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  1. A systems biology approach to invasive behavior: comparing cancer metastasis and suburban sprawl development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite constant progress, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States. The ability of tumors to metastasize is central to this dilemma, as many studies demonstrate successful treatment correlating to diagnosis prior to cancer spread. Hence a better understanding of cancer invasiveness and metastasis could provide critical insight. Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesize that a systems biology-based comparison of cancer invasiveness and suburban sprawl will reveal similarities that are instructive. Testing the hypothesis We compare the structure and behavior of invasive cancer to suburban sprawl development. While these two systems differ vastly in dimension, they appear to adhere to scale-invariant laws consistent with invasive behavior in general. We demonstrate that cancer and sprawl have striking similarities in their natural history, initiating factors, patterns of invasion, vessel distribution and even methods of causing death. Implications of the hypothesis We propose that metastatic cancer and suburban sprawl provide striking analogs in invasive behavior, to the extent that conclusions from one system could be predictive of behavior in the other. We suggest ways in which this model could be used to advance our understanding of cancer biology and treatment. PMID:20181145

  2. Cadherin-11 Promotes Invasive Behavior of Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kiener, Hans P.; Niederreiter, Birgit; Lee, David M.; Jimenez-Boj, Esther; Smolen, Josef S.; Brenner, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To define the expression pattern of cadherin-11 in destructive pannus tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to determine if cadherin-11 expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes controls their invasive capacity. Methods Cadherin-11 expression in rheumatoid synovial tissue was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. To examine the role of cadherin-11 in regulating the invasive behavior of fibroblast-like synoviocytes, we generated L-cell clones expressing wild-type cadherin-11, mutant cadherin-11, and empty vector transfected controls. The invasive capacity of L-cell transfectants and cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes treated with a blocking cadherin-11-Fc protein or control immunoglobulin was determined in Matrigel invasion assays. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed that cadherin-11 is abundantly expressed in cells at the cartilage-pannus junction in rheumatoid synovitis. Invasion assays demonstrate a twofold increased invasive capacity of cadherin-11 transfected L-cells compared to L-cells transfected with E-cadherin or control vector. The invasive behavior of the L-cells stably transfected with a cadherin-11 construct that lacked the juxta-membrane cytoplasmic domain (cadherin-11 ΔJMD) was diminished to the level of vector control L-cells. Further, treatment with the cadherin-11-Fc fusion protein diminished the invasive capacity of fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Conclusion These in vitro studies implicate a role for cadherin-11 in promoting cell invasion and contribute insight into the invasive nature of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in chronic synovitis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:19404963

  3. Behavioral syndrome in a native and an invasive hymenoptera species.

    PubMed

    Monceau, Karine; Moreau, Jérôme; Poidatz, Juliette; Bonnard, Olivier; Thiéry, Denis

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have focused on the role of behavior in biological invasions. Individuals may differ consistently in time for several behavioral traits (personality) which covary (behavioral syndrome) resulting in different behavioral types, some of them favoring invasion. Social hymenopterans have a strong potential to be invaders and their success depends primarily on the foundresses' ability to found viable colonies. They are expected to be active, explorative and bold for optimally establishing their nest. In Europe, 2 hornet species coexist: the native Vespa crabro and the invasive Vespa velutina. These 2 species may compete for nesting sites and we suggest that the initial success of V. velutina has been favored by its behavior in outperforming V. crabro for the traits involved in nest initiation. Here, we (i) defined the personality of V. crabro and V. velutina, (ii) tested for the existence of behavioral syndrome in these species, and (iii) compared their performances using an open-field test. Our results show that V. crabro foundresses behave consistently but not V. velutina; this lack of consistency being mainly due to reduced variance among individuals. This result questions the possibility of detecting consistent behavioral differences in species having recently undergone a strong bottleneck. Both species exhibit the same correlations between activity, boldness and exploration and V. velutina clearly outperforms V. crabro for all traits. Our results suggest that activity, boldness, and exploration are implicated in both hornet nest initiation and invasion process which contributed to explain why social hymenopterans are so successful at colonization.

  4. Keratins significantly contribute to cell stiffness and impact invasive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Kristin; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Käs, Josef A.; Magin, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Cell motility and cell shape adaptations are crucial during wound healing, inflammation, and malignant progression. These processes require the remodeling of the keratin cytoskeleton to facilitate cell–cell and cell–matrix adhesion. However, the role of keratins for biomechanical properties and invasion of epithelial cells is only partially understood. In this study, we address this issue in murine keratinocytes lacking all keratins on genome engineering. In contrast to predictions, keratin-free cells show about 60% higher cell deformability even for small deformations. This response is compared with the less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization induced via latrunculin A. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and 3D growth assays. These experiments reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. Reexpression of a small amount of the keratin pair K5/K14 in keratin-free cells reverses the above phenotype for the invasion but does not with respect to cell deformability. Our data show a unique role of keratins as major players of cell stiffness, influencing invasion with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. This study supports the view that down-regulation of keratins observed during epithelial–mesenchymal transition directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells. PMID:24167274

  5. Keratins significantly contribute to cell stiffness and impact invasive behavior.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Kristin; Fritsch, Anatol W; Käs, Josef A; Magin, Thomas M

    2013-11-12

    Cell motility and cell shape adaptations are crucial during wound healing, inflammation, and malignant progression. These processes require the remodeling of the keratin cytoskeleton to facilitate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. However, the role of keratins for biomechanical properties and invasion of epithelial cells is only partially understood. In this study, we address this issue in murine keratinocytes lacking all keratins on genome engineering. In contrast to predictions, keratin-free cells show about 60% higher cell deformability even for small deformations. This response is compared with the less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization induced via latrunculin A. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and 3D growth assays. These experiments reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. Reexpression of a small amount of the keratin pair K5/K14 in keratin-free cells reverses the above phenotype for the invasion but does not with respect to cell deformability. Our data show a unique role of keratins as major players of cell stiffness, influencing invasion with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. This study supports the view that down-regulation of keratins observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells.

  6. The cytoskeleton significantly impacts invasive behavior of biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Anatol; Käs, Josef; Seltman, Kristin; Magin, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Cell migration is a key determinant of cancer metastasis and nerve regeneration. The role of the cytoskeleton for the epithelial-meschenymal transition (EMT), i.e, for invasive behavior of cells, is only partially understood. Here, we address this issue in cells lacking all keratins upon genome engineering. In contrast to prediction, keratin-free cells show a 60% higher deformability compared to less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and three-dimensional growth assays. These reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. This study supports the view that downregulation of keratins observed during EMT directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells. Cancer cells that effectively move through tissues are softer and more contractile than cells that stay local in tissues. Soft and contractile avoids jamming. Naturally, softness has to have its limits. So neuronal growth cones are too soft to carry large loads to move efficiently through scar tissue, which is required for nerve regeneration. In synopsis, the physical bounds that the functional modules of a moving cell experience in tissues may provide an overarching motif for novel approaches in diagnosis and therapy.

  7. [Invasive cardiovascular monitoring--four methods compared].

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Henning; Schmidt, Christoph; Hinder, Frank

    2006-09-01

    The impact of invasive hemodynamic monitoring on patient safety and outcome in perioperative medicine remains inadequately tested and unproven. The indications for the use of these tools should, therefore, be evaluated according to an individual risk-benefit analysis. The measurement of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) is of little invasiveness as most high-risk patients are instrumented with central venous catheters, and ScvO2 has been shown to improve outcome in patients with septic shock. Transpulmonary thermodilution (e.g. PiCCO-system) delivers information not only on global cardiac function and intravascular volume status but also helps to define the pulmonary consequences of cardiovascular therapy. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a valuable tool in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and represents the beside-method of choice for rapid assessment of acute life-threatening cardiovascular instability. Apart from special indications, these tools tend to replace the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) which has been shown to be of little value in various patient populations.

  8. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  9. Comparative Effectiveness of Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Burke, William M.; Tergas, Ana I.; Hou, June Y.; Huang, Yongmei; Hu, Jim C.; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ananth, Cande V.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the potential benefits of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uterine cancer, population-level data describing the procedure’s safety in unselected patients are lacking. We examined the use of minimally invasive surgery and the association between the route of the procedure and long-term survival. Methods We used the SEER-Medicare database to identify women with stage I-III uterine cancer who underwent hysterectomy from 2006 to 2011. Patients who underwent abdominal hysterectomy were compared with those who had minimally invasive hysterectomy (laparoscopic and robot-assisted). Perioperative morbidity, use of adjuvant therapy, and long-term survival were examined after propensity score balancing. Results We identified 6,304 patients, including 4,139 (65.7%) who underwent abdominal hysterectomy and 2,165 (34.3%) who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy; performance of minimally invasive hysterectomy increased from 9.3% in 2006 to 61.7% in 2011. Robot-assisted procedures accounted for 62.3% of the minimally invasive operations. Compared with women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy, minimally invasive hysterectomy was associated with a lower overall complication rate (22.7% v 39.7%; P < .001), and lower perioperative mortality (0.6% v 1.1%), but these women were more likely to receive adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy (34.3% v 31.3%) and brachytherapy (33.6% v 31.0%; P < .05). The complication rate was higher after robot-assisted hysterectomy compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy (23.7% v 19.5%; P = .03). There was no association between the use of minimally invasive hysterectomy and either overall (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.04) or cancer-specific (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.16) mortality. Conclusion Minimally invasive hysterectomy does not appear to compromise long-term survival for women with endometrial cancer. PMID:26834057

  10. The complexity underlying invasiveness precludes the identification of invasive traits: A comparative study of invasive and non-invasive heterocarpic Atriplex congeners

    PubMed Central

    Doudová, Jana; Douda, Jan; Mandák, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Heterocarpy enables species to effectively spread under unfavourable conditions by producing two or more types of fruit differing in ecological characteristics. Although it is frequent in annuals occupying disturbed habitats that are vulnerable to invasion, there is still a lack of congeneric studies addressing the importance of heterocarpy for species invasion success. We compared two pairs of heterocarpic Atriplex species, each of them comprising one invasive and one non-invasive non-native congener. In two common garden experiments, we (i) simulated the influence of different levels of nutrients and population density on plants grown from different types of fruits and examined several traits that are generally positively associated with invasion success, and (ii) grew plants in a replacement series experiment to evaluate resource partitioning between them and to compare their competitive ability. We found that specific functional traits or competitiveness of species cannot explain the invasiveness of Atriplex species, indicating that species invasiveness involves more complex interactions of traits that are important only in certain ecological contexts, i.e. in specific environmental conditions and only some habitats. Interestingly, species trait differences related to invasion success were found between plants growing from the ecologically most contrasting fruit types. We suggest that fruit types differing in ecological behaviour may be essential in the process of invasion or in the general spreading of heterocarpic species, as they either the maximize population growth (type C fruit) or enhance the chance of survival of new populations (type A fruit). Congeners offer the best available methodical framework for comparing traits among phylogenetically closely related invasive and non-invasive species. However, as indicated by our results, this approach is unlikely to reveal invasive traits because of the complexity underlying invasiveness. PMID:28445514

  11. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.

  12. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop’s Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments. PMID:27168984

  13. Behavioral flexibility in an invasive bird is independent of other behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered important for a species to adapt to environmental change. However, it is unclear how behavioral flexibility works: it relates to problem solving ability and speed in unpredictable ways, which leaves an open question of whether behavioral flexibility varies with differences in other behaviors. If present, such correlations would mask which behavior causes individuals to vary. I investigated whether behavioral flexibility (reversal learning) performances were linked with other behaviors in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird. I found that behavioral flexibility did not significantly correlate with neophobia, exploration, risk aversion, persistence, or motor diversity. This suggests that great-tailed grackle performance in behavioral flexibility tasks reflects a distinct source of individual variation. Maintaining multiple distinct sources of individual variation, and particularly variation in behavioral flexibility, may be a mechanism for coping with the diversity of novel elements in their environments and facilitate this species’ invasion success. PMID:27478705

  14. Behavioral flexibility in an invasive bird is independent of other behaviors.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered important for a species to adapt to environmental change. However, it is unclear how behavioral flexibility works: it relates to problem solving ability and speed in unpredictable ways, which leaves an open question of whether behavioral flexibility varies with differences in other behaviors. If present, such correlations would mask which behavior causes individuals to vary. I investigated whether behavioral flexibility (reversal learning) performances were linked with other behaviors in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird. I found that behavioral flexibility did not significantly correlate with neophobia, exploration, risk aversion, persistence, or motor diversity. This suggests that great-tailed grackle performance in behavioral flexibility tasks reflects a distinct source of individual variation. Maintaining multiple distinct sources of individual variation, and particularly variation in behavioral flexibility, may be a mechanism for coping with the diversity of novel elements in their environments and facilitate this species' invasion success.

  15. Behavioral responses to resource heterogeneity can accelerate biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Lutscher, Frithjof; Musgrave, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-14

    The abundance and spatial distribution of resources in a landscape and the behavioral response of individuals determines whether and how fast an invasive species spreads in an environment. Whether and how landscape manipulations can be used to slow invasive species is of great interest, in particular in forest ecosystems, where tree removal, thinning, and increasing tree diversity are discussed as management options. Classically, the focus is on availability and accessibility of resources; more recent considerations include individual-level behavioral movement responses to a spatially heterogeneous resource distribution. We derive a novel model for insect-host dynamics that includes three common behavioral aspects of foraging: higher movement rate in resource-poor areas, lower ovipositioning rate in resource poor areas, and movement preference for resource-rich areas. We show that each of these basic mechanisms can increase the speed of invasion in a source-sink landscape above that in a homogeneous landscape with larger overall resource availability. We parameterize our model and illustrate our results with data for Emerald ash borer, a recent highly destructive forest pest in North America. Our results highlight the importance of empirical work on movement behavior in different landscape types and near the interface between types. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative patterns of plant invasions in the Mediterranean biome.

    PubMed

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Delipetrou, Pinelopi; Vilà, Montserrat; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Wardell-Johnson, Grant; Henderson, Lesley; Fuentes, Nicol; Ugarte-Mendes, Eduardo; Rundel, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world's five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period.

  17. Comparative Patterns of Plant Invasions in the Mediterranean Biome

    PubMed Central

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Delipetrou, Pinelopi; Vilà, Montserrat; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G.; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Wardell-Johnson, Grant; Henderson, Lesley; Fuentes, Nicol; Ugarte-Mendes, Eduardo; Rundel, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world’s five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period. PMID:24244443

  18. Comparative evaluation of the Minimally-Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) algorithm for non-invasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tianjiao; Shaw, Patricia A; Yeniterzi, Suveyda; Dunkel, Mary; Rajkovic, Aleksander; Hogge, W Allen; Bunce, Kimberly D; Peters, David G

    2017-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) was communicated in 2009 as a novel method for the non-invasive detection of fetal copy number anomalies in maternal plasma DNA. The original manuscript illustrated the potential of MINK using a model system in which fragmented genomic DNA obtained from a trisomy 21 male individual was mixed with that of his karyotypically normal mother at dilutions representing fetal fractions found in maternal plasma. Although it has been previously shown that MINK is able to non-invasively detect fetal microdeletions, its utility for aneuploidy detection in maternal plasma has not previously been demonstrated. The current study illustrates the ability of MINK to detect common aneuploidy in early gestation, compares its performance to other published third party methods (and related software packages) for prenatal aneuploidy detection and evaluates the performance of these methods across a range of sequencing read inputs. Plasma samples were obtained from 416 pregnant women between gestational weeks 8.1 and 34.4. Shotgun DNA sequencing was performed and data analyzed using MINK RAPIDR and WISECONDOR. MINK performed with greater accuracy than RAPIDR and WISECONDOR, correctly identifying 60 out of 61 true trisomy cases, and reporting only one false positive in 355 normal pregnancies. Significantly, MINK achieved accurate detection of trisomy 21 using just 2 million aligned input reads, whereas WISECONDOR required 6 million reads and RAPIDR did not achieve complete accuracy at any read input tested. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MINK provides an analysis pipeline for the detection of fetal aneuploidy in samples of maternal plasma DNA.

  19. Comparative evaluation of the Minimally-Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) algorithm for non-invasive prenatal testing

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tianjiao; Shaw, Patricia A.; Yeniterzi, Suveyda; Dunkel, Mary; Rajkovic, Aleksander; Hogge, W. Allen; Bunce, Kimberly D.; Peters, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Karyotyping (MINK) was communicated in 2009 as a novel method for the non-invasive detection of fetal copy number anomalies in maternal plasma DNA. The original manuscript illustrated the potential of MINK using a model system in which fragmented genomic DNA obtained from a trisomy 21 male individual was mixed with that of his karyotypically normal mother at dilutions representing fetal fractions found in maternal plasma. Although it has been previously shown that MINK is able to non-invasively detect fetal microdeletions, its utility for aneuploidy detection in maternal plasma has not previously been demonstrated. The current study illustrates the ability of MINK to detect common aneuploidy in early gestation, compares its performance to other published third party methods (and related software packages) for prenatal aneuploidy detection and evaluates the performance of these methods across a range of sequencing read inputs. Plasma samples were obtained from 416 pregnant women between gestational weeks 8.1 and 34.4. Shotgun DNA sequencing was performed and data analyzed using MINK RAPIDR and WISECONDOR. MINK performed with greater accuracy than RAPIDR and WISECONDOR, correctly identifying 60 out of 61 true trisomy cases, and reporting only one false positive in 355 normal pregnancies. Significantly, MINK achieved accurate detection of trisomy 21 using just 2 million aligned input reads, whereas WISECONDOR required 6 million reads and RAPIDR did not achieve complete accuracy at any read input tested. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MINK provides an analysis pipeline for the detection of fetal aneuploidy in samples of maternal plasma DNA. PMID:28306738

  20. Effects of an alien ant invasion on abundance, behavior, and reproductive success of endemic island birds.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi E; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Green, Peter T; Nally, Ralph Mac

    2008-10-01

    Biological invaders can reconfigure ecological networks in communities, which changes community structure, composition, and ecosystem function. We investigated whether impacts caused by the introduced yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes), a pantropical invader rapidly expanding its range, extend to higher-order consumers by comparing counts, behaviors, and nesting success of endemic forest birds in ant-invaded and uninvaded rainforest on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Point counts and direct behavioral observations showed that ant invasion altered abundances and behaviors of the bird species we examined: the Island Thrush (Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus), Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica natalis), and Christmas Island White-eye (Zosterops natalis). The thrush, which frequents the forest floor, altered its foraging and reproductive behaviors in ant-invaded forest, where nest-site location changed, and nest success and juvenile counts were lower. Counts of the dove, which forages exclusively on the forest floor, were 9-14 times lower in ant-invaded forest. In contrast, counts and foraging success of the white-eye, a generalist feeder in the understory and canopy, were higher in ant-invaded forest, where mutualism between the ant and honeydew-secreting scale insects increased the abundance of scale-insect prey. These complex outcomes involved the interplay of direct interference by ants and altered resource availability and habitat structure caused indirectly by ant invasion. Ecological meltdown, rapidly unleashed by ant invasion, extended to these endemic forest birds and may affect key ecosystem processes, including seed dispersal.

  1. Experimental evidence of impacts of an invasive parakeet on foraging behavior of native birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Resource competition is one potential behavioral mechanism by which invasive species can impact native species, but detecting this competition can be difficult due to the interactions that variable environmental conditions can have on species behavior. This is particularly the case in urban habitats where the disturbed environment can alter natural behavior from that in undisturbed habitats. The rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri), is an increasingly common invasive species, predominantly associated with large urban centers. Using an experimental approach, we tested the behavioral responses of native garden birds in response to the presence of a rose-ringed parakeet versus the presence of a similarly sized and dominant native bird, the great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major). Parakeet presence significantly reduced feeding rates and increased vigilance among native birds compared with our control treatments. Of visits made by native birds in the presence of a parakeet, feeding was more likely to occur in sites within the parakeet range compared with sites outside, suggesting some habituation of native birds has occurred following prior exposure to parakeets but overall foraging behavior is still disrupted. The results of our study suggest that nonnative species can have complex and subtle impacts on native fauna and show that a nonnative competitor can impact native species simply through their presence near resources. PMID:24822022

  2. Experimental evidence of impacts of an invasive parakeet on foraging behavior of native birds.

    PubMed

    Peck, Hannah L; Pringle, Henrietta E; Marshall, Harry H; Owens, Ian P F; Lord, Alexa M

    2014-05-01

    Resource competition is one potential behavioral mechanism by which invasive species can impact native species, but detecting this competition can be difficult due to the interactions that variable environmental conditions can have on species behavior. This is particularly the case in urban habitats where the disturbed environment can alter natural behavior from that in undisturbed habitats. The rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri), is an increasingly common invasive species, predominantly associated with large urban centers. Using an experimental approach, we tested the behavioral responses of native garden birds in response to the presence of a rose-ringed parakeet versus the presence of a similarly sized and dominant native bird, the great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major). Parakeet presence significantly reduced feeding rates and increased vigilance among native birds compared with our control treatments. Of visits made by native birds in the presence of a parakeet, feeding was more likely to occur in sites within the parakeet range compared with sites outside, suggesting some habituation of native birds has occurred following prior exposure to parakeets but overall foraging behavior is still disrupted. The results of our study suggest that nonnative species can have complex and subtle impacts on native fauna and show that a nonnative competitor can impact native species simply through their presence near resources.

  3. Comparing a non-invasive hemodynamic monitor with minimally invasive monitoring during major open abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Lawrence; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract As part of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol, the goal-directed fluid management with hemodynamic monitoring can effectively guide perioperative fluid use and significantly improve the outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing major surgeries. Several minimally invasive and non-invasive monitoring devices are commercially available for clinical use. As part of an internal evaluation, we reported the results from three different hemodynamic monitoring devices used in a patient undergoing a major abdominal surgery. PMID:25050116

  4. Contributions of behavioral primatology to veterinary science and comparative medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G; Clarke, A S

    1984-01-01

    Behavioral primatology is a subdiscipline of the research area referred to as primatology. Like primatology, behavioral primatology is an eclectic field of study made up of researchers from diverse basic disciplines having very different historical roots and employing extremely different methodologies biased by emphases and assumptions dictated by their histories. Psychologists, zoologists, anthropologists, and psychiatrists make up the majority of those currently active in behavioral primatology, but others, including those in veterinary science, are active in research in the area. Behavioral data can be useful to veterinary scientists and to those in comparative medicine and are interesting in their own right. Veterinarians and medical scientists may specialize in behavioral disorders. In addition, those not directly interested in behavior itself may still make use of behavioral indices of potential physiologic and morphologic abnormality. Often an animal may be inadvertently stressed by social and nonsocial environmental factors, and such stress effects may be first and best recognized by behavioral means. A recognition by those not in the behavioral sciences of the basic feral behavior of primates can go a long way toward prevention or alleviation of both behavioral and physical stress of primates in captivity. Studies of free-ranging but captive troops are sources of information almost as good as, and sometimes even better than, field studies. In addition, there is a growing realization that "natural experiments" on primates in zoos can be of value, especially since many species held in zoologic parks are those least well known in more traditional captive research settings. It must be recognized that the findings from research done on captive primates living in large field cages are not directly comparable to those derived from more directly invasive but more experimental laboratory settings. A comparative perspective on captive environments, as well as on

  5. Novel organisms: comparing invasive species, GMOs, and emerging pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Jonathan M; Keesing, Felicia; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    Invasive species, range-expanding species, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), synthetic organisms, and emerging pathogens increasingly affect the human environment. We propose a framework that allows comparison of consecutive stages that such novel organisms go through. The framework provides a common terminology for novel organisms, facilitating knowledge exchange among researchers, managers, and policy makers that work on, or have to make effective decisions about, novel organisms. The framework also indicates that knowledge about the causes and consequences of stage transitions for the better studied novel organisms, such as invasive species, can be transferred to more poorly studied ones, such as GMOs and emerging pathogens. Finally, the framework advances understanding of how climate change can affect the establishment, spread, and impacts of novel organisms, and how biodiversity affects, and is affected by, novel organisms.

  6. Comparative genomics and genome biology of invasive Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Skarp, C P A; Akinrinade, O; Nilsson, A J E; Ellström, P; Myllykangas, S; Rautelin, H

    2015-11-25

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major pathogen in bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and can cause bacteremia in severe cases. C. jejuni is highly structured into clonal lineages of which the ST677CC lineage has been overrepresented among C. jejuni isolates derived from blood. In this study, we characterized the genomes of 31 C. jejuni blood isolates and 24 faecal isolates belonging to ST677CC in order to study the genome biology related to C. jejuni invasiveness. We combined the genome analyses with phenotypical evidence on serum resistance which was associated with phase variation of wcbK; a GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase involved in capsular biosynthesis. We also describe the finding of a Type III restriction-modification system unique to the ST-794 sublineage. However, features previously considered to be related to pathogenesis of C. jejuni were either absent or disrupted among our strains. Our results refine the role of capsule features associated with invasive disease and accentuate the possibility of methylation and restriction enzymes in the potential of C. jejuni to establish invasive infections. Our findings underline the importance of studying clinically relevant well-characterized bacterial strains in order to understand pathogenesis mechanisms important in human infections.

  7. Eastern mosquitofish resists invasion by nonindigenous poeciliids through agonistic behaviors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Kevin A.; Hill, Jeffrey E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2012-01-01

    Florida is a hotspot for nonindigenous fishes with over 30 species established, although few of these are small-bodied species. One hypothesis for this pattern is that biotic resistance of native species is reducing the success of small-bodied, introduced fishes. The eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki is common in many freshwater habitats in Florida and although small-bodied (<50 mm), it is a predator and aggressive competitor. We conducted four mesocosm experiments to examine the potential for biotic resistance by eastern mosquitofish to two small-bodied nonindigenous fishes, variable platyfish (Xiphophorus variatus) and swordtail (X. hellerii). Experiments tested: (1) effect of eastern mosquitofish density on adult survival, (2) effect of eastern mosquitofish on a stage-structured population, (3) role of habitat structural complexity on nonindigenous adult survival, and (4) behavioral effects of eastern mosquitofish presence and habitat complexity. Eastern mosquitofish attacked and killed non-native poeciliids with especially strong effects on juveniles of both species. Higher eastern mosquitofish density resulted in greater effects. Predation on swordtails increased with increasing habitat complexity. Eastern mosquitofish also actively drove swordtails from cover, which could expose non-native fish to other predators under field conditions. Our results suggest that eastern mosquitofish may limit invasion success.

  8. Divide or Conquer: Cell Cycle Regulation of Invasive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, Abraham Q; Matus, David Q

    2017-01-01

    Cell invasion through the basement membrane (BM) occurs during normal embryonic development and is a fundamental feature of cancer metastasis. The underlying cellular and genetic machinery required for invasion has been difficult to identify, due to a lack of adequate in vivo models to accurately examine invasion in single cells at subcellular resolution. Recent evidence has documented a functional link between cell cycle arrest and invasive activity. While cancer progression is traditionally thought of as a disease of uncontrolled cell proliferation, cancer cell dissemination, a critical aspect of metastasis, may require a switch from a proliferative to an invasive state. In this work, we review evidence that BM invasion requires cell cycle arrest and discuss the implications of this concept with regard to limiting the lethality associated with cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E

    2009-03-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use long-term monitoring, observational studies, and field experiments to document how changes in vegetation architecture have affected native web spider populations and predation rates. Native spiders that use vegetation as web substrates were collectively 38 times more abundant in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands than in uninvaded grasslands. This increase in spider abundance was accompanied by a large shift in web spider community structure, driven primarily by the strong response of Dictyna spiders to C. maculosa invasion. Dictyna densities were 46-74 times higher in C. maculosa-invaded than native grasslands, a pattern that persisted over 6 years of monitoring. C. maculosa also altered Dictyna web building behavior and foraging success. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa were 2.9-4.0 times larger and generated 2.0-2.3 times higher total prey captures than webs on Achillea millefolium, their primary native substrate. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa also captured 4.2 times more large prey items, which are crucial for reproduction. As a result, Dictyna were nearly twice as likely to reproduce on C. maculosa substrates compared to native substrates. The overall outcome of C. maculosa invasion and its transformative effects on vegetation architecture on Dictyna density and web building behavior were to increase Dictyna predation on invertebrate prey >/=89 fold. These results indicate that invasive plants that change the architecture of native vegetation can substantially impact native food webs via nontraditional plant --> predator --> consumer

  10. Comparative water use of native and invasive plants at multiple scales: a global meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Sack, Lawren

    2010-09-01

    Ecohydrology and invasive ecology have become increasingly important in the context of global climate change. This study presents the first in-depth analysis of the water use of invasive and native plants of the same growth form at multiple scales: leaf, plant, and ecosystem. We reanalyzed data for several hundred native and invasive species from over 40 published studies worldwide to glean global trends and to highlight how patterns vary depending on both scale and climate. We analyzed all pairwise combinations of co-occurring native and invasive species for higher comparative resolution of the likelihood of an invasive species using more water than a native species and tested for significance using bootstrap methods. At each scale, we found several-fold differences in water use between specific paired invasive and native species. At the leaf scale, we found a strong tendency for invasive species to have greater stomatal conductance than native species. At the plant scale, however, natives and invasives were equally likely to have the higher sap flow rates. Available data were much fewer for the ecosystem scale; nevertheless, we found that invasive-dominated ecosystems were more likely to have higher sap flow rates per unit ground area than native-dominated ecosystems. Ecosystem-scale evapotranspiration, on the other hand, was equally likely to be greater for systems dominated by invasive and native species of the same growth form. The inherent disconnects in the determination of water use when changing scales from leaf to plant to ecosystem reveal hypotheses for future studies and a critical need for more ecosystem-scale water use measurements in invasive- vs. native-dominated systems. The differences in water use of native and invasive species also depended strongly on climate, with the greater water use of invasives enhanced in hotter, wetter climates at the coarser scales.

  11. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in “100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species”; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest “attack rates” a, shortest “handling times” h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach. PMID:26771658

  12. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T A; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species"; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest "attack rates" a, shortest "handling times" h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach.

  13. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  14. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  15. Invasive ants alter foraging and parental behaviors of a native bird.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Russell A; Siefferman, Lynn; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2012-09-01

    Introduced species can exert outsized impacts on native biota through both direct (predation) and indirect (competition) effects. Ants frequently become established in new areas after being transported by humans across traditional biological or geographical barriers, and a prime example of such establishment is the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). Introduced to North America in the 1930's, red imported fire ants are now firmly established throughout the southeastern United States. Although these invasive predators can dramatically impact native arthropods, their effect on vertebrates through resource competition is essentially unknown. Using a paired experimental design, we compared patterns of foraging and rates of provisioning for breeding eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) in unmanipulated (control) territories to those in adjacent (treated) territories where fire ants were experimentally reduced. Bluebirds inhabiting treated territories foraged nearer their nests and provisioned offspring more frequently than bluebirds inhabiting control territories with unmanipulated fire ant levels. Additionally, nestlings from treated territories were in better condition than those from control territories, though these differences were largely confined to early development. The elimination of significant differences in body condition towards the end of the nestling period suggests that bluebird parents in control territories were able to make up the food deficit caused by fire ants, potentially by working harder to adequately provision their offspring. The relationship between fire ant abundance and bluebird behavior hints at the complexity of ecological communities and suggests negative effects of invasive species are not limited to taxa with which they have direct contact.

  16. Invasive ants alter foraging and parental behaviors of a native bird

    PubMed Central

    Siefferman, Lynn; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduced species can exert outsized impacts on native biota through both direct (predation) and indirect (competition) effects. Ants frequently become established in new areas after being transported by humans across traditional biological or geographical barriers, and a prime example of such establishment is the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). Introduced to North America in the 1930's, red imported fire ants are now firmly established throughout the southeastern United States. Although these invasive predators can dramatically impact native arthropods, their effect on vertebrates through resource competition is essentially unknown. Using a paired experimental design, we compared patterns of foraging and rates of provisioning for breeding eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) in unmanipulated (control) territories to those in adjacent (treated) territories where fire ants were experimentally reduced. Bluebirds inhabiting treated territories foraged nearer their nests and provisioned offspring more frequently than bluebirds inhabiting control territories with unmanipulated fire ant levels. Additionally, nestlings from treated territories were in better condition than those from control territories, though these differences were largely confined to early development. The elimination of significant differences in body condition towards the end of the nestling period suggests that bluebird parents in control territories were able to make up the food deficit caused by fire ants, potentially by working harder to adequately provision their offspring. The relationship between fire ant abundance and bluebird behavior hints at the complexity of ecological communities and suggests negative effects of invasive species are not limited to taxa with which they have direct contact. PMID:22844172

  17. Comparative Analysis of Dynamic Cell Viability, Migration and Invasion Assessments by Novel Real-Time Technology and Classic Endpoint Assays

    PubMed Central

    Limame, Ridha; Wouters, An; Pauwels, Bea; Fransen, Erik; Peeters, Marc; Lardon, Filip; De Wever, Olivier; Pauwels, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell viability and motility comprise ubiquitous mechanisms involved in a variety of (patho)biological processes including cancer. We report a technical comparative analysis of the novel impedance-based xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis detection platform, with conventional label-based endpoint methods, hereby indicating performance characteristics and correlating dynamic observations of cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, migration and invasion on cancer cells in highly standardized experimental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Dynamic high-resolution assessments of proliferation, cytotoxicity and migration were performed using xCELLigence technology on the MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) cell lines. Proliferation kinetics were compared with the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay in a series of four cell concentrations, yielding fair to good correlations (Spearman's Rho 0.688 to 0.964). Cytotoxic action by paclitaxel (0–100 nM) correlated well with SRB (Rho>0.95) with similar IC50 values. Reference cell migration experiments were performed using Transwell plates and correlated by pixel area calculation of crystal violet-stained membranes (Rho 0.90) and optical density (OD) measurement of extracted dye (Rho>0.95). Invasion was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells alone using Matrigel-coated Transwells as standard reference method and correlated by OD reading for two Matrigel densities (Rho>0.95). Variance component analysis revealed increased variances associated with impedance-based detection of migration and invasion, potentially caused by the sensitive nature of this method. Conclusions/Significance The xCELLigence RTCA technology provides an accurate platform for non-invasive detection of cell viability and motility. The strong correlations with conventional methods imply a similar observation of cell behavior and interchangeability with other systems, illustrated by the highly correlating kinetic invasion profiles on different

  18. Comparative analysis of dynamic cell viability, migration and invasion assessments by novel real-time technology and classic endpoint assays.

    PubMed

    Limame, Ridha; Wouters, An; Pauwels, Bea; Fransen, Erik; Peeters, Marc; Lardon, Filip; De Wever, Olivier; Pauwels, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Cell viability and motility comprise ubiquitous mechanisms involved in a variety of (patho)biological processes including cancer. We report a technical comparative analysis of the novel impedance-based xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis detection platform, with conventional label-based endpoint methods, hereby indicating performance characteristics and correlating dynamic observations of cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, migration and invasion on cancer cells in highly standardized experimental conditions. Dynamic high-resolution assessments of proliferation, cytotoxicity and migration were performed using xCELLigence technology on the MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) cell lines. Proliferation kinetics were compared with the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay in a series of four cell concentrations, yielding fair to good correlations (Spearman's Rho 0.688 to 0.964). Cytotoxic action by paclitaxel (0-100 nM) correlated well with SRB (Rho>0.95) with similar IC(50) values. Reference cell migration experiments were performed using Transwell plates and correlated by pixel area calculation of crystal violet-stained membranes (Rho 0.90) and optical density (OD) measurement of extracted dye (Rho>0.95). Invasion was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells alone using Matrigel-coated Transwells as standard reference method and correlated by OD reading for two Matrigel densities (Rho>0.95). Variance component analysis revealed increased variances associated with impedance-based detection of migration and invasion, potentially caused by the sensitive nature of this method. The xCELLigence RTCA technology provides an accurate platform for non-invasive detection of cell viability and motility. The strong correlations with conventional methods imply a similar observation of cell behavior and interchangeability with other systems, illustrated by the highly correlating kinetic invasion profiles on different platforms applying only adapted matrix surface densities. The increased

  19. Evaluation of the behavior of murine and human embryonic stem cells in in vitro migration and invasion assays.

    PubMed

    T'Joen, V; Somers, P; Declercq, H; Cornelissen, M

    2013-04-01

    Cell migration and invasion are essential processes in a variety of physiological events in the body, but also in several patho-physiological events. In this paper, the behavior of murine and human embryonic stem cells is examined in in vitro migration and invasion models. mESC and hESC were applied as spheroids, also known as patches, and as single cells, to mimic possible cell therapy application strategies. Two known in vitro migration assays, the ECM (extracellular matrix) assay and the Boyden chamber migration assay were selected. These assays revealed that mESC are statistically significantly more infiltrative than hESC. Application as spheroid results in a slightly higher infiltrative capacity compared single cells. The PHF (precultured chick heart fragment) assay was selected as an invasion assay. In the PHF assay a more 3D examination of the infiltrative nature of the ESC can be observed. The mESC showed infiltrative behavior, as spheroids and as single cells. The hESC were infiltrative as single cells but not as spheroids. The results of these assays are mostly complementary and prove the applicability of these assays, which were originally applied in tumor biology, in migratory behavior studies regarding stem cells and their progeny in basic and other conditions.

  20. Comparative analysis of the invasion-associated genes expression pattern in first trimester trophoblastic (HTR-8/SVneo) and JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Suman, P; Gupta, S K

    2012-10-01

    Several cellular models of trophoblast have been proposed to understand their invasion. We had reported that JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cells show differential invasive behavior in response to IL-11 treatment. So, the present study aims to compare the expression of invasion-associated molecules in these two cell lines by performing cDNA microarray followed by quantitative RT-PCR. We have observed that HTR-8/SVneo cells have significantly higher invasiveness than JEG-3 cells, which might be due to higher expression of proteases and signaling intermediates of JAK/STAT and MAPK signaling pathways. Like extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), a higher expression of functionally significant proteases like MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, PLAU etc in HTR-8/SVneo cells, project them as a close mimic of EVTs under in vitro conditions.

  1. Comparative evaluation of marginal integrity of glass ionomer and resin based fissure sealants using invasive and non-invasive techniques: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gunjal, Shilpa; Nagesh, L; Raju, H G

    2012-01-01

    Occlusal surfaces of the molars are highly susceptible to dental decay. Pit and fissure sealants are one of the best methods of preventing fissure caries. The main problem encountered is microleakage leading to deterioration of material and increased possibility of the development of secondary caries. To assess and compare the marginal integrity of glass ionomer (Fuji VII) and resin based (Clinpro) fissure sealants using invasive and non-invasive technique. Experimental in-vitro study. An in-vitro study was conducted on 40 healthy, extracted premolars. The teeth were divided into 4 groups. Group I: Clinpro-invasive technique, group II: Clinpro-non-invasive technique, group III: Fuji VII-invasive technique, group IV: Fuji VII-non-invasive technique. Sealants were applied and subjected to an evaluation under SEM (scanning electron microscopy) for the width of the marginal gap. ANOVA (analysis of variance) and Duncan's multiple range tests were used for the statistical analysis. The mean width of the marginal gap was 0.4089 μm in group I as compared to 3.0485 μm in group III; and the difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.001). In non-invasive technique, Clinpro and Fuji VII showed a mean marginal gap width of 0.4486 μm and 3.0485 μm, respectively. This difference was statistically highly significant at a P<0.001. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean widths between invasive and non-invasive techniques. Clinpro performed better in terms of marginal adaptation than did the Fuji VII sealant. The techniques (Invasive and non-invasive) does not influence the marginal integrity significantly.

  2. Symbiotic bacterial communities in ants are modified by invasion pathway bottlenecks and alter host behavior.

    PubMed

    Lester, Philip J; Sébastien, Alexandra; Suarez, Andrew V; Barbieri, Rafael F; Gruber, Monica A M

    2017-03-01

    Biological invasions are a threat to global biodiversity and provide unique opportunities to study ecological processes. Population bottlenecks are a common feature of biological invasions and the severity of these bottlenecks is likely to be compounded as an invasive species spreads from initial invasion sites to additional locations. Despite extensive work on the genetic consequences of bottlenecks, we know little about how they influence microbial communities of the invaders themselves. Due to serial bottlenecks, invasive species may lose microbial symbionts including pathogenic taxa (the enemy release hypothesis) and/or may accumulate natural enemies with increasing time after invasion (the pathogen accumulation and invasive decline hypothesis). We tested these alternate hypotheses by surveying bacterial communities of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile). We found evidence for serial symbiont bottlenecks: the bacterial community richness declined over the invasion pathway from Argentina to New Zealand. The abundance of some genera, such as Lactobacillus, also significantly declined over the invasion pathway. Argentine ants from populations in the United States shared the most genera with ants from their native range in Argentina, while New Zealand shared the least (120 vs. 57, respectively). Nine genera were present in all sites around the globe possibly indicating a core group of obligate microbes. In accordance with the pathogen accumulation and invasive decline hypothesis, Argentine ants acquired genera unique to each specific invaded country. The United States had the most unique genera, though even within New Zealand these ants acquired symbionts. In addition to our biogeographic sampling, we administered antibiotics to Argentine ants to determine if changes in the micro-symbiont community could influence behavior and survival in interspecific interactions. Treatment with the antibiotics spectinomycin and kanamycin only slightly increased Argentine ant

  3. Behavioral plasticity mediates asymmetric competition between invasive wasps and native ants

    PubMed Central

    Grangier, Julien; Lester, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most successful invasive species is the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. We recently reported how foragers of this species have adopted previously unknown interference behavior when competing for food with native ants. Picking their opponents up in their mandibles, flying backward and dropping them some distance away from the disputed resource, wasps were shown to efficiently deal with a yet aggressive competitor and to modulate this behavior according to circumstances. Here we further discuss the nature and functioning of this unusual strategy. We first highlight the questions this interaction raises regarding the competitive advantages offered by asymmetries in body size and flight ability. Then, we argue that this study system illustrates the important role of behavioral plasticity in biological invasions; not only in the success of invaders but also in the ability of native species to coexist with these invaders. PMID:22808314

  4. Behavioral plasticity mediates asymmetric competition between invasive wasps and native ants.

    PubMed

    Grangier, Julien; Lester, Philip J

    2012-03-01

    One of the most successful invasive species is the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. We recently reported how foragers of this species have adopted previously unknown interference behavior when competing for food with native ants. Picking their opponents up in their mandibles, flying backward and dropping them some distance away from the disputed resource, wasps were shown to efficiently deal with a yet aggressive competitor and to modulate this behavior according to circumstances. Here we further discuss the nature and functioning of this unusual strategy. We first highlight the questions this interaction raises regarding the competitive advantages offered by asymmetries in body size and flight ability. Then, we argue that this study system illustrates the important role of behavioral plasticity in biological invasions; not only in the success of invaders but also in the ability of native species to coexist with these invaders.

  5. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW COMPARING HYSTERECTOMY TO LESS INVASIVE TREATMENTS FOR ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING

    PubMed Central

    Matteson, Kristen A.; Abed, Husam; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Sung, Vivian W.; Rahn, David D.; Schaffer, Joseph I.; Balk, Ethan M.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective To compare hysterectomy and less invasive alternatives for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in 7 clinically important domains Design Systematic review Setting Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing bleeding, quality of life, pain, sexual health, satisfaction, need for subsequent surgery, and/or adverse events between hysterectomy and less invasive treatment options Patients Women with AUB, predominantly from ovulatory disorders and endometrial causes Interventions Systematic review of the literature (from inception to January 2011) comparing hysterectomy to alternatives for AUB treatment. Eligible trials were extracted into standardized forms. Trials were graded using a predefined 3-level rating and the strengths of evidence for each outcome were evaluated with the GRADE system. Measurements and Main Results Nine RCTs (18 articles) were eligible. Endometrial ablation, levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), and medications were associated with lower risk of adverse events but higher risk of additional treatments treatments than hysterectomy. Compared to ablation, hysterectomy had superior long-term pain and bleeding control. Compared to LNG-IUS, hysterectomy had superior control of bleeding. No other differences between treatments were found. Conclusion Less invasive treatment options for AUB result in improvement in quality of life but carry significant risk of retreatment secondary to unsatisfactory results. While hysterectomy is the most effective treatment for AUB, it carries the highest risk for adverse events. PMID:22078015

  6. Non-invasive vaccine delivery in transfersomes, niosomes and liposomes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prem N; Mishra, Vivek; Rawat, Amit; Dubey, Praveen; Mahor, Sunil; Jain, Sanyog; Chatterji, D P; Vyas, Suresh P

    2005-04-11

    Non-invasive vaccine delivery is a top priority for public health agencies because conventional immunization practices are unsafe and associated with numerous limitations. Recently, the skin has emerged as a potential alternative route for non-invasive delivery of vaccine. Topical immunization (TI), introduction of antigen through topical application onto the intact skin, has many practical merits compared to injectable routes of administration. One of the possibilities for increasing the penetration of bioactives through the skin is the use of vesicular systems. Specially designed lipid vesicles are attracting intense attention and can be used for non-invasive antigen delivery. In the present study, elastic vesicle transfersomes, non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) and liposomes were used to study their relative potential in non-invasive delivery of tetanus toxoid (TT). Transfersomes, niosomes and liposomes were prepared and characterized for shape, size and entrapment efficiency. These vesicles were extruded through polycarbonate filter (50-nm pore size) to assess the elasticity of the vesicles. The immune stimulating activity of transfersomes, niosomes and liposomes were studied by measuring the serum anti-TT IgG titre following topical immunization. The immune response elicited by topical immunization was compared with that elicited by same dose of alum-adsorbed tetanus toxoid (AATT) given intramuscularly. The results indicate that optimal formulations of transfersomes, niosomes and liposomes could entrap 72.7+/-3.4, 42.5+/-2.4 and 41.3+/-2.2% of antigen and their elasticity values were 124.4+/-4.2, 29.3+/-2.4 and 21.7+/-1.9, respectively. In vivo study revealed that topically given TT containing transfersomes, after secondary immunization, could elicit immune response (anti-TT-IgG) that was equivalent to one that produced following intramuscularly alum-adsorbed TT-based immunization. In comparison to transfersomes, niosomes and liposomes elicited weaker

  7. A comparative study of candidal invasion in rabbit tongue mucosal explants and reconstituted human oral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) features of tissue invasion by three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis) in two different tissue culture models: rabbit tongue mucosal explants (RTME) and reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Tongue mucosal biopsies of healthy New Zealand rabbits were maintained in explant culture using a transwell system. RHOE was obtained from Skinethic Laboratory (Nice, France). RTME and RHOE were inoculated with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis separately and incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2), and 100% humidity up to 48 h. Light microscopic and SEM examinations of uninfected (controls) and infected tissues were performed at 24 and 48 h. C. albicans produced characteristic hallmarks of pathological tissue invasion in both tissue models over a period of 48 h. Hyphae penetrated through epithelial cells and intercellular gaps latter resembling thigmotropism. SEM showed cavitations on the epithelial cell surfaces particularly pronounced at sites of hyphal invasion. Some hyphae on RTME showed several clusters of blastospores attached in regular arrangements resembling "appareil sporifere". C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis produced few hyphae mainly on RTME but they did not penetrate either model. Our findings indicate that multiple host-fungal interactions such as cavitations, thigmotropism, and morphogenesis take place during candidal tissue invasion. RTME described here appears to be useful in investigations of such pathogenic processes of Candida active at the epithelial front.

  8. A non-invasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal transit behavior in rat.

    PubMed

    Bove, Geoffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Many factors alter gastrointestinal transit. Animal models are useful for preclinical studies of gastrointestinal transit, but terminal methods do not allow later study, and stressful assessment methods will likely alter the transit of the animal. To overcome these factors, we developed a new method to assay rat total gastrointestinal transit. Standard plastic cages with their bottoms cut off were placed on wire mesh floors. Custom apparatuses were built to contain fecal pellets as they fell through the floors. Webcams connected to a computer running a security program were placed to image the pellets at regular intervals. Custom food was obtained with and without blue pigment. After habituating to the cages and the non-pigmented food, the pigmented food was administered. The duration to the appearance of the first pigmented pellet was determined by reviewing the photographs. This duration represents the complete gastrointestinal behavior, including feeding. We compared 24-hour fecal pellet counts using images to counts by visual inspection, and also made hourly counts. After establishing baseline transit times and hourly fecal pellet discharge, rats were given buprenorphine, known to alter gastrointestinal transit. Transit times and hourly discharge were obtained again and compared to the baselines. The methods were successful in determining transit times. Baseline measures were consistent between three groups of 8 rats. Visual and image-based counts were highly correlated. Transit times and hourly pellet discharge were reduced by buprenorphine. The described method offers a relatively simple, inexpensive, and non-invasive means to measure rat gastrointestinal behavior. The method has potential for any study where altered total gastrointestinal transit is an experimental concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Applying behavioral theories to invasive animal management: Towards an integrated framework.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Please, Patricia M; Driver, Aaron B

    2015-09-15

    Invasive species wreak an estimated $1.4 trillion in damages globally, each year. To have any hope of reducing this damage, best-practice control strategies must incorporate behavior change interventions. Traditional interventions, based on the knowledge-transfer model, assume that if land managers are properly educated about risks and strategies, they will develop supportive attitudes and implement appropriate control strategies. However, the social sciences have produced a large number of behavioral models and frameworks that demonstrate that knowledge transfer, by itself, fails to change behavior. The challenge then lies in knowing which behavioral model to choose, and when, from a potentially overwhelming 'universe'. In this paper, we review nine behavior theories relevant to invasive species management. We then introduce the Behavior Change Wheel as a tool for integrating these theories into a single practical framework. This framework links drivers of and barriers to behavior change with intervention strategies and policies, in what we consider, from an applied perspective, to be an important advance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-invasive or minimally invasive autopsy compared to conventional autopsy of suspected natural deaths in adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blokker, Britt M; Wagensveld, Ivo M; Weustink, Annick C; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2016-04-01

    Autopsies are used for healthcare quality control and improving medical knowledge. Because autopsy rates are declining worldwide, various non-invasive or minimally invasive autopsy methods are now being developed. To investigate whether these might replace the invasive autopsies conventionally performed in naturally deceased adults, we systematically reviewed original prospective validation studies. We searched six databases. Two reviewers independently selected articles and extracted data. Methods and patient groups were too heterogeneous for meaningful meta-analysis of outcomes. Sixteen of 1538 articles met our inclusion criteria. Eight studies used a blinded comparison; ten included less than 30 appropriate cases. Thirteen studies used radiological imaging (seven dealt solely with non-invasive procedures), two thoracoscopy and laparoscopy, and one sampling without imaging. Combining CT and MR was the best non-invasive method (agreement for cause of death: 70 %, 95%CI: 62.6; 76.4), but minimally invasive methods surpassed non-invasive methods. The highest sensitivity for cause of death (90.9 %, 95%CI: 74.5; 97.6, suspected duplicates excluded) was achieved in recent studies combining CT, CT-angiography and biopsies. Minimally invasive autopsies including biopsies performed best. To establish a feasible alternative to conventional autopsy and to increase consent to post-mortem investigations, further research in larger study groups is needed. • Health care quality control benefits from clinical feedback provided by (alternative) autopsies. • So far, sixteen studies investigated alternative autopsy methods for naturally deceased adults. • Thirteen studies used radiological imaging modalities, eight tissue biopsies, and three CT-angiography. • Combined CT, CT-angiography and biopsies were most sensitive diagnosing cause of death.

  11. Invasive plant species alters consumer behavior by providing refuge from predation.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Humberto P; Barnett, Kirk; Reinhardt, Jason R; Marquis, Robert J; Orrock, John L

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the effects of invasive plants on native consumers is important because consumer-mediated indirect effects have the potential to alter the dynamics of coexistence in native communities. Invasive plants may promote changes in consumer pressure due to changes in protective cover (i.e., the architectural complexity of the invaded habitat) and in food availability (i.e., subsidies of fruits and seeds). No experimental studies have evaluated the relative interplay of these two effects. In a factorial experiment, we manipulated cover and food provided by the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) to evaluate whether this plant alters the foraging activity of native mammals. Using tracking plates to quantify mammalian foraging activity, we found that removal of honeysuckle cover, rather than changes in the fruit resources it provides, reduced the activity of important seed consumers, mice in the genus Peromyscus. Two mesopredators, Procyon lotor and Didelphis virginiana, were also affected. Moreover, we found rodents used L. maackii for cover only on cloudless nights, indicating that the effect of honeysuckle was weather-dependent. Our work provides experimental evidence that this invasive plant species changes habitat characteristics, and in so doing alters the behavior of small- and medium-sized mammals. Changes in seed predator behavior may lead to cascading effects on the seeds that mice consume.

  12. Non-invasive prenatal screening versus prenatal diagnosis by array comparative genomic hybridization: a comparative retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sotiriadis, Alexandros; Papoulidis, Ioannis; Siomou, Elisavet; Papageorgiou, Elena; Eleftheriades, Makarios; Papadopoulos, Vasilios; Alexiou, Maria; Manolakos, Emmanouil; Athanasiadis, Apostolos

    2017-06-01

    To calculate the proportion of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) pathogenic results, that would not be detectable by non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS). This is a comparative study using data from 2779 fetuses, which underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis, and the samples were analyzed using aCGH. The simulated NIPS assay would test for trisomies 21, 18, 13, monosomy X, 47, XXX, 47, XYY, and 47, XXY. Indications for invasive testing were grouped into categories and the absolute, relative rates of pathogenic/likely pathogenic results of aCGH analysis that would not be detectable by NIPS were calculated. The expected rate of aCGH-detected abnormalities that would not be detectable by NIPS was 28.0% (95% CI 14.3-47.6) for nuchal translucency (NT) 95 to 99th centile; 14.3% (95% 5.0-34.6) for NT > 99th centile; 34.2% (95% CI 21.1-50.1) for high-risk first-trimester results (regardless of NT); 52.4% (95% CI 32.4-71.7) for second-trimester markers; and 50.0% (95% CI 26.8-73.2) for advanced maternal age. The overall rate of aCGH pathogenic/likely pathogenic results was 5.0% and 44.0% (95% CI 36.0-52.2) of them would not be detected by NIPS. Approximately half of the abnormal aCGH results would not be detectable by standard NIPS assays, highlighting the necessity of pre-test counseling, and illustrating the limitations of NIPS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Comparative feeding behavior of planktonic ctenophores.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Steven H D

    2007-12-01

    The phylum Ctenophora (known as comb jellies) consists of gelatinous marine carnivores found from the surface to several thousand meters depth. Their morphology can be simple or complex, ranging from a sac-like shape with no tentacles to large lobed forms with sinuous "auricles," papillae, and two different kinds of tentacles. This diversity appears to reflect adaptations to many different diets. For example, some species can continuously "graze" on small crustaceans or larvae, others engulf larger jellies, and some are able to snare individual larger prey through a variety of strategies. Thus feeding behavior can help explain the high morphological diversity in this relatively small phylum. Because of their fragility, comb jellies are difficult to study alive and the natural histories of many types, especially those found in the deep sea, have not been examined. This account categorizes ctenophore feeding methods using published reports as well as new observations using submersibles and blue-water scuba diving.

  14. Comparative studies and laboratory diagnosis of Vibrio vulnificus, an invasive Vibrio sp.

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, E P; Janda, J M; Adams, F I; Bottone, E J

    1984-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus was isolated from a bacteremic patient. This strain, together with other isolates of V. vulnificus, was compared with V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis, and V. parahaemolyticus with regard to growth characteristics on enteric agar media (enabling isolation and identification) and production of exoenzymes which could correlate with invasive potential. V. vulnificus grew well on MacConkey. Endo, xylose-lysine deoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agar plates. Because V. vulnificus colonies resembled those of lactose-fermenting strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae, however, isolation of this vibrio from mixed specimens or stools may require the use of thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. V. vulnificus produced numerous exoenzymes (protease, DNase, lipase, and esterase) but not elastase or lecithinase. Although differences in exoenzyme production were observed among the four vibrio species, no single exoenzyme could be linked to the invasive potential of V. vulnificus. Images PMID:6699140

  15. Blood Loss in the Minimally Invasive Posterior Approach to Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Jose Ricardo Negreiros; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; de Camargo, Olavo Pire

    2008-01-01

    AIMS Our primary aim was to evaluate whether there is really less bleeding in patients for whom the minimally invasive posterior approach is used in comparison with the direct lateral approach for primary total hip arthroplasty. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the clinical functional results after six months as well as the postoperative radiographic result. METHODS In a comparative non-random prospective study, 76 adult patients underwent elective total hip arthroplasty using one of two approaches. The minimally invasive posterior approach (34 cases; mini-incision group) was compared with the standard direct lateral approach (42 cases; control group). RESULTS Lower total estimated bleeding (means of 1083.5 ml versus 1682.3 ml; p < 0.001) and lower intraoperative bleeding (means of 745.6 ml versus 1282.8 ml; p < 0.001) were found in the mini-incision group. There was, however, no difference in the volume of blood drained after the operation (means of 340 ml and 399 ml; p = 0.77). There was also a difference between the two groups regarding the need for allogenic transfusion (8.8% in the mini-incision group versus 28.6%, p = 0.02). We observed a better clinical result in the mini-incision group (p = 0.002) despite the lack of difference between the two groups in relation to the radiographic result. DISCUSSION Our results draw attention to the possibility that other authors may have underestimated blood losses when using minimally invasive approaches. CONCLUSION The minimally invasive approach gave rise to a positive final impression with regard to lower blood loss. PMID:18568245

  16. Comparing climate change and species invasions as drivers of coldwater fish population extirpations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sapna; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Magnuson, John J; Lyons, John

    2011-01-01

    Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) on cisco (Coregonus artedii) population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25-70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change.

  17. Comparing Climate Change and Species Invasions as Drivers of Coldwater Fish Population Extirpations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sapna; Vander Zanden, M. Jake; Magnuson, John J.; Lyons, John

    2011-01-01

    Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) on cisco (Coregonus artedii) population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046–2065 and 2081–2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25–70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change. PMID:21860661

  18. Intrathecal Versus Intravenous Morphine in Minimally Invasive Posterior Lumbar Fusion: A Blinded Randomized Comparative Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Araimo Morselli, Fabio Silvio Mario; Zuccarini, Francesco; Caporlingua, Federico; Scarpa, Ilaria; Imperiale, Carmela; Caporlingua, Alessandro; De Biase, Lorenzo; Tordiglione, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    A blinded, randomized, comparative prospective study. The aim of this study was to compare the use of intrathecal morphine to endovenous morphine on postoperative pain after posterior lumbar surgery. Intrathecal morphine can provide significant safe analgesia for at least 12 hours and up to 24 hours in patients undergoing major surgery. Its dosages have been decreasing in the last 30 years, but currently, the optimal dose remains unknown. As of today, there are no studies comparing the efficacy and the side effects of this technique with intravenous morphine administration after minimally invasive lumbar fusion surgery. We randomized and compared two groups of 25 patients, who were given either 100 μg intrathecal (ITM group) or 5 ± 2 mg intravenous morphine delivered intravenously for 24 hours at 2 mL/h (IVM group) after minimally invasive posterior lumbar fusion. VAS score at 0, 6, 12, 24 hours, mobilization out of bed at 6 hours, hospitalization duration and complications as lower limbs paresthesia, urinary retention at 6 and 12 hours, nausea, vomit, itch, and constipation were evaluated. Data showed a lower VAS score, a reduction of constipation, lower limbs paresthesia, or urinary retention at 12 hours in ITM rather than in the IVM group. None suffered of vomit, itch, or nausea in both groups. Urinary retention was observed more frequently in ITM group at 6 hours. Patients of ITM group were mobilized out bed earlier than those from IVM group. A low dosage of intrathecal morphine is safe and effective after minimally invasive lumbar fusion surgery. The reduction of pain in the study group permitted a shorter hospitalization and earlier mobilization out of bed, augmenting patients' comfort. 2.

