors depending on the model of apparatus utilized, with fragments denaturing at a lower gradient concentration and applied voltage on the Bio-Rad DCode system than on the C.B.S. Scientific DGGE-2001 system. Although equivalent PCR-DGGE profiles could be achieved with both brands of DGGE system, the composition of the denaturing gradient and application of electrophoresis time × voltage must be appropriately optimized to achieve congruent results across platforms.

  8. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing the absolute frequency and contingent frequency response scales.

    PubMed

    Kite, Benjamin A; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an "absolute frequency" scale (stem: "how many times …"; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationships between types of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Alternatively, a "contingent frequency" scale (stem: "When drinking … how often …"; response scale: never to always) does not conflate frequency of alcohol use with use of PBS; therefore, we hypothesized that use of a contingent frequency scale would result in negative relationships between use of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Two published measures of PBS were used across studies: the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey (PBSS) and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ). Across three studies, we demonstrate that when measured using a contingent frequency response scale, PBS measures relate negatively to alcohol-related outcomes in a theoretically consistent manner; however, when PBS measures were measured on an absolute frequency response scale, they were nonsignificantly or positively related to alcohol-related outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the assessment of PBS.

  9. Comparing slip behavior and hydromechanical properties of fault systems in the Nankai subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikari, M.; Saffer, D. M.; Marone, C.; Knuth, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    At subduction zones, the plate boundary system includes several active faults, including the master décollement and splay faults that branch from it and cut the overriding margin wedge. The partitioning of strain accumulation and slip on these structures may provide important information about the mechanical behavior of the plate boundary, and for earthquake rupture and tsunamigenesis. We conducted laboratory experiments to measure the frictional and hydrologic properties of fault and wall rock from three distinct fault zone systems sampled during IODP Expedition 316 and ODP Leg 190 to the Nankai Trough offshore Japan. These fault zones are: (1) a major out-of-sequence thrust fault that terminates ~25 km landward of the trench and extends for >120 km along-strike, termed the “megasplay”; (2) the frontal thrust, comprising a region of diffuse thrust faulting near the trench; and (3) the décollement zone sampled 2 km from the trench. We observe predominantly low friction (µ ≤ 0.46), and low permeability (k ≤ 7.00x10-19 m2) consistent with the clay-rich composition of the samples. Samples from the décollement zone are both consistently weaker (µ ≤ 0.30) and less permeable than those from the megasplay area and the frontal thrust system. Fault zone material from the megasplay is both significantly weaker and less permeable than the surrounding wall rocks, a pattern not observed in the frontal thrust and décollement. All samples exhibit velocity-strengthening frictional behavior over most of the experimental conditions we explored, consistent with aseismic slip at shallow depths. Slip stability does not vary between fault zone and wall rock in any of the three settings. A previously observed minimum in the friction rate parameter a-b at sliding velocities of ~1-3 µm/s (~0.1-0.3 m/d) for samples from the megasplay fault zone is also observed for both the frontal thrust and décollement, and our data suggests that this phenomenon may be controlled

  10. Comparing effects in spike-triggered averages of rectified EMG across different behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Adam G.; O’Dell, Ryan; Chan, Vanessa; Schieber, Marc H.

    2007-01-01

    Effects in spike-triggered averages (SpikeTAs) of rectified electromyographic activity (EMG) compiled for the same neuron-muscle pair during various behaviors often appear different. Do these differences represent significant changes in the effect of the neuron on the muscle activity? Quantitative comparison of such differences has been limited by two methodological problems, which we address here. First, although the linear baseline trend of many SpikeTAs can be adjusted with ramp subtraction, the curvilinear baseline trend of other SpikeTAs can not. To address this problem, we estimated baseline trends using a form of moving average. Artificial triggers were created in 1 ms increments from 40 ms before to 40 ms after each spike used to compile the SpikeTA. These 81 triggers were used to compile another average of rectified EMG, which we call a single-spike increment shifted average (single-spike ISA). Single-spike ISAs were averaged to produce an overall ISA, which captured slow trends in the baseline EMG while distributing any spike-locked features evenly throughout the 80 ms analysis window. The overall ISA then was subtracted from the initial SpikeTA, removing any slow baseline trends for more accurate measurement of SpikeTA effects. Second, the measured amplitude and temporal characteristics of SpikeTA effects produced by the same neuron-muscle pair may vary during different behaviors. But whether or not such variation is significant has been difficult to ascertain. We therefore applied a multiple fragment approach to permit statistical comparison of the measured features of SpikeTA effects for the same neuron-muscle pair during different behavioral epochs. Spike trains recorded in each task were divided into non-overlapping fragments of 100 spikes each, and a separate, ISA-corrected, SpikeTA was compiled for each fragment. Measurements made on these fragment SpikeTAs then were used as test statistics for comparison of peak percent increase, mean percent

  11. The comparative behaviors of yttrium and lanthanides in the seawater of the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Amakawa, H.; Nozaki, Y.

    1994-12-01

    Yttrium has long been recognized as an ekalanthanide, because of its chemical contiguity relative to the chemistries of rare earth elements which are, in recent years, intensively utilized for elucidation of metal scavenging processes in the ocean. Here, we present the first detailed depth-profile of Y(III) in seawater together with the lanthanides in the North Pacific Ocean. The concentrations of Y(III) range 70-290 pmol/kg and show the “nutrient-like” profile best resembling that of Ho(III) amongst the other rare earth elements. The results agree well with an expectation based on the similarity in their ionic radii and hence stability constants of complexation with carbonate ions. Yet the Ho(III)/Y(III;) ratios in seawater systematically increase with depth, suggesting that Y and Ho are fractionated during scavenging by natural marine particulates. This is likely to result from the different complexation behavior in that Y(III) is more weakly complexed than Ho(III) with soft organic ligands on the surface of particulate matter during scavenging in the surface water but, once released into seawater in the deep sea, Y(III) is complexed with carbonate ions equally or stronger than Ho. The pattern of deep water enrichment in the lanthanide series appears to be consistent with the recent observation of partitioning between suspended particles and seawater. Our precise measurements also indicated that Pr and Tb best resemble Nd and Dy, respectively in their oceanic behavior, whereas Ho and Tm are intermediate between their neighboring rare earth elements.

  12. Approximating spatially exclusive invasion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Joshua V.; Binder, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    A number of biological processes, such as invasive plant species and cell migration, are composed of two key mechanisms: motility and reproduction. Due to the spatially exclusive interacting behavior of these processes a cellular automata (CA) model is specified to simulate a one-dimensional invasion process. Three (independence, Poisson, and 2D-Markov chain) approximations are considered that attempt to capture the average behavior of the CA. We show that our 2D-Markov chain approximation accurately predicts the state of the CA for a wide range of motility and reproduction rates.

  13. Comparing human papillomavirus prevalences in women with normal cytology or invasive cervical cancer to rank genotypes according to their oncogenic potential: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. Vaccine and non-vaccine genotype prevalences may change after vaccine introduction. Therefore, it appears essential to rank HPV genotypes according to their oncogenic potential for invasive cervical cancer, independently of their respective prevalences. Methods We performed meta-analyses of published observational studies and estimated pooled odds ratios with random-effects models for 32 HPV genotypes, using HPV-16 as the reference. Results Twenty-seven studies yielded 9,252 HPV-infected women: 2,902 diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer and 6,350 with normal cytology. Expressed as (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]), HPV-18 (0.63 [0.51, 0.78]) ranked closest to HPV-16, while other genotypes showed continuously decreasing relative oncogenic potentials: HPV-45 (0.35 [0.22, 0.55]), HPV-69 (0.28 [0.09, 0.92]), HPV-58 (0.24 [0.15, 0.38]), HPV-31 (0.22 [0.14, 0.35]), HPV-33 (0.22 [0.12, 0.38]), HPV-34 (0.21 [0.06, 0.80]), HPV-67 (0.21 [0.06, 0.67]), HPV-39 (0.17 [0.09, 0.30]), HPV-59 (0.17 [0.09, 0.31]), HPV-73 (0.16 [0.06, 0.41]), and HPV-52 (0.16 [0.11, 0.23]). Conclusions Our results support the markedly higher oncogenic potentials of HPV-16 and -18, followed by HPV-31, -33, -39, -45, -52, -58 and -59, and highlight the need for further investigation of HPV-34, -67, -69 and -73. Overall, these findings could have important implications for the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:23941096

  14. Comparing the Strategic Behavior of More Successful vs. Less Successful Readers of Multiple Technical Reading Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Mohammad Nabi; Shabani, Mohammad Bagher

    2013-01-01

    Recently, reading researchers have come to assume that the ability to synthesize units of information across multiple texts on a topic by comparing, contrasting, synthesizing, integrating, and building a mental representation of them--referred to as multiple-documents literacy--is a far more required literacy in the present knowledge societies…

  15. Comparative effects of infrared and one-third hot-blade trimming on beak topography, behavior, and growth.

    PubMed

    Marchant-Forde, R M; Fahey, A G; Cheng, H W

    2008-08-01

    This research examined the effects of infrared beak treatment on layer chicks. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR), or a control treatment. Day-old chicks were pair-housed by treatment. Beak photographs, behavior, and production indices were obtained at intervals for 9 wk posttreatment. All beaks were normally shaped at the onset of the study, and no perceptible treatment-related differences in shape occurred over time (P > 0.05). Posttreatment, HB birds had shorter beaks relative to the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). Control and IR beaks remained comparable in length until tissue eroded in IR beaks at 1 to 2 wk posttreatment. Thereafter, beak length increased in all treatments over time (P < 0.01). Two weeks posttreatment, beaks were longest in control birds, intermediate in HB birds (P < 0.001), and shortest in IR birds (P < 0.001). The HB birds had abnormal deviations from a normal upper-to-lower mandible length ratio than the IR or control birds (P < 0.05). Notable effects of treatment on production emerged by +2 d and persisted for 5 wk. Growth and feed intake were lower in HB and IR birds compared with control birds (P < 0.05), with IR birds performing least well until the fourth week of the study (P < 0.05). Thereafter, they performed similarly to the HB group. Feed waste was lowest in the IR group and was generally greatest in the control group (P < 0.05). There was an overall effect of trimming, irrespective of method, on behavior, particularly eating and drinking behaviors (P < 0.05). Specifically, IR birds were less active (P < 0.01) and spent less time eating (P < 0.01) and drinking (P < 0.05) than did control birds. Behavior in HB birds often ranked intermediate in duration and incidence, but was not significantly different compared with behavior measured in the control and IR groups. Effects of treatment on behavior were not present after 1 wk posttrimming. Results indicate that acute pain occurred

  16. Comparative study on the song behavior and song control nuclei in male and female Mongolian larks (Melanocorypha mongolica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuebo; Zeng, Shaoju; Zhang, Xinwen; Zuo, Mingxue

    2011-09-12

    Songbirds can produce a remarkable diversity of songs, which is well-characterized learned behavior that reflects the basic processes of language learning in humans. As song control nuclei governing song behavior has been identified, bird song provides an excellent model to address the relationship between brain areas and their controlling behavior. The Mongolian lark (Melanocorypha mongolica), a species of the Alaudidae family, is well known for its elaborate singing and ability to learn new songs, even in adulthood. Here, we studied the singing behavior and underlying neural structures of the Mongolian lark in both sexes. We found that the sizes of song bouts and song phrases (song repertoires) in male Mongolian larks are extremely large, and that each song repertoire or phrase has a complex structure, comprising several different syllables that seldom appear in other types of song bouts. In accordance with these complex songs, Mongolian lark song control nuclei are well developed and can be easily detected by Nissl staining. In contrast to male Mongolian larks, females were not observed to sing. However, they possess significant song control nuclei with abundant neural connectivity within them despite their small sizes compared with males. These data provide new evidence that help further clarify the mechanisms by which songbirds sing. Our results also have implications for the evolution of complex birdsongs and song control nuclei in oscine birds.

  17. Foraging Behavior Interactions Between Two non-Native Social Wasps, Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Implications for Invasion Success?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Julia; Pirk, Gabriela I; Corley, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris is an invasive scavenging social wasp that has very recently arrived in Patagonia (Argentina), a territory previously invaded - 35 yrs earlier - by another wasp, Vespula germanica Although V. vulgaris wasps possess features that could be instrumental in overcoming obstacles through several invasion stages, the presence of preestablished populations of V. germanica could affect their success. We studied the potential role played by V. germanica on the subsequent invasion process of V. vulgaris wasps in Patagonia by focusing on the foraging interaction between both species. This is because food searching and exploitation are likely to overlap strongly among Vespula wasps. We carried out choice tests where two types of baits were presented in a pairwise manner. We found experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that V. germanica and V. vulgaris have an asymmetrical response to baits with stimuli simulating the presence of each other. V. germanica avoided baits with either visual or olfactory cues indicating the V. vulgaris presence. However, V. vulgaris showed no preference between baits with or lacking V. germanica stimuli. These results suggest that the presence of an established population of V. germanica may not contribute to added biotic resistance to V. vulgaris invasion.

  18. Behavioral responses of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stal) to traps baited with stereoisomeric mixtures of 10,11-Epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-OL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive insect in the United States that is capable of inflicting significant yield losses for fruit, vegetable, and soybean growers. Recently, a male-produced aggregation pheromone of H. halys was identified as a 3.5:1 mixture of (3S,6S,7R,...

  19. Foraging Behavior Interactions Between Two non-Native Social Wasps, Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Implications for Invasion Success?

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Julia; Corley, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris is an invasive scavenging social wasp that has very recently arrived in Patagonia (Argentina), a territory previously invaded – 35 yrs earlier – by another wasp, Vespula germanica. Although V. vulgaris wasps possess features that could be instrumental in overcoming obstacles through several invasion stages, the presence of preestablished populations of V. germanica could affect their success. We studied the potential role played by V. germanica on the subsequent invasion process of V. vulgaris wasps in Patagonia by focusing on the foraging interaction between both species. This is because food searching and exploitation are likely to overlap strongly among Vespula wasps. We carried out choice tests where two types of baits were presented in a pairwise manner. We found experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that V. germanica and V. vulgaris have an asymmetrical response to baits with stimuli simulating the presence of each other. V. germanica avoided baits with either visual or olfactory cues indicating the V. vulgaris presence. However, V. vulgaris showed no preference between baits with or lacking V. germanica stimuli. These results suggest that the presence of an established population of V. germanica may not contribute to added biotic resistance to V. vulgaris invasion. PMID:27503470

  20. Cellular Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes in Blast-Induced Neurotrauma: Comparing Experimental Setups.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zachary S; Hubbard, W Brad; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) has increased in incidence over the past decades and can result in cognitive issues that have debilitating consequences. The exact primary and secondary mechanisms of injury have not been elucidated and appearance of cellular injury can vary based on many factors, such as blast overpressure magnitude and duration. Many methodologies to study blast neurotrauma have been employed, ranging from open-field explosives to experimental shock tubes for producing free-field blast waves. While there are benefits to the various methods, certain specifications need to be accounted for in order to properly examine BINT. Primary cell injury mechanisms, occurring as a direct result of the blast wave, have been identified in several studies and include cerebral vascular damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, axonal injury, and cytoskeletal damage. Secondary cell injury mechanisms, triggered subsequent to the initial insult, result in the activation of several molecular cascades and can include, but are not limited to, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The collective result of these secondary injuries can lead to functional deficits. Behavioral measures examining motor function, anxiety traits, and cognition/memory problems have been utilized to determine the level of injury severity. While cellular injury mechanisms have been identified following blast exposure, the various experimental models present both concurrent and conflicting results. Furthermore, the temporal response and progression of pathology after blast exposure have yet to be detailed and remain unclear due to limited resemblance of methodologies. This chapter summarizes the current state of blast neuropathology and emphasizes the need for a standardized preclinical model of blast neurotrauma.

  1. Comparative Behavioral Pharmacology of Three Pyrrolidine-Containing Synthetic Cathinone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gatch, Michael B; Dolan, Sean B; Forster, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic cathinones, often sold as "bath salts," are a popular class of recreational drugs used as quasi-legal alternatives to cocaine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The increased prevalence and health consequences of synthetic cathinone use has prompted regulatory agencies to control a number of these compounds; however, a broad class of analogous compounds known as the second-generation cathinones has been brought to the market to take the place of the banned synthetic cathinone derivatives. The current study aims to characterize the behavioral pharmacology of three pyrrolidinylated second-generation cathinones: 4-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4'-MePPP), α-pyrrolidinopropiobutiophenone (α-PBP), and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP). Locomotor activity was tested in mice over an 8-hour period. The discriminative stimulus effects of these compounds were tested in rats trained to discriminate either cocaine or methamphetamine. The rewarding effects of these drugs were assessed in mice using conditioned place preference. Both α-PBP and α-PVP produced long-lasting increases in locomotor activity across a wide range of doses, whereas 4'-MePPP produced locomotor stimulation only at 30 mg/kg. Both α-PBP and α-PVP fully substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of both cocaine and methamphetamine, whereas 4'-MePPP substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine only. Both α-PBP and α-PVP produced conditioned place preference in an inverted U-shaped dose effect, whereas 4'-MePPP did not produce conditioned place preference. These findings suggest that α-PBP and α-PVP are likely to be recreationally used and have potential for addiction and abuse, but 4'-MePPP may not.

  2. Comparative study of the wear behavior of composites for posterior restorations.

    PubMed

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana J; de Menezes, Márcio; Serra, Mônica C

    2007-01-01

    This investigation sought to compare the abrasive wear rates of resin composites designed for posterior applications. Seventy-five specimens were fabricated with conventional hybrid (Charisma and Filtek Z250) or packable composites (Filtek P60, Solitaire II and Tetric Ceram HB), according to a randomized complete block design (n = 15). Specimens were finished and polished metallographically and subjected to abrasive wear which was performed under a normal load of 13N at a frequency of 2 Hz using a pneumatic device (MSM/Elquip) in the presence of a mucin-containing artificial saliva. Wear was quantified profilometrically in five different locations of each specimen after 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000 and after every each 50,000 through 250,000 cycles. A split-plot ANOVA showed a significant difference between the wear resistance of composites (alpha = 0.05). Tukey's test ascertained that while the composites Filtek Z250 and Charisma wore significantly less than any other of the materials tested, Tetric Ceram HB experienced the greatest wear rates. Filtek P60 and Solitaire II showed intermediate rates of material removal. The wear pattern of composites proved to be biphasic with the primary phase having the faster wear rate. In conclusion, packable resin composites may not have superior wear compared to conventional hybrid composites.

  3. New frontiers in cardiovascular behavioral medicine: comparative effectiveness of exercise and medication in treating depression.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, James A

    2011-08-01

    Exercise, considered a mainstay of cardiac rehabilitation, has been shown to reduce cardiac risk factors such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Growing evidence also suggests that exercise has beneficial effects on mental health, which is relevant for cardiac patients because of the prognostic significance of depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Depression has been associated with increased mortality and nonfatal cardiac events in patients with CHD; it is also associated with worse outcomes in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery and those who have heart failure. The standard therapy for depression is pharmacologic treatment, often with second-generation antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Despite their widespread use, antidepressants have only modest effects on depression for many patients compared with placebo controls. Exercise therapy, already an established component of cardiac rehabilitation, has potential efficacy as a treatment for depression in cardiac disease patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the clinical effects of exercise in this population and to compare the effects of exercise with those of antidepressants.

  4. Comparative studies on electrochemical cycling behavior of two different silica-based ionogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Hsia, Ben; Alper, John P.; Carraro, Carlo; Wang, Zhe; Maboudian, Roya

    2016-01-01

    We report a comparative study of two silica-based ionogel electrolytes for electrochemical cycling applications. The ionogels considered represent two classes of gel networks, a covalently formed network generated by the polymerization of tetramethoxysilane catalyzed by formic acid, and a network formed by weak intermolecular forces obtained by mixing fumed silica nanopowder with ionic liquid. In both cases, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide is utilized as the ion conductor in the gel network. With increasing temperature it is shown that the electrochemical stability window is reduced, the conductivity of the electrolyte is increased, and the double layer capacitance is increased for both types of ionogels. Long-term stability of the two ionogels is excellent, with 90% capacitance retained after 10,000 repetitive CV cycles at 100 °C. Our results indicate that both of these ionogel electrolytes are promising for application in solid-state electrochemical systems at high temperature.

  5. Comparative studies of the reduction behavior of chromium(VI) by humic substances and their precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ken; Sasaki, Keiko; Tanaka, Shunitz; Nakamura, Hiroshi ); Fukushima, Masami )

    1999-06-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) is reduced by dissolved organic carbons (DOCs) such as humic substances, tannic acid (TA), and gallic acid (GA). The kinetic constants and the resulting chemical species after the reduction were compared with each other. The kinetic constants for GA and TA, which are model precursors of humic substances, were two to three orders of magnitude larger than those for the humic substances when these kinetic constants were expressed as a function of the molar concentration of the reductive functional group (F[sub red]) in various DOCs. After the reduction of Cr(VI), the percentages of the species complexed with GA and TA were higher than those with the humic substances. This appears to be due to the formation of high molecular weight compounds by polymerization during the reduction of Cr(VI) and complexation of Cr(III) with the polymerized compounds. The UV-vis spectrophotometric data and gel permeation chromatography support this view.

  6. Traffic flow behavior at a single lane roundabout as compared to traffic circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic Cellular Automata (CA) model to study traffic flow at a single-lane urban roundabout (resp. traffic circle) of N entry points (resp. exit points), the entry points are controlled by rates α1 and α2 while the removal rates from the exit points are denoted by β. The traffic is controlled by a self-organized scheme. Based on computer simulation, density profiles, global density and current are calculated in terms of rates. Furthermore, the phase diagrams for roundabout as well as traffic circle are constructed. It has turned out that the phase diagrams consist essentially of two phases namely free flow and jamming. It is noted that the typology of the phase diagrams of the roundabout is not similar to it in the traffic circle. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of the two systems in terms of the geometrical properties and the number of entry points.

  7. Sip-sizing behaviors in natural drinking conditions compared to instructed experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Janice W; Van Lieshout, Pascal H H M; Pelletier, Cathy A; Steele, Catriona M

    2009-06-01

    To understand disordered physiology, it is first necessary to determine what constitutes normal function. Liquid sip size during swallowing in healthy individuals has been investigated with varied results. Bolus size is a variable that is manipulated in both research studies and clinical swallowing assessments, so defining normal sip size has relevance in both domains. This study looked at sip size under instruction in experimental tasks and compared it to sip size in free drinking while participants were unaware that drinking was being observed. A statistically significant difference was found in water sip volume between natural drinking (mean = 16 ml) and instructed experimental drinking tasks (mean = 6.6-6.8 ml). This difference far exceeded the magnitude of sip-size variation observed between instructed drinking tasks using different stimuli and as a function of participant's gender or age group.

  8. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    PubMed

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD.

  9. Comparative thermal stability characteristics and isothermal oxidation behavior of an aluminized and a Pt-aluminized Ni-base superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tawancy, H.M.; Sridhar, N.; Abbas, N.M.; Rickerby, D.

    1995-11-01

    It is the objective of this paper to compare the thermal stability characteristics and isothermal oxidation behavior of an aluminide coating and a Pt-aluminide coating of the same Al content on a Ni-base superalloy. Addition of Pt to an aluminide coating was found to improve its thermal stability as well as its capability for selective oxidation of Al resulting in a purer scale of slower growth rate. This was correlated with the greater diffusional stability of the Pt-aluminide coating restricting the transport of substrate elements into the outer coating layers.

  10. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  11. Inactivation behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by supercritical N₂O compared to supercritical CO₂.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sungmin; Hahn, Ji-Sook; Lee, Youn-Woo; Yoon, Jeyong

    2011-01-05

    Interest is growing for a non-thermal sterilization technique in the food and pharmaceutical industries in order to ensure microbiological safety without the deterioration of product quality. In this study, supercritical nitrous oxide (SC N₂O) treatment was carried out in a multi-batch system to examine its bactericidal effect and characteristics, which largely remains unclear. The effect of operating pressure, temperature, mixing intensity, and working volume ratio (defined as the ratio of sample volume to the reactor volume to be filled with SC fluids) on the inactivation efficiency of SC N₂O were investigated in comparison with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO₂) treatment. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was chosen as a model microorganism. A 8-log reduction of P. aeruginosa cell concentration (10% working volume) in neutral phosphate-buffered saline was achieved by the SC N₂O treatment accompanying no pH change in the presence of vigorous mixing (600 rpm) within 6 min, in a condition of 37°C and 10 MPa and its overall efficiency is comparable to the SC CO₂ treatment. Among the reaction parameters investigated in this study, mixing intensity appeared to be the most important operating parameter affecting the bactericidal efficiency. The release of intracellular substances in cells as a result of the SC N₂O treatment was explained as one of major bactericidal actions by the SC N₂O treatment. At the same time, relatively negligible change of proteins or enzyme activities in the cells in case of the SC N₂O treatment was observed compared to the SC CO₂ treatment. Also, the observation by scanning and transmission electron microscopy shows the milder morphological change of SC N₂O-treated cells in comparison with the SC CO₂-treated cells. This study suggests that the SC N₂O bactericidal application on food products would be a viable option over SC CO₂ application, when mild change of enzyme activity and the proteins, or no pH change are desired.

  12. Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia

    2014-12-01

    Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.