  19. Stress detection in bivalve mollusk using non-invasive bioelectric monitoring of myoneural behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.L.; Hardison, B.S.; Dawson, V.K.; Waller, D.; Waller, W.T.; Dickson, K.L.; Allen, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Few studies have demonstrated cause-and-effect linkages between extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic bioelectric action potentials of bivalve mollusk using non-invasive, non-destructive approaches. A non-invasive, external probe configuration and detection system, similar to one used previously with native unionids, was developed for continuously monitoring bioelectric activities of clams and mussels. Using remote probes and differential amplifiers, bioelectric activities were recorded for cardiac, adductor, siphon and foot responses using a computer equipped with integrating software. To test if remote, non-invasive probes would detect similar information to that recorded by invasive needle electrodes, two individuals of zebra mussel (Dreissenia polymorpha), and Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) were each configured with two sets of probes. One set was inserted between the valves and along the inside surface of the shelf; the other set was positioned remotely about the outside margins of the valves. Signal validation was made by simultaneously recording bioelectric responses for the same animal from both sets of probes. In preliminary stress tests monitored bivalves were subjected to changes in temperatures over 2 to 3 hr intervals from ambient to potentially lethal levels (20 to 30 C for zebra, 25 C to 40 C for corbicula). Dramatic increases resulted in both number and amplitude of cardiac events as temperature increased. Planned studies will use this approach to evaluate bivalve myoneural behavior patterns in response to chemical and non-chemical stimuli.

  20. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

  1. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  2. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy following cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer: a prospective comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Skinner, D G; Daniels, J R; Russell, C A; Lieskovsky, G; Boyd, S D; Nichols, P; Kern, W; Sakamoto, J; Krailo, M; Groshen, S

    1991-03-01

    We assigned 91 patients with deeply invasive, pathological stage P3, P4 or N+ and Mo transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (with or without squamous or glandular differentiation) to adjuvant chemotherapy or to observation after radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. For most patients chemotherapy was planned as 4 courses at 28-day intervals of 100 mg./M.2 cisplatin, 60 mg./M.2 doxorubicin and 600 mg./M.2 cyclophosphamide. A significant delay was shown in the time to progression (p = 0.0010) with 70% of the patients assigned to chemotherapy free of disease at 3 years compared to 46% in the observation group. Median survival time for patients in the chemotherapy group was 4.3 years compared to 2.4 years in the observation group (p = 0.0062). In addition to treatment groups, important prognostic factors included age, gender and lymph node status. The number of involved lymph nodes was the single most important variable. We recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with invasive transitional cell carcinoma after definitive surgical resection.

  3. Assessing the success of invasive species prevention efforts at changing the behaviors of recreational boaters.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ellen; Keller, Reuben P; Garbach, Kelly

    2016-12-15

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS) pose major conservation challenges in freshwater ecosystems. In response, conservation organizations invest considerable resources in outreach to encourage AIS prevention behaviors among recreational boaters. Despite this, remarkably little is known about whether these efforts catalyze significant changes in boaters' perceptions, or whether they cause changes in behaviors that reduce AIS risk. We interviewed managers at the 14 Illinois organizations active in AIS outreach to determine regional priorities for, and investment in, AIS outreach. The results show a network of collaboration that reinforces a limited set of conservation messages. Next, we surveyed 515 recreational boaters to evaluate access to outreach, knowledge of AIS, and consistency of prevention behavior. Boater recognition of prevention slogans and knowledge of AIS and AIS prevention behavior was similar across Illinois regions despite large regional differences in investment in outreach. Most boaters (94%) report never intentionally moving organisms among waterbodies. Fewer reported that they Always perform recommended actions to reduce risk of AIS spread on their boat interior (68%), boat exterior (63%), or fishing tackle (47%). Recognition of prevention slogans and the number of AIS recognized were significantly, positively, associated with Always performing AIS prevention behavior on the vectors of the boat exterior, and fishing tackle, respectively. Our results suggest that increasing knowledge may be a necessary condition for higher adoption of AIS prevention behaviors, but that this alone may not be sufficient. Instead, efforts targeted at boaters who do not currently practice the recommended actions are likely to be necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A trematode parasite alters growth, feeding behavior, and demographic success of invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus).

    PubMed

    Sargent, Lindsey W; Baldridge, Ashley K; Vega-Ross, Maraliz; Towle, Kevin M; Lodge, David M

    2014-07-01

    Nonindigenous species can cause major changes to community interactions and ecosystem processes. The strong impacts of these species are often attributed to their high demographic success. While the importance of enemy release in facilitating invasions has often been emphasized, few studies have addressed the role of parasites in the invasive range in controlling demographic success of potential invaders. Here we examine whether a trematode parasite (Microphallus spp.) can contribute to previously documented alternate states in the abundance of invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) in north temperate lakes in Wisconsin, USA. Microphallus infect O. rusticus after emerging from their first intermediate host, a hydrobiid snail. As previously documented, O. rusticus reduce densities of hydrobiid snails through direct predation and destruction of macrophyte habitat. Therefore, if Microphallus substantially reduce O. rusticus fitness, these parasites may reinforce a state of low crayfish abundance, and, at the other extreme, abundant crayfish may repress these parasites, reinforcing a state of high crayfish abundance. From samples collected from 109 sites in 16 lakes, we discovered (1) a positive relationship between crayfish infection intensity and hydrobiid snail abundance, (2) a negative relationship between parasite prevalence and crayfish abundance, and (3) a negative relationship between parasite prevalence and crayfish population growth. With experiments, we found that infection with Microphallus reduced foraging behavior and growth in O. rusticus, which may be the mechanisms responsible for the population reductions we observed. Overall results are consistent with the hypothesis that Microphallus contributes to alternate states in the abundance and impacts of O. rusticus.

  5. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying affiliative social behavior: insights from comparative research.

    PubMed

    Stoesz, Brenda M; Hare, James F; Snow, Wanda M

    2013-02-01

    Humans are intensely social animals, and healthy social relationships are vital for proper mental health (see Lim and Young, 2006). By using animal models, the behavior, mental, and physiological processes of humans can be understood at a level that cannot be attained by studying human behavior and the human brain alone. The goals of this review are threefold. First, we define affiliative social behavior and describe the primary relationship types in which affiliative relationships are most readily observed--the mother-infant bond and pair-bonding. Second, we summarize neurophysiological studies that have investigated the role of neurohypophyseal nanopeptides (oxytocin and vasopressin) and the catecholamine dopamine in regulating affiliative social behavior and the implications of said research for our understanding of human social behavior. Finally, we discuss the merits and limitations of the using a comparative approach to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying human affiliative social behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of an Invasive Plant and Moonlight on Rodent Foraging Behavior in a Coastal Dune Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew D.; De León, Yesenia L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how invasive plants may alter predator avoidance behaviors is important for granivorous rodents because their foraging can trigger ripple effects in trophic webs. Previous research has shown that European beach grass Ammophila arenaria, an invasive species in coastal California, affects the predation of other seeds by the rodents Microtus californicus, Peromyscus maniculatus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis. This may be due to lower perceived predation risk by rodents foraging in close proximity to the cover provided by Ammophila, but this mechanism has not yet been tested. We examined the perceived predation risk of rodents by measuring the ‘giving up density’ of food left behind in experimental patches of food in areas with and without abundant cover from Ammophila and under varying amount of moonlight. We found strong evidence that giving up density was lower in the thick uniform vegetation on Ammophila-dominated habitat than it was in the more sparsely and diversely vegetated restored habitat. There was also evidence that moonlight affected giving up density and that it mediated the effects of habitat, although with our design we were unable to distinguish the effects of lunar illumination and moon phase. Our findings illustrate that foraging rodents, well known to be risk-averse during moonlit nights, are also affected by the presence of an invasive plant. This result has implications for granivory and perhaps plant demography in invaded and restored coastal habitats. Future research in this system should work to unravel the complex trophic links formed by a non-native invasive plant (i.e., Ammophila) providing cover favored by native rodents, which likely forage on and potentially limit the recruitment of native and non-native plants, some of which have ecosystem consequences of their own. PMID:25679785

  7. Effect of an invasive plant and moonlight on rodent foraging behavior in a coastal dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D; De León, Yesenia L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how invasive plants may alter predator avoidance behaviors is important for granivorous rodents because their foraging can trigger ripple effects in trophic webs. Previous research has shown that European beach grass Ammophila arenaria, an invasive species in coastal California, affects the predation of other seeds by the rodents Microtus californicus, Peromyscus maniculatus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis. This may be due to lower perceived predation risk by rodents foraging in close proximity to the cover provided by Ammophila, but this mechanism has not yet been tested. We examined the perceived predation risk of rodents by measuring the 'giving up density' of food left behind in experimental patches of food in areas with and without abundant cover from Ammophila and under varying amount of moonlight. We found strong evidence that giving up density was lower in the thick uniform vegetation on Ammophila-dominated habitat than it was in the more sparsely and diversely vegetated restored habitat. There was also evidence that moonlight affected giving up density and that it mediated the effects of habitat, although with our design we were unable to distinguish the effects of lunar illumination and moon phase. Our findings illustrate that foraging rodents, well known to be risk-averse during moonlit nights, are also affected by the presence of an invasive plant. This result has implications for granivory and perhaps plant demography in invaded and restored coastal habitats. Future research in this system should work to unravel the complex trophic links formed by a non-native invasive plant (i.e., Ammophila) providing cover favored by native rodents, which likely forage on and potentially limit the recruitment of native and non-native plants, some of which have ecosystem consequences of their own.

  8. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprised of sensors, related hardware and software for multimodal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in twenty one volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of 5 subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews, and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines, and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior. PMID:18427161

  9. Comparative environmental assessment of valorization strategies of the invasive macroalgae Sargassum muticum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Paula; Balboa, Elena M; González-García, Sara; Domínguez, Herminia; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, M Teresa

    2014-06-01

    The invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum (Yendo) exhibits a significant content of phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and fucoxanthin, with potential biological activities. In this study, four valorization strategies for S. muticum biomass were compared under a life cycle perspective. Depending on the alternative, three products were obtained: sodium alginate, antioxidant extract and fucoxanthin-containing extract. Regardless of the approach, the combined extraction of alginate and antioxidant from wet algae constituted the most efficient scenario. Among the stages, supercritical extraction of fucoxanthin and non-isothermal autohydrolysis were identified as the major environmental burdens due to electricity consumption. Although changes in product distribution fairly affected the environmental impacts of the scenarios, the single extraction of antioxidant fraction and the integral valorization to obtain fucoxanthin, alginate and antioxidant were only competitive when considering a functional unit based on the value of the products through an economic allocation approach instead of the amount of valorized algae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Muscle tissue saturation in humans studied with two non-invasive optical techniques: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaharin, Alfi; Krite Svanberg, Emilie; Ellerström, Ida; Subash, Arman Ahamed; Khoptyar, Dmitry; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Åkeson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    Muscle tissue saturation (StO2) has been measured with two non-invasive optical techniques and the results were compared. One of the techniques is widely used in the hospitals - the CW-NIRS technique. The other is the photon timeof- flight spectrometer (pTOFS) developed in the Group of Biophotonics, Lund University, Sweden. The wavelengths used in both the techniques are 730 nm and 810 nm. A campaign was arranged to perform measurements on 21 (17 were taken for comparison) healthy adult volunteers (8 women and 13 men). Oxygen saturations were measured at the right lower arm of each volunteer. To observe the effects of different provocations on the oxygen saturation a blood pressure cuff was attached in the upper right arm. For CW-NIRS, the tissue saturation values were in the range from 70-90%, while for pTOFS the values were in the range from 55-60%.

  11. Comparative performance of invasive and native Celastrus species across environmental gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, S. A.; Silander, J.A.; Latimer, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the success of invasive plant species in their new ranges is increased when there is a sympatric native congener available for comparison. Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) is a liana introduced into the United States in the mid-1800s from East Asia as an ornamental plant. Its native congener, Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet), ranges from the east coast of the United States as far west as Wyoming. In the Northeastern United States, C. orbiculatus is continuing to expand its range while C. scandens appears to be in serious decline. One hypothesis for this decline is that C. scandens does not have such a wide range of ecological tolerances in the current landscape as C. orbiculatus, which seems to tolerate a greater range of resource conditions. To investigate this hypothesis, we transplanted these two species into ten sites that spanned a full range of light and soil moisture conditions to compare their establishment and performance in terms of aboveground growth (biomass and height) and mortality. After two years, C. orbiculatus showed significantly lower mortality and greater biomass across all resource conditions compared to C. scandens. In addition, C. orbiculatus preferred more mesic soil moisture conditions, while C. scandens performed better in drier soil moisture conditions. Since much of the Northeastern United States is now forested, this preference for mesic soil conditions could make it more successful than C. scandens in the region. This study shows the utility of manipulative experiments, particularly those using congeneric native species as benchmarks, for assessing the causes and predicting the course of invasions. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Loss of Tpm4.1 leads to disruption of cell-cell adhesions and invasive behavior in breast epithelial cells via increased Rac1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Jeong, SukYeong; Lim, SunYoung; Schevzov, Galina; Gunning, Peter W; Helfman, David M

    2017-05-16

    Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel high molecular weight isoform of tropomyosin, Tpm4.1, expressed from the human TPM4 gene. Tpm4.1 expression is down-regulated in a subset of breast cancer cells compared with untransformed MCF10A breast epithelial cells and in highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines derived from poorly metastatic MDA-MD-231 cells. In addition, patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma show decreased TPM4 expression compared with patients with ductal breast carcinoma in situ, and low TPM4 expression is associated with poor prognosis. Loss of Tpm4.1 using siRNA in MCF10A cells increases cell migration in wound-healing and Boyden chamber assays and invasion out of spheroids as well as disruption of cell-cell adhesions. Down-regulation of Tpm4.1 in MDA-MB-231 cells leads to disruption of actin organization and increased cell invasion and dissemination from spheroids into collagen gels. The down-regulation of Tpm4.1 induces Rac1-mediated alteration of myosin IIB localization, and pharmacologic inhibition of Rac1 or down-regulation of myosin IIB using siRNA inhibits the invasive phenotypes in MCF10A cells. Thus Tpm4.1 plays an important role in blocking invasive behaviors through Rac1-myosin IIB signaling and our findings suggest that decreased expression of Tpm4.1 might play a crucial role during tumor progression.

  13. Leaf litter traits of invasive species slow down decomposition compared to Spanish natives: a broad phylogenetic comparison.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Oscar; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Leaf traits related to the performance of invasive alien species can influence nutrient cycling through litter decomposition. However, there is no consensus yet about whether there are consistent differences in functional leaf traits between invasive and native species that also manifest themselves through their "after life" effects on litter decomposition. When addressing this question it is important to avoid confounding effects of other plant traits related to early phylogenetic divergences and to understand the mechanism underlying the observed results to predict which invasive species will exert larger effects on nutrient cycling. We compared initial leaf litter traits, and their effect on decomposability as tested in standardized incubations, in 19 invasive-native pairs of co-familial species from Spain. They included 12 woody and seven herbaceous alien species representative of the Spanish invasive flora. The predictive power of leaf litter decomposition rates followed the order: growth form > family > status (invasive vs. native) > leaf type. Within species pairs litter decomposition tended to be slower and more dependent on N and P in invaders than in natives. This difference was likely driven by the higher lignin content of invader leaves. Although our study has the limitation of not representing the natural conditions from each invaded community, it suggests a potential slowing down of the nutrient cycle at ecosystem scale upon invasion.

  14. Commonly rare and rarely common: comparing population abundance of invasive and native aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Blum, Michael J; Clayton, Murray K; Hain, Ernie F; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S; McIntyre, Peter B; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies.

  15. Commonly Rare and Rarely Common: Comparing Population Abundance of Invasive and Native Aquatic Species

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake; Blum, Michael J.; Clayton, Murray K.; Hain, Ernie F.; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D.; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies. PMID:24194883

  16. Parental acceptance of minimally invasive fetal and neonatal autopsy compared with conventional autopsy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xin; Cos, Teresa; Guizani, Meriem; Cannie, Mieke M; Segers, Valérie; Jani, Jacques C

    2014-11-01

    To determine parental acceptance of minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) involving postmortem imaging and organ tissue sampling compared with conventional autopsy and to compare the acceptability of percutaneous versus laparoscopic-guided biopsy. Following termination of pregnancy parents were offered the option of traditional autopsy and subsequently interviewed about their acceptance of MIA. The McNemar test for paired samples was used to assess the difference in acceptance of MIA and conventional autopsy. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples was used to compare the acceptance score for percutaneous versus laparoscopic-guided biopsy. Logistic regression was selected to study the association of parental acceptance of conventional autopsy and MIA with different variables. Conventional autopsy was accepted by 42 (60.0%) of the 70 parents. Regression analysis showed that non-Muslim faith was the only factor significantly associated with acceptance of conventional autopsy (p = 0.030). Of 28 parents who initially refused conventional autopsy, 13(46.4%) subsequently accepted MIA, increasing acceptance to 78.6% (p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that none of the factors significantly affected MIA acceptance. Parents expressed no preference between postmortem percutaneous versus laparoscopic-guided biopsy (p = 0.061). Post-mortem imaging combined with systematic organ biopsies is highly acceptable among all parents independent of their religion and the method used for organ biopsy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Levels of novel hybridization in the saltcedar invasion compared over seven decades

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybridization is proposed as one process that can enhance a plant species’ invasive ability. We quantified the levels of hybridization of 180 saltcedar plants (Tamarix spp.) of varying ages that span the history of an invasion along the Green River, UT, USA. Plants ranging in establishment dates fro...

  18. Comparing oncologic outcomes after minimally invasive and open surgery for pediatric neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Ezekian, Brian; Englum, Brian R; Gulack, Brian C; Rialon, Kristy L; Kim, Jina; Talbot, Lindsay J; Adibe, Obinna O; Routh, Jonathan C; Tracy, Elisabeth T; Rice, Henry E

    2017-08-09

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been widely adopted for common operations in pediatric surgery; however, its role in childhood tumors is limited by concerns about oncologic outcomes. We compared open and MIS approaches for pediatric neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor (WT) using a national database. The National Cancer Data Base from 2010 to 2012 was queried for cases of neuroblastoma and WT in children ≤21 years old. Children were classified as receiving open or MIS surgery for definitive resection, with clinical outcomes compared using a propensity matching methodology (two open:one MIS). For children with neuroblastoma, 17% (98 of 579) underwent MIS, while only 5% of children with WT (35 of 695) had an MIS approach for tumor resection. After propensity matching, there was no difference between open and MIS surgery for either tumor for 30-day mortality, readmissions, surgical margin status, and 1- and 3-year survival. However, in both tumors, open surgery more often evaluated lymph nodes and had larger lymph node harvest. Our retrospective review suggests that the use of MIS appears to be a safe method of oncologic resection for select children with neuroblastoma and WT. Further research should clarify which children are the optimal candidates for this approach. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Prospective and comparative study of minimally invasive posterior approach versus standard posterior approach in total hip replacement].

    PubMed

    Laffosse, J-M; Chiron, P; Tricoire, J-L; Giordano, G; Molinier, F; Puget, J

    2007-05-01

    There have been few prospective studies comparing minimally invasive approaches for total hip replacement. We wanted to ascertain the contribution of the minimally invasive posterior approach in comparison with the standard posterolateral approach in terms of early outcome. This was prospective comparative consecutive series of patients. Patients with major architectural problems or undergoing revision arthroplasty were excluded. One hundred ten patients (116 hips) were divided into two groups which were comparable for number of patients, gender, age, body mass index, indication for surgery, and preoperative function scores. The preoperative ASA score was lower in the minimally invasive group (p=0.04). The patients were in the lateral reclining position for the two approaches and classical instrumentation using the same implants (stems and cemented or non-cemented cups) were used. We noted operative time and blood loss (using the Brecher method based on the hematocrit at day 1 and 5 and the number of blood transfusions), postoperative pain, and implant position. Functional outcome was assessed with the modified Harris score and the WOMAC index (at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months). Statview(R) was used to search for statistical significance considering p<0.05 as significant. Mean length of incision was 8.5 cm versus 15.1 cm. Mean blood loss was significantly less in the minimally invasive group (p=0.027) as was the level of postoperative pain as confirmed by the lesser consumption of morphine analgesics (p=0.006). Other operative variables as well as implant position were comparable. There were no major complications in the minimally invasive group. In the standard group, there was one case of common peroneal nerve palsy, two dislocations, and two fractures related to falls after prosthesis implantation. The WOMAC index was better after the minimally invasive approach at six weeks and at three months (p<0.05). The modified Harris score was better only at six weeks

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Noninvasive and Invasive Ventilation in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Mihaela S.; Nathanson, Brian H.; Higgins, Thomas L.; Steingrub, Jay S.; Lagu, Tara; Rothberg, Michael B.; Lindenauer, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics and hospital outcomes of patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) treated in the ICU with initial noninvasive (NIV) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Design Retrospective, multicenter cohort studyof prospectively collected data. We used propensity matching to compare the outcomes of patients treated with NIV to those treated with IMV. We also assessed predictors for NIV failure. Setting Thirty-eight hospitals participating in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) database from 2008 through 2012. Subjects A total of 3,520 with a diagnosis of COPD exacerbation including 27.7% who received NIV and 45.5% who received IMV. Measurements and Main Results NIV failure was recorded in 13.7% from patients ventilated noninvasively. Hospital mortality was 7.4% for patients treated with NIV; 16.1% for those treated with IMV; and 22.5% for those who failed NIV. In the propensity matched analysis, patients initially treated with NIV had a 41% lower risk of death compared with those treated with IMV (RR: 0.59, 95% CI 0.36, 0.97). Factors that were independently associated with NIV failure were SAPS-II score (relative risk = 1.04 per point increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.04) and the presence of cancer (2.29, 95% CI: 0.96, 5.45). Conclusions Among critically ill adults with COPD exacerbation, the receipt of NIV was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality compared to IMV; NIV failure was associated with the worst outcomes. These results support the use NIV as a first line therapy in appropriately selected critically ill patients with COPD while also highlighting the risks associated with NIV failure and the need to be cautious in the face of severe disease. PMID:25768682

  1. Pollinator Behavior Mediates Negative Interactions between Two Congeneric Invasive Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suann; Ferrari, Matthew J; Shea, Katriona

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneously flowering plant species may indirectly interact with each other by influencing the quantity of pollinator visitation and/or the quality of pollen that is transferred. These effects on pollination may depend on how pollinators respond to floral resources at multiple levels. In this study, we demonstrate pollinator-mediated negative interactions between two invasive plants, Carduus acanthoides and Carduus nutans. Using constructed arrays of the two species, alone and in mixture, we quantified pollinator visitation at the patch and individual plant levels and measured seed production. We found that co-occurrence of our species led to a shift in pollinator services at both levels. Greater interference occurred when arrays were small and spacings between neighboring plants were large. A spatially explicit movement model suggests that pollinator foraging behavior, which mediates the interactions between plants, was driven by floral display size rather than species identity per se. Pollinator behavior significantly reduced the proportion of seed set for both species relative to that in single-species arrays. Overall, the dependence of pollinator behavior on patch size, spacing between plants, and patch composition can lead to pollinator-mediated plant interactions that range from facilitative to competitive.

  2. Comparing Pixel and Object-Based Approaches to Map an Understorey Invasive Shrub in Tropical Mixed Forests

    PubMed Central

    Niphadkar, Madhura; Nagendra, Harini; Tarantino, Cristina; Adamo, Maria; Blonda, Palma

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of invasive alien species in varied habitats across the world is now recognized as a genuine threat to the preservation of biodiversity. Specifically, plant invasions in understory tropical forests are detrimental to the persistence of healthy ecosystems. Monitoring such invasions using Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite remote sensing has been shown to be valuable in designing management interventions for conservation of native habitats. Object-based classification methods are very helpful in identifying invasive plants in various habitats, by their inherent nature of imitating the ability of the human brain in pattern recognition. However, these methods have not been tested adequately in dense tropical mixed forests where invasion occurs in the understorey. This study compares a pixel-based and object-based classification method for mapping the understorey invasive shrub Lantana camara (Lantana) in a tropical mixed forest habitat in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India. Overall, a hierarchical approach of mapping top canopy at first, and then further processing for the understorey shrub, using measures such as texture and vegetation indices proved effective in separating out Lantana from other cover types. In the first method, we implement a simple parametric supervised classification for mapping cover types, and then process within these types for Lantana delineation. In the second method, we use an object-based segmentation algorithm to map cover types, and then perform further processing for separating Lantana. The improved ability of the object-based approach to delineate structurally distinct objects with characteristic spectral and spatial characteristics of their own, as well as with reference to their surroundings, allows for much flexibility in identifying invasive understorey shrubs among the complex vegetation of the tropical forest than that provided by the parametric classifier. Conservation practices in tropical mixed

  3. Comparing Pixel and Object-Based Approaches to Map an Understorey Invasive Shrub in Tropical Mixed Forests.

    PubMed

    Niphadkar, Madhura; Nagendra, Harini; Tarantino, Cristina; Adamo, Maria; Blonda, Palma

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of invasive alien species in varied habitats across the world is now recognized as a genuine threat to the preservation of biodiversity. Specifically, plant invasions in understory tropical forests are detrimental to the persistence of healthy ecosystems. Monitoring such invasions using Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite remote sensing has been shown to be valuable in designing management interventions for conservation of native habitats. Object-based classification methods are very helpful in identifying invasive plants in various habitats, by their inherent nature of imitating the ability of the human brain in pattern recognition. However, these methods have not been tested adequately in dense tropical mixed forests where invasion occurs in the understorey. This study compares a pixel-based and object-based classification method for mapping the understorey invasive shrub Lantana camara (Lantana) in a tropical mixed forest habitat in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India. Overall, a hierarchical approach of mapping top canopy at first, and then further processing for the understorey shrub, using measures such as texture and vegetation indices proved effective in separating out Lantana from other cover types. In the first method, we implement a simple parametric supervised classification for mapping cover types, and then process within these types for Lantana delineation. In the second method, we use an object-based segmentation algorithm to map cover types, and then perform further processing for separating Lantana. The improved ability of the object-based approach to delineate structurally distinct objects with characteristic spectral and spatial characteristics of their own, as well as with reference to their surroundings, allows for much flexibility in identifying invasive understorey shrubs among the complex vegetation of the tropical forest than that provided by the parametric classifier. Conservation practices in tropical mixed

  4. Radiographic Results of Minimally Invasive (MIS) Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LIF) Compared with Conventional Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Kwan; Kim, Sung Min

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the radiographic results of minimally invasive (MIS) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Twelve and nineteen patients who underwent MIS-ALIF, MIS-TLIF, respectively, from 2006 to 2008 were analyzed with a minimum 24-months' follow-up. Additionally, 18 patients treated with single level open TLIF surgery in 2007 were evaluated as a comparative group. X-rays and CT images were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the final follow-up. Fusion and subsidence rates were determined, and radiographic parameters, including lumbar lordosis angle (LLA), fused segment angle (FSA), sacral slope angle (SSA), disc height (DH), and foraminal height (FH), were analyzed. These parameters were also compared between the open and MIS-TLIF groups. In the MIS interbody fusion group, statistically significant increases were observed in LLA, FSA, and DH and FH between preoperative and final values. The changes in LLA, FSA, and DH were significantly increased in the MIS-ALIF group compared with the MIS-TLIF group, but SSA and FH were not significantly different. No significant differences were seen between open and MIS-TLIF except for DH. The interbody subsidence and fusion rates of the MIS groups were 12.0±4% and 96%, respectively. Radiographic results of MIS interbody fusion surgery are as favorable as those with conventional surgery regarding fusion, restoration of disc height, foraminal height, and lumbar lordosis. MIS-ALIF is more effective than MIS-TLIF for intervertebral disc height restoration and lumbar lordosis.

  5. Radiographic Results of Minimally Invasive (MIS) Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LIF) Compared with Conventional Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the radiographic results of minimally invasive (MIS) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Methods Twelve and nineteen patients who underwent MIS-ALIF, MIS-TLIF, respectively, from 2006 to 2008 were analyzed with a minimum 24-months' follow-up. Additionally, 18 patients treated with single level open TLIF surgery in 2007 were evaluated as a comparative group. X-rays and CT images were evaluated preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the final follow-up. Fusion and subsidence rates were determined, and radiographic parameters, including lumbar lordosis angle (LLA), fused segment angle (FSA), sacral slope angle (SSA), disc height (DH), and foraminal height (FH), were analyzed. These parameters were also compared between the open and MIS-TLIF groups. Results In the MIS interbody fusion group, statistically significant increases were observed in LLA, FSA, and DH and FH between preoperative and final values. The changes in LLA, FSA, and DH were significantly increased in the MIS-ALIF group compared with the MIS-TLIF group, but SSA and FH were not significantly different. No significant differences were seen between open and MIS-TLIF except for DH. The interbody subsidence and fusion rates of the MIS groups were 12.0±4% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion Radiographic results of MIS interbody fusion surgery are as favorable as those with conventional surgery regarding fusion, restoration of disc height, foraminal height, and lumbar lordosis. MIS-ALIF is more effective than MIS-TLIF for intervertebral disc height restoration and lumbar lordosis. PMID:24757461

  6. Comparative Gene Expression Analyses Identify Luminal and Basal Subtypes of Canine Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma That Mimic Patterns in Human Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Deepika; Paoloni, Melissa; Shukradas, Shweta; Choudhury, Dipanwita Roy; Craig, Bruce A; Ramos-Vara, José A; Hahn, Noah; Bonney, Patty L; Khanna, Chand; Knapp, Deborah W

    2015-01-01

    More than 160,000 people are expected to die from invasive urothelial carcinoma (iUC) this year worldwide. Research in relevant animal models is essential to improving iUC management. Naturally-occurring canine iUC closely resembles human iUC in histopathology, metastatic behavior, and treatment response, and could provide a relevant model for human iUC. The molecular characterization of canine iUC, however, has been limited. Work was conducted to compare gene expression array results between tissue samples from iUC and normal bladder in dogs, with comparison to similar expression array data from human iUC and normal bladder in the literature. Considerable similarities between enrichment patterns of genes in canine and human iUC were observed. These included patterns mirroring basal and luminal subtypes initially observed in human breast cancer and more recently noted in human iUC. Canine iUC samples also exhibited enrichment for genes involved in P53 pathways, as has been reported in human iUC. This is particularly relevant as drugs targeting these genes/pathways in other cancers could be repurposed to treat iUC, with dogs providing a model to optimize therapy. As part of the validation of the results and proof of principal for evaluating individualized targeted therapy, the overexpression of EGFR in canine bladder iUC was confirmed. The similarities in gene expression patterns between dogs and humans add considerably to the value of naturally-occurring canine iUC as a relevant and much needed animal model for human iUC. Furthermore, the finding of expression patterns that cross different pathologically-defined cancers could allow studies of dogs with iUC to help optimize cancer management across multiple cancer types. The work is also expected to lead to a better understanding of the biological importance of the gene expression patterns, and the potential application of the cross-species comparisons approach to other cancer types as well.

  7. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000)…

  8. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000)…

  9. Parasites alter freshwater communities in mesocosms by modifying invasive crayfish behavior.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Lindsey S; Lodge, David M

    2016-06-01

    Parasites can alter communities by reducing densities of keystone hosts, but few studies have examined how trait-mediated indirect effects of parasites can alter ecological communities. We test how trematode parasites (Microphallus spp.) that affect invasive crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) behavior alter how crayfish impact lake littoral communities. O. rusticus drive community composition in north temperate lakes, and predatory fish can reduce crayfish activity and feeding. In laboratory studies, Microphallus parasites also alter O. rusticus behavior: infected O. rusticus eat fewer macroinvertebrates and are bolder near predatory fish than uninfected individuals. We used a 2 x 2 factorial experiment to test how predatory fish and parasites affect O. rusticus impacts in large mesocosms over 4 weeks. We predicted (1) that when predators were absent, infected crayfish would have lower impacts than uninfected crayfish on macrophytes and macroinvertebrates (as well as reduced growth and higher mortality). However, (2) when predators were present but unable to consume crayfish, infected crayfish would have greater impacts (as well as greater growth and lower mortality) than uninfected crayfish because of increased boldness. Because of its effect on crayfish feeding behavior, we also predicted (3) that infection would alter macrophyte and macroinvertebrate community composition. In contrast to our first hypothesis, we found that infected and uninfected crayfish had similar impacts on lower trophic levels when predators were absent. Across all treatments, infected crayfish were more likely to be outside shelters and had greater growth than uninfected crayfish, suggesting that the reduced feeding observed in short-term experiments does not occur over longer timescales. However, in support of the second hypothesis, when predatory fish were present, infected crayfish ate more macroinvertebrates than did uninfected crayfish, likely due to increased boldness. We also observed a

  10. Comparative phosphoproteomics reveals components of host cell invasion and post-transcriptional regulation during Francisella infection

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Tempel, Rebecca; Cambronne, Xiaolu A.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Jones, Marcus B.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Yang, Feng; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-09-22

    Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes the deadly disease tularemia. Most evidence suggests that Francisella is not well recognized by the innate immune system that normally leads to cytokine expression and cell death. In previous work, we identified new bacterial factors that were hyper-cytotoxic to macrophages. Four of the identified hyper-cytotoxic strains (lpcC, manB, manC and kdtA) had an impaired lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis and produced an exposed lipid A lacking the O-antigen. These mutants were not only hyper-cytotoxic but also were phagocytosed at much higher rates compared to the wild type parent strain. To elucidate the cellular signaling underlying this enhanced phagocytosis and cell death, we performed a large-scale comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of cells infected with wild-type and delta-lpcC F. novicida. Our data suggest that not only actin but also intermediate filaments and microtubules are important for F. novicida entry into the host cells. In addition, we observed differential phosphorylation of tristetraprolin (TTP), a key component of the mRNA-degrading machinery that controls the expression of a variety of genes including many cytokines. Infection with the delta-lpcC mutant induced the hyper-phosphorylation and inhibition of TTP, leading to the production of cytokines such as IL-1beta and TNF-alpha which may kill the host cells by triggering apoptosis. Together, our data provide new insights for Francisella invasion and a post-transcriptional mechanism that prevents the expression of host immune response factors that controls infection by this pathogen.

  11. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: An Interventional Tool for Enhancing Behavioral Training after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Maximilian J.; Zimerman, Máximo; Hummel, Friedhelm C.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability among adults. Motor deficit is the most common impairment after stroke. Especially, deficits in fine motor skills impair numerous activities of daily life. Re-acquisition of motor skills resulting in improved or more accurate motor performance is paramount to regain function, and is the basis of behavioral motor therapy after stroke. Within the past years, there has been a rapid technological and methodological development in neuroimaging leading to a significant progress in the understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor skill acquisition and functional recovery in stroke patients. Based on this and the development of novel non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, new adjuvant interventional approaches that augment the response to behavioral training have been proposed. Transcranial direct current, transcranial magnetic, and paired associative (PAS) stimulation are NIBS techniques that can modulate cortical excitability, neuronal plasticity and interact with learning and memory in both healthy individuals and stroke patients. These techniques can enhance the effect of practice and facilitate the retention of tasks that mimic daily life activities. The purpose of the present review is to provide a comprehensive overview of neuroplastic phenomena in the motor system during learning of a motor skill, recovery after brain injury, and of interventional strategies to enhance the beneficial effects of customarily used neurorehabilitation after stroke. PMID:26029083

  12. Ecological, behavioral, and genetic factors influencing the recombinant control of invasive pests.

    PubMed

    Bax, Nicholas J; Thresher, Ronald E

    2009-06-01

    Invasive species are a major threat to biodiversity, cost the world economy billions of dollars annually, and are often difficult, if not impossible, to control using current approaches. Recombinant technologies could revolutionize management of such pests but would be subject to a range of genetic, behavioral, and ecological factors that could limit their efficacy or applicability. We use a realistically parameterized combined population dynamics/genetics model to assess the potential of, and constraints on, a suite of recombinant approaches that have been suggested for pest control. We show that, of the options suggested to date, a genetic construct that distorts operational sex ratios by sterilizing, killing, or sex-changing one gender and being inherited through the other, is not only potentially the most effective means of pest control, but also one that remains effective over the widest range of ecological and behavioral conditions. All methods, however, are sensitive in particular to the degree of density dependence in the pest population and to operational issues such as maximum copy number and stocking levels, which affect introgression rates. Optimal investment strategies for an integrated pest management program that includes the nonlinear interactions of recombinant strategies and complementary management options can be assessed through the sensitivity analyses. The subtle effects of even minor variability in some parameters, such as extra mortality due to the presence of the construct, further suggest that genetic techniques be applied in an active adaptive management framework, so that strategies can be regularly optimized as the impacts of a release program are assessed.

  13. Effects of phosphate supplementation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasive behavior in burn wound infections: A simple approach to a big problem.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Kouroshfard, Shahriyar; Azarpira, Negar

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of inorganic phosphate supplementation on invasive behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn wound infections. An emulsion-based lotion containing sodium dihydrogen phosphate was formulated and then 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats with burn wounds were used to assess the effect of phosphate supplementation on swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. On the second day after burn, four groups of rats were inoculated with P. aeruginosa and one group was left as negative control. The treatment was started on day 3 and the animals were followed up for 4 weeks. Significant improvement in wound healing was observed in the phosphate-receiving group after the 4-week follow-up, compared to the negative control, positive control, and silver sulfadiazine-receiving groups. Histopathological assessment of the tissue samples also indicated the healing process in phosphate-enriched lotion receiving group. The results showed that inorganic phosphate supplementation results in alteration of the virulence behavior of P. aeruginosa and improvement in the wound healing process. In conclusion, phosphate supplementation would be a rational strategy in the eradication of P. aeruginosa wound infection.

  14. Comparative outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for posterior lumbar fusion: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Christina L; Macwan, Kevin; Sundararajan, Kala; Rampersaud, Y Raja

    2014-06-01

    Although minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches to the lumbar spine for posterior fusion are increasingly being utilized, the comparative outcomes of MIS and open posterior lumbar fusion remain unclear. In this systematic review, we compared MIS and open transforaminal or posterior lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF/PLIF), specifically with respect to (1) surgical end points (including blood loss, surgical time, and fluoroscopy time), (2) clinical outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] and VAS pain scores), and (3) adverse events. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE(®), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Reference lists were manually searched. We included studies with 10 or more patients undergoing MIS compared to open TLIF/PLIF for degenerative lumbar disorders and reporting on surgical end points, clinical outcomes, or adverse events. Twenty-six studies of low- or very low-quality (GRADE protocol) met our inclusion criteria. No significant differences in patient demographics were identified between the cohorts (MIS: n = 856; open: n = 806). Equivalent operative times were observed between the cohorts, although patients undergoing MIS fusion tended to lose less blood, be exposed to more fluoroscopy, and leave the hospital sooner than their open counterparts. Patient-reported outcomes, including VAS pain scores and ODI values, were clinically equivalent between the MIS and open cohorts at 12 to 36 months postoperatively. Trends toward lower rates of surgical and medical adverse events were also identified in patients undergoing MIS procedures. However, in the absence of randomization, selection bias may have influenced these results in favor of MIS fusion. Current evidence examining MIS versus open TLIF/PLIF is of low to very low quality and therefore highly biased. Results of this systematic review suggest equipoise in surgical and clinical outcomes with equivalent rates of intraoperative surgical complications and perhaps a slight decrease

  15. Comparable ecological dynamics underlie early cancer invasion and species dispersal, involving self-organizing processes

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Diana E.; Cannas, Sergio A.; Montemurro, Marcelo A.; Hu, Bo; Cheng, Shi-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Occupancy of new habitats through dispersion is a central process in nature. In particular, long-distance dispersal is involved in the spread of species and epidemics, although it has not been previously related with cancer invasion, a process that involves cell spreading to tissues far away from the primary tumour. Using simulations and real data we show that the early spread of cancer cells is similar to the species individuals spread and we suggest that both processes are represented by a common spatio-temporal signature of long-distance dispersal and subsequent local proliferation. This signature is characterized by a particular fractal geometry of the boundaries of patches generated, and a power-law scaled, disrupted patch size distribution. In contrast, invasions involving only dispersal but not subsequent proliferation (“physiological invasions”) like trophoblast cells invasion during normal human placentation did not show the patch size power-law pattern. Our results are consistent under different temporal and spatial scales, and under different resolution levels of analysis. We conclude that the scaling properties are a hallmark and a direct result of long-distance dispersal and proliferation, and that they could reflect homologous ecological processes of population self-organization during cancer and species spread. Our results are significant for the detection of processes involving long-range dispersal and proliferation like cancer local invasion and metastasis, biological invasions and epidemics, and for the formulation of new cancer therapeutical approaches. PMID:18930739

  16. Comparing open and minimally invasive surgical procedures for oesophagectomy in the treatment of cancer: the ROMIO (Randomised Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) feasibility study and pilot trial.

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Chris; Avery, Kerry; Berrisford, Richard; Barham, Paul; Noble, Sian M; Fernandez, Aida Moure; Hanna, George; Goldin, Robert; Elliott, Jackie; Wheatley, Timothy; Sanders, Grant; Hollowood, Andrew; Falk, Stephen; Titcomb, Dan; Streets, Christopher; Donovan, Jenny L; Blazeby, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Localised oesophageal cancer can be curatively treated with surgery (oesophagectomy) but the procedure is complex with a risk of complications, negative effects on quality of life and a recovery period of 6-9 months. Minimal-access surgery may accelerate recovery. OBJECTIVES The ROMIO (Randomised Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) study aimed to establish the feasibility of, and methodology for, a definitive trial comparing minimally invasive and open surgery for oesophagectomy. Objectives were to quantify the number of eligible patients in a pilot trial; develop surgical manuals as the basis for quality assurance; standardise pathological processing; establish a method to blind patients to their allocation in the first week post surgery; identify measures of postsurgical outcome of importance to patients and clinicians; and establish the main cost differences between the surgical approaches. DESIGN Pilot parallel three-arm randomised controlled trial nested within feasibility work. SETTING Two UK NHS departments of upper gastrointestinal surgery. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 18 years with histopathological evidence of oesophageal or oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma, squamous cell cancer or high-grade dysplasia, referred for oesophagectomy or oesophagectomy following neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. INTERVENTIONS Oesophagectomy, with patients randomised to open surgery, a hybrid open chest and minimally invasive abdomen or totally minimally invasive access. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The primary outcome measure for the pilot trial was the number of patients recruited per month, with the main trial considered feasible if at least 2.5 patients per month were recruited. RESULTS During 21 months of recruitment, 263 patients were assessed for eligibility; of these, 135 (51%) were found to be eligible and 104 (77%) agreed to participate, an average of five patients per month. In total, 41 patients were allocated to open surgery, 43 to the

  17. Extracellular matrix composition and rigidity regulate invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D pancreatic tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Gwendolyn; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedehrojin; Jones, Dustin P.; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and mechanical compliance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to serve as regulators of tumor growth and invasive behavior. These effects may be particularly relevant in tumors of the pancreas, noted for a profound desmoplastic reaction and an abundance of stroma rich in ECM. In view of recent progress in the clinical implementation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for pancreatic tumors, in this report we examine how ECM composition and rheological properties impact upon invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D multicellular pancreatic tumor spheroids in ECM environments with characterized rheological properties. Tumor spheroids were cultured initially in attachment-free conditions to form millimeter-sized spheroids that were transplanted into reconstituted ECM microenvironments (Matrigel and Type I Collagen) that were characterized using bulk oscillatory shear rheology. Analysis of growth behavior shows that the soft collagen ECM promoted growth and extensive invasion and this microenvironment was used in subsequent assessment of PDT and chemotherapy response. Evaluation of treatment response revealed that primary tumor nodule growth is inhibited more effectively with PDT, while verteporfin PDT response is significantly enhanced in the ECM-infiltrating populations that are non-responsive to oxaliplatin chemotherapy. This finding is potentially significant, suggesting the potential for PDT to target these clinically problematic invasive populations that are associated with aggressive metastatic progression and chemoresistance. Experiments to further validate and identify the mechanistic basis of this observation are ongoing.

  18. Invasive and native plant responses to shrubland fuel reduction: comparing prescribed fire, mastication, and treatment season

    Treesearch

    Jennifer B. Potts; Scott L. Stephens

    2009-01-01

    Fuel reduction in the wildland–urban interface is a widely used international strategy for assisting human communities regarding wildfire threats, but very little research has examined whether certain fuel reduction methods and their seasonal timing promote nonnative invasion. To...

  19. A perioperative cost analysis comparing single-level minimally invasive and open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kern; Nandyala, Sreeharsha V; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Fineberg, Steven J; Oglesby, Mathew; Pelton, Miguel A; Andersson, Gunnar B; Isayeva, Darya; Jegier, Briana J; Phillips, Frank M

    2014-08-01

    Emerging literature suggests superior clinical short- and long-term outcomes of MIS (minimally invasive surgery) TLIFs (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) versus open fusions. Few studies to date have analyzed the cost differences between the two techniques and their relationship to acute clinical outcomes. The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in hospitalization costs and payments for patients treated with primary single-level MIS versus open TLIF. The impact of clinical outcomes and their contribution to financial differences was explored as well. This study was a nonrandomized, nonblinded prospective review. Sixty-six consecutive patients undergoing a single-level TLIF (open/MIS) were analyzed (33 open, 33 MIS). Patients in either cohort (MIS/open) were matched based on race, sex, age, smoking status, medical comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity index), payer, and diagnosis. Every patient in the study had a diagnosis of either degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis and stenosis. Operative time (minutes), length of stay (LOS, days), estimated blood loss (EBL, mL), anesthesia time (minutes), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores, and hospital cost/payment amount were assessed. The MIS and open TLIF groups were compared based on clinical outcomes measures and hospital cost/payment data using SPSS version 20.0 for statistical analysis. The two groups were compared using bivariate chi-squared analysis. Mann-Whitney tests were used for non-normal distributed data. Effect size estimate was calculated with the Cohen d statistic and the r statistic with a 95% confidence interval. Average surgical time was shorter for the MIS than the open TLIF group (115.8 minutes vs. 186.0 minutes respectively; p=.001). Length of stay was also reduced for the MIS versus the open group (2.3 days vs. 2.9 days, respectively; p=.018). Average anesthesia time and EBL were also lower in the MIS group (p<.001). VAS scores decreased for both groups, although these

  20. Plant-mediated changes in the feeding behavior of an invasive whitefly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baiming; Preisser, Evan L; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Pan, Huipeng; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-10-01

    The invasive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a worldwide pest of agricultural crops that feeds on a wide variety of host plants. Although host plant preference is known to vary among B. tabaci biotypes, far less is known about the potential for intraspecific divergence caused by long-term isolation on a single species of host plant. We tested the hypothesis that multigenerational isolation of B. tabaci B, a biotype that has been well-established in China for nearly two decades, on three different host plants would lead to population-level divergence in feeding behaviors. We used individuals from a cabbage-feeding (Brassica oleracea L.) population of B. tabaci B to create three populations reared exclusively on B. oleracea, cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), or tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) for >80 generations. We then used electrical penetration graph techniques to investigate the feeding behavior of the three B. tabaci populations on each of the three host plants (nine total treatments). Across all three host plants, the cabbage-specific population equaled or exceeded the performance of the cucumber-specific (CuSP) and tomato-specific (ToSP) populations. Strikingly, neither CuSP nor ToSP ever had the best feeding performance on their natal hosts. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding differentiation has occurred, but we found no evidence that these changes increased the feeding performance of either CuSP or ToSP. Although confirming that rapid interpopulation divergence is possible, our findings nonetheless suggest that this differentiation did not yield highly adapted populations that might pose problems for future efforts at pest management.

  1. Prey-tracking behavior in the invasive terrestrial planarian Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida).

    PubMed

    Iwai, Noriko; Sugiura, Shinji; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-11-01

    Platydemus manokwari is a broadly distributed invasive terrestrial flatworm that preys heavily on land snails and has been credited with the demise of numerous threatened island faunas. We examined whether P. manokwari tracks the mucus trails of land snail prey, investigated its ability to determine trail direction, and evaluated prey preference among various land snail species. A plastic treatment plate with the mucus trail of a single species and a control plate without the trail were placed side by side at the exit of cages housing P. manokwari. All trials were then videotaped overnight. The flatworms moved along plates with mucus trails, but did not respond to plates without trails, blank control (distilled water), or with conspecific flatworm trails. When presented at the midpoint of a snail mucus trail, the flatworms followed the trail in a random direction. The flatworms showed a preference when choosing between two plates, each with a mucus trail of different land snail species. Our results suggest that P. manokwari follows snail mucus trails based on chemical cues to increase the chance of encountering prey; however, trail-tracking behavior showed no directionality.

  2. Prey-tracking behavior in the invasive terrestrial planarian Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Noriko; Sugiura, Shinji; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-11-01

    Platydemus manokwari is a broadly distributed invasive terrestrial flatworm that preys heavily on land snails and has been credited with the demise of numerous threatened island faunas. We examined whether P. manokwari tracks the mucus trails of land snail prey, investigated its ability to determine trail direction, and evaluated prey preference among various land snail species. A plastic treatment plate with the mucus trail of a single species and a control plate without the trail were placed side by side at the exit of cages housing P. manokwari. All trials were then videotaped overnight. The flatworms moved along plates with mucus trails, but did not respond to plates without trails, blank control (distilled water), or with conspecific flatworm trails. When presented at the midpoint of a snail mucus trail, the flatworms followed the trail in a random direction. The flatworms showed a preference when choosing between two plates, each with a mucus trail of different land snail species. Our results suggest that P. manokwari follows snail mucus trails based on chemical cues to increase the chance of encountering prey; however, trail-tracking behavior showed no directionality.

  3. COMPARATIVE CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF TWO PALLADIUM CONTAINING TITANIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lian, T. Yashiki, T. Nakayama, T. Nakanishi, R. B. Rebak

    2006-07-23

    The ASTM standard B 265 provides the requirements for the chemical composition of titanium (Ti) alloys. It is planned to use corrosion resistant and high strength titanium alloys to fabricate the drip shield at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Titanium grade (Gr) 7 (R52400) and other Ti alloys are currently being characterized for this application. Ti Gr 7 contains 0.15% Palladium (Pd) to increase its corrosion performance. In this article we report results on the comparative short term corrosion behavior of Ti Gr 7 and a Ruthenium (Ru) containing alloy (Ti Gr 33). Ti Gr 33 also contains a small amount of Pd. Limited electrochemical testing such as polarization resistance and cyclic potentiodynamic curves showed that both alloys have a similar corrosion behavior in the tested environments.

  4. Comparative Corrosion Behavior of Two Palladium Containing Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, T; Yashiki, T; Nakayama, T; Nakanishi, T; Rebak, R B

    2006-02-05

    The ASTM standard B 265 provides the requirements for the chemical composition of titanium (Ti) alloys. It is planned to use corrosion resistant and high strength titanium alloys to fabricate the drip shield at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Titanium grade (Gr) 7 (R52400) and other Ti alloys are currently being characterized for this application. Ti Gr 7 contains 0.15% Palladium (Pd) to increase its corrosion performance. In this article we report results on the comparative short term corrosion behavior of Ti Gr 7 and a Ruthenium (Ru) containing alloy (Ti Gr 33). Ti Gr 33 also contains a small amount of Pd. Limited electrochemical testing such as polarization resistance and cyclic potentiodynamic curves showed that both alloys have a similar corrosion behavior in the tested environments.

  5. Lysine-specific demethylase-1 contributes to malignant behavior by regulation of invasive activity and metabolic shift in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kosumi, Keisuke; Baba, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Harada, Kazuto; Nakamura, Kenichi; Kurashige, Junji; Hiyoshi, Yukiharu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Iwagami, Shiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoya; Oki, Eiji; Watanabe, Masayuki; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Baba, Hideo

    2016-01-15

    Lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) removes the methyl groups from mono- and di-methylated lysine 4 of histone H3. Previous studies have linked LSD1 to malignancy in several human tumors, and LSD1 is considered to epigenetically regulate the energy metabolism genes in adipocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study investigates the function of LSD1 in the invasive activity and the metabolism of esophageal cancer cells. We investigated whether LSD1 immunohistochemical expression levels are related to clinical and pathological features, including the maximum standard uptake value in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography assay. The influence of LSD1 on cell proliferation, invasion and glucose uptake was evaluated in vitro by using specific small interfering RNA for LSD1, and an LSD1 inhibitor. We also evaluated two major energy pathways (glycolytic pathway and mitochondrial respiration) by measuring the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) with an extracellular flux analyzer. High LSD1 immunohistochemical expression was significantly associated with high tumor stage, lymphovascular invasion, poor prognosis, and high maximum standard uptake value in esophageal cancer patients. In the in vitro analysis, LSD1 knockdown significantly suppressed the invasive activity and glucose uptake of cancerous cells, reduced their ECAR and increased their OCR and OCR/ECAR. LSD1 may contribute to malignant behavior by regulating the invasive activity and metabolism, activating the glycolytic pathway and inhibiting the mitochondrial respiration of esophageal cancer cells. The results support LSD1 as a potential therapeutic target. © 2015 UICC.

  6. Comparative Genome Sequencing Reveals Within-Host Genetic Changes in Neisseria meningitidis during Invasive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klughammer, Johanna; Dittrich, Marcus; Blom, Jochen; Mitesser, Vera; Vogel, Ulrich; Frosch, Matthias; Goesmann, Alexander; Müller, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Some members of the physiological human microbiome occasionally cause life-threatening disease even in immunocompetent individuals. A prime example of such a commensal pathogen is Neisseria meningitidis, which normally resides in the human nasopharynx but is also a leading cause of sepsis and epidemic meningitis. Using N. meningitidis as model organism, we tested the hypothesis that virulence of commensal pathogens is a consequence of within host evolution and selection of invasive variants due to mutations at contingency genes, a mechanism called phase variation. In line with the hypothesis that phase variation evolved as an adaptation to colonize diverse hosts, computational comparisons of all 27 to date completely sequenced and annotated meningococcal genomes retrieved from public databases showed that contingency genes are indeed enriched for genes involved in host interactions. To assess within-host genetic changes in meningococci, we further used ultra-deep whole-genome sequencing of throat-blood strain pairs isolated from four patients suffering from invasive meningococcal disease. We detected up to three mutations per strain pair, affecting predominantly contingency genes involved in type IV pilus biogenesis. However, there was not a single (set) of mutation(s) that could invariably be found in all four pairs of strains. Phenotypic assays further showed that these genetic changes were generally not associated with increased serum resistance, higher fitness in human blood ex vivo or differences in the interaction with human epithelial and endothelial cells in vitro. In conclusion, we hypothesize that virulence of meningococci results from accidental emergence of invasive variants during carriage and without within host evolution of invasive phenotypes during disease progression in vivo. PMID:28081260

  7. Flowering phenology of invasive alien plant species compared with native species in three Mediterranean-type ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Oscar; Richardson, David M.; Valladares, Fernando; Castro-Díez, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Flowering phenology is a potentially important component of success of alien species, since elevated fecundity may enhance invasiveness. The flowering patterns of invasive alien plant species and related natives were studied in three regions with Mediterranean-type climate: California, Spain and South Africa's Cape region. Methods A total of 227 invasive–native pairs were compared for seven character types across the regions, with each pair selected on the basis that they shared the same habitat type within a region, had a common growth form and pollination type, and belonged to the same family or genus. Key Results Invasive alien plant species have different patterns of flowering phenology from native species in the three regions. Whether the alien species flower earlier, later or at the same time as natives depends on the climatic regime in the native range of the aliens and the proportion of species in the invasive floras originating from different regions. Species invading at least two of the regions displayed the same flowering pattern, showing that flowering phenology is a conservative trait. Invasive species with native ranges in temperate climates flower earlier than natives, those from Mediterranean-type climates at the same time, and species from tropical climates flower later. In California, where the proportion of invaders from the Mediterranean Basin is high, the flowering pattern did not differ between invasive and native species, whereas in Spain the high proportion of tropical species results in a later flowering than natives, and in the Cape region early flowering than natives was the result of a high proportion of temperate invaders. Conclusions Observed patterns are due to the human-induced sympatry of species with different evolutionary histories whose flowering phenology evolved under different climatic regimes. The severity of the main abiotic filters imposed by the invaded regions (e.g. summer drought) has not been

  8. Continuous Non-invasive finger cuff CareTaker® comparable to invasive intra-arterial pressure in patients undergoing major intra-abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Irwin; Deal, Edward; Spitz, Francis; Baruch, Martin; Allen, I Elaine; Seaman, Julia E; Pukenas, Erin; Jean, Smith

    2017-03-21

    Despite increased interest in non-invasive arterial pressure monitoring, the majority of commercially available technologies have failed to satisfy the limits established for the validation of automatic arterial pressure monitoring by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). According to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standards, the group-average accuracy and precision are defined as acceptable if bias is not greater than 5 mmHg and standard deviation is not greater than 8 mmHg. In this study, these standards are used to evaluate the CareTaker® (CT) device, a device measuring continuous non-invasive blood pressure via a pulse contour algorithm called Pulse Decomposition Analysis. A convenience sample of 24 patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were consented to participate in this IRB approved pilot study. Each patient was monitored with a radial arterial catheter and CT using a finger cuff applied to the contralateral thumb. Hemodynamic variables were measured and analyzed from both devices for the first thirty minutes of the surgical procedure including the induction of anesthesia. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic and diastolic blood pressures continuously collected from the arterial catheter and CT were compared. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between arterial catheter and CT blood pressure measurements, a Bland-Altman analysis, and polar and 4Q plots were created. The correlation of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were 0.92, 0.86, 0.91, respectively (p < 0.0001 for all the comparisons). The Bland-Altman comparison yielded a bias (as measured by overall mean difference) of -0.57, -2.52, 1.01 mmHg for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively with a standard deviation of 7.34, 6.47, 5.33 mmHg for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The polar plot indicates little bias between the two

  9. Projecting future expansion of invasive species: comparing and improving methodologies for species distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Kumar P; Warren, Dan L; Dhileepan, Kunjithapatham; McConnachie, Andrew; Strathie, Lorraine; Hassan, Gul; Karki, Debendra; Shrestha, Bharat B; Parmesan, Camille

    2015-12-01

    Modeling the distributions of species, especially of invasive species in non-native ranges, involves multiple challenges. Here, we developed some novel approaches to species distribution modeling aimed at reducing the influences of such challenges and improving the realism of projections. We estimated species-environment relationships for Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) with four modeling methods run with multiple scenarios of (i) sources of occurrences and geographically isolated background ranges for absences, (ii) approaches to drawing background (absence) points, and (iii) alternate sets of predictor variables. We further tested various quantitative metrics of model evaluation against biological insight. Model projections were very sensitive to the choice of training dataset. Model accuracy was much improved using a global dataset for model training, rather than restricting data input to the species' native range. AUC score was a poor metric for model evaluation and, if used alone, was not a useful criterion for assessing model performance. Projections away from the sampled space (i.e., into areas of potential future invasion) were very different depending on the modeling methods used, raising questions about the reliability of ensemble projections. Generalized linear models gave very unrealistic projections far away from the training region. Models that efficiently fit the dominant pattern, but exclude highly local patterns in the dataset and capture interactions as they appear in data (e.g., boosted regression trees), improved generalization of the models. Biological knowledge of the species and its distribution was important in refining choices about the best set of projections. A post hoc test conducted on a new Parthenium dataset from Nepal validated excellent predictive performance of our 'best' model. We showed that vast stretches of currently uninvaded geographic areas on multiple continents harbor highly suitable habitats for parthenium

  10. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Erinacine A's Inhibition of Gastric Cancer Cell Viability and Invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Lee, Kam-Fai; Hsieh, Meng-Chiao; Huang, Cheng-Yi; Hsieh, Yung-Yu; Lee, Ko-Chao; Kuo, Hsiang-Lan; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Chen, Chin-Chu; Tung, Shui-Yi

    2017-08-30

    Background / Aims: Erinacine A, isolated from the ethanol extract of the Hericium erinaceus mycelium, has been demonstrated as a new alternative anticancer medicine. Drawing upon current research, this study presents an investigation of the molecular mechanism of erinacine A inhibition associated with gastric cancer cell growth. Cell viability was determined by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and migration using a Boyden chamber assay to determine the effects of erinacine A treatment on the proliferation capacity and invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. A proteomic assay provided information that was used to identify the differentially-expressed proteins following erinacine A treatment, as well as the mechanism of its targets in the apoptotic induction of erinacine A. Our results demonstrate that erinacine A treatment of TSGH 9201 cells increased cytotoxicity and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as decreased the invasiveness. Treatment of TSGH 9201 cells with erinacine A resulted in the activation of caspases and the expression of TRAIL. Erinacine A induction of apoptosis was accompanied by sustained phosphorylation of FAK/AKT/p70S6K and the PAK1 pathways, as well as the generation of ROS. Furthermore, the induction of apoptosis and anti-invasion properties by erinacine A could involve the differential expression of the 14-3-3 sigma protein (1433S) and microtubule-associated tumor suppressor candidate 2 (MTUS2), with the activation of the FAK/AKT/p70S6K and PAK1 signaling pathways. These results lead us to speculate that erinacine A may generate an apoptotic cascade in TSGH 9201 cells by activating the FAK/AKT/p70S6K/PAK1 pathway and upregulating proteins 1433S and MTUS2, providing a new mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of erinacine A in human gastric cancer cells. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Impact comparative study of phone carcasses behavior by FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Cărăuşu; Plăvănescu, Simona; Dumitru, Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    A constant concern of scientific research is based on plastics replace with biodegradable materials that reduce the adverse impact of waste on the environment. A biodegradable material that arouses interest lately is Arboform which is made of lignin, a component of wood and woody plants. Replacing plastic with Arboform in carrying components of products requires technical and economic studies on the implications of such replacement. Numerical simulation methods are a fast and economical way of analyzing the behavior of a product in various mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic and so on. The paper presents comparative results of numerical simulation using the software package SolidWorks impact behavior through the “Drop Test” of half shells made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and of the Arboform LV3 Nature. Simulation watched the half-carcass behavior in three cases of accidental impact, “head”, “corner” and the “back side”. We analyzed the size and location of the maximum voltage and maximum deformation resulting from impact. Simulations have shown for all three cases a maximum voltage increase when using Arboform to use PEDH 93% for impact “forward” and “corner” and only 48.77% “back side” impact. If the maximum displacement, it increasing from carcasses of Arboform 4% for impact “head” and 6% for impact “corner”, but fell by 2.7% for the “back side” impact. The significant increase of stress can be attributed to the higher density of Arboform to PEDH, which led to different weights of the two half-carcasses.

  12. Parental acceptance of pediatric behavior management techniques: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elango, I; Baweja, D K; Shivaprakash, P K

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the attitude toward behavior techniques among parents of healthy and special children in Indian subpopulation. Parents of healthy (Group A) and special children (Group B) watched videotape vignette of 10 behavior management techniques (BMTs) in groups and rated them using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Group B parents were subgrouped as: Group B 1 (34 parents of medically compromised children), Group B 2 (34 parents of physically compromised children), and Group B 3 (34 parents of children with neuropathological disorders). Both Group A and Group B subjects judged all techniques as "acceptable." Group B parents were less accepting to techniques than Group A parents, except live modeling. Contingent escape and live modeling were the first ranked techniques in Group A and Group B parents, respectively. Voice control (VC) and hand-over-mouth exercise (HOM) were the least accepted techniques in both groups. Parents with low income and less education were more receptive to the techniques studied. A total of 25.49% of parents in each group did not consent to the use of HOM. Factors such as having a disabled child, low income, and less education influenced parental acceptability. HOM should be used with great caution and clinicians should approach the issue of informed consent on an individual basis.

  13. Impact of invasive aquatic macrophytes on the population and behavioral ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field survey, three outdoor cage enclosure experiments, and laboratory studies were conducted to elucidate the impact of the invasive aquatic weeds Eichhornia crassipes (floating water hyacinth), Ludwigia hexapetala (emergent water yellow-primrose), and Egeria densa (submersed Brazilian waterweed)...

  14. Characterizing the behavior and reproductive biology of zoo-housed Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) using non-invasive techniques.

    PubMed

    Adkin, A; Bernier, D; Santymire, R M

    2012-08-01

    The Sichuan takin (takin; Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) is distributed in the Gansu and Sichuan providences of southern China and along eastern Tibet. Because of their ecology, few data on takin reproductive biology exist, with the exception of its mating season in the Sichuan province, which occurs from July through August. Therefore, the objectives were to: 1) characterize reproductive hormones in zoo-housed male and female takin, including pregnancy in the female, using non-invasive fecal steroid hormonal monitoring; 2) characterize behaviors of zoo-housed takin, emphasizing reproductive behaviors and activity budget; and 3) assess the influence of season on births in North America and reproductive hormonal and behavioral activity. Fecal samples were collected 3 to 5 times per week from two adult males and three adult females. Extracted hormones were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay for progestagen and androgen concentrations. Behavioral observations were collected for 2 yrs using an ethogram. In this study, season affected reproduction, specifically birth occurrences, reproductive cyclicity in females and androgen production in males. The duration of the estrous cycle was approximately 35 d and cycles occurred June through December. Androgen concentrations peaked in May through August. Season did not influence behavior; however, age and sex may affect some behaviors, including activity level, foraging and drinking, social affiliative behavior, and visibility from the visitor's viewpoint. In conclusion, fecal hormonal and behavioral analyses can provide information for management and conservation of this herd species.

  15. Psychosocial distress affecting patients with ductal carcinoma in situ compared to patients with early invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Judith Brown; Loftin, Adam; Seda, Julia S; Ehlenbeck, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Psychological distress in patients with a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or early invasive breast cancer (EIBC) can emanate from perceived risk of recurrence and is accompanied by perceived risk of death from the diseases. These factors can impart a lower quality of life that can result in poorer health outcomes. In addition, inaccurate risk perceptions can have an effect on decision making, psychosocial outcomes, and subsequent health behaviors. The purpose of this study is to assess patients with DCIS and EIBC and their perceived risk of recurrence and perceived risk of dying, and evaluate their outlook for the future, the degree of social support from spouses and significant others of patients who have been diagnosed with DCIS and EIBC, and the relationship to the patient's perceived risk perception of recurrence and dying from the diseases.

  16. Do invaders always perform better? Comparing the response of native and invasive shrimps to temperature and salinity gradients in south-west Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeusne, Christophe; Latchere, Oïhana; Petit, Nicolas; Rico, Ciro; Green, Andy J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species are often thought to benefit from climate change, outcompeting native species as temperatures increase. However, the physiological tolerance has been little explored as a potential mechanism explaining biological invasion success. In this study, we used empirical data from both invasive and native estuarine species as a case study to address the hypotheses that (1) invasive species show a better resistance to acute thermal stress, (2) invasive species present lower oxygen consumption rates owing to greater resistance to environmental stressors, and (3) native species have lower survival rates under chronic temperature and salinity stress. We conducted various comparative experiments on three sympatric and syntopic closely related shrimp species (one invasive Palaemon macrodactylus, and two natives Palaemon longirostris and Palaemonetes varians). We evaluated their critical temperature maxima, their oxygen consumption rates under different salinities and temperatures, and their survival rates under chronic salinity and temperature. We found that the invasive species was the most tolerant to rapid increase in temperature, and consistently consumed less oxygen over a broad range of temperatures and salinities. Palaemon macrodactylus also had lower mortality rates at high temperatures than P. longirostris. These results support previously reported differences in physiological tolerance between native and invasive species, with the invasive species always performing better. The consistently higher tolerance of the non-indigenous species to temperature variation suggests that climate change will increase the success of invaders.

  17. Loss of MLCK leads to disruption of cell-cell adhesion and invasive behavior of breast epithelial cells via increased expression of EGFR and ERK/JNK signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Helfman, D M

    2016-08-25

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression is downregulated in breast cancer, including invasive ductal carcinoma compared with ductal breast carcinoma in situ and metastatic breast tumors. However, little is known about how loss of MLCK expression contributes to tumor progression. MLCK is a component of the actin cytoskeleton and its known role is the phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II. To gain insights into the role of MLCK in breast cancer, we perturbed its function using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or pharmacological inhibition in untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF10A). Loss of MLCK by siRNAs led to increased cell migration and invasion, disruption of cell-cell adhesions and enhanced formation of focal adhesions at the leading edge of migratory cells. In addition, downregulation of MLCK cooperated with HER2 in MCF10A cells to promote cell migration and invasion and low levels of MLCK is associated with a poor prognosis in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Associated with these altered migratory behaviors were increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways in MLCK downregulated MCF10A cells. By contrast, inhibition of the kinase function of MLCK using pharmacological agents inhibited cell migration and invasion, and did not affect cellular adhesions. Our results show that loss of MLCK contributes to the migratory properties of epithelial cells resulting from changes in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions, and increased epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These findings suggest that decreased expression of MLCK may have a critical role during tumor progression by facilitating the metastatic potential of tumor cells.

  18. Power-law rheology and flow behavior of low-invasion coring fluids

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-08-01

    An improved pressure coring system has been developed in which an extremely viscous polymer mud is extruded by the core and is used to seal and protect the core from flushing by drilling fluids. The polymer mud must be extremely viscous to minimize invasion, yet must be extruded through a long, narrow annular gap with a minimum of pressure buildup. A highly non-Newtonian shear-thinning polymer is utilized in the low invasion coring fluid. This paper describes the measurement and modeling of non-Newtonian rheology from rotary viscometer data in detail since the simplified equations which are generally used with these instruments can be grossly in error. The development of both an approximate analytical solution and an exact numerical solution of the non-Newtonian extrusion process is presented. These solutions were used to optimize the non-Newtonian rheology of the low-invasion fluid which will be used in actual coring operations.

  19. Comparative and functional studies of Drosophila species invasion by the gypsy endogenous retrovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Mejlumian, Lucine; Pélisson, Alain; Bucheton, Alain; Terzian, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. Phylogenetic studies suggest that occasional horizontal transfer events of gypsy occur between Drosophila species. gypsy possesses infective properties associated with the products of the envelope gene that might be at the origin of these interspecies transfers. We report here the existence of DNA sequences putatively encoding full-length Env proteins in the genomes of Drosophila species other than D. melanogaster, suggesting that potentially infective gypsy copies able to spread between sexually isolated species can occur. The ability of gypsy to invade the genome of a new species is conditioned by its capacity to be expressed in the naive genome. The genetic basis for the regulation of gypsy activity in D. melanogaster is now well known, and it has been assigned to an X-linked gene called flamenco. We established an experimental simulation of the invasion of the D. melanogaster genome by gypsy elements derived from other Drosophila species, which demonstrates that these non- D. melanogaster gypsy elements escape the repression exerted by the D. melanogaster flamenco gene. PMID:11805056

  20. Comparative and functional studies of Drosophila species invasion by the gypsy endogenous retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Mejlumian, Lucine; Pélisson, Alain; Bucheton, Alain; Terzian, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. Phylogenetic studies suggest that occasional horizontal transfer events of gypsy occur between Drosophila species. gypsy possesses infective properties associated with the products of the envelope gene that might be at the origin of these interspecies transfers. We report here the existence of DNA sequences putatively encoding full-length Env proteins in the genomes of Drosophila species other than D. melanogaster, suggesting that potentially infective gypsy copies able to spread between sexually isolated species can occur. The ability of gypsy to invade the genome of a new species is conditioned by its capacity to be expressed in the naive genome. The genetic basis for the regulation of gypsy activity in D. melanogaster is now well known, and it has been assigned to an X-linked gene called flamenco. We established an experimental simulation of the invasion of the D. melanogaster genome by gypsy elements derived from other Drosophila species, which demonstrates that these non- D. melanogaster gypsy elements escape the repression exerted by the D. melanogaster flamenco gene.

  1. Efficacy of caspofungin as salvage therapy for invasive aspergillosis compared to standard therapy in a historical cohort.

    PubMed

    Hiemenz, J W; Raad, I I; Maertens, J A; Hachem, R Y; Saah, A J; Sable, C A; Chodakewitz, J A; Severino, M E; Saddier, P; Berman, R S; Ryan, D M; Dinubile, M J; Patterson, T F; Denning, D W; Walsh, T J

    2010-11-01

    In a non-comparative study, caspofungin was effective salvage therapy for approximately half of the patients refractory to or intolerant of standard antifungal agents for invasive aspergillosis. To establish a frame of reference for these results, we compared the response to caspofungin with responses to other antifungal agents in a historical cohort of similar patients. The efficacy could be evaluated in 83 patients who received caspofungin 50 mg daily after a 70-mg loading dose. The historical control group, identified through a retrospective review of medical records, included 214 evaluable patients possibly refractory to or intolerant of ≥1 week of standard antifungal therapy. All patients had documented invasive aspergillosis. Favorable response was defined as a complete or partial response to therapy. Underlying diseases, baseline neutropenia, corticosteroid use, and sites of infection were similar in both studies. Most patients had received amphotericin B formulations and/or itraconazole, and were refractory to standard therapy. Favorable response rates were 45% with caspofungin and 16% with standard therapy. The unadjusted odds ratio for a favorable response (caspofungin/standard therapy) was 4.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.2, 7.5). After adjusting for potential imbalances in the frequency of disseminated infection, neutropenia, steroid use, and bone marrow transplantation between groups, the odds ratio remained at 4.1 (2.1, 7.9). Although only tentative conclusions about relative efficacy can be drawn from retrospective comparisons, caspofungin appeared to be at least as efficacious as an amphotericin B formulation and/or itraconazole for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of their initial antifungal therapy.

  2. Behavioral Language Interventions for Children with Autism: Comparing Applied Verbal Behavior and Naturalistic Teaching Approaches

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Esch, John; Sidener, Tina M; Firth, Amanda M

    2006-01-01

    Several important behavioral intervention models have been developed for teaching language to children with autism and two are compared in this paper. Professionals adhering to Skinner's conceptualization of language refer to their curriculum and intervention programming as applied verbal behavior (AVB). Those primarily focused on developing and using strategies embedded in natural settings that promote generalization refer to their interventions as naturalistic teaching approaches (NTAs). The purpose of this paper is to describe each approach and discuss similarities and differences in terms of relevant dimensions of stimulus control. The discussion includes potential barriers to translation of terminology between the two approaches that we feel can be overcome to allow better communication and collaboration between the two communities. Common naturalistic teaching procedures are described and a Skinnerian conceptualization of these learning events is provided. PMID:22477343

  3. Selenium exposure results in reduced reproduction in an invasive ant species and altered competitive behavior for a native ant species.

    PubMed

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Trumble, John T

    2016-06-01

    Competitive ability and numerical dominance are important factors contributing to the ability of invasive ant species to establish and expand their ranges in new habitats. However, few studies have investigated the impact of environmental contamination on competitive behavior in ants as a potential factor influencing dynamics between invasive and native ant species. Here we investigated the widespread contaminant selenium to investigate its potential influence on invasion by the exotic Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, through effects on reproduction and competitive behavior. For the fecundity experiment, treatments were provided to Argentine ant colonies via to sugar water solutions containing one of three concentrations of selenium (0, 5 and 10 μg Se mL(-1)) that fall within the range found in soil and plants growing in contaminated areas. Competition experiments included both the Argentine ant and the native Dorymyrmex bicolor to determine the impact of selenium exposure (0 or 15 μg Se mL(-1)) on exploitation- and interference-competition between ant species. The results of the fecundity experiment revealed that selenium negatively impacted queen survival and brood production of Argentine ants. Viability of the developing brood was also affected in that offspring reached adulthood only in colonies that were not given selenium, whereas those in treated colonies died in their larval stages. Selenium exposure did not alter direct competitive behaviors for either species, but selenium exposure contributed to an increased bait discovery time for D. bicolor. Our results suggest that environmental toxins may not only pose problems for native ant species, but may also serve as a potential obstacle for establishment among exotic species.

  4. Physiological and behavioral responses of the invasive amphipod, Dikerogammarus villosus, to ammonia.

    PubMed

    Normant-Saremba, Monika; Becker, Jochen; Winkelmann, Carola

    2015-11-01

    We studied the physiological and behavioral responses of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus during exposure to four total ammonia concentrations (NH3+NH4(+); TotAmm): 0.003 (control), 0.06, 1.6, and 7.0 mmol L(-1) (0.042, 0.84, 22.4, and 98.0 mg L(-1)) for a period of up to 12 h at 21 °C. During the transition period from the control to treatment concentration as well as during the first hour of exposure to 0.06 and 1.6 mmol L(-1), gammarids increased their locomotor activity, which was manifested in significantly higher routine metabolic rates compared to control conditions. At control conditions, the resting metabolic rate amounted to 0.98±0.26 mW g(-1) and significantly increased by 19 and 37% at 0.06 and 1.6 mmol L(-1), respectively. The highest examined [TotAmm] caused a rapid and significant increase in resting metabolic rate by 37% within the first 4 h of exposure before gammarids died. The exposure to elevated [TotAmm] also resulted in a significant decreased RNA:DNA ratio and significantly higher glycogen concentrations compared to the control. We conclude that even a short exposure to TotAmm of 0.06 mmol L(-1), which may occur in natural habitats, disturbs the physiology and behavior of D. villosus and leads to increased metabolic costs of the maintenance and reduced protein synthesis.

  5. Biology, behavior and management of chilli thrips, and other invasive thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in south Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rich vegetation and Neotropical climate of Florida make the state suitable for the invasion and establishment of exotic flora and fauna. In the past two decades, there are multiple thrips species which have invaded Florida and are considered serious pests owing to the economic or aesthetic damag...

  6. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson

    2009-01-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa...

  7. Accuracy of noninvasive hemoglobin and invasive point-of-care hemoglobin testing compared with a laboratory analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, N; Osea, E A; Martinez, G J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hemoglobin concentration is assessed to detect anemia and its associated morbidities. Hemoglobin is usually determined from venous or capillary blood samples run on a laboratory analyzer. However, this method requires a needle stick and results can be delayed. It also exposes caregivers to risks associated with needle sticks and blood exposure. Noninvasive hemoglobin determination would be of benefit to patients and caregivers because it would allow for quick and painless point-of-care assessment. Methods Hemoglobin determination from a noninvasive spot check hemoglobin device (Pronto-7 with SpHb, Masimo) and an invasive point-of-care device (HemoCue) was compared with venous blood samples run on a laboratory hematology analyzer. Results A total of 440 outpatients and healthy volunteers were included (mean age 36 years, 62% female). Compared with the hematology analyzer, the bias ± standard deviation of was −0.1 ± 1.1 g/dL for SpHb and −0.1 ± 1.6 g/dL for HemoCue. Conclusion Noninvasive hemoglobin testing with SpHb provided similar accuracy as invasive point-of-care hemoglobin testing and may enable more efficient and effective patient care. PMID:23809685

  8. Lung cancer with chest wall invasion: retrospective analysis comparing en-bloc resection and ‘resection in bird cage’

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Invasion of the chest wall per se is not a contraindication for tumor resection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), provided there is no mediastinal lymph node or vital structure involvement. Although widely known to Brazilian surgeons, the ‘resection in bird cage’ technique has never been widely studied in terms of patient survival. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the postoperative consequences and overall survival of extra-musculoperiosteal resection compared with en-bloc resection in NSCLC patients with invasion of the endothoracic fascia. Methods Between January 1990 and December 2009, 33 NSCLC patients with invasion of the thoracic wall who underwent pulmonary resection were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 33 patients evaluated, 20 patients underwent en-bloc resection and 13 underwent ‘resection in bird cage.’ For each patient, a retrospective case note review was made. Results The median age at surgery, gender, indication, rate of comorbidities, tumor size and the degree of uptake in the costal margin were similar for both groups. The rate of postoperative complications and the duration of hospitalization did not differ between the groups. Regarding the outcome variables, the disease-free interval, rate of local recurrence, metastasis-free time after surgery, overall mortality rate, mortality rate related to metastatic disease, duration following surgery in which deaths occurred, and overall survival were also similar between groups. The cumulative survival curves between the ‘resection in bird cage’ and en-bloc resection and between stages Ia + Ib and IIb + IIIa + IV were not significantly different (p = 0.68 and p = 0.64, respectively). The cumulative metastasis-free survival curves were not significantly different between the two types of surgery (p = 0.38). Conclusions In NSCLC patients with invasion of the endothoracic fascia, ‘resection in bird cage’ is a less aggressive procedure

  9. Comparing the Invasibility of Experimental “Reefs” with Field Observations of Natural Reefs and Artificial Structures

    PubMed Central

    Dafforn, Katherine A.; Glasby, Tim M.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2012-01-01

    Natural systems are increasingly being modified by the addition of artificial habitats which may facilitate invasion. Where invaders are able to disperse from artificial habitats, their impact may spread to surrounding natural communities and therefore it is important to investigate potential factors that reduce or enhance invasibility. We surveyed the distribution of non-indigenous and native invertebrates and algae between artificial habitats and natural reefs in a marine subtidal system. We also deployed sandstone plates as experimental ‘reefs’ and manipulated the orientation, starting assemblage and degree of shading. Invertebrates (non-indigenous and native) appeared to be responding to similar environmental factors (e.g. orientation) and occupied most space on artificial structures and to a lesser extent reef walls. Non-indigenous invertebrates are less successful than native invertebrates on horizontal reefs despite functional similarities. Manipulative experiments revealed that even when non-indigenous invertebrates invade vertical “reefs”, they are unlikely to gain a foothold and never exceed covers of native invertebrates (regardless of space availability). Community ecology suggests that invertebrates will dominate reef walls and algae horizontal reefs due to functional differences, however our surveys revealed that native algae dominate both vertical and horizontal reefs in shallow estuarine systems. Few non-indigenous algae were sampled in the study, however where invasive algal species are present in a system, they may present a threat to reef communities. Our findings suggest that non-indigenous species are less successful at occupying space on reef compared to artificial structures, and manipulations of biotic and abiotic conditions (primarily orientation and to a lesser extent biotic resistance) on experimental “reefs” explained a large portion of this variation, however they could not fully explain the magnitude of differences. PMID

  10. The impacts of an invasive species citizen science training program on participant attitudes, behavior, and science literacy.

    PubMed

    Crall, Alycia W; Jordan, Rebecca; Holfelder, Kirstin; Newman, Gregory J; Graham, Jim; Waller, Donald M

    2013-08-01

    Citizen science can make major contributions to informal science education by targeting participants' attitudes and knowledge about science while changing human behavior towards the environment. We examined how training associated with an invasive species citizen science program affected participants in these areas. We found no changes in science literacy or overall attitudes between tests administered just before and after a one-day training program, matching results from other studies. However, we found improvements in science literacy and knowledge using context-specific measures and in self-reported intention to engage in pro-environmental activities. While we noted modest change in knowledge and attitudes, we found comparison and interpretation of these data difficult in the absence of other studies using similar measures. We suggest that alternative survey instruments are needed and should be calibrated appropriately to the pre-existing attitudes, behavior, and levels of knowledge in these relatively sophisticated target groups.

  11. Impact of Data Availability on Site Assessment and Predictive Behavior of Aquatic Invasive Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    before predicting which specific sites will be susceptible to invasion. Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Current distribution: Established...populations in California (Chinese Mitten Crab Working Group (CMCWG) 2003; Hanson and Sytsma 2008; U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2008). Reports from the...and introduced ranges of Chinese mitten crabs . Invaded estuaries varied in size from 200 to 1328 km (average 602 km), tidal intrusion varied from 100

  12. French invasive Asian tiger mosquito populations harbor reduced bacterial microbiota and genetic diversity compared to Vietnamese autochthonous relatives

    PubMed Central

    Minard, G.; Tran, F. H.; Van, Van Tran; Goubert, C.; Bellet, C.; Lambert, G.; Kim, Khanh Ly Huynh; Thuy, Trang Huynh Thi; Mavingui, P.; Valiente Moro, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is one of the most significant pathogen vectors of the twenty-first century. Originating from Asia, it has invaded a wide range of eco-climatic regions worldwide. The insect-associated microbiota is now recognized to play a significant role in host biology. While genetic diversity bottlenecks are known to result from biological invasions, the resulting shifts in host-associated microbiota diversity has not been thoroughly investigated. To address this subject, we compared four autochthonous Ae. albopictus populations in Vietnam, the native area of Ae. albopictus, and three populations recently introduced to Metropolitan France, with the aim of documenting whether these populations display differences in host genotype and bacterial microbiota. Population-level genetic diversity (microsatellite markers and COI haplotype) and bacterial diversity (16S rDNA metabarcoding) were compared between field-caught mosquitoes. Bacterial microbiota from the whole insect bodies were largely dominated by Wolbachia pipientis. Targeted analysis of the gut microbiota revealed a greater bacterial diversity in which a fraction was common between French and Vietnamese populations. The genus Dysgonomonas was the most prevalent and abundant across all studied populations. Overall genetic diversities of both hosts and bacterial microbiota were significantly reduced in recently established populations of France compared to the autochthonous populations of Vietnam. These results open up many important avenues of investigation in order to link the process of geographical invasion to shifts in commensal and symbiotic microbiome communities, as such shifts may have dramatic impacts on the biology and/or vector competence of invading hematophagous insects. PMID:26441903

  13. Comparing the ecological impacts of native and invasive crayfish: could native species' translocation do more harm than good?

    PubMed

    James, J; Slater, F M; Vaughan, I P; Young, K A; Cable, J

    2015-05-01

    Biological invasions are a principal threat to global biodiversity. Omnivores, such as crayfish, are among the most important groups of invaders. Their introduction often results in biodiversity loss, particularly of their native counterparts. Managed relocations of native crayfish from areas under threat from invasive crayfish into isolated 'ark sites' are sometimes suggested as a conservation strategy for native crayfish; however, such relocations may have unintended detrimental consequences for the recipient ecosystem. Despite this, there have been few attempts to quantify the relative impacts of native and invasive crayfish on aquatic ecosystems. To address this deficiency we conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of native and invasive crayfish on nine ecosystem components: decomposition rate, primary productivity, plant biomass, invertebrate density, biomass and diversity, fish biomass and refuge use, and amphibian larval survival. Native and invasive crayfish significantly reduced invertebrate density and biomass, fish biomass and amphibian survival rate and significantly increased decomposition rates. Invasive crayfish also significantly reduced plant biomass and invertebrate diversity and increased primary productivity. These results show that native and invasive crayfish have wide-ranging impacts on aquatic ecosystems that may be exacerbated for invasive species. Subsequent analysis showed that the impacts of invasive crayfish were significantly greater, in comparison to native crayfish, for decomposition and primary productivity but not invertebrate density, biomass and diversity. Overall, our findings reconfirm the ecosystem altering abilities of both native and invasive crayfish, enforcing the need to carefully regulate managed relocations of native species as well as to develop control programs for invasives.

  14. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Bonding Agent on the Tensile Bond Strength of Two Pit and Fissure Sealants Using Invasive and Non-invasive Techniques: An in–vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shamsher; Adlakha, Vivek; Babaji, Prashant; Chandna, Preetika; Thomas, Abi M.; Chopra, Saroj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Newer technologies and the development of pit and fissure sealants have shifted the treatment philosophy from ‘drill and fill’ to that of ‘seal and heal’. Aims: The purpose of this in–vitro study was to evaluate the effects of bonding agents on the tensile bond strengths of two pit and fissure sealants by using invasive and non-invasive techniques. Study Design and Methods: One hundred and twenty bicuspids were collected and teeth were divided into two groups: Group-I (Clinpro) and Group-II (Conseal f) with 60 teeth in each group. For evaluating tensile bond strengths, occlusal surfaces of all the teeth were flattened by reducing buccal and lingual cusps without disturbing fissures. Standardised polyvinyl tube was bonded to occlusal surfaces with respective materials. Sealants were applied, with or without bonding agents, in increments and they were light cured. Tensile bond strengths were determined by using Universal Testing Machine. Statistical Analysis: Data were then statistically analysed by using Student t–test for comparison. Results: A statistically significant difference was found in tensile bond strength in invasive with bonding agent group than in non-invasive with bonding agent group. Conclusion: This study revealed that invasive techniques increase the tensile bond strengths of sealants as compared to non- invasive techniques and that the use of a bonding agent as an intermediate layer between the tooth and fissure sealant is beneficial for increasing the bond strength. PMID:24298525

  15. Comparing Individual Behavior Plans from Schools with and without Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Natasha S.; Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque

    2008-01-01

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been proposed as a proactive and preventive method to reduce problematic behavior in schools. Under this approach, educators and administrators seek to create a school environment that fosters prosocial behavior and attempts to systematically deter problem behaviors before they happen. To date, the…

  16. A comparative analysis of three non-invasive human-machine interfaces for the disabled.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vikram; Castellini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of rehabilitation robotics, a major role is played by the human-machine interface (HMI) used to gather the patient's intent from biological signals, and convert them into control signals for the robotic artifact. Surprisingly, decades of research have not yet declared what the optimal HMI is in this context; in particular, the traditional approach based upon surface electromyography (sEMG) still yields unreliable results due to the inherent variability of the signal. To overcome this problem, the scientific community has recently been advocating the discovery, analysis, and usage of novel HMIs to supersede or augment sEMG; a comparative analysis of such HMIs is therefore a very desirable investigation. In this paper, we compare three such HMIs employed in the detection of finger forces, namely sEMG, ultrasound imaging, and pressure sensing. The comparison is performed along four main lines: the accuracy in the prediction, the stability over time, the wearability, and the cost. A psychophysical experiment involving ten intact subjects engaged in a simple finger-flexion task was set up. Our results show that, at least in this experiment, pressure sensing and sEMG yield comparably good prediction accuracies as opposed to ultrasound imaging; and that pressure sensing enjoys a much better stability than sEMG. Given that pressure sensors are as wearable as sEMG electrodes but way cheaper, we claim that this HMI could represent a valid alternative/augmentation to sEMG to control a multi-fingered hand prosthesis.

  17. Comparative Effects of Snoring Sound between Two Minimally Invasive Surgeries in the Treatment of Snoring: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Ang; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive surgeries of the soft palate have emerged as a less-invasive treatment for habitual snoring. To date, there is only limited information available comparing the effects of snoring sound between different minimally invasive surgeries in the treatment of habitual snoring. Objective To compare the efficacy of palatal implant and radiofrequency surgery, in the reduction of snoring through subjective evaluation of snoring and objective snoring sound analysis. Patients and Method Thirty patients with habitual snoring due to palatal obstruction (apnea-hypopnea index ≤15, body max index ≤30) were prospectively enrolled and randomized to undergo a single session of palatal implant or temperature-controlled radiofrequency surgery of the soft palate under local anesthesia. Snoring was primarily evaluated by the patient with a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up visit and the change in VAS was the primary outcome. Moreover, life qualities, measured by snore outcomes survey, and full-night snoring sounds, analyzed by a sound analytic program (Snore Map), were also investigated at the same time. Results Twenty-eight patients completed the study; 14 received palatal implant surgery and 14 underwent radiofrequency surgery. The VAS and snore outcomes survey scores were significantly improved in both groups. However, the good response (postoperative VAS ≤3 or postoperative VAS ≤5 plus snore outcomes survey score ≥60) rate of the palatal implant group was significantly higher than that of the radiofrequency group (79% vs. 29%, P = 0.021). The maximal loudness of low-frequency (40–300 Hz) snores was reduced significantly in the palatal implant group. In addition, the snoring index was significantly reduced in the radiofrequency group. Conclusions Both palatal implants and a single-stage radiofrequency surgery improve subjective snoring outcomes, but palatal implants have a greater effect on most measures

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Three Non-Invasive Human-Machine Interfaces for the Disabled

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, Vikram; Castellini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of rehabilitation robotics, a major role is played by the human–machine interface (HMI) used to gather the patient’s intent from biological signals, and convert them into control signals for the robotic artifact. Surprisingly, decades of research have not yet declared what the optimal HMI is in this context; in particular, the traditional approach based upon surface electromyography (sEMG) still yields unreliable results due to the inherent variability of the signal. To overcome this problem, the scientific community has recently been advocating the discovery, analysis, and usage of novel HMIs to supersede or augment sEMG; a comparative analysis of such HMIs is therefore a very desirable investigation. In this paper, we compare three such HMIs employed in the detection of finger forces, namely sEMG, ultrasound imaging, and pressure sensing. The comparison is performed along four main lines: the accuracy in the prediction, the stability over time, the wearability, and the cost. A psychophysical experiment involving ten intact subjects engaged in a simple finger-flexion task was set up. Our results show that, at least in this experiment, pressure sensing and sEMG yield comparably good prediction accuracies as opposed to ultrasound imaging; and that pressure sensing enjoys a much better stability than sEMG. Given that pressure sensors are as wearable as sEMG electrodes but way cheaper, we claim that this HMI could represent a valid alternative/augmentation to sEMG to control a multi-fingered hand prosthesis. PMID:25386135

  19. Metabolic activity and behavior of the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and two common Central European gammarid species (Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii): Low metabolic rates may favor the invader.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jochen; Ortmann, Christian; Wetzel, Markus A; Koop, Jochen H E

    2016-01-01

    The Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus is one of the most successful invaders in Central European rivers. Contrary to studies on its ecology, ecophysiological studies comparing the species' physiological traits are scarce. In this context, in particular the metabolic activity of the invasive species has rarely been considered and, moreover, the few existing studies on this species report strongly deviating results. The purpose of this study was to assess the metabolic activity and behavior of D. villosus and other common European amphipod species (Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii) in relation to temperatures covering the thermal regime of the invaded habitats. Based on direct calorimetric measurements of metabolic heat dissipation at three temperature levels (5°C, 15°C and 25°C), we found the routine metabolic rate of D. villosus to be significantly lower than that of the other studied gammarid species at the medium temperature level. The estimated resting metabolic rate indicated a similar trend. At 5°C and 25°C, both routine and resting metabolic rate did not differ between species. Compared to G. fossarum and G. roeselii, D. villosus exhibited lower locomotor activity at the low and medium temperatures (5°C and 15°C). In contrast, its locomotor activity increased at the high experimental temperature (25°C). G. fossarum and G. roeselii were apparently more active than D. villosus at all studied temperatures. We conclude that D. villosus has both physiological and behavioral adaptations that lead to a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure, which is assumed to be beneficial and might contribute to its invasive success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparing Child-Centered and Psychoeducational Groups for Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison between Child-Centered Group Play Counseling (CCGPC), a psychoeducational group and a non-therapeutic control group resulted in three of four hypotheses being supported. Participants included 79 second and third graders, with one fourth grader, from seven elementary schools. The children had behavioral and social skills difficulties…

  1. MIS-behavior: practical heuristics for precise pediatric minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Blinman, Thane A

    2015-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has changed pediatric urology and general surgery, offering less morbidity and new surgical options for many procedures. This promise goes unrealized when technical methods lag. Application of MIS in children is uneven after more than 2 decades of application. Principles of versatile and proficient technique may remain unstated and implicit in surgical training, often leaving surgical training an exercise in inference and imitation. This article describes some essential practical principles of precision MIS applied to patients of any size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Intensive care unit profesionals's knowledge about non invasive ventilation comparative analysis].

    PubMed

    Raurell-Torredà, M; Argilaga-Molero, E; Colomer-Plana, M; Ruiz-García, T; Galvany-Ferrer, A; González-Pujol, A

    2015-01-01

    The literature highlights the lack of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) protocols and the variability of the knowledge of NIV between intensive care units (ICU) and hospitals, so we want to compare NIV nurses's Knowledge from 4 multipurpose ICU and one surgical ICU. Multicenter, crosscutting, descriptive study in three university hospitals. The survey instrument was validated in a pilot test, and the calculated Kappa index was 0.9. Returning a completed survey is an indication of informed consent. Analysis by Chi square test. 117 responded (65%) nurses, 11±9.7 years of experience in ICU and 9.2±7.2 in use of NIV. One of the multipurpose ICU, was initiated NIV an average of 6 years later than the others (95% CI [3.3 to 8.6], P<.001). Only 23.1% of nurses would place a non-vented mask (with no exhalation port) by conventional ventilator, the rest any kind of face mask. 12.7% believed that the mask must be adjusted to the "2-finger" fit while 29% would seal the mask to the patient's face and cover the mask opening where air escapes to facilitate patient/ventilator synchronization. In the surgical ICU agitation identifies mostly as a complication of NIV compared with multipurpose UCIs (31.6% vs 1.8%, P<.001). 56.4% of nurses do not consider respiratory physiotherapy as nursing care, with no difference between units. Knowledge about types of interface is very dependent on the material of the unit. More training for complications of NIV as agitation and handling secretions it is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Osteopontin-a splice variant is overexpressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma and modulates invasive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Tavares, Catarina; Pestana, Ana; Pereira, Catarina Leite; Eloy, Catarina; Pinto, Marta Teixeira; Castro, Patricia; Batista, Rui; Rios, Elisabete; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Pereira Gimba, Etel Rodrigues; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein overexpressed in cancer cells and modulates tumorigenesis and metastasis, including in thyroid cancer (TC). The contribution of each OPN splice variant (OPN-SV), named OPNa, OPNb and OPNc, in TC is currently unknown. This study evaluates the expression of total OPN (tOPN) and OPN-SV in TC tissues and cell lines, their correlation with clinicopathological, molecular features and their functional roles. We showed that tOPN and OPNa are overexpressed in classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC) in relation to adjacent thyroid, adenoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (fvPTC) tissues. In cPTC, OPNa overexpression is associated with larger tumor size, vascular invasion, extrathyroid extension and BRAFV600E mutation. We found that TC cell lines overexpressing OPNa exhibited increased proliferation, migration, motility and in vivo invasion. Conditioned medium secreted from cells overexpressing OPNa induce MMP2 and MMP9 metalloproteinases activity. In summary, we described the expression pattern of OPN-SV in cPTC samples and the key role of OPNa expression on activating TC tumor progression features. Our findings highlight OPNa variant as TC biomarker, besides being a putative target for cPTC therapeutic approaches. PMID:27409830

  4. Suppression of growth and invasive behavior of human prostate cancer cells by ProstaCaid™: mechanism of activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Eliaz, Isaac; Sliva, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Since the use of dietary supplements as alternative treatments or adjuvant therapies in cancer treatment is growing, a scientific verification of their biological activity and the detailed mechanisms of their action are necessary for the acceptance of dietary supplements in conventional cancer treatments. In the present study we have evaluated the anti-cancer effects of dietary supplement ProstaCaid™ (PC) which contains mycelium from medicinal mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, Phellinus linteus), saw palmetto berry, pomegranate, pumpkin seed, green tea [40% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)], Japanese knotweed (50% resveratrol), extracts of turmeric root (BCM-95®), grape skin, pygeum bark, sarsaparilla root, Scutellaria barbata, eleuthero root, Job's tears, astragalus root, skullcap, dandelion, coptis root, broccoli, and stinging nettle, with purified vitamin C, vitamin D3, selenium, quercetin, citrus bioflavonoid complex, β sitosterolzinc, lycopene, α lipoic acid, boron, berberine and 3.3'-diinodolymethane (DIM). We show that PC treatment resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation of the highly invasive human hormone refractory (independent) PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 56.0, 45.6 and 39.0 µg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. DNA-microarray analysis demonstrated that PC inhibits proliferation through the modulation of expression of CCND1, CDK4, CDKN1A, E2F1, MAPK6 and PCNA genes. In addition, PC also suppresses metastatic behavior of PC-3 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion, which was associated with the down-regulation of expression of CAV1, IGF2, NR2F1, and PLAU genes and suppressed secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from PC-3 cells. In conclusion, the dietary supplement PC is a promising natural complex with the potency to inhibit invasive human prostate cancer.

  5. Does minimally invasive oesophagectomy provide a benefit in hospital length of stay when compared with open oesophagectomy?

    PubMed

    Rodham, Paul; Batty, Jonathan A; McElnay, Philip J; Immanuel, Arul

    2016-03-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: 'in patients undergoing oesophagectomy, does a minimally invasive approach convey a benefit in hospital length of stay (LOS), when compared to an open approach?' A total of 647 papers were identified, using an a priori defined search strategy; 24 papers represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date, country of publication, patient group, study type, relevant outcomes and key results are tabulated. Of the studies identified, data from two randomized controlled trials were available. The first randomized study compared the use of open thoracotomy and laparotomy versus thoracoscopy and laparoscopy. Those undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIO) left hospital on average 3 days earlier than those treated with the open oesophagectomy (OO) technique (P = 0.044). The other randomized trial, which compared thoracotomy with thoracoscopy and laparoscopy, demonstrated a reduction of 1.8 days in the LOS when employing the MIO technique (P < 0.001). With the addition of the remaining 22 non-randomized studies, comprising 3 prospective and 19 retrospective cohort studies, which are heterogeneous with regard to their design, study populations and outcomes; data are available representing 3173 MIO and 25 691 OO procedures. In total, 13 studies (including the randomized trials) demonstrate a significant reduction in hospital LOS associated with MIO; 10 suggest no significant difference between techniques; and only 1 suggests a significantly greater length of stay associated with MIO. The only two randomized trials comparing MIO and OO demonstrated a reduction in length of stay in the MIO group, without compromising survival or increasing complication rates. All bar one of the non-randomized studies demonstrated either a significant reduction in length of stay with MIO or no difference. The benefit in reduced

  6. New York Times First Day Coverage of Two U.S. Caribbean Invasions: A Comparative Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tino, Richard

    A study examined reports of the American invasions of the Dominican Republic (1965) and Grenada (1983) to determine whether there were substantive differences in coverage as a result of differing journalistic conditions. First-day New York Times reports of both invasions were analyzed both quantitatively (number of stories published, amount of…

  7. The Multiple Benefits of Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery: Results Comparing Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Posterior Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Starkweather, Angela R.; Witek-Janusek, Linda; Nockels, Russ P.; Peterson, Jonna; Mathews, Herb L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) offers equivalent postoperative fusion rates compared to posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) and minimizes the amount of iatrogenic injury to the spinal muscles. The objective of this study was to examine the difference in pain perception, stress, mood disturbance, quality of life, and immunological indices throughout the perioperative course among patients undergoing TLIF and PLF. A prospective, nonrandomized descriptive design was used to evaluate these measures among patients undergoing TLIF (n = 17) or PLF (n = 18) at 1 week prior to surgery (T1), the day of surgery (T2), 24 hours postoperatively (T3), and 6 weeks postoperatively (T4). Among TLIF patients, pain, stress, fatigue, and mood disturbance were significantly decreased at the 6-week follow-up visit (T4) compared to patients who underwent PLF. The TLIF group also demonstrated significantly higher levels (near baseline) of CD8 cells atT4 than the PLF group. Interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in the TLIF group as well, which may be an indicator of ongoing nerve regeneration and healing. Knowledge concerning the effect of pain and the psychological experience on immunity among individuals undergoing spinal fusion can help nurses tailor interventions to improve outcomes, regardless of the approach used. PMID:18330408

  8. An Outcome and Cost Analysis Comparing Single-Level Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Intraoperative Fluoroscopy versus Computed Tomography-Guided Navigation.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Ryan; McDevitt, Joseph L; Abecassis, Zachary A; Smith, Zachary A; Koski, Tyler R; Fessler, Richard G; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2016-10-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has undergone significant evolution since its conception as a fusion technique to treat lumbar spondylosis. Minimally invasive TLIF is commonly performed using intraoperative two-dimensional fluoroscopic x-rays. However, intraoperative computed tomography (CT)-based navigation during minimally invasive TLIF is gaining popularity for improvements in visualizing anatomy and reducing intraoperative radiation to surgeons and operating room staff. This is the first study to compare clinical outcomes and cost between these 2 imaging techniques during minimally invasive TILF. For comparison, 28 patients who underwent single-level minimally invasive TLIF using fluoroscopy were matched to 28 patients undergoing single-level minimally invasive TLIF using CT navigation based on race, sex, age, smoking status, payer type, and medical comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index). The minimum follow-up time was 6 months. The 2 groups were compared in regard to clinical outcomes and hospital reimbursement from the payer perspective. Average surgery time, anesthesia time, and hospital length of stay were similar for both groups, but average estimated blood loss was lower in the fluoroscopy group compared with the CT navigation group (154 mL vs. 262 mL; P = 0.016). Oswestry Disability Index, back visual analog scale, and leg visual analog scale scores similarly improved in both groups (P > 0.05) at 6-month follow-up. Cost analysis showed that average hospital payments were similar in the fluoroscopy versus the CT navigation groups ($32,347 vs. $32,656; P = 0.925) as well as payments for the operating room (P = 0.868). Single minimally invasive TLIF performed with fluoroscopy versus CT navigation showed similar clinical outcomes and cost at 6 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Financial comparative analysis of minimally invasive surgery to open surgery for localized prostate cancer: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Mouraviev, Vladimir; Nosnik, Israel; Sun, Leon; Robertson, Cary N; Walther, Philip; Albala, David; Moul, Judd W; Polascik, Thomas J

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the financial implications of how the costs of new minimally invasive surgery such as laparoscopic robotic prostatectomy (LRP) and cryosurgical ablation of the prostate (CAP) technologies compare with those of conventional surgery. From January 2002 to July 2005, 452 consecutive patients underwent surgical treatment for clinically localized (Stage T1-T2) prostate cancer. The distribution of patients among the surgical procedures was as follows: group 1, radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) (n = 197); group 2, radical perineal prostatectomy (RPP) (n = 60); group 3, LRP (n = 137); and group 4, CAP (n = 58). The total direct hospital costs and grand total hospital costs were analyzed for each type of surgery. The mean length of stay in the CAP group was significantly lower (0.16 +/- 0.14 days) than that for RRP (2.79 +/- 1.46 days), RPP (2.87 +/- 1.43 days), and LRP (2.15 +/- 1.48 days; P <0.0005). The direct surgical costs were less for the RRP (2471 dollars +/- 636 dollars) and RPP (2788 dollars +/- 762 dollars) groups than for the technology-dependent procedures: LRP (3441 dollars +/- 545 dollars) and CAP (5702 dollars +/- 1606 dollars; P <0.0005). The total hospital cost differences, including pathologic assessment costs, were less for LRP (10,047 dollars +/- 107 dollars, median 9343 dollars) and CAP (9195 dollars +/- 1511 dollars, median 8796 dollars) than for RRP (10,704 dollars +/- 3468 dollars, median 9724 dollars) or RPP (10,536 dollars +/- 3088 dollars, median 9251 dollars), with significant differences (P <0.05) between the minimally invasive technique and open surgery groups. In our study, despite the relatively increased surgical expense of CAP compared with conventional surgical prostatectomy (RRP or RPP) and LRP, the overall direct costs were offset by the significantly lower nonoperative hospital costs. The cost advantages associated with CAP included a shorter length of stay in the hospital and the absence of pathologic costs and the

  10. Comparative Effects of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Migration and Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer, by Gas Type

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Un; Seo, Seong Jin; Kim, Yeon Soo; Shin, Yoo Seob; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chang Min; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo; Moon, Eunpyo; Kang, Hami; Ryeo, Jeong Beom; Lee, Yuijina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The fourth state of matter, plasma is known as an ionized gas with electrons, radicals and ions. The use of non-thermal plasma (NTP) in cancer research became possible because of the progresses in plasma medicine. Previous studies on the potential NTP-mediated cancer therapy have mainly concentrated on cancer cell apoptosis. In the present study, we compared the inhibitory effect of NTP on cell migration and invasion in the oral squamous cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods We used oral squamous cancer cell lines (SCC1483, MSKQLL1) and different gases (N2, He, and Ar). To investigate the mechanism of plasma treatment, using different gases (N2, He, and Ar) which induces anti-migration and anti-invasion properties, we performed wound healing assay, invasion assay and gelatin zymography. Results The results showed that NTP inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion of oral squamous cancer cell. In addition, focal adhesion kinase expression and matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activity were also inhibited. Conclusion The suppression of cancer cell invasion by NTP varied depending on the type of gas. Comparison of the three gases revealed that N2 NTP inhibited cell migration and invasion most potently via decreased expression of focal adhesion kinase and matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:28120556

  11. Substrate Marking by an Invasive Ladybeetle: Seasonal Changes in Hydrocarbon Composition and Behavioral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Durieux, Delphine; Fassotte, Bérénice; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Fischer, Christophe; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.

    2013-01-01

    The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), aggregates inside dwellings during the winter to survive the cold. Recent published reports have highlighted that overwintering individuals use hydrocarbon markings deposited on surfaces by conspecifics to orient toward aggregation sites. In the current study, monthly GC-MS analyses revealed seasonal modifications in the chemical profile of substrate markings deposited by moving individuals. The markings of overwintering ladybeetles contained larger proportions of heptacosadiene, nonacosadiene, hentriacontadienes, and methyl-nonacosanes, along with a lower proportion of heptacosene and nonacosene. This finding suggests the importance of the unsaturated and/or branched hydrocarbons in the H. axyridis aggregation process. Subsequently, we conducted behavioral assays to test whether (1) there is seasonal variation in the behavioral response of H. axyridis individuals toward substrate markings deposited by conspecifics in the same physiological state and (2) the observed behavioral modification is due to a change in ladybeetle sensitivity and/or a change in the chemical composition of the substrate marking. The results indicate that overwintering individuals exhibit a stronger “following” response toward conspecific substrate markings. This behavior is linked to both the physiological state of ladybeetles and the specific chemical profile of the marking biomolecules deposited under overwintering conditions. PMID:23593406

  12. Investigating Issues in the Laboratory: The Behavior of Red Swamp Crayfish as an Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Krissi M.; Kayes, Lori J.; Hubert, David; Chouinard, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Recent reform initiatives in undergraduate biology call for curricula that prepare students for dealing with real-world issues and making important links between science and society. In response to this call, we have developed an issues-based laboratory module that uses guided inquiry to integrate the concepts of animal behavior and population…

  13. Investigating Issues in the Laboratory: The Behavior of Red Swamp Crayfish as an Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Krissi M.; Kayes, Lori J.; Hubert, David; Chouinard, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Recent reform initiatives in undergraduate biology call for curricula that prepare students for dealing with real-world issues and making important links between science and society. In response to this call, we have developed an issues-based laboratory module that uses guided inquiry to integrate the concepts of animal behavior and population…

  14. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1 globally alters mRNA and miRNA to enhance myoblast invasion

    PubMed Central

    Loupe, J M; Miller, P J; Bonner, B P; Maggi, E C; Vijayaraghavan, J; Crabtree, J S; Taylor, C M; Zabaleta, J; Hollenbach, A D

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, one of the most common childhood sarcomas, is comprised of two main subtypes, embryonal and alveolar (ARMS). ARMS, the more aggressive subtype, is primarily characterized by the t(2;13)(p35;p14) chromosomal translocation, which fuses two transcription factors, PAX3 and FOXO1 to generate the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1. Patients with PAX3-FOXO1-postitive tumors have a poor prognosis, in part due to the enhanced local invasive capacity of these cells, which leads to the increased metastatic potential for this tumor. Despite this knowledge, little is known about the role that the oncogenic fusion protein has in this increased invasive potential. In this report we use large-scale comparative transcriptomic analyses in physiologically relevant primary myoblasts to demonstrate that the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 is sufficient to alter the expression of 70 mRNA and 27 miRNA in a manner predicted to promote cellular invasion. In contrast the expression of PAX3 alters 60 mRNA and 23 miRNA in a manner predicted to inhibit invasion. We demonstrate that these alterations in mRNA and miRNA translate into changes in the invasive potential of primary myoblasts with PAX3-FOXO1 increasing invasion nearly 2-fold while PAX3 decreases invasion nearly 4-fold. Taken together, these results allow us to build off of previous reports and develop a more expansive molecular model by which the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 alters global gene regulatory networks to enhance the local invasiveness of cells. Further, the global nature of our observed changes highlights the fact that instead of focusing on a single-gene target, we must develop multi-faceted treatment regimens targeting multiple genes of a single oncogenic phenotype or multiple genes that target different oncogenic phenotypes for tumor progression. PMID:27454080

  15. Socially Responsible Knowledge and Behaviors: Comparing Upper vs. Lower Classmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Joy M.; Connell, Kim Y. Hiller

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a sample of undergraduate students and survey research methods, this study examined knowledge on issues of social responsibility within the apparel and textiles industry, comparing the sophistication among upper- versus lower-classmen. The study also investigated the differences between students in their socially responsible apparel…

  16. Socially Responsible Knowledge and Behaviors: Comparing Upper vs. Lower Classmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Joy M.; Connell, Kim Y. Hiller

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a sample of undergraduate students and survey research methods, this study examined knowledge on issues of social responsibility within the apparel and textiles industry, comparing the sophistication among upper- versus lower-classmen. The study also investigated the differences between students in their socially responsible apparel…

  17. Fate and behavior of rotenone in Diamond Lake, Oregon, USA following invasive tui chub eradication.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Brian J; Eilers, Joseph M; Huchko, Holly A

    2014-07-01

    In September 2006, Diamond Lake (OR, USA) was treated by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife with a mixture of powdered and liquid rotenone in the successful eradication of invasive tui chub Gila bicolor. During treatment, the lake was in the middle of a phytoplankton (including cyanobacteria Anabaena sp.) bloom, resulting in an elevated pH of 9.7. Dissipation of rotenone and its major metabolite rotenolone from water, sediment, and macrophytes was monitored. Rotenone dissipated quickly from Diamond Lake water; approximately 75% was gone within 2 d, and the average half-life (t½) value, estimated by using first-order kinetics, was 4.5 d. Rotenolone persisted longer (>46 d) with a short-term t½ value of 16.2 d. Neither compound was found in groundwater, sediments, or macrophytes. The dissipation of rotenone and rotenolone appeared to occur in 2 stages, which was possibly the result of a release of both compounds from decaying phytoplankton following their initial dissipation. Fisheries managers applying rotenone for fish eradication in lentic environments should consider the following to maximize efficacy and regulatory compliance: 1) treat at a minimum of twice the minimum dose demonstrated for complete mortality of the target species and possibly higher depending on the site's water pH and algae abundance, and 2) implement a program that closely monitors rotenone concentrations in the posttreatment management of a treated water body. © 2014 SETAC.

  18. Comparative behavior of plutonium and americium in the equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inventories of /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The amount of /sup 239 +240/Pu mobilized to solution at the atolls can be predicted from a distribution coefficient K/sub d/ of 2.3 x 10/sup 5/ and the mean sediment concentrations. The mobilized /sup 239 +240/Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Characteristics of /sup 239 +240/Pu described at one location may not necessarily describe its behavior elsewhere. The relative amounts of /sup 241/Am to /sup 239 +240/Pu may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay.

  19. Children's Deviant Behavior in Primary Education: Comparing Physical Educator's Implicit Theory With Diagnostic Criteria.

    PubMed

    Efstratopoulou, Maria A; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-06-11

    Objective: Physical educators' implicit theory of children's deviant behavior in primary education was investigated and compared with diagnostic criteria. Method: A total of 60 physical education (PE) teachers reported deviant behaviors during lessons. Experts sorted these behaviors together with the official diagnostic criteria into categories based on perceived similarity in content. Results: Hierarchical cluster analysis on the derived similarity matrix among the behaviors suggested that PE teachers focus more on attention problems, disobedience, and aggressiveness when internalizing behaviors, such as anxiety and low energy, were less reported. Conclusion: PE teachers may be important and useful informants on children's behavior in school settings. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX).

  20. Non-invasive administration of 17β-estradiol rapidly increases aggressive behavior in non-breeding, but not breeding, male song sparrows.

    PubMed

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Ferris, Jennifer K; Soma, Kiran K

    2015-03-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) acts in the brain via genomic and non-genomic mechanisms to influence physiology and behavior. There is seasonal plasticity in the mechanisms by which E2 activates aggression, and non-genomic mechanisms appear to predominate during the non-breeding season. Male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) display E2-dependent territorial aggression throughout the year. Field studies show that song sparrow aggression during a territorial intrusion is similar in the non-breeding and breeding seasons, but aggression after an intrusion ends differs seasonally. Non-breeding males stop behaving aggressively within minutes whereas breeding males remain aggressive for hours. We hypothesize that this seasonal plasticity in the persistence of aggression relates to seasonal plasticity in E2 signaling. We used a non-invasive route of E2 administration to compare the non-genomic (within 20min) effects of E2 on aggressive behavior in captive non-breeding and breeding season males. E2 rapidly increased barrier contacts (attacks) during an intrusion by 173% in non-breeding season males only. Given that these effects were observed within 20min of E2 administration, they likely occurred via a non-genomic mechanism of action. The present data, taken together with past work, suggest that environmental cues associated with the non-breeding season influence the molecular mechanisms through which E2 influences behavior. In song sparrows, transient expression of aggressive behavior during the non-breeding season is highly adaptive: it minimizes energy expenditure and maximizes the amount of time available for foraging. In all, these data suggest the intriguing possibility that aggression in the non-breeding season may be activated by a non-genomic E2 mechanism due to the fitness benefits associated with rapid and transient expression of aggression.

  1. A comparative study between an improved novel air-cushion sensor and a wheeled probe for minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Zbyszewski, Dinusha; Challacombe, Benjamin; Li, Jichun; Seneviratne, Lakmal; Althoefer, Kaspar; Dasgupta, Prokar; Murphy, Declan

    2010-07-01

    We describe a comparative study between an enhanced air-cushion tactile sensor and a wheeled indentation probe. These laparoscopic tools are designed to rapidly locate soft-tissue abnormalities during minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The air-cushion tactile sensor consists of an optically based sensor with a 7.8 mm sphere "floating" on a cushion of air at the tip of a shaft. The wheeled indentation probe is a 10 mm wide and 5 mm in diameter wheel mounted to a force/torque sensor. A continuous rolling indentation technique is used to pass the sensors over the soft-tissue surfaces. The variations in stiffness of the viscoelastic materials that are detected during the rolling indentations are illustrated by stiffness maps that can be used for tissue diagnosis. The probes were tested by having to detect four embedded nodules in a silicone phantom. Each probe was attached to a robotic manipulator and rolled over the silicone phantom in parallel paths. The readings of each probe collected during the process of rolling indentation were used to achieve the final results. The results show that both sensors reliably detected the areas of variable stiffness by accurately identifying the location of each nodule. These are illustrated in the form of two three-dimensional spatiomechanical maps. These probes have the potential to be used in MIS because they could provide surgeons with information on the mechanical properties of soft tissue, consequently enhancing the reduction in haptic feedback.