  13. Results from two online surveys comparing sexual risk behaviors in Hispanic, black, and white men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Barbara S; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Scheinmann, Roberta; Hirshfield, Sabina; Humberstone, Mike; Remien, Robert H; Wolitski, Richard J; Wong, Tom

    2012-04-01

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) are among those who increasingly use the internet to find sexual partners. Few studies have compared behavior by race/ethnicity in internet-based samples of MSM. We examined the association of race/ethnicity with HIV risk-related behavior among 10,979 Hispanic, black, and white MSM recruited online. Significant variations by race/ethnicity were found in: age, income level, sexual orientation, number of lifetime male and female sexual partners, and rates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Black and Hispanic men were more likely to report anal intercourse during the last sexual encounter, but white men were more likely to report UAI. In multivariate analysis, UAI was associated with HIV infection and sex with a main partner. Significant risk behavior variations by race/ethnicity were found. Research is needed to better target online interventions to MSM who engage in UAI or have other risk factors for transmitting or acquiring HIV.

  14. A comparative study on the wear behaviors of cladding candidates for accident-tolerant fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Ho; Byun, Thak Sang

    2015-10-01

    Accident-tolerant fuels are expected to have considerably longer coping time to respond to the loss of active cooling under severe accidents and, at the same time, have comparable or improved fuel performance during normal operation. The wear resistance of accident tolerant fuels, therefore, needs to be examined to determine the applicability of these cladding candidates to the current operating PWRs because the most common failure of nuclear fuel claddings is still caused by grid-to-rod fretting during normal operations. In this study, reciprocating sliding wear tests on three kinds of cladding candidates for accident-tolerant fuels have been performed to investigate the tribological compatibilities of selfmated cladding candidates and to determine the direct applicability of conventional Zirconium-based alloys as supporting structural materials. The friction coefficients of the cladding candidates are strongly influenced by the test environments and coupled materials. The wear test results under water lubrication conditions indicate that the supporting structural materials for the cladding candidates of accident-tolerant fuels need to be replaced with the same cladding materials instead of using conventional Zirconium-based alloys.

  15. Comparative sialomics between hard and soft ticks: Implications for the evolution of blood-feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mans, Ben J.; Andersen, John F.; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Schwan, Tom G.; Pham, Van M.; Garfield, Mark K.; Hammer, Carl H.; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Ticks evolved various mechanisms to modulate their host’s hemostatic and immune defenses. Differences in the anti-hemostatic repertoires suggest that hard and soft ticks evolved anti-hemostatic mechanisms independently, but raise questions on the conservation of salivary gland proteins in the ancestral tick lineage. To address this issue the sialome (salivary gland secretory proteome) from the soft tick, Argas monolakensis was determined by proteomic analysis and cDNA library construction of salivary glands from fed and unfed adult female ticks. The sialome is composed of ~130 secretory proteins, of which the most abundant protein folds are the lipocalin, BTSP, BPTI and metalloprotease families which also comprise the most abundant proteins found in the salivary glands. Comparative analysis indicates that the major protein families are conserved in hard and soft ticks. Phylogenetic analysis shows, however, that most gene duplications are lineage specific, indicating that the protein families analyzed possibly evolved most of their functions after divergence of the two major tick families. In conclusion, the ancestral tick may have possessed a simple (few members for each family), but diverse (many different protein families) salivary gland protein domain repertoire. PMID:18070664

  16. MRI compared to conventional diagnostic work-up in the detection and evaluation of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: a review of existing literature

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeveen, Yvonne L.; Blickman, Johan G.; Boetes, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The clinical diagnosis and management of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast presents difficulties. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of ILC. Small studies addressing different aspects of MRI in ILC have been presented but no large series to date. To address the usefulness of MRI in the work-up of ILC, we performed a review of the currently published literature. Materials and methods We performed a literature search using the query “lobular AND (MRI OR MR OR MRT OR magnetic)” in the Cochrane library, PubMed and scholar.google.com, to retrieve all articles that dealt with the use of MRI in patients with ILC. We addressed sensitivity, morphologic appearance, correlation with pathology, detection of additional lesions, and impact of MRI on surgery as different endpoints. Whenever possible we performed meta-analysis of the pooled data. Results Sensitivity is 93.3% and equal to overall sensitivity of MRI for malignancy in the breast. Morphologic appearance is highly heterogeneous and probably heavily influenced by interreader variability. Correlation with pathology ranges from 0.81 to 0.97; overestimation of lesion size occurs but is rare. In 32% of patients, additional ipsilateral lesions are detected and in 7% contralateral lesions are only detected by MRI. Consequently, MRI induces change in surgical management in 28.3% of cases. Conclusion This analysis indicates MRI to be valuable in the work-up of ILC. It provides additional knowledge that cannot be obtained by conventional imaging modalities which can be helpful in patient treatment. PMID:18043894

  17. Comparative analysis of gingival phenotype in animal and human experimental models using optical coherence tomography in a non-invasive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Fernandes, Luana O.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Feitosa, Daniela S.; Cimões, Renata; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2015-06-01

    Imaging methods are widely used in diagnostic and among the diversity of modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is nowadays commercially available and considered the most innovative technique used for imaging applications, in both medical and non-medical applications. In this study, we exploit the OCT technique in the oral cavity for identification and differentiation between free and attached gingiva, as well as determining the gingival phenotype, an important factor to determination of periodontal prognosis in patients. For the animal studies, five porcine jaws were analyzed using a Swept Source SS-OCT system operating at 1325nm and stereomicroscope, as gold pattern. The SSOCT at 1325nm was chosen due to the longer central wavelength, that allows to deeper penetration imaging, and the faster image acquisition, an essential factor for clinical setting. For the patient studies, a total of 30 males and female were examined using the SS-OCT at 1325nm and computer controlled periodontal probing. 2D and 3D images of tooth/gingiva interface were performed, and quantitative measurements of the gingival sulcus could be noninvasively obtained. Through the image analysis of the animals jaws, it was possible to quantify the free gingiva and the attached gingiva, the calculus deposition over teeth surface and also the subgingival calculus. For the patient's studies, we demonstrated that the gingival phenotype could be measured without the periodontal probe introduction at the gingival sulcus, confirming that OCT can be potentially useful in clinic for direct observation and quantification of gingival phenotype in a non-invasive approach.

  18. A comparative study on invasion, survival, modulation of oxidative burst, and nitric oxide responses of macrophages (HD11), and systemic infection in chickens by prevalent poultry Salmonella serovars.

    PubMed

    He, Haiqi; Genovese, Kenneth J; Swaggerty, Christina L; Nisbet, David J; Kogut, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    Poultry is a major reservoir for foodborne Salmonella serovars. Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg are the most prevalent serovars in U.S. poultry. Information concerning the interactions between different Salmonella species and host cells in poultry is lacking. In the present study, the above mentioned Salmonella serovars were examined for invasion, intracellular survival, and their ability to modulate oxidative burst and nitric oxide (NO) responses in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. All Salmonella serovars demonstrated similar capacity to invade HD11 cells. At 24 h post-infection, a 36-43% reduction of intracellular bacteria, in log(10)(CFU), was observed for Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg, whereas a significantly lower reduction (16%) was observed for Salmonella Enteritidis, indicating its higher resistance to the killing by HD11 cells. Production of NO was completely diminished in HD11 cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis, but remained intact when infected with Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Senftenberg. Phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated oxidative burst in HD11 cells was greatly impaired after infection by each of the five serovars. When newly hatched chickens were challenged orally, a high rate (86-98%) of systemic infection (Salmonella positive in liver/spleen) was observed in birds challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Kentucky, while only 14% of the birds were Salmonella Senftenberg positive. However, there was no direct correlation between systemic infection and in vitro differential intracellular survival and modulation of NO response among the tested serovars.

  19. [Comparative study of the behavior of isoflurane and halothane in pediatric anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Díaz, F; Castilla, M; Fernández, M I; Caballero, J E

    1992-01-01

    This study involves 60 patients below the age of 14 years who were subjected to short duration surgical procedures under inhalation anesthesia with halothane and isoflurane at equivalent CAM in 50% protoxide. The objectives of the study were: a) to establish which of the two inhalational agents produced the more rapid anesthetic induction; b) to determine which exerted the more marked potentiation of the neuromuscular blockade induced by succinylcholine, and c) to compare the anesthetic quality during the induction and recovery periods of both halogenated agents. Induction was more rapid after halothane (mean induction time of 2.91 +/- 0.97 min) than after isoflurane (mean induction time of 6.24 +/- 2.88 min; p less than 0.001). Potentiation of succinylcholine induced neuromuscular blockade was greater after isoflurane than after halothane: the mean time of apnea was 4.56 +/- 1.82 min for isoflurane and 3.41 +/- 1.63 min for halothane (p less than 0.05). Undesirable effects were larger in patients treated with isoflurane than in patients anesthetized with halothane (mean score: 12.60 +/- 3.53 points vs 14.41 +/- 2.33 points; p less than 0.001). The analysis of anesthetic quality during the recovery period gave a mean punctuation of 16.62 +/- 2.21 to patients treated with halothane, whereas patients anesthetized with isoflurane showed a lower score of 14.25 +/- 1.99 points (p less than 0.001). The higher scores corresponded to the most well tolerated anesthetic induction and recovery. The highest attainable score in this study was 18.

  20. Outcomes of specific interpersonal problems for binge eating disorder: comparing group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise; Presniak, Michelle D; Bissada, Hany

    2012-04-01

    We assessed whether an attachment-based treatment, Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) had a greater impact compared to Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) on Cold/Distant and Intrusive/Needy interpersonal problems. Ninety-five individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were randomized to GPIP or GCBT and assessed at pre-, post-, and six months post-treatment. Both therapies resulted in a significant decrease in all eight interpersonal problem subscales except the Nonassertive subscale. GPIP resulted in a greater reduction in the Cold/Distant subscale compared to GCBT, but no differences were found for changes in the Intrusive/Needy subscale. GPIP may be most relevant for those with BED who have Cold/Distant interpersonal problems and attachment avoidance.

  1. The Body Image Dissatisfaction and Psychological Symptoms among Invasive and Minimally Invasive Aesthetic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Y. Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Hayatbini, Niki; Asgharnejad Farid, Ali Asghar; Gharaee, Banafsheh; Latifi, Noor Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elective aesthetic surgeries are increasing in the Iranian population with reasons linked to body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms. This study compared the body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms among invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery patients and a control group. METHODS Data from 90 participants (invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, minimally invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, and control group=30 Ss) were included. Subjects were assessed on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms to provide an evidence for a continuum of body image dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery clients. RESULTS Between the three groups of invasive, minimally invasive aesthetic surgeries and control on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity), there was a significant difference. CONCLUSION These findings have implications for pre-surgical assessment as well as psychological interventions rather than invasive medical interventions at first step. PMID:27579270

  2. Evidence for superior neurobiological and behavioral inhibitory control abilities in non-offending as compared to offending pedophiles.

    PubMed

    Kärgel, Christian; Massau, Claudia; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Borchardt, Viola; Krueger, Tillmann H C; Tenbergen, Gilian; Kneer, Jonas; Wittfoth, Matthias; Pohl, Alexander; Gerwinn, Hannah; Ponseti, Jorge; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M; Mohnke, Sebastian; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40). As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control as reflected by significantly lower rate of commission errors. Group-by-condition interaction analysis also revealed inhibition-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and the left superior frontal cortex that distinguished between offending and non-offending pedophiles, while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls. Both areas showing distinct activation pattern among pedophiles play a critical role in linking neural networks that relate to effective cognitive functioning. Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment of these areas as well as decreased amount of commission errors is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1092-1104, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of quetiapine and olanzapine in patients with psychosis and violent behavior: a pilot randomized, open-label, comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Debonnel, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients suffering from psychosis are more likely than the general population to commit aggressive acts, but the therapeutics of aggressive behavior are still a matter of debate. Methods This pilot randomized, open-label study compared the efficacy of quetiapine versus olanzapine in reducing impulsive and aggressive behaviors (primary endpoints) and psychotic symptoms (secondary endpoints) from baseline to days 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70, in 15 violent schizophrenic patients hospitalized in a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. Results Quetiapine (525±45 mg) and olanzapine (18.5±4.8 mg) were both efficacious in reducing Impulsivity Rating Scale from baseline to day 70. In addition, both treatments reduced the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale scores at day 70 compared to baseline, and no differences were observed between treatments. Moreover, quetiapine, but not olanzapine, yielded an improvement of depressive symptoms in the items “depression” in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and “blunted affect” in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Modified Overt Aggression Scale scores were also decreased from baseline to the endpoint, but due to the limited number of patients, it was not possible to detect a significant difference. Conclusion In this pilot study, quetiapine and olanzapine equally decreased impulsive and psychotic symptoms after 8 weeks of treatment. Double-blind, large studies are needed to confirm the validity of these two treatments in highly aggressive and violent schizophrenic patients. PMID:24855361

  4. Comparative behavioral pharmacology and toxicology of cocaine and its ethanol-derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.L.; Terry, P.; Witkin, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The present study compared the behavioral and toxic effects of cocaine and its ethanol derived metabolite, cocaine ethyl-ester (cocaethylene). Both drugs produced qualitatively similar psychomoter stimulant effects. Cocaine and cocaethylene increased locomotor activity in mice, with cocaine approximately four times more potent than cocaethylene. The durations of action of ED{sub 75} doses of each of the drugs were comparable. Each of the drugs also produced stimulation of operant responding in rats. In rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine injections from saline, cocaine was approximately three to five times more potent than cocaethylene in producing these cocaine-like interoceptive effects. In contrast to the behavioral effects, cocaine and cocaethylene were equipotent in producing convulsions, and cocaethylene was more potent than cocaine in producing lethality. These results suggest that the conversion of cocaine to cocaethylene with simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use may produce an increased risk of toxicity due to a decrease in the potency of cocaethylene in producing psychomotor stimulant effects, and its increased potency in producing toxicity.

  5. A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Models of Web-Based Training in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Substance Abuse Counselors

    PubMed Central

    Weingardt, Kenneth R.; Cucciare, Michael A.; Bellotti, Christine; Lai, Wen-Pin

    2009-01-01

    This study compared training outcomes obtained by 147 substance abuse counselors who completed 8 self-paced online modules on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and attended a series of four weekly group supervision sessions using web conferencing software. Participants were randomly assigned to two conditions that systematically varied the degree to which they explicitly promoted adherence to the CBT protocol, and the degree of control that they afforded participants over the sequence and relative emphasis of the training curriculum. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and immediately following training. Counselors in both conditions demonstrated similar improvements in CBT knowledge and self-efficacy. Counselors in the low-fidelity condition demonstrated greater improvement on one of three measures of job-related burnout when compared to the high-fidelity condition. The study concludes that it is feasible to implement a technology-based training intervention with a geographically diverse sample of practitioners, that two training conditions applied to these samples of real-world counselors do not produce statistically or clinically significant differences in knowledge or self-efficacy, and that further research is needed to evaluate how a flexible training model may influence clinician behavior and patient outcomes. PMID:19339136

  6. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  7. A method to rapidly and accurately compare relative efficacies of non-invasive imaging reporter genes in a mouse model, and its application to luciferase reporters

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Jose S.; Machado, Hidevaldo B.; Herschman, Harvey R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our goal is to develop a simple, quantitative, robust method to compare the efficacy of imaging reporter genes in culture and in vivo. We describe an adenoviral vector-liver transduction procedure, and compare the luciferase reporter efficacies. Procedures Alternative reporter genes are expressed in a common adenoviral vector. Vector amounts used in vivo are based on cell culture titrations, ensuring the same transduction efficacy is used for each vector. After imaging, in vivo and in vitro values are normalized to hepatic vector transduction using quantitative real-time PCR. Results We assayed standard firefly luciferase (FLuc), enhanced firefly luciferase (EFLuc), luciferase 2 (Luc2), humanized Renilla luciferase (hRLuc), Renilla luciferase 8.6-535 (RLuc8.6), and a membrane-bound Gaussia luciferase variant (extGLuc) in cell culture and in vivo. We observed a greater that 100-fold increase in bioluminescent signal for both EFLuc and Luc2 when compared to FLuc, and a greater than 106-fold increase for RLuc8.6 when compared to hRLuc. ExtGLuc was not detectable in liver. Conclusions Our findings contrast, in some cases, with conclusions drawn in prior comparisons of these reporter genes, and demonstrate the need for a standardized method to evaluate alternative reporter genes in vivo. Our procedure can be adapted for reporter genes that utilize alternative imaging modalities (fluorescence, bioluminescence, MRI, SPECT, PET). PMID:21850545

  8. Reducing Relapse and Recurrence in Unipolar Depression: A Comparative Meta-Analysis of Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy's Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Dunn, Todd W.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    Relapse and recurrence following response to acute-phase treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) are prevalent and costly. In a meta-analysis of 28 studies including 1,880 adults, the authors reviewed the world's published literature on cognitive–behavioral therapies (CT) aimed at preventing relapse–recurrence in MDD. Results indicate that after discontinuation of acute-phase treatment, many responders to CT relapse–recur (29% within 1 year and 54% within 2 years). These rates appear comparable to those associated with other depression-specific psychotherapies but lower than those associated with pharmacotherapy. Among acute-phase treatment responders, continuation-phase CT reduced relapse–recurrence compared with assessment only at the end of continuation treatment (21% reduction) and at follow-up (29% reduction). Continuation-phase CT also reduced relapse–recurrence compared with other active continuation treatments at the end of continuation treatment (12% reduction) and at follow-up (14% reduction). The authors discuss implications for research and patient care and suggest directions, with methodological refinements, for future studies. PMID:17563164

  9. Corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks compared to titanium modular necks in a simulator test.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Ulrich; Neumann, Daniel; Frank, Mario

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the corrosion behavior of tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks with that of titanium alloy modular necks at their junction to titanium-alloy femoral stem. Tests were performed in a dry assembly and two wet assemblies, one contaminated with calf serum and the other contaminated with calf serum and bone particles. Whereas the titanium modular neck tested in the dry assembly showed no signs of corrosion, the titanium modular necks tested in both wet assemblies showed marked depositions and corrosive attacks. By contrast, the tantalum-coated cobalt-chromium modular necks showed no traces of corrosion or chemical attack in any of the three assemblies. This study confirms the protective effect of tantalum coating the taper region of cobalt-chromium modular neck components, suggesting that the use of tantalum may reduce the risk of implant failure due to corrosion.

  10. Mental Health and Behavioral Problems of Youth in the Child Welfare System: Residential Treatment Centers Compared to Therapeutic Foster Care in the Odyssey Project Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy J. L.; Kurland, David; Curtis, Patrick; Alexander, Gina; Papa-Lentini, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This is the first multisite, prospective study of behavioral and mental health disorders of youth in residential treatment centers (RTC) and therapeutic foster care (TFC), and the first study to compare the two. This study addressed two questions in a sample of 22 agencies in 13 states: (1) how prevalent were emotional and behavioral disorders in…

  11. A Comparative Study of the Preliminary Effects in the Levels of Adaptive Behaviors: Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook; Yeo, Moon-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preliminary intervention effects of the adaptive behavior on the autism intervention program known as the Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA). The adaptive behavior scores of two groups of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared, with one group…

  12. [Emerging invasive fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Alvez, F; Figueras, C; Roselló, E

    2010-07-01

    The frequency and diversity of invasive fungal infections has changed over the last 25 years. The emergence of less common, but medically important fungi has increased, and the children at risk has expanded, with the inclusion of medical conditions such as cancer, mainly haematological malignancy or stem cell transplant, immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged neutropenia, and T-cell immunodeficiency. Among mould infections, fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis (Dematiaceous fungi) have been increasingly reported in this group of patients. To successfully manage these challenging infections, it is imperative that paediatricians and sub-specialists remain aware of the optimal and timely diagnosis and therapeutic options. Unlike other common mycoses that cause human disease, there no simple antigen or serological tests available to detect these pathogens in tissue or blood. The outcome for these disseminate, and often refractory fungal infections in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients remains extremely poor, requiring early and aggressive therapy. Unfortunately there are no guidelines outlining the choices for optimal therapy in the treatment of paediatric invasive fungal infections do not exist, and on the other hand are limited paediatric data available comparing antifungal agents in children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infection. The options for treatment rest mainly on some adult guidelines that comment on the treatment of these emerging and uncommon important fungi in children. Despite the sparse clinical trials available on treatment and its poor outcome, options for treatment of invasive fungal infections have increased with the advance of new antifungal agents, with improved tolerability and increased range of activity. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis are discussed in this article.

  13. Ethnic differences in the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy combined with medication: Comparing Asian American and white psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jennifer Y; Li, Chieh; Rodgers, Rachel F; Ballou, Mary

    2016-12-01

    Several meta-analyses have demonstrated the effectiveness of treatment utilizing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) combined with medication. There is, however, a paucity of research comparing the effectiveness of this combined treatment with psychiatric patients from different ethnic backgrounds. This study is the first of its kind to compare the effectiveness of CBT combined with medication for Asian American and White patients' psychiatric symptom severity levels of depression, anxiety, psychological well-being, and quality of life. The study examined the effects of CBT combined with medication for 43 Asian American and 43 White Non-Hispanic patients at an acute psychiatric partial hospital. A 2×2 between-within repeated measures analysis of variance was used. Results indicated significant improvement after treatment in all symptom categories assessed for the Asian American and White patients. The findings displayed trends over the course of treatment toward a greater decrease in anxiety symptoms among Asian patients but a larger increase in functioning level among White patients. In conclusion, the findings from this study provide preliminary cross-cultural support for CBT combined with medication as a treatment in partial hospital settings and suggest that the effectiveness of such treatments is similar across cultural groups.

  14. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently.

  15. Aurora-A signaling is activated in advanced stage of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck cancer and requires osteopontin to stimulate invasive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li-Jen; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Shiu, Li-Yen; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Fang, Fu-Min; Yu, Chun-Chieh; Su, Huei-Ting; Chen, Chang-Han

    2014-01-01

    The clinical significances, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms by which Aurora-A mediate its invasive effects in HNSCC are still unclear. Here, we found that Aurora-A expression is significantly higher in tumor tissues on 14-microarray of HNSCC in Oncomine-databases. The activity of Aurora-A was not only found in HNSCC specimens, but also significantly correlated with advanced-T-classification, positive-N-classification, TNM-stage and the poor 5-year survival rate. HNSCC-microarray profile showed that osteopontin and Aurora-A exhibited positive correlation. Stimulation of HNC cells with osteopontin results in an increase in Aurora-A expression where localized at the centrosome. Functionally, Aurora-A had the abilities to stimulate cell motility in HNC cells through increase ERK1/2 activity under osteopontin stimulation. Conversely, depletion of Aurora-A expression by siRNAs suppressed ERK1/2 activity as well as inhibition of cell invasiveness. Treatment with anti-CD44 antibodies in HNC cells not only caused a decrease of mRNA/protein of Aurora-A and ERK1/2 activity upon osteopontin stimulation, but also affected the abilities of Aurora-A-elicited cell motility. Finally, immunohistochemical/Western-blotting analysis of human aggressive HNSCC specimens showed a significant positively correlation between osteopontin-Aurora-A and ERK1/2. These findings suggest that Aurora-A is not only an important prognostic factor but also a new therapeutic target in the osteopontin/CD44/ERK pathway for HNSCC treatment. PMID:24810160

  16. A comparative study of mineralized biocomposites: Hierarchical structure, quasi-static and dynamic mechanical behavior, and toughening mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Yu

    Antlers have a primary function in combat and are designed for sustaining high impact loading and bending moment without fracture. Learning from antler may shed a new light on traumatic bone fracture prevention and development of novel fracture-resistant, impact-absorbent materials. Antlers have a similar microstructure as bones, composed mainly of type-I collagen fibrils and carbonated apatite crystals, arranged in osteons in the compact bone and trabeculae in the cancellous bone. However, antlers have lower mineral content and consist mainly of primary osteons. The structure of antler at various hierarchical levels was thoroughly characterized and examined using various techniques and compared with bovine femur. Quasi-static mechanical tests (three-point bending, compression, and nanoindentation) were conducted on elk antlers and the results were compared to reported data. The flexural strength and elastic modulus are similar to other antlers but lower than bovine femur. However, the antler has much higher work of fracture and fracture toughness compared with bone. Dynamic behavior of antler was investigated using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar system. Results showed that antler can sustain large amount of deformation without catastrophic fracture. In situ mechanical testing under ESEM was performed to examine crack propagation in the longitudinal and transverse orientations in compact antler. Nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics were applied to determine R-curves. The fracture toughness in the transverse orientation is much higher than that in the longitudinal orientation due to crack deflections/twists at the hypermineralized interface and the rising R-curve behavior was observed. Synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and SEM images showed toughening mechanisms, including crack deflections/twists, uncracked ligament and collagen fiber bridging. The structure and compressive mechanical properties of the mineral and protein constituents in cancellous antler and

  17. Comparative Study of the Natural Habitat Behaviors of Children with Autism and Children with Down Syndrome: An Ecological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruble, Lisa Ann

    A study involving eight boys with autism and eight boys with Down syndrome (ages 6-10) with similar adaptive behavior levels used an ecological approach to study the in-depth structure of the behavior stream. Narrative records were collected and analyzed based on duration and frequency of behaviors. Each record was analyzed by marking the behavior…

  18. A comparative study of tribological behavior of plasma and D-gun sprayed coatings under different wear modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, G.; Prasad, K. U. M.; Rao, D. S.; Joshi, S. V.