  2. The chicken embryo as a model for campylobacter invasion: comparative virulence of human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed Central

    Field, L H; Headley, V L; Underwood, J L; Payne, S M; Berry, L J

    1986-01-01

    Eleven-day-old chicken embryos were used to compare the relative virulence of minimally passaged human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Graded doses of bacteria were inoculated onto the chorioallantoic membrane, and 50% lethal doses were calculated at 72 h postinfection. Strains varied markedly in their ability to invade the chorioallantoic membrane and kill the embryos. The 50% lethal doses varied by about 6 logs for 25 strains of C. jejuni, and by 2 logs for 5 strains of C. coli. Although both outbred and inbred embryos were employed in the study, the latter were found to be more susceptible to infection with most strains. All isolates were screened for plasmid DNA, but there was no apparent relationship between plasmid content and virulence of strains for the embryos. Neither could virulence be associated with the production of siderophores by the strains. The ability of selected strains of C. jejuni to invade the liver of embryos was also studied. The number of campylobacters culturable from the liver was found to be inversely related to the 50% lethal dose of the strain. By inoculating 11-day-old embryos intravenously, it was possible to demonstrate that a strain of C. jejuni which was poorly virulent after chorioallantoic inoculation was relatively noninvasive. Invasiveness alone, however, could not fully account for the lethality of two highly virulent strains of C. jejuni administered by the intravenous route. Finally, there was no correlation between motility and virulence in this model system. PMID:3759232

  3. Comparative Study of: Non-Invasive Conservative Treatments with Local Steroid Injection in the Management of Planter Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Iraqi, Aftab Ahmed; Narula, Kusum; Katyal, Rashmi; Saxena, Mridul Shanker

    2014-01-01

    Background: Planter Fasciitis is an annoying and painful condition that limits function. There is pain and tenderness in the sole of the foot, mostly under the heel, with standing or walking and is considered a self limiting condition. Symptoms resolve in 80% to 90% of cases within ten months. However, this long interval is frustrating for both patients and clinicians. Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the two different modalities of non operative treatment: Non- invasive conservative methods: NSAID’s, Soft Insoles, Stretching, Ultrasound therapy and Contrast baths versus local Steroid injection therapy. Materials and Methods: Patients by random sampling were divided in two groups. Group A as: Conservative group and Group B as Local Steroid Injections group, 100 patients in each. Patients were assessed as per Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at the start of treatment and then after 4 wk and 8 wk duration on follow up. Statistical analysis used: SPSS for Windows (version 10.0) by the Chi-Square test. Results: The difference in the distribution of subjects belonging to either of the treatment modalities regarding the treatment outcome at four and eight week was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: As both treatment modalities are at par on comparison of their treatment outcome it is better to go for conservative approach because this can save the patients from the complications of steroid therapy. PMID:25386470

  4. Minimally Invasive Radical Hysterectomy for Cervical Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Morbidity and Similar Survival Outcomes Compared With Laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Diver, Elisabeth; Hinchcliff, Emily; Gockley, Allison; Melamed, Alexander; Contrino, Leah; Feldman, Sarah; Growdon, Whitfield

    To assess outcomes of women with cervical cancer undergoing upfront radical hysterectomy (RH) via a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) or a traditional laparotomy (XL) approach at 2 large US academic institutions to determine whether the mode of surgery affects patient outcomes. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). Two academic medical institutions in the United States. Women undergoing upfront RH for cervical cancer between 2000 and 2013. Minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic and robotic) for RH compared with XL. A total of 383 women met the eligibility requirements. Of these, 101 underwent an MIS (i.e., traditional laparoscopy, laparoendoscopic single site, or robotic) approach, and 282 underwent an XL approach. Overall survival (median not reached; p = .29) was not different between the 2 groups. Recurrence was rare and equivalent in the 2 groups, affecting 5.0% of patients in the MIS group and 6.4% of those in the XL group (p = .86). Pelvic lymph nodes were dissected in 98% of patients in the MIS group and 97% of those in the XL group (p > .99) and were found to be positive in 10.9% and 8.5% of those patients, respectively (p = .55). The mean number of pelvic lymph nodes retrieved was higher in the MIS group (19.4 vs 16.0; p < .001). There was no between-group difference in the rate of postoperative chemotherapy (p = .32) or radiation therapy (p = .28). Surgical margins were positive in 5.0% of specimens in the MIS group and in 4.6% of specimens in the XL group (p = .54). Although there was no difference in the overall rate of complications (15.1% and 17.2%, respectively; p = .87), laparotomy was associated with a higher median estimated blood loss (EBL) (50 cm(3) vs 500 cm(3)) and a higher rate of perioperative blood transfusion (3.0% vs 26.2%; p < .001). Length of perioperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the MIS group (1.9 days vs 4.9 days; p < .001). MIS RH does not compromise

  5. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps.

    PubMed

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2017-03-15

    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0.01) and over 35-fold when planktonic food was added (P < 0.001). Next, we showed that of nine food filtrates, the one containing chemicals released by spirulina, a type of cyanobacterium, was the most potent planktonic component for both species. The potency of filtrates varied between species in ways that reflected their different chemical compositions. While L-amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  6. Early parenting styles and sexual offending behavior: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    Sexual offenders, in general, report problematic rearing practices from their parents, lacking however more empirical research on this topic regarding particular subtypes of offenders. The current study examined the relationship between early parenting styles and different types of sexual offending. A total of 113 sexual offenders (rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters), and 51 nonsexual offenders completed the EMBU (My Memories of Upbringing), the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Results showed that rapists were less likely to remember their fathers as being emotionally warm compared with nonsexual offenders and pedophilic child molesters. In addition, compared with rapists, pedophilic offenders perceived their mothers as having been less emotionally warm to them. Overall, results showed that certain developmental experiences with parents were able to distinguish between subtypes of offenders supporting an association between distal interpersonal factors and sexual offending. These findings may have important implications for early intervention and prevention of sexual crimes. Further research using larger samples of pedophilic child molesters is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in the recurrence pattern after neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared to surgery alone in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Koie, Takuya; Ohyama, Chikara; Yamamoto, Hayato; Imai, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoneyama, Tohru; Tobisawa, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    In patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) confers a survival benefit compared to radical cystectomy (RC) alone. Recurrence is observed in many cases and is the most common cause of death in MIBC patients. However, the rate and pattern of recurrence after NAC in MIBC patients remain unclear. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 348 consecutive patients who underwent RC and bilateral pelvic node dissection between May 1994 and July 2012. Our study focused on patients with MIBC who had histologically confirmed stage T2-T4a urothelial carcinoma of the bladder without lymph node or distant metastasis. Accordingly, 265 patients were included in this analysis, of whom 130 received NAC and 135 underwent RC alone. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for potential selection biases associated with treatment type. Recurrence was defined as local recurrence and distant metastasis, according to site. Propensity score matching analysis identified 130 matched pairs from the two groups. For the neoadjuvant gemcitabine and carboplatin (GCarbo) and RC alone groups, the 5-year overall survival rates were 89.2 and 51.4 %, respectively (P < 0.0001), and the recurrence-free survival rates were 85.4 and 57.0 %, respectively (P < 0.0001). However, the total number of local recurrences was markedly lower in the neoadjuvant GCarbo group than in the RC alone group. Neoadjuvant GCarbo was associated with improved oncological outcomes and a different recurrence pattern in MIBC patients compared to RC alone.

  8. Long Volar Plating for Metadiaphyseal Fractures of Distal Radius: Study Comparing Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis versus Conventional Approach.

    PubMed

    Pire, Emilie; Hidalgo Diaz, Juan José; Salazar Botero, Santiago; Facca, Sybille; Liverneaux, Philippe A

    2017-08-01

    Background  Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) has been used in wrist surgery for several years. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical and radiologic outcomes of MIPO technique with those of a conventional approach in the treatment of metadiaphyseal distal radius fracture by long volar plating. Materials and Methods  Our series consisted of 32 fractures in 31 patients, mean age 63.9 years, including 16 men and 15 women. MIPO technique was used in 15 wrists (group 1) and conventional approach (> 60 mm of skin incision) in 17 wrists (group 2). In group 1, a long volar plate was inserted under pronator quadratus through a 15- to 30-mm distal incision then fixed to the epiphysis of the distal radius. Then, through a 15- to 30-mm proximal incision, the plate was fixed to the diaphysis of the radius, thus reducing the fracture. Results  In group 1, mean distal incision size was 23.5 and 16.9 mm for proximal one. Mean total scar size (sum of both distal and proximal incisions) was 40.0 mm in group 1 and 84.1 mm in group 2. Mean tourniquet time was 58.4 minutes in group 1 and 68.9 minutes in group 2. At latest follow-up, no significant difference was noted in both the groups concerning pain, quick-DASH score, grip strength, ROM, and radiologic data. One extensor pollicis longus rupture treated by tendon transfer was done in group 1. Conclusion  The MIPO technique for metadiaphyseal fractures of the distal radius by long volar plating has cosmetic and economic advantages compared with the conventional approach. Conversion to conventional approach is possible at any time in case of technical difficulties. Level of Evidence  III.

  9. Does minimally invasive surgery have a lower risk of surgical site infections compared with open spinal surgery?

    PubMed

    Ee, Wen Wei Gerard; Lau, Wen Liang Joel; Yeo, William; Von Bing, Yap; Yue, Wai Mun

    2014-06-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) ranges from 1.9% to 5.5% in most large series. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been postulated to reduce SSI rates. (1) Is MIS associated with a lower incidence of SSI compared with open spinal surgery? (2) Are there other independent risk factors associated with SSI? (3) What bacteria are most common in spinal SSI? Medical records of 2299 patients who underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, laminectomy, or discectomy were analyzed and selected for a nested case-control analysis. Twenty-seven cases with SSI were matched with 162 control subjects without SSI stratified based on procedure performed within 28 days of the case's date of surgery. Patients were identified from an institutional database at a tertiary care hospital. MIS involved spinal procedures performed through a tubular retractor system. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Patients undergoing open spinal surgery were 5.77 times more likely to develop SSI compared with MIS approaches (odds ratio [OR], 5.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-32.7; p = 0.048). Also, from the multivariate regression model, diabetes (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.3-17.0; p = 0.018), number of levels operated on (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6-7.5; p = 0.001), and body mass index (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3; p = 0.010) were predictive of an increased risk in SSI. Staphylococcus aureus was most frequently identified, being present in 12 of 21 (52.4%) patients in whom positive cultures were obtained. Four of the 12 patients had methicillin-resistant S aureus infection. In our series, MIS has a lower incidence of SSI. The risk factors predictive of SSI should be further evaluated in well-designed prospective trials. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry - comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, A. R.; Karuna, Y. M.; Yavagal, C.; Deepak, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. Settings and Designs: Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: The study included Group I (Control), Group II (A. vera) and Group III (propolis). Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. Results: In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. Conclusions: Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry. PMID:25821369

  11. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry - comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, A R; Karuna, Y M; Yavagal, C; Deepak, B M

    2015-03-01

    The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. The study included Group I (Control), Group II (A. vera) and Group III (propolis). Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry.

  12. A Comparative Effectiveness Education Trial for Lifestyle Health Behavior Change in African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Bellamy, Scarlett; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Purnell, Joseph; Rogers, Rodney; Weathers, Benita; Johnson, Jerry C.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and excess weight are significant clinical and public health issues that disproportionately affect African Americans because of physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. We compared the effects of alternate behavioral interventions on obesity-related health behaviors. We conducted a comparative effectiveness education trial in a…

  13. R-Ketorolac Targets Cdc42 and Rac1 and Alters Ovarian Cancer Cell Behaviors Critical for Invasion and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuna; Kenney, S Ray; Muller, Carolyn Y; Adams, Sarah; Rutledge, Teresa; Romero, Elsa; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Prekeris, Rytis; Sklar, Larry A; Hudson, Laurie G; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42) and Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) are attractive therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer based on established importance in tumor cell migration, adhesion, and invasion. Despite a predicted benefit, targeting GTPases has not yet been translated to clinical practice. We previously established that Cdc42 and constitutively active Rac1b are overexpressed in primary ovarian tumor tissues. Through high-throughput screening and computational shape homology approaches, we identified R-ketorolac as a Cdc42 and Rac1 inhibitor, distinct from the anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of S-ketorolac. In the present study, we establish R-ketorolac as an allosteric inhibitor of Cdc42 and Rac1. Cell-based assays validate R-ketorolac activity against Cdc42 and Rac1. Studies on immortalized human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SKOV3ip) and primary patient-derived ovarian cancer cells show that R-ketorolac is a robust inhibitor of growth factor or serum-dependent Cdc42 and Rac1 activation with a potency and cellular efficacy similar to small-molecule inhibitors of Cdc42 (CID2950007/ML141) and Rac1 (NSC23766). Furthermore, GTPase inhibition by R-ketorolac reduces downstream p21-activated kinases (PAK1/PAK2) effector activation by >80%. Multiple assays of cell behavior using SKOV3ip and primary patient-derived ovarian cancer cells show that R-ketorolac significantly inhibits cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. In summary, we provide evidence for R-ketorolac as a direct inhibitor of Cdc42 and Rac1 that is capable of modulating downstream GTPase-dependent, physiologic responses, which are critical to tumor metastasis. Our findings demonstrate the selective inhibition of Cdc42 and Rac1 GTPases by an FDA-approved drug, racemic ketorolac, that can be used in humans. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. R-ketorolac Targets Cdc42 and Rac1 and Alters Ovarian Cancer Cell Behaviors Critical for Invasion and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuna; Kenney, Shelby Ray; Muller, Carolyn Y.; Adams, Sarah; Rutledge, Teresa; Romero, Elsa; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Prekeris, Rytis; Sklar, Larry A.; Hudson, Laurie G.; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42) and Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) are attractive therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer based on established importance in tumor cell migration, adhesion and invasion. Despite a predicted benefit, targeting GTPases has not yet been translated to clinical practice. We previously established that Cdc42 and constitutively active Rac1b are overexpressed in primary ovarian tumor tissues. Through high throughput screening and computational shape homology approaches we identified R-ketorolac as a Cdc42 and Rac1 inhibitor; distinct from the anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of S-ketorolac. In the present study, we establish R-ketorolac as an allosteric inhibitor of Cdc42 and Rac1. Cell-based assays validate R-ketorolac activity against Cdc42 and Rac1. Studies on immortalized human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SKOV3ip), and primary, patient-derived ovarian cancer cells show R-ketorolac is a robust inhibitor of growth factor or serum dependent Cdc42 and Rac1 activation with a potency and cellular efficacy similar to small molecule inhibitors of Cdc42 (CID2950007/ML141) and Rac1 (NSC23766). Furthermore, GTPase inhibition by R-ketorolac reduces downstream p21-activated kinases (PAK1/PAK2) effector activation by >80%. Multiple assays of cell behavior using SKOV3ip and primary patient-derived ovarian cancer cells show that R-ketorolac significantly inhibits cell adhesion, migration and invasion. In sum, we provide evidence for R-ketorolac as direct inhibitor of Cdc42 and Rac1 that is capable of modulating downstream GTPase-dependent, physiological responses, which are critical to tumor metastasis. Our findings demonstrate the selective inhibition of Cdc42 and Rac1 GTPases by an FDA approved drug-racemic ketorolac that can be used in humans. PMID:26206334

  15. Humanness beliefs about behavior: an index and comparative human-nonhuman behavior judgments.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Samuel G; Haslam, Nick

    2013-06-01

    Social psychological research suggests that two distinct dimensions describe lay conceptions of humanness: a species-typical sense (i.e., human nature) and a species-unique sense (i.e., human uniqueness). Although these two senses of humanness have been discerned among psychological traits and states, there has been no systematic research into lay beliefs about the humanness of human behaviors. Using a range of 60 prosocial, nonsocial, and antisocial behaviors, it was demonstrated that people discriminate between species-typical and species-unique behaviors and that the capacity to perform species-unique behaviors distinguishes humans from animals, whereas the capacity to perform species-typical behaviors distinguishes humans from robots. Behaviors that exemplify the two senses of humanness are identified, and data representing rankings, raw scores, and z-scores in two indices of species typicality and species uniqueness are provided. Taken together, these findings expand our understanding of lay conceptions of humanness and provide researchers of humanness with a wider range of validated stimuli to probe the boundaries of humanity.

  16. Molecular mechanism depressing PMA-induced invasive behaviors in human lung adenocarcinoma cells by cis- and trans-cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chiung-Man; Sun, Fang-Ming; Chen, Yen-Ling; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Yen, Gow-Chin; Weng, Chia-Jui

    2013-02-14

    Dietary polyphenols have been reported as an effective phytochemical for health protection and cinnamic acid (CA) is one of the polyphenols that has been demonstrated having chemopreventive potential. It was known that the early and distal metastasis might lead to the high mortality of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We previously compared and verified the inhibitory effect of cis-CA and trans-CA on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. By gelatin zymography and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, the activities and mRNA of MMP-9/MMP-2 exerted a significantly (p<.05) dose-dependent reduction by treating with cis-CA and trans-CA. Western blots further showed that the cis-CA- and trans-CA-inhibited MMPs might partly through modulating TIMP-1 and the PAI-2-regulated uPA activity. In molecular level, the AP-1 and NF-κB as well as the downstream of the MAPK pathway might be involved in cis-CA- and trans-CA-inhibited MMPs expression. This study disclosed the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-invasive activity of cis-CA and trans-CA and concluded the cis- and trans-form of CA should be a safe and potential agent to prevent lung tumor cells from metastasizing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biophysical control of invasive tumor cell behavior by extracellular matrix microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Carey, Shawn P; Kraning-Rush, Casey M; Williams, Rebecca M; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2012-06-01

    Fibrillar collagen gels, which are used extensively in vitro to study tumor-microenvironment interactions, are composed of a cell-instructive network of interconnected fibers and pores whose organization is sensitive to polymerization conditions such as bulk concentration, pH, and temperature. Using confocal reflectance microscopy and image autocorrelation analysis to quantitatively assess gel microarchitecture, we show that additional polymerization parameters including culture media formulation and gel thickness significantly affect the dimensions and organization of fibers and pores in collagen gels. These findings enabled the development of a three-dimensional culture system in which cell-scale gel microarchitecture was decoupled from bulk gel collagen concentration. Interestingly, morphology and migration characteristics of embedded MDA-MB-231 cells were sensitive to gel microarchitecture independently of collagen gel concentration. Cells adopted a polarized, motile phenotype in gels with larger fibers and pores and a rounded or stellate, less motile phenotype in gels with small fibers and pores regardless of bulk gel density. Conversely, cell proliferation was sensitive to gel concentration but not microarchitecture. These results indicate that cell-scale gel microarchitecture may trump bulk-scale gel density in controlling specific cell behaviors, underscoring the biophysical role of gel microarchitecture in influencing cell behavior.

  18. Biophysical control of invasive tumor cell behavior by extracellular matrix microarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Shawn P.; Kraning-Rush, Casey M.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrillar collagen gels, which are used extensively in vitro to study tumor-microenvironment interactions, are composed of a cell-instructive network of interconnected fibers and pores whose organization is sensitive to polymerization conditions such as bulk concentration, pH, and temperature. Using confocal reflectance microscopy and image autocorrelation analysis to quantitatively assess gel microarchitecture, we show that additional polymerization parameters including culture media formulation and gel thickness significantly affect the dimensions and organization of fibers and pores in collagen gels. These findings enabled the development of a three-dimensional culture system in which cell-scale gel microarchitecture was decoupled from bulk gel collagen concentration. Interestingly, morphology and migration characteristics of embedded MDA-MB-231 cells were sensitive to gel microarchitecture independently of collagen gel concentration. Cells adopted a polarized, motile phenotype in gels with larger fibers and pores and a rounded or stellate, less motile phenotype in gels with small fibers and pores regardless of bulk gel density. Conversely, cell proliferation was sensitive to gel concentration but not microarchitecture. These results indicate that cell-scale gel microarchitecture may trump bulk-scale gel density in controlling specific cell behaviors, underscoring the biophysical role of gel microarchitecture in influencing cell behavior. PMID:22405848

  19. Non-invasive manipulation of Drosophila behavior by two-photon excited red-activatable channelrhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Po-Yen; Tsai, Chia-Lun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Lin, Yen-Yin; Yang, Shang-Da; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2015-01-01

    Scattering and absorption limit light penetration through inhomogeneous tissue. To reduce scattering, biochemists have shifted the wavelengths of excitation light for optogenetic actuators and fluorescent proteins to the orange-red range, while physicists have developed multiphoton technologies for deep tissue stimulation. We have built a rapid multiphoton spectroscopic screening system of genetically encoded red-activatable channelrhodopsin (ReaChR), and considered specific behaviors in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster as readouts to optimize the laser parameters for two-photon optogenetic activation. A wavelength-tunable optical parametric amplifier was adopted as the major light source for widefield two-photon excitation (TPE) of ReaChR. Our assays suggest that the optimized TPE wavelength of ReaChR is 1250 nm. Exploiting its capacity for optogenetic manipulation to induce macroscopic behavioral change, we realized rapid spectroscopic screening of genetically encoded effectors or indicators in vivo, and used modulation of ReaChR in the fly as a successful demonstration of such a system. PMID:26601000

  20. Environmental temperatures, physiology and behavior limit the range expansion of invasive Burmese pythons in southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Elliott R; Barker, David G; Barker, Tracy M; Mauldin, Richard; Avery, Michael L; Engeman, Richard; Secor, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    A well-established population of Burmese pythons resides in the Everglades of southern Florida. Prompted in part by a report that identified much of southern USA as suitable habitat for expansion or establishment of the Burmese python, we examined the plausibility of this snake to survive winters at sites north of the Everglades. We integrated daily low and high temperatures recorded from October to February from 2005-2011 at Homestead, Orlando and Gainesville, Florida; and Aiken, South Carolina, with minimum temperatures projected for python digestion (16 °C), activity (5 °C) and survival (0 °C). Mean low and high temperatures decreased northward from Homestead to Aiken and the number of days of freezing temperatures increased northward. Digestion was impaired or inhibited for 2 months in the Everglades and up to at least 5 months in Aiken, and activity was increasingly limited northward during these months. Reports of overwinter survivorship document that a single bout of low and freezing temperatures results in python death. The capacity for Burmese pythons to successfully overwinter in more temperate regions of the USA is seemingly prohibited because they lack the behaviors to seek refuge from, and the physiology to tolerate, cold temperatures. As tropical Southeast Asia is the source of the Everglades Burmese pythons, we predict it is unlikely that they will be able to successfully expand to or colonize more temperate areas of Florida and adjoining states due to their lack of behavioral and physiological traits to seek refuge from cold temperatures.

  1. Efficacy of peroral endoscopic myotomy compared with other invasive treatment options for the different esophageal motor disorders.

    PubMed

    Estremera-Arévalo, Fermín; Albéniz, Eduardo; Rullán, María; Areste, Irene; Iglesias, Rosa; Vila, Juan José

    2017-08-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been performed since 2008 on more than 5,000 patients. It has proven to be highly effective in the treatment of achalasia and has shown promising outcomes for other esophageal motility spastic disorders. A literature review of the efficacy of POEM compared to the previous invasive treatments for different esophageal motility disorders was performed. The application in the pediatric and elderly populations and its role as a rescue therapy after other procedures are also outlined. Short-term outcomes are similar to laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) and pneumatic endoscopic dilation (PD) (clinical success > 90%) for achalasia subtypes I and II. Mid-term outcomes are comparable to LHM and overcome the results obtained after PD (> 90% vs ~50%). With regard to type III achalasia, POEM efficacy is 98% compared to 80.8% for LHM and the PD success remains at 40%. With regard to spastic esophageal disorders (SED), POEM has an effectiveness of 88% and 70% for distal esophageal spasm (DES) and jackhammer esophagus (JE) respectively. A response of 95% in patients with sigmoid esophagus has been reported. POEM has been performed in pediatric and elderly populations and has obtained a higher efficacy than PD in pediatric series (100% vs 33%) without greater adverse events. Previous treatments do not seem to hinder POEM results with excellent response rates, including 97% in post LHM and 100% in a re-POEM series. Final considerations: POEM has shown excellent short and mid-term results for all subtypes of achalasia but long-term results are not yet available. The promising results in SED may make POEM the first-line treatment for SED. A high-safety profile and efficacy have been shown in elderly and pediatric populations. Previous treatments do not seem to diminish the success rate of POEM. Core tip: POEM has emerged as an efficient treatment option for all subtypes of achalasia and other scenarios (including previous treatments and elderly

  2. Elderly Patients Achieving Clinical and Radiological Outcomes Comparable with Those of Younger Patients Following Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Nikhil N, Joshi; Lim, Joel Wei-An; Yeo, William; Yue, Wai-Mun

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective analysis of prospective database. To compare 2-year clinical and radiological outcomes after minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) among "middle-age" (50-64.99 years), "young-old" (65-74.99 years), and "old-old" (>75 years) patients. Owing to higher perioperative morbidity and mortality rates, elderly patients with degenerative lumbar conditions are occasionally denied surgical care, even after conservative treatment failure. MIS-TLIF advantages include reduced blood loss, reduced analgesia requirements, early mobilization, and shorter hospital stays. Between 2007 and 2012, 22 patients (age >75 years) treated with 1-2 level MIS-TLIF were matched with "young-old" and "middle-age" patients (22 each) based on race, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, spinal level, number of spinal levels operated upon, and bone graft type. Clinical outcomes included the Oswestry disability index (ODI), neurogenic symptom score (NSS), 36-item short form health survey (SF-36), and visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain. Radiological assessment included plain radiographs and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and plain radiographs at 1, 3, 6, and 24 months postoperatively. Fusion grade, loosening, cage migration, and adjacent segment degeneration were assessed. The groups had similar fluoroscopy time, operation duration, and postoperative analgesia type used. "Old-old" patients took longer to ambulate (1.6 days) and had longer hospital stays (6 days). All patients showed significant improvement in clinical outcome scores at all time-points compared with the preoperative status. "Middle-age" patients showed better ODI and SF-36 physical function scores than "old-old" patients preoperatively and 2 years post surgery. NSS, VAS (back and leg), and SF-36 mental function scores were similar between groups preoperatively and at every time-point postoperatively. Minimal clinical important differences (63.6%-95.5% at 2 years) were

  3. Investigation of gender role behaviors in boys with hypospadias: comparative study with unaffected boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Yean; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang Hee

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate gender role behaviors of boys with hypospadias compared with groups of unaffected boys and girls using parental reports and direct observations; and (2) to directly observe effects of socialization (mothers' presence) on children's gender role behaviors. Ages of 19 children with hypospadias ranged from 3 to 7 years, and each of them were matched to controls of unaffected boys and girls by age. All the children participated with their mothers. Children's gender role behaviors and their mothers' behaviors were evaluated using an observation coding system. Mothers also completed questionnaires regarding their children's gender role behaviors. Results indicated no atypical gender role behavior for the boys with hypospadias and no direct effects of socialization on their gender role behaviors. However, differences were found in negative communicative behaviors between boys with hypospadias and unaffected boys, suggesting a possible role of socialization.

  4. Comparing Multi-Informant Assessment Measures of Parental Monitoring and Their Links with Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Augenstein, Tara M.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Daruwala, Samantha; Reyes, Shelby M.; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Parents’ poor monitoring of adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is commonly linked to adolescents’ increased engagement in delinquent behaviors. Yet, different domains of parental monitoring (parental monitoring behaviors vs. parental knowledge) and reports from multiple informants (parent vs. adolescent) may vary in their links to delinquent behavior. Design Seventy-four parental caregivers and 74 adolescents completed survey measures of parental monitoring and knowledge, and adolescents completed self-report surveys of delinquent behavior. Results We observed low-to-moderate magnitudes of correspondence between parent- and adolescent-reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge. Adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior related to parent and adolescent reports of parental monitoring behaviors and parental knowledge, with adolescents who self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidencing lower levels of parental knowledge and higher levels of poor monitoring compared to adolescents who did not self-report engagement in delinquent behaviors. Adolescent self-reported engagement in delinquent behaviors evidenced stronger links to parental monitoring when based on adolescent reports of monitoring (relative to parent reports), whereas stronger links held between adolescent self-reported delinquent behavior and parental knowledge when based on parent reports of knowledge (relative to adolescent reports). Conclusions Links between monitoring and adolescents’ delinquent behavior vary by the kind of monitoring measure completed as well as the informant completing the measure. These findings inform measurement selection in research and clinical assessments of parental monitoring and adolescent delinquent behavior. PMID:27482171

  5. Comparative pathogenicity, biocontrol efficacy, and multilocus sequence typing of Verticillium nonalfalfae from the invasive Ailanthus altissima and other hosts.

    PubMed

    Kasson, M T; Short, D P G; O'Neal, E S; Subbarao, K V; Davis, D D

    2014-03-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium nonalfalfae, is currently killing tens of thousands of highly invasive Ailanthus altissima trees within the forests in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia and is being considered as a biological control agent of Ailanthus. However, little is known about the pathogenicity and virulence of V. nonalfalfae isolates from other hosts on Ailanthus, or the genetic diversity among V. nonalfalfae from confirmed Ailanthus wilt epicenters and from locations and hosts not associated with Ailanthus wilt. Here, we compared the pathogenicity and virulence of several V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae isolates, evaluated the efficacy of the virulent V. nonalfalfae isolate VnAa140 as a biocontrol agent of Ailanthus in Pennsylvania, and performed multilocus sequence typing of V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae. Inoculations of seven V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae isolates from six plant hosts on healthy Ailanthus seedlings revealed that V. nonalfalfae isolates from hosts other than Ailanthus were not pathogenic on Ailanthus. In the field, 100 canopy Ailanthus trees were inoculated across 12 stands with VnAa140 from 2006 to 2009. By 2011, natural spread of the fungus had resulted in the mortality of >14,000 additional canopy Ailanthus trees, 10,000 to 15,000 Ailanthus sprouts, and nearly complete eradication of Ailanthus from several smaller inoculated stands, with the exception of a few scattered vegetative sprouts that persisted in the understory for several years before succumbing. All V. nonalfalfae isolates associated with the lethal wilt of Ailanthus, along with 18 additional isolates from 10 hosts, shared the same multilocus sequence type (MLST), MLST 1, whereas three V. nonalfalfae isolates from kiwifruit shared a second sequence type, MLST 2. All V. alfalfae isolates included in the study shared the same MLST and included the first example of V. alfalfae infecting a non-lucerne host. Our results indicate that V. nonalfalfae is host adapted and

  6. Minimally invasive versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis: comparative effectiveness and cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Shau, David N; Zuckerman, Scott L; Godil, Saniya S; Cheng, Joseph S; McGirt, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) for lumbar spondylolisthesis allows for the surgical treatment of back/leg pain while minimizing tissue injury and accelerating the patient's recovery. Although previous results have shown shorter hospital stays and decreased intraoperative blood loss for MIS versus open TLIF, short- and long-term outcomes have been similar. Therefore, we performed comparative effectiveness and cost-utility analysis for MIS versus open TLIF. A total of 100 patients (50 MIS, 50 open) undergoing TLIF for lumbar spondylolisthesis were prospectively studied. Back-related medical resource use, missed work, and quality-adjusted life years were assessed. Cost of in-patient care, direct cost (2-year resource use × unit costs based on Medicare national allowable payment amounts), and indirect cost (work-day losses × self-reported gross-of-tax wage rate) were recorded, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. Length of hospitalization and time to return to work were less for MIS versus open TLIF (P = 0.006 and P = 0.03, respectively). MIS versus open TLIF demonstrated similar improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed. MIS versus open TLIF was associated with a reduction in mean hospital cost of $1758, indirect cost of $8474, and total 2-year societal cost of $9295 (P = 0.03) but similar 2-year direct health care cost and quality-adjusted life years gained. MIS TLIF resulted in reduced operative blood loss, hospital stay and 2-year cost, and accelerated return to work. Surgical morbidity, hospital readmission, and short- and long-term clinical effectiveness were similar between MIS and open TLIF. MIS TLIF may represent a valuable and cost-saving advancement from a societal and hospital perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term outcomes of minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagostomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Compared with open approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenghua; Xu, Meiqing; Guo, Mingfa; Liu, Xuegang

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the safety and long-term efficacy of combined thoraco-laparoscopic minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagostomy(MI-ILE) in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The clinical data of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent Ivor Lewis esophagostomy of esophageal cancer from October 2011 to June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Of which 90 patients received MI-ILE, 95 patients underwent open Ivor Lewis esophagostomy (O-ILE). The clinicopathological features, intraoperative records and incidences of postoperative complications of the two groups were compared with t-test and χ2 test. The primary end point of the study was 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and 3-year overall survival (OS) was a secondary end point. There were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, preoperative comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists score and position of the tumor between the two groups. There was also no significant difference in clinicopathological characteristics, operation time, length of tumor resection margin and number of resected lymph nodes between the two groups (P > 0.05). In MI-ILE group, the blood loss was lower than in the O-ILE group [(159.1 + 97.4) ml vs. (191.7 + 141.9) ml, t = 1.811, P = 1.811]and the postoperative hospital stay was shorter [(11.5 + 4.5) d vs. (13.9 + 6.2) d, t = 2.944, P = 0.004]. There was no significant difference in the incidences of perioperative mortality and major morbidities (P > 0.05). Minor complications including incision infection rate (1.1% vs 8.4%, χ2 = 3.873, P = 0.049) and pulmonary infection incidence (3.3% vs 11.57%, χ2 = 4.492, P = 0.034) is lower in MIILE group. There was no significant difference in 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and 3-year overall survival (OS) between the two groups. MI-ILE is a technically safe and feasible approach for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treatment. The oncologic outcomes of MI

  8. TransAnal Minimally Invasive Surgery (TAMIS) with SILS™ port versus Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM): a comparative experimental study.

    PubMed

    Rimonda, Roberto; Arezzo, Alberto; Arolfo, Simone; Salvai, Alessandro; Morino, Mario

    2013-10-01

    TransAnal Minimally Invasive Surgery (TAMIS) has been proposed as an alternative to Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) for resection of benign polyps and early cancers of rectum. Since clinical application has begun in the absence of any experimental validation, we assessed its feasibility and efficacy ex vivo in a pilot study. In a dedicated trainer box for transanal procedures, 10 surgeons with no experience in transanal surgery were asked to perform a dissection/suture task using both TAMIS and TEM in randomly allocated order. Surgeons were asked to dissect two identically drawn lesions of ~3 cm in larger diameter. Precision of dissection was assessed using a quantitative photographic method, while the time needed for dissection and suturing was considered a measure of quantitative evaluation. Each participant expressed a subjective opinion regarding difficulty with dissection, difficulty with suturing, vision quality, and conflict between instruments on a scale from 1 to 5. No difference was observed between the two techniques regarding the accuracy of dissection as the margin was interrupted along 4.1 % of the circumference in the TEM group compared with 2.48 % in the SILS group (P = 0.271). Dissection and suturing were significantly quicker in the TEM group [04:30 vs. 06:35 min (P = 0.049) and 14:34 versus 19:18 min (P = 0.003)]. In three cases in the SILS group, completing the suture was not considered possible, and the procedures were terminated by TEM. Subjective evaluation revealed a better appreciation of TEM in all proposed comparisons: dissection (2.6 vs. 3.5, P = 0.004), suturing difficulty (3.1 vs. 4.6, P < 0.001), quality of vision (2.3 vs. 2.8, P = 0.18), and instrument conflicts (3.1 vs. 4.0, P = 0.054). In the ex vivo setting, both techniques were comparable for achieving a good dissection, although TAMIS failed to prove effective in suturing the rectal wall. Moreover, TEM was significantly quicker despite the small groups

  9. Comparative morphometric and chemical analyses of phenotypes of two invasive ambrosia beetles (Euwallacea spp.) in the United States

    Treesearch

    Yigen Chen; Paul L. Dallara; Lori J. Nelson; Tom W. Coleman; Stacy M. Hishinuma; Daniel Carrillo; Steve Seybold

    2016-01-01

    The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), Euwallacea sp., was first detected in 2003 in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Recently, this invasive species has become a major pest of many hardwood trees in urban and wildland forests throughout southern California. PSHB is nearly identical in morphology and life history to the tea shot hole borer (...

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Communicative Behavior in CEDA Lincoln-Douglas Debate and CEDA Team Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Harold L.; Skaggs, Edward C.

    Keeping debate communicative is a great and recurring concern. A study investigated whether debate format may influence debaters' communicative behavior, by comparing behavior in Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) Lincoln-Douglas debate (LD) and in CEDA Team debate. Videotapes of the two first affirmative speeches of each, at the…

  11. A Comparative Study of Group Contingencies and Randomized Reinforcers to Reduce Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation employed an alternating treatments design to (1) examine the efficacy of group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior, and (2) compare the effects of independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior in adolescent males identified with serious emotional…

  12. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  13. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  14. Rhythmic motor behavior of preambulatory motor impaired, Down syndrome and nondisabled children: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    MacLean, W E; Ellis, D N; Galbreath, H N; Halpern, L F; Baumeister, A A

    1991-06-01

    The developmental course of rhythmic motor behavior was followed longitudinally for three groups of preambulatory children--normally developing, Down syndrome, and those with profound motor impairment. The groups differed in chronological age but were comparable with respect to motor age. The motor impaired subjects displayed significantly less rhythmic motor behavior than the nondisabled and Down syndrome groups. In comparing particular subtypes of rhythmic motor behavior, differences were found in both the average number of bouts and duration of subtypes among the groups. Longitudinal analyses of the data over the entire observation period revealed that the rhythmic motor behavior of the children with Down syndrome was more similar to that exhibited by the nondisabled children than was the rhythmic motor behavior of the children with motor impairment. However, there was considerable variability among the groups in several particular subtypes.

  15. Comparing Versions of the Good Behavior Game: Can a Positive Spin Enhance Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Wahl, Elaine; Hawkins, Renee O; Haydon, Todd; Marsicano, Richard; Morrison, Julie Q

    2016-07-01

    Disruptions can prevent the classroom from being an effective learning environment. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a group contingency that has been proven to effectively prevent disruptions and increase engagement. However, the traditional methods of the GBG include teacher scanning for negative student behaviors, and may not align with Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), which is becoming widely adopted in many schools. Extending the findings of Wright and McCurdy, the current study compared the effects of the GBG and a positive version of the GBG, called the Caught Being Good Game (CBGG), on student behavior, including engagement and off-task behaviors, as well as teachers' use of positive and negative statements. Results showed both the GBG and the CBGG improved student behavior, with data not clearly indicating one was superior. Neither intervention led to an increase in positive teacher statements. Implications for teachers and suggestions for further research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Invasive Duct Carcinoma of the Breast With Dominant Signet-Ring Cell Differentiation: A Microsatellite Stable Tumor With Aggressive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Kohli, Pavneet S; Singh, Gurpreet; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-05-05

    Invasive duct carcinoma, no special type (IDC, NST), of the breast with signet-ring cell differentiation is uncommon. This study was undertaken to describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of IDC, NST, with dominant signet-ring cell differentiation, and look for microsatellite instability in these tumors. Cases of IDC, NST, with dominant signet-ring cell differentiation, diagnosed over the past 2 years, were retrieved. Detailed clinical and pathologic analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptors, Her-2 neu, Ki-67, E-cadherin, CK7, and CK20. Microsatellite instability was examined using immunohistochemistry for the 4 mismatch repair proteins: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Of the total 1646 cases of IDC, NST, only 5 cases showed dominant signet-ring cells (ranging from 70% to 100%) and strong E-cadherin positivity and were diagnosed as IDC, NST, with dominant signet-ring cell differentiation. The age ranged from 32 to 65 years. Two cases were of histologic grade 3 and the remaining cases were grade 2 tumors. Four patients had T2 tumor and 1 had T3 tumor. All cases had axillary lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis was present in 1 case. All cases were microsatellite stable. Signet-ring cell differentiation in IDC, NST, is rare and associated with a high histologic grade. Lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis are common, indicating an aggressive clinical behavior. Thus, they should be recognized separately as they may warrant aggressive management. However, these are microsatellite-stable tumors in contrast to signet-ring cell tumors of other organs.

  17. Potential role of cholinesterases in the invasive capacity of the freshwater bivalve, Anodonta woodiana (Bivalvia: Unionacea): a comparative study with the indigenous species of the genus, Anodonta sp.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Ilaria; Pastore, Angela Maria; Lodde, Antonella; Palmerini, Emanuela; Castagnolo, Lucio; Focardi, Silvano

    2007-04-01

    To address the potential role of cholinesterase enzymes in the invasive capacity of species, the present study investigated ChE activity in the invasive freshwater bivalve Anodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834) comparing it with that of the indigenous species, Anodonta sp. (Linnaeus, 1758). The invasive capacity of pests has often been linked to their ecological plasticity and high intrinsic genetic variability; however the role played by molecular and cellular mechanisms, generally known as an organism's response to pollution, is unclear. Different substrates and selective ChE enzyme inhibitors were investigated in digestive gland, foot, gonad, adductor muscle and gill tissues while sensitivity to four organophosphate (OP) insecticides was investigated in vitro only in adductor muscle. The invasive species (A. woodiana) showed significantly greater (at least one order of magnitude) ChE activity than the endemic species (Anodonta sp.) (p<0.05) using acetylthiocholine (ASCh) as substrate and the activity was more widely distributed in tissues involved in movement (adductor muscle and foot), respiration, feeding (gills) and reproduction (gonads). Moreover, only the invasive species, A. woodiana, showed detectable ChE (vs. ASCh) activity in gill tissue. No substrate specificity was observed in any tissue of either species as already described for other bivalve species. ChE activity was not inhibited by Iso-OMPA but showed high sensitivity to BW248c51 and eserine. Both species showed moderate to low sensitivities in vitro to OP insecticides in the range 10(-7)-10(-2) M. Calculated IC(50) for fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos was in the range 10(-6)-10(-3) M in muscle of A. woodiana while a higher inhibition was observed for fenitrothion (10(-7) M) and lower for chlorpyrifos (10(-2) M) in the indigenous species Anodonta sp. Similar IC(50) of 10(-5)-10(-6) M were observed for DFP and azamethiphos in both species. The hypotheses of other authors that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is

  18. Cryptic invasions: A review.

    PubMed

    Morais, Pedro; Reichard, Martin

    2017-06-22

    Cryptic invasions are defined as the introduction and spread of non-native lineages within the species' native range (intra-specific cryptic invasion) or the invasion of non-native species that goes unnoticed due to misidentification as a native or another invasive species (inter-specific cryptic invasion). While population-specific attributes are acknowledged to play a critical role in the success and impact of biological invasions in general, our knowledge of the causes and consequences of cryptic invasions is largely neglected. Cryptic invasions are inherently difficult to recognize and, despite being likely widespread, often go undetected. In this review, we analyse the sources, mechanisms, and consequences of cryptic invasions. Using a bibliometric survey, we first quantify the relative proportion of study questions, taxa, and geographic regions. We then highlight the value of comparative information from archived specimens in uncovering the occurrence and timing of cryptic invasions. We examine the mechanisms of cryptic invasions and emphasise the role of anthropogenic environmental changes on the arrival of cryptic invaders. We then discuss the role of interspecific biological interactions in the success of cryptic invasions and the role of hybridization between native and non-native lineages in cryptic invasions. We examine the competitive advantage of some invasive lineages in key physiological, ecological or sexually-selected traits. We argue that cryptic invasions, often undetected, may trigger subsequent rapid range expansions. We suggest that cryptic invasions are much more common than currently acknowledged. We highlight the role of coevolved associations (host-parasite, mutualism, herbivory), inherently population-specific, in the impacts of cryptic invasions on local communities. Finally, we outline a framework to manage intraspecific cryptic invasions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Covered stents versus uncovered stents for the palliation of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction caused by direct tumor invasion: a cohort comparative study.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wang, Feng; Yang, Xinshun; Ji, Donghua; Li, Jun; Wang, Ningfang; Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Tao; Li, Ke

    2012-12-01

    Biliary stenting is a well-established palliative treatment in patients with unresectable malignant biliary strictures. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical outcomes of covered and uncovered stents in patients with malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction caused by direct tumor invasion. Patients diagnosed with malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction caused by direct tumor invasion were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 37 received ePTFE-covered stent placement and were prospectively studied, and 47 received uncovered stent placement and were retrospectively studied. The technical success rate, tumor ingrowth rate, complication rate, stent patency, and patient survival were evaluated for both groups. Stent placement was successful in all cases except one in the covered group due to stent kinking. Tumor ingrowth occurred exclusively in the uncovered group. No significant differences were observed for the complication rate and patient survival between the two groups. Three patients in the covered group experienced stent migration, whereas no patients did in the uncovered group. A significant difference was found regarding stent patency, which was greater for the covered group compared to the uncovered group. The placement of ePTFE-covered stents for the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction caused by direct tumor invasion was a safe and an effective method characterized by greater stent patency.

  20. The neurobiology of social attachment: A comparative approach to behavioral, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Young, Kimberly A; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2008-11-01

    The formation and maintenance of social bonds in adulthood is an essential component of human health. However studies investigating the underlying neurobiology of such behaviors have been scarce. Microtine rodents offer a unique comparative animal model to explore the neural processes responsible for pair bonding and its associated behaviors. Studies using monogamous prairie voles and other related species have recently offered insight into the neuroanatomical, neurobiological, and neurochemical underpinnings of social attachment. In this review, we will discuss the utility of the microtine rodents in comparative studies by exploring their natural history and social behavior in the laboratory. We will then summarize the data implicating vasopressin, oxytocin, and dopamine in the regulation of pair bonding. Finally, we will discuss the ways in which these neurochemical systems may interact to mediate this complex behavior.

  1. Behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment as compared with Alzheimer's disease and healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Mariën, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aim of this study is to characterize behavior in MCI compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older patients. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective, longitudinal study on behavioral symptoms of dementia and MCI was performed. The study population consisted of 270 MCI, 402 AD patients, and 108 healthy controls. Behavioral assessment was performed by means of Middelheim Frontality Score, Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Moderate-to-severe behavioral symptoms were present in 13% of MCI patients, as compared with 39% in AD patients and 3% in controls (p < 0.001). The general severity of behavioral symptoms was intermediate between controls and AD patients. The three most frequent symptoms in MCI patients were aggressiveness (49%), affective disturbance (45%), and anxiety (38%); in AD patients, the most frequent symptoms were aggressiveness (60%), activity disturbances (54%), and psychosis (40%). The prevalence and severity of frontal lobe symptoms, aggressiveness, activity disturbances, and delusions was intermediate between normal aging and AD. In addition, the severity of physically non-aggressive and verbally agitated behavior and the severity of depressive symptoms were also intermediate. The behavioral profile of MCI patients is characterized as an intermediate state between normal aging and AD for the prevalence and severity of certain behavioral symptoms. Follow-up is ongoing to test the hypothesis that behavioral disturbances in MCI predict progression to dementia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Ancient and historic steel in Japan, India and Europe, a non-invasive comparative study using thermal neutron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Grazzi, F; Civita, F; Williams, A; Scherillo, A; Barzagli, E; Bartoli, L; Edge, D; Zoppi, M

    2011-05-01

    The production and refinement of steel has followed very different paths in different parts of the Eurasian continent. In aiming to characterize the similarities and differences between various smelting and smithing methods, we have analysed steel samples from four different areas and historic periods: the Kotō Age in Japan (twelfth-sixteenth century), the Moghul Empire in India (seventeenth-nineteenth century), the Ottoman Turkish Empire (seventeenth century) and the late Middle Ages (fifteenth century) in Italy. The best quality steel was employed for forging arms and armour of high quality, so that we have selected samples from Japan, India, the Middle East and Italy belonging to such a category. Traditional methods, such as metallography, used to characterize different steels in terms of their carbon contents, microconstituents and slag inclusions, entailed an invasive approach. Since many of the selected artefacts are in a very good state of conservation, a different and non-invasive approach was desirable. To this aim, we have used time of flight neutron diffraction on the Italian Neutron Experimental Station diffractometer, located at the pulsed neutron source ISIS in the United Kingdom. By this technique, we were able to quantify the phase distribution of the metal phases, the slag inclusion content, and the oxidation state of the samples, both as average concentration on the whole artefact and in selected gauge volumes. The results of the present investigation offer an interesting picture of the steel metallurgy in different areas of the world.

  3. When do financial incentives reduce intrinsic motivation? comparing behaviors studied in psychological and economic literatures.

    PubMed

    Promberger, Marianne; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or "crowd out" intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. When Do Financial Incentives Reduce Intrinsic Motivation? Comparing Behaviors Studied in Psychological and Economic Literatures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or “crowd out” intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. Method: We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. Results: In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. Conclusion: The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PMID:24001245

  5. Differential effect of the expression of TGF-β pathway inhibitors, Smad-7 and Ski, on invasive breast carcinomas: relation to biologic behavior.

    PubMed

    Theohari, Irini; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Magkou, Christina; Nomikos, Alexandros; Melissaris, Savvas; Nakopoulou, Lydia

    2012-02-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of Smad-7 and Ski proteins in invasive breast carcinomas, to determine their clinicopathological value and their influence on carcinomas biologic behavior. Immunohistochemistry was applied on 150 invasive breast carcinomas to detect the expression of Smad-7 and Ski. Their correlation to clinicopathologic parameters and markers of metastasis was statistically processed using chi-squared test. Overall and disease-free survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier test and log-rank statistics. Smad-7 was immunodetected in the cytoplasm of cancer cells in 60%, whereas Ski was immunodetected in the cytoplasm and nuclei in 44.5% and 17.6% of the cases, respectively. Smad-7 expression was positively correlated with tumor size, stage, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and MMP-14. Cytoplasmic Ski expression was negatively associated with tumor size, stage, and lymph node status, and its nuclear expression was negatively related to histologic grade. Cytoplasmic Ski expression was associated with longer overall and disease-free survival. It appears that two negative regulators of the transforming growth factor-β pathway, Smad-7 and Ski, behave differentially in invasive breast carcinomas. Smad-7 appears to be related with an aggressive phenotype, whereas Ski expression is related to a less aggressive behavior and positively influences patients' survival.

  6. BRAF and RAS oncogenes regulate Rho GTPase pathways to mediate migration and invasion properties in human colon cancer cells: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a common disease that involves genetic alterations, such as inactivation of tumour suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes. Among them are RAS and BRAF mutations, which rarely coexist in the same tumour. Individual members of the Rho (Ras homology) GTPases contribute with distinct roles in tumour cell morphology, invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study is to dissect cell migration and invasion pathways that are utilised by BRAFV600E as compared to KRASG12V and HRASG12V oncoproteins. In particular, the role of RhoA (Ras homolog gene family, member A), Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1) and Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42) in cancer progression induced by each of the three oncogenes is described. Methods Colon adenocarcinoma cells with endogenous as well as ectopically expressed or silenced oncogenic mutations of BRAFV600E, KRASG12V and HRASG12V were employed. Signalling pathways and Rho GTPases were inhibited with specific kinase inhibitors and siRNAs. Cell motility and invasion properties were correlated with cytoskeletal properties and Rho GTPase activities. Results Evidence presented here indicate that BRAFV600E significantly induces cell migration and invasion properties in vitro in colon cancer cells, at least in part through activation of RhoA GTPase. The relationship established between BRAFV600E and RhoA activation is mediated by the MEK-ERK pathway. In parallel, KRASG12V enhances the ability of colon adenocarcinoma cells Caco-2 to migrate and invade through filopodia formation and PI3K-dependent Cdc42 activation. Ultimately increased cell migration and invasion, mediated by Rac1, along with the mesenchymal morphology obtained through the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) were the main characteristics rendered by HRASG12V in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, BRAF and KRAS oncogenes are shown to cooperate with the TGFβ-1 pathway to provide cells with additional transforming properties. Conclusion This

  7. Comparative analysis and clinical value of the expression of metalloproteases and their inhibitors by intratumour stromal mononuclear inflammatory cells and those at the invasive front of breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    González, Luis O; González-Reyes, Salomé; Marín, Laura; González, Lucía; González, José M; Lamelas, Maria L; Merino, Antonio M; Rodríguez, Elena; Pidal, Iván; del Casar, José M; Andicoechea, Alejandro; Vizoso, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) play an essential role in the degradation of stromal connective tissue and basement membrane components. The aim of this study was to determine whether the dynamic analysis of these components can help to predict tumour aggressiveness. An immunohistochemical study was performed using tissue arrays and specific antibodies against MMPs -1, -2, -7, -9, -11, -13 and -14 and TIMPs -1, -2 and -3. More than 5000 determinations on cancer specimens from 124 patients with invasive breast cancer were performed on the tumour centre core as well as on the invasive front. Immunostaining for MMPs/TIMPs on mononuclear inflammatory cells (MICs) was evaluated. To identify specific groups of tumours with distinct expression profiles, data obtained from both MICs populations were analysed by unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. When compared with MICs at the invasive front, intratumour MICs more frequently showed expression of MMP-7 and -1 and TIMP-3, but less frequently expression of MMP-9 and -11 and TIMP-2. Our data led us to consider the need of further studies in order to identify subsets of MICs and other protein elements of the microenvironment as attractive targets for new therapeutic strategies against cancer. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  8. Comparative analysis of risky behaviors of electric bicycles at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Pan; Guo, Yanyong; Yu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the risky behaviors of e-bike, e-scooter, and bicycle riders as they were crossing signalized intersections. Pearson's chi-square test was used to identify whether there were significant differences in the risky behaviors among e-bike, e-scooter, and bicycle riders. Binary logit models were developed to evaluate how various variables affected the behaviors of 2-wheeled vehicle riders at signalized intersections. Field data collection was conducted at 13 signalized intersections in 2 cities (Nanjing and Kunming) in China. Three different types of risky behaviors were identified, including stop beyond the stop line, riding in motorized lanes, and riding against traffic. Two-wheeled vehicle riders' gender and age and traffic conditions were significantly associated with the behaviors of 2-wheeled vehicle riders at the selected signalized intersections. Compared to e-bike and bicycle riders, e-scooter riders are more likely to take risky behaviors. More specifically, they are more likely to ride in motorized lanes and ride against traffic.

  9. Clonal growth: invasion or stability? A comparative study of clonal architecture and diversity in native and introduced lineages of Phragmites australis (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Douhovnikoff, Vladimir; Hazelton, Eric L G

    2014-09-01

    • The characteristics of clonal growth that are advantageous in invasive plants can also result in native plants' ability to resist invasion. In Maine, we compared the clonal architecture and diversity of an invasive lineage (introduced Phragmites) and a noninvasive lineage (native Phragmites) present in much of North America. This study is the first on stand-scale diversity using a sample size and systematic spatial-sampling scheme adequate for characterizing clonal structure in Phragmites. Our questions included: (1) Does the structure and extent of clonal growth suggest that the potential for clonal growth contributes to the invasiveness of the introduced lineage? (2) Is clonal growth common in the native lineage, acting as a possible source of ecological resistance and resilience?• Microsatellite markers were used to measure clonal sizes, architecture, and diversity within each lineage in stands within four marshes in Maine.• Clonal diversity measures indicated that clonal growth was significantly greater in stands of the native lineage than in the introduced. While lineage was a consistent predictor of clonal diversity relative ranking, the marsh location was a much stronger predictor of the absolute range of these values.• Our results indicate an important role for clonal growth in the space consolidation of native Phragmites and could explain why the introduced lineage, with stronger competitive traits, has not replaced the native where they co-occur. These results with regard to clone size, size distributions, singleton occurrence, and clonal architecture provide some evidence for stand development that follows a genotypic initial floristics model. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Performance of dual-source CT with high pitch spiral mode for coronary stent patency compared with invasive coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Yu, Qiang; Dong, Wei; Fu, Zhen-Hong; Yang, Jun-Jue; Guo, Jun; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the performance of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) using high-pitch spiral (HPS) mode for coronary stents patency. We conducted a prospective study on 120 patients with 260 previous stents implanted due to recurred suspicious symptoms of angina scheduled for invasive coronary angiography (ICA), while DSCT were conducted using HPS mode. There was no significant impact of age, body mass index or heat rate (HR) on image quality (P > 0.05), while HR variability had a slight impact on that (P < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of DSCT in detection of in-stent restenosis (ISR) based per-patient were 92.3%, 96.7%, 88.9%, and 97.8%, respectively. And those based per-stent were 87%, 96.8%, 83.3%, and 97.7% with un-assessment stents, 97.4%, 99.5%, 97.4%, and 99.5% without un-assessment stents. There was significant difference on sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV between diameter ≥ 3.0 mm group (93.3%, 97.9%, 87.5%, and 98.9%) and diameter < 3.0 mm group (80%, 93.3%, 80.0%, and 93.3%) (P < 0.05), and that between stent number ≥ 3 group (82.3%, 77.8%, 66.7%, and 60%) with < 3 group (97.3%, 80%, 96.5%, and 75%). The effective dose of DSCT (1.4 ± 0.5 mSv) is significantly less than that by invasive coronary angiography [4.0 ± 0.8 mSv (P < 0.01)]. DSCT using HPS mode provides good diagnostic performance on stent patency with lower effective dose in patients with HR < 65 beats/min.

  11. Comparative morphometric and chemical analyses of phenotypes of two invasive ambrosia beetles (Euwallacea spp.) in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Dallara, Paul L; Nelson, Lori J; Coleman, Tom W; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Carrillo, Daniel; Seybold, Steven J

    2016-03-02

    The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), Euwallacea sp., was first detected in 2003 in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Recently, this invasive species has become a major pest of many hardwood trees in urban and wildland forests throughout southern California. PSHB is nearly identical in morphology and life history to the tea shot hole borer (TSHB), Euwallacea fornicatus, an invasive pest of hardwoods in Florida, USA and many other parts of the world. However, molecular studies have suggested that the taxa are different species. We conducted morphometric and chemical analyses of the phenotypes of Euwallacea sp. collected in southern California (Los Angeles Co.) and E. fornicatus collected in Florida (Miami-Dade Co.). Our analyses indicated that PSHB has three larval instars. The third larval instar was separated from the first two instars by head capsule width with zero probability of misclassification. The body length, head width, and pronotal width of PSHB adult males were significantly less than those of females. Head width and pronotal width of female PSHB were significantly less than those of female TSHB. In contrast, body length, and ratio of body length to pronotal width of PSHB females were significantly greater than those of TSHB females. However, females of these two species could not be separated completely by these four measurements because of the overlapping ranges. Cuticular hydrocarbons detected in both species were exclusively alkanes (i.e., n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, and trimethylalkanes). Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of PSHB males and females were similar, but they both differed from that of TSHB females. Cuticular hydrocarbons of PSHB were predominantly internally branched dimethylalkanes with backbones of 31 and 33 carbons, whereas cuticular hydrocarbons of TSHB females were dominated by internally branched monomethyl- and dimethylalkanes with backbones of 29 carbons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  12. Performance of dual-source CT with high pitch spiral mode for coronary stent patency compared with invasive coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xia; Yu, Qiang; Dong, Wei; Fu, Zhen-Hong; Yang, Jun-Jue; Guo, Jun; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the performance of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) using high-pitch spiral (HPS) mode for coronary stents patency. Methods We conducted a prospective study on 120 patients with 260 previous stents implanted due to recurred suspicious symptoms of angina scheduled for invasive coronary angiography (ICA), while DSCT were conducted using HPS mode. Results There was no significant impact of age, body mass index or heat rate (HR) on image quality (P > 0.05), while HR variability had a slight impact on that (P < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of DSCT in detection of in-stent restenosis (ISR) based per-patient were 92.3%, 96.7%, 88.9%, and 97.8%, respectively. And those based per-stent were 87%, 96.8%, 83.3%, and 97.7% with un-assessment stents, 97.4%, 99.5%, 97.4%, and 99.5% without un-assessment stents. There was significant difference on sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV between diameter ≥ 3.0 mm group (93.3%, 97.9%, 87.5%, and 98.9%) and diameter < 3.0 mm group (80%, 93.3%, 80.0%, and 93.3%) (P < 0.05), and that between stent number ≥ 3 group (82.3%, 77.8%, 66.7%, and 60%) with < 3 group (97.3%, 80%, 96.5%, and 75%). The effective dose of DSCT (1.4 ± 0.5 mSv) is significantly less than that by invasive coronary angiography [4.0 ± 0.8 mSv (P < 0.01)]. Conclusion DSCT using HPS mode provides good diagnostic performance on stent patency with lower effective dose in patients with HR < 65 beats/min. PMID:27928222

  13. The ichnologic record of the continental invertebrate invasion: evolutionary trends in environmental expansion, ecospace utilization, and behavioral complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Genise, J.F.; Taylor, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    The combined study of continental trace fossils and associated sedimentary facies provides valuable evidence of colonization trends and events throughout the Phanerozoic. Colonization of continental environments was linked to the exploitation of empty or under-utilized ecospace. Although the nonmarine trace fossil record probably begins during the Late Ordovician, significant invasion of nonmarine biotopes began close to the Silurian-Devonian transition with the establishment of a mobile arthropod epifauna (Diplichnites ichnoguild) in coastal marine to alluvial plain settings. Additionally, the presence of vertical burrows in Devonian high-energy fluvial deposits reflects the establishment of a stationary, deep suspension-feeding infauna of the Skolithos ichnoguild. The earliest evidence of plant-arthropod interaction occurred close to the Silurian-Devonian boundary, but widespread and varied feeding patterns are known from the Carboniferous. During the Carboniferous, permanent subaqueous lacustrine settings were colonized by a diverse, mobile detritus-feeding epifauna of the Mermia ichnoguild, which reflects a significant palaeoenvironmental expansion of trace fossils. Paleozoic ichnologic evidence supports direct routes to the land from marginal marine environments, and migration to lakes from land settings. All nonmarine sedimentary environments were colonized by the Carboniferous, and subsequent patterns indicate an increase in ecospace utilization within already colonized depositional settings. During the Permian, back-filled traces of the Scoyenia ichnoguild record the establishment of a mobile, intermediate-depth, deposit-feeding in-fauna in alluvial and transitional alluvial-lacustrine sediment. Diversification of land plants and the establishment of ecologically diverse plant communities through time provided new niches to be exploited by arthropods. Nevertheless, most ot the evolutionary feeding innovations took place relatively early, during the Late

  14. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors From Late Adolescence Through Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of alcohol use, drinking to the point of drunkenness, smoking, cannabis use, deviance, and HIV-related sexual risk behavior were compared in a Swiss community sample (N = 2,843). Using a longitudinal cohort-sequential approach to link multiple assessments with 3 waves of data for each individual, the studied period spanned the ages of 16 to 29 years. Although smoking had a higher prevalence, both smoking and drinking up to the point of drunkenness followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Alcohol consumption was also best described by a quadratic model, though largely stable at a high level through the late 20s. Sexual risk behavior increased slowly from age 16 to age 22 and then remained largely stable. In contrast, cannabis use and deviance linearly declined from age 16 to age 29. Young men were at higher risk for all behaviors than were young women, but apart from deviance, patterning over time was similar for both sexes. Results about the timing of increase and decline as well as differences between risk behaviors may inform tailored prevention programs during the transition from late adolescence to adulthood. PMID:23231693

  15. Gender identification of Grasshopper Sparrows comparing behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ammer, F.K.; Wood, P.B.; McPherson, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct gender identification in monomorphic species is often difficult especially if males and females do not display obvious behavioral and breeding differences. We compared gender specific morphology and behavior with recently developed DNA techniques for gender identification in the monomorphic Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Gender was ascertained with DNA in 213 individuals using the 2550F/2718R primer set and 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Field observations using behavior and breeding characteristics to identify gender matched DNA analyses with 100% accuracy for adult males and females. Gender was identified with DNA for all captured juveniles that did not display gender specific traits or behaviors in the field. The molecular techniques used offered a high level of accuracy and may be useful in studies of dispersal mechanisms and winter assemblage composition in monomorphic species.

  16. Parenting and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: A Comparative Study of Sons and Daughters in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Miller, Brenda A.; Cupp, Pamela K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates parenting practices and the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among Thai adolescents, by focusing on the difference between sons and daughters. Data were derived from 420 families whose adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from seven districts in Bangkok using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one adolescent. Female adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental rules, communication about sex and parental disapproval of sex, as compared to males. There were no gender differences in the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among the adolescents. For males, high levels of parental monitoring, greater perception of parent disapproval of sex, and being raised by authoritative parents were associated with less delinquent behaviors. Among females, parental monitoring and parental closeness served as protective factors against sexual and delinquent behaviors. These findings should be useful for developing a body of knowledge and understanding on adolescent rearing among Thai parents. PMID:20420103

  17. A systematic review comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Nadine S; Dürsteler-Macfarland, Kenneth M; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Petitjean, Sylvie A

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence. Contingency management alone reliably reduced cocaine use during active treatment in all cited trials, whereas the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerged after treatment in 3 of 5 trials. Synergistic effects of the combination of contingency management plus cognitive-behavioral therapy are shown in 2 trials, but another 3 trials found no additive effects. Positive, rapid, and enduring effects on cocaine use are reliably seen with contingency management interventions, whereas measurable effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerge after treatment and are not as reliable as effects with contingency management.

  18. Comparative analysis of histone H3 and H4 post-translational modifications of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with different invasive capabilities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Liyan; Zhu, Mengxiao; Wang, Guojuan; Xie, Jianjun; Zhao, Yunlong; Fan, Enguo; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into a chromatin with the help of four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). Diverse histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are hence involved in the regulation of gene transcription. However, how this regulation does work is still poorly understood and lacks details. Here we used the mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to perform a comparative analysis of histone marks at a global level in two phenotypes of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with different invasiveness. We obtained a comprehensive profiling of histone H3 and H4 PTMs including lysine methylation, acetylation and novel butyrylation. The correlation between histone marks and cancer invasive capabilities was further characterized and one distinguishable PTM, H4K79me2 was discovered and verified in this study. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests that abnormal level of H4K79me2 may be related to poor survival of ESCC patients. Our results enrich the dataset of the feature pattern of global histone PTMs in ESCC cell lines. Core histone proteins, decorated by multiple biological significant protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as lysine acetylation and lysine methylation, are considered to regulate gene transcription and be associated with the development of cancer. Recent studies have further shown that global level of histone modifications is the potential hallmark of cancer to predict the clinical outcomes of human cancers. However, the regulation mechanism is largely unknown. Here we used the mass spectrometry based proteomics coupled with stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to characterize the global levels of histone marks in two phenotypes of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines with different invasive capabilities. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report about the comparative analysis for histone marks of the different invasive ESCC cell lines. A significantly

  19. Social Behaviors Increase in Children with Autism in the Presence of Animals Compared to Toys

    PubMed Central

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; McKenzie, Samantha J.; Beck, Alan M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs) compared to toys. Methods Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers). Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Results Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact) and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing) as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining) in the presence of animals compared to toys. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD. PMID:23468902

  20. Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E; McKenzie, Samantha J; Beck, Alan M; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs) compared to toys. Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers). Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact) and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing) as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining) in the presence of animals compared to toys. These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD.

  1. Endoscopic diagnosis of invasion depth for early colorectal carcinomas: a prospective comparative study of narrow-band imaging, acetic acid, and crystal violet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Gu, Li-Yang; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Gao, Yun-Jie; Ge, Zhi-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Bo

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have validated the effectiveness of narrow-band imaging (NBI) in estimating invasion depth of early colorectal cancers. However, comparative diagnostic accuracy between NBI and chromoendoscopy remains unclear. Other than crystal violet, use of acetic acid as a new staining method to diagnose deep submucosal invasive (SM-d) carcinomas has not been extensively evaluated. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement of NBI, acetic acid enhancement, and crystal violet staining in predicting invasion depth of early colorectal cancers. A total of 112 early colorectal cancers were prospectively observed by NBI, acetic acid, and crystal violet staining in sequence by 1 expert colonoscopist. All endoscopic images of each technique were stored and reassessed. Finally, 294 images of 98 lesions were selected for evaluation by 3 less experienced endoscopists. The accuracy of NBI, acetic acid, and crystal violet for real-time diagnosis was 85.7%, 86.6%, and 92.9%, respectively. For image evaluation by novices, NBI achieved the highest accuracy of 80.6%, compared with that of 72.4% by acetic acid, and 75.8% by crystal violet. The kappa values of NBI, acetic acid, and crystal violet among the 3 trainees were 0.74 (95% CI 0.65-0.83), 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.77), and 0.70 (95% CI 0.61-0.79), respectively. For diagnosis of SM-d carcinoma, NBI was slightly inferior to crystal violet staining, when performed by the expert endoscopist. However, NBI yielded higher accuracy than crystal violet staining, in terms of less experienced endoscopists. Acetic acid enhancement with pit pattern analysis was capable of predicting SM-d carcinoma, comparable to the traditional crystal violet staining.

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Whole-Gut Lavage Fluid and Pancreatic Juice Reveals a Less Invasive Method of Sampling Pancreatic Secretions.

    PubMed

    Rocker, Jana M; Tan, Marcus C; Thompson, Lee W; Contreras, Carlo M; DiPalma, Jack A; Pannell, Lewis K

    2016-05-26

    There are currently no reliable, non-invasive screening tests for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The fluid secreted from the pancreatic ductal system ("pancreatic juice") has been well-studied as a potential source of cancer biomarkers. However, it is invasive to collect. We recently observed that the proteomic profile of intestinal effluent from the bowel in response to administration of an oral bowel preparation solution (also known as whole-gut lavage fluid, WGLF) contains large amounts of pancreas-derived proteins. We therefore hypothesized that the proteomic profile is similar to that of pancreatic juice. In this study, we compared the proteomic profiles of 77 patients undergoing routine colonoscopy with the profiles of 19 samples of pure pancreatic juice collected during surgery. WGLF was collected from patients undergoing routine colonoscopy, and pancreatic juice was collected from patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. Protein was isolated from both samples using an optimized method and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Identified proteins were compared between samples and groups to determine similarity of the two fluids. We then compared our results with literature reports of pancreatic juice-based studies to determine similarity. We found 104 proteins in our pancreatic juice samples, of which 90% were also found in our WGLF samples. The majority (67%) of the total proteins found in the WGLF were common to pancreatic juice, with intestine-specific proteins making up a smaller proportion. WGLF and pancreatic juice appear to have similar proteomic profiles. This supports the notion that WGLF is a non-invasive, surrogate bio-fluid for pancreatic juice. Further studies are required to further elucidate its role in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of a Burnout Reduction Intervention for Behavioral Health Providers.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Angela L; Kukla, Marina; Morse, Gary; Davis, Louanne; Leiter, Michael; Monroe-DeVita, Maria; Flanagan, Mindy E; Russ, Alissa; Wasmuth, Sara; Eliacin, Johanne; Collins, Linda; Salyers, Michelle P

    2016-08-01

    Prior research found preliminary effectiveness for Burnout Reduction: Enhanced Awareness, Tools, Handouts, and Education (BREATHE), a daylong workshop for reducing burnout among behavioral health providers. Using a longer follow-up compared with prior research, this study compared the effectiveness of BREATHE and a control condition. Behavioral health providers (N=145) from three U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs facilities and two social service agencies were randomly assigned to BREATHE or person-centered treatment planning. Burnout and other outcomes were compared across groups over time. Analyses yielded no significant differences between groups. However, BREATHE participants showed small but statistically significant improvements in cynicism (six weeks) and in emotional exhaustion and positive expectations for clients (six months). Participants in the control condition showed no significant changes over time. Although it did not demonstrate comparative effectiveness versus a control condition, BREATHE could be strengthened and targeted toward both distressed providers and their organizations.

  4. Risky behavior among Black Caribbean and Black African adolescents in England: How do they compare?

    PubMed

    Bowe, Anica

    2016-01-01

    Black Caribbean and Black African adolescents in England face academic and social challenges that might predisposition them to engaging in more risky behavior. This study explored the growth trajectories of risky behavior among adolescents in England over 3 years (14/15, 15/16, and 16/17 years of age) to determine the extent to which ethnic groups differed. Data were taken from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England database (N = 15,770). This database contained eight different ethnic groups. Risky behavior was defined by an 8-item scale that represented three classes of risky behavior. Individual theta scores for risky behavior were calculated for individuals at each time point and modeled over time. Interaction terms between sex, year, ethnicity, and class were also examined. Findings confirmed previous research that showed ethnic group differences in means. They also demonstrated that there are differences in slopes as well, even after controlling for class. In fact, class appeared to have a reverse effect on the risky behavior of black adolescents. Further, Black adolescent groups were not engaging in higher levels of risky behavior as compared to white adolescents (the dominant population). In actuality, Mixed adolescents engaged in the highest levels of risky behavior which was a notable finding given that the Mixed group has recently began to receive a more focused attention by scholars and the government of England. It is important that social workers and policy-makers recognize ethnicity in making general preventative decisions for adolescents. Second, class does not have a common effect on adolescent problem behaviors as often believed. Finally, black adolescents' communities might contain important protective factors that ought to be extensively explored. Conversely, Mixed adolescents' communities might contain more risk factors that ought to be addressed.

  5. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  6. Developmental Differences in Parenting Behavior: Comparing Adolescent, Emerging Adult, and Adult Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    The nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort data set was used to compare parenting behaviors of adolescent mothers (less than 19 years old), emerging adult mothers (19-25 years old), and adult mothers (greater than 25 years old) when their children were 2 years old. Regression models controlling for socioeconomic…

  7. Comparing Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Problem Solving Therapy, and Treatment as Usual in a High Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Carment D.; Quinn, Andrea; Plever, Sally; Emmerson, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), or treatment as usual (TAU) were compared in the management of suicide attempters. Participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire at pre- and posttreatment. Both CBT and PST…

  8. Prompting Safety Belt Use: Comparative Impact on the Target Behavior and Relevant Body Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Matthew G.; Geller, E. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Researchers used two behavioral prompts to compare increases in safety belt use: a Click It or Ticket prompt or a Flash-for-Life prompt. Participants were 1,822 unbuckled drivers exiting two student parking lots of a large university. Research assistants identified unbuckled drivers, flashed one of the two prompts, and recorded whether drivers…

  9. Comparing Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Problem Solving Therapy, and Treatment as Usual in a High Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Carment D.; Quinn, Andrea; Plever, Sally; Emmerson, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), or treatment as usual (TAU) were compared in the management of suicide attempters. Participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire at pre- and posttreatment. Both CBT and PST…

  10. A Comparative Study of the Seriousness Attributed to Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotzens, Concepcion; Badia, Mar; Genovard, Candido; Dezcallar, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we present a comparative analysis of three samples of teachers from Coimbra, Barcelona and Murcia that provides insight into the importance teachers attach to disruptive behavior and how different perspectives and values affect their daily work. Method: This research is framed within a quantitative empirical-analytic…

  11. Comparing Classroom Interactive Behaviors of Science and Non-Science Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel; Morphew, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study compared classroom interactive behaviors of science pre-service teachers and pre-service teachers of other subjects. Participants included pre-service teachers enrolled in a general methods course for secondary educators and its school-based fieldwork counterpart. Statistical tests found that science pre-service teachers had fewer…

  12. Using Cover, Copy, and Compare Spelling with and without Timing for Elementary Students with Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Danette; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark; Johnson, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cover, copy, and compare (CCC) procedures on spelling performance with two students. The participants were two elementary students enrolled in a self-contained behavior intervention classroom. A multiple baseline design across participants was employed to evaluate the effects of CCC…

  13. A Comparative Study of the Seriousness Attributed to Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotzens, Concepcion; Badia, Mar; Genovard, Candido; Dezcallar, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we present a comparative analysis of three samples of teachers from Coimbra, Barcelona and Murcia that provides insight into the importance teachers attach to disruptive behavior and how different perspectives and values affect their daily work. Method: This research is framed within a quantitative empirical-analytic…

  14. Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, C. Ronald

    A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…

  15. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  16. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  17. Developmental Differences in Parenting Behavior: Comparing Adolescent, Emerging Adult, and Adult Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    The nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort data set was used to compare parenting behaviors of adolescent mothers (less than 19 years old), emerging adult mothers (19-25 years old), and adult mothers (greater than 25 years old) when their children were 2 years old. Regression models controlling for socioeconomic…

  18. Very-late-antigen-4 (VLA-4)-mediated brain invasion by neutrophils leads to interactions with microglia, increased ischemic injury and impaired behavior in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Jens; Riek-Burchardt, Monika; Herz, Josephine; Doeppner, Thorsten R; König, Rebecca; Hütten, Heiko; Etemire, Eloho; Männ, Linda; Klingberg, Anika; Fischer, Thomas; Görtler, Michael W; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Reichardt, Peter; Schraven, Burkhart; Hermann, Dirk M; Reymann, Klaus G; Gunzer, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal injury from ischemic stroke is aggravated by invading peripheral immune cells. Early infiltrates of neutrophil granulocytes and T-cells influence the outcome of stroke. So far, however, neither the timing nor the cellular dynamics of neutrophil entry, its consequences for the invaded brain area, or the relative importance of T-cells has been extensively studied in an intravital setting. Here, we have used intravital two-photon microscopy to document neutrophils and brain-resident microglia in mice after induction of experimental stroke. We demonstrated that neutrophils immediately rolled, firmly adhered, and transmigrated at sites of endothelial activation in stroke-affected brain areas. The ensuing neutrophil invasion was associated with local blood-brain barrier breakdown and infarct formation. Brain-resident microglia recognized both endothelial damage and neutrophil invasion. In a cooperative manner, they formed cytoplasmic processes to physically shield activated endothelia and trap infiltrating neutrophils. Interestingly, the systemic blockade of very-late-antigen-4 immediately and very effectively inhibited the endothelial interaction and brain entry of neutrophils. This treatment thereby strongly reduced the ischemic tissue injury and effectively protected the mice from stroke-associated behavioral impairment. Behavioral preservation was also equally well achieved with the antibody-mediated depletion of myeloid cells or specifically neutrophils. In contrast, T-cell depletion more effectively reduced the infarct volume without improving the behavioral performance. Thus, neutrophil invasion of the ischemic brain is rapid, massive, and a key mediator of functional impairment, while peripheral T-cells promote brain damage. Acutely depleting T-cells and inhibiting brain infiltration of neutrophils might, therefore, be a powerful early stroke treatment.

  19. Response of native insect communities to invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Bezemer, T Martijn; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Cronin, James T

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants can disrupt a range of trophic interactions in native communities. As a novel resource they can affect the performance of native insect herbivores and their natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators, and this can lead to host shifts of these herbivores and natural enemies. Through the release of volatile compounds, and by changing the chemical complexity of the habitat, invasive plants can also affect the behavior of native insects such as herbivores, parasitoids, and pollinators. Studies that compare insects on related native and invasive plants in invaded habitats show that the abundance of insect herbivores is often lower on invasive plants, but that damage levels are similar. The impact of invasive plants on the population dynamics of resident insect species has been rarely examined, but invasive plants can influence the spatial and temporal dynamics of native insect (meta)populations and communities, ultimately leading to changes at the landscape level.

  20. Establishing the behavioral basis for an attract-and-kill strategy to manage the invasive Halyomorpha halys in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) is an invasive, polyphagous insect that inflicts serious economic injury on specialty crops in the United States. Growers have been forced to respond by increasing the frequency of broad-spectrum insecticide applications. One strategy to reduce reliance on insecticides is ...

  1. Behavioral response of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to host plant stimuli augmented with semiochemicals in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While much work has focused on understanding how the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, or Halyomorpha halys, responds to pheromonal stimuli, very little work has explored the response of H. halys to plant volatiles and other host stimuli. The goals of the current study were to understand 1) whet...

  2. Disruptive behavior in Down syndrome children: a cross-sectional comparative study.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Sohier; El-Hadidy, Mohamed; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Amdel-Hady, Dina; Wahba, Yahya; Al-Haggar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with intellectual disability, and patients with DS show significant psychopathology. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of disruptive behavior in DS patients compared to their siblings, and to find any association between the disruptive behavior and the degree of intelligence. This is a cross-sectional comparative study done in Mansoura University Children's Hospital during the period March 1, 2012-February 28, 2013. In this study, 100 cases of DS and an equal number of their brothers/sisters were enrolled in the study. The Arabic version of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used for assessing social and mental intelligence quotient (IQ). The Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children (MINI-KID) and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) rating scale were used for assessing disruptive behavior disorders. Both social and mental IQs were significantly higher in non-DS than in DS cases. The prevalence of different variants of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD)-impulsive, inattentive, and combined types-was significantly lower in non-DS than in DS cases; however, there was no statistical difference between both groups as regards oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder (CD). Also among DS cases, impulsive and combined types varied significantly with the degree of their IQ. ADHD was more common among DS patients with a special impact of IQ on the type of psychiatric illness. We recommend psychiatric assessment for DS patients as a part of multidisciplinary management.

  3. Sexual behavior in pregnancy: comparing between sexual education group and nonsexual education group.

    PubMed

    Wannakosit, Salakjit; Phupong, Vorapong

    2010-10-01

    Sexuality usually decreases during pregnancy. To evaluate sexual behavior during pregnancy, comparing two groups. One had sexual education and the other had none. After randomizing two groups of pregnant women, they completed self-administered questionnaires regarding attitudes and sexual behavior before and during pregnancy. Sexual education was provided in one group and a second self-administered questionnaire was completed 12 weeks later. Responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Comparison of change of sexual behavior between two groups was analyzed using chi-square and student t-tests. The change in frequency of coitus during pregnancy was compared between the sexual education group and the noneducation group. There was no statistically difference in changes of sexual behavior between the two groups. There was a reduction in frequency of coitus (90.6% vs. 94.9%, P>0.05) between the nonsexual education group and the sexual education group and no statistically significant change in mean reduction of sexual desire (8.9 vs. 4.4, P>0.05), sexual arousal (14.3 vs. 13.1, P>0.05), satisfaction from coitus (15.4 vs. 7.2, P>0.05), and orgasm from coitus (12.3 vs. 12.3, P>0.05). The change of sexual behavior during pregnancy in the sexual education group was not different from that in the nonsexual education group. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. PANI and Graphene/PANI Nanocomposite Films — Comparative Toluene Gas Sensing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Mitesh; Balamurugan, Chandran; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2013-01-01

    The present work discusses and compares the toluene sensing behavior of polyaniline (PANI) and graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite (C-PANI) films. The graphene–PANI ratio in the nanocomposite polymer film is optimized at 1:2. For this, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent is used to prepare PANI-NMP solution as well as graphene-PANI-NMP solution. The films are later annealed at 230 °C, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tested for their sensing behavior towards toluene. The sensing behaviors of the films are analyzed at different temperatures (30, 50 and 100 °C) for 100 ppm toluene in air. The nanocomposite C-PANI films have exhibited better overall toluene sensing behavior in terms of sensor response, response and recovery time as well as repeatability. Although the sensor response of PANI (12.6 at 30 °C, 38.4 at 100 °C) is comparatively higher than that of C-PANI (8.4 at 30 °C, 35.5 at 100 °C), response and recovery time of PANI and C-PANI varies with operating temperature. C-PANI at 50 °C seems to have better toluene sensing behavior in terms of response time and recovery time. PMID:24300600

  5. PANI and graphene/PANI nanocomposite films--comparative toluene gas sensing behavior.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Mitesh; Balamurugan, Chandran; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2013-12-03

    The present work discusses and compares the toluene sensing behavior of polyaniline (PANI) and graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite (C-PANI) films. The graphene-PANI ratio in the nanocomposite polymer film is optimized at 1:2. For this, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent is used to prepare PANI-NMP solution as well as graphene-PANI-NMP solution. The films are later annealed at 230 °C, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tested for their sensing behavior towards toluene. The sensing behaviors of the films are analyzed at different temperatures (30, 50 and 100 °C) for 100 ppm toluene in air. The nanocomposite C-PANI films have exhibited better overall toluene sensing behavior in terms of sensor response, response and recovery time as well as repeatability. Although the sensor response of PANI (12.6 at 30 °C, 38.4 at 100 °C) is comparatively higher than that of C-PANI (8.4 at 30 °C, 35.5 at 100 °C), response and recovery time of PANI and C-PANI varies with operating temperature. C-PANI at 50 °C seems to have better toluene sensing behavior in terms of response time and recovery time.

  6. COMPARING SAFE VS. AT-RISK BEHAVIORAL DATA TO PREDICT ACCIDENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2001-11-01

    The Safety Observations Achieve Results (SOAR) program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) encourages employees to perform in-field observations of each other’s behaviors. One purpose for performing these observations is that it gives the observers the opportunity to correct, if needed, their co-worker’s at-risk work practices and habits (i.e., behaviors). The underlying premise of doing this is that major injuries (e.g., OSHA-recordable events) are prevented from occurring because the lower level at-risk behaviors are identified and corrected before they can propagate into culturally accepted unsafe behaviors that result in injuries or fatalities. However, unlike other observation programs, SOAR also emphasizes positive reinforcement for safe behaviors observed. The underlying premise of doing this is that positive reinforcement of safe behaviors helps establish a strong positive safety culture. Since the SOAR program collects both safe and at-risk leading indicator data, this provides a unique opportunity to assess and compare the two kinds of data in terms of their ability to predict future adverse safety events. This paper describes the results of analyses performed on SOAR data to assess their relative predictive ability. Implications are discussed.

  7. Toxicity of an herbicide and adjuvant to saltmarsh invertebrates in the management of invasive grass; Comparative laboratory and field tests.

    PubMed

    Kleinhenz, Linda S; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Verspaandonk, Emily R; Coombes, Darcy C; Howe, Steffan; Shimeta, Jeff

    2016-08-15

    Coastal weeds are often treated with herbicides without knowledge of non-target impacts, and toxicity data from standardized test species can have limited applicability. We evaluated toxicity to invertebrates from Fusilade Forte® and the adjuvant Hasten® in the control of invasive salt marsh grass, Spartina anglica. For 3 of 4 local invertebrates, Fusilade Forte® was moderately toxic (96h LC50 5.4-144mgL(-1)), whereas Hasten® was less toxic (14.2-450mgL(-1)). For most species, the mixture was more toxic than the herbicide alone, with 96h LC50 reduced 23-45%. However, a field experiment applying typical concentrations (1000×the lowest 96h LC50) showed low concentrations of herbicide residues and no detrimental impacts on invertebrates over 6months. The results reveal the importance of testing locally relevant species for potential toxicity, and of comparison tests with field exposures to determine the realised toxicity in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CK2 Secreted by Leishmania braziliensis Mediates Macrophage Association Invasion: A Comparative Study between Virulent and Avirulent Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Zylbersztejn, Ana Madeira Brito; de Morais, Carlos Gustavo Vieira; Lima, Ana Karina Castro; Souza, Joyce Eliza de Oliveira; Lopes, Angela Hampshire; Da-Silva, Sílvia Amaral Gonçalves; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso; Dutra, Patrícia Maria Lourenço

    2015-01-01

    CK2 is a protein kinase distributed in different compartments of Leishmania braziliensis: an externally oriented ecto-CK2, an intracellular CK2, and a secreted CK2. This latter form is constitutively secreted from the parasite (CsCK2), but such secretion may be highly enhanced by the association of specific molecules, including enzyme substrates, which lead to a higher enzymatic activity, called inductively secreted CK2 (IsCK2). Here, we examined the influence of secreted CK2 (sCK2) activity on the infectivity of a virulent L. braziliensis strain. The virulent strain presented 121-fold higher total CK2 activity than those found in an avirulent strain. The use of specific CK2 inhibitors (TBB, DRB, or heparin) inhibited virulent parasite growth, whereas no effect was observed in the avirulent parasites. When these inhibitors were added to the interaction assays between the virulent L. braziliensis strain and macrophages, association index was drastically inhibited. Polyamines enhanced sCK2 activity and increased the association index between parasites and macrophages. Finally, sCK2 and the supernatant of the virulent strain increased the association index between the avirulent strain and macrophages, which was inhibited by TBB. Thus, the kinase enzyme CK2 seems to be important to invasion mechanisms of L. braziliensis. PMID:26120579

  9. [Semi-invasive monitoring of cardiac output in renal transplantation by a new device using arterial pressure waveform analysis compare with intermittent pulmonary thermodilution].

    PubMed

    Terada, Takashi; Maemura, Yumi; Toyoda, Daisuke; Iwasaki, Ririko; Sato, Nobukazu; Ochtai, Ryoichi

    2010-07-01

    Clinical usefulness of PA catheter is controversial. We compared a new semi-invasive device (FloTrac/Vigileo) using arterial pressure waveform analysis for CO measurement in patients undergoing renal transplantation with bolus thermodilution method. Simultaneously CCO was measured, and we compared CCO with that obtained by bolus thermodilution method. Forty seven patients undergoing renal transplantation were enrolled. A PAC was inserted and radial arterial access was used for semi-invasive determination of CO (APCO) with the Vigileo. CO was measured simultaneously by bolus thermodilution and the Vigileo technique, and after starting operation, volume loading, before surgery, and other points were measured over 1 hour during measurements. And CCO was measured simultaneously at all points. Statistical analysis was performed using the method described by Bland and Altman. Bias was defined as the mean difference between the volumes obtained by pulmonary artery thermodilution and those by arterial pressure waveform analysis. Precision was expressed by the upper and lower limits of agreement. Means of age, height and weight were 45 years, 163.8 cm and 59.2 kg, respectively. Regression analysis of CO; APCO and ICO showed y = 0.8x + 2.2, R2 = 0.57. CCO and ICO; y = 0.8x + 1.1, R2 = 0.74. Average of APCO and ICO; bias = -0.65. SD = 1.54 average of CCO and ICO; bias = 0.38, SD = 1.23. In renal transplantation, CO measured by a new semi-invasive arterial pressure waveform analysis device showed good agreement with the volume obtained by intermittent pulmonary artery thermodilution method.

  10. Minimally invasive, imaging guided virtual autopsy compared to conventional autopsy in foetal, newborn and infant cases: study protocol for the paediatric virtual autopsy trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of declining autopsy rates around the world, post-mortem MR imaging is a promising alternative to conventional autopsy in the investigation of infant death. A major drawback of this non-invasive autopsy approach is the fact that histopathological and microbiological examination of the tissue is not possible. The objective of this prospective study is to compare the performance of minimally invasive, virtual autopsy, including CT-guided biopsy, with conventional autopsy procedures in a paediatric population. Methods/Design Foetuses, newborns and infants that are referred for autopsy at three different institutions associated with the University of Zurich will be eligible for recruitment. All bodies will be examined with a commercial CT and a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, masked to the results of conventional autopsy. After cross-sectional imaging, CT-guided tissue sampling will be performed by a multifunctional robotic system (Virtobot) allowing for automated post-mortem biopsies. Virtual autopsy results will be classified with regards to the likely final diagnosis and major pathological findings and compared to the results of conventional autopsy, which remains the diagnostic gold standard. Discussion There is an urgent need for the development of alternative post-mortem examination methods, not only as a counselling tool for families and as a quality control measure for clinical diagnosis and treatment but also as an instrument to advance medical knowledge and clinical practice. This interdisciplinary study will determine whether virtual autopsy will narrow the gap in information between non-invasive and traditional autopsy procedures. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888380 PMID:24438163

  11. Minimally invasive, imaging guided virtual autopsy compared to conventional autopsy in foetal, newborn and infant cases: study protocol for the paediatric virtual autopsy trial.

    PubMed

    Rüegger, Christoph M; Bartsch, Christine; Martinez, Rosa Maria; Ross, Steffen; Bolliger, Stephan A; Koller, Brigitte; Held, Leonhard; Bruder, Elisabeth; Bode, Peter Karl; Caduff, Rosmarie; Frey, Bernhard; Schäffer, Leonhard; Bucher, Hans Ulrich

    2014-01-20

    In light of declining autopsy rates around the world, post-mortem MR imaging is a promising alternative to conventional autopsy in the investigation of infant death. A major drawback of this non-invasive autopsy approach is the fact that histopathological and microbiological examination of the tissue is not possible. The objective of this prospective study is to compare the performance of minimally invasive, virtual autopsy, including CT-guided biopsy, with conventional autopsy procedures in a paediatric population. Foetuses, newborns and infants that are referred for autopsy at three different institutions associated with the University of Zurich will be eligible for recruitment. All bodies will be examined with a commercial CT and a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, masked to the results of conventional autopsy. After cross-sectional imaging, CT-guided tissue sampling will be performed by a multifunctional robotic system (Virtobot) allowing for automated post-mortem biopsies. Virtual autopsy results will be classified with regards to the likely final diagnosis and major pathological findings and compared to the results of conventional autopsy, which remains the diagnostic gold standard. There is an urgent need for the development of alternative post-mortem examination methods, not only as a counselling tool for families and as a quality control measure for clinical diagnosis and treatment but also as an instrument to advance medical knowledge and clinical practice. This interdisciplinary study will determine whether virtual autopsy will narrow the gap in information between non-invasive and traditional autopsy procedures. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888380.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for Adaptive Learning in Changing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Marković, Dimitrije; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic models of decision making under various forms of uncertainty have been applied in recent years to numerous behavioral and model-based fMRI studies. These studies were highly successful in enabling a better understanding of behavior and delineating the functional properties of brain areas involved in decision making under uncertainty. However, as different studies considered different models of decision making under uncertainty, it is unclear which of these computational models provides the best account of the observed behavioral and neuroimaging data. This is an important issue, as not performing model comparison may tempt researchers to over-interpret results based on a single model. Here we describe how in practice one can compare different behavioral models and test the accuracy of model comparison and parameter estimation of Bayesian and maximum-likelihood based methods. We focus our analysis on two well-established hierarchical probabilistic models that aim at capturing the evolution of beliefs in changing environments: Hierarchical Gaussian Filters and Change Point Models. To our knowledge, these two, well-established models have never been compared on the same data. We demonstrate, using simulated behavioral experiments, that one can accurately disambiguate between these two models, and accurately infer free model parameters and hidden belief trajectories (e.g., posterior expectations, posterior uncertainties, and prediction errors) even when using noisy and highly correlated behavioral measurements. Importantly, we found several advantages of Bayesian inference and Bayesian model comparison compared to often-used Maximum-Likelihood schemes combined with the Bayesian Information Criterion. These results stress the relevance of Bayesian data analysis for model-based neuroimaging studies that investigate human decision making under uncertainty. PMID:27148030

  13. Eating and health behaviors in vegans compared to omnivores: Dispelling common myths.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Sydney; Coffino, Jaime A; Hormes, Julia M

    2017-11-01

    Studies comparing eating behaviors in individuals avoiding meat and other animal products to omnivores have produced largely inconclusive findings, in part due to a failure to obtain sufficiently large samples of vegan participants to make meaningful comparisons. This study examined eating and health behaviors in a large community sample of dietary vegans ("vegans"), compared to omnivores. Participants (n = 578, 80.4% female) completed an online questionnaire assessing a range of eating- and other health-related attitudes and behaviors. Vegans (62.0%, n = 358) and omnivores (38.1%, n = 220) were comparable in terms of demographics. Vegans scored significantly lower than omnivores the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire (multivariate p < 0.001), a measure of pathological eating behavior. They also were more likely to consider themselves "healthy" (p < 0.001) and to prepare food at home (p < 0.001). Vegans more frequently consumed fruits, vegetables, nuts, beans and grains (all p < 0.001), and less frequently consumed caffeinated soft drinks (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between vegans and omnivores on measures of eating styles, body mass index, smoking or exercise behaviors, or problems related to alcohol consumption. Effect sizes for comparisons on eating-related measures were generally small, with ηp(2) ranging from <0.01 to 0.05; the size of effects for comparisons on measures of other health behaviors ranged from small to medium (Φ = 0.09 to 0.33 and ηp(2) < 0.01 to 0.42). Taken together, findings suggest that ultimately, vegans do not differ much from omnivores in their eating attitudes and behaviors, and when they do, differences indicate slightly healthier attitudes and behaviors towards food. Similarly, vegans closely resembled omnivores in non-eating related health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative study of sexual function, behavior, and cognitions of women with lifelong vaginismus.

    PubMed

    Cherner, Rebecca A; Reissing, Elke D

    2013-11-01

    Vaginismus is classified as a sexual dysfunction, yet limited research is available on the sexual function and behavior of women with this condition. Comparing women with lifelong vaginismus to women with lifelong dyspareunia and women with no pain during intercourse, this study explored sexual function, anxiety, and behavior along with cognitions related to vaginal penetration. A total of 152 women completed an online survey that included a series of validated questionnaires. Main findings indicated that, relative to both comparison groups, women in the vaginismus group reported a more limited range of sexual behavior across the lifespan and more maladaptive cognitions related to fear of losing control of one's body and the situation during penetration. Compared to the no-pain group, both symptomatic groups reported more difficulties across several indicators of sexual function, more limited sexual behavior in the past year and past month, and more maladaptive cognitions related to vaginal penetration. However, women with vaginismus reported more sexual desire and less difficulty with lubrication compared to women with dyspareunia. Numerous sexual problems extending beyond vaginal penetration difficulties were confirmed, suggesting a need for broader treatment approaches not limited to the experience of vaginal penetration. Results were discussed as they relate to the fear-avoidance model of vaginismus.

  15. Investigating Invasives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  16. Investigating Invasives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  17. Learning of musical and linguistic structures: comparing event-related potentials and behavior.

    PubMed

    Francois, Clément; Schön, Daniele

    2010-10-06

    To learn a new language, it is necessary for the learner to succeed in segmenting the continuous stream of sounds into significant units. Previous behavioral studies have shown that it is possible to segment a language or musical stream based only on probabilities of occurrence between adjacent syllables/tones. Here we used a sung language and tested participants' learning of both linguistic and musical structures while recording electroencephalography. Although behavioral results showed learning of the linguistic structure only, event-related potential results for both dimensions showed a negative component sensitive to the degree of familiarity of items. We discuss this component as an index of lexical search, also pointing to the greater sensitivity of the event-related potentials compared to the behavioral responses.

  18. Medical predictors for long-term behavioral and emotional outcomes in children and adolescents after invasive treatment of congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Spijkerboer, Alinda W; De Koning, Wilfred B; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Bogers, Ad J J C; Verhulst, Frank C; Helbing, Willem A; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study was to test the following: (1) the predictive value of medical variables for long-term parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents who underwent invasive treatment of congenital heart disease in infancy and (2) the relationship between parental psychological distress and parental reports on problems in children. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to investigate to what extent behavioral and emotional problems in 7- to 17-year-old children with congenital heart disease can be predicted by the following: (1) medical history, (2) therapeutic intervention and direct postinterventional course, (3) long-term medical course, (4) present contact with physicians, and (5) present medical status. The General Health Questionnaire was used to assess parental distress (especially anxiety). Higher Child Behavior Checklist total problems scores were predicted by cardiac medication before therapeutic intervention. Palliative intervention (Rashkind procedure) before therapeutic intervention was associated with more favorable scores on total problems and externalizing. Long-term maternal distress was significantly related to parent-reported problems in children. Long-term behavioral and emotional outcomes are only marginally predicted by medical variables. In counseling of children with congenital heart disease and their parents, attention should be paid to long-term maternal distress that has an influence on parent-reported problems in children. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptions of relationship satisfaction and addictive behavior: Comparing pornography and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Tara M; Bridges, Ana J

    2012-12-01

    Background and aims Research indicates that excessive pornography use can negatively impact romantic relationships. However, it is unclear whether these negative outcomes are different than negative outcomes produced by other compulsive or addictive behaviors, such as drug use. This study compared perceptions of relationship outcomes from either a romantic partner's excessive marijuana or pornography use. Furthermore, this study experimentally manipulated four factors potentially related to perceptions of relationship satisfaction and addictive behavior. Methods A total of 186 college-aged women read 16 scenarios describing heterosexual romantic relationships in which one partner used either pornography or marijuana. Each scenario varied on four variables: relationship commitment, secrecy of partner's behavior, frequency of partner's behavior, and context of partner's behavior. Results Results suggest that partner pornography and marijuana use are perceived to impact romantic relationships similarly and are influenced by similar factors, such as greater frequency, higher secrecy, and partner's availability for interaction. Conclusions Such findings are consistent with recommendations by professionals that compulsive pornography use be considered worthy of treatment intervention.

  20. Dermoscopic features of thin melanomas: a comparative study of melanoma in situ and invasive melanomas smaller than or equal to 1mm*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Vanessa Priscilla Martins; Ikino, Juliana Kida; Sens, Mariana Mazzochi; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen; Di Giunta, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermoscopy allows the early detection of melanomas. The preoperative determination of Breslow index by dermoscopy could be useful in planning the surgical approach and in selecting patients for sentinel lymph node biopsy. OBJECTIVES This study aims at describing the dermoscopic features of thin melanomas and comparing melanomas in situ with invasive melanomas less than or equal to 1 mm thick. METHODS This was an observational retrospective study in which the dermoscopy photographs of 41 thin melanomas were evaluated. Three observers evaluated together 14 dermoscopic criteria. RESULTS Among thin melanomas, the most frequent criteria were presence of asymmetry in two axes in 95% of cases (39 cases), 3 or more colors in 80.4% of cases (33 cases), atypical dots or globules in 58.5% of cases (24 cases) and atypical network or streaks in 53.6% of cases (22 cases). The group of invasive melanomas presented with a higher frequency and statistical significance (p <0.05) 3 or more colors (OR: 16.1), milky red areas (OR: 4.8) and blue-white veil (OR: 20.4), and a greater tendency to have streaks or atypical network (OR: 3.66). CONCLUSIONS Thin melanomas tend to have asymmetry in the two axes, 3 or more colors, atypical dots or globules and atypical network or streaks. Melanomas in situ tend to have up to 2 colors, no blue-white veil and no milky red area. Invasive melanomas tend to have 3 or more colors, a milky red area, blue-white veil, and atypical network or streaks. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24173175

  1. Comparative cranial morphology in living and extinct platypuses: Feeding behavior, electroreception, and loss of teeth

    PubMed Central

    Asahara, Masakazu; Koizumi, Masahiro; Macrini, Thomas E.; Hand, Suzanne J.; Archer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The modern platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, has an eye structure similar to aquatic mammals; however, platypuses also have a “sixth sense” associated with the bill electro- and mechanoreception that they use without opening their eyes underwater. We hypothesize that Ornithorhynchus and the Miocene taxon Obdurodon have different sensory capacities, which may have resulted from differences in foraging behavior. To estimate differences in foraging, sensory systems, and anatomical divergence between these monotremes, we compared their skull morphologies. Results indicate that the bill of Obdurodon is more dorsally deflected than that of Ornithorhynchus, suggesting a pelagic foraging behavior in Obdurodon compared to the bottom-feeding behavior in Ornithorhynchus. The infraorbital foramen of Obdurodon, through which the maxillary nerve passes sensory data from the bill to the brain, is relatively less developed than that of Ornithorhynchus. Whereas bill-focused sensory perception was likely shared among Mesozoic monotremes, the highly developed electrosensory system of Ornithorhynchus may represent an adaptation to foraging in cloudy water. Computed tomography imagery indicates that the enlarged infraorbital canal of Ornithorhynchus restricts the space available for maxillary tooth roots. Hence, loss of functional teeth in Ornithorhynchus may possibly have resulted from a shift in foraging behavior and coordinate elaboration of the electroreceptive sensory system. Well-developed electroreceptivity in monotremes is known at least as far back as the early Cretaceous; however, there are differences in the extent of elaboration of the feature among members of the ornithorhynchid lineage. PMID:27757425

  2. Comparative cranial morphology in living and extinct platypuses: Feeding behavior, electroreception, and loss of teeth.

    PubMed

    Asahara, Masakazu; Koizumi, Masahiro; Macrini, Thomas E; Hand, Suzanne J; Archer, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The modern platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, has an eye structure similar to aquatic mammals; however, platypuses also have a "sixth sense" associated with the bill electro- and mechanoreception that they use without opening their eyes underwater. We hypothesize that Ornithorhynchus and the Miocene taxon Obdurodon have different sensory capacities, which may have resulted from differences in foraging behavior. To estimate differences in foraging, sensory systems, and anatomical divergence between these monotremes, we compared their skull morphologies. Results indicate that the bill of Obdurodon is more dorsally deflected than that of Ornithorhynchus, suggesting a pelagic foraging behavior in Obdurodon compared to the bottom-feeding behavior in Ornithorhynchus. The infraorbital foramen of Obdurodon, through which the maxillary nerve passes sensory data from the bill to the brain, is relatively less developed than that of Ornithorhynchus. Whereas bill-focused sensory perception was likely shared among Mesozoic monotremes, the highly developed electrosensory system of Ornithorhynchus may represent an adaptation to foraging in cloudy water. Computed tomography imagery indicates that the enlarged infraorbital canal of Ornithorhynchus restricts the space available for maxillary tooth roots. Hence, loss of functional teeth in Ornithorhynchus may possibly have resulted from a shift in foraging behavior and coordinate elaboration of the electroreceptive sensory system. Well-developed electroreceptivity in monotremes is known at least as far back as the early Cretaceous; however, there are differences in the extent of elaboration of the feature among members of the ornithorhynchid lineage.

  3. Identifying configurations of behavior change techniques in effective medication adherence interventions: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Kahwati, Leila; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Jacobs, Sara

    2016-05-04

    Interventions to improve medication adherence are diverse and complex. Consequently, synthesizing this evidence is challenging. We aimed to extend the results from an existing systematic review of interventions to improve medication adherence by using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to identify necessary or sufficient configurations of behavior change techniques among effective interventions. We used data from 60 studies in a completed systematic review to examine the combinations of nine behavior change techniques (increasing knowledge, increasing awareness, changing attitude, increasing self-efficacy, increasing intention formation, increasing action control, facilitation, increasing maintenance support, and motivational interviewing) among studies demonstrating improvements in adherence. Among the 60 studies, 34 demonstrated improved medication adherence. Among effective studies, increasing patient knowledge was a necessary but not sufficient technique. We identified seven configurations of behavior change techniques sufficient for improving adherence, which together accounted for 26 (76 %) of the effective studies. The intervention configuration that included increasing knowledge and self-efficacy was the most empirically relevant, accounting for 17 studies (50 %) and uniquely accounting for 15 (44 %). This analysis extends the completed review findings by identifying multiple combinations of behavior change techniques that improve adherence. Our findings offer direction for policy makers, practitioners, and future comparative effectiveness research on improving adherence.

  4. Deletion of ovarian hormones induces a sickness behavior in rats comparable to the effect of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Azizi-Malekabadi, Hamid; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Pourganji, Masoume; Zabihi, Hoda; Saeedjalali, Mohsen; Anaeigoudari, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as the contributors to the pathogenesis of sickness behaviors. The effects of female gonadal hormones on both neuroinflammation and depression have also been well considered. In the present study, the capability of deletion of ovarian hormones to induce sickness-like behaviors in rats was compared with the effect lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The groups were including Sham, OVX, Sham-LPS, and OVX-LPS. The Sham-LPS and OVX-LPS groups were treated with LPS (250 μg/kg) two hours before conducting the behavioral tests. In the forced swimming (FST), the immobility times in both OVX and Sham-LPS groups were higher than that of Sham (P < 0.001). In open-field (OP) test, the central crossing number by OVX and Sham-LPS groups were lower than Sham (P < 0.001) while there were no significant differences between OVX-LPS and OVX groups. In elevated plus maze (EPM), the percent of entries to the open arm by both OVX and Sham-LPS groups was lower than that of Sham group (P < 0.001). The results of present study showed that deletion of ovarian hormones induced sickness behaviors in rats which were comparable to the effects of LPS. Moreover, further investigations are required in order to better understand the mechanism(s) involved.

  5. Feeding behavior of Aplysia: a model system for comparing cellular mechanisms of classical and operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural circuitry that mediates the behavior is well characterized and amenable to detailed cellular analyses, substantial progress has been made toward a comparative analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying these two forms of associative learning. Both forms of associative learning use the same reinforcement pathway (the esophageal nerve, En) and the same reinforcement transmitter (dopamine, DA). In addition, at least one cellular locus of plasticity (cell B51) is modified by both forms of associative learning. However, the two forms of associative learning have opposite effects on B51. Classical conditioning decreases the excitability of B51, whereas operant conditioning increases the excitability of B51. Thus, the approach of using two forms of associative learning to modify a single behavior, which is mediated by an analytically tractable neural circuit, is revealing similarities and differences in the mechanisms that underlie classical and operant conditioning.

  6. Unique behavior of Trypanosoma cruzi mevalonate kinase: A conserved glycosomal enzyme involved in host cell invasion and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Éden Ramalho; Horjales, Eduardo; Bonfim-Melo, Alexis; Cortez, Cristian; da Silva, Claudio Vieira; De Groote, Michel; Sobreira, Tiago José Paschoal; Cruz, Mário Costa; Lima, Fabio Mitsuo; Cordero, Esteban Mauricio; Yoshida, Nobuko; da Silveira, José Franco; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Bahia, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase (MVK) is an essential enzyme acting in early steps of sterol isoprenoids biosynthesis, such as cholesterol in humans or ergosterol in trypanosomatids. MVK is conserved from bacteria to mammals, and localizes to glycosomes in trypanosomatids. During the course of T. cruzi MVK characterization, we found that, in addition to glycosomes, this enzyme may be secreted and modulate cell invasion. To evaluate the role of TcMVK in parasite-host cell interactions, TcMVK recombinant protein was produced and anti-TcMVK antibodies were raised in mice. TcMVK protein was detected in the supernatant of cultures of metacyclic trypomastigotes (MTs) and extracellular amastigotes (EAs) by Western blot analysis, confirming its secretion into extracellular medium. Recombinant TcMVK bound in a non-saturable dose-dependent manner to HeLa cells and positively modulated internalization of T. cruzi EAs but inhibited invasion by MTs. In HeLa cells, TcMVK induced phosphorylation of MAPK pathway components and proteins related to actin cytoskeleton modifications. We hypothesized that TcMVK is a bifunctional enzyme that in addition to playing a classical role in isoprenoid synthesis in glycosomes, it is secreted and may modulate host cell signaling required for T. cruzi invasion. PMID:27113535

  7. Prompting safety belt use: comparative impact on the target behavior and relevant body language.

    PubMed

    Cox, Matthew G; Geller, E Scott

    2010-01-01

    ResearcherS used two behavioral prompts to compare increases in safety belt use: a Click It or Ticket prompt or a Flash-for-Life prompt. Participants were 1,822 unbuckled drivers exiting two student parking lots of a large university. Research assistants identified unbuckled drivers, flashed one of the two prompts, and recorded whether drivers buckled after the prompt and the drivers' facial expressions and hand gestures. Findings and implications are discussed.

  8. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  9. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2014-05-15

    While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior change interventions influence staff

  10. Meta-analysis Comparing Different Behavioral Treatments for Late-Life Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Steven R.; Ayers, Catherine R.; Nuevo, Roberto; Stoddard, Jill A.; Sorrell, John T.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of different types of behavioral treatments for geriatric anxiety [cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone, CBT with relaxation training (RT), and RT alone]. Method We compared effect sizes from 19 trials. Analyses were based on uncontrolled outcomes (comparing post-treatment and pre-treatment scores) and effects relative to control conditions on both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results Treatments for older adults with anxiety symptoms were, on average, more effective than active control conditions. Effect sizes were comparable to those reported elsewhere for CBT for anxiety in the general population or for pharmacotherapy in anxious older adults. CBT (alone or augmented with RT) does not appear to add anything beyond RT alone, although a direct comparison is challenging given differences in control conditions. Effects on depressive symptoms were smaller, with no differences among treatment types. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioral treatments are effective for older adults with anxiety disorders and symptoms. Results must be interpreted with caution given the limitations of the literature, including differing sample characteristics and control conditions across studies. PMID:19155744

  11. [Comparative assessment of ct-bypass angiography and invasive coronary angiography in patients after coronary bypass surgery in the late postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Men'kov, I A; Trufanov, G E; Zhelezniak, I S; Rud', S D; Kniazev, E A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ct-bypass angiography in the evaluation of significant stenosis and occlusion of grafts, recipient and nongrafted vessels in patients after coronary bypass surgery in the late postoperative period. Ct-bypass angiography was performed on 64-slice ct scanner with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm and a gantry rotation time of 0.4 s. All results were compared with quantitative invasive coronary angiography. 43 patients with 113 grafts were included in the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy for the evaluation of significant stenosis were 94%, 95%, 88%, 98%, 95%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy for the evaluation of significant stenosis in the recipient and nongrafted vessels were 91% and 90%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy for the evaluation graft occlusion, recipient and nongrafted vessels was 100%, 100% and 98%, respectively. Ct-bypass angiography allows accurate non-invasive assessment of significant stenosis and occlusion of coronary bypass grafts and native coronary arteries in patients after coronary bypass surgery in the late postoperative period.

  12. Clinicopathological features of stomach cancer with invasive micropapillary component.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takeo; Gotohda, Naoto; Kato, Yuichiro; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Konishi, Masaru; Daiko, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Mitsuyo; Kuwata, Takeshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Taira

    2012-04-01

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma has been recognized as a rare disease entity with aggressive tumor behavior. However, few reports have described invasive micropapillary carcinoma in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly its involvement in gastric cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 930 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy, and we then histopathologically evaluated the existence of a regional invasive micropapillary component. Clinicopathological features were investigated in patients with an invasive micropapillary component and compared with such features in 100 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, selected as stage-matched controls, who underwent gastrectomy during the same period. Of the 930 patients, 14 were histopathologically diagnosed with gastric cancer with a regional invasive micropapillary component. There were no significant differences in age, gender, tumor location, macroscopic type, or type of surgery between patients with an invasive micropapillary component and the pT-matched controls. Histopathologically, significant differences were observed in lymphatic infiltration, venous invasion, the percentage of cases with lymph node metastasis, and the median number of metastatic lymph nodes. The three-year disease-free and overall survival rates of patients with an invasive micropapillary component were 40.5 and 59.3%, respectively, compared with those for the stage-matched controls, which were 72.6 and 80.6%, respectively (p = 0.02 and 0.07). Patients with gastric cancer with a regional invasive micropapillary component showed marked cancer infiltration in the lymphatic pathway and poor prognosis after gastrectomy.

  13. Comparing Options for Pair Housing Rhesus Macaques Using Behavioral Welfare Measures

    PubMed Central

    BAKER, KATE C.; BLOOMSMITH, MOLLIE A.; OETTINGER, BROOKE; NEU, KIMBERLY; GRIFFIS, CAROLINE; SCHOOF, VALÉRIE A. M.

    2015-01-01

    In a biomedical research environment, research or management procedures may render continuous full contact pairing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) unfeasible. This study aimed to determine whether separation on a frequent basis or housing in adjacent cages with tactile contact interferes with the behavioral benefits of continuous full contact. Behavioral data (1260 hours) were collected from 32 adult females and 16 adult males housed at two National Primate Research Centers. Subjects were studied in four housing conditions: single housing, full contact pair housing, intermittent contact pair housing, and protected contact housing. After introduction, each pair was housed in each of the three social housing conditions in varying order. Among females, but not males, introducing animals into full and intermittent contact reduced levels of abnormal behavior. There was a trend toward this reduction in protected contact. In both females and males, full and intermittent contact was associated with lower levels of anxiety-related behavior, but protected contact was not. Females spent more time inactive in protected contact than either full or intermittent contact, and males showed a trend toward less inactivity following introduction into full contact. Both sexes showed less affiliation in protected contact compared to the other forms of social housing. Agonistic behavior among females was not affected by housing condition; among males, levels were equivalent in full and intermittent contact but were higher in intermittent than protected contact. Frequent separation of pairs does not appear to detract from the behavioral benefits of pair housing. Separation by a barrier permitting tactile contact is inferior to other forms of social housing but showed modest improvements over single housing nonetheless. This study can guide the provision of social contact to rhesus macaques under conditions restricting pairs from continuous full contact. PMID:24105901

  14. Comparative analysis of the behavioral and biomolecular parameters of four mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Nesher, Elimelech; Peskov, Vladimir; Rylova, Anna; Raz, Olga; Pinhasov, Albert

    2012-02-01

    The use of mice as experimental models in pharmacological and biochemical research began over 100 years ago, during which time different mice strains with specific features were developed. Numerous studies demonstrate that the pharmacological efficacy of various compounds significantly varies among different animal strains, a factor which must be considered when analyzing experimental data. The Sabra strain, developed more than 35 years ago, is widely used for research in Israel but has an unclear origin and is not characterized as well as other strains. Comparative analyses of the molecular characteristics of Sabra and other strains should help to understand their characteristics and to enhance the validity of their experimental use. Thus, four mouse strains-outbred ICR and Sabra as well as inbred C57Bl/6J and Balb/c were compared. Animals' weight, blood corticosterone and hippocampal BDNF mRNA levels were measured, and animals' behavior was compared using the EPM, open field, FST, and hot plate tests. We found that although Sabra mice are bigger and heavier than other tested lines, this is not reflected in behavior or in biomolecular features, wherein Sabra mice lay within the diapason of other tested animals. Thus, behavioral tests of anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity revealed that Sabra mice scored close to the mean of all tested lines. Analysis of blood corticosterone levels did not show significant differences among tested strains. We also found a correlation between general and locomotor activity of the tested strains and their hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression. In summary, we may conclude that Sabra mice have traits similar to the better known lines, and therefore they are good subjects for neuroscience research.

  15. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species.

  16. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species. PMID:26635567

  17. On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

  18. On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

  19. Unpredictable chronic mild stress induced behavioral deficits: a comparative study in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Muhammad; Ikram, Huma; Kanwal, Sumera; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2014-07-01

    Stress is an important precipitant factor for depression. Changes in various body systems that occur in depression are similar to those observed in response to stress. Chronic stress may alter behavioral, neurochemical and physiological responses to drug challenges and novel stressors. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) also produces alteration in the serotonergic (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) could be used as an animal model of depression. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of UCMS can be reversed by antidepressant agents, suggesting an important role of serotonin. In rodents, UCMS can elicit depression-like symptoms. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the behavioral deficits induced by chronic mild stress in male and female rats and finding out the vulnerability of the two groups. Male and female rats exposed to UCMS exhibited a significant decrease in cumulative food intake as well as in growth rate. Loco motor activity in home cage and open field was also decreased. Results may contribute to our understanding of the interaction between stress and behavioral functions have to depressive disorders.

  20. Comparing Thin Slices of Verbal Communication Behavior of Varying Number and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Carcone, April Idalski; Naar-King, Sylvie; Eggly, Susan; Foster, Tanina; Albrecht, Terrance; Brogan, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of thin slices to characterize the verbal communication behavior of counselors and patients engaged in Motivational Interviewing sessions relative to fully coded sessions. Methods Four thin slice samples that varied in number (four versus six slices) and duration (one- versus two-minutes) were extracted from a previously coded dataset. In the parent study, an observational code scheme was used to characterize specific counselor and patient verbal communication behaviors. For the current study, we compared the frequency of communication codes and the correlations among the full dataset and each thin slice sample. Results Both the proportion of communication codes and strength of the correlation demonstrated the highest degree of accuracy when a greater number (i.e., six versus four) and duration (i.e., two- versus one-minute) of slices were extracted. Conclusion These results suggest that thin slice sampling may be a useful and accurate strategy to reduce coding burden when coding specific verbal communication behaviors within clinical encounters. Practice Implications We suggest researchers interested in using thin slice sampling in their own work conduct preliminary research to determine the number and duration of thin slices required to accurately characterize the behaviors of interest. PMID:25441095

  1. Sexual predators and prey: a comparative study of the hunting behavior of rapists and child molesters.

    PubMed

    Rebocho, Maria Francisca; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2012-09-01

    Although there has been an increase in research on sex offenders' modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior, most studies still tend to emphasize criminal motivation while overlooking the role of situational and environmental factors. Studies of mixed samples of rapists and child molesters typically neglect to conduct comparative analyses. Consequently, the full nature of their distinction is not clear. This is particularly problematic for the understanding of crossover or polymorphous sex offenders, who target victims from various age groups. Using a sample of 216 incarcerated sexual offenders, hunting behavior patterns were identified and tested to establish which hunting behavior patterns were associated with each type of offender. Relationships between modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior were also examined. Three types of offender were identified: (a) manipulative; (b) opportunist; and (c) coercive. The manipulative offender is typically a child molester. The coercive offender is typically a rapist. The opportunist offender includes both rapists and child molesters. These findings emphasize the relevance of polymorphous, crossover, or versatile sex offenders and suggest new ways of conceptualizing sex offenders and their study.