    1998-06-01

    In recent years, thermal sprayed protective coatings have gained widespread acceptance for a variety of industrial applications. A vast majority of these applications involve the use of thermal sprayed coatings to combat wear. While plasma spraying is the most versatile variant of all the thermal spray processes, the detonation gun (D-gun) coatings have been a novelty until recently because of their proprietary nature. The present study is aimed at comparing the tribological behavior of coatings deposited using the two above techniques by focusing on some popular coating materials that are widely adopted for wear resistant applications, namely, WC-12% Co, A12O3, and Cr3C2-MCr. To enable a comprehensive comparison of the above indicated thermal spray techniques as well as coating materials, the deposited coatings were extensively characterized employing microstructural evaluation, microhardness measurements, and XRD analysis for phase constitution. The behavior of these coatings under different wear modes was also evaluated by determining their tribological performance when subjected to solid particle erosion tests, rubber wheel sand abrasion tests, and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests. The results from the above tests are discussed here. It is evident that the D-gun sprayed coatings consistently exhibit denser microstructures and higher hardness values than their plasma sprayed counterparts. The D-gun coatings are also found to unfailingly exhibit superior tribological performance superior to the corresponding plasma sprayed coatings in all wear tests. Among all the coating materials studied, D-gun sprayed WC-12%Co, in general, yields the best performance under different modes of wear, whereas plasma sprayed Al2O3 shows least wear resistance to every wear mode.

  19. Heat stress in the intertidal: comparing survival and growth of an invasive and native mussel under a variety of thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kimberly R

    2008-12-01

    In the rocky intertidal, organisms frequently experience a wide range of daily body temperatures depending on the stage of the tide and the time of day. In the intertidal, the thermal adaption of a species and its ability to invade a new region may be closely linked. In this research, the physiological effects of thermal stress in both low tide and high tide conditions are compared between Mytilus galloprovincialis, a worldwide mussel invader, and M. trossulus, a sibling species. In a seawater tank, mussels were exposed to one of three aerial temperature treatments (20, 25, 30 degrees C) in a cycle with one of two water temperatures (18, 12 degrees C). In 18 degrees C water, there was no effect of the aerial treatments on growth or survival in either species. In contrast, in 12 degrees C water, aerial exposure affected the survival and growth of both species. Growth and survival rates of M. galloprovincialis were higher in all conditions than the rates of M. trossulus, especially in the 18 degrees C water experiments and in the aerial exposure treatments of the winter 12 degrees C water experiment. M. galloprovincialis appears to be warm-adapted with regard to both low tide and high tide thermal stress. These results when paired with previous research suggest that as climates shift due to global warming, the temperatures favorable to M. galloprovincialis will become more common.

  20. A Randomized Effectiveness Study Comparing Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With Therapy as Usual for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Tine K.; Holt, Tonje; Ormhaug, Silje M.; Egeland, Karina; Granly, Lene; Hoaas, Live C.; Hukkelberg, Silje S.; Indregard, Tore; Stormyren, Shirley D.; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) has been shown in several randomized controlled trials. However, few trials have been conducted in community clinics, few have used therapy as usual (TAU) as a comparison group, and none have been conducted outside of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of TF-CBT in regular community settings compared with TAU. One hundred fifty-six traumatized youth (M age = 15.1 years, range = 10–18; 79.5% girls) were randomly assigned to TF-CBT or TAU. Intent-to-treat analysis using mixed effects models showed that youth receiving TF-CBT reported significantly lower levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (est. = 5.78, d = 0.51), 95% CI [2.32, 9.23]; depression (est. = 7.00, d = 0.54), 95% CI [2.04, 11.96]; and general mental health symptoms (est. = 2.54, d = 0.45), 95% CI [0.50, 4.58], compared with youth in the TAU group. Youth assigned to TF-CBT showed significantly greater improvements in functional impairment (est. = −1.05, d = −0.55), 95% CI [−1.67, −0.42]. Although the same trend was found for anxiety reduction, this difference was not statistically significant (est. = 4.34, d = 0.30), 95% CI [−1.50, 10.19]. Significantly fewer youths in the TF-CBT condition were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder compared to youths in the TAU condition, χ2(1, N = 116) = 4.61, p = .031, Phi = .20). Findings indicate that TF-CBT is effective in treating traumatized youth in community mental health clinics and that the program may also be successfully implemented in countries outside the United States. PMID:23931093

  1. Widespread and persistent invasions of terrestrial habitats coincident with larval feeding behavior transitions during snail-killing fly evolution (Diptera: Sciomyzidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transitions in habitats and feeding behaviors were fundamental to the diversification of life on Earth. There is ongoing debate regarding the typical directionality of transitions between aquatic and terrestrial habitats and the mechanisms responsible for the preponderance of terrestrial to aquatic transitions. Snail-killing flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) represent an excellent model system to study such transitions because their larvae display a range of feeding behaviors, being predators, parasitoids or saprophages of a variety of mollusks in freshwater, shoreline and dry terrestrial habitats. The remarkable genus Tetanocera (Tetanocerini) occupies five larval feeding groups and all of the habitat types mentioned above. This study has four principal objectives: (i) construct a robust estimate of phylogeny for Tetanocera and Tetanocerini, (ii) estimate the evolutionary transitions in larval feeding behaviors and habitats, (iii) test the monophyly of feeding groups and (iv) identify mechanisms underlying sciomyzid habitat and feeding behavior evolution. Results Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of molecular data provided strong support that the Sciomyzini, Tetanocerini and Tetanocera are monophyletic. However, the monophyly of many behavioral groupings was rejected via phylogenetic constraint analyses. We determined that (i) the ancestral sciomyzid lineage was terrestrial, (ii) there was a single terrestrial to aquatic habitat transition early in the evolution of the Tetanocerini and (iii) there were at least 10 independent aquatic to terrestrial habitat transitions and at least 15 feeding behavior transitions during tetanocerine phylogenesis. The ancestor of Tetanocera was aquatic with five lineages making independent transitions to terrestrial habitats and seven making independent transitions in feeding behaviors. Conclusions The preponderance of aquatic to terrestrial transitions in sciomyzids goes against the trend generally observed

  2. Activity of a Long-Acting Echinocandin (CD101) and Seven Comparator Antifungal Agents Tested against a Global Collection of Contemporary Invasive Fungal Isolates in the SENTRY 2014 Antifungal Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The activity of CD101 and comparator antifungal agents against 606 invasive fungal isolates collected worldwide during 2014 was evaluated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method. All Candida albicans (n = 251), Candida tropicalis (n = 51), Candida krusei (n = 16), and Candida dubliniensis (n = 11) isolates were inhibited by ≤0.12 μg/ml of CD101 and were susceptible or showed wild-type susceptibility to the other echinocandins tested. Five C. glabrata isolates (n = 100) displayed CD101 MIC values of 1 to 4 μg/ml, had elevated MICs of caspofungin (2 to >8 μg/ml), anidulafungin (2 to 4 μg/ml), and micafungin (2 to 4 μg/ml), and carried mutations on fks1 and fks2. Candida parapsilosis (n = 92) and Candida orthopsilosis (n = 10) displayed higher CD101 MIC values (ranges, 0.5 to 4 μg/ml and 0.12 to 2 μg/ml, respectively), and similar results were observed for the other echinocandins tested. Fluconazole resistance was noted among 11.0% of Candida glabrata isolates, 4.3% of C. parapsilosis isolates, and 2.0% of C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates. The activity of CD101 against Aspergillus fumigatus (n = 56) was similar to that of micafungin and 2-fold greater than that of caspofungin but less than that of anidulafungin. These isolates had wild-type susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. The echinocandins had limited activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (n = 19). CD101 was as active as the other echinocandins against common fungal organisms recovered from patients with invasive fungal infections. The long half-life profile is very desirable for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections, especially in patients who can then be discharged from the hospital to complete antifungal therapy on an outpatient basis. PMID:28052853

  3. Rationale and Design of the Dual Energy Computed Tomography for Ischemia Determination Compared to “Gold Standard” Non-invasive and Invasive Techniques (DECIDE-Gold): A Multicenter International Efficacy Diagnostic Study of Rest-Stress Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Angiography with Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Quynh A.; Knaapen, Paul; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Leipsic, Jonathon; Carrascosa, Patricia; Lu, Bin; Branch, Kelley; Raman, Subha; Bloom, Stephen; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dual-energy CT (DECT) has potential to improve myocardial perfusion for physiologic assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Diagnostic performance of rest-stress DECT perfusion (DECTP) is unknown. OBJECTIVE DECIDE-Gold is a prospective multicenter study to evaluate the accuracy of DECT to detect hemodynamic (HD) significant CAD, as compared to fractional flow reserve (FFR) as a reference standard. METHODS Eligible participants are subjects with symptoms of CAD referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Participants will undergo DECTP, which will be performed by pharmacological stress, and participants will subsequently proceed to ICA and FFR. HD-significant CAD will be defined as FFR ≥ 0.80. In those undergoing myocardial stress imaging (MPI) by positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, ischemia will be graded by % ischemic myocardium. Blinded core laboratory interpretation will be performed for CCTA, DECTP, MPI, ICA and FFR. RESULTS Primary endpoint is accuracy of DECTP to detect ≥ 1 HD-significant stenosis at the subject-level when compared to FFR. Secondary and tertiary endpoints are accuracies of combinations of DECTP at the subject and vessel levels compared to FFR and MPI. CONCLUSION DECIDE-Gold will determine the performance of DECTP for diagnosing ischemia. PMID:25549826

  4. A comparative assessment of the fracture toughness behavior of ferritic-martensitic steels and nanostructured ferritic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Hoelzer, David T.; Kim, Jeoung Han; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2017-02-01

    The Fe-Cr alloys with ultrafine microstructures are primary candidate materials for advanced nuclear reactor components because of their excellent high temperature strength and high resistance to radiation-induced damage such as embrittlement and swelling. Mainly two types of Fe-Cr alloys have been developed for the high temperature reactor applications: the quenched and tempered ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels hardened primarily by ultrafine laths and carbonitrides and the powder metallurgy-based nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) by nanograin structure and nanoclusters. This study aims at elucidating the differences and similarities in the temperature and strength dependences of fracture toughness in the Fe-Cr alloys to provide a comparative assessment of their high-temperature structural performance. The KJQ versus yield stress plots confirmed that the fracture toughness was inversely proportional to yield strength. It was found, however, that the toughness data for some NFAs were outside the band of the integrated dataset at given strength level, which indicates either a significant improvement or deterioration in mechanical properties due to fundamental changes in deformation and fracture mechanisms. When compared to the behavior of NFAs, the FM steels have shown much less strength dependence and formed narrow fracture toughness data bands at a significantly lower strength region. It appeared that at high temperatures ≥600 °C the NFAs cannot retain the nanostructure advantage of high strength and high toughness either by high-temperature embrittlement or by excessive loss of strength. Irradiation studies have revealed, however, that the NFAs have much stronger radiation resistance than tempered martensitic steels, such as lower radiation-induced swelling, finer helium bubble formation, lower irradiation creep rate and reduced low temperature embrittlement.

  5. A comparative assessment of the fracture toughness behavior of ferritic-martensitic steels and nanostructured ferritic alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Byun, Thak Sang; Hoelzer, David T.; Kim, Jeoung Han; ...

    2016-12-07

    The Fe-Cr alloys with ultrafine microstructures are primary candidate materials for advanced nuclear reactor components because of their excellent high temperature strength and high resistance to radiation-induced damage such as embrittlement and swelling. Mainly two types of Fe-Cr alloys have been developed for the high temperature reactor applications: the quenched and tempered ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels hardened primarily by ultrafine laths and carbonitrides and the powder metallurgy-based nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) by nanograin structure and nanoclusters. This paper aims at elucidating the differences and similarities in the temperature and strength dependences of fracture toughness in the Fe-Cr alloys to provide amore » comparative assessment of their high-temperature structural performance. The KJQ versus yield stress plots confirmed that the fracture toughness was inversely proportional to yield strength. It was found, however, that the toughness data for some NFAs were outside the band of the integrated dataset at given strength level, which indicates either a significant improvement or deterioration in mechanical properties due to fundamental changes in deformation and fracture mechanisms. When compared to the behavior of NFAs, the FM steels have shown much less strength dependence and formed narrow fracture toughness data bands at a significantly lower strength region. It appeared that at high temperatures ≥600 °C the NFAs cannot retain the nanostructure advantage of high strength and high toughness either by high-temperature embrittlement or by excessive loss of strength. Finally, irradiation studies have revealed, however, that the NFAs have much stronger radiation resistance than tempered martensitic steels, such as lower radiation-induced swelling, finer helium bubble formation, lower irradiation creep rate and reduced low temperature embrittlement.« less

  6. A comparative assessment of the fracture toughness behavior of ferritic-martensitic steels and nanostructured ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Hoelzer, David T.; Kim, Jeoung Han; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2016-12-07

    The Fe-Cr alloys with ultrafine microstructures are primary candidate materials for advanced nuclear reactor components because of their excellent high temperature strength and high resistance to radiation-induced damage such as embrittlement and swelling. Mainly two types of Fe-Cr alloys have been developed for the high temperature reactor applications: the quenched and tempered ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels hardened primarily by ultrafine laths and carbonitrides and the powder metallurgy-based nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) by nanograin structure and nanoclusters. This paper aims at elucidating the differences and similarities in the temperature and strength dependences of fracture toughness in the Fe-Cr alloys to provide a comparative assessment of their high-temperature structural performance. The KJQ versus yield stress plots confirmed that the fracture toughness was inversely proportional to yield strength. It was found, however, that the toughness data for some NFAs were outside the band of the integrated dataset at given strength level, which indicates either a significant improvement or deterioration in mechanical properties due to fundamental changes in deformation and fracture mechanisms. When compared to the behavior of NFAs, the FM steels have shown much less strength dependence and formed narrow fracture toughness data bands at a significantly lower strength region. It appeared that at high temperatures ≥600 °C the NFAs cannot retain the nanostructure advantage of high strength and high toughness either by high-temperature embrittlement or by excessive loss of strength. Finally, irradiation studies have revealed, however, that the NFAs have much stronger radiation resistance than tempered martensitic steels, such as lower radiation-induced swelling, finer helium bubble formation, lower irradiation creep rate and reduced low temperature embrittlement.

  7. Comparative study on composition, structure, and adsorption behavior of activated carbons derived from different synthetic waste polymers.

    PubMed

    Lian, Fei; Xing, Baoshan; Zhu, Lingyan

    2011-08-15

    The composition, structure, and adsorption behavior of activated carbons (ACs) derived from three different types of waste polymers, i.e., tire rubber (TR), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), by KOH activation were compared. The AC derived from PET exhibited the largest surface area (2831 m(2)/g) and pore volume (1.68 cm(3)/g) due to the homogenous aromatic composition of PET. The AC derived from PVC exhibited relatively lower surface area (2666 m(2)/g) but more narrowed pore size distribution (2-3 nm). The complex composition and high ash content of tire particles resulted in AC product with significantly lower surface area (398.5 m(2)/g) and heterogeneous pore width. Adsorption data of methylene blue (MB) were fitted well by Langmuir equation, indicating monolayer coverage on the ACs. The high oxygen content of PET-derived AC heavily affected its adsorption to MB and iodine. Due to the remarkable surface area and highly mesoporous structures, ACs based on both PET and PVC exhibited much higher adsorption capacities than that of TR and commercial coal-based AC (F400). This study demonstrates that the properties of ACs are highly dependent on their starting polymers and the potential of converting synthetic polymer waste into effective adsorbents for environmental remediation and cleanup.

  8. Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared to Typically Developing Controls on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    As the "Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition" ("BASC-2") is often used to aid in diagnosis it is important to discern how children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) score on the "BASC-2" compared to typically developing controls. This study compared scores of typically developing…

  9. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: Prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herron, P.M.; Martine, C.T.; Latimer, A.M.; Leicht-Young, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of introduced species requires the early identification of species that pose a significant threat of becoming invasive. To better understand the invasive ecology of species in New England, USA, we compiled a character data set with which to compare non-native species that are known invaders to non-native species that are not currently known to be invasive. In contrast to previous biological trait-based models, we employed a Bayesian hierarchical analysis to identify sets of plant traits associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms (vines, shrubs, and trees). The resulting models identify a suite of 'invasive traits' highlighting the ecology associated with invasiveness for each of three growth forms. The most effective predictors of invasiveness that emerged from our model were 'invasive elsewhere', 'fast growth rate', 'native latitudinal range', and 'growth form'. The contrast among growth forms was pronounced. For example, 'wind dispersal' was positively correlated with invasiveness in trees, but negatively correlated in shrubs and vines. The predictive model was able to correctly classify invasive plants 67% of the time (22/33), and non-invasive plants 95% of the time (204/215). A number of potential future invasive species in New England that deserve management consideration were identified. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  10. Linking Native and Invader Traits Explains Native Spider Population Responses to Plant Invasion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer N; Emlen, Douglas J; Pearson, Dean E

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders' web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion plots compared to controls. Additionally, irregular web-spiders on simulated invasion plots built webs that were 4.4 times larger and 5.0 times more likely to capture prey, leading to >2-fold increases in recruitment. Orb-weavers showed no differences in web size or prey captures between treatments. Web-spider responses to simulated invasion mimicked patterns following natural invasions, confirming that C. stoebe's architecture is likely the primary attribute driving native spider responses to these invasions. Differences in spider responses were attributable to differences in web construction behaviors relative to historic web substrate constraints. Orb-weavers in this system constructed webs between multiple plants, so they were limited by the overall quantity of native substrates but not by the architecture of individual native plant species. Irregular web-spiders built their webs within individual plants and were greatly constrained by the diminutive architecture of native plant substrates, so they were limited both by quantity and quality of native substrates. Evaluating native species traits in the context of invader-driven change can explain invasion outcomes and help to identify factors limiting native populations.

  11. Linking Native and Invader Traits Explains Native Spider Population Responses to Plant Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Emlen, Douglas J.; Pearson, Dean E.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders’ web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion plots compared to controls. Additionally, irregular web-spiders on simulated invasion plots built webs that were 4.4 times larger and 5.0 times more likely to capture prey, leading to >2-fold increases in recruitment. Orb-weavers showed no differences in web size or prey captures between treatments. Web-spider responses to simulated invasion mimicked patterns following natural invasions, confirming that C. stoebe’s architecture is likely the primary attribute driving native spider responses to these invasions. Differences in spider responses were attributable to differences in web construction behaviors relative to historic web substrate constraints. Orb-weavers in this system constructed webs between multiple plants, so they were limited by the overall quantity of native substrates but not by the architecture of individual native plant species. Irregular web-spiders built their webs within individual plants and were greatly constrained by the diminutive architecture of native plant substrates, so they were limited both by quantity and quality of native substrates. Evaluating native species traits in the context of invader-driven change can explain invasion outcomes and help to identify factors limiting native populations. PMID:27082240

  12. Foam invasion through a single pore.

    PubMed

    Delbos, Aline; Pitois, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    We investigate experimentally the behavior of liquid foams pumped at a given flow rate through a single pore, in the situation where the pore diameter is smaller than the bubble diameter. Results reveal that foam invasion can be observed only within a restricted range of values for the dimensionless flow rate and the foam liquid fraction. Within this foam invasion regime, the liquid content of invading foams is measured to be three times higher than the initial liquid content. Outside this regime, both gas alone and liquid alone invasion regimes can be observed. The gas invasion regime results from the rupture of foam films during local T1, during bubble rearrangements events induced by foam flow, whereas the liquid invasion regime is allowed by the formation of a stable cluster of jammed bubbles at the pore's opening.

  13. Less-Invasive Fibroid Treatment May Be 'Under-Used'

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163933.html Less-Invasive Fibroid Treatment May Be 'Under-Used' But ... hysterectomy remains much more common compared with a less-invasive procedure called embolization. Fibroids are non-cancerous ...

  14. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis.

  15. Comparative study of the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.

  16. Weight Perception, Substance Use, and Disordered Eating Behaviors: Comparing Normal Weight and Overweight High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichen, Dawn M.; Conner, Bradley T.; Daly, Brian P.; Fauber, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors and substance use are two risk factors for the development of serious psychopathology and health concerns in adulthood. Despite the negative outcomes associated with these risky behaviors, few studies have examined potential associations between these risk factors as they occur during adolescence. The importance of…

  17. A Comparative Study of Canadian and Taiwanese Grade 5 Children's Environmental Behaviors, Attitudes, Concerns, Emotional Dispositions, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Ping; Yore, Larry D.

    This study explored the cultural influences on children's self-reported environmental actions, perceptions, and understandings; investigated the relationships among the behavioral, affective, cognitive, and demographic variables; and developed models of children's responsible environmental behavior (Huang, 2001). The cross-cultural comparison…

  18. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p < 0.0001) and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p < 0.001). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.

  19. Discovery–dominance trade-off among widespread invasive ant species

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Avril, Amaury; Blight, Olivier; Jourdan, Hervé; Courchamp, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Ants are among the most problematic invasive species. They displace numerous native species, alter ecosystem processes, and can have negative impacts on agriculture and human health. In part, their success might stem from a departure from the discovery–dominance trade-off that can promote co-existence in native ant communities, that is, invasive ants are thought to be at the same time behaviorally dominant and faster discoverers of resources, compared to native species. However, it has not yet been tested whether similar asymmetries in behavioral dominance, exploration, and recruitment abilities also exist among invasive species. Here, we establish a dominance hierarchy among four of the most problematic invasive ants (Linepithema humile, Lasius neglectus, Wasmannia auropunctata, Pheidole megacephala) that may be able to arrive and establish in the same areas in the future. To assess behavioral dominance, we used confrontation experiments, testing the aggressiveness in individual and group interactions between all species pairs. In addition, to compare discovery efficiency, we tested the species’ capacity to locate a food resource in a maze, and the capacity to recruit nestmates to exploit a food resource. The four species differed greatly in their capacity to discover resources and to recruit nestmates and to dominate the other species. Our results are consistent with a discovery–dominance trade-off. The species that showed the highest level of interspecific aggressiveness and dominance during dyadic interactions. PMID:26257879

  20. Discovery-dominance trade-off among widespread invasive ant species.

    PubMed

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Avril, Amaury; Blight, Olivier; Jourdan, Hervé; Courchamp, Franck

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the most problematic invasive species. They displace numerous native species, alter ecosystem processes, and can have negative impacts on agriculture and human health. In part, their success might stem from a departure from the discovery-dominance trade-off that can promote co-existence in native ant communities, that is, invasive ants are thought to be at the same time behaviorally dominant and faster discoverers of resources, compared to native species. However, it has not yet been tested whether similar asymmetries in behavioral dominance, exploration, and recruitment abilities also exist among invasive species. Here, we establish a dominance hierarchy among four of the most problematic invasive ants (Linepithema humile, Lasius neglectus, Wasmannia auropunctata, Pheidole megacephala) that may be able to arrive and establish in the same areas in the future. To assess behavioral dominance, we used confrontation experiments, testing the aggressiveness in individual and group interactions between all species pairs. In addition, to compare discovery efficiency, we tested the species' capacity to locate a food resource in a maze, and the capacity to recruit nestmates to exploit a food resource. The four species differed greatly in their capacity to discover resources and to recruit nestmates and to dominate the other species. Our results are consistent with a discovery-dominance trade-off. The species that showed the highest level of interspecific aggressiveness and dominance during dyadic interactions.