  2. Comparing thin slices of verbal communication behavior of varying number and duration.

    PubMed

    Carcone, April Idalski; Naar, Sylvie; Eggly, Susan; Foster, Tanina; Albrecht, Terrance L; Brogan, Kathryn E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of thin slices to characterize the verbal communication behavior of counselors and patients engaged in Motivational Interviewing sessions relative to fully coded sessions. Four thin slice samples that varied in number (four versus six slices) and duration (one- versus two-minutes) were extracted from a previously coded dataset. In the parent study, an observational code scheme was used to characterize specific counselor and patient verbal communication behaviors. For the current study, we compared the frequency of communication codes and the correlations among the full dataset and each thin slice sample. Both the proportion of communication codes and strength of the correlation demonstrated the highest degree of accuracy when a greater number (i.e., six versus four) and duration (i.e., two- versus one-minute) of slices were extracted. These results suggest that thin slice sampling may be a useful and accurate strategy to reduce coding burden when coding specific verbal communication behaviors within clinical encounters. We suggest researchers interested in using thin slice sampling in their own work conduct preliminary research to determine the number and duration of thin slices required to accurately characterize the behaviors of interest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

    2014-02-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou.

  4. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities

    PubMed Central

    Yingying, Huang; Abler, Laurie; Suiming, Pan; Henderson, Gail E.; Xin, Wang; Xingliang, Yao; Parish, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, STI/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n=398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n=2186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

  5. Leadership behaviors of athletic training leaders compared with leaders in other fields.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Timothy G; Bradney, Debbie A

    2007-01-01

    Athletic trainers are in positions of leadership. To determine self-reported leadership practices of head athletic trainers (HATCs) and program directors (PDs). Cross-sectional study. Respondents' academic institutions. A total of 238 athletic training leaders completed the Leadership Practices Inventory. Of these, 50.4% (n = 120) were HATCs and 49.6% (n = 118) were PDs; 69.3% (n = 165) were men and 30.7% (n = 73) were women; almost all respondents (97.1%, n = 231) were white. Respondents typically reported having 11 to 15 years of experience as an athletic trainer (n = 57, 23.9%) and being between the ages of 30 and 39 years (n = 109, 45.8%). Categories of leadership behaviors (ie, Model, Inspire, Challenge, Encourage, and Enable) were scored from 1 (almost never) to 10 (almost always). Item scores were summed to compute mean category scores. We analyzed demographic information; used t ratios to compare the data from athletic training leaders (PDs and HATCs) with normative data; compared sex, age, position, ethnicity, and years of experience with leadership practices; and computed mean scores. Athletic training leaders reported using leadership behaviors similar to those of other leaders. The PDs reported using inspiring, challenging, enabling, and encouraging leadership behaviors more often than did the HATCs. No differences were found by ethnicity, age, years of experience, or leadership practices. Athletic training leaders are transformational leaders. Athletic training education program accreditation requirements likely account for the difference in leadership practices between PDs and HATCs.

  6. The ubiquitous plasmid pXap41 in the invasive phytopathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni: complete sequence and comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pothier, Joël F; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Pühler, Alfred; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2011-10-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the 41 102-bp plasmid pXap41 from the invasive plant pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni CFBP 5530 was determined and its 44 coding regions were annotated. Comparative analysis with 15 Xanthomonas plasmids and 19 complete genomes revealed that nearly one-fourth of this plasmid has high sequence identity to plasmid pXAC64 and an 8.8-kb chromosomal region of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri strain 306 carrying genes that encode type III effectors and helper proteins. The presence of pXap41 in all X. arboricola pv. pruni genotypes was confirmed for eight strains by plasmid profiling and for 35 X. arboricola pv. pruni isolates with a new plasmid multiplex PCR assay. This plasmid was not detected in any other X. arboricola pathovars (n=12), indicating the potential for the application of the pXap41 PCR method as a pathovar-level detection and identification tool.

  7. Obstetric professionals' perceptions of non-invasive prenatal testing for Down syndrome: clinical usefulness compared with existing tests and ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Olivia Miu Yung; Yi, Huso; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Sahota, Daljit; Ahmed, Shenaz

    2017-09-05

    While non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidy is commercially available in many countries, little is known about how obstetric professionals in non-Western populations perceive the clinical usefulness of NIPT in comparison with existing first-trimester combined screening (FTS) for Down syndrome (DS) or invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD), or perceptions of their ethical concerns arising from the use of NIPT. A cross-sectional survey among 327 obstetric professionals (237 midwives, 90 obstetricians) in Hong Kong. Compared to FTS, NIPT was believed to: provide more psychological benefits and enable earlier consideration of termination of pregnancy. Compared to IPD, NIPT was believed to: provide less psychological stress for high-risk women and more psychological assurance for low-risk women, and offer an advantage to detect chromosomal abnormalities earlier. Significant differences in perceived clinical usefulness were found by profession and healthcare sector: (1) obstetricians reported more certain views towards the usefulness of NIPT than midwives and (2) professionals in the public sector perceived less usefulness of NIPT than the private sector. Beliefs about earlier detection of DS using NIPT were associated with ethical concerns about increasing abortion. Participants believing that NIPT provided psychological assurance among low-risk women were less likely to be concerned about ethical issues relating to informed decision-making and pre-test consultation for NIPT. Our findings suggest the need for political debate initially on how to ensure pregnant women accessing public services are informed about commercially available more advanced technology, but also on the potential implementation of NIPT within public services to improve access and equity to DS screening services.

  8. Comparative evaluation of galactomannan test with bronchoalveolar lavage and serum for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankit; Capoor, Malini R; Shende, Trupti; Sharma, Bhawna; Mohindra, Ritin; Suri, Jagdish Chander; Gupta, Dipender Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. In recent years, testing for values of galactomannan (GM) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has been investigated as a diagnostic test for IPA for such patients, but global experience and consensus on optical density (OD) cutoffs, especially for BAL galactomannan remains lacking. We performed a prospective case-control study to determine an optimal BAL GM OD cutoff for IPA in at-risk patients. Cases were subjects with hematological diagnoses who met established revised definitions for proven or probable IPA established by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group (EORTC/MSG, 2008), without the use of BAL GM results. Exclusion criteria included the use of piperacillin/tazobactam and use of antifungals that were active against Aspergillus spp. before bronchoscopy. There were two control groups: patients with hematological diagnoses not meeting definitions for proven or probable IPA and patients with nonhematological diagnoses with no evidence of aspergillosis. Following bronchoscopy and BAL, GM testing was performed using the Platelia Aspergillus seroassay in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. There were 51 cases and 20 controls. Cases had higher BAL fluid GM OD indices (ODIs) (mean: 1.27 and range: 0.4-3.78) compared with controls (mean: 0.26 and range: 0.09-0.35). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an optimum ODI cutoff of 1.0, with high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (87.5%) for diagnosing IPA. Our results support BAL GM testing as a reasonably safe test with higher sensitivity compared to serum GM testing in at-risk patients with hematological diseases. A higher OD cutoff is necessary to avoid overdiagnosis of IPA.

  9. Comparative metabolic behavior and interrelationships of Tc and S in soybean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.; Fellows, R.J. )

    1989-08-01

    The comparative behavior of sulfur (S) and technetium (Tc) in soybean seedlings shows gross subcellular distributions to be similar for these oxyanions. More than 75% of the tissue-deposited Tc remains soluble and extractable. Differences in Tc fixation/incorporation were noted for the nuclear and chloroplast fractions of leaf and root cells. Pulse studies showed that soluble protein and nitrate reductase levels rose in response to Tc accumulation by sink leaves but not source leaves. In vitro assay of chloroplast-based S reduction and incorporation systems showed Tc to be reduced and incorporated into amino nitrogen-containing products. A hypothesis related to the metabolic behavior of Tc in plants is presented.

  10. Comparing sexuality, aggressiveness, and antisocial behavior of alleged juvenile sexual and violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Driemeyer, Wiebke; Spehr, Aranke; Yoon, Dahlnym; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Briken, Peer

    2013-05-01

    Sexual delinquency in juveniles is insufficiently explored in regard to the specificity of offender characteristics. The aim is to investigate relevant areas for juvenile sexual offending in a precourt, pretreatment group. Thirty-two alleged juvenile sexual offenders (ASO) referred to by police were compared with 32 juvenile nonsexual violent offenders (VNO) on standardized measures of aggressiveness and psychopathology, antisocial behavior, substance use problems, and sexuality. Less externalizing disorders and antisocial behavior were found among the ASOs than among the VNOs. The ASO group was sexually less experienced, had less trust in their relationship abilities, fewer victimization experiences, and reported more sexual deviance, while pornography use and obscene calls were reported less often. Few juvenile sexual offenders had severe problems in the investigated areas. Including groups of offenders before court, treatment or incarceration in research appears crucial to understand the full spectrum of sexual deviance in youth and avoid misguidance due to selection factors. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Invasive Candidiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida . Unlike Candida ... mouth and throat (also called “thrush”) or vaginal “yeast infections,” invasive candidiasis is a serious infection that ...

  12. Invasive Species

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  13. Behavioral reactivity of Jindo dogs socialized at an early age compared with non-socialized dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Scott S; Oh, Seok Il; Kim, Jong Seok; Suh, Euy Hoon; Oupt, Katherine Albro; Lee, Hee Chun; Lee, Hyo Jong; Yeon, Seong Chan

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether socialized Jindo puppies would show different behavioral reactivity from non-socialized puppies. Puppies (n=12), 7 weeks of age, were divided into socialized and non-socialized groups. The socialized group from the 7th until 13th week after birth was provided a socialization program, and the non-socialized group was reared in a semi-isolated environment without being exposed to the program. At 13 weeks after birth, both groups were adopted by new families and raised as a family pet until adulthood. Both groups were tested in 5 behavioral tests at 7, 9, 11, 13 and 60 weeks of age, and their behavioral responses to the tests were recorded using video cameras. The contact, fearful and playful behaviors toward each behavioral test were scored on a scale of 1 to 5 points. Using all of the score data, a principal component analysis (PCA) extracted three primary factors: 'social reactivity towards humans and a dog', 'playful reactivity towards novel stimuli and a dog' and 'fearful reactivity towards social stimuli'. The three extracted factors were compared between the socialized and non-socialized groups in each test session (weeks). Based on the results, the socialized Jindo puppies in the test session at the 9th week after birth, in contrast to the non-socialized puppies, exhibited a higher intensity of playful reactivity towards novel stimuli and a dog. However, there were no effects of the socialization program on the Jindo puppies in terms of social reactivity towards humans and a dog as well as fearful reactivity towards social stimuli.

  14. Comparing the effectiveness of interventions to improve ventilation behavior in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Geelen, L M J; Huijbregts, M A J; Ragas, A M J; Bretveld, R W; Jans, H W A; van Doorn, W J; Evertz, S J C J; van der Zijden, A

    2008-10-01

    Poor air quality in schools has been associated with adverse health effects. Indoor air quality can be improved by increasing ventilation. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different interventions to improve ventilation behavior in primary schools. We used indoor CO(2) concentrations as an indicator. In 81 classes of 20 Dutch primary schools, we applied three different interventions: (i) a class-specific ventilation advice; (ii) the advice combined with a CO(2) warning device and (iii) the advice combined with a teaching package. The effectiveness of the interventions was tested directly after intervention and 6 weeks after intervention by measuring the CO(2) concentrations and comparison with a control group (iv). Before intervention, the CO(2) concentration exceeded 1000 ppm for 64% of the school day. The class-specific ventilation advice without further support appeared an ineffective tool to improve ventilation behavior. The advice in combination with a CO(2) warning device or the teaching package proved effective tools and resulted in lower indoor CO(2) concentrations when compared with the control group. Ventilation was significantly improved, but CO(2) concentrations still exceeded 1000 ppm for more than 40% of the school day. Hence, until ventilation facilities are upgraded, the CO(2) warning device and the teaching package are useful low-cost tools. To improve ventilation behavior and indoor air quality in schools, CO(2) warning device and teaching package combined with a class-specific ventilation advice, are effective tools, while giving the ventilation advice solely, is not effective. Although ventilation is significantly improved through behavioral change, the ventilation rate is still insufficient to maintain good air quality during the full school day. Therefore, the improvement of the ventilation facilities is recommended. Hence, until ventilation facilities in schools are upgraded, the CO(2) warning device and the

  15. Survival Analysis of Advanced HCC Treated with Radioembolization: Comparing Impact of Clinical Performance Status Versus Vascular Invasion/Metastases.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehan; Gabr, Ahmed; Abouchaleh, Nadine; Al Asadi, Ali; Mora, Ronald A; Kulik, Laura; Abecassis, Michael; Riaz, Ahsun; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2017-09-06

    In this study, we aim to compare the effects of prognostic indicators on survival analysis for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) C patients undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y-90). A prospectively acquired database (2003-2017) for BCLC C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients that underwent radioembolization with Y-90 was searched. The criteria for BCLC C status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 1 or 2, metastases, and/or portal vein thrombosis (PVT)) were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed from the date of the first radioembolization with Y-90, censored to curative treatment, to determine median overall survival (OS). Cox regression hazards model was used for multivariate analyses. Significance was set at P < 0.05. 547 BCLC C patients treated with radioembolization with Y-90 had a median OS of 10.7 months (range: 9.5-12.9). 43% (233 of 547) patients classified as BCLC C solely by their ECOG PS had a median OS of 19.4 months (14.7-23.7); 57% (314 of 547) patients with PVT/metastases had a median OS of 7.7 months (6.7-8.7). On multivariate analysis, ECOG PS was not found to be a statistically significant prognostic indicator of OS in BCLC C whereas metastases and PVT exhibited hazards ratios (95%CI) of 0.51 (0.38-0.69) and 0.49 (0.38-0.63), respectively (P < 0.0001). Patients classified as BCLC C due to ECOG PS 1 demonstrated longer survival when compared to those presenting with PVT, metastases and/or ECOG PS 2. Hence, ECOG PS 1, as an isolated variable, may not be a true indicator of advanced disease.

  16. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides in relation to different water availability, compared to its native congener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yu-Peng; Pan, Xiao-Yun; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2006-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genetic differentiation are two possible mechanisms that plants use to cope with varying environments. Although alligator weed ( Alternanthera philoxeroides) possesses very low genetic diversity, this alien weed has successfully invaded diverse habitats with considerably varying water availability (from swamps to dry lands) in China. In contrast, its native congener ( Alternanthera sessilis) has a much narrower ecological breadth, and is usually found in moist habitats. To understand the mechanisms underlying the contrasting pattern, we performed a greenhouse experiment to compare the reaction norms of alligator weed with those of its native congener, in which water availability was manipulated. Our results revealed that the two congeners had similar direction of phenotypic plasticity. However, A. philoxeroides showed greater plasticity in amount than did A. sessilis in many traits examined during the switch from wet to drought treatment. Nearly all of the phenotypic variance in A. philoxeroides could be ascribed to plasticity, while A. sessilis had a much higher fraction of phenotypic variance that could be explained by genotypic variation. These interspecific differences in plastic responses to variable water availability partially explained the difference in spatial distribution of the two congeners.

  17. Adoptive and Nonadoptive Mother–Child Behavioral Interaction: A Comparative Study at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518

  18. Comparative RNA-Seq Analysis of Early-Infected Peach Leaves by the Invasive Phytopathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni

    PubMed Central

    Socquet-Juglard, Didier; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F.; Christen, Danilo; Gessler, Cesare; Duffy, Brion; Patocchi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine bacterial pathogen that threatens peach production by causing necrotic spots on leaves and fruits, thus with the potential of severely reducing yields. The current understanding of the host plant defense responses to the pathogen is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression was analyzed at two time points, 2 h and 12 h post inoculation (hpi), by comparing the inoculated samples to their respective controls. On the total of 19,781 known peach genes that were expressed in all time points and conditions, 34 and 263 were differentially expressed at 2 and 12 hpi, respectively. Of those, 82% and 40% were up-regulated, respectively; and 18% and 60% were down-regulated, respectively. The functional annotation based on gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes involved in metabolic process and response to stress were particularly represented at 2 hpi whereas at 12 hpi cellular and metabolic processes were the categories with the highest number of genes differentially expressed. Of particular interest among the differentially expressed genes identified were several pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptors, disease resistance genes including several RPM1-like and pathogenesis related thaumatin encoding genes. Other genes involved in photosynthesis, in cell wall reorganization, in hormone signaling pathways or encoding cytochrome were also differentially expressed. In addition, novel transcripts were identified, providing another basis for further characterization of plant defense-related genes. Overall, this study gives a first insight of the peach defense mechanisms during the very early stages of infection with a bacterial disease in the case of a compatible interaction. PMID:23342103

  19. Comparative Pathology and Ecological Implications of Two Myxosporean Parasites in Native Australian Frogs and the Invasive Cane Toad

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Dhand, Navneet K.; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan; Phalen, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus axonis and C. australis are pathogens of native and exotic Australian frog species. The pathology and ecological outcomes of infection with these parasites were investigated in this study. Gliosis was correlated to Cystodiscus axonis plasmodia in the brains of (9/60) tadpoles and (3/9) adult endangered Green and golden bell frogs using ordinal regression. Severe host reactions to C. axonis (haemorrhage, necrosis, and vasulitis) were observed in the brains of threatened Southern bell frogs (8/8), critically endangered Booroolong frogs (15/44) and Yellow spotted bell frogs (3/3). Severe brain lesions were associated with behavioural changes, neurological dysfunction, and spontaneous death. Both C. axonis and C. australis develop in the bile ducts of tadpoles, the plasmodia were significantly associated with biliary hyperplasia, inflammation and the loss of hepatocytes in (34/72) Green and golden bell frog tadpoles using ordinal regression. These lesions were so severe that in some cases 70% of the total liver was diseased. Normal liver function in tadpoles is necessary for metamorphosis, metabolism, and immune function. We postulate that this extensive liver damage would have significant host health impacts. Severe hepatic myxosporidiosis was more prevalent in tadpoles examined in autumn and winter (overwintered), suggestive of delayed metamorphosis in infected tadpoles, which would have serious flow-on effects in small populations. We compared the sensitivity of histopathology and species-specific PCR in the detection of C. australis and C. axonis. PCR was determined to be the most sensitive method (detection limit 1 myxospore equivalent of ribosomal DNA). Histology, however, had the advantage of assessing the impact of the parasite on the host. It was concluded that these parasites have the potential for significant ecological impacts, because of their high prevalence of infection and their ability to cause disease in some frogs

  20. Comparative study of the viscoelastic mechanical behavior of agarose and poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Justine J; Earnshaw, Audrey; Ferguson, Virginia L; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2011-10-01

    This study presents a comparative investigation into differences in the mechanical properties between two hydrogels commonly used in cartilage tissue engineering [agarose vs. poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)], but which are formed through distinctly different crosslinking mechanisms (physical vs. covalent, respectively). The effects of hydrogel chemistry, precursor concentration, platen type (nonporous vs. porous) used in compression bioreactors, and degradation (for PEG) on the swelling properties and static and dynamic mechanical properties were examined. An increase in precursor concentration resulted in decreased equilibrium mass swelling ratios but increased equilibrium moduli and storage moduli for both hydrogels (p < 0.05). Agarose displayed large stress relaxations and a frequency dependence indicating its viscoelastic properties. Contrarily, PEG hydrogels displayed largely elastic behavior with minimal stress relaxation and frequency dependence. In biodegradable PEG hydrogels, the largely elastic behavior was retained during degradation. The type of platen did not affect static mechanical properties, but porous platens led to a reduced storage modulus for both hydrogels implicating fluid flow. In summary, agarose and PEG exhibit vastly different mechanical behaviors; a finding largely attributed to differences in their chemistries and fluid movement. Taken together, these design choices (hydrogel chemistry/structure, loading conditions) will likely have a profound effect on the tissue engineering outcome. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Flight and fight: a comparative view of the neurophysiology and genetics of honey bee defensive behavior.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G J

    2007-05-01

    Honey bee nest defense involves guard bees that specialize in olfaction-based nestmate recognition and alarm-pheromone-mediated recruitment of nestmates to sting. Stinging is influenced by visual, tactile and olfactory stimuli. Both quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and behavioral studies point to guarding behavior as a key factor in colony stinging response. Results of reciprocal F1 crosses show that paternally inherited genes have a greater influence on colony stinging response than maternally inherited genes. The most active alarm pheromone component, isoamyl acetate (IAA) causes increased respiration and may induce stress analgesia in bees. IAA primes worker bees for 'fight or flight', possibly through actions of neuropeptides and/or biogenic amines. Studies of aggression in other species lead to an expectation that octopamine or 5-HT might play a role in honey bee defensive response. Genome sequence and QTL mapping identified 128 candidate genes for three regions known to influence defensive behavior. Comparative bioinformatics suggest possible roles of genes involved in neurogenesis and central nervous system (CNS) activity, and genes involved in sensory tuning through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as an arrestin (AmArr4) and the metabotropic GABA(B) receptor (GABA-B-R1).

  2. VOLTAGE CLAMP BEHAVIOR OF IRON-NITRIC ACID SYSTEM AS COMPARED WITH THAT OF NERVE MEMBRANE

    PubMed Central

    Tasaki, I.; Bak, A. F.

    1959-01-01

    The current-voltage relation for the surface layer of an iron wire immersed in nitric acid was investigated by the voltage clamp technique. Comparing the phase of nitric acid to the axoplasm and the metallic phase to the external fluid medium for the nerve fiber, a striking analogy was found between the voltage clamp behavior of the iron-nitric acid system and that of the nerve membrane. The current voltage curve was found to consist of three parts: (a) a straight line representing the behavior of the resting (passive) membrane, (b) a straight line representing the fully excited (active) state, and (c) an intermediate zone connecting (a) and (b). It was shown that in the intermediate zone, the surface of iron consisted of a fully active patch (or patches) surrounded by a remaining resting area. The phenomenon corresponding to "repetitive firing of responses under voltage clamp" in the nerve membrane was demonstrated in the intermediate zone. The behavior of the cobalt electrode system was also investigated by the same technique. An attempt was made to interpret the phenomenon of initiation and abolition of an active potential on the basis of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. PMID:13654740

  3. A prospective comparative study between minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy in supine position and flexible ureteroscopy in the management of single large stone in the proximal ureter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Yu, Cheng-fan; Jin, Shi-hua; Zhu, He; Na, Yan-qun

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the difference and relative advantages between minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) in supine position and flexible ureteroscopy (FURS) in the management of surgically indicated single large stone in the proximal ureter. Patients with single large stone in the proximal ureter with slight to moderate hydronephrosis were prospectively selected and assigned into groups of MPCNL and FURS on the basis of the patient's choice. Demographic data, operative duration, postoperative hospital stay, complication rate, and stone-free rate were recorded and compared. From October 2010 to May 2012, 76 such patients were consecutively included into the study. No significant difference was found in preoperative demographics, including age, sex, and severity of hydronephrosis. Stone size was 15.6 ± 2.5 and 14.9 ± 2.3 mm (P = .349), operative duration 49.3 ± 11.7 and 67.2 ± 17.3 minutes (P <.001), postoperative hospital stay 4.2 ± 1.1 and 1.8 ± 0.8 days (P <.001), stone-free rate (residual ≤ 3 mm) 93.7% and 84.1% (P = .198), and complication rate over grade II (modified Clavien system) 12.5% and 6.8% (P = .398) in MPCNL and FURS groups respectively. Both MPCNL in supine position and FURS are effective and safe surgical options for patients with single large stone in the proximal ureter, when indicated. FURS is associated with faster recovery and less invasiveness than MPCNL in supine position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use and Limits of (1-3)-β-d-Glucan Assay (Fungitell), Compared to Galactomannan Determination (Platelia Aspergillus), for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Porcher, Raphael; Bergeron, Anne; Touratier, Sophie; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Menotti, Jean; Derouin, Francis; Ribaud, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the performance of the Fungitell β-glucan (BG) assay, to compare it with that of the galactomannan (GM) test for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematological malignancies, and to examine the rates of false-positive BG and GM test results due to β-lactam antibiotics among sera of patients with Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteremia and selected sera with false-positive results from the GM test. Serum samples from 105 patients with proven (n = 14) or probable (n = 91) IA, 97 hematology patients at risk for invasive fungal infections, 50 healthy blood donors, and 60 patients with bacteremia were used to study the sensitivities and specificities of the assays. The GM test was more specific than the BG assay (97% versus 82%, respectively; P = 0.0001) and the BG assay was more sensitive than the GM test (81% versus 49%, respectively; P < 0.0001) for IA diagnosis. The study of 49 separate batches of β-lactam antibiotics showed high and very similar rates of false-positive results for the GM and BG assays (29 and 33%, respectively; P = 0.82) but with an almost complete lack of concordance between the 2 assays. For patients with bacteremia, the rate of false-positive results was much higher with the BG test than with the GM test (37% versus 2%, respectively; P < 0.0001), with no significant difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteremia. In conclusion, the BG test may be useful for the diagnosis of IA because of its high sensitivity in comparison with the GM test, but the overall benefit of this assay remains limited because of its inadequate specificity and its cost. PMID:24740084

  5. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Ewing Sarcoma Compared to Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Low miR-31 Expression with Effects on Proliferation and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Karnuth, Bianca; Dedy, Nicolas; Spieker, Tilmann; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Ranft, Andreas; Dirksen, Uta; Jürgens, Heribert; Bräuninger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma, the second most common bone tumor in children and young adults, is an aggressive malignancy with a strong potential to metastasize. Ewing sarcoma is characterised by translocations encoding fusion transcription factors with an EWSR1 transactivation domain fused to an ETS family DNA binding domain. microRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and aberrantly expressed microRNAs have been identified as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in most cancer types. To identify potential oncogenic and tumor suppressor microRNAs in Ewing sarcoma, we determined and compared the expression of 377 microRNAs in 40 Ewing sarcoma biopsies, 6 Ewing sarcoma cell lines and mesenchymal stem cells, the putative cellular origin of Ewing sarcoma, from 6 healthy donors. Of the 35 differentially expressed microRNAs identified (fold change >4 and q<0.05), 19 were higher and 16 lower expressed in Ewing sarcoma. In comparisons between Ewing sarcoma samples with EWS-FLI or EWS-ERG translocations, with differing dissemination characteristics and of primary samples and metastases no significantly differential expressed microRNAs were detected using various stringency criteria. For miR-31, the microRNA with lowest expression in comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, functional analyses were performed to determine its potential as a tumor suppressor in Ewing sarcoma. Two of four miR-31 transfected Ewing sarcoma cell lines showed a significantly reduced proliferation (19% and 33% reduction) due to increased apoptosis in one and increased length of G1-phase in the other cell line. All three tested miR-31 transfected Ewing sarcoma cell lines showed significantly reduced invasiveness (56% to 71% reduction). In summary, we identified 35 microRNAs differentially expressed in Ewing sarcoma and demonstrate that miR-31 affects proliferation and invasion of Ewing sarcoma cell lines in ex vivo assays. PMID:24667836

  6. Comparing the treatment outcomes of potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser vaporization and transurethral electroresection for primary nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: A prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yansheng; Guan, Weimin; Chen, Weihao; Xie, Changliang; Ouyang, Yun; Wu, Yiguang; Liu, Cuilong

    2015-04-01

    In urology, potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser is mainly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with a low rate of intraoperative and postoperative complications. A prospective, randomized study was undertaken to investigate the treatment outcomes of KTP laser vaporization for primary non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors (NMIBTs) as compared with conventional monopolar transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). This study was designed as a prospective, randomized trial. After institutional review board approval, 229 consecutive patients with NMIBTs were randomized to 2 groups. Among them, 116 patients underwent KTP laser vaporization of a bladder tumor (laser group) and 113 patients underwent standard transurethral electroresection of the bladder tumors using monopolar loop electrode (TURBT group). According to the prognostic factors for recurrence, all patients were divided into low, intermediate or high risk subgroups. The clinical data were recorded and compared between the two groups. Eighty-nine patients in laser group and 94 in TURBT group were evaluable for the study end points. The preoperative characteristics of the patients were comparable in the two groups. There was no statistical difference in operation time between the two groups. Patients in the laser group had fewer perioperative complications and more patients needed bladder irrigation in the TURBT group. Compared with laser group, patients in the TURBT group had longer catheterization time and hospitalization duration. There were no statistical differences in the oncologic results in term of 2-year recurrence rates as compared between the two groups. Our study demonstrated that using KTP laser, transurethral vaporization is an effective and safe treatment for the patients with primary NMIBT. Compared with traditional TURBT, the KTP laser surgery had fewer perioperative complications and similar oncological results. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  8. Conspicuous by Their Absence: Studies Comparing and Combining Risperidone and Applied Behavior Analysis to Reduce Challenging Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Marc; Ehrhardt, Kristal; Poling, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Both risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, and function-based behavior-analytic interventions are popular and empirically validated treatments for reducing challenging behavior in children with autism. The kind of research that supports their effectiveness differs, however, and no published study has directly compared their effects or…

  9. Conspicuous by Their Absence: Studies Comparing and Combining Risperidone and Applied Behavior Analysis to Reduce Challenging Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Marc; Ehrhardt, Kristal; Poling, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Both risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, and function-based behavior-analytic interventions are popular and empirically validated treatments for reducing challenging behavior in children with autism. The kind of research that supports their effectiveness differs, however, and no published study has directly compared their effects or…

  10. Higher-risk behavioral practices associated with bacterial vaginosis compared with vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catriona Susan; Morton, Anna N; Garland, Suzanne M; Morris, Margaret B; Moss, Lorna M; Fairley, Christopher K

    2005-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with hormonal factors and sexual practices; however, the cause is unclear, and the notion that bacterial vaginosis is a sexually transmitted infection is still debated. To investigate whether bacterial vaginosis is associated with specific sexual practices or instead has features in common with a sexually transmitted infection, we compared behavioral associations in women with bacterial vaginosis to women with vaginal candidiasis. Women with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge or odor who attended Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between July 2003 and August 2004 were eligible for enrollment in the study. Information on demographics and behavioral and contraceptive practices were collected by self-completed questionnaire. Participants were tested for bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp (microscopy and culture), and sexually transmitted infections. Statistical comparisons were made between women with and without bacterial vaginosis and women with and without candidiasis, using univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 342 women were enrolled in the study; 157 were diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 51 had candidiasis by microscopy, and 95 had candidiasis by culture. Bacterial vaginosis was associated with indicators of high-risk sexual behavior such as a new sexual partner and greater number of male partners in the last year, increased number of lifetime sexual partners, less than 13 years of education, a past history of pregnancy, and smoking (P < .05). Candidiasis was not associated with these risk behaviors and was instead related to practices such as receptive anal and oral sex and douching. The association between bacterial vaginosis and practices that are associated with sexually transmitted infections, in contrast to those observed with candidiasis, suggests a possible sexually transmitted cause. II-2.

  11. Comparative Cost Analysis of Sequential, Adaptive, Behavioral, Pharmacological, and Combined Treatments for Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy F.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Hart, Katie; Coxe, Stefany; Waxmonsky, James G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a cost-analysis of the behavioral, pharmacological, and combined interventions employed in a sequential, multiple assignment randomized, and adaptive trial investigating the sequencing and enhancement of treatment for ADHD children (Pelham et al., under review; N=152, 76% male, 80% Caucasian). Methods The quantity of resources expended on each child’s treatment was determined from records that listed the type, date, location, persons present, and duration of all services provided. The inputs considered were the amount of physician time, clinician time, paraprofessional time, teacher time, parent time, medication, and gasoline. Quantities of these inputs were converted into costs in 2013 USD using national wage estimates from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the prices of 30-day supplies of prescription drugs from the national Express Scripts service, and mean fuel prices from the Energy Information Administration. Results Beginning treatment with a low-intensity regimen of behavior modification (group parent training) was less costly for a school-year of treatment ($961) than beginning treatment with a low dose of stimulant medication ($1689), regardless of whether the initial treatment was intensified with a higher “dose” or if the other modality was added. Conclusions Outcome data from the parent study (Pelham et al., under review) found equivalent or superior outcomes for treatments beginning with low-intensity behavior modification compared to intervention beginning with medication. Combined with the present analyses, these findings document that initiating treatment with behavior modification rather than medication is the more cost-effective option for children with ADHD. PMID:26808137

  12. Sexual behavior of in-school adolescents in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sabageh, Adedayo O; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Sabageh, Donatus; Aluko, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    The sexual and reproductive health of adolescents is of utmost importance in many nations (especially in developing countries). Sexual behavior varies from location to location and the outcome (when negative) creates great concerns mainly due to the consequential impact on health and development. This study aimed at comparing sexual behavior of in-school adolescents in rural and urban areas of Osun state. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted. A total of 760 in-school adolescents were recruited using multistage sampling technique. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered after ethical considerations. Data were analysed and p-value was placed at 0.05. A total of 380 rural and 380 urban adolescents participated in this study with a mean age of 14.90 ± 2.44 and 14.34 ± 2.31 years, respectively. About one-fifth (20.1%) had experienced their first sex (66% of rural and 34% of urban). The mean age at first sex was 14.05 years ± 2.3 years (13.89 ± 2.3 years for rural and 14.37 ± 2.3 years for urban). Only 76 (49.7%) sexually experienced respondents had used condom in the past (45.5% of rural, 57.7% of urban). Half of the urban respondents used condom during their first sex while only a quarter of their rural counterparts had done so (p=0.003). Sexual behavior was commoner among the rural respondents than their urban counterpart. There is an urgent need for sexuality education especially among rural adolescents in the study area.

  13. Plasma etching behavior of Y2O3 ceramics: Comparative study with Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu-Chao; Zhao, Lei; Luo, Jin; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Yokota, Hiroki; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Li, Jing-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The plasma etching behavior of Y2O3 coating was investigated and compared with that of Al2O3 coating under various conditions, including chemical etching, mixing etching and physical etching. The etching rate of Al2O3 coating declined with decreasing CF4 content under mixing etching, while that of Y2O3 coating first increased and then decreased. In addition, the Y2O3 coating demonstrated higher erosion-resistance than Al2O3 coating after exposing to fluorocarbon plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formations of YF3 and AlF3 on the Y2O3 and Al2O3 coatings, respectively, which acted as the protective layer to prevent the surface from further erosion with fluorocarbon plasma. It was revealed that the etching behavior of Y2O3 depended not only on the surface fluorination but also on the removal of fluoride layer. To analyze the effect of porosity, Y2O3 bulk samples with high density were prepared by spark plasma sintering, and they demonstrated higher erosion-resistances compared with Y2O3 coating.

  14. Minimally Invasive Ponto Surgery compared to the linear incision technique without soft tissue reduction for bone conduction hearing implants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Calon, Tim G A; van Hoof, Marc; van den Berge, Herbert; de Bruijn, Arthur J G; van Tongeren, Joost; Hof, Janny R; Brunings, Jan Wouter; Jonhede, Sofia; Anteunis, Lucien J C; Janssen, Miranda; Joore, Manuela A; Holmberg, Marcus; Johansson, Martin L; Stokroos, Robert J

    2016-11-09

    Over the last years, less invasive surgical techniques with soft tissue preservation for bone conduction hearing implants (BCHI) have been introduced such as the linear incision technique combined with a punch. Results using this technique seem favorable in terms of rate of peri-abutment dermatitis (PAD), esthetics, and preservation of skin sensibility. Recently, a new standardized surgical technique for BCHI placement, the Minimally Invasive Ponto Surgery (MIPS) technique has been developed by Oticon Medical AB (Askim, Sweden). This technique aims to standardize surgery by using a novel surgical instrumentation kit and minimize soft tissue trauma. A multicenter randomized controlled trial is designed to compare the MIPS technique to the linear incision technique with soft tissue preservation. The primary investigation center is Maastricht University Medical Center. Sixty-two participants will be included with a 2-year follow-up period. Parameters are introduced to quantify factors such as loss of skin sensibility, dehiscence of the skin next to the abutment, skin overgrowth, and cosmetic results. A new type of sampling method is incorporated to aid in the estimation of complications. To gain further understanding of PAD, swabs and skin biopsies are collected during follow-up visits for evaluation of the bacterial profile and inflammatory cytokine expression. The primary objective of the study is to compare the incidence of PAD during the first 3 months after BCHI placement. Secondary objectives include the assessment of parameters related to surgery, wound healing, pain, loss of sensibility of the skin around the implant, implant extrusion rate, implant stability measurements, dehiscence of the skin next to the abutment, and esthetic appeal. Tertiary objectives include assessment of other factors related to PAD and a health economic evaluation. This is the first trial to compare the recently developed MIPS technique to the linear incision technique with soft

  15. Use of Comparative Genomics and Eukaryotic Cell Adherence/Invasion Assays of the Food-Borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni for the Identification of Putative Virulence Factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter, the leading bacterial etiology of acute humans gastroenteritis, is commonly associated with the handling/consumption of poultry. Eukaryotic cell adhesion/invasion assays were performed on fifty-one C. jejuni isolates. A range of adhesion/invasion abilities was exhibited. To identify ...

  16. Comparative Study of the Activity of Brain Behavioral Systems in Methamphetamine and Opiate Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Alemikhah, Marjan; Faridhosseini, Farhad; Kordi, Hassan; Rasouli-Azad, Morad; Shahini, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Substance dependency is a major problem for the general health of a society. Different approaches have investigated the substance dependency in order to explain it. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) is an advanced and important neuropsychological theory in this area. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare three systems of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory the behavioral activation system (r-BAS), the revised behavioral inhibition system (r-BIS), and the revised fight/flight/freezing system (r-FFFS) between patients dependent on methamphetamine and opiates, and a group of controls. Patients and Methods: This research was a causal-comparative study that was conducted in the first six months of 2012. The population of the study was males of Mashhad city, who were dependent on methamphetamine or opiates, and ruling out psychotic disorders and prominent Axis II. Twenty-five people were selected by the convenient sampling method. Also, 25 non-dependent people from the patients’ relatives were selected and matched for the variables of age, gender, and education to participate in this study. Participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview (SCID) for DSM-IV, demographic questionnaire information, and a Jackson-5 questionnaire (2009). Data were analyzed by Chi-square, K-S, and independent t-test. Results: The methamphetamine dependent group had a higher sensitivity in the r-BAS, r-BIS, and the r-Fight and r-Freezing systems compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in r-Flight between the two groups (P > 0.05). “The scores of r-BIS were also significantly higher in the methamphetamine-dependent group than the opioid-dependent and control groups. For the r-Fight variable, the methamphetamine-dependent group was higher than the opioid-dependent group”. Conclusions: The personality patterns of patients dependent on methamphetamines were different from the controls

  17. Enhanced non invasive trans-tympanic delivery of ciprofloxacin through encapsulation into nano-spanlastic vesicles: Fabrication, in-vitro characterization, and comparative ex-vivo permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahallawi, Abdulaziz Mohsen; Khowessah, Omneya Mohammed; Shoukri, Raguia Ali

    2017-03-07

    The aim of this research was to encapsulate ciprofloxacin, a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic, into Span 60 based nano-elastic vesicles, nano-spanlastics, for accomplishing improved non invasive trans-tympanic delivery, providing means for ototopical treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). To achieve this purpose, ciprofloxacin-loaded nano-spanlastics were prepared by thin film hydration (TFH) technique, using several non-ionic edge activators (EAs) according to full factorial design (3(2)). The investigation of the effect of formulation variables on nano-spanlastic characteristics and selection of the optimum formula were performed using Design-Expert(®) software. The selected formulation was also subjected to comparative ex-vivo permeation studies through tympanic membrane (TM) of rabbits. Results revealed that the optimal nano-spanlastic formulation (S-2; containing 20% Brij 35 as an EA) exhibited nano-sized spherical vesicles (287.55±9.97nm), relatively high entrapment efficiency percent (51.81±1.57%), and good physical stability after six months of storage at 4-8°C. Ex-vivo TM permeation studies demonstrated the superiority of the optimal nano-spanlastic formulation over the commercial Ciprocin(®) drops. However, when compared to lipid-based elastic vesicles, nano-transfersomes, nano-spanlastics exhibited lower drug permeation through the TM. Concisely, the obtained results suggested that nano-spanlastics can be promising for improving trans-tympanic delivery of ciprofloxacin.

  18. Unexpected morphological and karyological changes in invasive Carpobrotus (Aizoaceae) in Provence (S-E France) compared to native South African species.

    PubMed

    Verlaque, Régine; Affre, Laurence; Diadema, Katia; Suehs, Carey M; Médail, Frédéric

    2011-04-01

    Hybridization processes can lead to evolutionary changes, particularly in co-introduced congeneric plant species, such as Carpobrotus spp. which are recognized as invasive in Mediterranean climate regions. Morphological and karyological comparisons have therefore been made between native Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in South Africa and their invasive counterparts in Provence (C. edulis and C. aff. acinaciformis). Morphological data exhibited the most significant differences in invasive C. aff. acinaciformis that forms a new phenotypic variant. Unexpected chromosomal restructuring has been highlighted for both taxa in Provence, with in particular a clear decrease in asymmetry, an increase in the intraspecific variability, and an interspecific convergence of karyotypes. These changes suggest a drift that has facilitated various crosses, and has been amplified through hybridization/introgression. Furthermore, several morphological and karyological transgressive characters have been found in the two invasive taxa. These results stress the important role and the rapidity of karyological changes in invasive processes.

  19. [Cognitive training and strategy behavior: comparative evaluation of 2 cognitive training programs].

    PubMed

    Hager, W; Hübner, S

    1998-01-01

    Combining a non-comparative with a comparative evaluation, two modern programs for fostering inductive reasoning, namely the German version of the "Cognitive training for children" by Klauer and Phye (1994; Klauer 1989), and the "DenkMit" by Sydow and Meincke (1994), are compared to each other and to a control program which intends to enhance aspects of memory instead of inductive reasoning. The programs were performed with N = 49 children between six and eight years who had been postponed from regular school because of various reasons or who had been selected as especially in need for particular interventions from first classes. Besides the psychometric test often used for assessing inductive reasoning, i.e. three subtests of the German form of the Culture Fair Test by Cattell (Weiss a. Osterland 1980), tasks of concept formation were applied for assessing changes in strategic behavior of children--a type of task which has been used in connection with inductive reasoning since many years. Counter to expectations, the children whose memory was trained, showed changes in performance in the psychometric test in a similar size as the children whose inductive reasoning was trained. These effects are interpreted in terms of special attention directed to the children during the intervention situation. Moreover, it was found that despite the authors claim to the opposite the DenkMit did not cause any changes in visual perception. In contrast to the author's intentions, the "Cognitive Training for Children" did cause some substantive changes in the area of visual perception. The pattern of results with the concept formation tasks, however, overall indicates that the reasoning programs caused some changes in strategic behaviors of the children. Although these changes are not very impressive, they cannot be attributed to extraneous factors such as special attention.

  20. Comparative Study of C-Arms for Intraoperative 3-dimensional Imaging and Navigation in Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Part II: Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Klingler, Jan-Helge; Sircar, Ronen; Scheiwe, Christian; Kogias, Evangelos; Krüger, Marie T; Scholz, Christoph; Hubbe, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    A radiation exposure study in vitro. This study aimed to compare the radiation exposure of 2 different 3-dimensional (3D) C-arm devices on an anthropomorphic phantom. Minimally invasive pedicle screw placement requires intraoperative imaging techniques for visualization of the unexposed spine. Mobile 3D C-arms compose a 3D image data set out of multiple successive fluoroscopic images. We compared the 3D C-arm devices Siremobil Iso-C 3D (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and Vision FD Vario 3D (Ziehm Imaging, Nuremberg, Germany) regarding their radiation exposure. For this purpose, dosimeters were attached on an anthropomorphic phantom at various sites (eye lenses, thyroid gland, female, and male gonads). With each C-arm, 10 automated 3D scans as well as 400 fluoroscopic images were performed on the cervical and lumbar spine, respectively. The Vision FD Vario 3D generally causes higher radiation exposures than the Siremobil Iso-C 3D. Significantly higher radiation exposures were assessed at the eye lenses performing cervical (294.1 vs. 84.6 μSv) and lumbar 3D scans (22.5 vs. 11.2 μSv) as well as at the thyroid gland performing cervical 3D scans (4405.2 vs. 2761.9 μSv). Moreover, the Vision FD Vario 3D caused significantly higher radiation exposure at the eye lenses for standard cervical fluoroscopic images (3.2 vs. 0.4 μSv). 3D C-arms facilitate minimally invasive and accurate pedicle screw placement by providing 3D image datasets for intraoperative 3D imaging and navigation. However, the hereby potentially increased radiation exposure has to be considered. In particular, the Vision FD Vario 3D appears to generally evoke higher radiation exposures than the Siremobil Iso-C 3D. Well-indicated application of ionizing radiation and compliance with radiation protection principles remain mandatory to keep radiation exposure to patient and staff as low as reasonably achievable.

  1. Comparative Study of the Difference of Perioperative Complication and Radiologic Results: MIS-DLIF (Minimally Invasive Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion) Versus MIS-OLIF (Minimally Invasive Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion).

    PubMed

    Jin, Jie; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Hur, Jung-Woo; Seong, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Sung; Cho, Hyun-Jin

    2017-01-04

    Retrospective observatory analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of perioperative complication, difference of cage location, and sagittal alignment between minimally invasive oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-OLIF) and MIS-direct lateral lumbar interbody fusion (DLIF) in the cases of single-level surgery at L4-L5. MIS-DLIF using tubular retractor has been used for the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases; however, blunt transpsoas dissection poses a risk of injury to the lumbar plexus. As an alternative, MIS-OLIF uses a window between the prevertebral venous structures and psoas muscle. A total of 43 consecutive patients who underwent MIS-DLIF or MIS-OLIF for various L4/L5 level pathologies between November 2011 and April 2014 by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. A complication classification based on the relation to surgical procedure and effect duration was used. Perioperative complications until 3-month postoperatively were reviewed for the patients. Radiologic results including the cage location and sagittal alignment were also assessed with plain radiography. There were no significant statistical differences in perioperative parameters and early clinical outcome between 2 groups. Overall, there were 13 (59.1%) approach-related complications in the DLIF group and 3 (14.3%) in the OLIF group. In the DLIF group, 3 (45.6%) were classified as persistent, however, there was no persistent complication in the OLIF group. In the OLIF group, cage is located mostly in the middle 1/3 of vertebral body, significantly increasing posterior disk space height and foraminal height compared with the DLIF group. Global and segmental lumbar lordosis was greater in the DLIF group due to anterior cage position without statistical significance. In our report of L4/L5 level diseases, the OLIF technique may decrease approach-related perioperative morbidities by eliminating the risk of unwanted muscle and nerve manipulations. Using

  2. Work-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs compared to teachers and physicians.

    PubMed

    Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia; Schaarschmidt, Uwe; Kieschke, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the status of health-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs in comparison with teachers and physicians to identify specific health risks and resources. Entrepreneurs (n = 632), teachers (n = 5,196), and physicians (n = 549) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design. The questionnaire Work-related Behavior and Experience Patterns (AVEM) was used for all professions and, in addition, two scales (health prevention and self-confidence) from the Checklist for Entrepreneurs in the sample of entrepreneurs. The largest proportion of the entrepreneurs (45%) presented with a healthy pattern (compared with 18.4% teachers and 18.3% physicians). Thirty-eight percent of entrepreneurs showed a risk pattern of overexertion and stress, followed by teachers (28.9%) and physicians (20.6%). Unambitious or burnout patterns were seen in only 9.3/8.2% of entrepreneurs, respectively, and 25.3/27.3% of teachers, and 39.6/21.5% of physicians. While the distribution of patterns in teachers and physicians differed significantly between genders, a gender difference was not found among entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs with the risk pattern of overexertion scored significantly (P < 0.01) lower in self-confidence and health care than those with the healthy pattern. The development of a successful enterprise depends, in part, on the health of the entrepreneur. The large proportion of entrepreneurs with the healthy pattern irrespective of gender may support the notion that self-selection effects of healthy individuals in this special career might be important. At the same time, a large proportion was at risk for overexertion and might benefit from measures to cope with professional demands and stress and promote a healthy behavior pattern.

  3. Blunted HPA Axis Activity in Suicide Attempters Compared to those at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A

    2016-05-01

    Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  4. Greater Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Interrupted Stress Pattern Compared to Daily Restraint Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R.; Padival, Mallika A.; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on

  5. Modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by hyaluronan is dependent on NF-kappaB activity in lymphoma cell lines with dissimilar invasive behavior.

    PubMed

    Alaniz, Laura; García, Mariana; Cabrera, Paula; Arnaiz, María; Cavaliere, Victoria; Blanco, Guillermo; Alvarez, Elida; Hajos, Silvia

    2004-11-12

    Expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) as well as its relationship with hyaluronan (HA) and NF-kappaB activity were analyzed in two murine lymphoma cell lines with dissimilar migration and invasive behavior. MMP activity was evaluated by zymograms in supernatants, membrane extracts of tumor cells, and in the organs invaded by these cells. The more aggressive LBLa cell line showed MMP-9 activity in vitro, which increased after HA treatment and was blocked by anti-CD44 mAb. Such activity was not found in the less aggressive LBLc. MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity was found in organs invaded by both cell lines, although differential MMP-9 activity was observed in lung infiltrated only by LBLa cell line. NF-kappaB activation was evaluated to determine whether differential activity of MMP-9 was dependent on downstream signaling pathway, showing higher NF-kappaB activity in the more aggressive LBLa cell line. Our results showed that MMP-9 activity modulated by HA through NF-kappaB signaling pathway may be involved in the aggressive behavior of LBLa.

  6. Comparative Analyses of Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behavior Using Conflict-Based Novelty Tests.

    PubMed

    Kysil, Elana V; Meshalkina, Darya A; Frick, Erin E; Echevarria, David J; Rosemberg, Denis B; Maximino, Caio; Lima, Monica Gomes; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana C; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of stress and anxiety in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly utilized in neuroscience research and central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery. Representing the most commonly used zebrafish anxiety models, the novel tank test (NTT) focuses on zebrafish diving in response to potentially threatening stimuli, whereas the light-dark test (LDT) is based on fish scototaxis (innate preference for dark vs. bright areas). Here, we systematically evaluate the utility of these two tests, combining meta-analyses of published literature with comparative in vivo behavioral and whole-body endocrine (cortisol) testing. Overall, the NTT and LDT behaviors demonstrate a generally good cross-test correlation in vivo, whereas meta-analyses of published literature show that both tests have similar sensitivity to zebrafish anxiety-like states. Finally, NTT evokes higher levels of cortisol, likely representing a more stressful procedure than LDT. Collectively, our study reappraises NTT and LDT for studying anxiety-like states in zebrafish, and emphasizes their developing utility for neurobehavioral research. These findings can help optimize drug screening procedures by choosing more appropriate models for testing anxiolytic or anxiogenic drugs.

  7. The 'good mother'--a comparative study of Swedish, Italian and American maternal behavior and goals.

    PubMed

    Welles-Nyström, B; New, R; Richman, A

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on a comparative, psychologically informed ethnographic study of maternal goals and infant care during the first year of life for 20 mothers and infants in each of three Western settings: Stockholm, Sweden, outside Rome, Italy, and suburban Boston, in the United States. Two research questions were posed to consider cultural ideas and ideals about mothering; How was the 'good mother' defined? How did sample women themselves, mother? Research hypotheses were that definitions of a good mother would be culture-specific with minimal within-culture variance. Furthermore, the frequency of maternal behaviors would also exhibit culture specific patterns. Research methods included event based behavioral observations of infant-caregiver interactions in the home, daily routine questionnaires, maternal attitude interviews, and ethnographic observations of community and family life. Research hypothesis were confirmed. Results revealed culture-specific variation in conceptions of the 'good mother'. Cultural differences were reflected in the short- and long-term goals which the sample women described for their children. Patterns of infant care, in turn, were consistent with the cultural values expressed, as well as the cultural norms of social interaction.

  8. The sexual attitudes and behavior of private and public school students: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bernache-Baker, B

    1987-01-01

    This study reports the results of a questionnaire and interview-based study designed to test the often-stated claims of college preparatory schools, i.e., "prep schools" that, along with a high-quality education, they also instill a superior system of values than is possible in a public school. Comparisons are made between "preppies" and college-bound public school students in terms of sexual attitudes and behavior as well as with the earlier studies of Kinsey, Pomeroy et al., Sorensen, and Haas. The results indicate that, even when measured by the standards of the schools themselves, preppies rank lower in many areas, especially attitudinal, than their public school counterparts. Despite the enormous amount of faculty energy expended to prevent it, the sexual activity of the prep school student, both in amount and degree of sophistication, is significantly greater than is found in public school students. Further, in terms of sex-related drug use, exploitiveness, female self-image, homophobia and sexism, preppies do not compare favorably with public school students. Hypotheses are advanced to account for the differences detected and suggestions made for future research. It is also suggested that the research technique used in this study has great potential for future study of adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior that, in the past, have been extremely difficult to perform.

  9. Visual processing during recovery from vegetative state to consciousness: comparing behavioral indices to brain responses.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, V J M; Eilander, H J; de Gelder, B; van Boxtel, G J M

    2014-11-01

    Auditory stimulation is often used to evoke responses in unresponsive patients who have suffered severe brain injury. In order to investigate visual responses, we examined visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and behavioral responses to visual stimuli in vegetative patients during recovery to consciousness. Behavioral responses to visual stimuli (visual localization, comprehension of written commands, and object manipulation) and flash VEPs were repeatedly examined in eleven vegetative patients every two weeks for an average period of 2.6months, and patients' VEPs were compared to a healthy control group. Long-term outcome of the patients was assessed 2-3years later. Visual response scores increased during recovery to consciousness for all scales: visual localization, comprehension of written commands, and object manipulation. VEP amplitudes were smaller, and latencies were longer in the patient group relative to the controls. VEPs characteristics at first measurement were related to long-term outcome up to three years after injury. Our findings show the improvement of visual responding with recovery from the vegetative state to consciousness. Elementary visual processing is present, yet according to VEP responses, poorer in vegetative and minimally conscious state than in healthy controls, and remains poorer when patients recovered to consciousness. However, initial VEPs are related to long-term outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing Perceptions with Actual Reports of Close Friend's HIV Testing Behavior Among Urban Tanzanian Men.

    PubMed

    Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina J; Balvanz, Peter; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Men have lower rates of HIV testing and higher rates of AIDS-related mortality compared to women in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess whether there is an opportunity to increase men's uptake of testing by correcting misperceptions about testing norms, we compare men's perceptions of their closest friend's HIV testing behaviors with the friend's actual testing self-report using a unique dataset of men sampled within their social networks (n = 59) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the accuracy and bias of perceptions among men who have tested for HIV (n = 391) and compare them to the perceptions among men who never tested (n = 432). We found that testers and non-testers did not differ in the accuracy of their perceptions, though non-testers were strongly biased towards assuming that their closest friends had not tested. Our results lend support to social norms approaches designed to correct the biased misperceptions of non-testers to promote men's HIV testing.

  11. A comparative study of orientation at behavior of univalent in living grasshopper spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rebollo, E; Arana, P

    1995-10-01

    Orientational movements and modes of segregation at anaphase I were analyzed in three different types of univalents in living spermatocytes of the grasshopper species Eyprepocnemis plorans, namely the sex univalent, three types of accessory chromosomes and spontaneous and induced autosomal univalents. When two or more univalents were present in the same spindle, their dynamics were directly compared. Chromosomes may show variable velocity and number of reorientations: the X and the most common B types (B1 and B2) are slow and rarely reorient, a more geographically restricted B (B5) is faster and reorients more often, and autosomal univalents are the fastest and show the highest frequency of reorientations. Nonetheless, the X and the accessories are rigorously reductional at anaphase I whereas autosomal univalents often fail to migrate or divide equationally. This indicates that orientational and segregational behavior are controlled mainly by chromosomal rather than cellular characteristics and that chromosomes may display a great variety of strategies to achieve regular segregation.

  12. Increasing organizational energy conservation behaviors: Comparing the theory of planned behavior and reasons theory for identifying specific motivational factors to target for change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlinson, Scott Michael

    Social scientists frequently assess factors thought to underlie behavior for the purpose of designing behavioral change interventions. Researchers commonly identify these factors by examining relationships between specific variables and the focal behaviors being investigated. Variables with the strongest relationships to the focal behavior are then assumed to be the most influential determinants of that behavior, and therefore often become the targets for change in a behavioral change intervention. In the current proposal, multiple methods are used to compare the effectiveness of two theoretical frameworks for identifying influential motivational factors. Assessing the relative influence of all factors and sets of factors for driving behavior should clarify which framework and methodology is the most promising for identifying effective change targets. Results indicated each methodology adequately predicted the three focal behaviors examined. However, the reasons theory approach was superior for predicting factor influence ratings compared to the TpB approach. While common method variance contamination had minimal impact on the results or conclusions derived from the present study's findings, there were substantial differences in conclusions depending on the questionnaire design used to collect the data. Examples of applied uses of the present study are discussed.

  13. Comparing four non-invasive methods to determine the ventilatory anaerobic threshold during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children with congenital heart or lung disease.

    PubMed

    Visschers, Naomi C A; Hulzebos, Erik H; van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim

    2015-11-01

    The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) is an important method to assess the aerobic fitness in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. Several methods exist to determine the VAT; however, there is no consensus which of these methods is the most accurate. To compare four different non-invasive methods for the determination of the VAT via respiratory gas exchange analysis during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). A secondary objective is to determine the interobserver reliability of the VAT. CPET data of 30 children diagnosed with either cystic fibrosis (CF; N = 15) or with a surgically corrected dextro-transposition of the great arteries (asoTGA; N = 15) were included. No significant differences were found between conditions or among testers. The RER = 1 method differed the most compared to the other methods, showing significant higher results in all six variables. The PET-O2 method differed significantly on five of six and four of six exercise variables with the V-slope method and the VentEq method, respectively. The V-slope and the VentEq method differed significantly on one of six exercise variables. Ten of thirteen ICCs that were >0.80 had a 95% CI > 0.70. The RER = 1 method and the V-slope method had the highest number of significant ICCs and 95% CIs. The V-slope method, the ventilatory equivalent method and the PET-O2 method are comparable and reliable methods to determine the VAT during CPET in children with CF or asoTGA. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparative mutational analysis of pulmonary scar epithelium, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, and invasive well-differentiated pulmonary adenocarcinomas: a molecular approach to diagnostically challenging cases.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Hina A; Sasatomi, Eizaburo; Finkelstein, Sydney; Yousem, Samuel A

    2005-10-01

    Discrimination of invasive well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (IAD) from reactive bronchioloalveolar epithelium entrapped in pulmonary scars (PSE) may be difficult on routine histology, especially on small biopsies. Ancillary studies to help in this regard are desirable. Whereas IADs have been shown to harbor cumulative mutational damage of tumor suppressor genes, little is known about molecular changes in PSEs. In this study, we compared cumulative loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor suppressor genes in PSEs (N = 12), bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (BACs, N = 15) and stage 1 IADs (N = 7). Unstained serial sections were microdissected to obtain lesional and normal tissue DNA. PCR was performed for up to 16 polymorphic markers. An allelic ratio of < 0.5 or >2.0 was designated as LOH. Fractional allelic loss (FAL) was calculated for each case as the number of markers with LOH divided by the total number of informative markers. Mean percentage of informative markers was 76.8%. PSEs showed significantly lower mean FAL compared with BACs and IADs (3.0% vs. 20.4% and 28.5%, respectively; P < 0.003). Only 1 case of PSE showed LOH of one marker in two different areas, whereas the majority of allelic losses in the neoplasms were present in two or more microdissected foci. Our study shows that PSEs harbor LOH of tumor suppressor genes at relatively low rates and in a random distribution compared with BACs and IADs, which show consistent allelic losses, and high FALs. These molecular differences may serve as an adjunct to histology in challenging glandular lesions of the lung.

  15. Clinical-Pathologic Features and Long-Term Outcomes of Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast Compared With Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gene-Fu F.; Yang Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.; Moran, Meena S.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate our institutional experience of treating tubular carcinoma of the breast (TC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with conservative surgery and radiation therapy, to compare clinical-pathologic features and long-term outcomes. Methods and Materials: A review of our institution's tumor registry from 1975 to 2007, followed by a central pathology review of available slides, yielded 71 cases of Stage I/II TC and 2,238 cases of Stage I/II IDC treated with breast conservation therapy. Clinical-pathologic features and outcomes were analyzed by subtype to detect significant differences. Results: The median follow-up was 7 years. The TC cohort presented more frequently with pT1 disease (97% vs. 80%, p = 0.0007), pN0 disease (95% vs. 74%, p = 0.0004), hormone-receptor positivity (ER+, 89% vs. 62%, p = 0.0001; PR+, 81% vs. 52%, p = 0.0001), and HER-2 negativity (89% vs. 71%, p = 0.04). Clinical outcomes also favored the TC cohort, with lower rates of breast cancer-related death (1% vs. 10%; p = 0.0109) and distant metastasis (1% vs. 13%; p = 0.0028) and higher rates of 10-year overall (90% vs. 80%; p = 0.033), cause-specific (99% vs. 86%; p = 0.011), and disease-free (99% vs. 82%; p = 0.003) survival. There was a nonsignificant trend toward improved breast cancer relapse-free survival for the TC cohort (95% vs. 87%; p = 0.062) but no difference in nodal relapse-free survival or contralateral breast cancer relapse-free survival (all p values >0.05) between the cohorts. Conclusion: Our institutional experience suggests that TC, when compared with IDC, is associated with more favorable clinical-pathologic features and comparable, if not superior, outcomes after breast conservation therapy, suggesting the appropriateness of a conservative approach to this rare subtype.

  16. Technical note: Comparative analyses of the quality and yield of genomic DNA from invasive and noninvasive, automated and manual extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Foley, C; O'Farrelly, C; Meade, K G

    2011-06-01

    Several new automated methods have recently become available for high-throughput DNA extraction, including the Maxwell 16 System (Promega UK, Southampton, UK). The purpose of this report is to compare automated with manual DNA extraction methods, and invasive with noninvasive sample collection methods, in terms of DNA yield and quality. Milk, blood, and nasal swab samples were taken from 10 cows for DNA extraction. Nasal swabs were also taken from 10 calves and semen samples from 15 bulls for comparative purposes. The Performagene Livestock (DNA Genotek, Kanata, Ontario, Canada) method was compared with similar samples taken from the same animal using manual extraction methods. All samples were analyzed using both the Qubit Quantification Platform (Invitrogen Ltd., Paisley, UK) and NanoDrop spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies, Inc., Wilmington, DE) to accurately assess DNA quality and quantity. In general, the automated Maxwell 16 System performed best, consistently yielding high quantity and quality DNA across the sample range tested. Average yields of 28.7, 10.3, and 19.2 μg of DNA were obtained from 450 μL of blood, 400 μL of milk, and a single straw of semen, respectively. The quality of DNA obtained from buffy coat and from semen was significantly higher with the automated method than with the manual methods (260/280 ratio of 1.9 and 1.8, respectively). Centrifugation of whole blood facilitated the concentration of leukocytes in the buffy coat, which significantly increased DNA yield after manual extraction. The Performagene method also yielded 18.4 and 49.8 μg of high quality (260/280 ratio of 1.8) DNA from the cow and calf nasal samples, respectively. These results show the advantages of noninvasive sample collection and automated methods for high-throughput extraction and biobanking of high quality DNA. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vascular invasion is an independent prognostic factor for distant recurrence-free survival in papillary thyroid carcinoma: a matched-case comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Hu, Jin-Lin; Chen, Can; Wang, Qing-Liang; Fang, Xian-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Ming-Hua

    2016-10-01

    It is still unclear whether the clinicopathological and outcome characteristics of vascular invasion (VI) (+) papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) differ from VI (-) PTC. This study aims to establish distinguishing features of patients with VI (+) and VI (-) PTC and to investigate the biological and clinical aggressiveness of the disease in these patient groups. A matched-case comparative study. 412 patients (VI (+) PTC study group n=103, and VI (-) PTC control group n=309). These two patient groups were matched 1:3 for variables of age, gender, histological variants, tumour/node/metastasis (TNM) staging and approximate duration of follow-up. Clinicopathological factors and prognosis were compared across the two patient groups. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 42.0 years, and 68.9% were females. Across the patient groups, the incidence of tumour multifocality in patients with VI (+) PTC was slightly higher than in those with VI (-) PTC (p=0.049). In addition, when undergoing more aggressive therapy regimens patients with VI (+) PTC showed decreased distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS), but not regional recurrence-free survival (RRFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) compared with patients who were VI (-). VI was found to be an independent predictor of DRFS, combined with tumour size >3 cm and total thyroidectomy. VI was an independent risk factor for DRFS, necessitating the need for appropriate postoperative treatment and careful follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Distribution of myofibroblast cells and microvessels around invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and comparing with the adjacent range of their normal-to-DCIS zones.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Shahriar; Talebi, Amin; Shahryari, Jahanbanoo; Meymandi, Manzoumeh Shamsi; Safizadeh, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    This study seeks to determine the relationships between manifestation of myofibroblasts in the stroma tissue of hyperplastic pre-invasive breast lesions to invasive cancer by investigating clinicopathological data of patients, their effect on steroid receptor expression and HER2, and angiogenesis according to CD34 antigen expression. 100 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma were immunohistochemically investigated for the presence of smooth muscle actin (SMA), ER/PR, HER2, anti-CD34 antibody and microvessel count (MVC). Patients were scored in four different zones of invasive areas: invasive cancer, DCIS, fibrocystic disease ± ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (FCD ± DIN), and normal tissue.  There was a significant difference in stromal myofibroblasts between all areas except for the stroma of DCIS and FCD ± DIN (P < 0.001). We observed positive significant correlations between stromal myofibroblasts, HER2 expression, and the numbers of involved lymph nodes in invasive cancer, DCIS, and FCD ± DIN (P < 0.001). More myofibroblasts were present in grade III cases, with the least frequent observed among grade I cases in the stroma of those with invasive disease, DCIS, and FCD ± DIN (P < 0.001).  MVC was inversely related to stromal myofibroblasts in invasive cancer (P < 0.001) and DCIS (P < 0.001), whereas there was a positive correlation in the stroma of FCD ± DIN (P = 0.002) and normal areas (P = 0.054). There was a significant difference in MVC observed in all areas except for DCIS and FCD ± DIN (P < 0.001). We noted significant inverse correlations between MVC, HER2 expression, and the numbers of involved lymph nodes in invasive cancer and DCIS (P < 0.001). Most MVC were present in grade I, with the least frequent observed in grade III cases in the stroma of invasive cancer, DCIS and FCD ± DIN (P < 0.001).  Angiogenesis can be observed before any significant myofibroblastic changes in the pre-invasive breast lesions. The elevated content of myofibroblasts

  19. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Kimball, Bruce A; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R; Yates, Bill J; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  20. Why Can’t Rodents Vomit? A Comparative Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charles C.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Wang, Hong; Kaus, James; Dienel, Samuel; Nagy, Allysa; Gathright, Gordon R.; Yates, Bill J.; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2013-01-01

    The vomiting (emetic) reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus) or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver), Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria), and squirrel-related (mountain beaver) species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc), veratrine (sc), and copper sulfate (ig), failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted). These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew). Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity–key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation) compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed. PMID:23593236

  1. Comparative pathogenomic characterization of a non-invasive serotype M71 strain Streptococcus pyogenes NS53 reveals incongruent phenotypic implications from distinct genotypic markers.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yun-Juan; Li, Yang; Liang, Zhong; Agrahari, Garima; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2017-07-31

    The strains serotyped as M71 from group A Streptococcus are common causes of pharyngeal and skin diseases worldwide. Here we characterize the genome of a unique non-invasive M71 human isolate, NS53. The genome does not contain structural rearrangements or large-scale gene gains/losses, but encodes a full set of non-truncated known virulence factors, thus providing an ideal reference for comparative studies. However, the NS53 genome showed incongruent phenotypic implications from distinct genotypic markers. NS53 is characterized as an emm pattern D and FCT (fibronectin-collagen-T antigen) type-3 strain, typical of skin tropic strains, but is phylogenetically close to emm pattern E strains with preference for both skin and pharyngeal infections. We propose that this incongruence could result from recombination within the emm gene locus, or, alternatively, selection has been against those genetic alterations. Combined with the inability to select for CovS switching, a process is indicated whereby NS53 has been pre-adapted to specific host niches selecting against variations in CovS and many other genes. This may allow the strain to attain successful colonization and long-term survival. A balance between genetic variations and fitness may exist for this bacterium to form a stabilized genome optimized for survival in specific host environments. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Comparative analysis of basal lamina type IV collagen α chains, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 expressions in oral dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tamamura, Ryo; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Siar, Chong Huat; Katase, Naoki; Naito, Ichiro; Sado, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Noriyuki

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of basal lamina (BL) collagen IV α chains and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in oral dysplasia (OED) and invasive carcinoma. Ten cases each of OEDs, carcinomas-in situ and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Another 5 cases, each of normal and hyperplastic oral mucosa, served as controls. Results showed that α1(IV)/α2(IV) and α5(IV)/α6(IV) chains were intact in BLs of control and OEDs. In BLs of carcinoma-in situ, α1(IV)/α2(IV) chains preceded α5(IV)/α6(IV) chains in showing incipient signs of disruption. OSCCs exhibited varying degrees of collagen α(IV) chain degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were absent in controls and OED, but weakly detectable in carcinoma-in situ. In OSCC, these proteolytic enzymes were expressed in areas corresponding to collagen α(IV) chain loss. Enzymatic activity was enhanced in higher grade OSCC, and along the tumor advancing front. Overall the present findings suggest that loss of BL collagen α(IV) chains coincided with gain of expression for MMP-2 and MMP-9, and that these protein alterations are crucial events during progression from OED to OSCC.

  3. The Outcomes of Minimally Invasive versus Open Posterior Approach Spinal Fusion in Treatment of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: The Current Evidence from Prospective Comparative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ai-Min; Chen, Chun-Hui; Shen, Zhi-Hao; Feng, Zhen-Hua; Weng, Wan-Qing; Li, Shu-Min; Chi, Yong-Long; Yin, Li-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the evidence of minimally invasive (MI) versus open (OP) posterior lumbar fusion in treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis from current prospective literatures. Methods. The electronic literature database of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library was searched at April 2016. The data of operative time, estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay, visual analog scale (VAS) of both lower back pain and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), SF-36 PCS (physical component scores) and SF-36 MCS (mental component scores), complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery were extracted and analyzed by STATA 12.0 software. Results. Five nonrandom prospective comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the MI group had a significantly longer operative time than OP group, less blood loss, and shorter hospital stay. No significant difference was found in back pain, leg pain, ODI, SF-36 PCS, SF-36 MCS, complications, fusion rate, and secondary surgery between MI and OP groups. Conclusion. The prospective evidence suggested that MI posterior fusion for spondylolisthesis had less EBL and hospital stay than OP fusion; however it took more operative time. Both MI and OP fusion had similar results in pain and functional outcomes, complication, fusion rate, and secondary surgery. PMID:28154826

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging for non-invasive and quantitative monitoring of bone marrow infiltration in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disease: a comparative study with histology.

    PubMed

    Hillengass, Jens; Bäuerle, Tobias; Bartl, Reiner; Andrulis, Mindaugas; McClanahan, Fabienne; Laun, Frederik B; Zechmann, Christian Martin; Shah, Rajiv; Wagner-Gund, Barbara; Simon, Dirk; Heiss, Christiane; Neben, Kai; Ho, Anthony D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Delorme, Stefan; Stieltjes, Bram

    2011-06-01

    Bone marrow plasma cell infiltration is a crucial parameter of disease activity in monoclonal plasma cell disorders. Until now, the only way to quantify such infiltration was bone marrow biopsy or aspiration. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging-technique that may mirror tissue cellularity by measuring random movements of water molecules. To investigate if DWI is capable of assessing bone marrow cellularity in monoclonal plasma cell disease, we investigated 56 patients with multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, and 30 healthy controls using DWI of the pelvis and/or the lumbar spine. In 25 of 30 patients who underwent biopsy, bone marrow trephine and DWI could be compared. Of the patients with symptomatic disease 15 could be evaluated after systemic treatment. There was a positive correlation between the DWI-parameter apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and bone marrow cellularity as well as micro-vessel density (P<0·001 respectively). ADC was significantly different between patients and controls (P<0·01) and before and after systemic therapy (P<0·001). In conclusion, DWI enabled bone marrow infiltration to be monitored in a non-invasive, quantitative way, suggesting that after further investigations on larger patient groups this might become an useful tool in the clinical work-up to assess tumour burden. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. An EORTC international multicenter randomized trial (EORTC number 19923) comparing two dosages of liposomal amphotericin B for treatment of invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, M; Spence, D; de Pauw, B; Meunier, F; Marinus, A; Collette, L; Sylvester, R; Meis, J; Boogaerts, M; Selleslag, D; Krcmery, V; von Sinner, W; MacDonald, P; Doyen, C; Vandercam, B

    1998-12-01

    This is the first completed prospective randomized clinical efficacy trial of antifungals in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and the first to compare the clinical efficacy of two dosages of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for IA in neutropenic patients with cancer or those undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Eighty-seven of 120 patients were eligible and evaluable. Clinical responses were documented for 26 (64%) of 41 patients receiving 1 mg/(kg.d) (L-AmB-1) and 22 (48%) of 46 receiving 4 mg/(kg.d) (L-AmB-4). Radiologic response rates were similar: 24 (58%) of the L-AmB-1 recipients and 24(52%) of the L-AmB-4 recipients. The six-month survival rates were 43% (L-AmB-1) and 37% (L-AmB-4). These differences were not significant. The numbers of deaths directly due to IA at 6 months were similar: 9 (22%) of 41 L-AmB-1 recipients and 9 (20%) of 46 L-AmB-4 recipients. No other variable independently influenced survival, apart from central nervous system IA. L-AmB is effective in treating approximately 50%-60% of patients who have IA. A 1-mg/(kg.d) dosage is as effective as a 4-mg/(kg.d) dosage, and no advantages to use of the higher, more expensive, dosage has been observed.

  6. Dynamic and coordinated single-molecular interactions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomains guide invasive behaviors in 2- and 3-dimensional environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Kwon, Sojung; Nam, Seo Hee; Jung, Jae Woo; Kang, Minkyung; Ryu, Jihye; Kim, Ji Eon; Cheong, Jin-Gyu; Cho, Chang Yun; Kim, Somi; Song, Dae-Geun; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Tai Young; Jung, Min-Kyo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Pack, Chan-Gi; Lee, Jung Weon

    2017-04-01

    Membrane proteins sense extracellular cues and transduce intracellular signaling to coordinate directionality and speed during cellular migration. They are often localized to specific regions, as with lipid rafts or tetraspanin-enriched microdomains; however, the dynamic interactions of tetraspanins with diverse receptors within tetraspanin-enriched microdomains on cellular surfaces remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated effects of tetraspan(in) TM4SF5 (transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5)-enriched microdomains (T5ERMs) on the directionality of cell migration. Physical association of TM4SF5 with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin α5 was visualized by live fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy and higher-resolution microscopy at the leading edge of migratory cells, presumably forming TM4SF5-enriched microdomains. Whereas TM4SF5 and EGFR colocalized at the migrating leading region more than at the rear, TM4SF5 and integrin α5 colocalized evenly throughout cells. Cholesterol depletion and disruption in TM4SF5 post-translational modifications, including N-glycosylation and palmitoylation, altered TM4SF5 interactions and cellular localization, which led to less cellular migration speed and directionality in 2- or 3-dimensional conditions. TM4SF5 controlled directional cell migration and invasion, and importantly, these TM4SF5 functions were dependent on cholesterol, TM4SF5 post-translational modifications, and EGFR and integrin α5 activity. Altogether, we showed that TM4SF5 dynamically interacted with EGFR and integrin α5 in migratory cells to control directionality and invasion.-Kim, H.-J., Kwon, S., Nam, S. H., Jung, J. W., Kang, M., Ryu, J., Kim, J. E., Cheong, J.-G., Cho, C. Y., Kim, S., Song, D.-G., Kim, Y.-N., Kim, T. Y., Jung, M.-K., Lee, K.-M., Pack, C.-G., Lee, J. W. Dynamic and coordinated single-molecular interactions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomains guide invasive behaviors in 2- and 3-dimensional environments. © FASEB.

  7. Comparing handheld and hands-free cell phone usage behaviors while driving.

    PubMed

    Soccolich, Susan A; Fitch, Gregory M; Perez, Miguel A; Hanowski, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare cell phone usage behaviors while driving across 3 types of cell phones: handheld (HH) cell phones, portable hands-free (PHF) cell phones, and integrated hands-free (IHF) cell phones. Naturalistic driving data were used to observe HH, PHF, and IHF usage behaviors in participants' own vehicles without any instructions or manipulations by researchers. In addition to naturalistic driving data, drivers provided their personal cell phone call records. Calls during driving were sampled and observed in naturalistically collected video. Calls were reviewed to identify cell phone type used for, and duration of, cell phone subtasks, non-cell phone secondary tasks, and other use behaviors. Drivers in the study self-identified as HH, PHF, or IHF users if they reported using that cell phone type at least 50% of the time. However, each sampled call was classified as HH, PHF, or IHF if the talking/listening subtask was conducted using that cell phone type, without considering the driver's self-reported group. Drivers with PHF or IHF systems also used HH cell phones (IHF group used HH cell phone in 53.2% of the interactions, PHF group used HH cell phone for 55.5% of interactions). Talking/listening on a PHF phone or an IHF phone was significantly longer than talking/listening on an HH phone (P <.05). HH dialing was significantly longer in duration than PHF or IHF begin/answer tasks. End phone call task for HH phones was significantly longer in duration than the end phone call task for PHF and IHF phones. Of all the non-cell phone-related secondary tasks, eating or drinking was found to occur significantly more often during IHF subtasks (0.58%) than in HH subtasks (0.15%). Drivers observed to reach for their cell phone mostly kept their cell phone in the cup holder (36.3%) or in their seat or lap (29.0% of interactions); however, some observed locations may have required drivers to move out of position. Hands-free cell phone technologies reduce

  8. A prospective clinical trial to compare the performance of dried blood spots prenatal screening for Down's syndrome with conventional non-invasive testing technology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiying; Jiang, Yulin; Zhang, Minghui; Liu, Shanying; Hao, Na; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Xiaojin; Ma, Liangkun

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate, side by side, the efficiency of dried blood spots (DBSs) against serum screening for Down's syndrome, and then, to construct a two-tier strategy by topping up the fetal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) secondary screening over the high-risk women marked by the primary blood testing to build a practical screening tactic to identify fetal Down's syndrome. One thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven low-risk Chinese women, with singleton pregnancy, were enrolled for the study. Alpha-fetoprotein and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin were measured for the serum as well as for the parallel DBS samples. Partial high-risk pregnant women identified by primary blood testing (n = 38) were also subject to the secondary cfDNA screening. Diagnostic amniocentesis was utilized to confirm the screening results. The true positive rate for Down's syndrome detection was 100% for both blood screening methods; however, the false-positive rate was 3.0% for DBS and 4.0% for serum screening, respectively. DBS correlated well with serum screening on Down's syndrome detection. Three out of 38 primary high-risk women displayed chromosomal abnormalities by cfDNA analysis, which were confirmed by amniocentesis. Either the true detection rate or the false-positive rate for Down's syndrome between DBS and the serum test is comparable. In addition, blood primary screening aligned with secondary cfDNA analysis, a "before and after" two-tier screening strategy, can massively decrease the false-positive rate, which, then, dramatically reduces the demand for invasive diagnostic operation. Impact statement Children born with Down's syndrome display a wide range of mental and physical disability. Currently, there is no effective treatment to ease the burden and anxiety of the Down's syndrome family and the surrounding society. This study is to evaluate the efficiency of dried blood spots against serum screening for Down's syndrome and to construct a two-tier strategy by topping up the fetal

  9. Comparative diagnostic value of 18F-fluoride PET-CT versus MRI for skull-base bone invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Le, Yali; Chen, Yu; Zhou, Fan; Liu, Guangfu; Huang, Zhanwen; Chen, Yue

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the diagnostic value of F-fluoride PET-computed tomography (PET-CT) and MRI in skull-base bone erosion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. A total of 93 patients with biopsy-confirmed NPC were enrolled, including 68 men and 25 women between 23 and 74 years of age. All patients were evaluated by both F-fluoride PET-CT and MRI, and the interval between the two imaging examinations was less than 20 days. The patients received no treatment either before or between scans. The studies were interpreted by two nuclear medicine physicians or two radiologists with more than 10 years of professional experience who were blinded to both the diagnosis and the results of the other imaging studies. The reference standard was skull-base bone erosion at a 20-week follow-up imaging study. On the basis of the results of the follow-up imaging studies, 52 patients showed skull-base bone erosion. The numbers of true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives with F-fluoride PET-CT were 49, 4, 37, and 3, respectively. The numbers of true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives with MRI were 46, 5, 36, and 6, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and crude accuracy of F-fluoride PET-CT were 94.23, 90.24, and 92.47%, respectively; for MRI, these values were 88.46, 87.80, and 88.17%. Of the 52 patients, 43 showed positive findings both on F-fluoride PET-CT and on MRI. Within the patient cohort, F-fluoride PET-CT and MRI detected 178 and 135 bone lesions, respectively. Both F-fluoride PET-CT and MRI have high sensitivity, specificity, and crude accuracy for detecting skull-base bone invasion in patients with NPC. F-fluoride PET-CT detected more lesions than did MRI in the skull-base bone. This suggests that F-fluoride PET-CT has a certain advantage in evaluating the skull-base bone of NPC patients. Combining the two methods could improve the diagnostic accuracy of skull-base bone invasion for NPC.

  10. Invasion dynamics of competing species with stage-structure.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Sharon; Wang, Guoqing; Younes, Hannah; Li, Bingtuan; Fagan, William F

    2017-08-03

    The spread of an invasive species often results in a decline and subsequent disappearance of native competitors. Several models, primarily based on spatially explicit Lotka-Volterra competition dynamics, have been developed to understand this phenomenon. In general, the goal of these models is to relate fundamental life history traits, for example dispersal ability and competition strength, to the rate of spread of the invasive species, which is also the rate at which the invasive species displaces its native competitor. Stage-structure is often an important determinant of population dynamics, but it has received little attention within the context of Lotka-Volterra invasion models. For many species, behaviors like dispersal and competition depend on life-stage. To describe the processes of invasion in these species, it is important to understand how behaviors that vary as a function of life-stage can impact spread rate. In this paper, we develop a spatially explicit, stage-structured Lotka-Volterra competition model. By comparing spread speed predictions from this model to spread speed predictions from an analogous single-stage model, we are able to determine when stage-structure is important and how stage-dependent behavior can alter the characteristics of an invasion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Comparative evaluation of new and conventional classifications of magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging for invasion depth of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, T; Tajika, M; Tanaka, T; Ishihara, M; Mizuno, N; Hara, K; Hijioka, S; Imaoka, H; Yatabe, Y; Hirooka, Y; Goto, H; Yamao, K; Niwa, Y

    2017-11-01

    A new classification of magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) for diagnosing and staging superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC) was proposed by the Japan Esophageal Society in 2011. This study aimed to compare the new classification with the conventional classifications (Inoue's classification and Arima's classification). This was a prospective analysis of data from a single cancer center involving 151 consecutive patients with 156 SESCCs that were endoscopically or surgically resected. Initially, only ME-NBI images were selected and reviewed independently by three experienced endoscopists. White light imaging (WLI) was then evaluated separately after an interval. The diagnostic performance of each classification and interobserver agreement were assessed, and the WLI findings that affect the diagnosis by the new classification were identified. The specificity for classifying invasive depth as epithelium (EP)/lamina propria mucosae (LPM) confined was higher with the new classification than with Inoue's classification (0.512 vs. 0.349; P = 0.02) and Arima's classification (0.512 vs. 0.279; P < 0.01). However, the sensitivity was lower (0.902 vs. 1.000; P < 0.01) compared with Arima's classification. The concordance rates of three evaluators (κ values) were 0.52 for the new classification, 0.50 for Inoue's classification, and 0.23 for Arima's classification. On multivariate analysis, thickness on WLI independently affected the accuracy of diagnosis with the new classification (OR 3.23; 95%CI, 1.30-8.03). The new classification is superior to conventional classifications with respect to specificity for diagnosing SESCC with depth EP/LPM. Thickness on WLI was a factor negatively affecting the diagnostic performance of the new classification. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement Provides Equivalent Outcomes at Reduced Cost Compared to Conventional Aortic Valve Replacement: A “Realworld” Multi-institutional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghanta, Ravi K.; Lapar, Damien J.; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.; Speir, Allen M.; Fonner, Edwin; Quader, Mohammed; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2015-01-01

    Background Several single center studies have reported excellent outcomes with minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (mini-AVR). Although criticized as requiring more operative time and complexity, mini-AVR is increasingly performed. We compared contemporary outcomes and cost of mini-AVR versus conventional AVR in a multi-institutional regional cohort. We hypothesize that mini-AVR provides equivalent outcomes to conventional AVR without increased cost. Methods Patient records for primary isolated AVR (2011–2013) were extracted from a regional, multi-institutional Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database and stratified by conventional versus mini-AVR, performed by either partial sternotomy or right thoracotomy. To compare similar patients, a 1:1 propensity match cohort was performed after adjusting for surgeon, operative year, and STS risk score including age and risk factors (n=289 in each group). Differences in outcomes and cost were analyzed. Results A total of 1,341 patients underwent primary isolated AVR, of which 442 (33%) underwent mini-AVR at 17 hospitals. Mortality, stroke, renal failure and other major complications were equivalent between groups. Mini-AVR was associated with decreased ventilator time (5 vs 6 hours; p=0.04) and decreased blood product transfusion (25% vs 32%; p=0.04). A greater percentage of mini-AVR patients were discharged within 4 days of the operation (15.2% vs 4.8%; p<0.001). Consequently, total hospital costs were lower in the mini-AVR group ($36,348 vs $38,239; p=0.02). Conclusions Mortality and morbidity outcomes of mini-AVR are equivalent to conventional AVR. Mini-AVR is associated with decreased ventilator time, blood product utilization, early discharge, and reduced total hospital cost. In contemporary clinical practice, mini-AVR is safe and cost-effective. PMID:25680751

  13. Role of Herbal Agents - Tea Tree Oil and Aloe vera as Cavity Disinfectant Adjuncts in Minimally Invasive Dentistry-An In vivo Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Aliva

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The prevention and control of caries necessitates the elimination of cariogenic bacteria and cavity disinfectants have proved to play a major role in achieving the goal. The use of phytotherapy is trending and many natural products have shown anti-microbial properties which can be used as cavity disinfectant in the field of dentistry. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of herbal antibacterial agents (Tea Tree Oil (TTO) and Aloe vera) with commercially available 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) as cavity disinfectant for use in minimally invasive dentistry. Materials and Methods The study included three test groups, Group I (2% chlorhexidine), Group II (tea tree oil), Group III (Aloe vera gel) with a control group (distilled water). Ten patients with atleast one tooth with an occlusal or occluso-proximal lesion suitable for Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) were selected for each group, dentinal samples were collected using sterile spoon excavators at three stages from each tooth viz., pre-excavation, post-excavation and post-disinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for Total Viable Count (TVC). The data collected were statistically analysed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test. Results The results of present study showed that there was a statistically significant reduction in TVC when compared between pre and post excavation in all the groups (p<0.05) and post- excavation and post-disinfection in all the test groups (p<0.05) (except control group). Post-disinfection, 2% chlorhexidine showed highest reduction in TVC followed by 1% tea tree oil and aloe vera gel. Conclusion Natural antibacterial agents like tea tree oil and aloe vera could be effectively used as cavity disinfectants which will help in minimizing secondary caries and rendering a long term restorative success. PMID:28892888

  14. Role of Herbal Agents - Tea Tree Oil and Aloe vera as Cavity Disinfectant Adjuncts in Minimally Invasive Dentistry-An In vivo Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Patri, Gaurav; Sahu, Aliva

    2017-07-01

    The prevention and control of caries necessitates the elimination of cariogenic bacteria and cavity disinfectants have proved to play a major role in achieving the goal. The use of phytotherapy is trending and many natural products have shown anti-microbial properties which can be used as cavity disinfectant in the field of dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of herbal antibacterial agents (Tea Tree Oil (TTO) and Aloe vera) with commercially available 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) as cavity disinfectant for use in minimally invasive dentistry. The study included three test groups, Group I (2% chlorhexidine), Group II (tea tree oil), Group III (Aloe vera gel) with a control group (distilled water). Ten patients with atleast one tooth with an occlusal or occluso-proximal lesion suitable for Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) were selected for each group, dentinal samples were collected using sterile spoon excavators at three stages from each tooth viz., pre-excavation, post-excavation and post-disinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for Total Viable Count (TVC). The data collected were statistically analysed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test. The results of present study showed that there was a statistically significant reduction in TVC when compared between pre and post excavation in all the groups (p<0.05) and post- excavation and post-disinfection in all the test groups (p<0.05) (except control group). Post-disinfection, 2% chlorhexidine showed highest reduction in TVC followed by 1% tea tree oil and aloe vera gel. Natural antibacterial agents like tea tree oil and aloe vera could be effectively used as cavity disinfectants which will help in minimizing secondary caries and rendering a long term restorative success.

  15. Effects of an occlusal splint compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment on sleep bruxism activity.

    PubMed

    Ommerborn, Michelle A; Schneider, Christine; Giraki, Maria; Schäfer, Ralf; Handschel, Jörg; Franz, Matthias; Raab, Wolfgang H-M

    2007-02-01

    The impact of an occlusal splint (OS) compared with cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) on the management of sleep bruxism (SB) has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an OS with CBT in SB patients. Following a randomized assignment, the OS group consisted of 29, and the CBT group of 28, SB patients. The CBT comprised problem-solving, progressive muscle relaxation, nocturnal biofeedback, and training of recreation and enjoyment. The treatment took place over a period of 12 wk, and the OS group received an OS over the same time period. Both groups were examined pretreatment, post-treatment, and at 6 months of follow-up for SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity and associated symptoms, psychological impairment, and individual stress-coping strategies. The analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in SB activity, self-assessment of SB activity, and psychological impairment, as well as an increase of positive stress-coping strategies in both groups. However, the effects were small and no group-specific differences were seen in any dependent variable. This is an initial attempt to compare CBT and OS in SB patients, and the data collected substantiate the need for further controlled evaluations, using a three-group randomized design with repeated measures to verify treatment effects.

  16. Digestive enzyme activity and trophic behavior in two predator aquatic insects (Plecoptera, Perlidae): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, M J; Trenzado, C E; Tierno de Figueroa, J M; Sanz, A

    2012-05-01

    Plecoptera (Perlidae) are among the major macroinvertebrate predators in stream ecosystems and one of the insect families with lower tolerance to environmental alterations, being usually employed as bioindicators of high water ecological quality. The differences in the trophic roles of the coexisting species have been exclusively studied from their gut contents, while no data are available on the comparative digestive capacity. In the present paper, we make a comparative study of the activity of several digestive enzymes, namely proteases (at different pH), amylase, lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin, in two species of stoneflies, Perla bipunctata and Dinocras cephalotes, which cohabit in the same stream. The study of digestive enzyme activity together with the analysis of gut contents can contribute to a better understanding of the ecology of these aquatic insects and their role in freshwater food webs. Thus, our results show that the two studied predator species inhabiting in the same stream present specializations on their feeding behaviors, facilitating their coexistence, and also differences in their capacity of use the resources. One of the main findings of this study is that D. cephalotes is able to assimilate a wider trophic resource spectrum and this could be one of the reasons why this species has a wider global distribution in all its geographical range. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing Reactivation Behavior of TIG and Laser Beam Welded Alloy 690

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Geogy J.; Bhambroo, Rajan; Kain, V.; Dey, G. K.; Raja, V. S.

    2013-02-01

    The nickel base Alloy 690 was subjected to simulated autogenous welding treatment employing two different techniques, laser beam welding (LBW) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. The resultant weld fusion zone (WFZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) were compared by studying the reactivation behavior. The chromium depletion effect was assessed by measuring the degree of sensitization (DOS) from the electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR) test. A double-loop EPR test for Alloy 690 was employed to measure the DOS at different regions of weldments by masking the remaining regions. The results clearly demonstrated that Alloy 690 showed no sensitization in the parent material and the WFZ region of both TIG and laser weldments. However, it exhibited reactivation in the HAZ region of both the weldments. The DOS values measured for Alloy 690 were very low for all the regions of the LBW weldment as compared to that in the TIG weldment. The HAZ region of the LBW weldment showed the highest DOS value in any region of the weldment but even this value was quite low indicating absence of sensitization in LBW weldment. The attack along the grain boundaries for the weldments after EPR experiments were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insomnia is common in primary care, can persist after co-morbid conditions are treated, and may require long-term medication treatment. A potential alternative to medications is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Methods In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register, and PsycINFO for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CBT-I to any prescription or non-prescription medication in patients with primary or comorbid insomnia. Trials had to report quantitative sleep outcomes (e.g. sleep latency) in order to be included in the analysis. Extracted results included quantitative sleep outcomes, as well as psychological outcomes and adverse effects when available. Evidence base quality was assessed using GRADE. Results Five studies met criteria for analysis. Low to moderate grade evidence suggests CBT-I has superior effectiveness to benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine drugs in the long term, while very low grade evidence suggests benzodiazepines are more effective in the short term. Very low grade evidence supports use of CBT-I to improve psychological outcomes. Conclusions CBT-I is effective for treating insomnia when compared with medications, and its effects may be more durable than medications. Primary care providers should consider CBT-I as a first-line treatment option for insomnia. PMID:22631616

  19. Compared to what: What can we say about nonapeptide function and social behavior without a frame of reference?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Ophir, Alexander G

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of behavior and mechanism is undermined by the absence of a frame of reference because relationships between individuals and species are without context. We highlight a need to be more comparative, using nonapeptide (vasopressin and oxytocin) modulation of social behavior as an example. We reconsider the use of model organisms and the term 'social' in this context, contrasting two popular models for nonapeptide regulation of social behavior. We then propose that a frame of reference should be established by studying mechanisms of behavior across taxa along the same continua. If we are to ever establish a unifying theory of behavior, we must transcend individual examples and determine the relative relationships of behavior and mechanism among and between species.

  20. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  1. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance…

  2. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance…

  3. Separating the Domains of Oppositional Behavior: Comparing Latent Models of the Conners' Oppositional Subscale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuny, Ana V.; Althoff, Robert R.; Copeland, William; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Baer, Julie; Hudziak, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) that may…

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Social Behaviors of Gifted and Non-Gifted Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, William H.; Lessany-Abdi, Deborah K.

    The study examined social behaviors of 19 gifted and 19 nongifted preschool children. A social behavioral inventory was developed from repeated observations of interactions collected during an 8 week pilot study. Four general categories of behavior were observed and analyzed: verbal positive (greeting, conversation, compliment, concern, laughing,…

  5. Separating the Domains of Oppositional Behavior: Comparing Latent Models of the Conners' Oppositional Subscale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuny, Ana V.; Althoff, Robert R.; Copeland, William; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Baer, Julie; Hudziak, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is usually considered the mildest of the disruptive behavior disorders, it is a key factor in predicting young adult anxiety and depression and is distinguishable from normal childhood behavior. In an effort to understand possible subsets of oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) that may…

  6. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  7. Comparative mRNA analysis of behavioral and genetic mouse models of aggression.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Tosto, Maria G; Pain, Oliver; Sluyter, Frans; Mineur, Yann S; Crusio, Wim E; de Boer, Sietse; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; Kesserwani, Jad; Robinson, Edward; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Asherson, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Mouse models of aggression have traditionally compared strains, most notably BALB/cJ and C57BL/6. However, these strains were not designed to study aggression despite differences in aggression-related traits and distinct reactivity to stress. This study evaluated expression of genes differentially regulated in a stress (behavioral) mouse model of aggression with those from a recent genetic mouse model aggression. The study used a discovery-replication design using two independent mRNA studies from mouse brain tissue. The discovery study identified strain (BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J) × stress (chronic mild stress or control) interactions. Probe sets differentially regulated in the discovery set were intersected with those uncovered in the replication study, which evaluated differences between high and low aggressive animals from three strains specifically bred to study aggression. Network analysis was conducted on overlapping genes uncovered across both studies. A significant overlap was found with the genetic mouse study sharing 1,916 probe sets with the stress model. Fifty-one probe sets were found to be strongly dysregulated across both studies mapping to 50 known genes. Network analysis revealed two plausible pathways including one centered on the UBC gene hub which encodes ubiquitin, a protein well-known for protein degradation, and another on P38 MAPK. Findings from this study support the stress model of aggression, which showed remarkable molecular overlap with a genetic model. The study uncovered a set of candidate genes including the Erg2 gene, which has previously been implicated in different psychopathologies. The gene networks uncovered points at a Redox pathway as potentially being implicated in aggressive related behaviors.

  8. [Comparative biology and feeding behavior of Rhodnius neglectus and Rhodnius robustus (Triatominae) under laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Barreto-Santana, Daniella; Starling, Jacqueline; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba

    2011-01-01

    The vector competence of triatomine insects is determined by studying their biology and feeding behavior under field and/or laboratory conditions. Factors including the number of bites, the amount of blood ingested and defecation time have implications for trypanosome transmission. The biological and behavioral parameters of Rhodnius neglectus and R. robustus were compared under experimental conditions to estimate differences in the potential transmission of trypanosomes. The insects were observed daily to determine the period of nymphal development, mortality, detection of food source, number of bites, time of blood meal intake, amount of blood ingested, time elapsed between the end of the meal and the first defecation and the frequency of defecation. Although the nymphal development of R. neglectus (156.4 ± 25.05d) was lower than that of R. robustus (204.7 ± 13.22d), the mortality between species was similar (63.8 and 65% respectively).R. robustus and R. neglectus quickly located the food source, especially in the first instar (2.5 and 1.6 min, respectively). Although the time of blood meal intake was similar between the species, R. robustus ingested a larger amount of blood on average at all stages and exhibited higher values for the fifth instar. Nymphs of R. neglectus bit more frequently, and they defecated faster and more often than those of R. robustus. Under laboratory conditions, R. neglectus has a greater potential for transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli than does R. robustus, an attribute that should be further evaluated in experimental infections.

  9. Examining the Correlates of Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Men Compared With Women.

    PubMed

    Nikoloudakis, Irene A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille E

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic, health behavior, health status, and social media use correlates of online health-seeking behaviors among men and women. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from 1,289 Australian adults participating in the Queensland Social Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of online health information seeking for men and women. Differences in the strength of the relation of these correlates were tested using equality of regression coefficient tests. For both genders, the two strongest correlates were social media use (men: odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.78, 3.71]; women: OR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.92, 4.45]) and having a university education (men: OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.37, 5.56]; women: OR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.66, 4.51]). Not being a smoker and being of younger age were also associated with online health information seeking for both men and women. Reporting poor health and the presence of two chronic diseases were positively associated with online health seeking for women only. Correlates of help seeking online among men and women were generally similar, with exception of health status. Results suggest that similar groups of men and women are likely to access health information online for primary prevention purposes, and additionally that women experiencing poor health are more likely to seek health information online than women who are relatively well. These findings are useful for analyzing the potential reach of online health initiatives targeting both men and women.

  10. Wilson's disease with and without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder compared to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Tribl, Gotthard G; Trindade, Mateus C; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Cardoso Alves, Rosana; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Fonoff, Erich T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A; Schenck, Carlos H; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto R

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative data are reported on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a cohort of predominantly neurological Wilson's disease (WD). A total of 41 patients with WD and 41 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls were studied by conducting face-to-face interviews, neurological and clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and WD- and RBD-specific scales. Video-polysomnography and quantification of REM sleep without atonia (RWA) were conducted in 35 patients and 41 controls. Patients with WD showed significantly worse sleep quality, less sleep efficiency, increased wakefulness after sleep onset, and more arousals compared to healthy controls. Five patients with WD (four women) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for RBD with significantly higher values in RWA, RBD Questionnaire-Hong Kong, and RBD Screening Questionnaire compared to patients with WD without RBD. In three patients with WD, RBD had manifested before any other symptom that could be attributed to WD. Percentage of RWA was significantly lower in WD without RBD than in WD with RBD, but still significantly increased compared to controls. RBD can be comorbid with WD. RWA is commonly present in WD, both in the presence or absence of clinical RBD. A causal connection is possible, though retrospective determination of RBD onset and the low number of patients do not allow a definitive conclusion at this point. However, screening for WD in idiopathic RBD is available at low cost and is recommended. Early-stage copper chelation therapy provides a highly effective treatment to prevent further WD manifestations and might also control the comorbid RBD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing three attitude-behavior theories for predicting science teachers' intentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zint, Michaela

    2002-11-01

    Social psychologists' attitude-behavior theories can contribute to understanding science teachers' behaviors. Such understanding can, in turn, be used to improve professional development. This article describes leading attitude-behavior theories and summarizes results from past tests of these theories. A study predicting science teachers' intention to incorporate environmental risk education based on these theories is also reported. Data for that study were collected through a mail questionnaire (n = 1336, radjusted = 80%) and analyzed using confirmatory factor and multiple regression analysis. All determinants of intention to act in the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior and some determinants in the Theory of Trying predicted science teachers' environmental risk education intentions. Given the consistency of results across studies, the Theory of Planned Behavior augmented with past behavior is concluded to provide the best attitude-behavior model for predicting science teachers' intention to act. Thus, science teachers' attitude toward the behavior, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm need to be enhanced to modify their behavior. Based on the Theory of Trying, improving their attitude toward the process and toward success, and expectations of success may also result in changes. Future research should focus on identifying determinants that can further enhance the ability of these theories to predict and explain science teachers' behaviors.

  12. Parasites and marine invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  13. Comparative Efficacy of Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Chronic Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Bélanger, Lynda; Talbot, Lisa; Eidelman, Polina; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Ivers, Hans; Lamy, Manon; Hein, Kerrie; Soehner, Adriane M.; Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the unique contribution of behavior therapy (BT) and cognitive therapy (CT) relative to the full cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for persistent insomnia. Method Participants were 188 adults (117 women; M age = 47.4 years old, SD=12.6) with persistent insomnia (average of 14.5 years duration). They were randomized to eight, weekly, individual sessions consisting of BT (n = 63), CT (n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). Results Full CBT was associated with greatest improvements, the improvements associated with BT were faster but not as sustained and the improvements associated with CT were slower and sustained. The proportion of treatment responders was significantly higher in the CBT (67.3%) and BT (67.4%) relative to CT (42.4%) groups at post treatment, while 6-months later CT made significant further gains (62.3%), BT had significant loss (44.4%) and CBT retained its initial response (67.6%). Remission rates followed a similar trajectory, with higher remission rates at post treatment in CBT (57.3%) relative to CT (30.8%), with BT falling in between (39.4%); CT made further gains from post treatment to follow up (30.9% to 51.6%). All three therapies produced improvements of daytime functioning at both post treatment and follow up, with few differential changes across groups. Conclusions Full CBT is the treatment of choice. Both BT and CT are effective, with a more rapid effect for BT and a delayed action for CT. These different trajectories of changes provide unique insights into the process of behavior change via behavioral versus cognitive routes. PMID:24865869

  14. Invasion front-specific expression and prognostic significance of microRNA in colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Christoph; Klupp, Fee; Brand, Karsten; Lasitschka, Felix; Diederichs, Sven; Kirchberg, Johanna; Rahbari, Nuh; Dutta, Shamik; Bork, Ulrich; Fritzmann, Johannes; Reissfelder, Christoph; Koch, Moritz; Weitz, Juergen

    2011-10-01

    The tumor edge of colorectal cancer and its adjacent peritumoral tissue is characterized by an invasion front-specific expression of genes that contribute to angiogenesis or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Dysregulation of these genes has a strong impact on the invasion behavior of tumor cells. However, the invasion front-specific expression of microRNA (miRNA) still remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate miRNA expression patterns at the invasion front of colorectal liver metastases. Laser microdissection of colorectal liver metastases was performed to obtain separate tissue compartments from the tumor center, tumor invasion front, liver invasion front and pure liver parenchyma. Microarray expression analysis revealed 23 miRNA downregulated in samples from the tumor invasion front with respect to the same miRNA in the liver, the liver invasion front or the tumor center. By comparing samples from the liver invasion front with samples from pure liver parenchyma, the tumor invasion front and the tumor center, 13 miRNA were downregulated. By quantitative RT-PCR, we validated the liver invasion front-specific downregulation of miR-19b, miR-194, let-7b and miR-1275 and the tumor invasion front-specific downregulation of miR-143, miR- 145, let-7b and miR-638. Univariate analysis demonstrated that enhanced expression of miR-19b and miR-194 at the liver invasion front, and decreased expression of let-7 at the tumor invasion front, is an adverse prognostic marker of tumor recurrence and overall survival. In conclusion, the present study suggests that invasion front-specific downregulation of miRNA in colorectal liver metastases plays a pivotal role in tumor progression.

  15. Comparative mitochondrial genomics in zygomycetes: bacteria-like RNase P RNAs, mobile elements and a close source of the group I intron invasion in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Seif, Elias; Leigh, Jessica; Liu, Yu; Roewer, Ingeborg; Forget, Lise; Lang, B. Franz

    2005-01-01

    To generate data for comparative analyses of zygomycete mitochondrial gene expression, we sequenced mtDNAs of three distantly related zygomycetes, Rhizopus oryzae, Mortierella verticillata and Smittium culisetae. They all contain the standard fungal mitochondrial gene set, plus rnpB, the gene encoding the RNA subunit of the mitochondrial RNase P (mtP-RNA) and rps3, encoding ribosomal protein S3 (the latter lacking in R.oryzae). The mtP-RNAs of R.oryzae and of additional zygomycete relatives have the most eubacteria-like RNA structures among fungi. Precise mapping of the 5′ and 3′ termini of the R.oryzae and M.verticillata mtP-RNAs confirms their expression and processing at the exact sites predicted by secondary structure modeling. The 3′ RNA processing of zygomycete mitochondrial mRNAs, SSU-rRNA and mtP-RNA occurs at the C-rich sequence motifs similar to those identified in fission yeast and basidiomycete mtDNAs. The C-rich motifs are included in the mature transcripts, and are likely generated by exonucleolytic trimming of RNA 3′ termini. Zygomycete mtDNAs feature a variety of insertion elements: (i) mtDNAs of R.oryzae and M.verticillata were subject to invasions by double hairpin elements; (ii) genes of all three species contain numerous mobile group I introns, including one that is closest to an intron that invaded angiosperm mtDNAs; and (iii) at least one additional case of a mobile element, characterized by a homing endonuclease insertion between partially duplicated genes [Paquin,B., Laforest,M.J., Forget,L., Roewer,I., Wang,Z., Longcore,J. and Lang,B.F. (1997) Curr. Genet., 31, 380–395]. The combined mtDNA-encoded proteins contain insufficient phylogenetic signal to demonstrate monophyly of zygomycetes. PMID:15689432

  16. A retrospective comparative study of minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation versus conventional extracorporeal circulation in emergency coronary artery bypass surgery patients: a single surgeon analysis.

    PubMed

    Rufa, Magdalena; Schubel, Jens; Ulrich, Christian; Schaarschmidt, Jan; Tiliscan, Catalin; Bauer, Adrian; Hausmann, Harald

    2015-07-01

    At the moment, the main application of minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation (MiECC) is reserved for elective cardiac operations such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and/or aortic valve replacement. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of emergency CABG operations using either MiECC or conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC) in patients requiring emergency CABG with regard to the perioperative course and the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE). We analysed the emergency CABG operations performed by a single surgeon, between January 2007 and July 2013, in order to exclude the differences in surgical technique. During this period, 187 emergency CABG patients (113 MiECC vs 74 CECC) were investigated retrospectively with respect to the following parameters: in-hospital mortality, MACCE, postoperative hospital stay and perioperative transfusion rate. The mean logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation was higher in the CECC group (MiECC 12.1 ± 16 vs CECC 15.0 ± 20.8, P = 0.15) and the number of bypass grafts per patient was similar in both groups (MiECC 2.94 vs CECC 2.93). There was no significant difference in the postoperative hospital stay or in major postoperative complications. The in-hospital mortality was higher in the CECC group 6.8% versus MiECC 4.4% (P = 0.48). The perioperative transfusion rate was lower with MiECC compared with CECC (MiECC 2.6 ± 3.2 vs CECC 3.8 ± 4.2, P = 0.025 units of blood per patient). In our opinion, the use of MiECC in urgent CABG procedures is safe, feasible and shows no disadvantages compared with the use of CECC. Emergency operations using the MiECC system showed a significantly lower blood transfusion rate and better results concerning the unadjusted in-hospital mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing Self-Regulation-Associated Event Related Potentials in Preschool Children with and without High Levels of Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Grabell, Adam S.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Tardif, Twila; Thompson, Meaghan C.; Gehring, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Deficient self-regulation plays a key role in the etiology of early onset disruptive behavior disorders and signals risk for chronic psychopathology. However, to date, there has been no research comparing preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with specific self-regulation sub-processes. We examined 15 preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior (35% female) and 20 peers with low disruptive behavior (50% female) who completed a Go/No-go task that provided emotionally valenced feedback. We tested whether 4 ERP components: the Error Related Negativity, the Error Positivity, the Feedback Related Negativity, and the No-go N2, differed in preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior. Preschoolers with high levels of disruptive behavior showed less differentiation between the Error Positivity and corresponding waveforms following correct responses at posterior sites. Preschoolers with high and low disruptive behavior also showed differences in Go/No-go N2 waveform amplitudes across electrodes. These findings suggest that preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior may show abnormal brain activity during certain self-regulation sub-processes, informing potential advances in conceptualizing and treating early disruptive behavior. PMID:27891556

  18. Comparing Self-Regulation-Associated Event Related Potentials in Preschool Children with and without High Levels of Disruptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L; Tardif, Twila; Thompson, Meaghan C; Gehring, William J

    2016-11-28

    Deficient self-regulation plays a key role in the etiology of early onset disruptive behavior disorders and signals risk for chronic psychopathology. However, to date, there has been no research comparing preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with specific self-regulation sub-processes. We examined 15 preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior (35 % female) and 20 peers with low disruptive behavior (50 % female) who completed a Go/No-go task that provided emotionally valenced feedback. We tested whether 4 ERP components: the Error Related Negativity, the Error Positivity, the Feedback Related Negativity, and the No-go N2, differed in preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior. Preschoolers with high levels of disruptive behavior showed less differentiation between the Error Positivity and corresponding waveforms following correct responses at posterior sites. Preschoolers with high and low disruptive behavior also showed differences in Go/No-go N2 waveform amplitudes across electrodes. These findings suggest that preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior may show abnormal brain activity during certain self-regulation sub-processes, informing potential advances in conceptualizing and treating early disruptive behavior.

  19. Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Compared to Telephone Counseling Early after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Scheenen, Myrthe E; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C; de Koning, Myrthe E; van der Horn, Harm J; van de Sande, Peter; van Kessel, Marlies; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2017-10-01

    Many patients do not return to work (RTW) after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) because of persistent complaints that are often resistant to therapy in the chronic phase. Recent studies suggest that psychological interventions should be implemented early post-injury to prevent patients from developing chronic complaints. This study is a randomized, controlled trial that examines the effectiveness of a newly developed cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention (CBTi) compared to telephonic counseling (TC) in at-risk mTBI patients (patients with high reports of early complaints). Patients underwent either five sessions of CBT treatment or five phone conversations starting 4-6 weeks post-trauma. The main outcome measure was RTW 6 and 12 months post-trauma. Secondary measures comprised functional outcome at 6 and 12 months, and depression, anxiety, and reported post-traumatic complaints at 3, 6, and 12 months post-injury. After excluding dropouts, CBTi consisted of 39 patients and TC of 45 patients. No significant differences were found with regard to RTW, with 65% of CBTi patients and 67% of TC patients reporting a RTW at previous level. However, TC patients reported fewer complaints at 3 (8 vs. 6; p = 0.010) and 12 months post-injury (9 vs. 5; p = 0.006), and more patients in the TC group showed a full recovery 12 months post-injury compared to the CBTi group (62% vs. 39%). The results of this study suggest that early follow-up of at-risk patients can have a positive influence on patients' well-being, and that a low-intensive, low-cost telephonic intervention might be more effective than a CBT intervention at improving outcome in at-risk patients.

  20. Comparative analysis of Pdf-mediated circadian behaviors between Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis.

    PubMed

    Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H

    2009-03-01

    A group of small ventrolateral neurons (s-LN(v)'s) are the principal pacemaker for circadian locomotor rhythmicity of Drosophila melanogaster, and the pigment-dispersing factor (Pdf) neuropeptide plays an essential role as a clock messenger within these neurons. In our comparative studies on Pdf-associated circadian rhythms, we found that daily locomotor activity patterns of D. virilis were significantly different from those of D. melanogaster. Activities of D. virilis adults were mainly restricted to the photophase under light:dark cycles and subsequently became arrhythmic or weakly rhythmic in constant conditions. Such activity patterns resemble those of Pdf(01) mutant of D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, endogenous D. virilis Pdf (DvPdf) expression was not detected in the s-LN(v)-like neurons in the adult brains, implying that the Pdf(01)-like behavioral phenotypes of D. virilis are attributed in part to the lack of DvPdf in the s-LN(v)-like neurons. Heterologous transgenic analysis showed that cis-regulatory elements of the DvPdf transgene are capable of directing their expression in all endogenous Pdf neurons including s-LN(v)'s, as well as in non-Pdf clock neurons (LN(d)'s and fifth s-LN(v)) in a D. melanogaster host. Together these findings suggest a significant difference in the regulatory mechanisms of Pdf transcription between the two species and such a difference is causally associated with species-specific establishment of daily locomotor activity patterns.

  1. Comparative analysis of thermal behavior, isothermal crystallization kinetics and polymorphism of palm oil fractions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Lin; Xie, He; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Liu, Guoqin; Li, Bing

    2013-01-15

    Thermal behavior of palm stearin (PS) and palm olein (PO) was explored by monitoring peak temperature transitions by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fatty acid composition (FAC), isothermal crystallization kinetics studied by pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pNMR) and isothermal microstructure were also compared. The results indicated that the fatty acid composition had an important influence on the crystallization process. PS and PO both exhibited more multiple endotherms than exotherms which showed irregular peak shapes. An increasing in cooling rate, generally, was associated with an increase in peak size. Application of the Avaimi equation to isothermal crystallization of PS and PO revealed different nucleation and growth mechanisms based on the Avrami exponents. PS quickly reached the end of crystallization because of more saturated triacylglycerol (TAG). The Avrami index of PS were the same as PO under the same isothermal condition at lower temperatrue, indicating that the crystallization mechanism of the two samples based on super-cooling state were the same. According to the polarized light microscope (PLM) images, crystal morphology of PS and PO was different. With the temperature increased, the structure of crystal network of both PS and PO gradually loosened.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Pdf-Mediated Circadian Behaviors Between Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis

    PubMed Central

    Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    A group of small ventrolateral neurons (s-LNv's) are the principal pacemaker for circadian locomotor rhythmicity of Drosophila melanogaster, and the pigment-dispersing factor (Pdf) neuropeptide plays an essential role as a clock messenger within these neurons. In our comparative studies on Pdf-associated circadian rhythms, we found that daily locomotor activity patterns of D. virilis were significantly different from those of D. melanogaster. Activities of D. virilis adults were mainly restricted to the photophase under light:dark cycles and subsequently became arrhythmic or weakly rhythmic in constant conditions. Such activity patterns resemble those of Pdf01 mutant of D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, endogenous D. virilis Pdf (DvPdf) expression was not detected in the s-LNv-like neurons in the adult brains, implying that the Pdf01-like behavioral phenotypes of D. virilis are attributed in part to the lack of DvPdf in the s-LNv-like neurons. Heterologous transgenic analysis showed that cis-regulatory elements of the DvPdf transgene are capable of directing their expression in all endogenous Pdf neurons including s-LNv's, as well as in non-Pdf clock neurons (LNd's and fifth s-LNv) in a D. melanogaster host. Together these findings suggest a significant difference in the regulatory mechanisms of Pdf transcription between the two species and such a difference is causally associated with species-specific establishment of daily locomotor activity patterns. PMID:19153257

  3. Exploratory behavior of two species of murid rodents, Acomys cahirinus and Mus musculus: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Birke, L I; D'Udine, B; Albonetti, M E

    1985-03-01

    The exploratory behavior of two species of murid rodents, Acomys cahirinus and Mus musculus, was compared in four experiments: In the first, the responses of the two species to a novel arena were studied. Mus was found to take longer to enter the arena, and to spend more time in the relatively familiar or safer start box, than was Acomys. The results suggest that Acomys may persevere longer in exploring particular areas, whereas Mus appear to explore in the open arena by using frequent shifts of attention. The second experiment investigated species differences in response to the addition of a small novel object. Although the species did respond differently, the major species differences seemed to be related more to the open arena than to the object. The third experiment tested the hypothesis that both species would explore more if there was somewhere to hide (e.g., an artificial burrow) than if there was not. It was found that Acomys treated the available artificial burrow as another novel object, while Mus, as predicted, spent more time hiding inside it than did Acomys. The fourth experiment investigated burrow use when a model "predator" was introduced: Both species increased their use of the burrow but some species differences were found. Mus responded to the model more by freezing, or running immediately into the burrow; Acomys responded more by fleeing.

  4. A Comparative Study of Material Flow Behavior in Friction Stir Welding Using Laminar and Turbulent Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadian, Arun Kumar; Biswas, Pankaj

    2015-10-01

    Friction stir welding has been quite successful in joining aluminum alloy which has gained importance in almost all industrial sectors over the past two decades. It is a newer technique and therefore needs more attention in many sectors, flow of material being one among them. The material flow pattern actually helps in deciding the parameters required for particular tool geometry. The knowledge of material flow is very significant in removing defects from the weldment. In the work presented in this paper, the flow behavior of AA6061 under a threaded tool has been studied. The convective heat loss has been considered from all the surfaces, and a comparative study has been made with and without the use of temperature-dependent properties and their significance in the finite volume method model. The two types of models that have been implemented are turbulent and laminar models. Their thermal histories have been studied for all the cases. The material flow velocity has been analyzed to predict the flow of material. A swirl inside the weld material has been observed in all the simulations.