  1. Invasive plants may promote predator-mediated feedback that inhibits further invasion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lauren M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of invasive species requires placing invasion within a full community context. Plant invaders are often considered in the context of herbivores that may drive invasion by avoiding invaders while consuming natives (enemy escape), or inhibit invasion by consuming invaders (biotic resistance). However, predators that attack those herbivores are rarely considered as major players in invasion. Invasive plants often promote predators, generally by providing improved habitat. Here, we show that predator-promoting invaders may initiate a negative feedback loop that inhibits invasion. By enabling top-down control of herbivores, predator-promoting invaders lose any advantage gained through enemy escape, indirectly favoring natives. In cases where palatable invaders encounter biotic resistance, predator promotion may allow an invader to persist, but not dominate. Overall, results indicate that placing invaders in a full community context may reveal reduced impacts of invaders compared to expectations based on simple plant–plant or plant–herbivore subsystems. PMID:26120430

  2. A comparative study on dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge and life stress between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sohwan; Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Hwajin; Lee, Hongmie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary behavior and life stress in adolescence is related to growth rate and learning ability. This study was conducted to identify the relations between dietary habits, dietary attitude nutritional knowledge and life stress among high school girls in Korea and China. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects of this study were 221 high school girls in Korea and 227 high school girls in China. The questionnaire were about dietary habits, dietary attitude, nutritional knowledge and life stress. RESULTS The dietary habits of chinese girls were healthier than those of Korean girls with a significant difference (P < .001). There was no significant difference in dietary attitude between Korean girls and Chinese girls. Korean girls had more nutritional knowledge than Chinese girls with a significant difference (P < .001). Korean girls did less physical exercise but spent more time watching TV and using PCs, compared to Chinese girls. Korean girls' degree of confidence in nutrition information that they had learned and their performance in their real lives were low. Also, they had a low level of awareness of the need for nutritional education. There was no significant difference in life stress between the two groups. Dietary habits had a significantly negative correlation with life stress in both Korean and Chinese girls (P < .01, P < .001). As for Chinese students, dietary attitude had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05). As for Korean girls, nutritional knowledge had a negative correlation with life stress with a significant difference (P < .05), which means as life stress was less, dietary habits were better. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that effective nutrition education programs should include components that encourage application of learned nutrition information to real life, increase physical exercise and reduce life stress. PMID:24741406

  3. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  4. Minimally invasive esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Herbella, Fernando A; Patti, Marco G

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal resection is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) might theoretically decrease this rate. We reviewed the current literature on MIE, with a focus on the available techniques, outcomes and comparison with open surgery. This review shows that the available literature on MIE is still crowded with heterogeneous studies with different techniques. There are no controlled and randomized trials, and the few retrospective comparative cohort studies are limited by small numbers of patients and biased by historical controls of open surgery. Based on the available literature, there is no evidence that MIE brings clear benefits compared to conventional esophagectomy. Increasing experience and the report of larger series might change this scenario. PMID:20698044

  5. Brief Report: Improving the Validity of Assessments of Adolescents' Feelings of Privacy Invasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of privacy invasion have relied on measures that combine items assessing adolescents' feelings of privacy invasion with items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors. Removing items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors may improve the validity of assessments of privacy invasion. Data were collected from 163 adolescents (M age 13 years,…

  6. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  7. Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Catford, Jane A; Vesk, Peter A; Richardson, David M; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions are a global phenomenon that threatens biodiversity, and few, if any, ecosystems are free from alien species. The outcome of human-mediated introductions is affected by the invasiveness of species and invasibility of ecosystems, but research has primarily focused on defining, characterizing and identifying invasive species; ecosystem invasibility has received much less attention. A prerequisite for characterizing invasibility is the ability to compare levels of invasion across ecosystems. In this paper, we aim to identify the best way to quantify the level of invasion by nonnative animals and plants by reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of different metrics. We explore how interpretation and choice of these measures can depend on the objective of a study or management intervention. Based on our review, we recommend two invasion indices and illustrate their use by applying them to two case studies. Relative alien species richness and relative alien species abundance indicate the contribution that alien species make to a community. They are easy to measure, can be applied to various taxa, are independent of scale and are comparable across regions and ecosystems, and historical data are often available. The relationship between relative alien richness and abundance can indicate the presence of dominant alien species and the trajectory of invasion over time, and can highlight ecosystems and sites that are heavily invaded or especially susceptible to invasion. Splitting species into functional groups and examining invasion patterns of transformer species may be particularly instructive for gauging effects of alien invasion on ecosystem structure and function. Establishing standard, transparent ways to define and quantify invasion level will facilitate meaningful comparisons among studies, ecosystem types and regions. It is essential for progress in ecology and will help guide ecosystem restoration and management.

  8. Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stubbs, C.J.; Drummond, F.; Ginsberg, H.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plant species can have profound negative effects on natural communities by competively excluding native species. Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), Frangula alnus (glossy or alder buckthorn) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) are invasive species known to reduce native plant diversity and are thus of great concern to Acadia National Park. Pollinators visit them for nectar and pollen. The effects of invasive plant species on pollinator behavior were investigated by comparing pollinator visitation to co-flowering native and invasive species with visitation to native species growing alone. The effect of invasives on pollination of native plants was studied by comparing fruit set in patches of the native species growing near invasives with patches far from invasive species in Acadia National Park. The coflowering pairs were as follows: in the spring native Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) was paired with B. thunbergii; in early summer native Viburnum nudum (wild raisin) was paired with F. alnus ; in late summer native Spiraea alba (meadowsweet) was paired with L. salicaria. We investigated whether these invasives competed with native plants for pollinators in Acadia and thus negatively affected native plant reproduction. Our objectives were to determine: 1) the influence, if any, of each invasive on pollinator visitation to a co-flowering native species, 2) factors that might affect visitation, 3) invasive pollen transfer to native plants, and 4) whether invasives influence native plant reproduction (fruit set). Our findings indicate that at times the number of flower visitors to natives was lower or the species composition of visitors different when invasives were present, that invasives sometimes attracted more pollinators, that generally the invasives were more rewarding as far as nectar and pollen availability for pollinators, and that generally native plant fruit set and seed set was not significantly lowered in the presence of

  9. Contemporary review of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Rui; Turley, Ryan S; Blazer, Dan G

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the current literature describing various minimally invasive techniques for and to review short-term outcomes after minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS PD remains the only potentially curative treatment for periampullary malignancies, including, most commonly, pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Minimally invasive approaches to this complex operation have begun to be increasingly reported in the literature and are purported by some to reduce the historically high morbidity of PD associated with the open technique. In this systematic review, we have searched the literature for high-quality publications describing minimally invasive techniques for PD-including laparoscopic, robotic, and laparoscopic-assisted robotic approaches (hybrid approach). We have identified publications with the largest operative experiences from well-known centers of excellence for this complex procedure. We report primarily short term operative and perioperative results and some short term oncologic endpoints. RESULTS Minimally invasive techniques include laparoscopic, robotic and hybrid approaches and each of these techniques has strong advocates. Consistently, across all minimally invasive modalities, these techniques are associated less intraoperative blood loss than traditional open PD (OPD), but in exchange for longer operating times. These techniques are relatively equivalent in terms of perioperative morbidity and short term oncologic outcomes. Importantly, pancreatic fistula rate appears to be comparable in most minimally invasive series compared to open technique. Impact of minimally invasive technique on length of stay is mixed compared to some traditional open series. A few series have suggested that initiation of and time to adjuvant therapy may be improved with minimally invasive techniques, however this assertion remains controversial. In terms of short-terms costs, minimally invasive PD is significantly higher than that of OPD. CONCLUSION Minimally

  10. Invasive species in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...

  11. Brief report: improving the validity of assessments of adolescents' feelings of privacy invasion.

    PubMed

    Laird, Robert D; Marrero, Matthew D; Melching, Jessica; Kuhn, Emily S

    2013-02-01

    Studies of privacy invasion have relied on measures that combine items assessing adolescents' feelings of privacy invasion with items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors. Removing items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors may improve the validity of assessments of privacy invasion. Data were collected from 163 adolescents (M age 13 years, 5 months; 47% female; 50% European American, non-Hispanic, 46% African American) and their mothers. A model specifying separate factors for privacy invasion and monitoring behavior fit adolescent-reported and parent-reported data significantly better than a single factor model. Although privacy invasion and monitoring behavior were positively associated, privacy invasion and monitoring behavior correlations were significantly different from one another across all ten variables reported by adolescents and across eight of the nine variables reported by mothers. The pattern of results strongly supports a recommendation for researchers to exclude items assessing monitoring behaviors to provide a more valid assessment of privacy invasion.

  12. Contrasting growth phenology of native and invasive forest shrubs mediated by genome size.

    PubMed

    Fridley, Jason D; Craddock, Alaä

    2015-08-01

    Examination of the significance of genome size to plant invasions has been largely restricted to its association with growth rate. We investigated the novel hypothesis that genome size is related to forest invasions through its association with growth phenology, as a result of the ability of large-genome species to grow more effectively through cell expansion at cool temperatures. We monitored the spring leaf phenology of 54 species of eastern USA deciduous forests, including native and invasive shrubs of six common genera. We used new measurements of genome size to evaluate its association with spring budbreak, cell size, summer leaf production rate, and photosynthetic capacity. In a phylogenetic hierarchical model that differentiated native and invasive species as a function of summer growth rate and spring budbreak timing, species with smaller genomes exhibited both faster growth and delayed budbreak compared with those with larger nuclear DNA content. Growth rate, but not budbreak timing, was associated with whether a species was native or invasive. Our results support genome size as a broad indicator of the growth behavior of woody species. Surprisingly, invaders of deciduous forests show the same small-genome tendencies of invaders of more open habitats, supporting genome size as a robust indicator of invasiveness.

  13. Correlated patterns of neuropsychological and behavioral symptoms in frontal variant of Alzheimer disease and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia: a comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Zhou, Yu-Ying; Lu, Da; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Hui-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Although the neuropathologic changes and diagnostic criteria for the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) are well-established, the clinical symptoms vary largely. Symptomatically, frontal variant of AD (fv-AD) presents very similarly to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), which creates major challenges for differential diagnosis. Here, we report two patients who present with progressive cognitive impairment, early and prominent behavioral features, and significant frontotemporal lobe atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging, consistent with an initial diagnosis of probable bvFTD. However, multimodal functional neuroimaging revealed neuropathological data consistent with a diagnosis of probable AD for one patient (pathology distributed in the frontal lobes) and a diagnosis of probable bvFTD for the other patient (hypometabolism in the bilateral frontal lobes). In addition, the fv-AD patient presented with greater executive impairment and milder behavioral symptoms relative to the bvFTD patient. These cases highlight that recognition of these atypical syndromes using detailed neuropsychological tests, biomarkers, and multimodal neuroimaging will lead to greater accuracy in diagnosis and patient management.

  14. Validation of a previous day recall for measuring the location and purpose of active and sedentary behaviors compared to direct observation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gathering contextual information (i.e., location and purpose) about active and sedentary behaviors is an advantage of self-report tools such as previous day recalls (PDR). However, the validity of PDR’s for measuring context has not been empirically tested. The purpose of this paper was to compare PDR estimates of location and purpose to direct observation (DO). Methods Fifteen adult (18–75 y) and 15 adolescent (12–17 y) participants were directly observed during at least one segment of the day (i.e., morning, afternoon or evening). Participants completed their normal daily routine while trained observers recorded the location (i.e., home, community, work/school), purpose (e.g., leisure, transportation) and whether the behavior was sedentary or active. The day following the observation, participants completed an unannounced PDR. Estimates of time in each context were compared between PDR and DO. Intra-class correlations (ICC), percent agreement and Kappa statistics were calculated. Results For adults, percent agreement was 85% or greater for each location and ICC values ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. The PDR-reported purpose of adults’ behaviors were highly correlated with DO for household activities and work (ICCs of 0.84 and 0.88, respectively). Transportation was not significantly correlated with DO (ICC = -0.08). For adolescents, reported classification of activity location was 80.8% or greater. The ICCs for purpose of adolescents’ behaviors ranged from 0.46 to 0.78. Participants were most accurate in classifying the location and purpose of the behaviors in which they spent the most time. Conclusions This study suggests that adults and adolescents can accurately report where and why they spend time in behaviors using a PDR. This information on behavioral context is essential for translating the evidence for specific behavior-disease associations to health interventions and public policy. PMID:24490619

  15. Caregiver burden in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is more dependent on patients’ behavioral changes than physical disability: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Behavioral changes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mirror those found in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Considering the high rate of neuropsychiatric symptoms found in ALS patients, this paper examines whether caregiver burden is associated with behavioral changes over and above the physical disability of patients with ALS, and if the presence of caregivers’ depression, anxiety and stress also impacts on caregiver burden. Methods 140 caregivers of patients with ALS participated in a postal survey investigating patients’ neuropsychiatric symptoms (Cambridge Behaviour Inventory Revised CBI-R), motor function (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale Revised - ALSFRS-R), caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview), and caregiver mood (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale- DASS21). Seventy four percent of them were caregivers of patients with limb onset and 25.7% were caregivers of patients with bulbar onset. Results Moderate to severe behavioral changes were reported in 10-40% of patients with ALS. The levels of depression, anxiety and stress in the caregivers reached 20%. Burden was high in 48% of the caregivers. The strongest predictor of high caregiver burden was ALS patients’ abnormal behavior rather than physical disability, with an odds ratio of 1.4, followed by caregivers’ stress. Conclusions Our study has identified that behavioral changes (e.g. disinhibition, impulsivity) and caregiver stress have greater impact on caregiver burden than level and pattern of physical disability. PMID:23216745

  16. A Comparative Study of Achievement in the Concepts of Fundamentals of Geometry Taught by Computer Managed Individualized Behavioral Objective Instructional Units Versus Lecture-Demonstration Methods of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Merrill Edgar

    The purposes of this study were (1) to identify and compare the effect on student achievement of an individualized computer-managed geometry course, built on behavioral objectives, with traditional instructional methods; and (2) to identify how selected individual aptitudes interact with the two instructional modes. The subjects were…

  17. Comparing Autism, PDD-NOS, and Other Developmental Disabilities on Parent-Reported Behavior Problems: Little Evidence for ASD Subtype Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Anne V.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the distinction between Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) have been inconclusive. This study examined the validity of PDD-NOS by comparing it to AD and other developmental disorders (DD) on parent-reported behavior problems. Fifty-four children with PDD-NOS were individually…

  18. Comparing Child, Parent, and Family Characteristics in Usual Care and Empirically Supported Treatment Research Samples for Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared data from 34 research trials of five empirically supported treatments (ESTs) with one large usual care (UC) sample on child, parent, and family characteristics for children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Large variations were found within and across ESTs on sample characteristics during the past two decades. Most parent…

  19. The Comparative Study of Morals and Democracy and Their Effect on the Behavioral Reflections of Khawaja Nasir Al-Din Tusi and John Dewey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzaei, Khalil; Golestani, Sayyed Hashem; Vaezi, Sayyed Hossain

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparatively analyzing morals and democracy from John Dewey and Khawaja Nasir al-Din Tusi's viewpoint. It also sought the effect of the two philosophers' viewpoint about morals and democracy and behavioral reflections. The purpose of this study was also to become familiar with the effect of morals and democracy on…

  20. Sleepiness, On-Task Behavior and Attention in Children with Epilepsy Who Visited a School for Special Education: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Korzilius, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for problems in daytime functioning. We assessed daytime sleepiness, on-task behavior and attention in 17 children (aged between 7 and 11 years) with epilepsy who visited a school for special education and compared these to 17 children from a control group who visited a regular school. Within the group of…

  1. A Comparative Study: Dynamic and Thermal Behavior of Nanocrystalline and Powder Magnetic Materials in a Power Converter Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilal, A.; Raulet, M. A.; Martin, C.; Sixdenier, F.

    2015-10-01

    In the design of such power electronics applications as power converters, lack of precise characterization and diagnosis of losses from components has unacceptable effects on efficiency, reliability, and power consumption. Because passive components, especially magnetic components, are crucially important in power converters, accurate characterization and modeling of magnetic materials is mandatory, to enable realistic prediction of their behavior under variable operating conditions. Temperature is one such condition that induces major changes in a component's behavior by modifying the material's magnetic properties. In the work discussed in this paper we investigated the magnetic and thermal behavior of nanocrystalline and powder materials in a DC-DC converter application. Core loss measurements under variable conditions were performed on toroid-shaped samples. Measured results were analyzed for different frequencies, flux densities, and temperatures.

  2. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine the cytoskeletal dynamics they chose magnetic twisting cytometry, where the spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads was measured, which is a measure for the cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. The group of Katarina Wolf measured the stiffness of the cell nucleus because it is the largest and stiffest organelle, which may hinder the migration of invasive tumor cells through dense connective tissue [2]. They combined atomic force confocal microscopy for measurement of bulk nuclear stiffness (the inverse of the compressibility) with simultaneous visualization of the cantilever-nucleus contact as well as monitoring of the cell's fate. The dynamics of tissue topology such as the mixing of compartments during cancer invasion and metastasis were theoretically analyzed by Lance L Munn [3]. In particular, he presented a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of tumor behaviors using correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. In the future, the topological analysis could be helpful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring tumor therapy. The group of Cynthia A Reinhart-King analyzed how the topological guidance of a 3D tumor cell migration at an interface of collagen densities affects cell motility [4]. In particular, they mimicked the heterogeneities in density of the tumor stroma by preparing gels with an interface of high and low density collagen gels and investigated how this affects cell motility. The author's review paper details the effect of focal adhesion proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on cell motility and how this effect is driven by mechanical alterations of cells expressing FAK compared to cells with FAK knock-out [5]. In particular, it focused on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. This article highlights that both focal adhesion proteins

  3. Prevalence of behavior problems in three-year-old children living near Three Mile Island: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornely, P; Bromet, E

    1986-07-01

    The Behavior Screening Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to determine whether 2 1/2-3 1/2 yr old children living near the TMI nuclear reactor were more disturbed than children living near another nuclear plant or near a fossil-fuel facility in Pennsylvania when assessed 2 1/2 yr later. The prevalence of behavior problems was 11%. Differences among the sites in overall rates and individual symptoms were small. Perceptions of environmental stress among the TMI sample of mothers were unrelated to BSQ scores, whereas in the comparison sites, where unemployment was rising, economic concerns were meaningfully related to the BSQ.

  4. Male Escorts' and Male Clients' Sexual Behavior During Their Last Commercial Sexual Encounter: Comparing and Contrasting Findings from Two Online Studies.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G

    2016-05-01

    Much of what is known about commercial sexual encounters between men is based on data gathered from escorts. With few exceptions, studies have not compared male clients' reports of behavior during commercial sexual encounters with male escorts'. The present study draws from two datasets, a 2012 survey of clients (n = 495) and a 2013 survey of escorts (n = 387)--both used virtually identical measures of sexual behavior during the most recent commercial sexual encounter. For clients and escorts, the majority eschewed having sex without a condom, and kissing and oral sex were among the most common behaviors reported. Using logistic regression, both samples were compared across 15 sexual behaviors, finding significant differences in six--the escort sample had greater odds of reporting their last commercial sexual encounter involved watching the client masturbate, viewing porn, role play (dad/son, dominant/submissive), and having prior sexual experience with their commercial partner. The escort sample had lower odds of reporting that the client watched the escort masturbate, and being told partner's HIV status. In multivariable modeling, both samples did not significantly differ in reports of condomless anal sex. Male-male commercial sexual encounters appear to be involved in a wide range of sexual behaviors, many of which convey low-to-no risk of HIV transmission.

  5. Comparing the Social Knowledge Construction Behavioral Patterns of Problem-Based Online Asynchronous Discussion in E/M-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Pei-Wei; Yang, Shih-Hsien; Hung, Chun-Ling

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have conducted various studies on applying wireless networking technology and mobile devices in education settings. However, research on behavioral patterns in learners' online asynchronous discussions with mobile devices is limited. The purposes of this study are to develop a mobile learning system, mobile interactive…

  6. A Comparative Investigation of the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Practices and Psychodrama on Adolescent Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep; Gokcakan, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate whether cognitive-behavioral group practices and psychodrama decrease adolescent aggression. This is a quasi-experimental, pre-post and follow up study with two experiments and one control group. The Aggression Scale (Buss & Warren, 2000) adapted to Turkish by Can (2002) was administered as a pretest…

  7. Classroom Climate, Teacher Control Behavior, and Student Self-Control: Urban Public and Military High Schools Compared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenburg, Fred C.; Sartori, Mary Ann; Bauske, Terri

    In this study, teachers' control behavior, classroom climate, and student self-control were investigated. Differences between urban public and military high schools concerning these variables were also examined. Participants were 102 high school students from an urban public school and 94 students from an urban 4-year military high school. The…

  8. Behavioral Features of Williams Beuren Syndrome Compared to Fragile X Syndrome and Subjects with Intellectual Disability without Defined Etiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Garcia, D.; Granero, R.; Gallastegui, F.; Perez-Jurado, L. A.; Brun-Gasca, C.

    2011-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a heterozygous deletion of 26-28 genes on chromosome band 7q11.23. During the past few years, researchers and clinicians have significantly contributed to define the phenotype of the syndrome, including its cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, it…

  9. Comparing Self-Reported Versus Objectively Measured Physical Activity Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation of Older Filipino American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atienza, Audie A.; King, Abby C.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of examining health behaviors, such as physical activity, among Filipino Americans is highlighted by their higher rates of chronic disease. As physical inactivity has been linked to chronic diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), this study investigated the physical activity levels of older Filipinas. This…

  10. Explosive, Oppositional, and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Autism Compared to Other Clinical Disorders and Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santoshkumar; Anderson, Robert; Petersen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Maternal ratings of explosiveness, opposition, and aggression were analyzed in 1609 children 6-16 years of age. Behavior problems were common in autism, ADHD-Combined type, and depression, whereas children with ADHD-Inattentive type, anxiety disorder, and acquired brain injury did not differ from typical controls. More than 40% of children with…

  11. Reducing Relapse and Recurrence in Unipolar Depression: A Comparative Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy's Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Dunn, Todd W.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2007-01-01

    Relapse and recurrence following response to acute-phase treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) are prevalent and costly. In a meta-analysis of 28 studies including 1,880 adults, the authors reviewed the world's published literature on cognitive-behavioral therapies (CT) aimed at preventing relapse-recurrence in MDD. Results indicate that…

  12. The role of taurine on anxiety-like behaviors in zebrafish: A comparative study using the novel tank and the light-dark tasks.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Nathana J; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Quadros, Vanessa A; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-02-02

    Taurine (TAU) is an amino sulfonic acid with several functions in central nervous system. Mounting evidence suggests that it acts in osmoregulation, neuromodulation and also as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. However, the effects of TAU on behavioral functions, especially on anxiety-related parameters, are limited. The adult zebrafish is a suitable model organism to examine anxiety-like behaviors since it presents neurotransmitter systems and behavioral functions evolutionary conserved. Anxiety in zebrafish can be measured by different tasks, analyzing the habituation to novelty, as well as the response to brightly lit environments. The aim of this study was to investigate whether acute TAU treatment alters anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish using the novel tank and the light-dark tests. Fish were individually treated with TAU (42, 150, and 400mg/L) for 1h and the behaviors were further analyzed for 6min in the novel tank or in the light-dark test. Control fish were handled in a similar manner, but kept only in home tank water. Although TAU did not alter locomotor and vertical activities, all concentrations significantly increased shuttling and time spent in lit compartment. Moreover, TAU 150 group showed a significant decrease in the number of risk assessment episodes. Overall, these data suggest that TAU exerts an anxiolytic-like effect in zebrafish and the comparative analysis of behavior using different tasks is an interesting strategy for neuropsychiatric studies related to anxiety in this species.

  13. A comparative analysis of homosexual behaviors, sex role preferences, and anal sex proclivities in Latino and non-Latino men.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, William L

    2009-10-01

    Machismo prescribes that homosexual encounters among Latino men are conducted along highly gendered lines: men tend to be anally insertive or receptive over the lifecourse, but not both. Some have argued that Latino men have more lifecourse homosexual behaviors in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. This is often due to the perception that Latin America has quasi-institutionalized homosexuality, which sharply contrasts it with the United States. Although scholars suggest that sex role preferences and greater likelihoods for homosexual behaviors exist among Latino men in the United States, limited empirical data validate these claims. Latino/non-Latino differences in male homosexual behaviors and sex role preferences were analyzed by using the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative, probability sample of 4,928 men. Findings revealed that non-Mexican Latino, but not Mexican, men had increased likelihoods of ever having anal sex than non-Latino Whites and oral sex than non-Latino Blacks. These relationships remained after controlling for age, education, and foreign birth. Latino men preferred insertive or receptive sex in comparison to non-Latino Blacks and Whites, but this difference disappeared after education was controlled. In full and reduced models, Mexican men tended to be orifice-specific (oral or anal), while non-Mexican Latinos were more oriented to both oral and anal sex. Controlling for other factors, all Latinos were more likely than non-Latino Blacks and Whites to refuse to answer male homosexual behavior questions. The implications of race/ethnicity are discussed for homosexual behavior patterns among U.S. men.

  14. Effect of intra- and interspecific competition on the performance of native and invasive species of Impatiens under varying levels of shade and moisture.

    PubMed

    Skálová, Hana; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Dvořáčková, Śárka; Pyšek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Many alien plants are thought to be invasive because of unique traits and greater phenotypic plasticity relative to resident species. However, many studies of invasive species are unable to quantify the importance of particular traits and phenotypic plasticity in conferring invasive behavior because traits used in comparative studies are often measured in a single environment and by using plants from a single population. To obtain a deeper insight into the role of environmental factors, local differences and competition in plant invasions, we compared species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of different origin and invasion status that occur in central Europe: native I. noli-tangere and three alien species (highly invasive I. glandulifera, less invasive I. parviflora and potentially invasive I. capensis). In two experiments we harvested late-stage reproductive plants to estimate performance. The first experiment quantified how populations differed in performance under varying light and moisture levels in the absence of competition. The second experiment quantified performance across these environments in the presence of intra- and inter-specific competition. The highly invasive I. glandulifera was the strongest competitor, was the tallest and produced the greatest biomass. Small size and high plasticity were characteristic for I. parviflora. This species appeared to be the second strongest competitor, especially under low soil moisture. The performance of I. capensis was within the range of the other Impatiens species studied, but sometimes limited by alien competitors. Our results suggest that invasion success within the genus Impatiens depends on the ability to grow large under a range of environmental conditions, including competition. The invasive species also exhibited greater phenotypic plasticity across environmental conditions than the native species. Finally, the decreased performance of the native I. noli-tangere in competition with other species studied

  15. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    PubMed

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Individual Addiction Counseling for Co-occurring Substance Use and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark P.; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Alterman, Arthur I.; Xie, Haiyi; Meier, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Objective Co-occurring posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and substance use disorders provide clinical challenges to addiction treatment providers. Interventions are needed that are effective, well-tolerated by patients, and capable of being delivered by typical clinicians in community settings. This is a randomized controlled trial of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Methods Fifty-three participants sampled from seven community addiction treatment programs were randomized to integrated cognitive behavioral therapy plus standard care or individual addiction counseling plus standard care. Fourteen community therapists employed by these programs delivered both manual-guided therapies. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms, substance use symptoms and therapy retention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-up. Results Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy was more effective than individual addiction counseling in reducing PTSD re-experiencing symptoms and PTSD diagnosis. Individual addiction counseling was comparably effective to integrated cognitive behavioral therapy in substance use outcomes and on other measures of psychiatric symptom severity. Participants assigned to individual addiction counseling with severe PTSD were less likely to initiate and engage in the therapy than those assigned to integrated cognitive behavioral therapy. In general, participants with severe PTSD were more likely to benefit from integrated cognitive behavioral therapy. Conclusions The findings support the promise of efficacy of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy in improving outcomes for persons in addiction treatment with PTSD. Community counselors delivered both interventions with satisfactory adherence and competence. Despite several limitations to this research, a larger randomized controlled trial of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy appears warranted. PMID:22383864

  17. [CD147 expression in non-invasive and invasive breast carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Saki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Hara, Yukiko; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Hirano, Tomohisa; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi

    2014-10-01

    CD147 is a multifunctional membrane glycoprotein involved in tumor invasion, and is overexpressed in many solid tumors. However, the role of CD147 in breast cancer is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate CD147 expression in non-invasive and invasive ductal carcinomas. We recruited 156 breast cancer patients who underwent radical operations at our hospital up until 2002. We performed immunohistochemistry on their tumor specimens, and compared these data with clinicopathological factors. We divided the patients into two groups: group A was comprised of non-invasive ductal carcinomas and group B, invasive ductal carcinomas. The CD147-positive rate was 62.8% for all patients and was higher in group B than group A. In all cases, the CD147-positive rate correlated with clinical stage, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and tumor size. These results implied that CD147 may be involved in the process of breast cancer invasion.

  18. Comparing two theories of health behavior: a prospective study of noncompletion of treatment following cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Orbell, Sheina; Hagger, Martin; Brown, Val; Tidy, John

    2006-09-01

    Some women receiving abnormal cervical screening tests do not complete recommended treatment. A prospective study (N = 660) investigated the value of conceptualizing attendance at colposcopy for treatment as either (a) an active problem-solving response to a health threat, motivated by attitudes toward an abnormal result, as implied by self-regulation theory (H. Leventhal, D. Meyer, & D. Nerenz, 1980); or (b) as a behavior motivated by attitudes toward clinic attendance, as implied by the theory of planned behavior (TPB; I. Ajzen, 1985). Responses to questionnaires containing variables specified by these models were used to predict women's subsequent attendance or nonattendance for treatment over the following 15 months. Although the TPB offered superior prediction of intentions and completion of treatment, discriminant function analyses showed that consideration of both models was important in distinguishing between those who attended all their appointments as scheduled, attended after being prompted, or ceased attending. Implications for measurement and theory in health protection are discussed.

  19. Whole-exome sequencing identifies variants in invasive pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiaolei; Gao, Hua; Wang, Fei; Feng, Jie; Bai, Jiwei; Zhao, Peng; Cao, Lei; Gui, Songbai; Gong, Lei; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas exhibit a wide range of behaviors. The prediction of invasion or malignant behavior in pituitary adenomas remains challenging. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic abnormalities associated with invasion in sporadic pituitary adenomas. In the present study, the exomes of six invasive pituitary adenomas (IPA) and six non-invasive pituitary adenomas (nIPA) were sequenced by whole-exome sequencing. Variants were confirmed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing, and candidate driver genes were assessed in an additional 28 pituitary adenomas. A total of 15 identified variants were mainly associated with angiogenesis, metabolism, cell cycle phase, cellular component organization, cytoskeleton and biogenesis immune at a cellular level, including 13 variants that occurred as single nucleotide variants and 2 that comprised of insertions. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of diffuse panbronchiolitis critical region 1 (DPCR1), KIAA0226, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance, proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 3, PR domain containing 2, with ZNF domain, RIZ1 (PRDM2), PR domain containing 8 (PRDM8), SPANX family member N2 (SPANXN2), TRIO and F-actin binding protein and zinc finger protein 717 in IPA specimens were 50% decreased compared with nIPA specimens. In particular, DPCR1, PRDM2, PRDM8 and SPANXN2 mRNA levels in IPA specimens were approximately four-fold lower compared with nIPA specimens (P=0.003, 0.007, 0.009 and 0.004, respectively). By contrast, the mRNA levels of dentin sialophospho protein, EGF like domain, multiple 7 (EGFL7), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B and dynein, axonemal, assembly factor 1 (LRRC50) were increased in IPA compared with nIPA specimens (P=0.041, 0.037, 0.022 and 0.013, respectively). Furthermore, decreased PRDM2 expression was associated with tumor recurrence. The findings of the present study indicate that DPCR1, EGFL7, the PRDM family and LRRC50 in pituitary adenomas are modifiers of

  20. A Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Study of Healthy Directions 2—A Multiple Risk Behavior Intervention for Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Greaney, Mary L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Bennett, Gary G.; Haines, Jess; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Viswanath, Vish

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy Directions 2 (HD2) intervention in the primary care setting. Methods HD2 was a cluster randomized trial (conducted 3/09 – 11/11). Primary sampling unit was provider (n=33), with secondary sampling of patients within provider (n=2,440). Study arms included: 1) usual care (UC); 2) HD2-- a patient self-guided intervention targeting 5 risk behaviors; or 3) HD2 plus 2 brief telephone coaching calls (HD2+CC). The outcome measure was proportion of participants with a lower multiple risk behavior score (MRB) by follow-up. Results At baseline, only 4% of participants met all behavioral recommendations. Both HD2 and HD2+CC led to improvements in MRB score, relative to UC, with no differences between the two HD2 conditions. Twenty-eight percent of UC participants had improved MRB scores at 6 mo., vs. 39% and 43% in HD2 and HD2+CC respectively (p’s≤.001); results were similar at 18 mo. (p≤.05). The incremental cost of one risk factor reduction in MRB score was $319 in HD2 and $440 for HD2+CC. Conclusions Self-guided and coached intervention conditions had equivalent levels of effect in reducing multiple chronic disease risk factors, were relatively low cost, and thus are potentially useful for routine implementation in similar health settings. PMID:24642140

  1. A model for the neuronal substrate of dead reckoning and memory in arthropods: a comparative computational and behavioral study.

    PubMed

    Bernardet, Ulysses; Bermúdez I Badia, Sergi; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2008-06-01

    Returning to the point of departure after exploring the environment is a key capability for most animals. In the absence of landmarks, this task will be solved by integrating direction and distance traveled over time. This is referred to as path integration or dead reckoning. An important question is how the nervous systems of navigating animals such as the 1 mm(3) brain of ants can integrate local information in order to make global decision. In this article we propose a neurobiologically plausible system of storing and retrieving direction and distance information. The path memory of our model builds on the well established concept of population codes, moreover our system does not rely on trigonometric functions or other complex non-linear operations such as multiplication, but only uses biologically plausible operations such as integration and thresholding. We test our model in two paradigms; in the first paradigm the system receives input from a simulated compass, in the second paradigm, the model is tested against behavioral data recorded from 17 ants. We were able to show that our path memory system was able to reliably encode and compute the angle of the vector pointing to the start location, and that the system stores the total length of the trajectory in a dependable way. From the structure and behavior of our model, we derive testable predictions both at the level of observable behavior as well as on the anatomy and physiology of its underlying neuronal substrate.

  2. Children Whose Fathers Seek Help for Partner Violence Victimization: Descriptive Characteristics and Their Behavioral Health as Compared to a Population-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-01-01

    Children whose parents seek help for partner violence (PV) victimization are at an increased risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral health problems. The literature has examined this phenomenon primarily among children of battered women. This study examines the sociodemographic characteristics and behavioral health of children whose fathers have sought help for PV victimization and compares them to children of men from the general population. Children whose fathers sought help for PV victimization were less likely to live with their fathers. Bivariate analyses showed that children of male victims had elevated scores in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-related areas of behavioral health; many of these findings remain in multivariate analyses, especially among older children. The implications of the results are discussed for researchers and social service practitioners.

  3. The difference in miR-21 expression levels between invasive and non-invasive breast cancers emphasizes its role in breast cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Nina; Mandušić, Vesna; Stanojević, Boban; Lukić, Silvana; Todorović, Lidija; Roganović, Jelena; Dimitrijević, Bogomir

    2014-03-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) overexpression is characteristic for various types of tumors, but it is still unknown whether its expression levels differ between invasive and non-invasive breast carcinomas. The main goal of the study was to determine the difference in miR-21 expression among normal tissue, non-invasive, invasive with non-invasive component, and pure invasive breast cancer samples, to explain its potential role and significance in breast cancer invasiveness. The second goal was to propose miR-21 as molecular marker of breast cancer invasiveness and potential target for future anti-miR therapies for the prevention of invasion and metastasis. In order to reveal the role of miR-21 in breast cancer invasiveness, we measured miR-21 expression levels in 44 breast cancer and four normal samples by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR using TaqMan technology. Relative expression levels of miR-21 were significantly higher in invasive than in other groups (P=0.002) and significantly higher in invasive compared with invasive with non-invasive component group in histological (P=0.043) and nuclear grade 2 (P=0.036), estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) (P=0.006), progesterone-receptor-positive (PR+) (P=0.008), ER+PR+ (P=0.007), and proliferation index (Ki-67)≤20% (P=0.036) tumors. Our findings suggest that miR-21 could be independent molecular marker of breast cancer invasiveness and potential target for future anti-miR therapies for the prevention of invasion and metastasis.

  4. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    PubMed Central

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F. sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F. sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F. japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  5. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  6. Culture, parenting, and child behavioral problems: a comparative study of cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Kuo, Yi-Jin; Wang, Lee; Yang, Chien-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the interplay of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic factors on children's behavioral problems, especially within culturally mixed families in Chinese society. This study compares the presence of behavioral problems between children from families with an immigrant mother and those from native-born families in a randomly selected sample of 957 children aged 6 to 12 years from three counties in central Taiwan. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist completed by parents and the Teacher's Report Form. Parenting styles were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument completed by children. Children of immigrant mothers had higher scores for all behavioral syndromes based on the parent's report. However, in the teacher's report a difference was only observed for withdrawn/depressed syndrome. Children of immigrant mothers were more likely, and children with high paternal care were less likely, to have internalizing and total problems in the parent's report. For the teacher's report, only high education in fathers was associated with decreased internalizing and total problems in children. These findings suggest that children growing up in a cross-cultural environment with an immigrant mother, as opposed to a native-born Taiwanese family environment, are more likely to have higher internalizing problems and total behavioral problem scores, due to a number of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic factors. Children's behaviors appear to be more influenced by fathers' than mothers' parenting styles, regardless of family type. The study findings imply that unequal health and social conditions exist between cross-cultural and native-born families.

  7. [Invasive and minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Advanced hemodynamic monitoring is necessary for adequate management of high-risk patients or patients with derangement of circulation. Studies demonstrate a benefit of early goal directed therapy in unstable cardiopulmonary situations. In these days we have different possibilities of minimally invasive or invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Minimally invasive measurements like pulse conture analysis or pulse wave analysis being less accurate under some circumstances, however only an artery catheter is needed for cardiac output monitoring. Pulmonary artery, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution technology have acceptable accuracy in cardiac output measurement. For therapy of unstable circulation there are additionally parameters to obtain. The pulmonary artery catheter is the device with the largest rate of complications, used by a trained crew and with a correct indication, his use is unchained justified.

  8. Demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in children with gender identity disorder: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Owen, Allison; Kaijser, Vanessa G; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2003-02-01

    This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample at referral, had a higher percentage of boys, had a higher mean IQ, and was less likely to be living with both parents. On the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), both groups showed, on average, clinical range scores in both social competence and behavior problems. A CBCL-derived measure of poor peer relations showed that boys in both clinics had worse ratings than did the girls. A multiple regression analysis showed that poor peer relations were the strongest predictor of behavior problems in both samples. This study-the first cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of children with gender identity disorder-found far more similarities than differences in both social competence and behavior problems. The most salient demographic difference was age at referral. Cross-national differences in factors that might influence referral patterns are discussed.

  9. Parenting Behavior, Health, and Cognitive Development among Children in Black Immigrant Families: Comparing the United States and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in child development in the United States are significant, with a particularly pronounced disadvantage among Black children. This report focuses on the development of children of Black immigrants, comparing against the outcomes for their peers in native-born and other immigrant families. The report also compares children in the…

  10. Poor peer relations predict parent- and self-reported behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with gender dysphoria: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.

  11. Comparing the Effectiveness of Behavioral Recognition and Group Stress Surmounting Techniques Instructions on Changing University Students' Positive Attitudes towards Opiate Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Bahman

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the most important strategies in preventing addiction is changing positive attitudes and stabilizing negative attitudes towards opiate abuse. Current research has been comparing the effectiveness of behavioral recognition and stress surmounting techniques instructions on changing students' positive attitudes towards opiate abuse. Methods To determine the effectiveness of behavioral-recognition and group stress surmounting instructions on changing student’s positive attitudes towards opiate abuse, 90 students (45 boys and 45 girls) who had got good grades in attitude measuring questionnaire were chosen and were randomly assigned in 3 groups (two test groups and the control group) and then, were randomly replaced in 15 person groups with sex distinction. The research data were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis method. Findings The results of pot-test analyses showed significant improvement compared with pretest analysis in both training methods and in both genders (P < 0.05). Then, the surmounting methods group training and recognition-behavioral group training both significantly improved positive attitudes towards opiate abuse in male and female students. Conclusion Behavioral-recognition and stress surmounting techniques instructions brought about changes in students attitudes towards opiate abuse and these changes were more prominent in female students than in males. PMID:24494119

  12. Raves & rants about invasive crazy ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crazy ants” is a name that refers to various species of ants that are characterized by erratic, scurrying, or running, behavior when disturbed. Two of these species, the yellow crazy ant and the Caribbean or Rasberry [sic] crazy ant, are invasive with extremely large populations that inundate lands...

  13. Hyperinvasive approach to out-of hospital cardiac arrest using mechanical chest compression device, prehospital intraarrest cooling, extracorporeal life support and early invasive assessment compared to standard of care. A randomized parallel groups comparative study proposal. “Prague OHCA study”

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has a poor outcome. Recent non-randomized studies of ECLS (extracorporeal life support) in OHCA suggested further prospective multicenter studies to define population that would benefit from ECLS. We aim to perform a prospective randomized study comparing prehospital intraarrest hypothermia combined with mechanical chest compression device, intrahospital ECLS and early invasive investigation and treatment in all patients with OHCA of presumed cardiac origin compared to a standard of care. Methods This paper describes methodology and design of the proposed trial. Patients with witnessed OHCA without ROSC (return of spontaneous circulation) after a minimum of 5 minutes of ACLS (advanced cardiac life support) by emergency medical service (EMS) team and after performance of all initial procedures (defibrillation, airway management, intravenous access establishment) will be randomized to standard vs. hyperinvasive arm. In hyperinvasive arm, mechanical compression device together with intranasal evaporative cooling will be instituted and patients will be transferred directly to cardiac center under ongoing CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). After admission, ECLS inclusion/exclusion criteria will be evaluated and if achieved, veno-arterial ECLS will be started. Invasive investigation and standard post resuscitation care will follow. Patients in standard arm will be managed on scene. When ROSC achieved, they will be transferred to cardiac center and further treated as per recent guidelines. Primary outcome 6 months survival with good neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category 1–2). Secondary outcomes will include 30 day neurological and cardiac recovery. Discussion Authors introduce and offer a protocol of a proposed randomized study comparing a combined “hyperinvasive approach” to a standard of care in refractory OHCA. The protocol is opened for sharing by other cardiac centers with available ECLS and

  14. Comparing Help-Seeking Behavior of Male and Female Survivors of Sexual Assault: A Content Analysis of a Hotline.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen M; Pruett, Jana A; Colvin, Marianna L

    2016-11-18

    This content analysis examines written documentation of telephone calls to a regional sexual assault hotline over a 5-year period. All male callers identified as primary victims were selected for analysis (n = 58) and a corresponding sample of female primary victims (n = 58) were randomly selected for comparison to better understand the help-seeking behavior of sexual assault survivors and inform services accordingly. A summative content analysis revealed significant contrasting themes between male and female victims, including females significantly receiving more referrals and males accessing the hotline to tell their experience of being sexually assaulted due to perceived limited support. Implications for training, practice, and future research are discussed.

  15. An assessment of the behavioral toxicity of high-energy iron particles compared to other qualities of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Joseph, J.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Conditioned taste aversion was used to evaluate the behavioral toxicity of exposure to high-energy iron particles ({sup 56}Fe, 600 MeV/amu) in comparison to that of gamma photons ({sup 60}Co), high-energy electrons, or fission neutrons. Exposure to high-energy iron particles (5-500 cGy) produced a dose-dependent taste aversion with a maximal effect achieved with a dose of 30 cGy. Gamma photons and electrons were the least effective stimuli for producing a conditioned taste aversion, with a maximal aversion obtained only after exposure to 500 cGy, while the effectiveness of fission neutrons was intermediate to that of photons and iron particles, and a maximal aversion was obtained with a dose of 100 cGy. In the second experiment, rats with lesions of the area postrema were exposed to iron particles (30 cGy), but failed to acquire a taste aversion. The results indicate that (1) high-energy iron particles are more toxic than other qualities of radiation and (2) similar mechanisms mediate the behavioral toxicity of gamma photons and high-energy iron particles.

  16. Assessment of the behavioral toxicity of high-energy iron particles compared to other qualities of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Joseph, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion was used to evaluate the behavioral toxicity of exposure to high-energy iron particles (56Fe, 600 MeV/amu) in comparison to that of gamma photons (60 Co), high-energy electrons, or fission neutrons. Exposure to high-energy iron particles (5-500 cGy) produced a dose-dependent taste aversion with a maximal effect achieved with a dose of 30 cGy. Gamma photons and electrons were the least-effective stimuli for producing a conditioned taste aversion, with a maximal aversion obtained only after exposure to 500 cGy, while the effectiveness of fission neutrons was intermediate to that of photons and iron particles, and a maximal aversion was obtained with a dose of 100 CGy. In the second experiment, rats with lesions of the area postrema were exposed to iron particles (3- cGY), but failed to acquire a taste aversion. The results indicate that (1) high-energy iron particles are more toxic than other qualities of radiation and (2) similar mechanisms mediate the behavioral toxicity of gamma photons and high-energy iron particles.

  17. Physical child harm and bullying-related behaviors: a comparative study in Japan, South Africa, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Dussich, John P J; Maekoya, Chie

    2007-10-01

    School bullying is a major social problem in most countries and is especially of concern to school administrators and teachers. The typical place in which bullying occurs is at school. For this reason, school administrators and teachers are often held responsible for its occurrence, prevention, and management. However, in spite of concerted efforts to prevent this problem, bullying continues to plague most schools. Previous research and this study suggest that the etiology of bullying is more directly related to conditions at home rather than to conditions at school. Thus, the authors have hypothesized that bullying is associated with physically harming children in their homes and the coping responses that result from this physical harm. This research surveyed a sample of 852 university students in Japan, South Africa, and the United States. The findings suggest there are significant relationships between physical child harm and three types of bullying related behaviors: offending, being victimized, and offending plus being victimized. Using social coping theory, this research suggests that the manner in which physically harmed children cope with their early victimization has a bearing on their subsequent involvement with bullying-related behaviors.

  18. Brief cognitive behavioral therapy compared to general practitioners care for depression in primary care: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent in primary care (PC) and are associated with considerable functional impairment and increased health care use. Research has shown that many patients prefer psychological treatments to pharmacotherapy, however, it remains unclear which treatment is most optimal for depressive patients in primary care. Methods/Design A randomized, multi-centre trial involving two intervention groups: one receiving brief cognitive behavioral therapy and the other receiving general practitioner care. General practitioners from 109 General Practices in Nijmegen and Amsterdam (The Netherlands) will be asked to include patients aged between 18-70 years presenting with depressive symptomatology, who do not receive an active treatment for their depressive complaints. Patients will be telephonically assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) to ascertain study eligibility. Eligible patients will be randomized to one of two treatment conditions: either 8 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy by a first line psychologist or general practitioner's care according to The Dutch College of General Practitioners Practice Guideline (NHG- standaard). Baseline and follow-up assessments are scheduled at 0, 6, 12 and 52 weeks following the start of the intervention. Primary outcome will be measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention to treat basis. Trial Registration ISRCTN65811640 PMID:20939917

  19. The Effect of Gender, Tone, and Sound Location on the Response Behavior of Neogobius melanostomus (Round Goby) and the Possibility of Future Trapping of this Invasive Species in Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Moynan, Crystal R; Neumann, Christine E; Welsh, Cynthia A

    2016-08-01

    Neogobius melanostomus (round goby) are a benthic dwelling invasive species of fish in the Great Lakes. This study was done to determine if a tone that mimics the frequency (175 Hz) of mating call of a male round goby would have an effect on male and female response. A testing tank and a simulated trap in front of a speaker at each end were used. Each fish was then placed individually into the small holding box that was in the center of the tank. A video camera was then turned on to record fish movement once the door was opened. Next, the artificial sound was turned on for 1 min (175, 300, 500 Hz, and no sound); 175 Hz mimics the conspecific mating call. This process was done for each frequency for each fish. The individual fish was then allowed to roam for 5 min. The video camera recorded fish location and behavior. From the videos, a continuous measure was collected according to when the fish crossed the center line. The hypothesis, if (N. melanostomus) hears different frequencies of sound projected from a certain location in a fish tank habitat, then the females will be attracted and spend more time on the sound-emitting side of the tank, which mimics the frequency of mating call of a male round goby (175 Hz, 13 pulse), was supported; females spent more time on the sound-emitting side of the tank and males avoided the sound-emitting side of the tank, analysis of variance p < 0.012.

  20. Lack of sex-specific movement patterns in an alien species at its invasion front - consequences for invasion speed.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; Melis, Claudia; Åhlén, Per-Arne; Dahl, Fredrik

    2016-08-01

    Efficient targeting of actions to reduce the spread of invasive alien species relies on understanding the spatial, temporal, and individual variation of movement, in particular related to dispersal. Such patterns may differ between individuals at the invasion front compared to individuals in established and dense populations due to differences in environmental and ecological conditions such as abundance of conspecifics or sex-specific dispersal affecting the encounter rate of potential mates. We assessed seasonal and diurnal variation in movement pattern (step length and turning angle) of adult male and female raccoon dog at their invasion front in northern Sweden using data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked adult individuals and assessed whether male and female raccoon dog differed in their movement behavior. There were few consistent sex differences in movement. The rate of dispersal was rather similar over the months, suggesting that both male and female raccoon dog disperse during most of the year, but with higher speed during spring and summer. There were diurnal movement patterns in both sexes with more directional and faster movement during the dark hours. However, the short summer nights may limit such movement patterns, and long-distance displacement was best explained by fine-scale movement patterns from 18:00 to 05:00, rather than by movement patterns only from twilight and night. Simulation of dispersing raccoon dogs suggested a higher frequency of male-female encounters that were further away from the source population for the empirical data compared to a scenario with sex differences in movement pattern. The lack of sex differences in movement pattern at the invasion front results in an increased likelihood for reproductive events far from the source population. Animals outside the source population should be considered potential reproducing individuals, and a high effort to capture such individuals is needed throughout the year to prevent

  1. Invasive Insects Differ from Non-Invasive in Their Thermal Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kenis, Marc; Honěk, Alois; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether two basic thermal requirements for insect development, lower developmental thresholds, i.e. temperatures at which development ceases, and sums of effective temperatures, i.e. numbers of day degrees above the lower developmental thresholds necessary to complete development, differ among insect species that proved to be successful invaders in regions outside their native range and those that did not. Focusing on species traits underlying invasiveness that are related to temperature provides insights into the mechanisms of insect invasions. The screening of thermal requirements thus could improve risk-assessment schemes by incorporating these traits in predictions of potentially invasive insect species. We compared 100 pairs of taxonomically-related species originating from the same continent, one invasive and the other not reported as invasive. Invasive species have higher lower developmental thresholds than those never recorded outside their native ranges. Invasive species also have a lower sum of effective temperatures, though not significantly. However, the differences between invasive and non-invasive species in the two physiological measures were significantly inversely correlated. This result suggests that many species are currently prevented from invading by low temperatures in some parts of the world. Those species that will overcome current climatic constraints in regions outside their native distribution due to climate change could become even more serious future invaders than present-day species, due to their potentially faster development. PMID:26090826

  2. Health Behaviors and Associated Sociodemographic Factors in Cervical Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-Cancer Controls

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and monthly household income. The prevalence of current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors (2.68, 23.88, 62.02, and 32.81%, respectively) did not differ significantly from those of matched non-cancer controls. Age (younger), marital status (married), and education (≥college) were associated with lower probabilities of current alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88–0.95; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23–0.78; OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25–0.97, respectively). A monthly household income ≥$2,000, being employed, and self–rated health status (less healthy) were associated with physical inactivity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.99; OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.36–3.42; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23–3.05, respectively). Both age and number of years since diagnosis were associated with obesity (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01–1.08; OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.20–0.72, respectively). The health behaviors of cervical cancer survivors did not differ from those of matched cancer-free controls. As health behaviors are modifiable, identification of cervical cancer survivors who are at risk of an unhealthy lifestyle would allow individual- and population-based intervention programs to more effectively use their limited resources. PMID:27529704

  3. Comparative behavioral toxicity of four sulfhydryl radioprotective compounds in mice: Wr2721, cysteamine, diethyldithiocarbamate, and n-acetylcysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, M.R.; Davis, H.D.; Dominitz, J.A.; Weiss, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    A number of sulfhydryl compounds have been shown to protect against ionizing radiation. One of the most effective radioprotectors is S-2(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid, also known aas ethiofos, gammaphos, or WR-2721 (Davidson, 1980; Giambarresi and Jacobs, 1987). This drug is currently under clinical investigation for its potential in protecting normal tissue during radiation treatment and chemotherapy (Blumberg et al., 1982; Glover et al., 1988; Yuhas et al., 1980). B-Mercaptoethylamine (MEA, cysteamine) was for years the standard against which the effectiveness of other radioprotectors was judged, but is more toxic than WR-2721 (Giambarresi and Jacobs, 1987). Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are other compounds shown to have radioprotective properties (Milas et al., 1988; Weiss et al., 1984). Studies in a variety of animal species have shown significant behavioral toxicity after administration of WR-2721 (Bogo et al., 1985; Bogo, 1988; Landauer et al., 1987b, 1988).

  4. Comparative effects of intranasal neuropeptide Y and HS014 in preventing anxiety and depressive-like behavior elicited by single prolonged stress.

    PubMed

    Sabban, Esther L; Serova, Lidia I; Alaluf, Lishay G; Laukova, Marcela; Peddu, Chandana

    2015-12-15

    Stress triggered neuropsychiatric disorders are a serious societal problem. Prophylactic treatment or early intervention has great potential in increasing resilience to traumatic stress and reducing its harmful impact. Previously, we demonstrated proof of concept that intranasal administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) or the melanocortin receptor four (MC4R) antagonist, HS014, prior to single prolonged stress (SPS) rodent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) model, can prevent or attenuate many PTSD associated impairments. Here, we compare effects of NPY or HS014 given 30 min before or immediately after SPS stressors on development of anxiety, depressive-like behavior and associated biochemical abnormalities. SPS triggered anxiety on elevated plus maze (EPM) was reduced by intranasal administration of 100 μg NPY and to even greater extent HS014 (3.5 ng or 100 μg). The SPS-elicited depressive-like behavior on forced swim test was prevented with 100 μg NPY or the high dose HS014. Combined administration of low HS014 and NPY, ineffective by themselves, prevented development of depressive-like behavior. Reductions in stress triggered activation of locus coeruleus/noradrenergic system and HPA axis were observed with both HS014 and NPY. In contrast to NPY which has been showed earlier, infusion of HS014 immediately after SPS did not prevent the development of anxiogenic behavior on EPM. However, HS014 given after SPS stressors effectively even at very low dose, prevented development of depressive-like behavior. Thus, both MC4R antagonist and NPY, alone or combined, have potential for prophylactic treatment against traumatic stress triggered anxiety or depressive-like behaviors, while NPY has more widespread potential for early intervention.

  5. Invasive cells in animals and plants: searching for LECA machineries in later eukaryotic life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cell growth and migration is usually considered a specifically metazoan phenomenon. However, common features and mechanisms of cytoskeletal rearrangements, membrane trafficking and signalling processes contribute to cellular invasiveness in organisms as diverse as metazoans and plants – two eukaryotic realms genealogically connected only through the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LECA). By comparing current understanding of cell invasiveness in model cell types of both metazoan and plant origin (invadopodia of transformed metazoan cells, neurites, pollen tubes and root hairs), we document that invasive cell behavior in both lineages depends on similar mechanisms. While some superficially analogous processes may have arisen independently by convergent evolution (e.g. secretion of substrate- or tissue-macerating enzymes by both animal and plant cells), at the heart of cell invasion is an evolutionarily conserved machinery of cellular polarization and oriented cell mobilization, involving the actin cytoskeleton and the secretory pathway. Its central components - small GTPases (in particular RHO, but also ARF and Rab), their specialized effectors, actin and associated proteins, the exocyst complex essential for polarized secretion, or components of the phospholipid- and redox- based signalling circuits (inositol-phospholipid kinases/PIP2, NADPH oxidases) are aparently homologous among plants and metazoans, indicating that they were present already in LECA. Reviewer: This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Valerian Dolja and Purificacion Lopez-Garcia. PMID:23557484

  6. Comparing the effects of treatment with sildenafil and cognitive-behavioral therapy on treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Abdollah; Ahmadvand, Afshin; Najarzadegan, Mohammad Reza; Mehrzad, Fateme

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexual dysfunction in women is prevalent and common in women after menopause. Many attempts to treat patients with sexual dysfunction by cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) methods. But to the best of our knowledge, there has been no study that compared these two methods. Objective The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effects of sildenafil and cognitive-behavioral therapy on treatment of sexual dysfunction in women. Methods In this randomized, controlled, clinical trial, 86 women with arousal and orgasm dysfunction were surveyed. The patients were divided into two groups, i.e., sildenafil and CBT groups. The patients in the sildenafil group were treated by 50 mg of oral sildenafil one hour before intercourse, and the other group had weekly sessions of CBT for eight weeks. Sexual dysfunctions were evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), a sexual satisfaction questionnaire, and the Enrich marital satisfaction scale. Results The mean age of the participants was 33.14 ± 7.34 years. The mean scores for female sexual function index, sexual satisfaction, and the Enrich marital satisfaction scale were increased in both groups during treatment (p < 0.001). It was found that cognitive-behavioral therapy compared to treatment with sildenafil increased all subscales, except arousal, orgasm, and lubrication. Conclusion Cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective than treatment with sildenafil for improving female sexual function. Clinical trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the IRCT ID: IRCT2014070318338N1. Funding The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. PMID:27382439

  7. The invasive stoloniferous clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides outperforms its co-occurring non-invasive functional counterparts in heterogeneous soil environments – invasion implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Hu, Jiangtao; Miao, Linlin; Yu, Dan; Liu, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is considered to play a defining role in promoting invasion success, and it favours clonal plants. Although clonality has been demonstrated to be correlated with the invasion success of several species of clonal invasive plants in heterogeneous environments, little is known about how the spatial scale of heterogeneity affects their performance. In addition, the factors that distinguish invasive from non-invasive clonal species and that enhance the invasive potential of clonal exotic invaders in heterogeneous environments remain unclear. In this study, we compared several traits of a noxious clonal invasive species, Alternanthera philoxeroides, with its co-occurring non-invasive functional counterparts, the native congener Alternanthera sessilis, the exotic Myriophyllum aquaticum and the native Jussiaea repens, in three manipulative substrates with different soil distribution patterns. We found that the invasive performance of A. philoxeroides was not enhanced by heterogeneity and that it was generally scale independent. However, A. philoxeroides showed some advantages over the three non-invasives with respect to trait values and phenotypic variation. These advantages may enhance the competitive capacity of A. philoxeroides and thus promote its invasion success in heterogeneous environments. PMID:27897247

  8. What Can Be Learned from Computer Modeling? Comparing Expository and Modeling Approaches to Teaching Dynamic Systems Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Borkulo, Sylvia P.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; de Jong, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Computer modeling has been widely promoted as a means to attain higher order learning outcomes. Substantiating these benefits, however, has been problematic due to a lack of proper assessment tools. In this study, we compared computer modeling with expository instruction, using a tailored assessment designed to reveal the benefits of either mode…

  9. Comparing the Effects of Teen Mentors to Adult Teachers on Child Lifestyle Behaviors and Health Outcomes in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laureen H.; Holloman, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity prevalence rates in the United States are the highest in the rural Appalachian areas. Teens mentoring younger children to reverse obesity health risks are an understudied approach. This randomized-controlled trial compared the effects of two curriculum delivery methods and assessed the mediating effects of the number of sessions…

  10. Movement and diving behavior of male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) during anomalous oceanographic conditions of 2005 compared to those of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Michael J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2006-11-01

    During the highly anomalous conditions in early 2005, characterized by increased water temperatures and decreased productivity, male California sea lions adopted previously undocumented foraging behaviors. We investigated the movement and spatially explicit foraging behavior of males using satellite-linked data loggers and compared foraging behavior and effort between 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. Males foraged almost exclusively over the continental shelf during short trips in 2003-2004, while during anomalous conditions in 2004-2005 they altered their foraging effort by spending more time at sea and venturing up to 450 km offshore. Foraging trips in 2004-2005 were more than twice the distance and three times the duration of trips during 2003-2004. Our data indicated that the effects of climatic shifts during 2005 extended beyond the physical oceanography and lower trophic levels, to an apex predator; providing insight into the plasticity of foraging behavior and movement patterns of sea lions as they respond to environmental perturbations.

  11. Motivational Factors Underlying Problem Solving: Comparing Wolf and Dog Puppies' Explorative and Neophobic Behaviors at 5, 6, and 8 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Kubinyi, Enikő; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wolves have been shown to be better in independent problem-solving tasks than dogs, however it is unclear whether cognitive or motivational factors underlie such differences. In a number of species problem solving has been linked to both persistence in exploration and neophobia, suggesting both these aspects may underlie dog-wolf differences in problem solving. Indeed adult wolves have been shown to be more likely to approach a novel object and more persistent in their investigation of it, but also slower in making contact with it and more fearful of it than dogs. Methods: In the current study we investigated potential differences in equally-raised dogs' and wolves' explorative and neophobic behaviors in a novel environment and with novel objects at 5, 6, and 8 weeks of age. Results: Results showed that wolves were more persistent in exploring both the environment and the objects than dogs, and this was the case at all ages. There were no differences in the frequency of fear-related behaviors and time spent in proximity to humans. Stress-related behaviors were similarly expressed at 5 and 6 weeks, although wolves showed a higher frequency of such behaviors at 8 weeks. Discussion: Overall, results with puppies confirm those with adult animals: wolves appear to be more explorative than dogs. Such motivational differences need to be taken into account when comparing dogs and wolves in cognitive tasks.

  12. Motivational Factors Underlying Problem Solving: Comparing Wolf and Dog Puppies' Explorative and Neophobic Behaviors at 5, 6, and 8 Weeks of Age

    PubMed Central

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Kubinyi, Enikő; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wolves have been shown to be better in independent problem-solving tasks than dogs, however it is unclear whether cognitive or motivational factors underlie such differences. In a number of species problem solving has been linked to both persistence in exploration and neophobia, suggesting both these aspects may underlie dog-wolf differences in problem solving. Indeed adult wolves have been shown to be more likely to approach a novel object and more persistent in their investigation of it, but also slower in making contact with it and more fearful of it than dogs. Methods: In the current study we investigated potential differences in equally-raised dogs' and wolves' explorative and neophobic behaviors in a novel environment and with novel objects at 5, 6, and 8 weeks of age. Results: Results showed that wolves were more persistent in exploring both the environment and the objects than dogs, and this was the case at all ages. There were no differences in the frequency of fear-related behaviors and time spent in proximity to humans. Stress-related behaviors were similarly expressed at 5 and 6 weeks, although wolves showed a higher frequency of such behaviors at 8 weeks. Discussion: Overall, results with puppies confirm those with adult animals: wolves appear to be more explorative than dogs. Such motivational differences need to be taken into account when comparing dogs and wolves in cognitive tasks. PMID:28232814

  13. Genome-wide association study reveals genetic architecture of eating behavior in pigs and its implications for humans obesity by comparative mapping.

    PubMed

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage; Jensen, Just; Mark, Thomas; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behavior in Danish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behavior in humans. Data regarding individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of daily visits to feeder (NVD), average duration of each visit (TPV), mean feed intake per visit (FPV) and mean feed intake rate (FR) were available for 1130 boars. All boars were genotyped using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The association analyses were performed using the GenABEL package in the R program. Sixteen SNPs were found to have moderate genome-wide significance (p<5E-05) and 76 SNPs had suggestive (p<5E-04) association with feeding behavior traits. MSI2 gene on chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD. Thirty-six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs have previously been reported for behavior and/or feed intake traits in pigs. The regions: 64-65 Mb on SSC 1, 124-130 Mb on SSC 8, 63-68 Mb on SSC 11, 32-39 Mb and 59-60 Mb on SSC 12 harbored several signifcant SNPs. Synapse genes (GABRR2, PPP1R9B, SYT1, GABRR1, CADPS2, DLGAP2 and GOPC), dephosphorylation genes (PPM1E, DAPP1, PTPN18, PTPRZ1, PTPN4, MTMR4 and RNGTT) and positive regulation of peptide secretion genes (GHRH, NNAT and TCF7L2) were highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biological mechanisms for eating behavior in pigs and these results are important for genetic improvement of pig feed efficiency. We have also conducted pig-human comparative gene mapping to reveal key genomic regions and/or genes on the human genome that may influence eating behavior in human beings and consequently affect the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This is the first translational genomics study of its kind to report potential candidate genes for eating behavior in humans.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genetic Architecture of Eating Behavior in Pigs and Its Implications for Humans Obesity by Comparative Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage; Jensen, Just; Mark, Thomas; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behavior in Danish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behavior in humans. Data regarding individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of daily visits to feeder (NVD), average duration of each visit (TPV), mean feed intake per visit (FPV) and mean feed intake rate (FR) were available for 1130 boars. All boars were genotyped using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The association analyses were performed using the GenABEL package in the R program. Sixteen SNPs were found to have moderate genome-wide significance (p<5E-05) and 76 SNPs had suggestive (p<5E-04) association with feeding behavior traits. MSI2 gene on chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD. Thirty-six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs have previously been reported for behavior and/or feed intake traits in pigs. The regions: 64–65 Mb on SSC 1, 124–130 Mb on SSC 8, 63–68 Mb on SSC 11, 32–39 Mb and 59–60 Mb on SSC 12 harbored several signifcant SNPs. Synapse genes (GABRR2, PPP1R9B, SYT1, GABRR1, CADPS2, DLGAP2 and GOPC), dephosphorylation genes (PPM1E, DAPP1, PTPN18, PTPRZ1, PTPN4, MTMR4 and RNGTT) and positive regulation of peptide secretion genes (GHRH, NNAT and TCF7L2) were highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biological mechanisms for eating behavior in pigs and these results are important for genetic improvement of pig feed efficiency. We have also conducted pig-human comparative gene mapping to reveal key genomic regions and/or genes on the human genome that may influence eating behavior in human beings and consequently affect the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This is the first translational genomics study of its kind to report potential candidate genes for eating behavior in humans. PMID:23977060

  15. Comparative study of the hygienic behavior of Carniolan and Africanized honey bees directed towards grouped versus isolated dead brood cells.

    PubMed

    Gramacho, K P; Gonçalves, L S

    2009-06-30

    In Apis mellifera, hygienic behavior involves recognition and removal of sick, damaged or dead brood from capped cells. We investigated whether bees react in the same way to grouped versus isolated damaged capped brood cells. Three colonies of wild-type Africanized honey bees and three colonies of Carniolan honey bees were used for this investigation. Capped worker brood cells aged 12 to 14 days old were perforated with the pin-killing method. After making holes in the brood cells, the combs were placed back into the hives; 24 h later the number of cleaned cells was recorded in areas with pin-killed and control brood cells. Four repetitions were made in each colony. Isolated cells were more frequently cleaned than grouped cells, though variance analysis showed no significant difference (P = 0.1421). Carniolan bees also were somewhat, though not significantly more hygienic than Africanized honey bees (P = 0.0840). We conclude that honey bees can detect and remove both isolated and grouped dead brood. The tendency towards greater hygienic efficiency directed towards grouped pin-killed brood may be a consequence of a greater concentration of volatiles emanating from the wounds in the dead pupae.

  16. COMPARING RATING PARADIGMS FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PROGRAM REGISTERS IN BEHAVIORAL HEALTH: EVIDENTIARY CRITERIA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ASSESSING PROGRAMS

    PubMed Central

    Means, Stephanie N.; Magura, Stephen; Burkhardt, Jason T.; Schröter, Daniela C.; Coryn, Chris L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Decision makers need timely and credible information about the effectiveness of behavioral health interventions. Online evidence-based program registers (EBPRs) have been developed to address this need. However, the methods by which these registers determine programs and practices as being “evidence-based” has not been investigated in detail. This paper examines the evidentiary criteria EBPRs use to rate programs and the implications for how different registers rate the same programs. Although the registers tend to employ a standard Campbellian hierarchy of evidence to assess evaluation results, there is also considerable disagreement among the registers about what constitutes an adequate research design and sufficient data for designating a program as evidence-based. Additionally, differences exist in how registers report findings of “no effect,” which may deprive users of important information. Of all programs on the 15 registers that rate individual programs, 79% appear on only one register. Among a random sample of 100 programs rated by more than one register, 42% were inconsistently rated by the multiple registers to some degree. PMID:25450778

  17. A Comparative Study on the Mechanical Behavior of Porous Titanium and NiTi Produced by a Space Holder Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S. A.; Yazdani-Rad, R.; Kazemzadeh, A.; Alizadeh, M.

    2014-03-01

    NiTi and Ti porous specimens with appropriate pore characteristics for biomedical applications are produced by space holder method. Porosities of the specimens linearly increase from 14 to 65 and 42 to 70% for the Ti and NiTi specimens, respectively, with the urea space holder. Mechanical properties such as stiffness, fracture strain, and strength of the porous NiTi and Ti are adjustable with pore characteristics. The apparent elasticity modulus of NiTi specimens decrease from 3.5 to 0.73 GPa as porosity increases. Since the initial linear part of the stress-strain curve consists of elastic behavior, formation of stress-induced martensite, deformation and/or detwinning of martensite variants, and plastic deformation, the unloading slope of stress-strain curves is a better approximation for the elasticity modulus of the NiTi porous specimens as it is proved by an isotropic cubic cell model. The unloading slope of the NiTi specimen with 61% porosity is 3.1 GPa, while the apparent elasticity or loading slope is 0.85 GPa. In comparison to Ti, the high, recoverable strain of NiTi improves capability of it as a good candidate for bone replacement. Moreover, in contrast to Ti specimens, hysteresis loops are clearly observed in the stress-strain curves of NiTi specimens.

  18. Idiosyncratically tuned switching behavior of riboswitch aptamer domains revealed by comparative small-angle X-ray scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Nathan J.; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.

    2010-05-25

    Riboswitches are structured mRNA elements that regulate gene expression upon binding specific cellular metabolites. It is thought that the highly conserved metabolite-binding domains of riboswitches undergo conformational change upon binding their cognate ligands. To investigate the generality of such a mechanism, we employed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We probed the nature of the global metabolite-induced response of the metabolite-binding domains of four different riboswitches that bind, respectively, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), lysine, and S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). We find that each RNA is unique in its global structural response to metabolite. Whereas some RNAs exhibit distinct free and bound conformations, others are globally insensitive to the presence of metabolite. Thus, a global conformational change of the metabolite-binding domain is not a requirement for riboswitch function. It is possible that the range of behaviors observed by SAXS, rather than being a biophysical idiosyncrasy, reflects adaptation of riboswitches to the regulatory requirements of their individual genomic context.

  19. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression-a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold-is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms.

  20. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression—a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold—is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms. PMID:27293666

  1. Biogeographical plant-soil relations of invasive medusahead (Elymus caput-medusae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the success of invasive plant species is integral to predicting and ameliorating their negative impacts. Many hypotheses have consequently been proposed to explain invasive behavior. This lack of consensus within invasion ecology can partially be attributed...

  2. Minimally invasive PCNL-MIP.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Stefano Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Gallioli, Andrea; Talso, Michele; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) has increased in popularity in recent years and is now widely used to overcome the therapeutic gap between conventional PCNL and less-invasive procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) for the treatment of renal stones. However, despite its minimally invasive nature, the superiority in terms of safety, as well as the similar efficacy of mini-PCNL compared to conventional procedures, is still under debate. The aim of this chapter is to present one of the most recent advancements in terms of mini-PCNL: the Karl Storz "minimally invasive PCNL" (MIP). A literature search for original and review articles either published or e-published up to December 2016 was performed using Google and the PubMed database. Keywords included: minimally invasive PCNL; MIP. The retrieved articles were gathered and examined. The complete MIP set is composed of different sized rigid metallic fiber-optic nephroscopes and different sized metallic operating sheaths, according to which the MIP is categorized into extra-small (XS), small (S), medium (M) and large (L). Dilation can be performed either in one-step or with a progressive technique, as needed. The reusable devices of the MIP and vacuum cleaner efect make PCNL with this set a cheap procedure. The possibility to shift from a small to a larger instrument within the same set (Matrioska technique) makes MIP a very versatile technique suitable for the treatment of almost any stone. Studies in the literature have shown that MIP is equally effective, with comparable rates of post-operative complications, as conventional PCNL, independently from stone size. MIP does not represent a new technique, but rather a combination of the last ten years of PCNL improvements in a single system that can transversally cover all available techniques in the panorama of percutaneous stone treatment.

  3. Comparing the effects of differential reinforcement of other behavior and response-cost contingencies on tics in youth with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Matthew R; Brandt, Bryan C; Ricketts, Emily J; Espil, Flint M; Woods, Douglas W

    2012-01-01

    Tics are rapid, repetitive, stereotyped movements or vocalizations that arise from neurobiological dysfunction and are influenced by environmental factors. Although persons with tic disorders often experience aversive social reactions in response to tics, little is known about the behavioral effects of such consequences. Along several dimensions, the present study compared the effects of two treatments on tics: response cost (RC) and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). Four children with Tourette syndrome were exposed to free-to-tic baseline, DRO, RC, and quasibaseline rebound evaluation conditions using an alternating treatments design. Both DRO and RC produced substantial decreases in tics from baseline levels. No differential effects of DRO and RC contingencies were seen on self-reported stress or in the strength of the reflexive motivating operation (i.e., premonitory urge) believed to trigger tics, and neither condition produced tic-rebound effects. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. The RhoE/ROCK/ARHGAP25 signaling pathway controls cell invasion by inhibition of Rac activity

    PubMed Central

    Thuault, Sylvie; Comunale, Franck; Hasna, Jessy; Fortier, Mathieu; Planchon, Damien; Elarouci, Nabila; De Reynies, Aurélien; Bodin, Stéphane; Blangy, Anne; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of skeletal muscle origin in children and adolescents. Among RMS subtypes, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), which is characterized by the presence of the PAX3-FOXO1A or PAX7-FOXO1A chimeric oncogenic transcription factor, is associated with poor prognosis and a strong risk of metastasis compared with the embryonal subtype (ERMS). To identify molecular pathways involved in ARMS aggressiveness, we first characterized the migratory behavior of cell lines derived from ARMS and ERMS biopsies using a three-dimensional spheroid cell invasion assay. ARMS cells were more invasive than ERMS cells and adopted an ellipsoidal morphology to efficiently invade the extracellular matrix. Moreover, the invasive potential of ARMS cells depended on ROCK activity, which is regulated by the GTPase RhoE. Specifically, RhoE expression was low in ARMS biopsies, and its overexpression in ARMS cells reduced their invasion potential. Conversely, ARHGAP25, a GTPase-activating protein for Rac, was up-regulated in ARMS biopsies. Moreover, we found that ARHGAP25 inhibits Rac activity downstream of ROCKII and is required for ARMS cell invasion. Our results indicate that the RhoE/ROCK/ARHGAP25 signaling pathway promotes ARMS invasive potential and identify these proteins as potential therapeutic targets for ARMS treatment. PMID:27413008

  5. Membrane behavior as influenced by partitioning of amphiphiles during drying: a comparative study in anhydrobiotic plant systems.

    PubMed

    Golovina, Elena A; Hoekstra, Folkert A

    2002-03-01

    During cellular desiccation, reduction in volume can in principle cause amphiphilic compounds to partition from the cytoplasm into membranes, with structural perturbance as the result. Here, we studied the effect of partitioning of endogenous amphiphiles on membrane surface dynamics in desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant, higher and lower plant systems, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin probe techniques. Labeling cells with the amphiphilic spin probe perdeuterated TEMPONE (PDT) enabled partitioning into the various phases to be followed. During drying, PDT molecules preferentially partitioned from the aqueous cytoplasm into the membrane surface and, at advanced stages of water loss, also into oil bodies. There was no specific partition behavior that could be correlated with lower/higher plants or with desiccation-tolerance. In vivo labeling with 5-doxylstearate (5-DS) enabled membrane surface fluidity to be characterized. In hydrated plants, the 5-DS spectra contained an immobile and a fluid component. The characteristics of the immobile component could not be specifically correlated with either lower or higher plants, or with desiccation tolerance. The relative contribution of the fluid component to the 5-DS spectra was higher in lower plants than in higher plants, but considerably decreased with drying in all desiccation-tolerant organisms. In contrast, the proportion of the fluid component in desiccation-sensitive wheat seedling root was higher than that in desiccation-tolerant wheat axis and considerably increased at the onset of water loss. We suggest that partitioning of amphipaths fluidize the membrane surface, but that in desiccation-tolerant systems the membranes are protected from excessive fluidization.

  6. Comparative ontogenetic behavior and migration of kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, from the Amur River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Cao, W.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments with kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed embryos (first life phase after hatching) and larvae (period initiating exogenous feeding) to day-30 (late larvae) for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and downstream movement, and diel activity. Day-0 embryos of both species strongly preferred bright, open habitat and initiated a strong, downstream migration that lasted 4 days (3 day peak) for kaluga and 3 days (2 day peak) for Amur sturgeon. Kaluga migrants swam far above the bottom (150 cm) on only 1 day and moved day and night; Amur sturgeon migrants swam far above the bottom (median 130 cm) during 3 days and were more nocturnal than kaluga. Post-migrant embryos of both species moved day and night, but Amur sturgeon used dark, cover habitat and swam closer to the bottom than kaluga. The larva period of both species began on day 7 (cumulative temperature degree-days, 192.0 for kaluga and 171.5 for Amur sturgeon). Larvae of both species preferred open habitat. Kaluga larvae strongly preferred bright habitat, initially swam far above the bottom (median 50-105 cm), and migrated downstream at night during days 10-16 (7-day migration). Amur sturgeon larvae strongly avoided illumination, had a mixed response to white substrate, swam 20-30 cm above the bottom during most days, and during days 12-34 (most of the larva period) moved downstream mostly at night (23-day migration). The embryo-larva migration style of the two species likely shows convergence of non-related species for a common style in response to environmental selection in the Amur River. The embryo-larva migration style of Amur sturgeon is unique among Acipenser yet studied.

  7. The role of the expansion of native-invasive plant species in coastal dunes: The case of Retama monosperma in SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Vallés, Sara; Gallego-Fernández, Juan Bautista; Cambrollé, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Invasion by allochthonous plant species are identified, at present, among the main conservation hazards to coastal dunes. Nevertheless, the role of the expansion, with invasive character, of native species in these ecosystems has received little attention in ecological studies. In recent decades, Retama monosperma, a late colonizing legume shrub found in coastal sandy areas, endemic to the SW of the Iberian Peninsula and NW Morocco, has displayed invasive behavior in coastal dunes in different parts of the world, including its natural area of distribution. Its rapid expansion and increase in coverage has significantly contributed to the dune stabilization process, sometimes involving notable changes in the environment, plant community and shaping local distribution of some associated fauna, thus modifying the functioning of the whole ecosystem. In this review we examine the role of the expansion of R. monosperma in SW Spain coastal dunes, causes and implications, in the context of the ecological theory of invasions, and comparing it with other case studies.

  8. Dynamics of an experimental microbial invasion

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Francisco; Zamor, Richard M.; Najar, Fares Z.; Roe, Bruce A.; Hambright, K. David

    2015-01-01

    The ecological dynamics underlying species invasions have been a major focus of research in macroorganisms for the last five decades. However, we still know little about the processes behind invasion by unicellular organisms. To expand our knowledge of microbial invasions, we studied the roles of propagule pressure, nutrient supply, and biotic resistance in the invasion success of a freshwater invasive alga, Prymnesium parvum, using microcosms containing natural freshwater microbial assemblages. Microcosms were subjected to a factorial design with two levels of nutrient-induced diversity and three levels of propagule pressure, and incubated for 7 d, during which P. parvum densities and microbial community composition were tracked. Successful invasion occurred in microcosms receiving high propagule pressure whereas nutrients or community diversity played no role in invasion success. Invaded communities experienced distinctive changes in composition compared with communities where the invasion was unsuccessful. Successfully invaded microbial communities had an increased abundance of fungi and ciliates, and decreased abundances of diatoms and cercozoans. Many of these changes mirrored the microbial community changes detected during a natural P. parvum bloom in the source system. This role of propagule pressure is particularly relevant for P. parvum in the reservoir-dominated southern United States because this species can form large, sustained blooms that can generate intense propagule pressures for downstream sites. Human impact and global climate change are currently causing widespread environmental changes in most southern US freshwater systems that may facilitate P. parvum establishment and, when coupled with strong propagule pressure, could put many more systems at risk for invasion. PMID:26324928

  9. Mitochondrial targeted catalase suppresses invasive breast cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment of invasive breast cancer has an alarmingly high rate of failure because effective targets have not been identified. One potential target is mitochondrial generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) because ROS production has been associated with changes in substrate metabolism and lower concentration of anti-oxidant enzymes in tumor and stromal cells and increased metastatic potential. Methods Transgenic mice expressing a human catalase gene (mCAT) were crossed with MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice that develop metastatic breast cancer. All mice (33 mCAT positive and 23 mCAT negative) were terminated at 110 days of age, when tumors were well advanced. Tumors were histologically assessed for invasiveness, proliferation and metastatic foci in the lungs. ROS levels and activation status of p38 MAPK were determined. Results PyMT mice expressing mCAT had a 12.5 per cent incidence of high histological grade primary tumor invasiveness compared to a 62.5 per cent incidence in PyMT mice without mCAT. The histological grade correlated with incidence of metastasis with 56 per cent of PyMT mice positive for mCAT showing evidence of pulmonary metastasis compared to 85.4 per cent of PyMT mice negative for mCAT with pulmonary metastasis (p ≤ 0.05). PyMT tumor cells expressing mCAT had lower ROS levels and were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress than wild type tumor cells, suggesting that mCAT has the potential of quenching intracellular ROS and subsequent invasive behavior. The metastatic tumor burden in PyMT mice expressing mCAT was 0.1 mm2/cm2 of lung tissue compared with 1.3 mm2/cm2 of lung tissue in PyMT mice expressing the wild type allele (p ≤ 0.01), indicating that mCAT could play a role in mitigating metastatic tumor progression at a distant organ site. Expression of mCAT in the lungs increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress that was associated with decreased activation of p38MAPK suggesting ROS signaling

  10. Microbial invasions: the process, patterns, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Cyrus Alexander; Elsas, Jan Dirk van; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2015-11-01

    There has recently been a surge of literature examining microbial invasions into a variety of environments. These studies often include a component of biological diversity as a major factor determining an invader's fate, yet common results are rarely cross-compared. Since many studies only present a snapshot of the entire invasion process, a bird's eye view is required to piece together the entire continuum, which we find consists of introduction, establishment, spread, and impact phases. We further examine the patterns and mechanisms associated with invasion resistance and create a mechanistic synthesis governed by the species richness, species evenness, and resource availability of resident communities. We conclude by exploring the advantages of using a theoretical invasion framework across different fields.

  11. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... invasive - discharge Transurethral resection of the prostate - discharge Review Date 6/29/2015 Updated by: Jennifer Sobol, ... the Michigan Institute of Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...

  12. Minimally invasive stomas.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Michael D; Al Haddad, Abdullah

    2008-02-01

    Traditionally, stoma creation and end stoma reversal have been performed via a laparotomy incision. However, in many situations, stoma construction may be safely performed in a minimally invasive nature. This may include a trephine, laparoscopic, or combined approach. Furthermore, Hartmann's colostomy reversal, a procedure traditionally associated with substantial morbidity, may also be performed laparoscopically. The authors briefly review patient selection, preparation, and indications, and focus primarily on surgical techniques and results of minimally invasive stoma creation and Hartmann's reversal.

  13. Minimally invasive lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2013-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is a common problem. Nerve root compression can occur at different places along a nerve root's course including in the foramina. Minimal invasive approaches allow easier exposure of the lateral foramina and decompression of the nerve root in the foramina. This video demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to decompress the lumbar nerve root in the foramina with a lateral to medial decompression. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/jqa61HSpzIA.

  14. Roles of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors in malignant behavior of glioma cells. Differential effects of S1P{sub 2} on cell migration and invasiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Nicholas; Van Brocklyn, James R. . E-mail: james.vanbrocklyn@osumc.edu

    2007-05-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that signals through a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors, termed S1P{sub 1-5}. S1P stimulates growth and invasiveness of glioma cells, and high expression levels of the enzyme that forms S1P, sphingosine kinase-1, correlate with short survival of glioma patients. In this study we examined the mechanism of S1P stimulation of glioma cell proliferation and invasion by either overexpressing or knocking down, by RNA interference, S1P receptor expression in glioma cell lines. S1P{sub 1}, S1P{sub 2} and S1P{sub 3} all contribute positively to S1P-stimulated glioma cell proliferation, with S1P{sub 1} being the major contributor. Stimulation of glioma cell proliferation by these receptors correlated with activation of ERK MAP kinase. S1P{sub 5} blocks glioma cell proliferation, and inhibits ERK activation. S1P{sub 1} and S1P{sub 3} enhance glioma cell migration and invasion. S1P{sub 2} inhibits migration through Rho activation, Rho kinase signaling and stress fiber formation, but unexpectedly, enhances glioma cell invasiveness by stimulating cell adhesion. S1P{sub 2} also potently enhances expression of the matricellular protein CCN1/Cyr61, which has been implicated in tumor cell adhesion, and invasion as well as tumor angiogenesis. A neutralizing antibody to CCN1 blocked S1P{sub 2}-stimulated glioma invasion. Thus, while S1P{sub 2} decreases glioma cell motility, it may enhance invasion through induction of proteins that modulate glioma cell interaction with the extracellular matrix.

  15. Climate change and invasive species: double jeopardy.

    PubMed

    Mainka, Susan A; Howard, Geoffrey W

    2010-06-01

    Two of the key drivers of biodiversity loss today are climate change and invasive species. Climate change is already having a measurable impact on species distributions, reproduction and behavior, and all evidence suggests that things will get worse even if we act tomorrow to mitigate any future increases in greenhouse gas emissions: temperature will increase, precipitation will change, sea level will rise and ocean chemistry will change. At the same time, biological invasions remain an important threat to biodiversity, causing species loss, changes in distribution and habitat degradation. Acting together, the impacts of each of these drivers of change are compounded and interactions between these two threats present even greater challenges to field conservationists as well as policymakers. Similarly, the social and economic impacts of climate change and invasive species, already substantial, will be magnified. Awareness of the links between the two should underpin all biodiversity management planning and policy.

  16. Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Awais, Omar; Levy, Ryan M.; Keeley, Samuel; Shende, Manisha; Christie, Neil A.; Weksler, Benny; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Abbas, Ghulam; Schuchert, Matthew J.; Nason, Katie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy is a complex operation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to lower morbidity, we have adopted a minimally invasive approach to esophagectomy. Objectives Our primary objective was to evaluate the outcomes of minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) in a large group of patients. Our secondary objective was to compare the modified McKeown minimally invasive approach (videothoracoscopic surgery, laparoscopy, neck anastomosis [MIE-neck]) with our current approach, a modified Ivor Lewis approach (laparoscopy, videothoracoscopic surgery, chest anastomosis [MIE-chest]). Methods We reviewed 1033 consecutive patients undergoing MIE. Elective operation was performed on 1011 patients; 22 patients with nonelective operations were excluded. Patients were stratified by surgical approach and perioperative outcomes analyzed. The primary endpoint studied was 30-day mortality. Results The MIE-neck was performed in 481 (48%) and MIE-Ivor Lewis in 530 (52%). Patients undergoing MIE-Ivor Lewis were operated in the current era. The median number of lymph nodes resected was 21. The operative mortality was 1.68%. Median length of stay (8 days) and ICU stay (2 days) were similar between the 2 approaches. Mortality rate was 0.9%, and recurrent nerve injury was less frequent in the Ivor Lewis MIE group (P < 0.001). Conclusions MIE in our center resulted in acceptable lymph node resection, postoperative outcomes, and low mortality using either an MIE-neck or an MIE-chest approach. The MIE Ivor Lewis approach was associated with reduced recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and mortality of 0.9% and is now our preferred approach. Minimally invasive esophagectomy can be performed safely, with good results in an experienced center. PMID:22668811

  17. Children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bagherian, Ali; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Topical anesthesia has been widely advocated as an important component of atraumatic administration of intraoral local anesthesia. The aim of this study was to use direct observation of children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight children participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial. They received two separate inferior alveolar nerve block or primary maxillary molar infiltration injections on contralateral sides of the jaws by both cotton-roll vibration (a combination of topical anesthesia gel, cotton roll, and vibration for physical distraction) and control (routine topical anesthesia) methods. Behavioral pain reactions of children were measured according to the author-developed face, head, foot, hand, trunk, and cry (FHFHTC) scale, resulting in total scores between 0 and 18. Results: The total scores on the FHFHTC scale ranged between 0-5 and 0-10 in the cotton-roll vibration and control methods, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation values of total scores on FHFHTC scale were lower in the cotton-roll vibration method (1.21 ± 1.38) than in control method (2.44 ± 2.18), and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It may be concluded that the cotton-roll vibration method can be more helpful than the routine topical anesthesia in reducing behavioral pain reactions in children during local anesthesia administration. PMID:27274349

  18. Comparative study between synthetic and phospholipids of natural origin: effect of phospholipid selection on the behavior of a topical liposomal dosage form incorporating terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Koutsoulas, Charalampos; Suleiman, Ehsan; Wagner, Andreas; Žabka, Marian

    2014-12-01

    Selection of excipients used is a critical step in the design of a pharmaceutical dosage form as it affects its behavior upon application, as during storage. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate and compare the behavior of six liposomal formulations intended for topical application composed of two widely used phospholipids 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine with and without incorporation of cholesterol. Liposomal hydrogels made of hydroxyethylcellulose 3% and incorporating the anti-fungal agent terbinafine hydrochloride (E)-N-(6,6-dimethyl-2-hepten-4-inyl)-N-methyl-1-naphthalene-methanamine (-hydrochloride) were prepared, their viscosity was measured and in vitro drug release was studied. Moreover, physical stability and drug retention during storage at two different temperatures (2-8 °C and RT) were examined over time. The results showed differences in the behavior between the two phospholipids while incorporation of cholesterol at the studied concentrations was found to be of minor importance. Drug release was found to be favorable from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) liposomal hydrogels and drug retention was found to be higher at lower storage temperature for all batches. Original physicochemical properties of all batches were found to be retained at least for a week.

  19. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns.

    PubMed

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V

    2016-05-01

    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications.

  20. Aggressive interactions between the invasive Rio Grande cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus) and native bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), with notes on redspotted sunfish (Lepomis miniatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, O. Thomas; O' Connell, Martin T.; Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Grande cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus) has been established in the Greater New Orleans Metropolitan area for at least 20 years, and its effect on native fishes is unknown. Behavioral trials were performed to determine if aggressive interactions occur between invasive H. cyanoguttatus and native bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). When defending a territory as the resident, L. macrochirus were markedly aggressive, averaging 11.6 aggressive actions per lO-min behavioral trial. In contrast, L. macrochirus were extremely passive as invaders, with 0.5 aggressive actions per trial. Herichthys cyanoguttatus were equally aggressive as residents and as invaders, averaging 4.9 and 6.0 aggressive actions per trial, respectively. Herichthys cyanoguttatus interacted aggressively with native species whether they held territory or not, indicating that this invasive species may have fundamentally different strategies of aggression compared with native L. macrochirus. These differences may explain the continued success of H. cyanoguttatus as an invasive fish in southeastern Louisiana.

  1. [Comparative experimental studies on rigidity, deformation and blunting behavior of various total hip endoprostheses under dynamic load].

    PubMed

    Seifert, H

    1997-02-01

    The biomechanical reasons for moving and loosening of the acetabular cup and femoral prosthesis are still unclarified. Especially, chronic and mechanical overloads of the interfaces, which are caused by the change of stiffness and damping properties of the whole system, cannot be excluded. To date, the description of dynamic behaviour of hip-joint endoprostheses from the viewpoint of material selection and design is insufficient. On the basis of comparative experiments, this publication aims to complete the knowledge about mechanical properties of artificial hip joints. Primarily, we focused on the quantitative registration of certain influences (e.g. design, dimensions and material) on the dynamic properties of different kinds of acetabulum cups. Therefore, a significant new test method was developed for this examination. Conventional test methods work according to the principle of constancy of maximum forces and excitation frequencies. They do not consider the forces of inertia resulting from body mass, even though these reaction forces are decisive for the dynamic properties and mechanical behaviour of the components of endoprostheses. A selection of representative implants from several manufacturers were tested according to the new test method, which is based on the "mass-spring, absorber" principle. The examined prostheses concerned differed in material, method of fixation and geometric dimensions. The results of these examinations give clues to the repercussions of the mentioned parameters on the dynamic behaviour of endoprosthetic systems. In order to evaluate the results, hip joints from animals were also examined and provided relevant information for desirable alternative solutions to the problem in view of construction and material.

  2. Comparative effectiveness research as choice architecture: the behavioral law and economics solution to the health care cost crisis.

    PubMed

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-02-01

    With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA") set to dramatically increase access to medical care, the problem of rising costs will move center stage in health law and policy discussions. "Consumer directed health care" proposals, which provide patients with financial incentives to equate marginal costs and benefits of care at the point of treatment, demand more decisionmaking ability from consumers than is plausible due to bounded rationality. Proposals that seek to change the incentives of health care providers threaten to create conflicts of interest between doctors and patients. New approaches are desperately needed. This Article proposes a government-facilitated but market-based approach to improving efficiency in the private market for medical care that I call "relative value health insurance." This approach focuses on the "choice architecture" necessary to enable even boundedly rational patients to contract for an efficient level of health care services through their health insurance purchase decisions. It uses comparative effectiveness research, which the ACA funds at a significant level for the first time, to rate medical treatments on a scale of one to ten based on their relative value, taking into account expected costs and benefits. These relative value ratings would enable consumers to contract with insurers for different levels of medical care at different prices, reflecting different cost-quality trade-offs. The Article describes both the benefits of relative value health insurance and the impediments to its implementation. It concludes with a brief discussion of how relative value ratings could also help to rationalize expenditures on public health insurance programs.

  3. Comparative Investigation of Indicators of Growth and Behavioral Disorders in Children with Normal, Low, and Very Low Birth Weight at Pre-school Age in Isfahan during 2015

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Marzieh; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI)] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight) at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents’ and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009) and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10). The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49). Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children. PMID:28382052

  4. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups.

  5. A Non-Inferiority Trial of an Evidence-Based Secondary HIV Prevention Behavioral Intervention Compared to an Adapted, Abbreviated Version: Rationale and Intervention Description

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Roman; Krishnan, Archana; Altice, Frederick L.; Copenhaver, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Real-world clinical settings like addiction treatment programs are ill-equipped to deploy and sustain the existing-resource-demanding evidence-based interventions (EBIs) that target HIV-infected people who use drugs (PWUDs), and this has left a critical void in current HIV prevention efforts. In response to this unmet need, we have conducted formative research in addiction treatment settings that has resulted in Holistic Health for HIV (3H+) – an empirically adapted, substantially abbreviated version of Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), a CDC-recommended EBI targeting HIV-infected PWUDs. Methods Using a non-inferiority randomized controlled trial design, we will determine whether the abbreviated 3H+ intervention is comparable (i.e., within a 10% margin) and cost-effective relative to the original HHRP+ intervention in terms of reducing HIV risk behaviors and improving antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV-infected PWUDs in addiction treatment who report drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors. Conclusions This article provides a description of the development and adaptation of the 3H+ intervention, the innovative non-inferiority comparative experimental design for testing the 3H+ to the HHRP+. Furthermore, it provides empirical evidence from a formal cost-effectiveness analysis justifying the cost-effectiveness of the 3H+ intervention when compared to the HHRP+ intervention. If confirmed to be comparable and more cost-effective, as hypothesized, the 3H+ intervention has the potential to be readily and immediately integrated within common clinical settings where large numbers of HIV-infected PWUDs receive clinical services. PMID:26253181

  6. Disturbed eating behavior in Iranian adolescent and young females with type-1 diabetes compared to non diabetic peers: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Amini, Parvaneh; Pahlavanzadeh, Saied; Shokouh, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    Background: An association of eating disorder with diabetes mellitus may lead to a serious lack of metabolic control, higher mortality and morbidity. There is no recent study conducted in the Iranian population about eating disorder and its variants. The aim of the present study is investigation of frequency of disturbed eating behaviors in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) compared to non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, disturbed eating behavior were evaluated and compared in two groups of 12–22 year old adolescent and young females (126 with diabetes and 325 without diabetes). A self-report questionnaire including demographic data, Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used for data gathering. Independent t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression [odds ratio (OR)] were used for data analyses in SPSS 15. Results: Findings revealed that higher percentage of diabetic girls are likely to have eating disturbances (67.9% vs. 53.8%, P = 0.01). Diabetic group obtained higher scores in both dieting (14.95 ± 6.28 vs. 11.79 ± 5.62, P < 0.001) and bulimia scales (4.9 ± 3.13 vs. 4.12 ± 2.89, P = 0.017), which supports a role for T1DM in inducing the symptoms. Diabetic girls were at more than double the risk of developing eating disturbance. Conclusions: The results indicate that a significantly higher percentage of diabetic girls are likely to have eating disturbances. Also, diabetic subjects had an increased probability of getting higher scores in all three EAT-26 subscales. Therefore, healthcare professionals, especially diabetic nurses, should be aware of the potential effects of the subclinical and clinical eating behaviors on adolescents with T1DM and evaluate them for these disturbances. PMID:27904642

  7. Effects of high-gamma-linolenic acid canola oil compared with borage oil on reproduction, growth, and brain and behavioral development in mice.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Patricia E; Huang, Yung-Sheng; DeMichele, Stephen J; Xing, HuaCheng; Liu, Jim-Wen; Chuang, Lu-Te; Biederman, Jessica

    2003-02-01

    Previous research in rats and mice has suggested that gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) derived from borage oil (BO: 23% GLA) may be an appropriate source for increasing levels of long-chain n-6 FA in the developing brain. Recently, transgenic technology has made available a highly enriched GLA seed oil from the canola plant (HGCO: 36% GLA). The first objective of this study was to compare the effects of diets containing equal levels of GLA (23%) from either BO or HGCO on reproduction, pup development, and pup brain FA composition in mice. The second objective was to compare the effects of the HGCO diluted to 23% GLA (GLA-23) with those of undiluted HGCO containing 36% GLA (GLA-36). The diets were fed to the dams prior to conception and throughout pregnancy and lactation, as well as to the pups after weaning. The behavioral development of the pups was measured 12 d after birth, and anxiety in the adult male offspring was assessed using the plus maze. The findings show that despite equivalent levels of GLA, GLA-23 differed from BO in that it reduced pup body weight and was associated with a slight increase in neonatal pup attrition. However, there were no significant effects on pup behavioral development or on performance in the plus maze. An increase in dietary GLA resulted in an increase in brain 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6, with a corresponding decrease in 22:6n-3. Again, despite their similar levels of GLA, these effects tended to be larger in GLA-23 than in BO. In comparison with GLA-23, GLA-36 had larger effects on growth and brain FA composition but no differences with respect to effects on reproduction and behavioral development. These findings suggest that the HGCO can be used as an alternative source of GLA.

  8. Randomized controlled trial to compare growth parameters and nutrient adequacy in children with picky eating behaviors who received nutritional counseling with or without an oral nutritional supplement.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiaoyang; Tong, Meiling; Zhao, Dongmei; Leung, Ting Fan; Zhang, Feng; Hays, Nicholas P; Ge, John; Ho, Wing Man; Northington, Robert; Terry, Donna L; Yao, Manjiang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, changes in growth parameters and nutrient intake were compared in Chinese children (ages 30-60 months) with picky eating (PE) behaviors and weight-for-height ≤25th percentile, who were randomized to receive nutrition counseling alone (NC; n = 76) or with a nutritional milk supplement (NC + NS; n = 77) for 120 days. Increases in weight-for-height z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at days 30 and 90 and over the entire study period (all P < 0.05), but not at day 120. Increases in weight-for-age z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at day 90 (P = 0.025) and over the entire study period (P = 0.046). Mean intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, calcium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and B6 were significantly higher in the NC + NS group at days 60 and 120 (all P < 0.01). Thus, in young children with PE behaviors, nutritional supplementation given as an adjunct to NC resulted in greater improvements in nutrient intake compared with NC alone. Growth parameters differed between groups at several timepoints during the study, but not at day 120.

  9. A comparative study on wear behavior of TiN and diamond coated WC-Co substrates against hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, G. V.; Chandran, Maneesh; Bhattacharya, S. S.; Rao, M. S. Ramachandra; Kamaraj, M.

    2012-11-01

    The demand for better tools for machining hypereutectic aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are increasing day by day since the extensive use of these alloys in internal combustion engines. In addition to the lifetime of the machining tool, surface finish of the machined piece is also equally important, as it directly affects the performance of the engine. In this paper, we compared the wear behavior of bare tungsten carbide (WC-Co), titanium nitride (TiN) coated WC-Co and diamond coated WC-Co substrates against Al-Si alloys using pin-on-disc method. Both TiN and diamond coatings were done using chemical vapor deposition technique. Diamond coated WC-Co substrates show one order less wear loss compared to the bare WC-Co substrates. Instead of weight loss, a weight gain was observed for the TiN coated WC-Co substrates. Average coefficient of friction was lowest for the diamond coated WC-Co substrates due to the different wear behavior of diamond coated tribological system, which is explained in detail.

  10. Flow Behavior Modeling of a Nitrogen-Alloyed Ultralow Carbon Stainless Steel During Hot Deformation: A Comparative Study of Constitutive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xuekun; He, An; Wang, Yanli; Yang, Xiaoya; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Xitao

    2015-10-01

    The present study focuses on comparison of accuracy of Johnson-Cook, modified Johnson-Cook, and modified Zerilli-Armstrong constitutive models to predict flow behavior of a nitrogen-alloyed ultralow carbon stainless steel at evaluated temperature. True strain-true stress data obtained from hot compression experiments performed with temperatures of 1223-1423 K and strain rates of 0.001-10 s-1 on a Gleeble-3500 thermal-simulator were employed to develop these three models. Furthermore, the ability of the three models to predict the outcomes was evaluated by comparing the correlation coefficient, absolute average related error, ability to track the experimental flow stress, numbers of material constants, and computational time required to develop models. The results show that the modified Johnson-Cook has a better description of the flow behaviors of the studied steel than the other two models. However, under certain conditions, the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model has accuracy comparable to the modified Johnson-Cook model.

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Growth Parameters and Nutrient Adequacy in Children with Picky Eating Behaviors Who Received Nutritional Counseling With or Without an Oral Nutritional Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Xiaoyang; Tong, Meiling; Zhao, Dongmei; Leung, Ting Fan; Zhang, Feng; Hays, Nicholas P; Ge, John; Ho, Wing Man; Northington, Robert; Terry, Donna L; Yao, Manjiang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, changes in growth parameters and nutrient intake were compared in Chinese children (ages 30–60 months) with picky eating (PE) behaviors and weight-for-height ≤25th percentile, who were randomized to receive nutrition counseling alone (NC; n = 76) or with a nutritional milk supplement (NC + NS; n = 77) for 120 days. Increases in weight-for-height z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at days 30 and 90 and over the entire study period (all P < 0.05), but not at day 120. Increases in weight-for-age z-scores were significantly greater in the NC + NS group at day 90 (P = 0.025) and over the entire study period (P = 0.046). Mean intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, calcium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, and vitamins A, C, D, E, and B6 were significantly higher in the NC + NS group at days 60 and 120 (all P < 0.01). Thus, in young children with PE behaviors, nutritional supplementation given as an adjunct to NC resulted in greater improvements in nutrient intake compared with NC alone. Growth parameters differed between groups at several timepoints during the study, but not at day 120. PMID:25342910

  12. Decreased expression of APAF-1 and increased expression of cathepsin B in invasive pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanase, Cristiana; Albulescu, Radu; Codrici, Elena; Calenic, Bogdan; Popescu, Ionela Daniela; Mihai, Simona; Necula, Laura; Cruceru, Maria Linda; Hinescu, Mihail Eugen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (APAF-1) and cathepsin B are important functional proteins in apoptosis; the former is involved in the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway, while the latter is associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Changes in the expression of apoptosome-related proteins could be useful indicators of tumor development since a priori defects in the mitochondrial pathway might facilitate the inception and progression of human neoplasms. Our aim was to evaluate the profiles of APAF-1 and cathepsin B in relation with other molecules involved in apoptosis/proliferation and to correlate them with the aggressive behavior of invasive pituitary adenomas. Materials and methods APAF-1 and cathepsin B were assessed in tissue samples from 30 patients with pituitary adenomas, of which 16 were functional adenomas and 22 were invasive adenomas. Results A positive relationship between high proliferation and invasiveness was observed in invasive pituitary adenomas when compared to their noninvasive counterparts (Ki-67 labeling index – 4.72% versus 1.75%). Decreased expression of APAF-1 was recorded in most of the invasive adenomas with a high proliferation index, while the cathepsin B level was elevated in this group. We have noticed a negative correlation between the low level of APAF-1 and invasiveness (63.63%; P<0.01); at the same time, a positive correlation between cathepsin B expression and invasiveness (59.09%; P<0.01) was found. In all, 81.25% out of the total APAF-1-positive samples were cathepsin B negative (P<0.01); 76.92% out of the total cathepsin B-positive samples were APAF-1-negative (P<0.01). These results were reinforced by an apoptosis protein array examination, which showed inhibition of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in an invasive pituitary adenoma. Conclusion A bidirectional–inverted relationship between APAF-1 and cathepsin B expressions was noticed. One might hypothesize that shifting the balance between

  13. Minimally invasive therapy in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Schou, I

    1993-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is beginning to have impacts on health care in Denmark, although diffusion has been delayed compared to diffusion in other European countries. Now policy makers are beginning to appreciate the potential advantages in terms of closing hospitals and shifting treatment to the out-patient setting, and diffusion will probably go faster in the future. Denmark does not have a system for technology assessment, neither central nor regional, and there is no early warning mechanism to survey international developments. This implies lack of possibilities for the planning of diffusion, training, and criteria for treatment.

  14. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  15. Burden of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Hospitalized Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Jessica E.; Popoola, Victor O.; Smith, P. Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Fowler, Vance G.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Clark, Reese H.; Milstone, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of infection in hospitalized infants. These infections are associated with increased mortality and morbidity, and longer hospital stays, but data on the burden of S. aureus disease in hospitalized infants are limited. Objective To compare demographics and mortality of infants with invasive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), determine the annual proportion of S. aureus infections that were MRSA, and compare the risk of death following an invasive MRSA infection to the risk following an invasive MSSA infection. Design Multicenter retrospective study of a large, nationally representative cohort. Setting 348 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group. Participants 3888 infants with an invasive S. aureus infection who were discharged between 1997 and 2012. Exposure Invasive S. aureus infection. Main Outcomes and Measures Incidence of invasive S. aureus infections. Infant characteristics and mortality following MRSA or MSSA infection. Results The 3888 infants had 3978 invasive S. aureus infections (2868 MSSA, 1110 MRSA). The incidence of invasive S. aureus infection was 44.8 infections/10,000 infants. The yearly proportion of invasive infections caused by MRSA increased from 1997 to 2006 and has remained relatively stable since then. Infants with invasive MRSA or MSSA infections had similar gestational ages and birth weights. Invasive MRSA infections occurred more often at a younger postnatal age. For infants with available mortality data, more infants with invasive MSSA infections died at hospital discharge (N=237) than those with invasive MRSA infections (N=110). The proportion of infants who died following invasive MSSA or MRSA infection were similar: 237/2474 (9.6%) and 110/926 (11.9%), P=.05, respectively. Adjusted risk of death at hospital discharge was similar after invasive MSSA and MRSA infections overall (risk ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0

  16. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Robertson, Mark P; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2014-12-03

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion-in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  17. Prognostic Value of Invasion, Markers of Proliferation, and Classification of Giant Pituitary Tumors, in a Georeferred Cohort in Brazil of 50 Patients, with a Long-Term Postoperative Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    de Magalhães, Albino Verçosa

    2016-01-01

    Although some pituitary adenomas may have an aggressive behavior, the vast majority are benign. There are still controversies about predictive factors regarding the biological behavior of these particular tumors. This study evaluated potential markers of invasion and proliferation compared to current classification patterns and epidemiogeographical parameters. The study included 50 patients, operated on for tumors greater than 30 mm, with a mean postoperative follow-up of 15.2 ± 4.8 years. Pituitary magnetic resonance was used to evaluate regrowth, invasion, and extension to adjacent tissue. Three tissue biomarkers were analyzed: p53, Ki-67, and c-erbB2. Tumors were classified according to a combination of histological and radiological features, ranging from noninvasive and nonproliferative (grade 1A) to invasive-proliferative (grade 2B). Tumors grades 2A and 2B represented 42% and 52%, respectively. Ki-67 (p = 0.23) and c-erbB2 (p = 0.71) had no significant relation to tumor progression status. P53 (p = 0.003), parasellar invasion (p = 0.03), and classification, grade 2B (p = 0.01), were associated with worse clinical outcome. Parasellar invasion prevails as strong predictive factor of tumor recurrence. Severe suprasellar extension should be considered as invasion parameter and could impact prognosis. No environmental factors or geographical cluster were associated with tumor behavior. PMID:27635138

  18. Different mechanisms drive the performance of native and invasive woody species in response to leaf phosphorus supply during periods of drought stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marciel Teixeira; Medeiros, Camila Dias; Frosi, Gabriella; Santos, Mauro Guida

    2014-09-01

    The effects of drought stress and leaf phosphorus (Pi) supply on photosynthetic metabolism in woody tropical species are not known, and given the recent global environmental change models that forecast lower precipitation rates and periods of prolonged drought in tropical areas, this type of study is increasingly important. The effects of controlled drought stress and Pi supply on potted young plants of two woody species, Anadenanthera colubrina (native) and Prosopis juliflora (invasive), were determined by analyzing leaf photosynthetic metabolism, biochemical properties and water potential. In the maximum stress, both species showed higher leaf water potential (Ψl) in the treatment drought +Pi when compared with the respective control -Pi. The native species showed higher gas exchange under drought +Pi than under drought -Pi conditions, while the invasive species showed the same values between drought +Pi and -Pi. Drought affected the photochemical part of photosynthetic machinery more in the invasive species than in the native species. The invasive species showed higher leaf amino acid content and a lower leaf total protein content in both Pi treatments with drought. The two species showed different responses to the leaf Pi supply under water stress for several variables measured. In addition, the strong resilience of leaf gas exchange in the invasive species compared to the native species during the recovery period may be the result of higher efficiency of Pi use. The implications of this behavior for the success of this invasive species in semiarid environments are discussed.

  19. Invasive Bordetella holmesii infections.

    PubMed

    Fishbain, Joel T; Riederer, Kathleen; Sawaf, Hadi; Mody, Rupal

    2015-02-01

    Bordetella holmesii is a rare cause of invasive human disease. The fastidious and unusual nature of this organism makes routine isolation and identification challenging. We report two cases of B. holmesii bacteremia that were rapidly identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) when standard techniques failed to provide speciation. There are no current standards for susceptibility testing or treatment recommendations. The rare occurrence and challenges in identifying this pathogen led us to perform a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and treatment options for this potentially invasive pathogen.

  20. Intracellular Parasite Invasion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, L. D.

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called ``gliding'' to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.

  1. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    PubMed

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control.

  2. Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species. PMID:22393528

  3. A Comparative Study of Mindfulness Efficiency Based on Islamic-Spiritual Schemes and Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Reduction of Anxiety and Depression in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Aslami, Elahe; Alipour, Ahmad; Najib, Fatemeh Sadat; Aghayosefi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Anxiety and depression during the pregnancy period are among the factors affecting the pregnancy undesirable outcomes and delivery. One way of controlling anxiety and depression is mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of mindfulness based on the Islamic-spiritual schemas and group cognitive behavioral therapy on reduction of anxiety and depression in pregnant women. Methods: The research design was semi-experimental in the form of pretest-posttest using a control group. Among the pregnant women in the 16th to 32nd weeks of pregnancy who referred to the health center, 30 pregnant women with high anxiety level and 30 pregnant women with high depression participated in the research. Randomly 15 participants with high depression and 15 participants with high anxiety were considered in the intervention group under the treatment of mindfulness based on Islamic-spiritual schemes. In addition, 15 participants with high scores regarding depression and 15 with high scores in anxiety were considered in the other group. .The control group consisted of 15 pregnant women with high anxiety and depression. Beck anxiety-depression questionnaire was used in two steps of pre-test and post-test. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and P≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of multivariate analysis of variance test and tracking Tokey test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of anxiety and depression in the two groups of mindfulness based on spiritual- Islamic scheme (P<0.001) and the group of cognitive behavioral therapy with each other (P<0.001) and with the control group(P<0.001). The mean of anxiety and depression scores decreased in the intervention group, but it increased in the control group. Conclusion: Both therapy methods were effective in reduction of anxiety and depression of pregnant women, but the effect of mindfulness based

  4. Cell invasion through basement membrane: the anchor cell breaches the barrier.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2011-10-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) is a specialized cellular behavior critical to many normal developmental events, immune surveillance, and cancer metastasis. A highly dynamic process, cell invasion involves a complex interplay between cell-intrinsic elements that promote the invasive phenotype, and cell-cell and cell-BM interactions that regulate the timing and targeting of BM transmigration. The intricate nature of these interactions has made it challenging to study cell invasion in vivo and model in vitro. Anchor cell invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans is emerging as an important experimental paradigm for comprehensive analysis of BM invasion, revealing the gene networks that specify invasive behavior and the interactions that occur at the cell-BM interface.

  5. Different strategies of exploration and phenotypic variability of the locomotor behavior in new environment: Comparative study of the laboratory opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Klejbor, Ilona; Turlejski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous locomotor activity of opossums and Wistar rats during a two-hour session in the open field has been recorded, assessed and behavior of individuals of the two species compared. Afterwards, groups of highly active (HA) and low active (LA) opossums and rats were selected on the basis of the distance traveled in the test. Differences between the selected groups were evaluated. Opossums were generally more active, moving faster and covering longer distance. They spent more time in the central part of the open field and traveled across the center more times than rats, therefore they showed also a lower level of anxiety. These data confirm our previous results indicating that opossums preferentially use the risky exploration strategy while rats mainly rely on the defensive behavior. Opossums showed a higher variability of the volume of locomotor activity than rats. Comparison of the HA and LA groups of opossums and rats showed that in each species they differed on another principle: the level of anxiety in Wistar rats and level of locomotor activity in opossums. Therefore results of the open field test might measure different parameters in different species.

  6. Comparing behavioral and chronic endpoints to evaluate the response of Lumbriculus variegatus to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl sediment exposures.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Peter F; Leppänen, Matti; Robinson, Sander D; Gossiaux, Duane C; Burton, G Allen; Greenberg, Marc; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Eadie, Brian J; Lansing, Margaret B

    2004-01-01

    The response of Lumbriculus variegatus to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) was examined with feeding behavior and changes in carbon assimilation by using stable carbon isotopes at 22 and 10 degrees C. The classical measure of feeding behavior determined on a subset of sediment for which the biological burial rate was determined in a companion study allowed direct method comparison. This comparison helped address relationships between biological burial rate, feeding rate, and bioaccumulation. The change in stable isotope composition reflects the total metabolic activity by measuring carbon assimilation rate and was compared to feeding rate, biological burial rate (as determined in the companion study), and reproduction. Decreasing the temperature from 22 to 10 degrees C resulted in a twofold reduction in feeding rate and carbon assimilation. The fractional decline in feeding rate relative to the control mimicked the decline in the biological burial rate with increasing TCBP concentration that was found in the companion study. The bioaccumulation factor declined with increasing TCBP sediment concentration, tracking the feeding rate decline. Stable isotope measures showed differences in metabolic rates between the exposure temperatures but did not distinguish a metabolic rate change at 22 degrees C among TCBP treatments. Likewise, reproduction declined from 22 to 10 degrees C, with no reproduction at 10 degrees C. Like the stable isotope measure, no dose response was found among TCBP treatments at 22 degrees C. The reduction in carbon assimilation rate tracked the reduction in reproduction with lower temperature.

  7. Dietary mercury exposure resulted in behavioral differences in mice contaminated with fish-associated methylmercury compared to methylmercury chloride added to diet.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  8. Synthesis of functionalized Pluronic-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) and the comparative study of their pendant groups on the cellular internalization behavior.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhengzhen; Zhang, Yan; Lang, Meidong

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on the synthesis of Pluronic-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) bearing benzyl-oxycarbonylmethyl and carboxylic groups and the comparative study to investigate the influence of the different pendant groups on the cellular behavior. The functionalized Pluronic-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) bearing two kinds of pendant groups are synthesized via ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and 6-(benzyl-oxycarbonyl methyl)-ε-caprolactone and followed by deprotection respectively. The structure of the copolymers is confirmed and the polymeric micelles are formed by an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The critical micelle concentrations are improved compared with Pluronic F127, the morphologies of the micelles are spherical with the diameter on nano scale and good colloidal stability. The copolymers have good cytocompatibility and the comparative study reveals that cellular internalization, digesting by lysosome and intracellular distribution are affected by the pendant groups, moreover, the endocytosis pathway is determined by the pendant groups. Therefore, the definite internalization mechanism is beneficial for the design of polymeric micellar carriers to achieve intra- or extracellular modes of drug delivery and provide better access to either cell membrane or intracellular organelles.

  9. Comparing Greek-Affiliated Students and Student Athletes: An Examination of the Behavior-Intention Link, Reasons for Drinking, and Alcohol-Related Consequences.

    PubMed

    Huchting, Karie K; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2011-12-01

    While affiliation with Greek fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletic teams is associated with heavier drinking (Meilman et al., 1999), few studies have compared reasons for drinking among these groups. A sample of 1,541 students, identifying as either Greeks or athletes, completed an online survey. Athletes were significantly higher than Greeks on conformity reason for drinking. Tests of independent correlations indicated the magnitude of the past behavior to intention link was considerably stronger for Greeks. Greeks experienced significantly more social problems from drinking. Several group by gender ANOVA models found significant main effects with highest drinking rates, usually among Greek males, and lowest among female athletes. Understanding these specific group differences informs recommendations for group-specific and tailored educational interventions, which are discussed.

  10. Invasive Predators Deplete Genetic Diversity of Island Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Gasc, Amandine; Duryea, M. C.; Cox, Robert M.; Kern, Andrew; Calsbeek, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species can dramatically impact natural populations, especially those living on islands. Though numerous examples illustrate the ecological impact of invasive predators, no study has examined the genetic consequences for native populations subject to invasion. Here we capitalize on a natural experiment in which a long-term study of the brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei) was interrupted by rat invasion. An island population that was devastated by rats recovered numerically following rat extermination. However, population genetic analyses at six microsatellite loci suggested a possible loss of genetic diversity due to invasion when compared to an uninvaded island studied over the same time frame. Our results provide partial support for the hypothesis that invasive predators can impact the genetic diversity of resident island populations. PMID:20706576

  11. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his…

  12. Minimally invasive valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Traditional cardiac valve replacement surgery is being rapidly supplanted by innovative, minimally invasive approaches toward the repair of these valves. Patients are experiencing benefits ranging from less bleeding and pain to faster recovery and greater satisfaction. These operations are proving to be safe, highly effective, and durable, and their use will likely continue to increase and become even more widely applicable.

  13. Invasion percolation with memory

    SciTech Connect

    Kharabaf, H.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1997-06-01

    Motivated by the problem of finding the minimum threshold path (MTP) in a lattice of elements with random thresholds {tau}{sub i}, we propose a new class of invasion processes, in which the front advances by minimizing or maximizing the measure S{sub n}={summation}{sub i}{tau}{sub i}{sup n} for real n. This rule assigns long-time memory to the invasion process. If the rule minimizes S{sub n} (case of minimum penalty), the fronts are stable and connected to invasion percolation in a gradient [J. P. Hulin, E. Clement, C. Baudet, J. F. Gouyet, and M. Rosso, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 61}, 333 (1988)] but in a correlated lattice, with invasion percolation [D. Wilkinson and J. F. Willemsen, J. Phys. A {bold 16}, 3365 (1983)] recovered in the limit {vert_bar}n{vert_bar}={infinity}. For small n, the MTP is shown to be related to the optimal path of the directed polymer in random media (DPRM) problem [T. Halpin-Healy and Y.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rep. {bold 254}, 215 (1995)]. In the large n limit, however, it reduces to the backbone of a mixed site-bond percolation cluster. The algorithm allows for various properties of the MTP and the DPRM to be studied. In the unstable case (case of maximum gain), the front is a self-avoiding random walk. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Effect of overexpression of HOX genes on its invasive tendency in cerebral glioma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yun-Bao; Shao, Yi-Meng; Chen, Jing; Xu, Song-Bai; Zhang, Xing-Dong; Wang, Mao-Ren; Liu, Hai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors encoded by HOX genes are vital in the determination of cell fate and identity during embryonic development. In certain malignancies, HOX genes also behave as oncogenes. The present study demonstrated suppression of the invasive tendency of glioblastoma multiforme U-118 and U-138 cells by the introduction of the antisense fragments of HOXA6 and B13 genes using electroporation. The invasion index indicated 79 and 72% reductions in the invasive ability of antisense HOXA6 and B13, respectively. No significant differences in the invasive index of the parental and mock cells of each HOX gene were observed (invasive index, 0.75-0.91; P=0.05). A reduction in invasion tendency was also observed following betulinic acid (BA) treatment: The results from the matrigel assay analysis clearly demonstrated a significant inhibition in the invasive behaviour of U-118 and U-138 cell lines from day 15 following BA treatment, with a maximum effect on day 30. The invasion index demonstrated 62 and 65% reductions in invasion ability in the U-118 and U-138 cell lines, respectively. The suppression of HOXC6 and B13 expression by the introduction of the corresponding antisense fragments in addition to BA reduced invasion tendency in U-118 and U-138 cell lines. The mechanism underlying the association between the HOX gene and invasive behavior in glioma cells is yet to be understood. However, the anti-invasive behavior of BA may aid understanding of the mechanism in future studies.

  15. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  16. Epigenetic suppression of neprilysin regulates breast cancer invasion

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, H M; Khoury, R J; Majmudar, P R; Blaylock, T; Hawkins, K; Salama, M S; Scott, M D; Cosminsky, B; Utreja, N K; Britt, J; Conway, R E

    2016-01-01

    In women, invasive breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, identifying novel regulators of breast cancer invasion could lead to additional biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Neprilysin, a cell-surface enzyme that cleaves and inactivates a number of substrates including endothelin-1 (ET1), has been implicated in breast cancer, but whether neprilysin promotes or inhibits breast cancer cell progression and metastasis is unclear. Here, we asked whether neprilysin expression predicts and functionally regulates breast cancer cell invasion. RT–PCR and flow cytometry analysis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed decreased neprilysin expression compared with normal epithelial cells. Expression was also suppressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared with normal tissue. In addition, in vtro invasion assays demonstrated that neprilysin overexpression decreased breast cancer cell invasion, whereas neprilysin suppression augmented invasion. Furthermore, inhibiting neprilysin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells increased ET1 levels significantly, whereas overexpressing neprilysin decreased extracellular-signal related kinase (ERK) activation, indicating that neprilysin negatively regulates ET1-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. To determine whether neprilysin was epigenetically suppressed in breast cancer, we performed bisulfite conversion analysis of breast cancer cells and clinical tumor samples. We found that the neprilysin promoter was hypermethylated in breast cancer; chemical reversal of methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells reactivated neprilysin expression and inhibited cancer cell invasion. Analysis of cancer databases revealed that neprilysin methylation significantly associates with survival in stage I IDC and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer subtypes. These results demonstrate that neprilysin negatively regulates the ET axis in breast cancer

  17. Invasive aspergillosis: new insights into disease, diagnostic and treatment.

    PubMed

    Karthaus, Meinolf; Buchheidt, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus infections are a threat to in patients with hematological malignancies. Known risk factors are profound and long lasting neutropenia, uncontrolled graft versus host disease, continuous administration of steroids and environmental factors such as hospital construction. Numerous efforts have been undertaken for prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk populations. Most of them failed to demonstrate survival advantages. Prophylaxis makes sense, since diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis remain difficult. The introduction of non-culture based tools for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is an important step forward for early and sensitive diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Early treatment is the cornerstone of a successful management of invasive aspergillosis. Substantial improvement came with the introduction of lipid formulations of amphotericin B in the early 1990s. Voriconazole was the first azole that improved the overall survival for patients with invasive aspergillosis. Newer azoles and the echinocandins were introduced for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in the late 1990s. Voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B allow a safer and more effective treatment of invasive aspergillosis when compared with amphotericin B-desoxycholate. Combination of antifungal agents has been introduced in clinical trials. Up to now no significant benefit has been obtained with antifungal combination compared to voriconazole alone. Because mortality of invasive aspergillosis remains up to more than 50%, prophylaxis, early diagnosis and early initiation of antifungal therapy are of utmost importance for the reduction of invasive aspergillosis related mortality. Despite all advances in the management of invasive aspergillosis important questions remain unresolved. This article reviews the current state and new insights in the management of invasive aspergillosis and points out clinicians unmet needs.

  18. Cooperative cell invasion: matrix metalloproteinase–mediated incorporation between cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Camilla B.; O’Neill, Geraldine M.

    2016-01-01

    Progression to metastatic disease is a leading cause of cancer death. Tumors are a complex mixture of cell types, both genetically heterogeneous malignant cells and associated nonmalignant cells. Models mimicking this heterogeneous cell environment have revealed that invasive cell populations can induce dissemination by otherwise poorly/noninvasive tumor cells, known as cooperative invasion. Neuroblastoma tumors arise in children and are characterized by mixed cellular populations in vivo, consisting chiefly of neuronal (N)-type and substrate (S)-type cells. The S-type cells have all the hallmarks of invasive leader cell populations and have been coisolated with N-type cells from metastatic bone lesions, but to date their ability to induce cooperative invasion has not been investigated. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the invasive behavior of mixed N-type and S-type multicellular spheroids embedded in three-dimensional collagen gels. Our analyses show that S-type cells induce invasion of either single cells or small cell clusters of N-type cells. In contrast to other reports of cooperative invasion in which mixed cultures exhibit a follow-the-leader mechanism, we show coincident emergence of S- and N-type cells from mixed spheroids. Our data suggest mutual effects between the two cell types. Thus, whereas coculture with S-type cells induces N-type invasion, coculture with N-type cells slows S-type invasion. Using matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors and cell incorporation assays, we demonstrate that MMP activity is required for S-type cells to insert into layers of N-type cells. Our study therefore highlights an important role for S-type neuroblastoma cells in the invasion process and reveals a new mechanism of cooperative invasion. PMID:27605703

  19. Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgery for gastric cancer compared on surgical, clinical and oncological outcomes: a multi-institutional chart review. A study protocol of the International study group on Minimally Invasive surgery for GASTRIc Cancer—IMIGASTRIC

    PubMed Central

    Desiderio, Jacopo; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Nguyen, Ninh T; Zhang, Shu; Reim, Daniel; Alimoglu, Orhan; Azagra, Juan-Santiago; Yu, Pei-Wu; Coburn, Natalie G; Qi, Feng; Jackson, Patrick G; Zang, Lu; Brower, Steven T; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Facy, Olivier; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Coratti, Andrea; Annecchiarico, Mario; Bazzocchi, Francesca; Avanzolini, Andrea; Gagniere, Johan; Pezet, Denis; Cianchi, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta; Novotny, Alexander; Eren, Tunc; Leblebici, Metin; Goergen, Martine; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong; Al-Refaie, Waddah; Ma, Junjun; Takiguchi, Shuji; Lequeu, Jean-Baptiste; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer represents a great challenge for healthcare providers and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach in which surgery plays a major role. Minimally invasive surgery has been progressively developed, first with the advent of laparoscopy and recently with the spread of robotic surgery, but a number of issues are currently being debated, including the limitations in performing an effective extended lymph node dissection, the real advantages of robotic systems, the role of laparoscopy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, the reproducibility of a total intracorporeal technique and the oncological results achievable during long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis A mult