  5. Comparative fatigue behavior and toughness of remelted and annealed highly crosslinked polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Medel, Francisco J; Peña, P; Cegoñino, José; Gómez-Barrena, E; Puértolas, J A

    2007-11-01

    Highly cross-linked polyethylenes (HXLPEs) have been incorporated into the hip replacement armamentarium based on their improved wear resistance. However, two different methods of thermal treatment separate the orthopedic community as strategies to control potential long-term oxidation, and controversy remains with problems in the long-term use of acetabular liners (long-term oxidation, rim fracture after impingement, etc.). Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of HXLPEs that may alleviate these problems are still unclear. On the other hand, HXLPEs are scarcely used in knee replacements, as there exists concern about the probably reduced fatigue and fracture performances of these materials. Thus, our aim was to compare the effects of both thermal treatment regimes on mechanical properties and to associate these findings with the material microstructure. The fatigue behavior of annealed and remelted HXLPEs was characterized using short-term cyclic stress-strain, long-term fatigue, and fatigue crack propagation tests. On the other hand, impact tests, tensile experiments, and the J-integral multispecimen method allowed us to assess toughness. Microstructure features such as crosslink density, crystallinity percentage, and lamellar thickness were investigated by swelling measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. This study confirms that annealing preserves mechanical properties better than remelting from both fatigue and fracture resistance points of view, and it remarks that a suitable selection of irradiation and stabilization conditions is needed to achieve optimal mechanical performances of ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes for each specific total joint replacement.

  6. Adult picky eaters with symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: comparable distress and comorbidity but different eating behaviors compared to those with disordered eating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zickgraf, Hana F; Franklin, Martin E; Rozin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One presentation of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by picky eating, i.e., selective eating based on the sensory properties of food. The present study has two aims. The first is to describe distress and impairment in individuals with ARFID secondary to picky eating. The second is to determine whether eating behaviors hypothesized to be specific to picky eating can differentiate picky eaters with and without ARFID from typical eaters (e.g., individuals not reporting picky or disordered eating) and individuals who strongly endorse attitudes associated with anorexia and bulimia (eating disordered attitudes). Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 325) and an online support group for adult picky eaters (N = 81). Participants were grouped based on endorsement of picky eating, ARFID symptoms, and elevated eating disordered attitudes on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The resulting four eating behavior groups were compared on measures of distress and impairment (e.g., anxiety/depression and, obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms, eating-related quality of life) and on measures of eating behaviors associated with picky eating (e.g., food neophobia, inflexibility about preparation and presentation of preferred foods, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and eating from a very narrow range of foods). The groups were compared using one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tamhane's T2 tests. On measures of distress and impairment, participants with ARFID reported higher scores than both typical eaters and picky eaters without ARFID, and comparable scores to those with disordered eating attitudes. Three of four measures of picky eating behavior, eating inflexibility, food neophobia, and eating from a range of 20 or fewer foods, distinguished picky eaters with and without ARFID form typical eaters and those with disordered eating attitudes. Picky eaters with ARFID reported greater food neophobia and eating inflexibility, and

  7. Making a stronger case for comparative research to investigate the behavioral and neurological bases of three-dimensional navigation.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Daniele; Bingman, Verner P

    2013-10-01

    The rich diversity of avian natural history provides exciting possibilities for comparative research aimed at understanding three-dimensional navigation. We propose some hypotheses relating differences in natural history to potential behavioral and neurological adaptations possessed by contrasting bird species. This comparative approach may offer unique insights into some of the important questions raised by Jeffery et al.

  8. [Behavioral functions of serotonin and octopamine: some paradoxes of comparative physiology].

    PubMed

    D'iakonova, V E

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of recent data on monoaminergic control of invertebrate behavior suggests that behavioral functions of serotonin in molluscs and octopamine in insects are remarkably similar. Specifically, in the respective taxa, these monoamines are responsible for activation of food searching and intense locomotion, increase in food consumption and general activity, enhancement of cardial and respiratory rhythms, facilitation of learning, sensitization of sensory circuits. At the same time, in insects, behavioral effects of serotonin are opposite to those of octopamine. It seems thus that two monoamines have exchanged their behavioral roles in the two major invertebrate taxa. Possible reasons of this paradoxical inversion touches inevitably upon basic questions of signal molecular evolution.

  9. Comparing Two Models of Integrated Behavioral Health Programs in Pediatric Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Germán, Miguelina; Rinke, Michael L; Gurney, Brittany A; Gross, Rachel S; Bloomfield, Diane E; Haliczer, Lauren A; Colman, Silvie; Racine, Andrew D; Briggs, Rahil D

    2017-10-01

    This study examined how to design, staff, and evaluate the feasibility of 2 different models of integrated behavioral health programs in pediatric primary care across primary care sites in the Bronx, NY. Results suggest that the Behavioral Health Integration Program model of pediatric integrated care is feasible and that hiring behavioral health staff with specific training in pediatric, evidence-informed behavioral health treatments may be a critical variable in increasing outcomes such as referral rates, self-reported competency, and satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: comparing the health belief model and theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Janet E

    2012-10-01

    Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior-the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)-in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N = 739) ages 18-26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed 10 months later. Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior.

  11. Is there a change in the quality of life comparing the micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) and the filtration technique trabeculectomy in glaucoma patients?

    PubMed

    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Klamann, Matthias K J; Pahlitzsch, Marie-Luise; Gonnermann, Johannes; Torun, Necip; Bertelmann, Eckart

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact on the Quality of Life (QOL) of micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS: iStent, Trabectome) and a penetrating technique such as Trabeculectomy (TE). This study evaluated 88 eyes of 88 open angle glaucoma patients undergoing glaucoma surgery: 43 (mean age 72.8 ± 8.8y, female 59.5 %, male 40.5 %) Trabectome (NeoMedix, Inc., Tustin, CA, USA), 20 (mean age 68.6 ± 16.4y, female 60 %, male 40 %) iStent (Glaucos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA), and 25 TE patients (mean age 74.2 ± 9.1y female 58.3 %, male 41.7 %). The National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ-25) survey was used to assess the QOL at 6 months post surgery. The following 12 QOL parameters were evaluated: general health, ocular pain, general vision, near and distance activities, mental health, social functioning, role difficulties, dependency, driving, color vision, and peripheral vision. Intraocular pressure (IOP), number of topical medications, and visual acuity (VA) were examined preoperatively, 1 day, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months post surgery. Statistical data were calculated using SPSS (v20.0, SPSS, Inc.). There was no significant difference between TE and MIGS in the quality of life 6 months postoperatively. IOP was significantly lower in TE compared to MIGS at 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively (p = 0.046 and p = 0.046). Number of medications was significantly decreased in TE compared to MIGS (p < 0.001). A significant difference in VA between TE and MIGS could be assessed at day 1 post-op (p = 0.011). In this study cohort, the QOL can be maintained by all three surgical techniques. Patients, however, need lower numbers of topical medication in TE, which would impact QOL even though it is not included in the NEI-VFQ-25. The decision of the most appropriate surgical technique should be made by including single QOL categories, IOP and glaucoma medication outcome.

  12. Measuring mortality due to HIV-associated tuberculosis among adults in South Africa: Comparing verbal autopsy, minimally-invasive autopsy, and research data

    PubMed Central

    Tlali, Mpho; Fielding, Katherine L.; Charalambous, Salome; Chihota, Violet N.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Johnson, Suzanne; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Martinson, Neil A.; Omar, Tanvier; Kahn, Kathleen; Chandramohan, Daniel; Grant, Alison D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to reduce tuberculosis (TB) deaths by 95% by 2035; tracking progress requires accurate measurement of TB mortality. International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes do not differentiate between HIV-associated TB and HIV more generally. Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate cause of death (CoD) patterns but has mostly been validated against a suboptimal gold standard for HIV and TB. This study, conducted among HIV-positive adults, aimed to estimate the accuracy of VA in ascertaining TB and HIV CoD when compared to a reference standard derived from a variety of clinical sources including, in some, minimally-invasive autopsy (MIA). Methods and findings Decedents were enrolled into a trial of empirical TB treatment or a cohort exploring diagnostic algorithms for TB in South Africa. The WHO 2012 instrument was used; VA CoD were assigned using physician-certified VA (PCVA), InterVA-4, and SmartVA-Analyze. Reference CoD were assigned using MIA, research, and health facility data, as available. 259 VAs were completed: 147 (57%) decedents were female; median age was 39 (interquartile range [IQR] 33–47) years and CD4 count 51 (IQR 22–102) cells/μL. Compared to reference CoD that included MIA (n = 34), VA underestimated mortality due to HIV/AIDS (94% reference, 74% PCVA, 47% InterVA-4, and 41% SmartVA-Analyze; chance-corrected concordance [CCC] 0.71, 0.42, and 0.31, respectively) and HIV-associated TB (41% reference, 32% PCVA; CCC 0.23). For individual decedents, all VA methods agreed poorly with reference CoD that did not include MIA (n = 259; overall CCC 0.14, 0.06, and 0.15 for PCVA, InterVA-4, and SmartVA-Analyze); agreement was better at population level (cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy 0.78, 0.61, and 0.57, for the three methods, respectively). Conclusions Current VA methods underestimate mortality due to HIV-associated TB. ICD and VA methods need modifications that allow for more specific

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Three Approaches to Changing Dental Hygiene Behaviors of Seventh Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albino, Judith E.; And Others

    This study evaluates two approaches to changing dental care behaviors of seventh graders. After receiving instruction in brushing and flossing, students in one experimental group were confronted with inconsistencies between expressed beliefs and actual oral hyginene behaviors, as demonstrated with photographs of their own mouths. Data analyses…

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Hyperactive Boys: Comparative and Combined Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of two interventions on hyperactive children's (N=24) social behavior. Results indicated that both methylphenidate (Ritalin) and reinforced self-evaluation were superior to the contrast treatments. Medication plus cognitive-behavioral self-evaluation proved optimal, and placebo plus reinforcement alone was significantly worse…

  15. Pupil Control Behavior, Classroom Robustness, and Self-Control: Public and Military High Schools Compared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Mary Ann; Bauske, Terri; Lunenburg, Fred C.

    This study investigates students' perceptions of teachers' pupil control behavior, classroom robustness, and student self-control. Results reveal an association between humanistic pupil control behavior of teachers and high levels of classroom robustness, high levels of classroom robustness and high student self-control, and teacher humanism in…

  16. Pupil Control Ideology and Behavior as Predictors of Environmental Robustness: Public and Private Schools Compared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenburg, Fred C.

    1991-01-01

    Questionnaires examined differences between public and private schools regarding teachers' pupil control ideology and behavior. Teachers and students completed three survey instruments. Only pupil control ideology differed significantly between public and private schools. Pupil control behavior was the best predictor of environmental robustness.…

  17. Comparing Main and Collateral Effects of Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be…

  18. Comparing the Contribution of Teacher versus Tutor Ratings of Inattentive Behavior in Predicting Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Amelia S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of teacher and tutor ratings of inattentive behavior in two different instructional settings in predicting students' performance on fraction concepts and whole-number calculations. Classroom teachers rated each student's attentive behavior in a whole-class setting and tutors rated…

  19. Differences in Health Behaviors of Overweight or Obese College Students Compared to Healthy Weight Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, M. Rachel; Ickes, Melinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in college students, yet research is warranted to determine whether obesity increases the likelihood of risky health behaviors in this population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors in college students. Methods: A…

  20. Differences in Health Behaviors of Overweight or Obese College Students Compared to Healthy Weight Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, M. Rachel; Ickes, Melinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in college students, yet research is warranted to determine whether obesity increases the likelihood of risky health behaviors in this population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors in college students. Methods: A…

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacological Interventions for Hyperactive Boys: Comparative and Combined Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effects of two interventions on hyperactive children's (N=24) social behavior. Results indicated that both methylphenidate (Ritalin) and reinforced self-evaluation were superior to the contrast treatments. Medication plus cognitive-behavioral self-evaluation proved optimal, and placebo plus reinforcement alone was significantly worse…

  2. A Comparative Study of Educational Leadership Behavior by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sonya B.

    2010-01-01

    The philosophies and behaviors of a leader constitute his or her leadership style. Historically, studies of educational leadership have focused on the philosophies and behaviors of white males. Over the past forty years, there have been a number of studies conducted that seek to identify differences between male and female leadership styles.…

  3. Comparing the Contribution of Teacher versus Tutor Ratings of Inattentive Behavior in Predicting Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Amelia S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of teacher and tutor ratings of inattentive behavior in two different instructional settings in predicting students' performance on fraction concepts and whole-number calculations. Classroom teachers rated each student's attentive behavior in a whole-class setting and tutors rated…

  4. Social Support Behaviors and Work Stressors among Nurses: A Comparative Study between Teaching and Non-Teaching Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amarneh, Basil Hameed

    2017-01-29

    The concept of "work stressors" has been well studied. However, in the field of nursing, studies concerning social support behaviors are limited. The aim of this study was to compare nurse work stressors, social support behaviors, and predictors of these variables among nurses in Jordanian teaching and non-teaching hospitals. A convenience sampling technique and a comparative quantitative research design were used in the current study. Two hundred and ninety-one nurses were recruited from five teaching hospitals, and 172 were recruited from eight non-teaching hospitals in Jordan. The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Inventory of Social Supportive Behaviors (ISSB) were used to collect data. The studied variables differed across hospitals. In some subscales, as well as in some individual items of the scales, nurse work stressors and social support behaviors differed between teaching and non-teaching hospitals. In teaching hospitals, the work shift was the only predictor of nurses' work stressors, whereas the work shift and model of nursing care were predictors of social support behaviors. In non-teaching hospitals, the work shift, level of education, and model of nursing care were predictors of nurse work stressors. Predictors of social support behaviors were marital status, model of nursing, and organizational structure. Regardless of the type of hospital, nurse stressors should be assessed and, once identified, managed by providing various social support behaviors. By turning a work environment into a healthy workplace, researchers and nurse leaders believe that improvements can be realized in recruitment and patient safety and quality.

  5. Evaluating potential artefacts of photo-reversal on behavioral studies with nocturnal invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, Matthew; Imre, Istvan; Wagner, Michael C.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L., 1758) are nocturnal, so experiments evaluating their behaviour to chemosensory cues have typically been conducted at night. However, given the brief timeframe each year that adult P. marinus are available for experimentation, we investigated whether P. marinus exposed to a 12 h shifted diurnal cycle (reversed photoperiod) could be tested in a darkened arena during the day and show the same response to chemosensory cues as natural photoperiod P. marinus that were tested during the night. Ten replicates of 10 P. marinus, from each photoperiod, were exposed to deionized water (negative control), 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl, putative predator cue), or P. marinus whole-body extract (conspecific alarm cue). All P. marinus demonstrated a significant avoidance response to both cues. No significant differences were found in avoidance to PEA HCl between photoperiods. Avoidance of P. marinus whole-body extract was significantly stronger in natural compared with reversed photoperiod P. marinus. The use of reversed photoperiod subjects is suitable for examining the presence or absence of avoidance in response to novel chemosensory alarm cues, or the change in the magnitude of antipredator response. Studies investigating the natural magnitude of antipredator response should use natural photoperiod experimental subjects.

  6. The Patient Deficit Model Overturned: a qualitative study of patients' perceptions of invitation to participate in a randomized controlled trial comparing selective bladder preservation against surgery in muscle invasive bladder cancer (SPARE, CRUK/07/011).

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Clare; Lewis, Rebecca; Hall, Emma; Jones, Emma; Birtle, Alison; Huddart, Robert

    2012-11-29

    Evidence suggests that poor recruitment into clinical trials rests on a patient 'deficit' model - an inability to comprehend trial processes. Poor communication has also been cited as a possible barrier to recruitment. A qualitative patient interview study was included within the feasibility stage of a phase III non-inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) (SPARE, CRUK/07/011) in muscle invasive bladder cancer. The aim was to illuminate problems in the context of randomization. The qualitative study used a 'Framework Analysis' that included 'constant comparison' in which semi-structured interviews are transcribed, analyzed, compared and contrasted both between and within transcripts. Three researchers coded and interpreted data. Twenty-four patients agreed to enter the interview study; 10 decliners of randomization and 14 accepters, of whom 2 subsequently declined their allocated treatment.The main theme applying to the majority of the sample was confusion and ambiguity. There was little indication that confusion directly impacted on decisions to enter the SPARE trial. However, confusion did appear to impact on ethical considerations surrounding 'informed consent', as well as cause a sense of alienation between patients and health personnel.Sub-optimal communication in many guises accounted for the confusion, together with the logistical elements of a trial that involved treatment options delivered in a number of geographical locations. These data highlight the difficulty of providing balanced and clear trial information within the UK health system, despite best intentions. Involvement of multiple professionals can impact on communication processes with patients who are considering participation in RCTs. Our results led us to question the 'deficit' model of patient behavior. It is suggested that health professionals might consider facilitating a context in which patients feel fully included in the trial enterprise and potentially consider alternatives to

  7. Comparative genetic approaches to the evolution of human brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Vallender, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    With advances in genomic technologies, the amount of genetic data available to scientists today is vast. Genomes are now available or planned for 14 different primate species and complete resequencing of numerous human individuals from numerous populations is underway. Moreover, high-throughput deep sequencing is quickly making whole genome efforts within the reach of single laboratories allowing for unprecedented studies. Comparative genetic approaches to the identification of the underlying basis of human brain, behavior, and cognitive ability are moving to the forefront. Two approaches predominate: inter-species divergence comparisons and intra-species polymorphism studies. These methodological differences are useful for different time scales of evolution and necessarily focus on different evolutionary events in the history of primate and hominin evolution. Inter-species divergence is more useful in studying large scale primate, or hominoid, evolution whereas intra-species polymorphism can be more illuminating of recent hominin evolution. These differences in methodological utility also extend to studies of differing genetic substrates; current divergence studies focus primarily on protein evolution whereas polymorphism studies are substrate ambivalent. Some of the issues inherent in these studies can be ameliorated by current sequencing capabilities whereas others remain intractable. New avenues are also being opened that allow for the incorporation of novel substrates and approaches. In the post-genomic era, the study of human evolution, specifically as it relates to the brain, is becoming more complete focusing increasingly on the totality of the system and better conceptualizing the entirety of the genetic changes that have lead to the human phenotype today.

  8. Using radiative kernels to compare feedback behavior over different time scales in CMIP output and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shell, K. M.; Flink, M. M.; Jonko, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate climate projections require an understanding of feedback behavior on centennial timescales. Unfortunately, satellite and reanalysis observations are available only for the last few decades. We seek to determine the extent to which the relatively short observation-based records can constrain model estimates of long-term (century-scale) climate change in response to anthropogenic forcing. The radiative kernel technique allows us to study feedbacks related to temperature, water vapor, surface albedo, and clouds in a consistent fashion. We are using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) simulations to determine whether (modeled) feedbacks differ for interannual- and decadal-scale versus centennial-scale climate change. We also are comparing short-term feedbacks derived from satellite (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, AIRS) and reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data with modeled feedbacks. We use two strategies. The first is the standard kernel technique where feedbacks are determined by differencing mean variables between two states. Preliminary work with CMIP3 indicates that averaging periods (e.g., 10 years versus 20 years) can change feedback estimates by more 20%. In general, we expect longer averaging periods to result in more accurate estimates of feedbacks. However, transient GCMs runs (as well as observational data sets) may be only a few decades long. In these cases, we must determine the best averaging period to balance the increase of noise caused by a shorter averaging period and the decrease of climate signal resulting from averaging periods that are closer together. To address this issue, the second strategy is a modified kernel technique where anomalies from the mean climate are combined with the kernel for every month of the time series. This technique is more appropriate in cases where there is not a large external forcing. We are calculating feedbacks in the CMIP5 simulations using both strategies with different averaging periods and start

  9. Comparative genetic approaches to the evolution of human brain and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vallender, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    With advances in genomic technologies the amount of genetic data available to scientists today is vast. Genomes are now available or planned for fourteen different primate species and complete resequencing of numerous human individuals from numerous populations is underway. Moreover, high-throughput deep sequencing is quickly making whole genome efforts within the reach of single laboratories allowing for unprecedented studies. Comparative genetic approaches to the identification of the underlying basis of human brain, behavior and cognitive ability are moving to the forefront. Two approaches predominate: inter-species divergence comparisons and intra-species polymorphism studies. These methodological differences are useful for different time scales of evolution and necessarily focus on different evolutionary events in the history of primate and hominin evolution. Inter-species divergence is more useful in studying large scale primate, or hominoid, evolution whereas intra-species polymorphism can be more illuminating of recent hominin evolution. These differences in methodological utility also extend to studies of differing genetic substrates; current divergence studies focus primarily on protein evolution while polymorphism studies are substrate ambivalent. Some of the issues inherent in these studies can be ameliorated by current sequencing capabilities while others remain intractable. New avenues are also being opened that allow for the incorporation of novel substrates and approaches. In the post-genomic era the study of human evolution, specifically as it relates to the brain, is becoming more complete focusing increasingly on the totality of the system and better conceptualizing the entirety of the genetic changes that have lead to the human phenotype today. PMID:21140466

  10. Comparing infant and juvenile behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    De Lathouwers, Mieke; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-10-01

    The dichotomy between the two Pan species, the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) has been strongly emphasized until very recently. Given that most studies were primarily based on adult individuals, we shifted the "continuity versus discontinuity" discussion to the infant and juvenile stage. Our aim was to test quantitatively, some conflicting statements made in literature considering species differences between immature bonobos and chimpanzees. On one hand it is suggested that infant bonobos show retardation in motor and social development when compared with chimpanzees. Additionally it is expected that the weaning process is more traumatic to chimpanzee than bonobo infants. But on the other hand the development of behaviors is expected to be very similar in both species. We observed eight mother-infant pairs of each species in several European zoos. Our preliminary research partially confirms that immature chimpanzees seem spatially more independent, spending more time at a larger distance from their mother than immature bonobos. However, the other data do not seem to support the hypothesis that bonobo infants show retardation of motor or social development. The development of solitary play, environmental exploration, social play, non-copulatory mounts and aggressive interactions do not differ between the species. Bonobo infants in general even groom other group members more than chimpanzee infants. We also found that older bonobo infants have more nipple contact than same aged chimpanzees and that the weaning process seems to end later for bonobos than for immature chimpanzee. Additionally, although immature bonobos show in general more signs of distress, our data suggest that the weaning period itself is more traumatic for chimpanzees.

  11. Accuracy and precision of continuous noninvasive arterial pressure monitoring compared with invasive arterial pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lilot, Marc; Sidhu, Kulraj S; Rinehart, Joseph; Yu, Zhaoxia; Canales, Cecilia; Cannesson, Maxime

    2014-05-01

    Continuous noninvasive arterial pressure monitoring devices are available for bedside use, but the accuracy and precision of these devices have not been evaluated in a systematic review and meta-analysis. The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing continuous noninvasive arterial pressure monitoring with invasive arterial pressure monitoring. Random-effects pooled bias and SD of bias for systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure, and mean arterial pressure were calculated. Continuous noninvasive arterial pressure monitoring was considered acceptable if pooled estimates of bias and SD were not greater than 5 and 8 mmHg, respectively, as recommended by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Twenty-eight studies (919 patients) were included. The overall random-effect pooled bias and SD were -1.6 ± 12.2 mmHg (95% limits of agreement -25.5 to 22.2 mmHg) for systolic arterial pressure, 5.3 ± 8.3 mmHg (-11.0 to 21.6 mmHg) for diastolic arterial pressure, and 3.2 ± 8.4 mmHg (-13.4 to 19.7 mmHg) for mean arterial pressure. In 14 studies focusing on currently commercially available devices, bias and SD were -1.8 ± 12.4 mmHg (-26.2 to 22.5 mmHg) for systolic arterial pressure, 6.0 ± 8.6 mmHg (-10.9 to 22.9 mmHg) for diastolic arterial pressure, and 3.9 ± 8.7 mmHg (-13.1 to 21.0 mmHg) for mean arterial pressure. The results from this meta-analysis found that inaccuracy and imprecision of continuous noninvasive arterial pressure monitoring devices are larger than what was defined as acceptable. This may have implications for clinical situations where continuous noninvasive arterial pressure is being used for patient care decisions.

  12. Comparative water fluxes through leaf litter of tropical plantation trees and the invasive grass Saccharum spontaneum in the Republic of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Andrew; Friesen, Patrick; Serrud, Aneth Aracelly Sarmiento

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThe hydrological properties of leaf litter layers remain relatively unexplored, especially in tropical vegetation communities. In this paper we explore the hydrological dynamics of litter samples from reforestation plots of tropical hardwoods and the invasive sugar cane Saccharum spontaneum, which these trees were planted to replace. Water holding capacity (WHC) and drying rates were compared under controlled conditions, and throughfall interception, drainage and calculated evaporation were measured in two field experiments (A and B) conducted with different sets of samples. The WHC of samples varied from 3.4 to 6.5 mm in experiment A, and from 1.6 to 7.1 mm in experiment B. Drainage through the litter samples averaged 78.3 ± 34.4% and 61.2 ± 34.70% TF in experiments A and B, respectively. Daily water storage was 70.8 ± 14.25% of total WHC in experiment A and 78.6 ± 25.35% of total WHC in experiment B. Estimated evaporation averaged 34.8 ± 12.52% of WHC in experiment A and 34.3 ± 14.91% of WHC in experiment B. Although significant interspecific differences in WHC, interception of TF and evaporation were recorded, species rankings tended to be different in experiments A and B. The exception was litter from the leguminous tree Gliricidia sepium, which maintained the lowest WHC and water storage in the field in both experiments, but which evaporated water more rapidly than other species. The depth of throughfall draining through litter samples in the field was similar among all species in both experiments. Comparisons of regression slopes also showed that drainage depth increased with increasing throughfall at similar rates among species. On the other hand, both slopes and slope elevations differed among species when drainage was expressed in l kg -1. Patterns of water storage and drainage in our samples were in broad agreement with those of other studies, although WHC and litter necromass in our young tree plantations fell into the lower end of the range

  13. Comparing main and collateral effects of extinction and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior.

    PubMed

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be outweighed by the reported negative side effects that result. However, these collateral effects have rarely been measured or reported. DRA produced the most rapid reductions in behavior for 4 of the 5 participants. Other behaviors were measured for changes and showed that the desirable collateral effect of academic engagement tended to be higher during EXT than DRA. No evidence of EXT bursts was present with any participant, although EXT-induced aggression occurred with 1 participant.

  14. [Behavior of the lung mechanics after the application of protocol of chest physiotherapy and aspiration tracheal in patients with invasive mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Fernanda Kusiak da; Roese, Cláudia Adegas; Savi, Augusto; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2007-06-01

    The chest physiotherapy (CP) in patients submitted to invasive support ventilation acts directly in the breathing system, and it could alter the lung mechanics through the dynamic lung compliance (DynC) and resistance of the breathing system (Rbs). However the alterations after the accomplishment of CP are still controversy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the alterations of the lung mechanics in patients in invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). It was a prospective, randomized, and controlled and crossover study, with patient with more than 48 hours in IMV. The protocol of chest physiotherapy and isolated tracheal aspiration they were randomized for the application order with a window of 24 hours among them. Data of lung mechanics and its varied cardiorespiratory were collected moments before the protocol, immediately after the application of the protocol, 30 minutes and 120 minutes after the application of the protocols. Twelve patients completed the study. Pneumonia was the mean cause respiratory failure (RF). There was not statistical difference among the groups in relation to Cdyn, volume tidal (Vt) and volume minute (Ve). Rbs decreased in a significant way immediately after (of 10.4 ± 3 cmH2O/L/seg for 8.9 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg; p < 0.02), 30 minutes after (of 10.4 ± 3 cmH2O/L/seg for 9 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg; p < 0.01) and 120 minutes after (of 10.4 ± 3 cmH2O/L/seg for 9 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg; p < 0.03) application the protocol of chest physiotherapy. When compared with the protocol of isolated tracheal aspiration it was significantly smaller in the 30 (9 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg versus10.2 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg; p < 0.04) and 120 minutes (9 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg versus 10.4 ± 3 cmH2O/L/seg; p < 0.04). The protocol of chest physiotherapy was effective in the decrease of Rsr when compared with the aspiration protocol. That decrease was maintained for two hours after its application, what did not happen when only the just accomplished the tracheal aspiration was performed

  15. Sexual behavior and perceived peer norms: comparing perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-affected youth.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2009-09-01

    A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51% female; ages 9-16) perinatally exposed to HIV (61% HIV+). Using logistic regression, we tested the association between sexual behavior and HIV status, demographic characteristics, and peer influences regarding sexual behavior. PHIV youth were less likely to be sexually active. Among sexually active youth, PHIV youth were more likely to engage in touching behavior than HIV-negative youth and were less likely to engage in penetrative sex. Youths reporting that a greater number of their peers believed that sexually active boys were "cool" or "popular" were more likely to report sexual behavior. The association between sexual behavior and peers believing sexually active girls were "cool" or "popular" varied by age, gender, and HIV status. Furthermore, friends' sexual activity was associated with sexual intercourse. Prevention programs should strengthen messages addressing peer norms regarding sexuality, as well as address specific issues related to adolescent HIV.

  16. Sexual behavior and perceived peer norms: Comparing perinatally infected and affected youth

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51% female; ages 9–16) perinatally exposed to HIV (61% HIV+). Using logistic regression, we tested the association between sexual behavior and HIV status, demographic characteristics, and peer influences regarding sexual behavior. PHIV youth were less likely to be sexually active. Among sexually active youth, PHIV youth were more likely to engage in touching behavior than HIV-negative youth and were less likely to engage in penetrative sex. Youths reporting that a greater number of their peers believed that sexually active boys were “cool” or “popular” were more likely to report sexual behavior. The association between sexual behavior and peers believing sexually active girls were “cool” or “popular” varied by age, gender, and HIV status. Furthermore, friends’ sexual activity was associated with sexual intercourse. Prevention programs should strengthen messages addressing peer norms regarding sexuality, as well as address specific issues related to adolescent HIV. PMID:19636775

  17. Inherent aggressive character of invasive and non-invasive cells dictates the in vitro migration pattern of multicellular spheroid.

    PubMed

    Gayan, Sukanya; Teli, Abhishek; Dey, Tuli

    2017-09-14

    Cellular migration, a process relevant to metastasis, is mostly studied in the conventional 2D condition. However, cells cultured in the 3D condition assumed to mimic the in vivo conditions better. The current study is designed to compare an invasive and non-invasive adenocarcinoma cell with an invasive fibrosarcoma cell to understand the migration pattern of the multicellular spheroid. It is observed that conventional haplotaxis, chemotactic and pseudo-3D migration assay cannot distinguish between the invasive and non-invasive cells conclusively under 2D condition. Invasive spheroids migrate rapidly in sprouting assay in comparison to non-invasive spheroids. Effects of cytochalasin B, marimastat and blebbistatin are tested to determine the influence of different migration modality namely actin polymerization, matrix metalloprotease and acto-myosin in both culture conditions. Altered mRNA profile of cellular migration related genes (FAK, Talin, Paxillin, p130cas and Vinculin) is observed between 2D and 3D condition followed by the changed expression of matrix metallo proteases. A distinct difference is observed in distribution and formation of focal adhesion complex under these culture conditions. This study demonstrates the efficacy of multicellular spheroids in identifying the intrinsic aggressive behavior of different cell lines as a proof of concept and recognizes the potential of spheroids as a migration model.

  18. Comparative analysis of perioperative surgical site infection after minimally invasive versus open posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: analysis of hospital billing and discharge data from 5170 patients.

    PubMed

    McGirt, Matthew J; Parker, Scott L; Lerner, Jason; Engelhart, Luella; Knight, Tyler; Wang, Michael Y

    2011-06-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) after lumbar fusion results in significant patient morbidity and associated medical resource utilization. Minimally invasive (MI) techniques for posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (P/TLIF) were introduced with the goals of smaller wounds, less tissue trauma, reduced blood loss, and quicker postoperative recovery, while maintaining comparable surgical results. Studies with sufficient power to directly compare the incidence of SSI following MI versus open P/TLIF procedures have been lacking. Furthermore, the direct medical cost associated with the treatment of SSI following the P/TLIF procedure is poorly understood and has not been adequately assessed. Thus, the aim in the present study was to determine the incidence of perioperative SSI in patients undergoing MI versus open P/TLIF and the direct hospital cost associated with the diagnosis and management of SSI after P/TLIF as reported in a large administrative database. The authors retrospectively reviewed hospital discharge and billing records from the Premier Perspective Database for 2003 to 2009 to identify patients undergoing 1- or 2-level MI or open P/TLIF for lumbar spondylotic disease, disc degeneration, or spondylolisthesis. The ICD-9-CM procedure codes were used to identify patients undergoing P/TLIF and those experiencing SSI. Infection-related costs were obtained from the total costs incurred by the hospital for SSI-related care provided during inpatient or hospital outpatient encounters. Five thousand one hundred seventy patients undergoing P/TLIF were identified. Demographic profiles, including the Charlson Comorbidity Index, were similar between MI and open cohorts. Overall, 292 patients (5.6%) experienced an SSI with a mean direct cost of $15,817 per SSI. For 1-level MI versus open P/TLIF, the incidence of SSI (38 [4.5%] vs 77 [4.8%], p = 0.77) and the mean SSI-associated cost per P/TLIF ($684 vs $724, p = 0.680) were similar. For 2-level MI versus open P

  19. Comparing the unmatched count technique and direct self-report for sensitive health-risk behaviors in HIV+ adults

    PubMed Central

    Arentoft, Alyssa; Van Dyk, Kathleen; Thames, April D.; Sayegh, Philip; Thaler, Nicholas; Schonfeld, Daniel; LaBrie, Joseph; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often rely on self-report measures to assess sensitive health-risk behaviors in HIV+ individuals, yet the accuracy of self-report has been questioned, particularly when inquiring about behaviors that may be embarrassing, risky, and/or taboo. We compared an anonymous reporting method—the Unmatched Count Technique (UCT)—to direct self-report in order to assess reporting differences for several health-risk behaviors related to medication adherence and sexual risk. Contrary to hypotheses, the UCT only produced a significantly higher estimated base rate for one sensitive behavior: reporting medication adherence to one's physician, which may have been contextually-primed by our study design. Our results suggest that anonymous reporting methods may not increase disclosure compared to direct self-report when assessing several health-risk behaviors in HIV+ research volunteers. However, our results also suggest that contextual factors should be considered and investigated further, as they may influence perception of sensitive behavior. PMID:26856321

  20. Behavioral responses of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål) to traps baited with stereoisomeric mixtures of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-OL.

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Khrimian, Ashot; Weber, Donald C; Aldrich, Jeffrey C; Short, Brent D; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Morrison, William R

    2015-04-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an invasive insect in the United States that is capable of inflicting significant yield losses for fruit, vegetable, and soybean growers. Recently, a male-produced aggregation pheromone of H. halys was identified as a 3.5:1 mixture of (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, two stereoisomers of a natural sesquiterpene with a bisabolane skeleton, potentially existing in 16 stereoisomeric forms. In this study, we assessed attraction to pheromonal and non-pheromonal stereoisomeric mixtures of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, which are easier to synthesize than single isomers, and evaluated dose-dependent responses to attractive mixtures in field trials. Some treatments not containing the natural pheromone components were moderately active in field-trapping studies, signifying that some stereoisomers of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol are sufficiently similar to the true pheromone in structure to trigger behavioral responses. Importantly, we found that mixtures of stereoisomers containing pheromone components were also highly attractive to H. halys, even in the presence of multiple "unnatural" stereoisomers. Further, adult and nymphal captures were dose-dependent, regardless of whether the lure contained pheromonal or non-pheromonal components. Our findings of attraction to pheromonal and non-pheromonal stereoisomers and lack of inhibition from non-pheromonal stereoisomers of 10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol increase the flexibility of developing pheromone-based products for H. halys.

  1. Scientific practices and social behaviors in managing landslide risks: comparing experiences between developing and developed countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    A successful landslide risk reduction program requires that the society is aware and understand the landslide problems within the geographic area involved. Central organizations that manage national landslide risks should: a) create and systematically applied natural hazard laws/national landslide strategies, where roles and limits of responsibilities of federal, state, provincial, municipal and private entities are well defined; c) establish fruitful multidisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration among scientists; d) provide good risk assessments in which landslide experts report transparently what is really known and the limitations of methods and tools used; e) share and systematically communicate their knowledge more effectively with all private and public stakeholders involved, paying attention to providing balanced information about risks and addressing inevitable uncertainties; f) support the mass-media in spreading correct scientific information; g) perform serious risk and cost-benefit analyses before mitigation measures are realized; h) assist local authorities in the application of land-use planning policies and g) built trust and confidence by means of a continuous contact and communication with the public and local authorities. However, this is not yet achieved, not even in developed countries where, in theory, more economical resources are available and people are better educated then in developing countries. Herein I make some observations on how national landslide prevention efforts are being organized in two countries (Nicaragua and Norway), where I have been worked at governmental agencies as landslide expert in the last 10 years. I start describing similarities and differences between the countries and try to compare practices and experiences. The analysis was motivated by the following questions: Why after so many years of landslide mapping and investigations, landslide prevention is not good and effective as it should be? Is this

  2. Can a virtual supermarket bring realism into the lab? Comparing shopping behavior using virtual and pictorial store representations to behavior in a physical store.

    PubMed

    van Herpen, Erica; van den Broek, Eva; van Trijp, Hans C M; Yu, Tian

    2016-12-01

    Immersive virtual reality techniques present new opportunities for research into consumer behavior. The current study examines whether the increased realism of a virtual store compared to pictorial (2D) stimuli elicits consumer behavior that is more in line with behavior in a physical store. We examine the number, variety, and type of products selected, amount of money spent, and responses to price promotions and shelf display, in three product categories (fruit & vegetables, milk, and biscuits). We find that virtual reality elicits behavior that is more similar to behavior in the physical store compared to the picture condition for the number of products selected (Milk: Mstore = 1.19, Mvirtual = 1.53, Mpictures = 2.58) and amount of money spent (Milk: Mstore = 1.27, Mvirtual = 1.53, Mpictures = 2.60 Euro), and for the selection of products from different areas of the shelf, both vertically (purchases from top shelves, milk and biscuits: Pstore = 21.6%, Pvirtual = 33.4%, Ppictures = 50.0%) and horizontally (purchase from left shelf, biscuits: Pstore = 35.5%, Pvirtual = 53.3%, Ppictures = 66.7%). This indicates that virtual reality can improve realism in responses to shelf allocation. Virtual reality was not able to diminish other differences between lab and physical store: participants bought more products and spent more money (for biscuits and fruit & vegetables), bought more national brands, and responded more strongly to price promotions in both virtual reality and pictorial representations than in the physical store. Implications for the use of virtual reality in studies of consumer food choice behavior as well as for future improvement of virtual reality techniques are discussed.

  3. Health-promoting behavior and quality of life among caregivers and non-caregivers in Taiwan: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mei Han

    2009-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to compare middle-aged female family caregivers and non-caregivers in terms of: (a) differences in quality of life and health-promoting lifestyle behaviors; and (b) the relationship between health-promoting lifestyle behaviors and quality of life. Caregiving for older relatives is a stressful responsibility that detracts from the quality of life of female caregivers and imposes barriers to practising healthy behaviors. Recent studies on caregiving responsibilities have been primarily conducted in Western cultural contexts, with few studies of Chinese groups. This cross-sectional, comparative study included a convenience sample of 39 female caregivers and 98 non-caregivers recruited in southern Taiwan in 2007. Data were collected using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-BREF Taiwanese version and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II. The majority of caregivers reported a low level of caregiving input with family support. They also reported a statistically significantly higher proportion of health-promoting behaviors than non-caregivers, although quality of life did not differ between the two groups. Practising healthy behaviors may more strongly influence quality of life in caregivers than in non-caregivers. Policymakers should consider direct family support and uphold the value of family cohesion in order to maintain healthy behaviors and a high quality of life in family caregivers. Further studies with larger and more comparably-sized participant groups are recommended to investigate the interactions between levels of care, family support, caregiving consequences, health-promoting behaviors and the caregivers' quality of life.

  4. Invasive Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Todd P; Pappas, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a collective term that refers to a group of infectious syndromes caused by a variety of species of Candida, 5 of which cause most cases. Candidemia is the most commonly recognized syndrome associated with invasive candidiasis. Certain conditions may influence the likelihood for one species versus another in a specific clinical scenario, and this can have important implications for selection of antifungal therapy and the duration of treatment. Molecular diagnostic technology plays an ever-increasing role as an adjunct to traditional culture-based diagnostics, offering significant potential toward improvement in patient care.

  5. Non-invasive (89)Zr-Transferrin PET Shows Improved Tumor Targeting Compared to (18)F-FDG PET in MYC-overexpressing Human Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kelly E; Dilling, Thomas R; Abdel-Atti, Dalya; Edwards, Kimberly J; Evans, Michael J; Lewis, Jason S

    2017-08-28

    The current standard for breast positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). The heterogeneity of (18)F-FDG uptake in breast cancer limits its utility, varying greatly among receptor status, histopathological subtypes, and proliferation markers. (18)F-FDG PET often exhibits non-specific internalization and low specificity and sensitivity, especially with tumors < 1 cm(3) MYC is a protein involved in oncogenesis and is overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Increased surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) is a downstream event of MYC upregulation, and has been validated as a clinically relevant target for molecular imaging. Transferrin (Tf) labeled with zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) has successfully identified MYC status in many cancer subtypes preclinically, and been shown to predict response and changes in oncogene status via treatment with small molecule inhibitors that target MYC and PI3K signaling pathways. We hypothesized that (89)Zr-Tf PET will non-invasively detect MYC and TfR and improve upon the current standard of (18)F-FDG PET for MYC-overexpressing TNBC. Methods: In this study, (89)Zr-Tf and (18)F-FDG imaging were compared in preclinical models of TNBC. TNBC cells (MDA-MB-157, MBA-MB-231, and Hs578T) were treated with bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitors JQ1 and OTX015 (0.5-1 μM). Cell proliferation, gene expression, and protein expression were assayed to explore the effects of these inhibitors on MYC and TfR. Results: Head-to-head comparison showed that (89)Zr-Tf targets TNBC tumors significantly better (P < 0.05 - 0.001) than (18)F-FDG through PET imaging and biodistribution studies in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 xenografts and a patient-derived xenograft model of TNBC. MYC and TfR gene expression were decreased upon treatment with BRD4 inhibitors and c-MYC small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P < 0.01 - 0.001 for responding cell lines) compared to vehicle-treatment. MYC and TfR protein

  6. Comparative study of the corrosion behavior of MA-956 and conventional metallic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M L; López, M F; Ruiz, J; García-Alonso, M C; Canahua, H

    1996-07-01

    In this work the corrosion behavior of a new biomaterial, the MA-956 superalloy, immersed in Hank's solution is evaluated. A comparison with conventional metallic alloys used as articular implants is established. To determine the corrosion behavior we employed electrochemical methods: evaluation of corrosion potential Ecorr, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and anodic polarization curves. The corrosion resistance of the MA-956 superalloy preoxidized at 1100 degrees C during 100 h is at least two orders of magnitude higher than for the other alloys. This satisfactory behavior is stationary with time. Also the probability of the appearance of the pitting corrosion process is very low. When cracking is generated in the alpha-alumina layer the repassivation process is assured because of the high Cr content in the superalloy. This study is the first step in proposing this new alloy as a biomaterial. The low toxicity of these metallic alloys in the physiological environment suggests that in vivo their biocompatibility could be satisfactory.

  7. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Behavioral Objectives on Class Performance and Retention in Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert Charles; Lockard, J. David

    Presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) in April, 1972, in Chicago, this study compared the achievement and retention of ninth grade physical science classes receiving instruction with a prior knowledge of behavioral objectives with ninth grade classes taught the same material without…

  8. Tact Repertoires and Measures of Efficiency: Comparing the Effects of Two Behavioral Intervention Models with Students with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edward Donzell

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation reviewed experimental studies centering on the Lovaas Method (LovM), reviewed experimental studies centering on Verbal Behavior Approach (VBA) and/or studies that focused on the primary verbal operants, and compared the effects of LovM and VBA on the development of tact repertoires of three 11 to 12-year-old students with…

  9. A Comparative Study of Identity Styles, Quality of Life and Behavioral Problems between Single Parent and Two Parent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedini, Zoleykha; Mirnasab, Mirmahmoud; Fathi Azar, Eskander

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate identity styles, quality of life and behavioral difficulties between adolescents with single and two-parent status. In this causal- comparative study, a total of 214 high school students were selected, then 112 single parent students (59 females and 53 males) were selected by the voluntary response sampling…

  10. Couple and Individual Adjustment for 2 Years Following a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Traditional versus Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H.; George, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Follow-up data across 2 years were obtained on 130 of 134 couples who were originally part of a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy (TBCT vs. IBCT; A. Christensen et al., 2004). Both treatments produced similar levels of clinically significant improvement at 2 years posttreatment (69% of…

  11. Couple and Individual Adjustment for 2 Years Following a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Traditional versus Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H.; George, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Follow-up data across 2 years were obtained on 130 of 134 couples who were originally part of a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy (TBCT vs. IBCT; A. Christensen et al., 2004). Both treatments produced similar levels of clinically significant improvement at 2 years posttreatment (69% of…

  12. Black Unwed Adolescent Fathers: A Comparative Study of Their Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Leo E.; Howard, Cleopatra S.; Caesar, Patricia P.

    1981-01-01

    This research examines the kinds of problems these young fathers are likely to seek help for and addresses itself to the question: Is there a difference in the help-seeking behavior of unwed adolescent fathers who reside in different cities? Despite the complexity and diversity of their difficulties, it was clear from the analyses that the young fathers were likely to have emotional as well as concrete needs. Additionally, it was found that the unmarried adolescent fathers in this research were more similar than they were different in their help-seeking behavior. PMID:7277520

  13. Dopamine and Opioid Neurotransmission in Behavioral Addictions: A Comparative PET Study in Pathological Gambling and Binge Eating.

    PubMed

    Majuri, Joonas; Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Voon, Valerie; Alakurtti, Kati; Parkkola, Riitta; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Hirvonen, Jussi; Arponen, Eveliina; Forsback, Sarita; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2017-04-01

    Although behavioral addictions share many clinical features with drug addictions, they show strikingly large variation in their behavioral phenotypes (such as in uncontrollable gambling or eating). Neurotransmitter function in behavioral addictions is poorly understood, but has important implications in understanding its relationship with substance use disorders and underlying mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy. Here, we compare opioid and dopamine function between two behavioral addiction phenotypes: pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED). Thirty-nine participants (15 PG, 7 BED, and 17 controls) were scanned with [(11)C]carfentanil and [(18)F]fluorodopa positron emission tomography using a high-resolution scanner. Binding potentials relative to non-displaceable binding (BPND) for [(11)C]carfentanil and influx rate constant (Ki) values for [(18)F]fluorodopa were analyzed with region-of-interest and whole-brain voxel-by-voxel analyses. BED subjects showed widespread reductions in [(11)C]carfentanil BPND in multiple subcortical and cortical brain regions and in striatal [(18)F]fluorodopa Ki compared with controls. In PG patients, [(11)C]carfentanil BPND was reduced in the anterior cingulate with no differences in [(18)F]fluorodopa Ki compared with controls. In the nucleus accumbens, a key region involved in reward processing, [(11)C]Carfentanil BPND was 30-34% lower and [(18)F]fluorodopa Ki was 20% lower in BED compared with PG and controls (p<0.002). BED and PG are thus dissociable as a function of dopaminergic and opioidergic neurotransmission. Compared with PG, BED patients show widespread losses of mu-opioid receptor availability together with presynaptic dopaminergic defects. These findings highlight the heterogeneity underlying the subtypes of addiction and indicate differential mechanisms in the expression of pathological behaviors and responses to treatment.

  14. Bullying Behaviors and Self Efficacy among Nursing Students at Clinical Settings: Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Awatef Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nursing students who experienced bullying behaviors feel anger and missing their concentration, their capability to achieve a desired outcome. Also self-efficacy, often referred to as self-confidence, is essential to nursing students' ability and performance in the clinical setting. Aim: Study aimed to examine relation between bullying…

  15. A Cooperative Training Program for Students with Severe Behavior Problems: Description and Comparative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reganick, Karol A.

    The Cooperative Training Program was implemented with 20 students having severe behavior problems, to augment a classroom employability curriculum. Educators and business managers at a local Perkins restaurant worked cooperatively to design a new curriculum and recruitment procedure to benefit both students and the business. A continuous and…

  16. A comparative study of monoclonal antibodies. 1. Phase behavior and protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Lewus, Rachael A; Levy, Nicholas E; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Sandler, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    Protein phase behavior is involved in numerous aspects of downstream processing, either by design as in crystallization or precipitation processes, or as an undesired effect, such as aggregation. This work explores the phase behavior of eight monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that exhibit liquid-liquid separation, aggregation, gelation, and crystallization. The phase behavior has been studied systematically as a function of a number of factors, including solution composition and pH, in order to explore the degree of variability among different antibodies. Comparisons of the locations of phase boundaries show consistent trends as a function of solution composition; however, changing the solution pH has different effects on each of the antibodies studied. Furthermore, the types of dense phases formed varied among the antibodies. Protein-protein interactions, as reflected by values of the osmotic second virial coefficient, are used to correlate the phase behavior. The primary findings are that values of the osmotic second virial coefficient are useful for correlating phase boundary locations, though there is appreciable variability among the antibodies in the apparent strengths of the intrinsic protein-protein attraction manifested. However, the osmotic second virial coefficient does not provide a clear basis to predict the type of dense phase likely to result under a given set of solution conditions.

  17. Sexual Predators and Prey: A Comparative Study of the Hunting Behavior of Rapists and Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebocho, Maria Francisca; Goncalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been an increase in research on sex offenders' modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior, most studies still tend to emphasize criminal motivation while overlooking the role of situational and environmental factors. Studies of mixed samples of rapists and child molesters typically neglect to conduct…

  18. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  19. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

  20. Comparative Study of Several Behaviors in Caenorhabditis Elegans Following High-Let Radiation Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya

    Learning and behavioral impairments following ionizing radiation exposure are an important potential risk in manned space missions. We previously reported the effects of γ-ray exposure on olfactory adaptation [1], salt chemotaxis learning [2], and locomotion - learning behavior relationship [3] in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, little is known about the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We investigated various behavioral responses of wellfed adult Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to accelerated carbon ions (1 2C, 18.3M eV /u, LET = 113.3keV /µm). Following carbon-ion irradiation, locomotion, basal slowing response and salt chemotaxis learning were not significantly affected, whereas chemosensation to NaCl of animals during learning was altered. These results suggest that sensitivity of the C. elegans nervous system to high-LET heavy ions differs with the types of behaviors. References: [1] Sakashita et al., Biol. Sci. Space 21, 117-20 (2007), [2] Sakashita et al., FASEB J 22, 713-20 (2008), [3] Sakashita et al., J. Radiat. Res. 49, in press (2008).

  1. Sexual Behavior and Perceived Peer Norms: Comparing Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Affected Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51%…

  2. A Comparative Study of Vygotsky's Perspectives on Child Language Development with Nativism and Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dastpak, Mehdi; Behjat, Fatemeh; Taghinezhad, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the similarities and differences between Vygotsky's perspectives on child language development with nativism and behaviorism. Proposing the idea of the Zone of Proximal Development, Vygotsky emphasized the role of collaborative interaction, scaffolding, and guided participation in language learning. Nativists, on…

  3. Sexual Behavior and Perceived Peer Norms: Comparing Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Affected Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51%…

  4. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  5. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

  6. Sexual Predators and Prey: A Comparative Study of the Hunting Behavior of Rapists and Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebocho, Maria Francisca; Goncalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been an increase in research on sex offenders' modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior, most studies still tend to emphasize criminal motivation while overlooking the role of situational and environmental factors. Studies of mixed samples of rapists and child molesters typically neglect to conduct…

  7. Perceptions and Experiences of Intrusive Behavior and Stalking: Comparing LGBTIQ and Heterosexual Groups.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine P; Scott, Adrian J; Campbell, Amy M

    2016-05-27

    The present research employed a mixed-methods approach and quasi-experimental design to examine perceptions and experiences of intrusive behavior (comprising 47 individual intrusive activities) within individuals identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or queer (LGBTIQ) with a matched (in terms of age, sex, and income) sample of individuals identifying as heterosexual (N = 214). Despite only minor differences between the LGBTIQ and heterosexual groups concerning perceptions of the acceptability of intrusive behavior, the LGBTIQ group was more likely to report experiencing a range of individual intrusive activities and to report experiencing stalking victimization (self-reported rates of 35.5% vs. 15.0%). Participant sex and personal experience of being stalked were minimally associated with perceptions of the acceptability of intrusive behavior. Sexual orientation significantly predicted whether a person had experienced stalking victimization, whereas participant sex did not. The qualitative analysis revealed that the two groups shared some experiences of intrusive behavior, whereas others represented a unique subset of intrusions that related to sexual orientation.

  8. Deformation Behaviors of HIPped Foil Compared with Those of Sheet Titanium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Micromechanics-based modeling of composite material behaviors requires an accurate assessment of the constituent properties and behaviors. For the specific case of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC's) manufactured from a foil/fiber/foil process, much emphasis has been placed on characterizing foil-based matrix materials that have been fabricated in the same way as the composite. Such materials are believed to yield mechanical properties and behaviors that are representative of the matrix constituent within the composite (in situ matrix). Therefore, these materials are desired for micromechanics modeling input. Unfortunately, such foils are extremely expensive to fabricate and procure because of the labor-intensive rolling process needed to produce them. As a potential solution to this problem that would maintain appropriately representative in situ properties, the matrix constituent could be characterized with sheet-based materials, which are considerably less expensive to manufacture than foils, are more readily procured, and result in fewer plies to obtain a desired panel thickness. The critical question is, however, does the consolidated sheet material exhibit the same properties and behaviors as do the consolidated foils? Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center's Life Prediction Branch completed a detailed experimental investigation to answer this question for three titanium alloys commonly used in metal matrix composite form.

  9. Comparing Learner Community Behavior in Multiple Presentations of a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Silvia Elena; Savage, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) can create large scale communities of learners who collaborate, interact and discuss learning materials and activities. MOOCs are often delivered multiple times with similar content to different cohorts of learners. However, research into the differences of learner communication, behavior and expectation between…

  10. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  11. The Influence of Place-Based Communities on Information Behavior: A Comparative Grounded Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Amelia N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of experiential place and local community on information access and behavior for two communities of parents of children with Down syndrome. It uncovers substantive issues associated with health information seeking, government and education-related information access, and information overload and avoidance within the…

  12. Study Behavior in the Closed-Book and the Open-Book Examination: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theophilides, Christos; Koutselini, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the study behavior used by students facing an open-book or closed-book examination. Results for 201 college students in Cyprus indicate that students preparing for a closed-book examination tended to postpone study at the end of the semester, focus on assigned texts, and memorize information. Students preparing for open-book tests…

  13. Social Validation of Services for Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Kathleen M.; Knuth, Richard; Benner, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of 302 building administrators regarding their building level programs serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Comparisons were made between administrators of schools that housed self-contained programs and administrators from schools without self-contained programs on factors…

  14. A Behavioral Economic Reward Index Predicts Drinking Resolutions: Moderation Revisited and Compared with Other Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Roth, David L.; Vignolo, Mary J.; Westfall, Andrew O.

    2009-01-01

    Data were pooled from 3 studies of recently resolved community-dwelling problem drinkers to determine whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons distinguished among moderation (n = 30), abstinent (n = 95), and unresolved (n = 77) outcomes. Moderation over 1- to 2-year prospective follow-up…

  15. A Comparative Study of Two Different Teaching and Curricular Agreements in Human Behavior and Social Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, William C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The use of social work faculty to teach human behavior and social environment content to undergraduate social work students vs using faculty from other departments is examined in this research study. The data suggest there were no significant differences between groups of students. (Author/MLW)

  16. A Comparative Study of Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among University Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John

    2011-01-01

    Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…

  17. Determining the Presence of a Problem: Comparing Two Approaches for Detecting Youth Behavioral Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphaus, R. W.; DiStefano, Christine; Dowdy, Erin; Eklund, Katie; Dunn, Alnita Rettig

    2010-01-01

    Universal screening has been routinely advised for determining the presence of problems for initiating problem-solving processes and models. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two screener development methods on the validity of score inferences for two teacher screeners of child behavioral and emotional risk. The reliability and…

  18. The Influence of Place-Based Communities on Information Behavior: A Comparative Grounded Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Amelia N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of experiential place and local community on information access and behavior for two communities of parents of children with Down syndrome. It uncovers substantive issues associated with health information seeking, government and education-related information access, and information overload and avoidance within the…

  19. Comparative cost-effectiveness of the components of a behavior change communication campaign on HIV/AIDS in North India.

    PubMed

    Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally.

  20. Behavioral features of Williams Beuren syndrome compared to Fragile X syndrome and subjects with intellectual disability without defined etiology.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, D; Granero, R; Gallastegui, F; Pérez-Jurado, L A; Brun-Gasca, C

    2011-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a heterozygous deletion of 26-28 genes on chromosome band 7q11.23. During the past few years, researchers and clinicians have significantly contributed to define the phenotype of the syndrome, including its cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, it is not well known yet whether the psychological problems are specific to the syndrome or secondary to the intellectual disability (ID). The aim of our study was to better define the psychopathological profile of WBS and whether or not it is related with IQ or anxiety symptoms. Twenty-five subjects (12 girls, 13 boys) with a diagnosis of WBS were compared to 27 boys with Fragile X Syndrome and to 24 boys with ID of non-specific etiology using the Child Behavior Checklist. Anxiety, depression and attention problems were the main behavioral problems found in WBS with no gender differences. Significant differences between cohorts were observed in somatic complaints, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior, and externalizing problems. Some associations between IQ and anxiety items were found. The findings are discussed in terms of behavioral phenotypes, genetic implications and ID.

  1. Testing Jessor's problem behavior theory and syndrome: a nationally representative comparative sample of Latino and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Michael; Chun, Heejung

    2013-04-01

    Based on Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT; R. Jessor, 1987, Problem-behavior theory, psychosocial development, and adolescent problem drinking, British Journal of Addiction, Vol. 82, pp. 331-342), the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated employing structural equation modeling (SEM) and latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement were examined among racial/ethnic adolescents. Within a span of nearly 25 years, this study represents the first nationally representative sample of Latino and African American adolescents utilized in testing Jessor's PBT and problem behavior syndrome (PBS). Using a sample of 5,831 Latino, African American, and European American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a series of invariance tests evidenced support for Jessor's PBT and PBS. Latent mean difference test results evidenced significant differences in problem behaviors (e.g., academic failure [AF], aggression [AG], substance use [SU], and risky sexual activity[RSA]) across racial/ethnic adolescent groups, which could be explained partially by PBS. A discussion of findings, limitations, and recommendations for future research is presented.

  2. Social Support Behaviors and Work Stressors among Nurses: A Comparative Study between Teaching and Non-Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Amarneh, Basil Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of “work stressors” has been well studied. However, in the field of nursing, studies concerning social support behaviors are limited. The aim of this study was to compare nurse work stressors, social support behaviors, and predictors of these variables among nurses in Jordanian teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Design: A convenience sampling technique and a comparative quantitative research design were used in the current study. Two hundred and ninety-one nurses were recruited from five teaching hospitals, and 172 were recruited from eight non-teaching hospitals in Jordan. Methods: The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Inventory of Social Supportive Behaviors (ISSB) were used to collect data. Results: The studied variables differed across hospitals. In some subscales, as well as in some individual items of the scales, nurse work stressors and social support behaviors differed between teaching and non-teaching hospitals. In teaching hospitals, the work shift was the only predictor of nurses’ work stressors, whereas the work shift and model of nursing care were predictors of social support behaviors. In non-teaching hospitals, the work shift, level of education, and model of nursing care were predictors of nurse work stressors. Predictors of social support behaviors were marital status, model of nursing, and organizational structure. Conclusions: Regardless of the type of hospital, nurse stressors should be assessed and, once identified, managed by providing various social support behaviors. Clinical relevance: By turning a work environment into a healthy workplace, researchers and nurse leaders believe that improvements can be realized in recruitment and patient safety and quality. PMID:28146045

  3. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental