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Sample records for invasive mechanical ventilation

  1. Patient-ventilator dyssynchrony during assisted invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Murias, G; Villagra, A; Blanch, L

    2013-04-01

    Patient-ventilator dyssynchrony is common during mechanical ventilation. Dyssynchrony decreases comfort, prolongs mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stays, and might lead to worse outcome. Dyssynchrony can occur during the triggering of the ventilator, the inspiration period after triggering, the transition from inspiration to expiration, and the expiratory phase. The most common dyssynchronies are delayed triggering, autotriggering, ineffective inspiratory efforts (which can occur at any point in the respiratory cycle), mismatch between the patient's and ventilator's inspiratory times, and double triggering. At present, the detection of dyssynchronies usually depends on healthcare staff observing ventilator waveforms; however, performance is suboptimal and many events go undetected. To date, technological complexity has made it impossible to evaluate patient-ventilator synchrony throughout the course of mechanical ventilation. Studies have shown that a high index of dyssynchrony may increase the duration of mechanical ventilation. Better training, better ventilatory modes, and/or computerized systems that permit better synchronization of patients' demands and ventilator outputs are necessary to improve patient-ventilator synchrony.

  2. Modern non-invasive mechanical ventilation turns 25.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario

    2013-11-01

    The history of non-invasive mechanical ventilation goes back more than 100 years, but it was not until 1987 when what we could call "modern" non-invasive mechanical ventilation was developed. The description of Delaubier and Rideau of a patient with Duchenne's disease who had been effectively ventilated through a nasal mask marked the start of a new era in the history of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Over these last 25years, we have witnessed exponential growth in its use, field of activity and technological advances on an exciting fast-paced track. We believe that it is time to review the main milestones that have marked the development of non-invasive mechanical ventilation to date, while paying homage to this therapeutic method that has contributed so much to the advancement of respiratory medicine in the last 25years.

  3. [Home mechanical ventilation: Invasive and noninvasive ventilation therapy for chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Huttmann, S E; Storre, J H; Windisch, W

    2015-06-01

    Home mechanical ventilation represents a valuable therapeutic option to improve alveolar ventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure. For this purpose both invasive ventilation via tracheostomy and noninvasive ventilation via facemasks are available. The primary goal of home mechanical ventilation is a reduction of symptoms, improvement of quality of life and in many cases reduction of mortality. Elective establishment of home mechanical ventilation is typically provided for noninvasive ventilation in respect to clinical symptoms and partial pressure of carbon dioxide depending on the underlying disease. However, invasive mechanical ventilation is increasingly being used to continue ventilatory support in polymorbid patients following unsuccessful weaning. Recommendations and guidelines have been published by the German Respiratory Society (DGP).

  4. Quality of life of ALS and LIS patients with and without invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Marie-Christine; Pietra, Stéphane; Blaya, José; Catala, Anne

    2011-10-01

    There are very few studies where quality of life (QOL) is assessed in patients with complete physical and functional disability and dependence to invasive mechanical ventilation (IV). We compared QOL of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and locked-in-syndrome (LIS) patients with invasive mechanical ventilation to ALS and LIS patients without mechanical invasive ventilation. Thirty-four patients, 27 with ALS and seven with LIS (vascular or tumoral aetiology) were included in the study. Twelve had invasive ventilation, 22 had non-invasive ventilation, and in the non-invasive ventilation group, five of them had ventilation via mask. The following scales were used for patients: ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS), McGILL, Short-Form 36 (SF36), Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the anxiety inventory of Spielberger. Mean ALSFRS scores were significantly lower in the invasive ventilation group (IV) than in the non-invasive ventilation group. McGILL and SF36 were not significantly different between the IV group and the non-invasive ventilation group; there were no significant differences between the two groups for others scales either. Comparison between IV group and LIS without invasive mechanical ventilation revealed no significant difference for SF36 and McGILL QOL scores. QOL was not significantly different between the IV and not invasively ventilated patients, but ALSFRS was significantly lower in the IV group, and comparison of QOL scores between non-ventilated LIS patients who had the same score of dependence that invasively ventilated patients did not show any difference. Invasive mechanical ventilation for patients who accept tracheotomy allows life prolongation and their QOL is not affected; medical teams should be aware of that.

  5. Outcomes of Morbidly Obese Patients Receiving Invasive Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gagan; Majumdar, Tilottama; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Danesh, Valerie; Dagar, Gaurav; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Taneja, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Critically ill, morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) are at high risk of respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). It is not clear if outcomes of critically ill, obese patients are affected by obesity. Due to limited cardiopulmonary reserve, they may have poor outcomes. However, literature to this effect is limited and conflicted. Methods: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2004 to 2008 to examine the outcomes of morbidly obese people receiving IMV and compared them to nonobese people. We identified hospitalizations requiring IMV and morbid obesity using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcomes studied were inhospital mortality, rates of prolonged mechanical ventilation (≥ 96 h), and tracheostomy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounding variables. We also examined outcomes stratified by number of organs failing. Results: Of all hospitalized, morbidly obese people, 2.9% underwent IMV. Mean age, comorbidity score, and severity of illness were lower in morbidly obese people. The adjusted mortality was not significantly different in morbidly obese people (OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.74-1.06). When stratified by severity of disease, there was a stepwise increase in risk for mortality among morbidly obese people relative to nonobese people (range: OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.58-1.01 for only respiratory failure, to OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 1.11-15.3 for four or more organs failing). Rates of prolonged mechanical ventilation were similar, but rate of tracheostomy (OR 2.19; 95% CI, 1.77-2.69) was significantly higher in patients who were morbidly obese. Conclusions: Morbidly obese people undergoing IMV have a similar risk for death as nonobese people if only respiratory failure is present. When more organs fail, morbidly obese people have increased risk for mortality compared with nonobese people. PMID:23349057

  6. Pressure versus volume controlled modes in invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Garnero, A J; Abbona, H; Gordo-Vidal, F; Hermosa-Gelbard, C

    2013-05-01

    The first generation of mechanical ventilators were controlled and cycled by pressure. Unfortunately, they did not allow control of the delivered tidal volume under changes in the dynamics of the respiratory system. This led to a second generation of ventilators that allowed volume control, hence favoring the ventilatory strategy based on normalization of the arterial gases. Studies conducted in the 1980s which related lung injury to the high ventilator pressures utilized while treating acute respiratory distress syndrome patients renewed interest in pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation. In addition, new evidence became available, leading to the development of pulmonary protective strategies aiming at preventing the progression of ventilator-induced lung injury. This review provides a detailed description of the control of pressure or volume using certain ventilatory modes, and offers a general view of their advantages and disadvantages, based on the latest available evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the pre- and intraoperative period and difficult airway].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; Úbeda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is a method of ventilatory assistance aimed at increasing alveolar ventilation, thus achieving, in selected subjects, the avoidance of endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation, with the consequent improvement in survival. There has been a systematic review and study of the technical, clinical experiences, and recommendations concerning the application of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the pre- and intraoperative period. The use of prophylactic non-invasive mechanical ventilation before surgery that involves significant alterations in the ventilatory function may decrease the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications. Its intraoperative use will mainly depend on the type of surgery, type of anaesthetic technique, and the clinical status of the patient. Its use allows greater anaesthetic depth without deterioration of oxygenation and ventilation of patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Resolution of obstructive atelectasis with non-invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Mirambeaux Villalona, Rosa; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario; Díaz Lobato, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    Bronchoscopy is a commonly used technique in patients with atelectasis due to mucus plugs. We present here the case of an 82-year-old patient with a history of Meige's syndrome who developed acute respiratory failure due to atelectasis of the right upper lobe associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia. The patient had a severely reduced level of consciousness, significant work-of-breathing and severe hypercapnic acidosis, all of which contraindicated bronchoscopy. Bi-level noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was initiated by way of a face mask. Progress was favourable, with clear clinical and gasometric improvement. The chest X-ray performed 12hours later showed complete resolution of the atelectasis. These data suggest that NIMV may be useful in the treatment of atelectasis is some critical patients. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Online estimation of respiratory mechanics in non-invasive pressure support ventilation: a bench model study.

    PubMed

    Mulqueeny, Qestra; Tassaux, Didier; Vignaux, Laurence; Jolliet, Philippe; Schindhelm, Klaus; Redmond, Stephen; Lovell, Nigel H

    2010-01-01

    An online algorithm for determining respiratory mechanics in patients using non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in pressure support mode was developed and embedded in a ventilator system. Based on multiple linear regression (MLR) of respiratory data, the algorithm was tested on a patient bench model under conditions with and without leak and simulating a variety of mechanics. Bland-Altman analysis indicates reliable measures of compliance across the clinical range of interest (± 11-18% limits of agreement). Resistance measures showed large quantitative errors (30-50%), however, it was still possible to qualitatively distinguish between normal and obstructive resistances. This outcome provides clinically significant information for ventilator titration and patient management.

  10. [The effect of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in postoperative respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Ozyılmaz, Ezgi; Kaya, Akın

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative respiratory failure is related with the highest mortality and morbidity among all perioperative complications. The most common underlying mechanism of postoperative respiratory failure is the development of atelectasis. Anaesthesia, medications which cause respiratory depression, high FiO2 use, postoperative pain and disruption of muscle forces due to surgery leads to decrease in functional residual capacity and results in atelectasis formation. Atelectasis causes severe hypoxemia due to ventilation, perfusion mismatch, shunt and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Intrathoracic positive pressure is an effective therapeutic option in both prevention and treatment of atelectasis. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is related with a lower mortality and morbidity rate due to lack of any potential complication risks of endotracheal intubation. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation can be applied as prophylactic or curative. Both of these techniques are related with lower reintubation rates, nosocomial infections, duration of hospitalization and mortality in patients with postoperative respiratory failure. The differences of this therapy from standard application and potential complications should be well known in order to improve prognosis in these group of patients. The primary aim of this review is to underline the pathogenesis of postoperative respiratory failure. The secondary aim is to clarify the optimum method, effect and complications of non-invasive mechanical ventilation therapy under the light of the studies which was performed in specific patient groups.

  11. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute heart failure].

    PubMed

    Alfonso Megido, Joaquín; González Franco, Alvaro

    2014-03-01

    When acute heart failure progresses and there is acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, routine therapeutic measures should be accompanied by other measures that help to correct oxygenation of the patient. The final and most drastic step is mechanical ventilation. Non-invasive ventilation has been developed in the last few years as a method that attempts to improve oxygenation without the need for intubation, thus, in theory, reducing morbidity and mortality in these patients. The present article describes the controversies surrounding the results of this technique and discusses its indications. The article also discusses how to start non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute pulmonary edema from a practical point of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. [Non-invasive ventilation].

    PubMed

    Gallardo Romero, Jose Manuel; García, Teresa Gómez; Sancho Chust, José Norberto; González Martínez, Mónica

    2010-10-01

    The advent of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) has radically changed the management of acute and chronic respiratory failure. Over the last few years, the number of possible applications of NIMV has progressively increased, both in the hospital and extrahospital setting. NIMV is now used in all hospitals and resident physicians currently receive specific training -nonexistent until a few years ago- in this modality. It falls to all of us to push forward the clinical and scientific advances represented by the development of NIMV, by promoting the events that accompany better knowledge of the physiopathological bases of ventilation and of its continuous applications in daily clinical practice and by perfecting the elements required for the correct application of this technique. The present review aims to provide a broad overview of NIMV, from the most theoretical knowledge (the physiopathology of NIMV) to the most practical skills (recognition of patient-ventilator asynchrony). Through this progression from the complex to the most basic, or from the basics to the most complex, depending on the perspective taken, we aim to provide deeper knowledge of the concepts required to understand the technical functioning of the ventilator, describing its distinct modes and parameters and the abilities that must be developed for the correct indication, use and monitoring of the technique. We provide a final reflection on other forms of respiratory support that can be offered to patients with ventilatory failure. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, N; Nava, S; Rubini, F

    1993-01-01

    Acute respiratory failure is usually managed by means of mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy, when conservative treatment fails. Invasive mechanical ventilation is associated with several complications. The recent development of non-invasive methods of ventilation, has led to an attempt to avoid the complications of invasive mechanical ventilation during episodes of acute respiratory failure, ensuring at the same time a similar degree of efficacy. Both intermittent negative pressure ventilation and positive pressure ventilation by face or nasal mask have recently been used for this purpose. Negative pressure ventilation by means of iron lung, cuirass or poncho-wrap ventilators, has never been used in place of endotracheal intubation, and studies of this kind of ventilation are inconclusive: as a consequence, there is, at the moment, no indication for the generalized use of negative pressure ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation by facial or nasal masks, has recently been used in the treatment of respiratory failure in place of endotracheal intubation. The results are promising, but remain controversial. It may be attempted in selected patients with obstructive respiratory disorders, but the procedure is very time-consuming for nurses.

  14. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in postoperative patients. A clinical review].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; Úbeda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of ventilatory support that is increasing in importance day by day in the management of postoperative respiratory failure. Its role in the prevention and treatment of atelectasis is particularly important in the in the period after thoracic and abdominal surgeries. Similarly, in the transplanted patient, NIV can shorten the time of invasive mechanical ventilation, reducing the risk of infectious complications in these high-risk patients. It has been performed A systematic review of the literature has been performed, including examining the technical, clinical experiences and recommendations concerning the application of NIV in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving aerosol drug delivery during invasive mechanical ventilation with redesigned components.

    PubMed

    Longest, P Worth; Azimi, Mandana; Golshahi, Laleh; Hindle, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation with an endotracheal tube (ETT) can often benefit from pharmaceutical aerosols; however, drug delivery through the ventilator circuit is known to be very inefficient. The objective of this study was to improve the delivery of aerosol through an invasive mechanical ventilation system by redesigning circuit components using a streamlining approach. Redesigned components were the T-connector interface between the nebulizer and ventilator line and the Y-connector leading to the ETT. The streamlining approach seeks to minimize aerosol deposition and loss by eliminating sharp changes in flow direction and tubing diameter that lead to flow disruption. Both in vitro experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were applied to analyze deposition and emitted dose of drug for multiple droplet size distributions, flows, and ETT sizes used in adults. The experimental results demonstrated that the streamlined components improved delivery through the circuit by factors ranging from 1.3 to 1.5 compared with a commercial system for adult ETT sizes of 8 and 9 mm. The overall delivery efficiency was based on the bimodal aspect of the aerosol distributions and could not be predicted by median diameter alone. CFD results indicated a 20-fold decrease in turbulence in the junction region for the streamlined Y resulting in a maximum 9-fold decrease in droplet deposition. The relative effectiveness of the streamlined designs was found to increase with increasing particle size and increasing flow, with a maximum improvement in emitted dose of 1.9-fold. Streamlined components can significantly improve the delivery of pharmaceutical aerosols during mechanical ventilation based on an analysis of multiple aerosol generation devices, ETT sizes, and flows.

  16. [Mechanical ventilator].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akio; Hashimoto, S

    2009-07-01

    The development of the computer technology brought reform in the field of medical equipment. Originally the mechanical ventilator was an instrument only as for running by pressure and the tool that let you breathe. However, it has a function to assist a measurement (tidal volume, peek pressure, etc.) and to wean from a ventilator. There is a case to use a mechanical ventilator for after a chest surgical operation. After the operation without the complication, it seems that there is not the special administration. However, special respiratory management is necessary in case of chronic respiratory failure and acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore I introduce a method to use a respirator after an operation in our institution.

  17. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation after the successful weaning: a comparison with the venturi mask].

    PubMed

    Adıyeke, Esra; Ozgultekin, Asu; Turan, Guldem; Iskender, Altay; Canpolat, Gamze; Pektaş, Abdullah; Ekinci, Osman

    This study compared the rates of acute respiratory failure, reintubation, length of intensive care stay and mortality in patients in whom the non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was applied instead of the routine venturi face mask (VM) application after a successful weaning. Following the approval of the hospital ethics committee, 62 patients who were under mechanical ventilation for at least 48hours were scheduled for this study. 12 patients were excluded because of the weaning failure during T-tube trial. The patients who had optimum weaning criteria after the T-tube trial of 30minutes were extubated. The patients were kept on VM for 1hour to observe the hemodynamic and respiratory stability. The group of 50 patients who were successful to wean randomly allocated to have either VM (n=25), or NIV (n=25). Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), PaO2, PCO2, and pH values were recorded. The number of patients who developed respiratory failure in the NIV group was significantly less than VM group of patients (3 reintubation vs. 14 NIV+5 reintubation in the VM group). The length of stay in the ICU was also significantly shorter in NIV group (5.2±4.9 vs. 16.7±7.7 days). The ratio of the respiratory failure and the length of stay in the ICU were lower when non-invasive mechanical ventilation was used after extubation even if the patient is regarded as "successfully weaned". We recommend the use of NIMV in such patients to avoid unexpected ventilator failure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. The risk factors for late failure of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Çiledağ, Aydın; Kaya, Akın; Erçen Diken, Özlem; Önen, Zeynep Pınar; Şen, Elif; Demir, Nalan

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation provides early improvement in most of the patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. The aim of our study was to determine the risk factors for late failure of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Ninety three patients were prospectively evaluated. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation was accepted to be successful if the patient was discharged from the hospital without the need for intubation (group 1) and to be late failure if a deterioration occurred after an initial improvement of blood gases tension and general conditions (group 2). Non-invasive mechanical ventilation was successful in 62 (66.7%) patients. In 25 (26.9%) patients a late failure was observed. There was no difference between groups 1 and 2 in terms of pretreatment pH, PaCO2 and PaO2/FiO2. However, serum C-reactive protein level, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and frequency of bronchiectasis and pneumonia were significantly higher and serum albumin level, Glasgow Coma Score, cough strength and compliance to non-invasive mechanical ventilation were significantly lower in group 2. The pretreatment high APACHE II Score and C-reactive protein level, low Glasgow Coma Score, albumin level, cough strength, bad compliance to non-invasive mechanical ventilation, the presence of bronchiectasis and pneumonia and absence of significance improvement in PaO2/FiO2 after treatment were determined as risk factors for non-invasive mechanical ventilation late failure.

  19. Incidence and causes of non-invasive mechanical ventilation failure after initial success

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, M.; Cilione, C.; Tampieri, A.; Fracchia, C.; Marchioni, A.; Nava, S.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The rate of failure of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with acute respiratory insufficiency ranges from 5% to 40%. Most of the studies report an incidence of "late failure" (after >48 hours of NIMV) of about 10-20%. The recognition of this subset of patients is critical because prolonged application of NIMV may unduly delay the time of intubation.
METHODS—In this multicentre study the primary aims were to assess the rate of "late NIMV failure" and possible associated predictive factors; secondary aims of the study were evaluation of the best ventilatory strategy in this subset of patients and their outcomes in and out of hospital. The study was performed in two respiratory intensive care units (ICUs) on patients with COPD admitted with an episode of hypercapnic respiratory failure (mean (SD) pH 7.23(0.07), PaCO2 85.3 (15.8) mm Hg).
RESULTS—One hundred and thirty seven patients initially responded to NIMV in terms of objective (arterial blood gas tensions) and subjective improvement. After 8.4 (2.8) days of NIMV 31 patients (23%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 18 to 33) experienced a new episode of acute respiratory failure while still ventilated. The occurrence of "late NIMV failure" was significantly associated with functional limitations (ADL scale) before admission to the respiratory ICU, the presence of medical complications (particularly hyperglycaemia), and a lower pH on admission. Depending on their willingness or not to be intubated, the patients received invasive ventilation (n=19) or "more aggressive" (more hours/day) NIMV (n=12). Eleven (92%) of those in this latter subgroup died while in the respiratory ICU compared with 10 (53%) of the patients receiving invasive ventilation. The overall 90 day mortality was 21% and, after discharge from hospital, was similar in the "late NIMV failure" group and in patients who did not experience a second episode of acute

  20. Respiratory mechanics in COPD patients who failed non-invasive ventilation: role of intrinsic PEEP.

    PubMed

    Antonaglia, Vittorio; Ferluga, Massimo; Capitanio, Guido; Lucangelo, Umberto; Piller, Fulvia; Roman-Pognuz, Erik; Biancardi, Bruno; Caggegi, Giuseppe Davide; Zin, Walter A

    2012-10-15

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is the first choice to treat exacerbations in COPD patients. NPPV can fail owing to different causes related to gas exchange impairment (RF group) or intolerance (INT group). To assess if the respiratory mechanical properties and the ratio between the dynamic and static intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP(i),dyn/PEEP(i),stat), reflecting lung mechanical inequalities, were different between groups, 29 COPD patients who failed NPPV (15 RF and 14 INT) were studied, early after the application of invasive ventilation. Blood gas analysis, clinical status, and mechanical properties were measured. pH was higher in INT patients before intubation (p<0.001). PEEP(i),dyn/PEEP(i),stat was found higher in INT group with (p=0.021) and without PEEP (ZEEP, p<0.01). PEEP(i),dyn/PEEP(i),stat was exponentially associated with the duration of NPPV in INT group (p=0.011). INT and RF patients had similar impairment of respiratory system resistance and elastance.

  1. Pathophysiological Basis of Acute Respiratory Failure on Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Romero-Dapueto, C; Budini, H; Cerpa, F; Caceres, D; Hidalgo, V; Gutiérrez, T; Keymer, J; Pérez, R; Molina, J; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was created for patients who needed noninvasive ventilator support, this procedure decreases the complications associated with the use of endotracheal intubation (ETT). The application of NIMV has acquired major relevance in the last few years in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF), in patients with hypoxemic and hypercapnic failure. The main advantage of NIMV as compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is that it can be used earlier outside intensive care units (ICUs). The evidence strongly supports its use in patients with COPD exacerbation, support in weaning process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), and Immunosuppressed patients. On the other hand, there is poor evidence that supports the use of NIMV in other pathologies such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and during procedures as bronchoscopy, where its use is still controversial because the results of these studies are inconclusive against the decrease in the rate of intubation or mortality.

  2. Pathophysiological Basis of Acute Respiratory Failure on Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Dapueto, C; Budini, H; Cerpa, F; Caceres, D; Hidalgo, V; Gutiérrez, T; Keymer, J; Pérez, R; Molina, J; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was created for patients who needed noninvasive ventilator support, this procedure decreases the complications associated with the use of endotracheal intubation (ETT). The application of NIMV has acquired major relevance in the last few years in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF), in patients with hypoxemic and hypercapnic failure. The main advantage of NIMV as compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is that it can be used earlier outside intensive care units (ICUs). The evidence strongly supports its use in patients with COPD exacerbation, support in weaning process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), and Immunosuppressed patients. On the other hand, there is poor evidence that supports the use of NIMV in other pathologies such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and during procedures as bronchoscopy, where its use is still controversial because the results of these studies are inconclusive against the decrease in the rate of intubation or mortality. PMID:26312101

  3. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Invasive home mechanical ventilation: living conditions and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Huttmann, Sophie Emilia; Windisch, Wolfram; Storre, Jan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients with invasive home mechanical ventilation (HMV) following unsuccessful weaning is steadily increasing, but little is known about the living conditions and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in these patients. To establish detailed information on living conditions and HRQL in patients with invasive HMV. The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire (SRI) was used to measure specific HRQL aspects in addition to patient interviews on individual living conditions during home visits. Thirty-two patients with lung disease, most prominently COPD (n = 18), and neuromuscular disorders (n = 14) were included. The overall mean SRI summary scale score (range 0-100) was 53 ± 16, with a broad range amongst individuals (23-86). Neuromuscular patients were younger than those with lung diseases (49 ± 18 vs. 67 ± 11 years; p < 0.005), and although they had a higher nursing dependency and fewer comorbidities, they tended to have higher (better) SRI summary scale scores (58 ± 16 vs. 48 ± 15; p = 0.092). Living in a private home compared to living in nursing facilities did not influence the SRI scores. Patients undergoing invasive HMV primarily following unsuccessful weaning reported an individual HRQL which, when taken together, was highly heterogeneous and ranged from very good to extremely bad. Older patients with COPD and more comorbidities are likely to have a worse HRQL than neuromuscular patients, while the living situation does not influence the HRQL. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. [Amyotrophic neuralgia associated with bilateral phrenic paralysis treated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    García García, María Del Carmen; Hernández Borge, Jacinto; Antona Rodríguez, María José; Pires Gonçalves, Pedro; García García, Gema

    2015-09-07

    Amyotrophic neuralgia is an uncommon neuropathy characterized by severe unilateral shoulder pain. Isolated or concomitant involvement of other peripheral motor nerves depending on the brachial plexus such as phrenic or laryngeal nerves is unusual(1). Its etiology is unknown, yet several explanatory factors have been proposed. Phrenic nerve involvement, either unilateral or bilateral, is exceedingly rare. Diagnosis relies on anamnesis, functional and imaging investigations and electromyogram. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a past history of renal transplantation due to proliferative glomerulonephritis with subsequent transplant rejection, who was eventually diagnosed with amyotrophic neuralgia with bilateral phrenic involvement, and who required sustained non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Patients' experience during weaning of invasive mechanical ventilation: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Merchán-Tahvanainen, M E; Romero-Belmonte, C; Cundín-Laguna, M; Basterra-Brun, P; San Miguel-Aguirre, A; Regaira-Martínez, E

    Weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is influenced by physiological and psychological factors, the latter being the least studied. The aim was to identify, through the literature, patients' experiences during weaning from IMV and report its influencing factors. The literature search was conducted using the Pubmed, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases. The search terms were: "patient", "experience" and "ventilator weaning". The research limits were: age (>19years) and language (English, Spanish and Finnish). Fifteen publications were analysed. The main results were grouped into three main categories according to patient's perceptions, feelings and experiences, influence of professionals' attention and determinants for successful weaning. Patients remember IMV weaning as a stressful process where they experience anxiety, frustration, despair or uncertainty. Nurses have a key role in improving communication with patients and foreseeing their needs. Family support and the care provided by the caregivers were shown as essential during the process. The patient's self-determination, self-motivation and confidence are identified as important factors to achieve successful IMV weaning. Psychological care, in addition to physical and technical care, is important at providing holistic care. Interventional studies are needed to improve the care during the weaning experience. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO2 rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure. PMID:23680299

  9. [Modalities of mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Subirana, M; Bazan, P

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation improves the symptoms and reduces complications of acute respiratory failure. Recent advances in microprocessor technology have increased the sophistication of mechanical ventilators, thus leading to new ventilation modalities. This article describes the ventilation modalities available, grouping them as conventional, alternative and new modalities. Conventional ventilation includes the most widely used modalities, alternative ventilation includes less frequently used modalities, and new ventilation modalities include recently introduced options that are available on the latest-generation mechanical ventilators.

  10. Mechanical Ventilation

    MedlinePlus

    ... cared for in a hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU). People who need a ventilator for a longer time may be in a regular unit of a hospital, a rehabilitation facility, or cared for at home. Why are ...

  11. [Reflections on the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele

    2012-12-01

    Given its prevalence into the clinical practice, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can be included among the cornerstones of medicine. Just think of the acute applications of NIV which are in constant expansion, from COPD exacerbation to severe de novo hypoxemia, from postoperative distress to extra-hospital use in acute pulmonary edema, from ongoing support of interventional procedures to delicate strategies for end of life in terminally ill oncologic and non-oncologic patients. The thought should be focused on how, by whom, where and to whom is delivered this mode of artificial ventilation to avoid the risk of trivialization and flattening.

  12. Flexible bronchoscopy during non-invasive positive pressure mechanical ventilation: are two better than one?

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele

    2016-09-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy (FBO) and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) are largely applied in respiratory and general intensive care units. FBO plays a crucial role for the diagnosis of lung infiltrates of unknown origin and for the treatment of airways obstruction due to bronchial mucous plugging and hemoptysis in critical patients. NIPPV is the first-choice ventilatory strategy for acute respiratory failure (ARF) of different causes as it could be used as prevention or as alternative to the conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) via endotracheal intubation (ETI). Some clinical scenarios represent contraindications for these techniques such as severe ARF in spontaneous breathing patients for FBO and accumulated tracheo-bronchial secretions in patients with depressed cough for NIPPV. In these contexts, the decision of performing ETI should carefully consider the risk of CMV-correlated complications. An increasing amount of published data suggested the use of FBO during NIPPV in ARF in order to avoid/reduce the need of ETI. Despite a strong rationale for the combined use of the two techniques, there is not still enough evidence for a large-scale application of this strategy in all different clinical scenarios. The majority of the available data are in favor of the "help" given by NIPPV to diagnostic FBO in high-risk spontaneously breathing patients with severe hypoxemia. Preliminary findings report the successful "help" given by early FBO to NIPPV in patients with hypoxemic-hypercapnic ARF who are likely to fail because of hypersecretion. Synergy of FBO and NIPPV application is emerging also to perform ETI in challenging situations, such as predicted difficult laringoscopy and NPPV failure in severely hypoxemic patients. This combined approach should be performed only in centers showing a wide experience with both NIPPV and FBO, where close monitoring and ETI facilities are promptly available.

  13. [Evaluation of pain during posture change in patients with invasive mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Calatayud, M; Pardavila Belio, M I; Lucia Maldonado, M; Aguado Lizaldre, Y; Margall Coscojuela, M A; Coscojuela, M A; Asiain Erro, M C

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of pain poses special difficulties in critical patients who have altered verbal communication. Compare the behaviour responses to pain, measured with the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) scale and the physiological responses before, during and after the posture change procedure in patients with invasive mechanical ventilation. Analyze if there are any differences in the COPT score between medical and surgical patients and between the conscious and unconscious patients in the posture change procedure. Describe the analgesia/sedation administered to the patients 1 hour before and during the posture change procedure. This descriptive, prospective study evaluated pain during turning/postural changes in 201 observations performed in 56 patients. Data collection was made 1 minute before, during, and 10 minutes after the procedure using the COPT scale that includes four indicators: facial expression, body movements, muscle tension and adaptation to the ventilator. In the same way, the physiological variables were recorded: mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial oxygen saturation. Total mean score of the CPOT scale before the procedure of turning was 0.30, during it 2.06 and after the procedure 0.15 with statistically significant differences. Facial expression was the indicator that increased the greatest in relationship with the baseline condition, since it occurred in 55% of the observations body movements increased in more than 40%; adaptation to the ventilator, occurred in 33% and muscular tension had an increase of 22% of the observations. There were also slight variations in the physiological variables during the postural change regarding baseline with statistically significant differences. Total mean score of the CPOT scale during turning of the surgical patients was higher than medical patients (p = 0.018). Patients received analgesia/sedation one hour prior to the procedure in 99.5% of the observation and

  14. Preventing facial pressure ulcers in patients under non-invasive mechanical ventilation: a randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Otero, D Peña; Domínguez, D Vazquez; Fernández, L Hernanz; Magariño, A Santano; González, V Jimenez; Klepzing, J V García; Montesinos, J V Beneit

    2017-03-02

    To comparatively assess the efficacy of four different therapeutic strategies to prevent the development of facial pressure ulcers (FPUs) related to the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) with oro-nasal masks in critically ill hospitalised patients. This randomised control trial was performed at the high dependency unit in the University General Hospital Gregorio Marañón in Madrid, Spain. Overall, 152 patients with acute respiratory failure were recruited. All patients were hospitalised and received NIV through oro-nasal masks. The Norton tool was used to evaluate the general risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). Subjects were divided into four groups, each of them receiving a different treatment. Tissue assessment and preventive care were performed by a member of the research team. The incidence of FPUs was significantly lower in the group receiving a solution of hyperoxygenated fatty acids (HOFA) when compared with each of the other therapeutic strategies: direct mask (p=0.055), adhesive thin dressing (p=0.03) and adhesive foam dressing (p<0.001). The application of HOFA on the facial skin in contact with the oro-nasal masks showed the highest efficacy in the prevention of NIV-related FPUs.

  15. Home Mechanical Ventilation in Children.

    PubMed

    Preutthipan, Aroonwan

    2015-09-01

    The number of children dependent on home mechanical ventilation has been reported to be increasing in many countries around the world. Home mechanical ventilation has been well accepted as a standard treatment of children with chronic respiratory failure. Some children may need mechanical ventilation as a lifelong therapy. To send mechanically ventilated children back home may be more difficult than adults. However, relatively better outcomes have been demonstrated in children. Children could be safely ventilated at home if they are selected and managed properly. Conditions requiring home ventilation include increased respiratory load from airway or lung pathologies, ventilatory muscle weakness and failure of neurologic control of ventilation. Home mechanical ventilation should be considered when the patient develops progressive respiratory failure or intractable failure to wean mechanical ventilation. Polysomnography or overnight pulse oximetry plus capnometry are used to detect nocturnal hypoventilation in early stage of respiratory failure. Ventilator strategy including non-invasive and invasive approach should be individualized for each patient. The author strongly believes that parents and family members are able to take care of their child at home if they are trained and educated effectively. A good team work with dedicated members is the key factor of success.

  16. Non-invasive assessment of cardiac output during mechanical ventilation - a novel approach using an inert gas rebreathing method.

    PubMed

    Nickl, Werner; Bugaj, Till; Mondritzki, Thomas; Kuhlebrock, Kathrin; Dinh, Winfried; Krahn, Thomas; Sohler, Florian; Truebel, Hubert

    2011-06-01

    Measurement of cardiac output (CO) is of importance in the diagnostic of critically ill patients. The invasive approach of thermodilution (TD) via pulmonary artery catheter is clinically widely used. A new non-invasive technique of inert gas rebreathing (IGR) shows a good correlation with TD measurements in spontaneously breathing individuals. For the first time, we investigated whether IGR can also be applied to sedated and mechanically ventilated subjects with a clinical point of care device. CO data from IGR were compared with TD in six healthy mongrel dogs. Data sampling was repeated under baseline conditions (rest) and under stress challenge by applying 10 μg/kg/min of dobutamine intravenously. Switching from mechanical ventilation to IGR, as well as the rebreathing procedures, were carried out manually. Cardiac output data from IGR and TD correlated with a coefficient of r=0.90 (95% confidence interval [0.81; 0.95]). The Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of 0.46 l/min for the IGR CO measurements. Ninety-five percent of all differences fall in the interval [-1.03; 1.95], being the limit of the ± 1.96 standard deviation lines. IGR is a new approach for non-invasive cardiac output measurement in mechanically ventilated individuals, but requires further investigation for clinical use.

  17. Epidemiological trends in invasive mechanical ventilation in the United States: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Anuj B; Syeda, Sohera N; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Walkey, Allan J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological trends for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) have not been clearly defined. We sought to define trends for IMV in the United States and assess for disease-specific variation for 3 common causes of respiratory failure: pneumonia, heart failure (HF), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We calculated national estimates for utilization of nonsurgical IMV cases from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1993 to 2009 and compared trends for COPD, HF, and pneumonia. We identified 8309344 cases of IMV from 1993 to 2009. Utilization of IMV for nonsurgical indications increased from 178.9 per 100000 in 1993 to 310.9 per 100000 US adults in 2009. Pneumonia cases requiring IMV showed the largest increase (103.6%), whereas COPD cases remained relatively stable (2.5% increase) and HF cases decreased by 55.4%. Similar demographic and clinical changes were observed for pneumonia, COPD, and HF, with cases of IMV becoming younger, more ethnically diverse, and more frequently insured by Medicaid. Outcome trends for patients differed based on diagnosis. Adjusted hospital mortality decreased over time for cases of pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] per 5 years, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.90) and COPD (OR per 5 years, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.97-0.98) but increased for HF (OR per 5 years, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.09-1.12). Utilization of IMV in the US increased from 1993 to 2009 with a decrease in overall mortality. However, trends in utilization and outcomes of IMV differed markedly based on diagnosis. Unlike favorable outcome trends in pneumonia and COPD, hospital mortality for HF has not improved. Further studies to investigate the outcome gap between HF and other causes of respiratory failure are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention and treatment of skin lesions associated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Recommendations of experts.

    PubMed

    Raurell-Torredà, M; Romero-Collado, A; Rodríguez-Palma, M; Farrés-Tarafa, M; Martí, J D; Hurtado-Pardos, B; Peñarrubia-San Florencio, L; Saez-Paredes, P; Esquinas, A M

    In the last two decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has been consolidated as an initial strategy for the management of respiratory failure in critical adult and paediatric patients. To identify risk factors and preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of skin lesions associated with clinical devices (LESADIC) related to NIV, as well as the most effective treatment for injuries that cannot be avoided. Review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases of studies published in the last 10years to reach consensus through an expert panel. Knowledge about how to measure correct mask size and protection of the skin with foam or hydrocolloids dressings are factors related to the incidence of LESADIC, as it conditions the degree of pressure-friction and shear that the interface exerts on the skin. The interface that causes fewer LESADIC and is better tolerated is the face mask. When there are injuries, the first thing is to remove the interface that causes pressure on damaged skin, recommending a Helmet(®) hood as an alternative, treating the infection, managing the exudate and stimulating perilesional skin. The mask of choice is the facial, always using foam or hydrocolloid dressings on the nasal bridge. Evaluate the condition of the skin under the interface and harness every 4hours (recommended) and 11hours (maximum). Evaluate the rotation strategy of the interface at 24hours if the NIV is still needed on an ongoing basis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Associated factors with non-invasive mechanical ventilation failure in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Akın; Ciledağ, Aydın; Caylı, Ipek; Onen, Zeynep Pınar; Sen, Elif; Gülbay, Banu

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to determine associated factors with non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) failure in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure ninety live patients treated with NIMV for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure were evaluated. While success of NIMV was defined as absence of need of intubation with the patient's discharge from hospital, failure of NIMV was defined as death or need of intubation. The pretreatment pH level was 7.30 in success and 7.28 in failure group (p> 0.05), PaCO(2) was 71.45 mmHg in success and 72.17 mmHg in failure group (p> 0.05). After 1h of NIMV, pH was 7.33 in success and 7.26 in failure group (p= 0.01), PaCO(2) was 65.50 mmHg in success and 73.47 mmHg in failure group (p= 0.02). After 1h of treatment, in success group there was significant increase of pH and decrease of PaCO(2) in contrast to baseline levels, while there was no significant change in failure group. The pretreatment Acute Physiology Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, serum C-reactive protein level and frequency of associated complication on admission were significantly higher and Glasgow Coma Score was lower in failure group. In conclusion, high APACHE II and C-reactive protein level, low Glasgow Coma Score, associated complication on admission and inadequate response in pH and PaCO(2) after first hour of NIMV are associated factors with NIMV failure.

  20. Non-invasive ventilation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Fidelma; Bradley, Judy M; Piper, Amanda J

    2017-02-20

    Non-invasive ventilation may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis by providing ventilatory support and avoiding tracheal intubation. Using non-invasive ventilation, in the appropriate situation or individuals, can improve lung mechanics through increasing airflow and gas exchange and decreasing the work of breathing. Non-invasive ventilation thus acts as an external respiratory muscle. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the effect of non-invasive ventilation versus no non-invasive ventilation in people with cystic fibrosis for airway clearance, during sleep and during exercise. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We searched the reference lists of each trial for additional publications possibly containing other trials.Most recent search: 08 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing a form of pressure preset or volume preset non-invasive ventilation to no non-invasive ventilation used for airway clearance or during sleep or exercise in people with acute or chronic respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis. Three reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion criteria and methodological quality, and extracted data. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 191 participants. Seven trials evaluated single treatment sessions, one evaluated a two-week intervention, one evaluated a six-week intervention and one a three-month intervention. It is only possible to blind trials of airway clearance and overnight ventilatory support to the outcome assessors. In most of the trials we judged there was an unclear risk of bias with regards to blinding due to inadequate descriptions. The six-week trial was the only one judged to have a low risk of bias for all

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea and acute respiratory failure: An analysis of mortality risk in patients with pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Jean, Raymonde E; Gibson, Charlisa D; Jean, Raymond A; Ochieng, Pius

    2015-08-01

    Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common and pneumonia is a frequent cause of acute respiratory failure requiring admission to the intensive care unit, little is known about the effect of OSA on this patient population. This study examined outcomes associated with OSA in patients with pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was investigated for discharges with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation between 2009 and 2011. Persons aged 18 to 75 years with OSA were compared with patients without OSA. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and nonroutine discharges. Among 74032 hospitalizations, 13.8% (10227) were obese, and 10.3% (7610) had OSA. Obstructive sleep apnea patients had decreased in-hospital mortality (17.0% vs 25.8%; P < .01) and nonroutine discharge (74.4% vs 79.4%; P < .01) when compared with non-OSA patients. In adjusted logistic models, OSA was associated with a 27% decreased risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.79; P < .01) and a 21% decreased risk of nonroutine discharge (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.84; P < .01). In mechanically ventilated patients with pneumonia, OSA was associated decreased in-hospital mortality and nonroutine discharge. It is possible that differences in treatment pattern may partially explain improved survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Variable mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini Jr., Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Methods Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". Results A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Conclusion Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. PMID:28444076

  3. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  4. Protocolized versus non-protocolized weaning for reducing the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Wielenga, Joke M; van den Hoogen, Agnes; van Zanten, Henriette A; Helder, Onno; Bol, Bas; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2016-03-21

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for critically ill newborn infants with respiratory failure admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Ventilating newborn infants can be challenging due to small tidal volumes, high breathing frequencies, and the use of uncuffed endotracheal tubes. Mechanical ventilation has several short-term, as well as long-term complications. To prevent complications, weaning from the ventilator is started as soon as possible. Weaning aims to support the transfer from full mechanical ventilation support to spontaneous breathing activity. To assess the efficacy of protocolized versus non-protocolized ventilator weaning for newborn infants in reducing the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, the duration of weaning, and shortening the NICU and hospital length of stay. To determine efficacy in predefined subgroups including: gestational age and birth weight; type of protocol; and type of protocol delivery. To establish whether protocolized weaning is safe and clinically effective in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation without increasing the risk of adverse events. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library; 2015, Issue 7); MEDLINE In-Process and other Non-Indexed Citations and OVID MEDLINE (1950 to 31 July 2015); CINAHL (1982 to 31 July 2015); EMBASE (1988 to 31 July 2015); and Web of Science (1990 to 15 July 2015). We did not restrict language of publication. We contacted authors of studies with a subgroup of newborn infants in their study, and experts in the field regarding this subject. In addition, we searched abstracts from conference proceedings, theses, dissertations, and reference lists of all identified studies for further relevant studies. Randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials that compared protocolized with non-protocolized ventilator weaning practices in newborn infants with a gestational age of 24 weeks or

  5. A comparison of invasive versus noninvasive full-time mechanical ventilation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Soudon, P; Steens, M; Toussaint, M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare morbidity and causes of death in a series of 42 Duchenne patients receiving full-time mechanical ventilation either by tracheostomy (TR, n = 16 or by noninvasive methods (noninvasive ventilation [NIV], n = 26). At inclusion for a 5-year observation period (2002-2006), TR and NIV patients were 32.7 and 27 years old, respectively. A program of follow-up with similar ventilation devices, techniques of respiratory physiotherapy, and drugs was applied to all the patients [TR + NIV]. Ages and respiratory characteristics at death and causes of death were comparable between groups. Morbidity was worse in TR compared with NIV patients; mucus hypersecretion and tracheal injuries were more frequent, whereas loss of weight and need for gastric feeding appeared less frequent in the TR group. Because noninvasive techniques avoid the severe complications associated with TR with comparable mortality, the authors support the use of noninvasive interfaces as default choice when assisted ventilation is required for daytime use.

  6. Non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, D.

    1996-01-01

    Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation is an effective treatment for nocturnal hypoventilation secondary to chest wall deformity or respiratory muscle weakness. Physicians should be aware that, in these groups of patients, disabling breathlessness can be alleviated and established cor pulmonale reversed by the technique. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8949588

  7. Protocolized versus non-protocolized weaning for reducing the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Bronagh; Murray, Maeve; Chisakuta, Anthony; Cardwell, Chris R; O'Halloran, Peter

    2013-07-31

    Mechanical ventilation is a critical component of paediatric intensive care therapy. It is indicated when the patient's spontaneous ventilation is inadequate to sustain life. Weaning is the gradual reduction of ventilatory support and the transfer of respiratory control back to the patient. Weaning may represent a large proportion of the ventilatory period. Prolonged ventilation is associated with significant morbidity, hospital cost, psychosocial and physical risks to the child and even death. Timely and effective weaning may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and may reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with prolonged ventilation. However, no consensus has been reached on criteria that can be used to identify when patients are ready to wean or the best way to achieve it. To assess the effects of weaning by protocol on invasively ventilated critically ill children. To compare the total duration of invasive mechanical ventilation of critically ill children who are weaned using protocols versus those weaned through usual (non-protocolized) practice. To ascertain any differences between protocolized weaning and usual care in terms of mortality, adverse events, intensive care unit length of stay and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to October 2012), EMBASE (1988 to October 2012), CINAHL (1982 to October 2012), ISI Web of Science and LILACS. We identified unpublished data in the Web of Science (1990 to October 2012), ISI Conference Proceedings (1990 to October 2012) and Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (earliest to October 2012). We contacted first authors of studies included in the review to obtain further information on unpublished studies or work in progress. We searched reference lists of all identified studies and review papers for further relevant studies. We applied no language or publication restrictions. We included randomized

  8. Development and evaluation of an appraisal form to assess clinical effectiveness of adult invasive mechanical ventilation systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid developments in intensive care medicine have made mechanical ventilation an essential method in the resuscitation and comprehensive treatment of critical care patients. This study aimed to develop and evaluate an appraisal form assessing the clinical effectiveness of adult invasive mechanical ventilation systems. Methods An appraisal form was designed according to the effectiveness evaluation theory of the American Weapons Systems Effectiveness Industry Advisory Committee (WSEIAC) along with literature review and expert panel review. Content validity of the preliminary form was analyzed in a cohort of 200 patients. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess appraisal form validity. Discriminate validity of different ventilation outcomes was analyzed by t test. Test/retest reliability and inter-scorer reliability were evaluated with 30 patients after a 2-week interval by Cronbach's alpha. Results Exploratory factor analysis showed eigenvalues for 3 dimensions (availability, dependability, capability) to be 7.85, 4.43, and 4.22, respectively. Cronbach’s α for internal consistency of the appraisal form was 0.957, and 0.922, 0.961 and 0.937, respectively, for the 3 dimensions. Test-retest reliability of 3 dimensions was 0.976, and 0.862, 0.857, 0.885, respectively. Intra-class correlation coefficient verified test-retest reliability; ICC 0.976 and 0.862, 0.857, 0.885 for 3 dimensions, respectively. Conclusions The appraisal form for clinical effectiveness of adult invasive mechanical ventilation systems has high reliability and validity and may be used in clinical setting. PMID:22747895

  9. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  10. Lights and shadows of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Jara-Palomares, Luis; Muñoz, Xavier; Bustamante, Víctor; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence justifying the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for providing ventilatory support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, recent studies demonstrated that its application in real-life settings remains suboptimal. European clinical audits have shown that 1) NIV is not invariably available, 2) its availability depends on countries and hospital sizes, and 3) numerous centers declare their inability to provide NIV to all of the eligible patients presenting throughout the year. Even with an established indication, the use of NIV in acute respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbations faces important challenges. First, the location and personnel using NIV should be carefully selected. Second, the use of NIV is not straightforward despite the availability of technologically advanced ventilators. Third, NIV therapy of critically ill patients requires a thorough knowledge of both respiratory physiology and existing ventilatory devices. Accordingly, an optimal team-training experience, the careful selection of patients, and special attention to the selection of devices are critical for optimizing NIV outcomes. Additionally, when applied, NIV should be closely monitored, and endotracheal intubation should be promptly available in the case of failure. Another topic that merits careful consideration is the use of NIV in the elderly. This patient population is particularly fragile, with several physiological and social characteristics requiring specific attention in relation to NIV. Several other novel indications should also be critically examined, including the use of NIV during fiberoptic bronchoscopy or transesophageal echocardiography, as well as in interventional cardiology and pulmonology. The present narrative review aims to provide updated information on the use of NIV in acute settings to improve the clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations.

  11. Pulmonary mechanics during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Henderson, William R; Sheel, A William

    2012-03-15

    The use of mechanical ventilation has become widespread in the management of hypoxic respiratory failure. Investigations of pulmonary mechanics in this clinical scenario have demonstrated that there are significant differences in compliance, resistance and gas flow when compared with normal subjects. This paper will review the mechanisms by which pulmonary mechanics are assessed in mechanically ventilated patients and will review how the data can be used for investigative research purposes as well as to inform rational ventilator management.

  12. [Evolution in muscle strength in critical patients with invasive mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Via Clavero, G; Sanjuán Naváis, M; Menéndez Albuixech, M; Corral Ansa, L; Martínez Estalella, G; Díaz-Prieto-Huidobro, A

    2013-01-01

    To assess the evolution of muscle strength in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) from withdrawal of sedatives to hospital discharge. A cohort study was conducted in two intensive care units in the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge from November 2011 to March 2012. Consecutive patients with MV > 72h. Dependent outcome: Muscle strength measured with the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale beginning on the first day the patient was able to answer 3 out of 5 simple orders (day 1), every week, at ICU discharge and at hospital discharge or at day 60 Independent outcomes: factors associated with muscle strength loss, ventilator-free days, ICU length of stay and hospital length of stay. The patients were distributed into two groups (MRC< 48, MRC ≥ 48) after the first measurement. Thirty-four patients were assessed. Independent outcomes associated with muscle strength weakness were: days with cardiovascular SOFA >2 (P<.001) and days with costicosteroids (P<.001). Initial MRC in MRC<48 group was 38 (27-43), and 52 (50-54) in MRC ≥ 48. The largest muscle strength gain was obtained the first week (31% versus 52%). A MRC < 48 value was associated with more MV days (P<.007) and a longer ICU stay. (P<.003). The greatest muscle strength gain after withdrawing of the sedatives was achieved in the first week. Muscle strength loss was associated with a cardiovascular SOFA > 2 and costicosteroids. Patients with a MRC < 48 required more days with MV and a longer ICU stay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical ventilation in children.

    PubMed

    Kendirli, Tanil; Kavaz, Asli; Yalaki, Zahide; Oztürk Hişmi, Burcu; Derelli, Emel; Ince, Erdal

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation can be lifesaving, but > 50% of complications in conditions that require intensive care are related to ventilatory support, particularly if it is prolonged. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients who had mechanical ventilation in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) during a follow-up period between January 2002-May 2005. Medical records of 407 patients were reviewed. Ninety-one patients (22.3%) were treated with mechanical ventilation. Ages of all patients were between 1-180 (median: 8) months. The mechanical ventilation time was 18.8 +/- 14.1 days. Indication of mechanical ventilation could be divided into four groups as respiratory failure (64.8%), cardiovascular failure (19.7%), central nervous system disease (9.8%) and safety airway (5.4%). Tracheostomy was performed in four patients. The complication ratio of mechanically ventilated children was 42.8%, and diversity of complications was as follows: 26.3% atelectasia, 17.5% ventilator-associated pneumonia, 13.1% pneumothorax, 5.4% bleeding, 4.3% tracheal edema, and 2.1% chronic lung disease. The mortality rate of mechanically ventilated patients was 58.3%, but the overall mortality rate in the PICU was 12.2%. In conclusion, there are few published epidemiological data on the follow-up results and mortality in infants and children who are mechanically ventilated.

  14. [Tension pneumocephalus secondary to non-invasive mechanical ventilation in a patient with severe traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Andreu-Ruiz, Antonio; Ros-Argente Del Castillo, Tomas; Moya-Sánchez, José; Garcia-Ortega, Ana Azahara

    2017-09-28

    The presence of air inside intracranial cavity is a rare entity known as pneumocephalus and in most cases doesńt present any clinical repercussion except in case of elevated intracranial pressure that can lead to a decreasing level of consciousness, coma and even death. We present a rare case of a young male, without medical precedents of interest, hospitalized in an intensive care unit for vigilance after a traffic accident with asymptomatic crane encephalic trauma and cranial computerized tomography without meaningful findings. During the intensive care unit stay positive pressure is applied in airway with non-invasive mechanical ventilation that produces air entrance in cranial cavity (pneumocephalus) causing neurological deterioration and necessity of urgent surgery. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Intraoperative mechanical ventilation for the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Kneyber, Martin C J

    2015-09-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation is required when children undergo general anesthesia for any procedure. It is remarkable that one of the most practiced interventions such as pediatric mechanical ventilation is hardly supported by any scientific evidence but rather based on personal experience and data from adults, especially as ventilation itself is increasingly recognized as a harmful intervention that causes ventilator-induced lung injury. The use of low tidal volume and higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure became an integral part of lung-protective ventilation following the outcomes of clinical trials in critically ill adults. This approach has been readily adopted in pediatric ventilation. However, a clear association between tidal volume and mortality has not been ascertained in pediatrics. In fact, experimental studies have suggested that young children might be less susceptible to ventilator-induced lung injury. As such, no recommendations on optimal lung-protective ventilation strategy in children with or without lung injury can be made.

  16. [Combination of chest physiotherapy and intermittent non-invasive mechanical ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yunzhong; Peng, Hong; Chen, Ping; Xiang, Xudong

    2009-07-01

    To determine the effect of combination of chest physiotherapy (CPT) and intermittent non-invasive ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with respiratory failure. Ninety COPD patients with intermittent bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group (n=45) received BiPAP treatment after conventional anti-infection, phlegm treatment and support treatment; CPT group (n=45) received CPT before BiPAP treatment. Clinical symptoms, chest signs,chest X-ray,time of BiPAP therapy, PaO2, and PaCO ) after the treatment were evaluated. Compared with with the control group, patients in the CPT group significantly improved in clinical symptoms, chest signs, chest X-ray absorption as well as shorter BiPAP therapy time, PaO2 increase and PaCO2 decrease(P<0.05).Conclusion For COPD patients who need intermittent non-invasive BiPAP ventilation, receiving CPT can effectively improve the therapeutic effect.CPT and intermittent non invasive BiPAP ventilation cooperate in the treatment of COPD patients with respiratory failure.

  17. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas. PMID:20927268

  18. Predictive value of daily living score in acute respiratory failure of COPD patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mechanical ventilation (MV) is imperative in many forms of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in COPD patients. Previous studies have shown the difficulty to identify parameters predicting the outcome of COPD patients treated by invasive MV. Our hypothesis was that a non specialized score as the activities daily living (ADL) score may help to predict the outcome of these patients. Methods We studied the outcome of 25 COPD patients admitted to the intensive care unit for ARF requiring invasive MV. The patients were divided into those weaning success (group A n = 17, 68%) or failure (group B n = 8, 32%). We investigated the correlation between the ADL score and the outcome and mortality. Results The ADL score was higher in group A (5.1 ±1.1 vs 3.7 ± 0.7 in group B, p < 0.01). Weaning was achieved in 76.5% of the cases with an ADL score ≥ 4 and in 23.5% of the cases with an ADL score < 4 (p < 0.05). Pulmonary function test, arterial blood gases collected during period of clinical stability and at admission and nutritional status were similar in both groups. The mortality, at six months, was 36%. The ADL score was a significant predictor of 6-month mortality (80 with an ADL score <4, 20 with an ADL score ≥4, p < 0.01). Conclusion Our pilot study demonstrates that the ADL score is predictive of weaning success and mortality at 6 months, suggesting that the assessment of daily activities should be an important component of ARF management in COPD patients. PMID:23078114

  19. Physician practices for communicating with patients with cystic fibrosis about the use of noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dellon, Elisabeth P; Sawicki, Gregory S; Shores, Mitchell D; Wolfe, Joanne; Hanson, Laura C

    2012-04-01

    Many patients with advanced cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease receive intensive treatments such as noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure after little or no communication with physicians. Using surveys and follow-up interviews, physicians at two major CF care centers reported their practices for discussing intensive treatment preferences with patients with CF and about barriers and facilitators to communication. Surveys were completed by 30 (88%) and 26 (76%) of 34 eligible CF physicians who provide care for children (60%), adults (23%), or both (17%). Respondents described variable timing and content of discussions. They identified patient/family factors such as denial of disease severity, optimistic expectations of treatment outcomes, inability of ill patients to participate in discussions, and family disagreements about treatments as primary barriers to discussions. They also acknowledged physician factors, including concern for taking away hope and uncertainty about when to address treatment preferences. Patient/family factors were also the most common facilitators identified, particularly disease severity and inquiry about intensive treatments. They recommended: (1) developing standards for communication, (2) offering training in communication for physicians, (3) creating decision support tools for patients and families, and (4) using the multidisciplinary CF care team to facilitate communication. CF physicians describe numerous patient/family factors barriers to communicating about intensive treatments for respiratory failure. They recommend changing physician and organizational factors to improve practice and promote effective communication. Innovation in clinical training, team roles, and decision support may prompt changes in practice standards.

  20. Outcome of goal-directed non-invasive ventilation and mechanical insufflation/exsufflation in spinal muscular atrophy type I.

    PubMed

    Chatwin, M; Bush, A; Simonds, A K

    2011-05-01

    There are widely discrepant views on the respiratory management of infants with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type I. Typically, management is palliative. A descriptive study of interventions and investigations is reported that were offered to a cohort of 13 children with SMA type I referred to our centre. Interventions and investigations included sleep studies, provision of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for ventilatory support/dependency and for physiotherapy and the use of mechanical insufflation/exsufflation (MI-E). NIPPV was provided for the following indications: continuous positive airways pressure flow driver dependency (n=3), nocturnal hypoventilation (n=3), to enable successful extubation (n=2), in anticipation of respiratory decompensation (n=3), and oxygen dependency/decompensation (n=2). NIPPV and MI-E were used for successful protocol-led extubations (n=9) but not non protocol-led successes (n=3). NIPPV was essential for discharge home in patients with ventilatory dependency (n=7) and was used for palliation of respiratory symptoms (n=4). Chest wall shape improved with NIPPV. The parents of children who died (n=5) were positive about the use of these techniques. NIPPV can be used to facilitate discharge home, and MI-E is helpful in this group. This symptom and goal-directed approach can be used to inform medical decision making and to help parents make informed choices about the appropriateness of respiratory interventions in SMA type I.

  1. Mechanisms of improvement of respiratory failure in patients with restrictive thoracic disease treated with non-invasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Nickol, A; Hart, N; Hopkinson, N; Moxham, J; Simonds, A; Polkey, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an effective treatment for hypercapnic respiratory failure in patients with restrictive thoracic disease. We hypothesised that NIV may reverse respiratory failure by increasing the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide, reducing inspiratory muscle fatigue, or enhancing pulmonary mechanics. Methods: Twenty patients with restrictive disease were studied at baseline (D0) and at 5–8 days (D5) and 3 months (3M). Results: Mean (SD) daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) was reduced from 7.1 (0.9) kPa to 6.6 (0.8) kPa at D5 and 6.3 (0.9) kPa at 3M (p = 0.004), with the mean (SD) hypercapnic ventilatory response increasing from 2.8 (2.3) l/min/kPa to 3.6 (2.4) l/min/kPa at D5 and 4.3 (3.3) l/min/kPa at 3M (p = 0.044). No increase was observed in measures of inspiratory muscle strength including twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure, nor in lung function or respiratory system compliance. Conclusions: These findings suggest that increased ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is the principal mechanism underlying the long term improvement in gas exchange following NIV in patients with restrictive thoracic disease. Increases in respiratory muscle strength (sniff oesophageal pressure and sniff nasal pressure) correlated with reductions in the Epworth sleepiness score, possibly indicating an increase in the ability of patients to activate inspiratory muscles rather than an improvement in contractility. PMID:15939731

  2. Risk factors and outcomes of severe acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in cancer patients: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Martos-Benítez, F D; Gutiérrez-Noyola, A; Badal, M; Dietrich, N A

    2017-09-28

    To determine the risk factors for severe acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (SARF-MV) and its effect upon clinical outcomes in critically ill cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study was carried out. A 12-bed oncological intensive care unit (ICU) from January 2014 to December 2015. A total of 878 consecutive cancer patients were included. Patients with an ICU stay of ≤1 day were excluded. The final sample size was 691 patients. None. Clinical variables at ICU admission were extracted from the medical records. The primary outcome was SARF-MV. We also measured ICU and hospital mortality, as well as length of stay. The SARF-MV rate was 15.8%. The multivariate analysis identified brain tumour (OR 14.54; 95%CI 3.86-54.77; p<0.0001), stage IV cancer (OR 3.47; 95%CI 1.26-9.54; p=0.016), sepsis upon admission (OR 2.28; 95%CI 1.14-4.56; p=0.020) and an APACHE II score≥20 points (OR 5.38; 95%CI 1.92-15.05; p=0.001) as being independently associated to SARF-MV. Compared with the patients without SARF-MV, those with SARF-MV had a prolonged length of ICU stay (p<0.0001), a lower ICU survival rate (p<0.0001) and a lower hospital survival rate (p<0.0001). A number of clinical factors are related to SARF-MV. In this regard, SARF-MV is a powerful factor independently correlated to poor outcomes. Future studies should investigate means for preventing SARF-MV in critically ill cancer patients, which may have an impact upon outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding mechanical ventilators.

    PubMed

    Chatburn, Robert L

    2010-12-01

    The respiratory care academic community has not yet adopted a standardized system for classifying and describing modes of ventilation. As a result, there is enough confusion that patient care, clinician education and even ventilator sales are all put at risk. This article summarizes a ventilator mode taxonomy that has been extensively published over the last 15 years. Specifically, the classification system has three components: a description of the control variables within breath; a description of the sequence of mandatory and spontaneous breaths; and a specification for the targeting scheme. This three-level specification provides scalability of detail to make the mode description appropriate for the particular need. At the bedside, we need only refer to a mode briefly using the first or perhaps first and second components. To distinguish between similar modes and brand names, we would need to include all components. This taxonomy uses the equation of motion for the respiratory system as the underlying theoretical framework. All terms relevant to describing modes of mechanical ventilation are defined in an extensive appendix.

  4. Non-invasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, R; Aggarwal, A; Gupta, D; Jindal, S

    2005-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the delivery of assisted mechanical ventilation to the lungs, without the use of an invasive endotracheal airway. NIV has revolutionised the management of patients with various forms of respiratory failure. It has decreased the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and its attendant complications. Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (CPO) is a common medical emergency, and NIV has been shown to improve both physiological and clinical outcomes. From the data presented herein, it is clear that there is sufficiently high level evidence to favour the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and that the use of CPAP in patients with CPO decreases intubation rate and improves survival (number needed to treat seven and eight respectively). However, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), probably the exception being patients with hypercapnic CPO. More trials are required to conclusively define the role of BiPAP in CPO. PMID:16210459

  5. Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Versus Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Relating to Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema in an Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Belenguer-Muncharaz, Alberto; Mateu-Campos, Lidón; González-Luís, Rubén; Vidal-Tegedor, Bárbara; Ferrándiz-Sellés, Amparo; Árguedas-Cervera, Joaquín; Altaba-Tena, Susana; Casero-Roig, Patricia; Moreno-Clarí, Ester

    2017-10-01

    To compare the application of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) versus continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the treatment of patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). In a prospective, randomized, controlled study performed in an ICU, patients with CPE were assigned to NIV (n=56) or CPAP (n=54). Primary outcome was intubation rate. Secondary outcomes included duration of ventilation, length of ICU and hospital stay, improvement of gas exchange, complications, ICU and hospital mortality, and 28-day mortality. The outcomes were analyzed in hypercapnic patients (PaCO2>45mmHg) with no underlying chronic lung disease. Both devices led to similar clinical and gas exchange improvement; however, in the first 60min of treatment a higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed in the NIV group (205±112 in NIV vs. 150±84 in CPAP, P=.02). The rate of intubation was similar in both groups (9% in NIV vs. 9% in CPAP, P=1.0). There were no differences in duration of ventilation, ICU and length of hospital stay. There were no significant differences in ICU, hospital and 28-d mortality between groups. In the hypercapnic group, there were no differences between NIV and CPAP. Either NIV or CPAP are recommended in patients with CPE in the ICU. Outcomes in the hypercapnic group with no chronic lung disease were similar using NIV or CPAP. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive versus invasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure in patients with hematologic malignancies: a 5-year multicenter observational survey.

    PubMed

    Gristina, Giuseppe R; Antonelli, Massimo; Conti, Giorgio; Ciarlone, Alessia; Rogante, Silvia; Rossi, Carlotta; Bertolini, Guido

    2011-10-01

    Mortality is high among patients with hematologic malignancies admitted to intensive care units for acute respiratory failure. Early noninvasive mechanical ventilation seems to improve outcomes. To characterize noninvasive mechanical ventilation use in Italian intensive care units for acute respiratory failure patients with hematologic malignancies and its impact on outcomes vs. invasive mechanical ventilation. Retrospective analysis of observational data prospectively collected in 2002-2006 on 1,302 patients with hematologic malignancies admitted with acute respiratory failure to 158 Italian intensive care units. Mortality (intensive care unit and hospital) was assessed in patients treated initially with noninvasive mechanical ventilation vs. invasive mechanical ventilation and in those treated with invasive mechanical ventilation ab initio vs. after noninvasive mechanical ventilation failure. Findings were adjusted for propensity scores reflecting the probability of initial treatment with noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Few patients (21%) initially received noninvasive mechanical ventilation; 46% of these later required invasive mechanical ventilation. Better outcomes were associated with successful noninvasive mechanical ventilation (vs. invasive mechanical ventilation ab initio and vs. invasive mechanical ventilation after noninvasive mechanical ventilation failure), particularly in patients with acute lung injury/adult respiratory distress syndrome (mortality: 42% vs. 69% and 77%, respectively). Delayed vs. immediate invasive mechanical ventilation was associated with slightly but not significantly higher hospital mortality (65% vs. 58%, p=.12). After propensity-score adjustment, noninvasive mechanical ventilation was associated with significantly lower mortality than invasive mechanical ventilation. The population could not be stratified according to specific hematologic diagnoses. Furthermore, the study was observational, and treatment groups may have

  7. [Behavior of the lung mechanics after the application of protocol of chest physiotherapy and aspiration tracheal in patients with invasive mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Fernanda Kusiak da; Roese, Cláudia Adegas; Savi, Augusto; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2007-06-01

    The chest physiotherapy (CP) in patients submitted to invasive support ventilation acts directly in the breathing system, and it could alter the lung mechanics through the dynamic lung compliance (DynC) and resistance of the breathing system (Rbs). However the alterations after the accomplishment of CP are still controversy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the alterations of the lung mechanics in patients in invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). It was a prospective, randomized, and controlled and crossover study, with patient with more than 48 hours in IMV. The protocol of chest physiotherapy and isolated tracheal aspiration they were randomized for the application order with a window of 24 hours among them. Data of lung mechanics and its varied cardiorespiratory were collected moments before the protocol, immediately after the application of the protocol, 30 minutes and 120 minutes after the application of the protocols. Twelve patients completed the study. Pneumonia was the mean cause respiratory failure (RF). There was not statistical difference among the groups in relation to Cdyn, volume tidal (Vt) and volume minute (Ve). Rbs decreased in a significant way immediately after (of 10.4 ± 3 cmH2O/L/seg for 8.9 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg; p < 0.02), 30 minutes after (of 10.4 ± 3 cmH2O/L/seg for 9 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg; p < 0.01) and 120 minutes after (of 10.4 ± 3 cmH2O/L/seg for 9 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg; p < 0.03) application the protocol of chest physiotherapy. When compared with the protocol of isolated tracheal aspiration it was significantly smaller in the 30 (9 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg versus10.2 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg; p < 0.04) and 120 minutes (9 ± 2 cmH2O/L/seg versus 10.4 ± 3 cmH2O/L/seg; p < 0.04). The protocol of chest physiotherapy was effective in the decrease of Rsr when compared with the aspiration protocol. That decrease was maintained for two hours after its application, what did not happen when only the just accomplished the tracheal aspiration was performed

  8. [Physiotherapy on the mechanically ventilated patients].

    PubMed

    Jerre, George; Beraldo, Marcelo A; Silva, Thelso de Jesus; Gastaldi, Ada; Kondo, Claudia; Leme, Fábia; Guimarães, Fernando; Forti Junior, Germano; Lucato, Jeanette J J; Veja, Joaquim M; Luque, Alexandre; Tucci, Mauro R; Okamoto, Valdelis N

    2007-09-01

    The II Brazilian Consensus Conference on Mechanical Ventilation was published in 2000. Knowledge on the field of mechanical ventilation evolved rapidly since then, with the publication of numerous clinical studies with potential impact on the ventilatory management of critically ill patients. Moreover, the evolving concept of evidence - based medicine determined the grading of clinical recommendations according to the methodological value of the studies on which they are based. This explicit approach has broadened the understanding and adoption of clinical recommendations. For these reasons, AMIB - Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira and SBPT - Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - decided to update the recommendations of the II Brazilian Consensus. Physical therapy during mechanical ventilation has been one of the updated topics. This objective was described the most important topics on the physical therapy during mechanical ventilation. Systematic review of the published literature and gradation of the studies in levels of evidence, using the key words: mechanical ventilation and physical therapy. Recommendations on the most important techniques applied during mechanical ventilation. Physical therapy has a central role at the Intensive Care environment, mainly in patients submitted to a mechanical ventilatory support invasive or non invasive.

  9. [Mechanical ventilation by nasal mask in children with cystic fibrosis. Initial results of a non-invasive method].

    PubMed

    Baculard, A; Bedicam, J M; Sardet, A; Fauroux, B; Tournier, G

    1993-01-01

    Chronic respiratory failure (CRF) with hypoxia and hypercapnia is the last ineluctable phase in cystic fibrosis (CF). Nasal positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), a non-invasive method, may be given to CF children with CRF, especially to patients accepted for transplantation (T). This method improves ventilatory function by resting the chronically exhausted respiratory muscles, facilitates bronchial drainage by physiotherapy, prevents the exacerbations of the illness and prepares patients for T. NPPV was used in 6 CF patients (mean age 13 years 6 months). One of them was transplanted 15 days later, two of them were accepted for T. All had hypoxia. Five of them had hypercapnia. NPPV was given to four patients for 3 to 14 months. The preliminary results were positive. One patient gained weight, two had more fluid sputum. One patient showed an increase in functional respiratory tests (FRT: PaO2, vital capacity, FEV-1) while these tests were stabilized in the others. NPPV in an effective non-invasive method for use with CF children. It is indicated for CF patients accepted for T and also earlier, for CF patients with CRF in order to prevent acute exacerbations and functional respiratory deterioration.

  10. Mechanical ventilation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The timing of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) initiation and its outcome in the management of respiratory and cardiac failure have received considerable attention, but very little attention has been given to mechanical ventilation during ECMO. Mechanical ventilation settings in non-ECMO studies have been shown to have an effect on survival and may also have contributed to a treatment effect in ECMO trials. Protective lung ventilation strategies established for non-ECMO-supported respiratory failure patients may not be optimal for more severe forms of respiratory failure requiring ECMO support. The influence of positive end-expiratory pressure on the reduction of the left ventricular compliance may be a matter of concern for patients receiving ECMO support for cardiac failure. The objectives of this review were to describe potential mechanisms for lung injury during ECMO for respiratory or cardiac failure, to assess the possible benefits from the use of ultra-protective lung ventilation strategies and to review published guidelines and expert opinions available on mechanical ventilation-specific management of patients requiring ECMO, including mode and ventilator settings. Articles were identified through a detailed search of PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane databases and Google Scholar. Additional references were retrieved from the selected studies. Growing evidence suggests that mechanical ventilation settings are important in ECMO patients to minimize further lung damage and improve outcomes. An ultra-protective ventilation strategy may be optimal for mechanical ventilation during ECMO for respiratory failure. The effects of airway pressure on right and left ventricular afterload should be considered during venoarterial ECMO support of cardiac failure. Future studies are needed to better understand the potential impact of invasive mechanical ventilation modes and settings on outcomes. PMID:24447458

  11. Frequency and management of respiratory incidents in invasive home ventilation.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Sven; George, Sandhya; Priegnitz, Christina; Hagmeyer, Lars; Randerath, Winfried

    2013-08-01

    There has been a rise in the number of patients requiring long-term ventilation, both in the in-hospital and the out-of-hospital setting. Despite this, little is known about the subsequent clinical course of these patients following hospital discharge. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and management of respiratory incidents in patients with invasive out-of-hospital ventilation living in a nursing home allied to a weaning centre. We evaluated retrospectively the protocols that are used to monitor the patients over a period of 2 months. The average time from hospital discharge was 386 ± 330 days. Of the total 17 patients, 9 (53%) patients remained free from any respiratory incidents, while the remaining 8 (47%) patients were responsible for a total of 95 respiratory incidents. Patients that suffered respiratory incidents had been ventilated at home for an average of 194 days, while the others were receiving out-of-hospital ventilation for an average of 557 days. Desaturation (17), dyspnoea (17) and reduced general condition (10) were the most common respiratory incidents. Also, the use of an Ambu bag (bag valve mask; 17), request for a pneumologist review (12) and replacement of the tracheal cannula (7) were the most common interventions. Respiratory incidents are common in invasive home mechanical ventilation, and so home mechanical ventilation needed to be organized safely. Being allied to a weaning centre helps to organize invasive home mechanical ventilation in a safe manner over the long-term ventilation.

  12. Ventilation and respiratory mechanics.

    PubMed

    Sheel, Andrew William; Romer, Lee M

    2012-04-01

    During dynamic exercise, the healthy pulmonary system faces several major challenges, including decreases in mixed venous oxygen content and increases in mixed venous carbon dioxide. As such, the ventilatory demand is increased, while the rising cardiac output means that blood will have considerably less time in the pulmonary capillaries to accomplish gas exchange. Blood gas homeostasis must be accomplished by precise regulation of alveolar ventilation via medullary neural networks and sensory reflex mechanisms. It is equally important that cardiovascular and pulmonary system responses to exercise be precisely matched to the increase in metabolic requirements, and that the substantial gas transport needs of both respiratory and locomotor muscles be considered. Our article addresses each of these topics with emphasis on the healthy, young adult exercising in normoxia. We review recent evidence concerning how exercise hyperpnea influences sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow and the effect this might have on the ability to perform muscular work. We also review sex-based differences in lung mechanics.

  13. Home Mechanical Ventilation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Won Ah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To survey the use of invasive and noninvasive home mechanical ventilation (HMV) methods in South Korea from the perspective of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R). Materials and Methods For 413 users of HMV, retrospective reviews of PM&R interventions and survey of HMV methods employed from Mar 2000 to Dec 2009. Results Of the 413 users, the majority of whom with progressive neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) (n=358), 284 patients initially used noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV), while 63 others who were using tracheostomy mechanical ventilation switched to NIV as part of their rehabilitation. The NMD patients began HMV at an earlier age (34.9±20.3 yrs), and used for longer (14.7±7.5) hours than patients with non-neuromuscular causes of respiratory impairment. Conclusion Noninvasive management was preferred over invasive ones, and transition to the former was a result of PM&R interventions. PMID:25323913

  14. [Mechanical ventilation at home: facts and questions].

    PubMed

    Fitting, J W

    1993-06-15

    Treatment of respiratory insufficiency with retention of CO2 by mechanic ventilation has come into use over the last decade, favored by use of non-invasive methods like nasal ventilation. Best results have been observed in hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency caused by neuromuscular disease or restrictive pathologic changes of the lung. Nocturnal use of nasal ventilation alone is often sufficient to correct also the daily CO2-values. Mechanisms explaining this beneficial effect are not yet known-The respiratory CNS-centers, respiratory muscles or thoracopulmonary mechanics may play etiologically an important role. Medical indications for nasal ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are not clear, since results from several studies are controversial. Also in severe or progressive neurologic diseases a critical evaluation is mandatory for assessment of benefits including improvement of quality of life.

  15. Use of Nebulized Antimicrobials for the Treatment of Respiratory Infections in Invasively Mechanically Ventilated Adults: A Position Paper from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Rello, Jordi; Solé-Lleonart, Candela; Rouby, Jean-Jacques; Chastre, Jean; Blot, Stijn; Poulakou, Garyfallia; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Riera, Jordi; Palmer, Lucy B; Pereira, Jose M; Felton, Tim; Dhanani, Jayesh; Bassetti, Matteo; Welte, Tobias; Roberts, Jason A

    2017-04-13

    With an established role in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis, nebulized antibiotics are increasingly being used to treat respiratory infections in critically ill invasively mechanically ventilated adult patients. Although there is limited evidence describing their efficacy and safety, in an era of need for new strategies to enhance antibiotic effectiveness because of a shortage of new agents and increases in antibiotic resistance, the potential of nebulization of antibiotics to optimize therapy is considered of high interest, particularly in patients infected with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. This Position Paper of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases provides recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology regarding the use of nebulized antibiotics in invasively mechanically ventilated adults, based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature (last search July 2016). Overall, the panel recommends to avoid use of nebulized antibiotics in clinical practice, due to a weak level of evidence of their efficacy and the high potential for underestimated risks of adverse events (particularly, respiratory complications). Higher quality evidence is urgently needed to inform clinical practice. Priorities of future research are detailed in the second part of the Position Paper as a guidance for researchers in this field. In particular, the panel identified an urgent need for randomized clinical trials of nebulized antibiotic therapy as part of a substitution approach to treatment of pneumonia due to MDR pathogens.

  16. Influence of inspiratory flow pattern and nebulizer position on aerosol delivery with a vibrating-mesh nebulizer during invasive mechanical ventilation: an in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Dugernier, Jonathan; Wittebole, Xavier; Roeseler, Jean; Michotte, Jean-Bernard; Sottiaux, Thierry; Dugernier, Thierry; Laterre, Pierre-François; Reychler, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Aerosol delivery during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) depends on nebulizer type, placement of the nebulizer and ventilator settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of two inspiratory flow patterns on amikacin delivery with a vibrating-mesh nebulizer placed at different positions on an adult lung model of IMV equipped with a proximal flow sensor (PFS). IMV was simulated using a ventilator connected to a lung model through an 8-mm inner-diameter endotracheal tube. The impact of a decelerating and a constant flow pattern on aerosol delivery was evaluated in volume-controlled mode (tidal volume 500 mL, 20 breaths/min, inspiratory time of 1 sec, bias flow of 10 L/min). An amikacin solution (250 mg/3 mL) was nebulized with Aeroneb Solo(®) placed at five positions on the ventilator circuit equipped with a PFS: connected to the endotracheal tube (A), to the Y-piece (B), placed at 15 cm (C) and 45 cm upstream of the Y-piece (D), and placed at 15 cm of the inspiratory outlet of the ventilator (E). The four last positions were also tested without PFS. Deposited doses of amikacin were measured using the gravimetric residual method. Amikacin delivery was significantly reduced with a decelerating inspiratory flow pattern compared to a constant flow (p<0.05). With a constant inspiratory flow pattern, connecting the nebulizer to the endotracheal tube enabled similar deposited doses than these obtained when connecting the nebulizer close to the ventilator. The PFS reduced deposited doses only when the nebulizer was connected to the Y-piece with both flow patterns or placed at 15 cm of the Y-piece with a constant inspiratory flow (p<0.01). Using similar tidal volume and inspiratory time, a constant flow pattern (30 L/min) delivers a higher amount of amikacin through an endotracheal tube compared to a decelerating inspiratory flow pattern (peak inspiratory flow around 60 L/min). The optimal nebulizer position depends on the

  17. Diaphragmatic dysfunction in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Haitsma, Jack J

    2011-04-01

    It has become clear from experimental data that prolonged mechanical ventilation can induce diaphragm dysfunction, also known as ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction. In this article we will discuss most recent understanding on ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction and data on diaphragm dysfunction in patients. Over the last year several studies confirmed the existence of diaphragm dysfunction in patients. Known atrophy pathways are activated in patients undergoing prolonged conventional ventilation resulting in muscle proteolysis and a decrease in myofiber content. The loss of diaphragm force is time-dependent, but current data do not distinguish between the role played by other factors involved in diaphragm dysfunction. Diaphragm dysfunction occurs in patients, especially when ventilated with controlled modes of ventilation that minimize diaphragm activity. Time on the ventilator seems to be one of the biggest risk factors resulting in difficulties in weaning patients and prolonging time on the ventilator. Future trials should investigate whether improved patient-ventilator synchrony can reduce ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction and decrease weaning failure.

  18. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  19. Difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Oh, T E

    1994-07-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation may be influenced by factors relating to equipment, techniques and procedures. Criteria to initiate weaning and predictors of weaning outcome are generally unreliable, but mechanical work of breathing, the tidal volume: frequency ratio and the inspiratory pressure: maximal inspiratory pressure ratio may anticipate those likely to fail weaning. The optimal weaning ventilatory mode is not known, but intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure support ventilation, and continuous positive pressure ventilation are the most commonly used. The resistances of individual components of breathing circuits are extremely important. Blow-by heated humidifiers and ventilators which compensate for the impedances of their inspiratory demand valves impose clinically acceptable spontaneous breathing loads. Close monitoring, adequate respiratory muscle rest, attention to mineral deficiencies, nutrition and pulmonary hygiene are also important parts of the weaning process.

  20. Invasive mechanical ventilation as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in the critically ill: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Johannes P C; Egal, Mahamud; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2013-05-27

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is commonly regarded as a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI) in the critically ill. We investigated the strength of this association and whether settings of tidal volume (Vt) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) affect the risk for AKI. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using studies found by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and references in relevant reviews and articles. We included studies reporting on a relation between the use of invasive MV and subsequent onset of AKI, or comparing higher with lower Vt or PEEP and subsequent onset of AKI. All studies clearly stating that MV was initiated after onset of AKI were excluded. We extracted the proportion with and without MV and AKI. We included 31 studies on invasive MV. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the overall effect of MV on AKI was 3.16 (95% CI 2.32 to 4.28, P<0.001). Nearly all subgroups showed that MV increases the risk for AKI. The pooled OR for studies with a multivariate analysis including MV as a risk factor for AKI was 3.58 (95% CI 1.85 to 6.92; P<0.001). Different settings of Vt and PEEP showed no effect. Invasive MV is associated with a threefold increase in the odds of developing AKI and various Vt or PEEP settings do not modify this risk. The latter argues in favour of a haemodynamic origin of AKI during MV.

  1. Basic concepts in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Carbery, Catherine

    2008-03-01

    Mechanical ventilatory support is a major component of the clinical management of critically ill patients admitted into intensive care. Closely linked with the developments within critical care medicine, the use of ventilatory support has been increasing since the polio epidemics in the 1950s (Lassen 1953). Initially used to provide controlled mandatory ventilation, today with advances in technology, most mechanical ventilators are triggered by the patient, increasing the awareness of the complexity of patient/ventilator interaction (Tobin 1994). Though ventilator appearance and design may have changed quite significantly and the variety of options for support extensive, the basic concepts of mechanical ventilatory support of the critically ill patient remains unchanged. This paper aims to outline these concepts so as to gain a better understanding of mechanical ventilatory support.

  2. Mechanical ventilation in the home.

    PubMed

    Make, B J; Gilmartin, M E

    1990-07-01

    Despite advances in the application of mechanical ventilation as a short-term, life-saving technique, intensive care units are increasingly faced with patients who cannot be weaned from ventilatory assistance and who require mechanical ventilation as a long-term, life-supporting necessity. Because of limited resources in health care facilities for the management of chronic ventilator-assisted individuals, home care has become an important option. With careful selection of appropriate candidates, home care for ventilator-assisted individuals can result in not only decreased respiratory symptoms, reduction in hospitalization, and improved physiologic measures, but also an improved quality of life with substantial survival and a reduction in the costs of medical care.

  3. Long-term non-invasive ventilation in children.

    PubMed

    Amaddeo, Alessandro; Frapin, Annick; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2016-12-01

    Use of long-term non-invasive ventilation is increasing exponentially worldwide in children of all ages. The treatment entails delivery of ventilatory assistance through a non-invasive interface. Indications for use of non-invasive ventilation include conditions that affect normal respiratory balance (eg, those associated with dysfunction of the central drive or respiratory muscles) and disorders characterised by an increase in respiratory load (eg, obstructive airway or lung diseases). The type of non-invasive ventilation used depends on the pathophysiological features of the respiratory failure. For example, non-invasive ventilation will need to either replace central drive if the disorder is characterised by an abnormal central drive or substitute for the respiratory muscles if the condition is associated with respiratory muscle weakness. Non-invasive ventilation might also need to unload the respiratory muscles in case of an increase in respiratory load, as seen in upper airway obstruction and some lung diseases. Technical aspects are also important when choosing non-invasive ventilation-eg, appropriate interface and device. The great heterogeneity of disorders, age ranges of affected children, prognoses, and outcomes of patients needing long-term non-invasive ventilation underline the need for management by skilled multidisciplinary centres with technical competence in paediatric non-invasive ventilation and expertise in sleep studies and therapeutic education.

  4. A comparison of the effects of invasive mechanic ventilation/surfactant therapy and non-invasive nasal-continuous positive airway pressure in preterm newborns.

    PubMed

    Celik, Muhittin; Bulbul, Ali; Uslu, Sinan; Dursun, Mesut; Guran, Omer; Kıray Bas, Evrim; Arslan, Selda; Zubarioglu, Umut

    2017-08-31

    This study compared the early-term outcomes of mechanical ventilation (MV)/surfactant treatment with nasal-continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Data from newborns born between ≥24 and ≤32 weeks of gestation, hospitalized at our newborn intensive care unit, and diagnosed with RDS between January 2009 and February 2012 were analyzed. Of 193 newborns with RDS who were enrolled in the study, 113 were treated with nCPAP and 80 with MV at a level of 57.5% of nCPAP. Within the study group, 46.3% of the infants were female. The mean gestation of the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) group was 29.07 ± 1.99 weeks; that of the MV group was 28.61 ± 2.01 weeks. The birth weight was 1321.1 ± 325.4 g and 1240.3 ± 366.1 g; however, the difference between the two groups was not significant. MV was not required in 54.9% of the patients with nCPAP treatment. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) developed in 20 (18.7%) patients in the nCPAP group and 18 (24.4%) patients in the MV group; the difference was not significant (p = .351). Between 2009 and 2012, nCPAP was used at a rate of 33.9, 70.8, 68.4, and 69%. The risk factors for developing BPD were low gestation week, duration of intubation, and proven sepsis (p = .0001, p = .004, and p = .011, respectively). Early nCPAP treatment in preterm infants (≤32 weeks of gestation) decreases both the need for MV and the use of surfactant, but without a significant effect on BPD development. (No. 2016/324).

  5. [Nasopharyngeal myiasis during mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, A; Sato, A; Suda, T; Chida, K

    1997-12-01

    We report a case of myiasis caused by Phaenicia sericata during mechanical ventilation. An 86-year-old woman with bronchiectasis was admitted to our hospital with severe respiratory failure. Treatment with mechanical ventilation and sedatives was initiated. On the 10th day of hospitalization, about 20 white larvae were found in the patient's oral or nasal cavities. The larvae were removed and identified as Phaenicia sericata. No mucosal injury was found in the patient's oral or nasal cavity by endoscopic examination. The patient died of multiple organ failure caused by sepsis that had no association with myiasis. From the clinical course and the fly's life cycle, it is considered that the fly laid eggs in the patient's oral or nasal cavity while she was sedated during mechanical ventilation. Myiasis can occur even in a hospital.

  6. The value of non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeremy

    2014-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) use has increased markedly over the last 10 years. Children being treated with NIV are now a common sight in most paediatric intensive care units and high dependency units and nearly all tertiary respiratory units will look after a cohort of children who use NIV at home. Although the published evidence base for use of NIV in acute and chronic respiratory failure is relatively weak, it is now very unlikely that there will be any more randomised controlled trials of this intervention. Effectiveness of NIV will need to be evaluated on each child as it used. It is important to define the purpose of using NIV in each child, and then determine whether it is effective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Home non-invasive mechanical ventilation and long-term oxygen therapy in stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: comparison of costs.

    PubMed

    Clini, Enrico M; Magni, Giovanna; Crisafulli, Ernesto; Viaggi, Stefano; Ambrosino, Nicolino

    2009-01-01

    A cost analysis of nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NNV) in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients would be helpful in decision making, when the balance between the increased demand and the availability of resources should be checked. Based on data from the Italian trial in stable hypercapnic COPD patients, this study compares the cost of care associated with the use of NNV when added to the usual long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) with the cost of care of LTOT regimen alone. Cost was calculated in 77 of 90 patients included into that trial. Analysis included drug therapy, hospitalisations due to acute exacerbation, oxygen and ventilator equipment. An estimation of charges was made according to the national sources of cost for drugs and hospital admissions and the actualised reimbursement for the home care provided to both oxygen and ventilator users. The cost/day comparison was made between the individual patients in the 2 groups (NNV + LTOT, n = 35; LTOT, n = 42). The mean cost of drugs and oxygen was similar in both groups, whereas the cost of hospitalisation tended to be lower in NNV + LTOT compared to LTOT alone (8.25 +/-10.29 vs. 12.50 +/- 20.28 EUR/patient/day, p < 0.05). Inclusion of the ventilator equipment increased the total cost to 23.73 EUR/day in the NNV + LTOT compared to 21.42 EUR/day in the LTOT group (not significant). The present report suggests that long-term management with addition of non-invasive ventilation does not increase costs compared with the usual LTOT regimen: the hospital-related costs were reduced when using the ventilator in these hypercapnic COPD patients. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Prognosis of mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, M A; Lee, K K; Browner, W S; Kent, D L; Matchar, D B; Kagawa, M K; Hallenbeck, J; Lee, D; Onishi, R; Charles, G

    1993-01-01

    In this Department of Veterans Affairs cooperative study, we examined predictors of in-hospital and 1-year mortality of 612 mechanically ventilated patients from 6 medical intensive care units in a retrospective cohort design. The outcome variable was vital status at hospital discharge and after 1 year. The results showed that 97% of patients were men, the mean age was 63 +/- 11 years (SD), and hospital mortality was 64% (95% confidence interval, 60% to 68%). Within the next year, an additional 38% of hospital survivors died, for a total 1-year mortality of 77% (95% confidence interval, 73% to 80%). Hospital and 1-year mortality, respectively, for patients older than 70 years was 76% and 94%, for those with serum albumin levels below 20 grams per liter it was 92% and 96%, for those with an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score greater than 35 it was 91% and 98%, and for patients who were being mechanically ventilated after cardiopulmonary resuscitation it was 86% and 90%. The mortality ratio (actual mortality versus APACHE II-predicted mortality) was 1.15. Conclusions are that patient age, APACHE II score, serum albumin levels, or the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation may identify a subset of mechanically ventilated veterans for whom mechanical ventilation provides little or no benefit. PMID:8128673

  9. Diaphragm Dysfunction in Mechanically Ventilated Patients.

    PubMed

    Dot, Irene; Pérez-Teran, Purificación; Samper, Manuel-Andrés; Masclans, Joan-Ramon

    2017-03-01

    Muscle involvement is found in most critical patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Diaphragmatic muscle alteration, initially included in this category, has been differentiated in recent years, and a specific type of muscular dysfunction has been shown to occur in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. We found this muscle dysfunction to appear in this subgroup of patients shortly after the start of mechanical ventilation, observing it to be mainly associated with certain control modes, and also with sepsis and/or multi-organ failure. Although the specific etiology of process is unknown, the muscle presents oxidative stress and mitochondrial changes. These cause changes in protein turnover, resulting in atrophy and impaired contractility, and leading to impaired functionality. The term 'ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction' was first coined by Vassilakopoulos et al. in 2004, and this phenomenon, along with injury cause by over-distention of the lung and barotrauma, represents a challenge in the daily life of ventilated patients. Diaphragmatic dysfunction affects prognosis by delaying extubation, prolonging hospital stay, and impairing the quality of life of these patients in the years following hospital discharge. Ultrasound, a non-invasive technique that is readily available in most ICUs, could be used to diagnose this condition promptly, thus preventing delays in starting rehabilitation and positively influencing prognosis in these patients. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Inspiring Change: a report on acute non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Juniper, M C; Ellis, G; Protopapa, K L; Smith, Nce

    2017-09-02

    The British Thoracic Society audit of non-invasive ventilation has shown that mortality rates are higher than expected and increasing. The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death undertook a detailed analysis of data from 432 patients treated with acute non-invasive ventilation to identify how clinical aspects of non-invasive ventilation treatment could be improved. The study 'Inspiring Change' was published in July 2017. This review summarizes some of the important findings and associated recommendations that will improve treatment of patients and help to reduce mortality rates.

  11. Hypercapnic encephalopathy syndrome: a new frontier for non-invasive ventilation?

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele

    2011-08-01

    According to the classical international guidelines, non-invasive ventilation is contraindicated in hypercapnic encephalopathy syndrome (HES) due to the poor compliance to ventilatory treatment of confused/agitated patients and the risk of aspirative pneumonia related to lack of airways protection. As a matter of fact, conventional mechanical ventilation has been recommended as "golden standard" in these patients. However, up to now there are not controlled data that have demonstrated in HES the advantage of conventional mechanical ventilation vs non-invasive ventilation. In fact, patients with altered mental status have been systematically excluded from the randomised and controlled trials performed with non-invasive ventilation in hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that an initial cautious NPPV trial in selected HES patients may be attempt as long as there are no other contraindications and the technique is provided by experienced caregivers in a closely monitored setting where ETI is always readily available. The purpose of this review is to report the physiologic rationale, the clinical feasibility and the still open questions about the careful use of non-invasive ventilation in HES as first-line ventilatory strategy in place of conventional mechanical ventilation via endotracheal intubation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of mechanical ventilation and weaning.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Susan K

    2008-03-01

    Because of their anatomic position in the closed thoracic cavity, the heart and lungs interact during each ventilation cycle. The application of mechanical ventilation and subsequent removal changes normal ventilatory mechanics and produces alterations in cardiac preload and afterload that influence global hemodynamic state and delivery of oxygen and nutrients. Adverse cardiovascular responses to mechanical ventilation and weaning from ventilation include hemodynamic alterations and instability, myocardial ischemia, autonomic dysfunction, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Clinicians must have a clear understanding of the cardiovascular effects of mechanical ventilation and weaning so they may anticipate, recognize, and effectively manage negative effects and improve patient outcomes.

  13. Economics of mechanical ventilation and respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    For patients with acute respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation provides the most definitive life-sustaining therapy. Because of the intense resources required to care for these patients, its use accounts for considerable costs. There is great societal need to ensure that use of mechanical ventilation maximizes societal benefits while minimizing costs, and that mechanical ventilation, and ventilator support in general, is delivered in the most efficient and cost-effective manner. This review summarizes the economic aspects of mechanical ventilation and summarizes the existing literature that examines its economic impact cost effectiveness.

  14. A taxonomy for mechanical ventilation: 10 fundamental maxims.

    PubMed

    Chatburn, Robert L; El-Khatib, Mohamad; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    The American Association for Respiratory Care has declared a benchmark for competency in mechanical ventilation that includes the ability to "apply to practice all ventilation modes currently available on all invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilators." This level of competency presupposes the ability to identify, classify, compare, and contrast all modes of ventilation. Unfortunately, current educational paradigms do not supply the tools to achieve such goals. To fill this gap, we expand and refine a previously described taxonomy for classifying modes of ventilation and explain how it can be understood in terms of 10 fundamental constructs of ventilator technology: (1) defining a breath, (2) defining an assisted breath, (3) specifying the means of assisting breaths based on control variables specified by the equation of motion, (4) classifying breaths in terms of how inspiration is started and stopped, (5) identifying ventilator-initiated versus patient-initiated start and stop events, (6) defining spontaneous and mandatory breaths, (7) defining breath sequences (8), combining control variables and breath sequences into ventilatory patterns, (9) describing targeting schemes, and (10) constructing a formal taxonomy for modes of ventilation composed of control variable, breath sequence, and targeting schemes. Having established the theoretical basis of the taxonomy, we demonstrate a step-by-step procedure to classify any mode on any mechanical ventilator.

  15. [Mechanical ventilation during thoracic anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Valenza, F

    1999-05-01

    Aim of the study was to test individual mechanical and functional responses to open chest lateral decubitus during one lung ventilation. We measured dependent lung pressure volume (P-V) curves of 19 patients during supine and lateral decubitus. We found that patients characterized by high FEV1 developed greater changes in P-V curve shape than those characterized by low FEV1. Based on these results we decided to test a ventilation strategy characterized by the use of ZEEP or PEEP = 10 cm H2O applied to the dependent lung. In a preliminary set of patients stratified by FEV1 we found that PEEP deteriorated PaO2/FiO2 in patients with low FEV1, while there was a trend towards improvement in patients with high FEV1. It is possible that dependent lung PEEP counteracts atelectasias in normal lungs, while it may divert blood flow or create dead space in patients with sick and stiff lungs. We conclude that during one lung ventilation in open chest lateral decubitus, ventilatory setting need to be individually tailored.

  16. [Organization of mechanical ventilation in French Intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Montravers, P; Ichai, C; Dupont, H; Payen, J F; Orliaguet, G; Blanchet, P; Malledant, Y; Albanèse, J; Asehnoune, K; Bastien, O; Collange, O; Duranteau, J; Garrigues, B; Lepape, A; Paugam-Burtz, C

    2013-11-01

    To clarify the procedures related to mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit setting: allocation of ventilators, team education, maintenance and reference documents. Declarative survey. Between September and December 2010, we assessed the assignment and types of ventilators (ICU ventilators, temporary repair ventilators, non-invasive ventilators [NIV], and transportation ventilators), medical and nurse education, maintenance of the ventilators, presence of reference documents. Results are expressed in median/range and proportions. Among the 62 participating ICUs, a median of 15 ventilators/ICU (range 1-50) was reported with more than one trademark in 47 (76%) units. Specific ventilators were used for NIV in 22 (35%) units, temporary repair in 49 (79%) and transportation in all the units. Nurse education courses were given by ICU physicians in 54 (87%) units or by a company in 29 (47%) units. Medical education courses were made by ICU senior physicians in 55 (89%) units or by a company in 21 (34%) units. These courses were organized occasionally in 24 (39%) ICU and bi-annually in 16 (26%) units. Maintenance procedures were made by the ICU staff in 39 (63%) units, dedicated staff (17 [27%]) or bioengineering technicians (14 [23%] ICU). Reference documents were written for maintenance procedures in 48 (77%) units, ventilator setup in 22 (35%) units and ventilator dysfunction in 20 (32%) ICU. This first survey shows disparate distribution of ventilators and practices among French ICU. Education and understanding of the proper use of ventilators are key issues for security improvement. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Consequences of mechanical ventilation on diaphragmatic function].

    PubMed

    Jung, B; Gleeton, D; Daurat, A; Conseil, M; Mahul, M; Rao, G; Matecki, S; Lacampagne, A; Jaber, S

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation is associated with ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD) in animal models and also in humans. The main pathophysiological pathways implicated in VIDD seems to be related to muscle inactivity but may also be the consequence of high tidal volumes. Systemic insults from side effects of medication, infection, malnutrition and hypoperfusion also play a part. The diaphragm is caught in the cross-fire of ventilation-induced and systemic-induced dysfunctions. Intracellular consequences of VIDD include oxidative stress, proteolysis, impaired protein synthesis, autophagy activation and excitation-contraction decoupling. VIDD can be diagnosed at the bedside using non-invasive magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves which is the gold standard. Other techniques involve patient's participation such as respiratory function tests or ultrasound examination. At this date, only spontaneous ventilatory cycles and perhaps phrenic nerve stimulation appear to diminish the severity of VIDD in humans but several pathways are currently being examined using animal models. Specific pharmacological options are currently under investigation in animal models. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Pediatric Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation: Considerations for Definitional Criteria.

    PubMed

    Sauthier, Michaël; Rose, Louise; Jouvet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    A 2005 consensus conference led by the National Association for Medical Direction of Respiratory Care (NAMDRC) defined prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) for adults as invasive and/or noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) for ≥ 21 consecutive days for ≥ 6 h/d. In children, no such consensus definition exists. This results in substantial variability in definitional criteria, making study of the impact and outcomes of PMV across and within settings problematic. The objective of this work was to identify how PMV for children and neonates is described in the literature and to outline pediatric/neonatal considerations related to PMV, with the goal of proposing a pediatric/neonatal adaptation to the NAMDRC definition. We searched electronic databases for studies describing PMV in children. We extracted definitional criteria and developed recommendations based on the literature review and our clinical experience. Of the 416 citations obtained, 87 met inclusion criteria, totaling 34,255 subjects. Identified criteria for the pediatric PMV definition included: number of consecutive days of mechanical ventilation (ranging from 6 h to 3 months), inclusion of NIV, time spent off the ventilator during weaning (considered as same ventilation episode), and importance of chronological age (term neonates) and postmenstrual age for preterm neonates. We considered high-flow nasal cannula; however, we determined that its current role as a weaning adjunct is unclear. Therefore, we developed the following recommendations for the pediatric PMV definition: ≥ 21 consecutive days (after 37 weeks postmenstrual age) of ventilation for ≥ 6 h/d considering invasive ventilation and NIV and including short interruptions (< 48 h) of ventilation during the weaning process as the same episode of ventilation. We propose a definition of pediatric PMV that incorporates the number of consecutive days of mechanical ventilation while taking into account use of NIV and lung maturity and

  19. Estimating Respiratory Mechanical Parameters during Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Barbini, Paolo

    1982-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for the estimation of the parameters of the mechanical respiratory system. The algorithm is based on non linear regression analysis with a two-compartment respiratory system model. The model used allows us to take account of the non homogeneous properties of the lungs which may cause uneven distribution of ventilation and thus affect the gas exchange in the lungs. The estimation of the parameters of such a model permits the optimization of the type of ventilation to be used in patients undergoing respiratory treatment. This can be done bearing in mind the effects of the mechanical ventilation on venous return as well as the quality of gas exchange. We have valued the performances of the estimation algorithm which is proposed on the basis of the agreement between the data and the model response, of the stability of the parameter estimates and of the standard deviations of the parameters. The parameter estimation algorithm described does not have recourse to the examination of the impedance spectra and is completely independent of the type of ventilator employed.

  20. Improving non-invasive ventilation documentation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew; Elkheir, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Record keeping for patients on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at St. Georges Hospital is poor. The initial NIV prescription is often not recorded, and changes to the NIV prescription or the rationale for the changes (ABG results) are also poorly documented. This leads to confusion for nurses/doctors as to what the correct settings are, meaning patients could receive ineffective ventilation. The use of NIV is also poorly recorded by nursing staff meaning that doctors are unsure if the prescribed NIV is being achieved. This can lead to treatment being escalated unnecessarily in the event of treatment failure. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the provision of ventilatory support in the form of positive pressure via the patient's upper airway using a mask or similar device. NIV is indicated for treatment of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, of which there are many causes, though COPD is the indication in up to 70% of cases.[1] British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for NIV suggest that the rationale for commencing a patient on NIV and the proposed settings should be clearly documented.[2] Clinicians cannot effectively tailor changes to the patients NIV settings if this information is not clearly recorded, which could lead to increased time requiring NIV or NIV failure. Three main areas were considered important to measure for this project. The initial prescription of the NIV, changes to the NIV settings, and nursing documentation surrounding NIV. A baseline measurement of NIV documentation for two weeks found NIV documentation to globally very poor. NIV was formally prescribed 29% of the time, full detail of intended settings were documented 57% of the time, the decision to commence NIV was discussed with the respiratory consultant/SpR just 29% of the time and on no occasion was a decision regarding escalation of treatment recorded. Eighteen changes were made to the NIV settings. These were formally prescribed 22% of the time and detail of the intended

  1. High-frequency ventilation for non-invasive respiratory support of neonates

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Bradley A.; Albertine, K.H.; Null, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-invasive respiratory support is increasingly used in lieu of intubated ventilator support for the management of neonatal respiratory failure, particularly in very low birth weight infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The optimal approach and mode for non-invasive support remains uncertain. This article reviews the application of high-frequency ventilation for non-invasive respiratory support in neonates, including basic science studies on mechanics of gas exchange, animal model investigations, and a review of current clinical use in human neonates. PMID:26906338

  2. Modes of mechanical ventilation for the operating room.

    PubMed

    Ball, Lorenzo; Dameri, Maddalena; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Most patients undergoing surgical procedures need to be mechanically ventilated, because of the impact of several drugs administered at induction and during maintenance of general anaesthesia on respiratory function. Optimization of intraoperative mechanical ventilation can reduce the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications and improve the patient's outcome. Preoxygenation at induction of general anaesthesia prolongs the time window for safe intubation, reducing the risk of hypoxia and overweighs the potential risk of reabsorption atelectasis. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation delivered through different interfaces should be considered at the induction of anaesthesia morbidly obese patients. Anaesthesia ventilators are becoming increasingly sophisticated, integrating many functions that were once exclusive to intensive care. Modern anaesthesia machines provide high performances in delivering the desired volumes and pressures accurately and precisely, including assisted ventilation modes. Therefore, the physicians should be familiar with the potential and pitfalls of the most commonly used intraoperative ventilation modes: volume-controlled, pressure-controlled, dual-controlled and assisted ventilation. Although there is no clear evidence to support the advantage of any one of these ventilation modes over the others, protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) should be considered in patients undergoing surgery. The target tidal volume should be calculated based on the predicted or ideal body weight rather than on the actual body weight. To optimize ventilation monitoring, anaesthesia machines should include end-inspiratory and end-expiratory pause as well as flow-volume loop curves. The routine administration of high PEEP levels should be avoided, as this may lead to haemodynamic impairment and fluid overload. Higher PEEP might be considered during surgery longer than 3 h

  3. Respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2014-11-01

    Respiratory mechanics refers to the expression of lung function through measures of pressure and flow. From these measurements, a variety of derived indices can be determined, such as volume, compliance, resistance, and work of breathing. Plateau pressure is a measure of end-inspiratory distending pressure. It has become increasingly appreciated that end-inspiratory transpulmonary pressure (stress) might be a better indicator of the potential for lung injury than plateau pressure alone. This has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the use of esophageal manometry in mechanically ventilated patients. End-expiratory transpulmonary pressure might also be useful to guide the setting of PEEP to counterbalance the collapsing effects of the chest wall. The shape of the pressure-time curve might also be useful to guide the setting of PEEP (stress index). This has focused interest in the roles of stress and strain to assess the potential for lung injury during mechanical ventilation. This paper covers both basic and advanced respiratory mechanics during mechanical ventilation.

  4. Assisted mechanical ventilation: the future is now!

    PubMed

    Kacmarek, Robert M; Pirrone, Massimiliano; Berra, Lorenzo

    2015-07-29

    Assisted ventilation is a highly complex process that requires an intimate interaction between the ventilator and the patient. The complexity of this form of ventilation is frequently underappreciated by the bedside clinician. In assisted mechanical ventilation, regardless of the specific mode, the ventilator's gas delivery pattern and the patient's breathing pattern must match near perfectly or asynchrony between the patient and the ventilator occurs. Asynchrony can be categorized into four general types: flow asynchrony; trigger asynchrony; cycle asynchrony; and mode asynchrony. In an article recently published in BMC Anesthesiology, Hodane et al. have demonstrated reduced asynchrony during assisted ventilation with Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) as compared to pressure support ventilation (PSV). These findings add to the growing volume of data indicating that modes of ventilation that provide proportional assistance to ventilation - e.g., NAVA and Proportional Assist Ventilation (PAV) - markedly reduce asynchrony. As it becomes more accepted that the respiratory center of the patient in most circumstances is the most appropriate determinant of ventilatory pattern and as the negative outcome effects of patient-ventilator asynchrony become ever more recognized, we can expect NAVA and PAV to become the preferred modes of assisted ventilation!

  5. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation with a facial interface during sedation for a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    González-Frasquet, M C; García-Covisa, N; Vidagany-Espert, L; Herranz-Gordo, A; Llopis-Calatayud, J E

    2015-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system which affects the motor neurons and produces a progressive muscle weakness, leading to atrophy and muscle paralysis, and ultimately death. Performing a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with sedation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can be a challenge for the anesthesiologist. The case is presented of a 76-year-old patient who suffered from advanced stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ASA III, in which a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed with deep sedation, for which non-invasive ventilation was used as a respiratory support to prevent hypoventilation and postoperative respiratory complications. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Nursing care of the mechanically ventilated patient in ITU: 1.

    PubMed

    Ashurst, S

    The mechanically ventilated patient often represents the ultimate in vulnerability and demands the highest standards of nursing care. Not only may the patient be unconscious but also the artificial airway is an unnatural invasion of the most innate physiological mechanism--breathing, and the nurse must safeguard this during all aspects of care. Nursing these patients is immensely satisfying and varied. It ranges from caring for the patient's activities of daily living to carrying out the highly technical and invasive monitoring and interventions which require specialist knowledge and skills. This article, the first in a two-part series, covers the types of ventilation, suction therapy, oral and eye care, elimination, body position, physiotherapy and the physiological effects of mechanical ventilation.

  7. [Invasive and non-invasive ventilation in conflict with best palliative care in severe COPD].

    PubMed

    Mikesch, Martin; Reichenpfader, Peter

    2009-12-01

    This example of an 80-year-old patient with severe lung disease and respiratory failure demonstrates the difficult relationship between the patient's needs, physical symptoms, and social problems. This man decides after a prolonged and difficult in-patient treatment actively for home ventilation rather than die of respiratory failure. He opts for tracheostomy and invasive ventilation because he cannot handle non-invasive mask-ventilation sufficiently by himself. It requires professional communication and support to gain the acceptance of family and caregivers for home ventilation. A survey of existing data on end of life decision-making in end-stage lung disease is given.

  8. Mechanical ventilation: what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Fenstermacher, Denise; Hong, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is the second most frequently performed therapeutic intervention after treatment for cardiac arrhythmias in intensive care units today. Countless lives have been saved with its use despite being associated with a greater than 30% in-hospital mortality rate. As life expectancies increase and people with chronic illnesses survive longer, artificial support with mechanical ventilation is also expected to rise. In one survey, over half of senior internal medicine residents reported their training on mechanical ventilation as inadequate, whereas the majority of critical care nurses reported having received no formal education on its use. Technological advances resulting in the availability of sleeker ventilators with graphic waveform displays and new modes of ventilation have challenged the bedside clinicians to incorporate this new data along with evidenced-based research into their daily practice. A review of current thoughts on mechanical ventilation and weaning is presented.

  9. [VENTILOP survey. Survey in peroperative mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Fischer, F; Collange, O; Mahoudeau, G; Simon, M; Moussa, H; Thibaud, A; Steib, A; Pottecher, T; Mertes, M

    2014-06-01

    Mechanical ventilation can initiate ventilator-associated lung injury and postoperative pulmonary complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) how mechanical ventilation was comprehended by anaesthetists (physician and nurses) and (2) the need for educational programs. A computing questionnary was sent by electronic-mail to the entire anaesthetist from Alsace region in France (297 physicians), and to a pool of 99 nurse anaesthetists. Mechanical ventilation during anaesthesia was considered as optimized when low tidal volume (6-8mL) of ideal body weight was associated with positive end expiratory pressure, FiO2 less than 50%, I/E adjustment and recruitment maneuvers. The participation rate was 50.5% (172 professionals). Only 2.3% of professionals used the five parameters for optimized ventilation. Majority of professionals considered that mechanical ventilation adjustment influenced the patients' postoperative outcome. Majority of the professionals asked for a specific educational program in the field of mechanical ventilation. Only 2.3% of professionals optimized mechanical ventilation during anaesthesia. Guidelines and specific educational programs in the field of mechanical ventilation are widely expected. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in immediate postoperative cardiac surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Mazullo Filho, João Batista Raposo; Bonfim, Vânia Jandira Gomes; Aquim, Esperidião Elias

    2010-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation is routine in acute respiratory failure patients; nevertheless, the literature is controversial for its use in cardiac surgery postoperative period. To evaluate the effectiveness of preventive noninvasive ventilation in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery, monitoring its impact until the sixth day of hospitalization. This was a controlled study, where patients in immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery were randomized into two groups: control (G1) and investigational (G2) which received noninvasive ventilation set on pressure support mode and positive end expiratory pressure, for 2 hours following extubation. Were evaluated ventilatory, hemodynamical and oxygenation variables both immediately after extubation and after noninvasive ventilation in G2. Thirty-two patients completed the study, 18 in G1 and 14 in G2. The mean age was 61±16.23 years for G1 and for G2 61.5 ± 9.4 years. Of the initial twenty-seven patients in G1, nine patients (33.3%) were excluded due to invasive ventilation requirements, and three patients (11.11%) had to go back to invasive mechanical ventilation. None of the 14 G2 patients was reintubated. Patients undergoing early ventilatory support showed better results in the assessments throughout the hospitalization time. Noninvasive post-cardiac surgery ventilation was proven effective, as demonstrated by increased vital capacity, decreased respiratory rate, prevention of post-extubation acute respiratory failure and reduced reintubation rates.

  11. Exercise oscillatory ventilation: Mechanisms and prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Bishnu P; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Alteration in breathing patterns characterized by cyclic variation of ventilation during rest and during exercise has been recognized in patients with advanced heart failure (HF) for nearly two centuries. Periodic breathing (PB) during exercise is known as exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) and is characterized by the periods of hyperpnea and hypopnea without interposed apnea. EOV is a non-invasive parameter detected during submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Presence of EOV during exercise in HF patients indicates significant impairment in resting and exercise hemodynamic parameters. EOV is also an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in HF patients both with reduced and preserved ejection fraction irrespective of other gas exchange variables. Circulatory delay, increased chemosensitivity, pulmonary congestion and increased ergoreflex signaling have been proposed as the mechanisms underlying the generation of EOV in HF patients. There is no proven treatment of EOV but its reversal has been noted with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, exercise training and acetazolamide in relatively small studies. In this review, we discuss the mechanistic basis of PB during exercise and the clinical implications of recognizing PB patterns in patients with HF. PMID:27022457

  12. Non-invasive ventilation in the postoperative period: Is there a role?

    PubMed

    Mathai, Ashu S

    2011-07-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has emerged as a simpler and safer alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation in patients developing acute postoperative respiratory failure. The benefits of NIV as compared to intubation and mechanical ventilation include lower complications, shorter duration of hospital stay, reduced morbidity, lesser cost of treatment and even reduced mortality rates. However, its use may not be uniformly applicable in all patient groups. This article reviews the indications, contraindications and evidence supporting the use of NIV in individual patient groups in the postoperative period. The anaesthesiologist needs to recognise the subset of patients most likely to benefit from NIV therapy so as to apply it most effectively. It is equally important to promptly identify signs of failure of NIV therapy and be prepared to initiate alternate ways of respiratory support. The author searched PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE, without date restrictions. Search terms included Non-invasive ventilation, postoperative and respiratory failure. Foreign literature was included, though only articles with English translation were used.

  13. Non-invasive ventilation in the postoperative period: Is there a role?

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, Ashu S

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has emerged as a simpler and safer alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation in patients developing acute postoperative respiratory failure. The benefits of NIV as compared to intubation and mechanical ventilation include lower complications, shorter duration of hospital stay, reduced morbidity, lesser cost of treatment and even reduced mortality rates. However, its use may not be uniformly applicable in all patient groups. This article reviews the indications, contraindications and evidence supporting the use of NIV in individual patient groups in the postoperative period. The anaesthesiologist needs to recognise the subset of patients most likely to benefit from NIV therapy so as to apply it most effectively. It is equally important to promptly identify signs of failure of NIV therapy and be prepared to initiate alternate ways of respiratory support. The author searched PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE, without date restrictions. Search terms included Non-invasive ventilation, postoperative and respiratory failure. Foreign literature was included, though only articles with English translation were used. PMID:22013246

  14. Mechanical Ventilation: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tài; Brochard, Laurent J; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is the most used short-term life support technique worldwide and is applied daily for a diverse spectrum of indications, from scheduled surgical procedures to acute organ failure. This state-of-the-art review provides an update on the basic physiology of respiratory mechanics, the working principles, and the main ventilatory settings, as well as the potential complications of mechanical ventilation. Specific ventilatory approaches in particular situations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are detailed along with protective ventilation in patients with normal lungs. We also highlight recent data on patient-ventilator dyssynchrony, humidified high-flow oxygen through nasal cannula, extracorporeal life support, and the weaning phase. Finally, we discuss the future of mechanical ventilation, addressing avenues for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The potential of non-invasive ventilation to decrease BPD.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Vineet

    2013-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the most common chronic lung disease in infancy, has serious long-term pulmonary and neurodevelopmental consequences right up to adulthood, and is associated with significant healthcare costs. BPD is a multifactorial disease, with genetic and environmental factors interacting to culminate in the characteristic clinical and pathological phenotype. Among the environmental factors, invasive endotracheal tube ventilation is considered a critical contributing factor to the pathogenesis of BPD. Since BPD currently has no specific preventive or effective therapy, considerable interest has focused on the use of non-invasive ventilation as a means to potentially decrease the incidence of BPD. This article reviews the progress made in the last 5 years in the use of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (NCPAP) and nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) as it pertains to impacting on BPD rates. Research efforts are summarized, and some guidelines are suggested for clinical use of these techniques in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Non-invasive ventilation and acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema].

    PubMed

    Golmard, Céline

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an integral part of therapies used in patients presenting acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. In cardiac intensive care, these patients are treated by teams trained and practised in this technique. The nurses play a central role in the support and monitoring of the patients.

  17. Humidification during Mechanical Ventilation in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Al Ashry, Haitham S.; Modrykamien, Ariel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions. PMID:25089275

  18. Tracheostomy tube enabling speech during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Nomori, Hiroaki

    2004-03-01

    A voice tracheostomy tube (VTT) was developed to enable patients to speak during mechanical ventilation. The VTT has slits cut in it and is covered on part of its side with an elastic cuff, enabling the cuff to expand with positive pressure from the ventilator on inspiration and to deflate on expiration. By this mechanism, inspired air from the ventilator goes to the lung with the cuff inflated, and some of the expired air passes out around the deflated cuff and discharges through the glottis, allowing sufficient ventilation and also enabling vocal fold vibration. An experiment using a model lung showed that there was little leakage on inspiration even for low lung compliance and high airway pressure, and that the leakage volume on expiration was approximately 40% of the ventilated volume, ie, the volume discharging through the vocal fold in clinical use. Sixteen patients who had been managed by ventilation via a conventional tracheostomy tube were switched to the VTT. All patients except one were able to speak after switching to the VTT without change in PaO(2) and PaCO(2). There were no complications associated with the use of the VTT. Bronchoscopy showed that the cuff of the VTT did not damage the tracheal mucosa. The VTT enables patients to speak during mechanical ventilation with sufficient ventilation and without aspiration and damage to the tracheal mucosa, even in patients with low lung compliance.

  19. Variation in Definition of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Louise; McGinlay, Michael; Amin, Reshma; Burns, Karen Ea; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Jouvet, Philippe; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; McAuley, Danny F; Schultz, Marcus J; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-10-01

    Consistency of definitional criteria for terminology applied to describe subject cohorts receiving mechanical ventilation within ICU and post-acute care settings is important for understanding prevalence, risk stratification, effectiveness of interventions, and projections for resource allocation. Our objective was to quantify the application and definition of terms for prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a scoping review of studies (all designs except single-case study) reporting a study population (adult and pediatric) using the term prolonged mechanical ventilation or a synonym. We screened 5,331 references, reviewed 539 full-text references, and excluded 120. Of the 419 studies (representing 38 countries) meeting inclusion criteria, 297 (71%) reported data on a heterogeneous subject cohort, and 66 (16%) included surgical subjects only (46 of those 66, 70% cardiac surgery). Other studies described COPD (16, 4%), trauma (22, 5%), neuromuscular (17, 4%), and sepsis (1, 0.2%) cohorts. A total of 741 terms were used to refer to the 419 study cohorts. The most common terms were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (253, 60%), admission to specialized unit (107, 26%), and long-term mechanical ventilation (79, 19%). Some authors (282, 67%) defined their cohorts based on duration of mechanical ventilation, with 154 studies (55%) using this as the sole criterion. We identified 37 different durations of ventilation ranging from 5 h to 1 y, with > 21 d being the most common (28 of 282, 7%). For studies describing a surgical cohort, minimum ventilation duration required for inclusion was ≥ 24 h for 20 of 66 studies (30%). More than half of all studies (237, 57%) did not provide a reason/rationale for definitional criteria used, with only 28 studies (7%) referring to a consensus definition. We conclude that substantial variation exists in the terminology and definitional criteria for cohorts of subjects receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Standardization of

  20. Related factors to semi-recumbent position compliance and pressure ulcers in patients with invasive mechanical ventilation: An observational study (CAPCRI study).

    PubMed

    Llaurado-Serra, Mireia; Ulldemolins, Marta; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Guell-Baro, Rosa; Valentí-Trulls, Teresa; Calpe-Damians, Neus; Piñol-Tena, Angels; Pi-Guerrero, Mercedes; Paños-Espinosa, Cristina; Sandiumenge, Alberto; Jimenez-Herrera, María F

    2016-09-01

    Semi-recumbent position is recommended to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. Its implementation, however, is below optimal. We aimed to assess real semi-recumbent position compliance and the degree of head-of-bed elevation in Spanish intensive care units, along with factors determining compliance and head-of-bed elevation and their relationship with the development of pressure ulcers. Finally, we investigated the impact that might have the diagnosis of pressure ulcers in the attitude toward head-of-bed elevation. We performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study in 6 intensive care units. Inclusion criteria were patients ≥18 years old and expected to remain under mechanical ventilator for ≥48h. Exclusion criteria were patients with contraindications for semi-recumbent position from admission, mechanical ventilation during the previous 7 days and prehospital intubation. Head-of-bed elevation was measured 3 times/day for a maximum of 28 days using the BOSCH GLM80(®) device. The variables collected related to patient admission, risk of pressure ulcers and the measurements themselves. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using multiple binary logistic regression and linear regression as appropriate. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. All analyses were performed with IBM SPSS for Windows Version 20.0. 276 patients were included (6894 measurements). 45.9% of the measurements were <30.0°. The mean head-of-bed elevation was 30.1 (SD 6.7)° and mean patient compliance was 53.6 (SD 26.1)%. The main reasons for non-compliance according to the staff nurses were those related to the patient's care followed by clinical reasons. The factors independently related to semi-recumbent position compliance were intensive care unit, ventilation mode, nurse belonging to the research team, intracranial pressure catheter, beds with head-of-bed elevation device, type of pathology, lateral position, renal replacement therapy, nursing shift, open

  1. New modes of assisted mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Sipmann, F

    2014-05-01

    Recent major advances in mechanical ventilation have resulted in new exciting modes of assisted ventilation. Compared to traditional ventilation modes such as assisted-controlled ventilation or pressure support ventilation, these new modes offer a number of physiological advantages derived from the improved patient control over the ventilator. By implementing advanced closed-loop control systems and using information on lung mechanics, respiratory muscle function and respiratory drive, these modes are specifically designed to improve patient-ventilator synchrony and reduce the work of breathing. Depending on their specific operational characteristics, these modes can assist spontaneous breathing efforts synchronically in time and magnitude, adapt to changing patient demands, implement automated weaning protocols, and introduce a more physiological variability in the breathing pattern. Clinicians have now the possibility to individualize and optimize ventilatory assistance during the complex transition from fully controlled to spontaneous assisted ventilation. The growing evidence of the physiological and clinical benefits of these new modes is favoring their progressive introduction into clinical practice. Future clinical trials should improve our understanding of these modes and help determine whether the claimed benefits result in better outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Lemierre's Syndrome Associated with Mechanical Ventilation and Profound Deafness

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare disorder that is characterized by anaerobic organisms inducing a thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (IJV) following a course of oropharyngeal infection. It often occurs in young and healthy patients. Clinicians continuously misinterpret early symptoms until infection disseminates systematically and life-threatening sepsis transpires. We report the case of a 58-year-old female developing Lemierre's syndrome accompanied by invasive ventilation support and a profound deafness requiring the implementation of a cochlear implant. This is one of two reported cases of Lemierre's syndrome associated with mechanical ventilation support and the only case associated with a cochlear implant. PMID:28331642

  3. Risk factors associated with increased length of mechanical ventilation in children.

    PubMed

    Payen, Valérie; Jouvet, Philippe; Lacroix, Jacques; Ducruet, Thierry; Gauvin, France

    2012-03-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation, if prolonged, may lead to high morbidity and mortality. To determine the incidence rate and early risk factors for prolonged acute invasive mechanical ventilation in children. Retrospective longitudinal cohort study over a 1-yr period. All consecutive episodes of invasive mechanical ventilation in the pediatric intensive care units of Sainte-Justine Hospital (Montreal, Canada) were included. Risk factors for long (≥96 hrs) vs. short (<96 hrs) duration of ventilation were determined by logistic regression. None. Among the 360 episodes of invasive ventilation, 36% had a length of ≥96 hrs. Following multivariate analysis, significant risk factors for prolonged acute invasive mechanical ventilation were age of <12 months (odds ratio 3.27, 95% confidence interval 1.90-5.63), Pediatric Risk of Mortality score of ≥15 at admission (odds ratio 3.41, 95% confidence interval 1.31-8.89), mean airway pressure of ≥13 cm H(2)O on day 1 (odds ratio 5.92, 95% confidence interval 3.08-11.36), use of continuous intravenous sedation on day 1 (odds ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.00-3.05), and use of noninvasive ventilation before intubation (odds ratio 6.56, 95% confidence interval 1.99-21.63). Among the risk factors identified, the use of noninvasive ventilation and continuous intravenous sedation on the first day of ventilation are the only two interventions that were associated with prolonged acute invasive mechanical ventilation. Further research is needed to study the impact of sedation protocols on the duration of mechanical ventilation in children.

  4. Challenges on non-invasive ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele

    2016-11-15

    Acute respiratory failure is a frequent complication in elderly patients especially if suffering from chronic cardio-pulmonary diseases. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation constitutes a successful therapeutic tool in the elderly as, like in younger patients, it is able to prevent endotracheal intubation in a wide range of acute conditions; moreover, this ventilator technique is largely applied in the elderly in whom invasive mechanical ventilation is considered not appropriated. Furthermore, the integration of new technological devices, ethical issues and environment of treatment are still largely debated in the treatment of acute respiratory failure in the elderly.This review aims at reporting and critically analyzing the peculiarities in the management of acute respiratory failure in elderly people, the role of noninvasive mechanical ventilation, the potential advantages of applying alternative or integrated therapeutic tools (i.e. high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, non-invasive and invasive cough assist devices and low-flow carbon-dioxide extracorporeal systems), drawbacks in physician's communication and "end of life" decisions. As several areas of this topic are not supported by evidence-based data, this report takes in account also "real-life" data as well as author's experience.The choice of the setting and of the timing of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in elderly people with advanced cardiopulmonary disease should be carefully evaluated together with the chance of using integrated or alternative supportive devices. Last but not least, economic and ethical issues may often challenges the behavior of the physicians towards elderly people who are hospitalized for acute respiratory failure at the end stage of their cardiopulmonary and neoplastic diseases.

  5. Humidification of inspired gases during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Gross, J L; Park, G R

    2012-04-01

    Humidification of inspired gas is mandatory for all mechanically ventilated patients to prevent secretion retention, tracheal tube blockage and adverse changes occurring to the respiratory tract epithelium. However, the debate over "ideal" humidification continues. Several devices are available that include active and passive heat and moisture exchangers and hot water humidifiers Each have their advantages and disadvantages in mechanically ventilated patients. This review explores each device in turn and defines their role in clinical practice.

  6. Electrical Impedance Tomography During Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brian K; Smallwood, Craig D

    2016-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive, non-radiologic imaging modality that may be useful for the quantification of lung disorders and titration of mechanical ventilation. The principle of operation is based on changes in electrical conductivity that occur as a function of changes in lung volume during ventilation. EIT offers potentially important benefits over standard imaging modalities because the system is portable and non-radiologic and can be applied to patients for long periods of time. Rather than providing a technical dissection of the methods utilized to gather, compile, reconstruct, and display EIT images, the present article seeks to provide an overview of the clinical application of this technology as it relates to monitoring mechanical ventilation and providing decision support at the bedside. EIT has been shown to be useful in the detection of pneumothoraces, quantification of pulmonary edema and comparison of distribution of ventilation between different modes of ventilation and may offer superior individual titration of PEEP and other ventilator parameters compared with existing approaches. Although application of EIT is still primarily done within a research context, it may prove to be a useful bedside tool in the future. However, head-to-head comparisons with existing methods of mechanical ventilation titration in humans need to be conducted before its application in general ICUs can be recommended. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Analysis of respiratory mechanics during artificial ventilation.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, J

    1998-04-01

    Mechanical or artificial ventilation is the most important life-saving therapeutic instrument in modern intensive care medicine. The ventilator takes on the convective transport of the respiratory gas, i.e. delivery of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide. The technical gas delivery system (ventilator, respiratory tubing system, gas humidifier) and the respiratory system (lungs and thorax) of the patients form a connected pneumatic system of high complexity. The respiratory system produces a mechanical impedance to ventilator output. Impedance is composed of an elastic, a non-elastic, i.e. resistive, and an inertive part. The corresponding indices describing respiratory mechanics are compliance, flow resistance and inertance. Based on the equation of motion of the respiratory system, several methods of analysing respiratory mechanics during mechanical ventilation are described. Quantitative analysis of respiratory system mechanics (a) is a prerequisite for the understanding of the complex patient-ventilator interaction, (b) provides important clinical information on pulmonary function and the course of disease, and (c) allows the physician at the bedside to adjust the ventilatory settings to the needs of the individual patient.

  8. Mechanical ventilation and respiratory mechanics during equine anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Moens, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical ventilation of horses during anesthesia remains a crucial option for optimal anesthetic management, if the possible negative cardiovascular side effects are managed, because this species is prone to hypercapnia and hypoxemia. The combined use of capnography and pitot-based spirometry provide complementary information on ventilation and respiratory mechanics, respectively. This facilitates management of mechanical ventilation in conditions of changing respiratory system compliance (ie, laparoscopy) and when investigating new ventilatory strategies including alveolar recruitment maneuvers and optimization of positive expiratory pressure.

  9. Use of non‐invasive ventilation in UK emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Browning, J; Atwood, B; Gray, A

    2006-01-01

    Aim To describe the current use of non‐invasive ventilation in UK emergency departments. Methods A structured questionnaire was sent to all UK emergency departments assessing 25,000 new patients annually. Results 222 of 233 departments completed the questionnaire. 148 currently use non‐invasive ventilation (NIV). Most used NIV for either cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (n = 128) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 115). Only 49 departments have protocols for NIV use and 23 audited practice. Conclusion NIV is commonly used in UK emergency departments. Practices vary significantly. One solution would be the development of guidelines on when and how to use NIV in emergency medicine practice. PMID:17130599

  10. Special Considerations in Neonatal Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Stacey; Kostecky, Linda; Charania, Irina

    2016-12-01

    Care of infants supported with mechanical ventilation is complex, time intensive, and requires constant vigilance by an expertly prepared health care team. Current evidence must guide nursing practice regarding ventilated neonates. This article highlights the importance of common language to establish a shared mental model and enhance clear communication among the interprofessional team. Knowledge regarding the underpinnings of an open lung strategy and the interplay between the pathophysiology and individual infant's response to a specific ventilator strategy is most likely to result in a positive clinical outcome.

  11. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b) The...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under § 154.1200 (a) must have ducts for...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b) The...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under § 154.1200 (a) must have ducts for...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1205 Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. (a) Each exhaust type mechanical ventilation system required under § 154.1200 (a) must have ducts for...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b) The...

  17. Daily Goals Formulation and Enhanced Visualization of Mechanical Ventilation Variance Improves Mechanical Ventilation Score.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brian K; Smallwood, Craig; Rettig, Jordan; Kacmarek, Robert M; Thompson, John; Arnold, John H

    2017-03-01

    The systematic implementation of evidence-based practice through the use of guidelines, checklists, and protocols mitigates the risks associated with mechanical ventilation, yet variation in practice remains prevalent. Recent advances in software and hardware have allowed for the development and deployment of an enhanced visualization tool that identifies mechanical ventilation goal variance. Our aim was to assess the utility of daily goal establishment and a computer-aided visualization of variance. This study was composed of 3 phases: a retrospective observational phase (baseline) followed by 2 prospective sequential interventions. Phase I intervention comprised daily goal establishment of mechanical ventilation. Phase II intervention was the setting and monitoring of daily goals of mechanical ventilation with a web-based data visualization system (T3). A single score of mechanical ventilation was developed to evaluate the outcome. The baseline phase evaluated 130 subjects, phase I enrolled 31 subjects, and phase II enrolled 36 subjects. There were no differences in demographic characteristics between cohorts. A total of 171 verbalizations of goals of mechanical ventilation were completed in phase I. The use of T3 increased by 87% from phase I. Mechanical ventilation score improved by 8.4% in phase I and 11.3% in phase II from baseline (P = .032). The largest effect was in the low risk VT category, with a 40.3% improvement from baseline in phase I, which was maintained at 39% improvement from baseline in phase II (P = .01). mechanical ventilation score was 9% higher on average in those who survived. Daily goal formation and computer-enhanced visualization of mechanical ventilation variance were associated with an improvement in goal attainment by evidence of an improved mechanical ventilation score. Further research is needed to determine whether improvements in mechanical ventilation score through a targeted, process-oriented intervention will lead to improved

  18. Mechanical Ventilation and ARDS in the ED

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Nicholas M.; Miller, Christopher N.; Deitchman, Andrew R.; Castagno, Nicole; Hassebroek, Elizabeth C.; Dhedhi, Adam; Scott-Wittenborn, Nicholas; Grace, Edward; Lehew, Courtney; Kollef, Marin H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data regarding mechanical ventilation and ARDS in the ED. This could be a vital arena for prevention and treatment. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, observational, prospective, cohort study aimed at analyzing ventilation practices in the ED. The primary outcome was the incidence of ARDS after admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of ARDS. RESULTS: We analyzed 219 patients receiving mechanical ventilation to assess ED ventilation practices. Median tidal volume was 7.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW) (interquartile range, 6.9-8.9), with a range of 4.3 to 12.2 mL/kg PBW. Lung-protective ventilation was used in 122 patients (55.7%). The incidence of ARDS after admission from the ED was 14.7%, with a mean onset of 2.3 days. Progression to ARDS was associated with higher illness severity and intubation in the prehospital environment or transferring facility. Of the 15 patients with ARDS in the ED (6.8%), lung-protective ventilation was used in seven (46.7%). Patients who progressed to ARDS experienced greater duration in organ failure and ICU length of stay and higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Lung-protective ventilation is infrequent in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ED, regardless of ARDS status. Progression to ARDS is common after admission, occurs early, and worsens outcome. Patient- and treatment-related factors present in the ED are associated with ARDS. Given the limited treatment options for ARDS, and the early onset after admission from the ED, measures to prevent onset and to mitigate severity should be instituted in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01628523; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:25742126

  19. Cardiac output estimation using pulmonary mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) decreases cardiac output (CO). Accurate measurement of CO is highly invasive and is not ideal for all MV critically ill patients. However, the link between the PEEP used in MV, and CO provides an opportunity to assess CO via MV therapy and other existing measurements, creating a CO measure without further invasiveness. This paper examines combining models of diffusion resistance and lung mechanics, to help predict CO changes due to PEEP. The CO estimator uses an initial measurement of pulmonary shunt, and estimations of shunt changes due to PEEP to predict CO at different levels of PEEP. Inputs to the cardiac model are the PV loops from the ventilator, as well as the oxygen saturation values using known respiratory inspired oxygen content. The outputs are estimates of pulmonary shunt and CO changes due to changes in applied PEEP. Data from two published studies are used to assess and initially validate this model. The model shows the effect on oxygenation due to decreased CO and decreased shunt, resulting from increased PEEP. It concludes that there is a trade off on oxygenation parameters. More clinically importantly, the model also examines how the rate of CO drop with increased PEEP can be used as a method to determine optimal PEEP, which may be used to optimise MV therapy with respect to the gas exchange achieved, as well as accounting for the impact on the cardiovascular system and its management. PMID:21108836

  20. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernadete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; de Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Claudio; Malbouisson, Luis Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamed; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; de Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sergio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25295817

  1. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25210957

  2. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I.

    PubMed

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Isola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernardete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot de; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis Dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Cláudio; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamad; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco de; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sérgio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumonia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document.

  3. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document.

  4. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernadete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; de Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Claudio; Malbouisson, Luis Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamed; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; de Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sergio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document.

  5. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernardete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; de Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Cláudio; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamad; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; de Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sérgio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25028944

  6. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25410835

  7. Intelligent decision support systems for mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Fleur T; Roum, James H

    2008-11-01

    An overview of different methodologies used in various intelligent decision support systems (IDSSs) for mechanical ventilation is provided. The applications of the techniques are compared in view of today's intensive care unit (ICU) requirements. Information available in the literature is utilized to provide a methodological review of different systems. Comparisons are made of different systems developed for specific ventilation modes as well as those intended for use in wider applications. The inputs and the optimized parameters of different systems are discussed and rule-based systems are compared to model-based techniques. The knowledge-based systems used for closed-loop control of weaning from mechanical ventilation are also described. Finally, in view of increasing trend towards automation of mechanical ventilation, the potential utility of intelligent advisory systems for this purpose is discussed. IDSSs for mechanical ventilation can be quite helpful to clinicians in today's ICU settings. To be useful, such systems should be designed to be effective, safe, and easy to use at patient's bedside. In particular, these systems must be capable of noise removal, artifact detection and effective validation of data. Systems that can also be adapted for closed-loop control/weaning of patients at the discretion of the clinician, may have a higher potential for use in the future.

  8. Recommendations for mechanical ventilation of critically ill children from the Paediatric Mechanical Ventilation Consensus Conference (PEMVECC).

    PubMed

    Kneyber, Martin C J; de Luca, Daniele; Calderini, Edoardo; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri; Javouhey, Etienne; Lopez-Herce, Jesus; Hammer, Jürg; Macrae, Duncan; Markhorst, Dick G; Medina, Alberto; Pons-Odena, Marti; Racca, Fabrizio; Wolf, Gerhard; Biban, Paolo; Brierley, Joe; Rimensberger, Peter C

    2017-09-22

    Much of the common practice in paediatric mechanical ventilation is based on personal experiences and what paediatric critical care practitioners have adopted from adult and neonatal experience. This presents a barrier to planning and interpretation of clinical trials on the use of specific and targeted interventions. We aim to establish a European consensus guideline on mechanical ventilation of critically children. The European Society for Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care initiated a consensus conference of international European experts in paediatric mechanical ventilation to provide recommendations using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles, appropriateness method. An electronic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed using a combination of medical subject heading terms and text words related to mechanical ventilation and disease-specific terms. The Paediatric Mechanical Ventilation Consensus Conference (PEMVECC) consisted of a panel of 15 experts who developed and voted on 152 recommendations related to the following topics: (1) general recommendations, (2) monitoring, (3) targets of oxygenation and ventilation, (4) supportive measures, (5) weaning and extubation readiness, (6) normal lungs, (7) obstructive diseases, (8) restrictive diseases, (9) mixed diseases, (10) chronically ventilated patients, (11) cardiac patients and (12) lung hypoplasia syndromes. There were 142 (93.4%) recommendations with "strong agreement". The final iteration of the recommendations had none with equipoise or disagreement. These recommendations should help to harmonise the approach to paediatric mechanical ventilation and can be proposed as a standard-of-care applicable in daily clinical practice and clinical research.

  9. [Pressure support ventilation and proportional assist ventilation during weaning from mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Bermeo, H; Bottiroli, M; Italiano, S; Roche-Campo, F; Santos, J A; Alonso, M; Mancebo, J

    2014-01-01

    To compare tolerance, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and clinical outcomes during weaning from MV in patients subjected to either pressure support ventilation (PSV) or proportional assist ventilation (PAV). A prospective, observational study was carried out. Intensive Care Unit. A total of 40 consecutive subjects were allocated to either the PSV or the PAV group until each group contained 20 patients. Patients were included in the study when they met the criteria to begin weaning and the attending physician decided to initiate the weaning process. The physician selected the modality and set the ventilatory parameters. None. Demographic data, respiratory mechanics, ventilatory parameters, duration of MV, and clinical outcomes (reintubation, tracheostomy, mortality). Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. No significant differences were observed between the PSV and PAV groups in terms of the total duration of MV (10 [5-18] vs. 9 [7-19] days; P=.85), reintubation (5 [31%] vs. 3 [19%]; P=.69), or mortality (4 [20%] vs. 5 [25%] deaths; P=1). Eight patients (40%) in the PSV group and 6 patients (30%) in the PAV group (P=.74) required a return to volume assist-control ventilation due to clinical deterioration. Tolerance, duration of MV and clinical outcomes during weaning from mechanical ventilation were similar in PSV and PAV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Subject-ventilator synchrony during neural versus pneumatically triggered non-invasive helmet ventilation.

    PubMed

    Moerer, Onnen; Beck, Jennifer; Brander, Lukas; Costa, Roberta; Quintel, Michael; Slutsky, Arthur S; Brunet, Fabrice; Sinderby, Christer

    2008-09-01

    Patient-ventilator synchrony during non-invasive pressure support ventilation with the helmet device is often compromised when conventional pneumatic triggering and cycling-off were used. A possible solution to this shortcoming is to replace the pneumatic triggering with neural triggering and cycling-off-using the diaphragm electrical activity (EA(di)). This signal is insensitive to leaks and to the compliance of the ventilator circuit. Randomized, single-blinded, experimental study. University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS AND SUBJECTS: Seven healthy human volunteers. Pneumatic triggering and cycling-off were compared to neural triggering and cycling-off during NIV delivered with the helmet. Triggering and cycling-off delays, wasted efforts, and breathing comfort were determined during restricted breathing efforts (<20% of voluntary maximum EA(di)) with various combinations of pressure support (PSV) (5, 10, 20 cm H(2)O) and respiratory rates (10, 20, 30 breath/min). During pneumatic triggering and cycling-off, the subject-ventilator synchrony was progressively more impaired with increasing respiratory rate and levels of PSV (p < 0.001). During neural triggering and cycling-off, effect of increasing respiratory rate and levels of PSV on subject-ventilator synchrony was minimal. Breathing comfort was higher during neural triggering than during pneumatic triggering (p < 0.001). The present study demonstrates in healthy subjects that subject-ventilator synchrony, trigger effort, and breathing comfort with a helmet interface are considerably less impaired during increasing levels of PSV and respiratory rates with neural triggering and cycling-off, compared to conventional pneumatic triggering and cycling-off.

  11. Early Mobilization of Mechanically Ventilated Patients.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Pam

    2016-12-01

    Critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation are least likely to be mobilized and, as a result, are at-risk for prolonged complications from weakness. The use of bed rest and sedation when caring for mechanically ventilated patients is likely shaped by historical practice; however, this review demonstrates early mobilization, with little to no sedation, is possible and safe. Assessing readiness for mobilization in context of progressing patients from passive to active activities can lead to long-term benefits and has been achievable with resource-efficient implementations and team work.

  12. Flow measurement in mechanical ventilation: a review.

    PubMed

    Schena, Emiliano; Massaroni, Carlo; Saccomandi, Paola; Cecchini, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Accurate monitoring of flow rate and volume exchanges is essential to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury. Mechanical ventilators employ flowmeters to estimate the amount of gases delivered to patients and use the flow signal as a feedback to adjust the desired amount of gas to be delivered. Since flowmeters play a crucial role in this field, they are required to fulfill strict criteria in terms of dynamic and static characteristics. Therefore, mechanical ventilators are equipped with only the following kinds of flowmeters: linear pneumotachographs, fixed and variable orifice meters, hot wire anemometers, and ultrasonic flowmeters. This paper provides an overview of these sensors. Their working principles are described together with their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, the most promising emerging approaches for flowmeters design (i.e., fiber optic technology and three dimensional micro-fabrication) are briefly reviewed showing their potential for this application.

  13. [Evolution of non-invasive ventilation in acute bronchiolitis].

    PubMed

    Toledo del Castillo, B; Fernández Lafever, S N; López Sanguos, C; Díaz-Chirón Sánchez, L; Sánchez da Silva, M; López-Herce Cid, J

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the evolution, over a12-year period, of the use of non-invasive (NIV) and invasive ventilation (IV) in children admitted to a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) due to acute bronchiolitis. A retrospective observational study was performed including all children who were admitted to the PICU requiring NIV or IV between 2001 and 2012. Demographic characteristics, ventilation assistance and clinical outcome were analysed. A comparison was made between the first six years and the last 6 years of the study. A total of 196 children were included; 30.1% of the subjects required IV and 93.3% required NIV. The median duration of IV was 9.5 days and NIV duration was 3 days. The median PICU length of stay was 7 days, and 2% of the patients died. The use of NIV increased from 79.4% in first period to 100% in the second period (P<.0001) and IV use decreased from 46% in first period to 22.6% in the last 6 years (P<.0001). Continuous positive airway pressure and nasopharyngeal tube were the most frequently used modality and interface, although the use of bi-level non-invasive ventilation (P<.001) and of nasal cannulas significantly increased (P<.0001) in the second period, and the PICU length of stay was shorter (P=.011). The increasing use of NIV in bronchiolitis in our PICU during the last 12 years was associated with a decrease in the use of IV and length of stay in the PICU. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical Ventilation in Sepsis: A Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fernando G; Mazza, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is the main cause of close to 70% of all cases of acute respiratory distress syndromes (ARDS). In addition, sepsis increases susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury. Therefore, the development of a ventilatory strategy that can achieve adequate oxygenation without injuring the lungs is highly sought after for patients with acute infection and represents an important therapeutic window to improve patient care. Suboptimal ventilatory settings cannot only harm the lung, but may also contribute to the cascade of organ failure in sepsis due to organ crosstalk.Despite the prominent role of sepsis as a cause for lung injury, most of the studies that addressed mechanical ventilation strategies in ARDS did not specifically assess sepsis-related ARDS patients. Consequently, most of the recommendations regarding mechanical ventilation in sepsis patients are derived from ARDS trials that included multiple clinical diagnoses. While there have been important improvements in general ventilatory management that should apply to all critically ill patients, sepsis-related lung injury might still have particularities that could influence bedside management.After revisiting the interplay between sepsis and ventilation-induced lung injury, this review will reappraise the evidence for the major components of the lung protective ventilation strategy, emphasizing the particularities of sepsis-related acute lung injury.

  15. State of the evidence: mechanical ventilation with PEEP in patients with cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Wiesen, Jonathan; Ornstein, Moshe; Tonelli, Adriano R; Menon, Venu; Ashton, Rendell W

    2013-12-01

    The need to provide invasive mechanical ventilatory support to patients with myocardial infarction and acute left heart failure is common. Despite the large number of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in this setting, there are remarkably few data addressing the ideal mode of respiratory support in such patients. Although there is near universal acceptance regarding the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute pulmonary oedema, there is more concern with invasive positive pressure ventilation owing to its more significant haemodynamic impact. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is almost universally applied in mechanically ventilated patients due to benefits in gas exchange, recruitment of alveolar units, counterbalance of hydrostatic forces leading to pulmonary oedema and maintenance of airway patency. The limited available clinical data suggest that a moderate level of PEEP is safe to use in severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and cardiogenic shock, and may provide haemodynamic benefits as well in LV failure which exhibits afterload-sensitive physiology.

  16. [Non-invasive ventilation in the treatment of infants with respiratory failure after cardiopulmonary bypass].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-zhen; Wu, Xi-jie

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of non-invasive ventilation in the treatment of infants with respiratory failure after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and extubation. Sixty-three infants who had undergone successful surgery with CPB, got respiratory failure after extubation. These infants were randomly divided into two groups: non-invasive (NV) group, treated with non-invasive ventilation and invasive (IV) group, treated with tracheal intubation. The alteration of clinical symptoms, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), pulse oxygen saturation (SpO₂) and blood gas were measured. A comparison was conducted in the incidence of complication and hospital infection, mechanical ventilation time, length of stay in ICU and hospital stay. Among the 32 patients in NV group, 1 patient died of heart failure, the remaining 31 patients recovered. Of these 32, 26 patients had relief of respiratory failure, the HR 181 (19.7) bpm, RR 54 (16.7) bpm and PaCO₂ 55.5(6) mm Hg decreased to 157 (12) bpm, 35 (3.25) bpm, and 42 (10.5) mm Hg, meanwhile SpO₂ 87% (10.5%), pH 7.29 (0.24), PaO₂ 55.5(6) mm Hg increased to 96% (3%), 7.37(0.15), 82.5 (11) mm Hg after treatment with non-invasive ventilation (P < 0.01). Six patients underwent tracheal intubation because their condition was not improved. Tracheal hemorrhage or laryngeal edema did not occur in these patients. Among the 31 patients in IV group, 1 patient died of heart failure, the other patients were cured. Of these 30, one patient had tracheal hemorrhage and four patients had laryngeal edema. The incidence of hospital infection in NV group was lower compared with that in IV group. The mechanical ventilation time in NV group 42 (17.2) h was shorter compared with that in IV group 50 (20) h (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the length of ICU and hospital stay between the two groups. Non-invasive ventilation is a safe and effective method to treat infants with respiratory failure after CPB and extubation.

  17. Dementia and Outcomes of Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Lagu, Tara; Zilberberg, Marya D; Tjia, Jennifer; Shieh, Meng-Shiou; Stefan, Mihaela; Pekow, Penelope S; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2016-10-01

    To describe the effect of dementia on hospital outcomes of individuals requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Retrospective cohort study. 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Hospitalized individuals with and without dementia undergoing IMV. The adjusted predicted probability of undergoing IMV was examined in individuals with and without dementia. Then the dataset was limited to individuals who received IMV, and a multivariable logistic regression model was created in which dementia was the primary predictor and mortality was the outcome. Of the 13,816,586 hospitalizations of older adults in the United States in 2011, 2,204,506 (16%) with a dementia diagnosis code were identified. Individuals with dementia had statistically significantly lower predicted probability of undergoing IMV (5.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.6-5.8% than those without (6.5%, 95% CI = 6.4-6.6%). When the dataset was limited to individuals undergoing IMV, those with dementia were older (mean age 80 vs 76, P < .001) and had a higher combined Gagne comorbidity score (4.4 vs 4.1, P < .001) than those without. In a multivariable model, dementia was associated with greater likelihood of survival to hospital discharge (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, P < .001). Individuals with dementia also had shorter mean length of stay (12.5 ± 0.2 vs 13.1 ± 0.2, P = .01) and lower cost per hospitalization for survivors ($37,213 vs $44,557, P < .001). Older critically ill adults with dementia undergoing IMV had better in-hospital outcomes than those without dementia. Because a lower adjusted percentage of individuals with dementia underwent IMV, it is likely that patient selection drove outcome differences. These findings suggest that individuals, families, and clinicians are carefully considering prognosis, quality of life, and appropriate use of intensive care unit resources when deciding whether to use IMV in individuals with dementia. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The

  18. Anxiety and Agitation in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Judith Ann; Dabbs, Annette Devito; Hoffman, Leslie; Milbrandt, Eric; Happ, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    During an ethnography conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU), we found that anxiety and agitation occurred frequently, and were important considerations in the care of 30 patients weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a secondary analysis to (a) describe characteristics of anxiety and agitation experienced by mechanically ventilated patients; (b) explore how clinicians recognize and interpret anxiety and agitation and (c) describe strategies and interventions used to manage anxiety and agitation with mechanically ventilated patients. We constructed the Anxiety-Agitation in Mechanical Ventilation Model to illustrate the multidimensional features of symptom recognition and management. Patients’ ability to interact with the environment served as a basis for identification and management of anxiety or agitation. Clinicians’ attributions about anxiety or agitation and “knowing the patient” contributed to their assessment of patient responses. Clinicians chose strategies to overcome either the stimulus or patient’s appraisal of risk of the stimulus. This article contributes to the body of knowledge about symptom recognition and management in the ICU by providing a comprehensive model to guide future research and practice. PMID:21908706

  19. A Medical Student Workshop in Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Kushins, Lawrence G.

    1980-01-01

    In order to teach applied respiratory physiology to medical students, the anesthesiology faculty at the University of Florida College of Medicine has designed and implemented a course that includes a laboratory workshop in mechanical ventilation of an animal model that allows students to apply and expand their knowledge. (JMD)

  20. A Medical Student Workshop in Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Kushins, Lawrence G.

    1980-01-01

    In order to teach applied respiratory physiology to medical students, the anesthesiology faculty at the University of Florida College of Medicine has designed and implemented a course that includes a laboratory workshop in mechanical ventilation of an animal model that allows students to apply and expand their knowledge. (JMD)

  1. Special cases: mechanical ventilation of neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Victoria E; Huang, Jason H; Pilcher, Webster H

    2007-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation has evolved greatly over the last half century, guided primarily by improved comprehension of the relevant pathology/physiology. Neurosurgical patients are a unique subgroup of patients who heavily use this technology for both support, and less commonly, as a therapy. Such patients demand special consideration with regard to mode of ventilation, use of positive end-expiratory pressure, and monitoring. In addition, meeting the ventilatory needs of neurosurgical patients while minimizing ventilatory-induced lung damage can be a challenging aspect of care.

  2. Non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vrijsen, Bart; Testelmans, Dries; Belge, Catharina; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip; Buyse, Bertien

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is widely used to improve alveolar hypoventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Several studies indicate a better survival when NIV is used, certainly in patients with none to moderate bulbar dysfunction. Data on quality of life (QoL) are rather disputable. Overall QoL is shown to be equivalent in patients with or without NIV, although health-related QoL is shown to be increased in patients with none to moderate bulbar dysfunction. NIV improves sleep quality, although patient-ventilator asynchronies are demonstrated. FVC < 50%, seated or supine, has been widely applied as threshold to initiate NIV. Today, measurements of respiratory muscle strength, nocturnal gas exchange and symptomatic complaints are used as indicators to start NIV. Being compliant with NIV therapy increases QoL and survival. Cough augmentation has an important role in appropriate NIV. Patients have today more technical options and patients with benefit from these advances are growing in number. Tracheal ventilation needs to be discussed when NIV seems impossible or becomes insufficient.

  3. Assessment of mechanical ventilation parameters on respiratory mechanics.

    PubMed

    Pidaparti, Ramana M; Koombua, Kittisak; Ward, Kevin R

    2012-01-01

    Better understanding of airway mechanics is very important in order to avoid lung injuries for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for treatment of respiratory problems in intensive-care medicine, as well as pulmonary medicine. Mechanical ventilation depends on several parameters, all of which affect the patient outcome. As there are no systematic numerical investigations of the role of mechanical ventilation parameters on airway mechanics, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of mechanical ventilation parameters on airway mechanics using coupled fluid-solid computational analysis. For the airway geometry of 3 to 5 generations considered, the simulation results showed that airflow velocity increased with increasing airflow rate. Airway pressure increased with increasing airflow rate, tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Airway displacement and airway strains increased with increasing airflow rate, tidal volume and PEEP form mechanical ventilation. Among various waveforms considered, sine waveform provided the highest airflow velocity and airway pressure while descending waveform provided the lowest airway pressure, airway displacement and airway strains. These results combined with optimization suggest that it is possible to obtain a set of mechanical ventilation strategies to avoid lung injuries in patients.

  4. Complementary home mechanical ventilation techniques. SEPAR Year 2014.

    PubMed

    Chiner, Eusebi; Sancho-Chust, José N; Landete, Pedro; Senent, Cristina; Gómez-Merino, Elia

    2014-12-01

    This is a review of the different complementary techniques that are useful for optimizing home mechanical ventilation (HMV). Airway clearance is very important in patients with HMV and many patients, particularly those with reduced peak cough flow, require airway clearance (manual or assisted) or assisted cough techniques (manual or mechanical) and suctioning procedures, in addition to ventilation. In the case of invasive HMV, good tracheostomy cannula management is essential for success. HMV patients may have sleep disturbances that must be taken into account. Sleep studies including complete polysomnography or respiratory polygraphy are helpful for identifying patient-ventilator asynchrony. Other techniques, such as bronchoscopy or nutritional support, may be required in patients on HMV, particularly if percutaneous gastrostomy is required. Information on treatment efficacy can be obtained from HMV monitoring, using methods such as pulse oximetry, capnography or the internal programs of the ventilators themselves. Finally, the importance of the patient's subjective perception is reviewed, as this may potentially affect the success of the HMV. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical ventilation for status asthmaticus in children.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, G; Kattan, M

    1989-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the time course of recovery of pediatric patients in status asthmaticus who were undergoing mechanical ventilation for life-threatening respiratory failure to evaluate the results with current medications and technology. Ten patients between 2 and 18 years of age underwent intubation on 20 occasions. Mechanical ventilation was maintained for a mean of 2 days. Positive end-expiratory pressure was introduced in the recovery phase to prevent hypoxemia. Twelve episodes (Group 1) involved intubation less than 48 hours; in eight episodes (group 2) the patients required ventilatory support greater than 48 hours. The two groups did not differ in regard to age, pharmacologic therapy, preintubation arterial blood gas data, or initial ventilator settings, but the rise in pH and fall in Paco2 differed significantly over the first 12 hours of therapy. In the group 2 patients, peak pressures were not increased greater than 60 cm H2O despite elevated Paco2 values, and aggressive sodium bicarbonate therapy for pH correction was not pursued. Complications were few and all patients survived. We conclude that asthma patients have variable resolution of airway obstruction during mechanical ventilation and that controlled hypoventilation can be a safe therapy for the patients with more severe obstruction.

  6. [Non invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with COPD exacerbation].

    PubMed

    Caberlotto, Oscar J; Acquier, Mariano Fernandez; Grodnisky, Laura; Malamud, Patricia; Gramblika, Georgina; Giugno, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This is a prospective study on the implementation of the non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to treat respiratory failure resulting from exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients hospitalized in a Pneumological Unit. From January 2000 to January 2003, 39 patients were included during 54 different exacerbation events after being evaluated under international standards. They were classified as severe and very severe patients on the basis of their FEV1 values of 26%. Twenty nine patients presented co-morbidities. As a consequence of the NPPV treatment, the pH values increased between the first and last register as well as the pCO2 dropped in the same period. The initial mean pH values were 7.25 reaching mean values of 7.33 at 2 hours and 7.39 at the discharge; the corresponding pCO2 mean values were 83.8 mmHg, 67.8 mmHg and 54.2 mmHg. Thirty five patients out of 39 were discharged after a mean hospitalization length of 13.6 days. Four patients died. Apropriate training of health care staff in general facilities could allow the implementation of NPPV in addition to usual medical care to treat exacerbation of COPD. High morbidity situations could arise during hospitalization, so invasive ventilation must be necessary.

  7. Non-invasive ventilation in postoperative patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chiumello, D; Chevallard, G; Gregoretti, C

    2011-06-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications, generally defined as any pulmonary abnormality occurring in the postoperative period, are still a significant issue in clinical practice increasing hospital length of stay, morbidity and mortality. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV), primarily applied in cardiogenic pulmonary edema, decompensated COPD and hypoxemic pulmonary failure, is nowadays also used in perioperative settings. Investigate the application and results of preventive and therapeutic NIV in postsurgical patients. A systematic review. Medical literature databases were searched for articles about "clinical trials," "randomized controlled trials" and "meta-analyses." The keywords "cardiac surgery," "thoracic surgery," "lung surgery," "abdominal surgery," "solid organ transplantation," "thoraco-abdominal surgery" and "bariatric surgery" were combined with any of these: "non-invasive positive pressure ventilation," "continuous positive airway pressure," "bilevel ventilation," "postoperative complications," "postoperative care," "respiratory care," "acute respiratory failure," "acute lung injury" and "acute respiratory distress syndrome." Twenty-nine articles (N=2,279 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies evaluated NIV in post-abdominal surgery, three in thoracic surgery, eight in cardiac surgery, three in thoraco-abdominal surgery, four in bariatric surgery and two in post solid organ transplantation used both for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. NIV improved arterial blood gases in 15 of the 22 prophylactic and in 4 of the 7 therapeutic studies, respectively. NIV reduced the intubation rate in 11 of the 29 studies and improved outcome in only 1. Despite these limited data and the necessity of new randomized trials, NIV could be considered as a prophylactic and therapeutic tool to improve gas exchange in postoperative patients. © Copyright jointly held by Springer and ESICM 2011

  8. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for severe influenza pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Masclans, J R; Pérez, M; Almirall, J; Lorente, L; Marqués, A; Socias, L; Vidaur, L; Rello, J

    2013-03-01

    The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure caused by viral pneumonia remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the use of NIV in a cohort of (H1N1)v pneumonia. Usefulness and success of NIV were assessed in a prospective, observational registry of patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus pneumonia in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) in 2009-10. Significant variables for NIV success were included in a multivariate analysis. In all, 685 patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia were admitted to participating ICUs; 489 were ventilated, 177 with NIV. The NIV was successful in 72 patients (40.7%), the rest required intubation. Low Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, low Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and absence of renal failure were associated with NIV success. Success of NIV was independently associated with fewer than two chest X-ray quadrant opacities (OR 3.5) and no vasopressor requirement (OR 8.1). However, among patients with two or more quadrant opacities, a SOFA score ≤7 presented a higher success rate than those with SOFA score >7 (OR 10.7). Patients in whom NIV was successful required shorter ventilation time, shorter ICU stay and hospital stay than NIV failure. In patients in whom NIV failed, the delay in intubation did not increase mortality (26.5% versus 24.2%). Clinicians used NIV in 25.8% of influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia admitted to ICU, and treatment was effective in 40.6% of them. NIV success was associated with shorter hospital stay and mortality similar to non-ventilated patients. NIV failure was associated with a mortality similar to those who were intubated from the start. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  9. Emergencies and outcome in invasive out-of-hospital ventilation: An observational study over a 1-year period.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Sven; Matthes, Sandhya; Kietzmann, Ilona; Priegnitz, Christina; Hagmeyer, Lars; Randerath, Winfried

    2017-08-04

    The number of ventilated patients is further increasing which leads to an increasing number of patients with weaning failure. In Germany, the treatment of patients with invasive out-of-hospital becomes more and more common. The aim of the study was to observe the outcome, the frequency and character of emergencies of patients with invasive out-of-hospital ventilation. We conducted a prospective study over 1 year. Fifty-nine invasively ventilated patients living either at home or at nursing homes specialized in ventilator medicine were included. Forty-one (71%) of the patients were living in a nursing home. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was the most common underlying disease (52.5%). Duration of daily ventilation did not change over the 1-year period. 52.8% of the months went without a documented emergency. The most common emergencies were oxygen desaturation (29.6%), increase of secretion (12.2%) and dyspnea (8.7%). We found no difference in the frequency of emergencies between patients cared for in their own home compared with residential care. Ten patients died during the observation period. Fewer emergencies (P = .02, CI 0.03-0.85) was the only parameter associated with a reduced mortality. Frequency of emergencies as well as survival showed no difference regarding the way patients were cared for. In patients with invasive home mechanical ventilation survival for more than 1 year seems to be common. Only the rate of emergencies affected survival. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Principles and function of mechanical ventilation: classification and modes of ventilators].

    PubMed

    Kelbel, C; Huntemann, M; Lorenz, J

    2006-04-01

    A spectrum of diseases is associated with the necessity for partial or total support of pulmonary ventilation. The insight into the function of ventilators and their modes reduces the spectrum of ventilatory support to a few basic principles. The knowledge enables the pulmonary intensivist to adapt mechanical ventilation to the individual patient's needs. This overview describes the technical aspects of mechanical ventilation and summarizes the variety of specific modes implied.

  11. History of Mechanical Ventilation. From Vesalius to Ventilator-induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Arthur S

    2015-05-15

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving therapy that catalyzed the development of modern intensive care units. The origins of modern mechanical ventilation can be traced back about five centuries to the seminal work of Andreas Vesalius. This article is a short history of mechanical ventilation, tracing its origins over the centuries to the present day. One of the great advances in ventilatory support over the past few decades has been the development of lung-protective ventilatory strategies, based on our understanding of the iatrogenic consequences of mechanical ventilation such as ventilator-induced lung injury. These strategies have markedly improved clinical outcomes in patients with respiratory failure.

  12. Music interventions for mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Bradt, Joke; Dileo, Cheryl; Grocke, Denise

    2010-12-08

    Mechanical ventilation often causes major distress and anxiety in patients. Music interventions have been used to reduce anxiety and distress and improve physiological functioning in medical patients; however its efficacy for mechanically ventilated patients needs to be evaluated. To examine the effects of music interventions with standard care versus standard care alone on anxiety and physiological responses in mechanically ventilated patients. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS, Science Citation Index, www.musictherapyworld.net, CAIRSS for Music, Proquest Digital Dissertations, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, the National Research Register, and NIH CRISP (all to January 2010). We handsearched music therapy journals and reference lists and contacted relevant experts to identify unpublished manuscripts. There was no language restriction. We included all randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared music interventions and standard care with standard care alone for mechanically ventilated patients. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality. Additional information was sought from the trial researchers, when necessary. Results were presented using mean differences for outcomes measured by the same scale and standardized mean differences for outcomes measured by different scales. Post-test scores were used. In cases of significant baseline difference, we used change scores. We included eight trials (213 participants). Music listening was the main intervention used, and seven of the studies did not include a trained music therapist. Results indicated that music listening may be beneficial for anxiety reduction in mechanically ventilated patients; however, these results need to be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size. Findings indicated that listening to

  13. Automatic sleep staging from ventilator signals in non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sady, Cristina C R; Freitas, Ubiratan S; Portmann, Adriana; Muir, Jean-François; Letellier, Christophe; Aguirre, Luis A

    2013-08-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV), a recognized treatment for chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure, is predominantly applied at night. Nevertheless, the quality of sleep is rarely evaluated due to the required technological complexity. A new technique for automatic sleep staging is here proposed for patients treated by NIV. This new technique only requires signals (airflow and hemoglobin oxygen saturation) available in domiciliary ventilators plus a photo-plethysmogram, a signal already managed by some ventilators. Consequently, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram recordings are not needed. Cardiorespiratory features are extracted from the three selected signals and used as input to a Support Vector Machine (SVM) multi-class classifier. Two different types of sleep scoring were investigated: the first type was used to distinguish three stages (wake, REM sleep and nonREM sleep), and the second type was used to evaluate five stages (wake, REM sleep, N1, N2 and N3 stages). Patient-dependent and patient-independent classifiers were tested comparing the resulting hypnograms with those obtained from visual/manual scoring by a sleep specialist. An average accuracy of 91% (84%) was obtained with three-stage (five-stage) patient-dependent classifiers. With patient-independent classifiers, an average accuracy of 78% (62%) was obtained when three (five) sleep stages were scored. Also if the PPG-based and flow features are left out, a reduction of 4.5% (resp. 5%) in accuracy is observed for the three-stage (resp. five-stage) cases. Our results suggest that long-term sleep evaluation and nocturnal monitoring at home is feasible in patients treated by NIV. Our technique could even be integrated into ventilators.

  14. Effective sample size estimation for a mechanical ventilation trial through Monte-Carlo simulation: Length of mechanical ventilation and Ventilator Free Days.

    PubMed

    Morton, S E; Chiew, Y S; Pretty, C; Moltchanova, E; Scarrott, C; Redmond, D; Shaw, G M; Chase, J G

    2017-02-01

    Randomised control trials have sought to seek to improve mechanical ventilation treatment. However, few trials to date have shown clinical significance. It is hypothesised that aside from effective treatment, the outcome metrics and sample sizes of the trial also affect the significance, and thus impact trial design. In this study, a Monte-Carlo simulation method was developed and used to investigate several outcome metrics of ventilation treatment, including 1) length of mechanical ventilation (LoMV); 2) Ventilator Free Days (VFD); and 3) LoMV-28, a combination of the other metrics. As these metrics have highly skewed distributions, it also investigated the impact of imposing clinically relevant exclusion criteria on study power to enable better design for significance. Data from invasively ventilated patients from a single intensive care unit were used in this analysis to demonstrate the method. Use of LoMV as an outcome metric required 160 patients/arm to reach 80% power with a clinically expected intervention difference of 25% LoMV if clinically relevant exclusion criteria were applied to the cohort, but 400 patients/arm if they were not. However, only 130 patients/arm would be required for the same statistical significance at the same intervention difference if VFD was used. A Monte-Carlo simulation approach using local cohort data combined with objective patient selection criteria can yield better design of ventilation studies to desired power and significance, with fewer patients per arm than traditional trial design methods, which in turn reduces patient risk. Outcome metrics, such as VFD, should be used when a difference in mortality is also expected between the two cohorts. Finally, the non-parametric approach taken is readily generalisable to a range of trial types where outcome data is similarly skewed.

  15. The role of dead space ventilation in predicting outcome of successful weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Mohr, A M; Rutherford, E J; Cairns, B A; Boysen, P G

    2001-11-01

    The exact mechanism by which tracheostomy results in clinical improvement in respiratory function and liberation from mechanical ventilation remains unknown. Physiologic dead space, which includes both normal and abnormal components of non-gas exchange tidal volume, is a clinical measure of the efficiency of ventilation. Theoretically, tracheostomy should reduce dead space ventilation and improve pulmonary mechanics, thereby facilitating weaning from mechanical ventilation. This study compares arterial blood gases (ABG), pulmonary mechanics, including minute ventilation (VE) and dead space ventilation (Vd/Vt) within 24 hours before and after tracheostomy in 45 patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit. There was no difference noted in patients' ABG or VE. Pre- and posttracheostomy change in Vd/Vt was negligible (50.7 and 10 vs. 51.9 and 11; p = NS). On subgroup analysis, those patients that were weaned from mechanical ventilation with 72 hours of tracheostomy (T3) were compared with those patients weaned from mechanical ventilation 5 days or more after tracheostomy (T+5). Again, no difference was found in pulmonary mechanics or Vd/Vt pre- and posttracheostomy. There is minimal improvement in pulmonary mechanics after tracheostomy. The change in physiologic dead space posttracheostomy does not predict the outcome of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Tracheostomy does allow better pulmonary toilet, and easier initiation and removal of mechanical ventilation and control of the upper airway.

  16. Respiratory infections in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rello, Jordi; Lisboa, Thiago; Koulenti, Despoina

    2014-09-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections in mechanically ventilated patients are a frequent cause of antibiotic treatment in intensive-care units. These infections present as severe sepsis or septic shock with respiratory dysfunction in intubated patients. Purulent respiratory secretions are needed for diagnosis, but distinguishing between pneumonia and tracheobronchitis is not easy. Both presentations are associated with longlasting mechanical ventilation and extended intensive-care unit stay, providing a rationale for antibiotic treatment initiation. Differentiation of colonisers from true pathogens is difficult, and microbiological data show Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be of great concern because of clinical outcomes and therapeutic challenges. Key management issues include identification of the pathogen, choice of initial empirical antibiotic, and decisions with regard to the resolution pattern.

  17. Bilateral Scapulohumeral Ankylosis after Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemakers, J. Rieneke; van Noort, Arthur; Rademakers, Maarten V.

    2016-01-01

    This case demonstrates a rarely reported bilateral scapulohumeral bony ankylosis. A young woman developed extensive heterotopic ossifications (HOs) in both shoulder joints after being mechanically ventilated for several months at the intensive care unit in a comatose status. She presented with a severe movement restriction of both shoulder joints. Surgical resection of the bony bridges was performed in 2 separate sessions with a significant improvement of shoulder function afterwards. No postoperative complications, pain, or recurrence of HOs were noted at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockage, and prolonged sedation are known risk factors for the development of HOs in the shoulder joints. Relatively early surgical resection of the HOs can be performed safely in contrary to earlier belief. Afterwards, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or radiation therapy can be possible treatment modalities to prevent recurrence of HOs. PMID:27583120

  18. Home mechanical ventilation: a Canadian Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    McKim, Douglas A; Road, Jeremy; Avendano, Monica; Abdool, Steve; Cote, Fabien; Duguid, Nigel; Fraser, Janet; Maltais, Fracois; Morrison, Debra L; O'Connell, Colleen; Petrof, Basil J; Rimmer, Karen; Skomro, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are surviving episodes of prolonged mechanical ventilation or benefitting from the recent availability of userfriendly noninvasive ventilators. Although many publications pertaining to specific aspects of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) exist, very few comprehensive guidelines that bring together all of the current literature on patients at risk for or using mechanical ventilatory support are available. The Canadian Thoracic Society HMV Guideline Committee has reviewed the available English literature on topics related to HMV in adults, and completed a detailed guideline that will help standardize and improve the assessment and management of individuals requiring noninvasive or invasive HMV. The guideline provides a disease-specific review of illnesses including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury, muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy, kyphoscoliosis, post-polio syndrome, central hypoventilation syndrome, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as important common themes such as airway clearance and the process of transition to home. The guidelines have been extensively reviewed by international experts, allied health professionals and target audiences. They will be updated on a regular basis to incorporate any new information.

  19. Identifying cancer subjects with acute respiratory failure at high risk for intubation and mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Lemiale, Virginie; Lambert, Jérôme; Canet, Emmanuel; Mokart, Djamel; Pène, Frederic; Rabbat, Antoine; Kouatchet, Achille; Vincent, François; Bruneel, Fabrice; Gruson, Didier; Chevret, Sylvie; Azoulay, Elie

    2014-10-01

    We sought to identify risk factors for mechanical ventilation in patients with malignancies and acute respiratory failure (ARF). We analyzed data from a previous randomized controlled trial in which nonintubated oncology and hematology subjects with ARF were randomized to early bronchoalveolar lavage or routine care in 16 ICUs in France. Consecutive patients with malignancies were admitted to the ICU for ARF in 2005 and 2006 with no intervention. During the study period, 219 patients were admitted to the ICU for ARF, and 8 patients were not included due to a nonintubation order. Data on the underlying disease, pulmonary involvement, and extrapulmonary organ dysfunctions were recorded at admission in the 211 remaining subjects. Ventilatory support included oxygen only (49 subjects), noninvasive ventilation (NIV) only (81 subjects), NIV followed by invasive mechanical ventilation (49 subjects), and first-line invasive mechanical ventilation (32 subjects). The 81 subjects who required invasive mechanical ventilation were compared with the 130 subjects who remained on oxygen or NIV. Factors associated with invasive mechanical ventilation by multivariate analysis were the oxygen flow required at ICU admission, the number of quadrants involved on chest x-ray, and hemodynamic dysfunction. Mortality rates for subjects who had NIV failure were 65.3% compared with 50% for subjects who were first-line intubated (P = .34). In cancer patients with ARF, hypoxemia, extent of pulmonary infiltration on chest x-ray, or hemodynamic dysfunction are risk factors for invasive mechanical ventilation. Mortality was not significantly different between NIV failure and first-line intubation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Prolonged propofol infusion for mechanically ventilated children.

    PubMed

    Sasabuchi, Y; Yasunaga, H; Matsui, H; Lefor, A K; Fushimi, K

    2016-04-01

    We retrospectively analysed 30-day mortality and duration of intubation for 8016 children ventilated for three or more days, sedated with midazolam (n = 7716) or propofol (n = 300). We matched the propensity scores of 263 pairs of children. The propensity-matched 30-day mortality (95% CI) was similar: 17/263 (6.5%) with midazolam vs. 24/263 (9.1%) with propofol, p = 0.26. Weaning from mechanical ventilation of children sedated with midazolam was slower than weaning of children sedated with propofol, subhazard ratio (95% CI) 1.43 (1.18-1.73), p < 0.001. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Adverse hemodynamic effects of lateral rotation during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Shannan K; Hanneman, Sandra K; Wachtel, Sheryln; Gusick, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Turning critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients every 2 hours is a fundamental nursing intervention to reduce the negative impact of prolonged immobility from preventable pulmonary complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and atelectasis. Unfortunately, when coupled with positive pressure ventilation, the benefits of turning may come at the expense of cardiovascular function. Clinicians should closely monitor the hemodynamic response to turning mechanically ventilated patients, and if compromise is observed, the degree and duration of compromise may provide guidance to the appropriate intervention.

  2. Patient-ventilator asynchronies: may the respiratory mechanics play a role?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The mechanisms leading to patient/ventilator asynchrony has never been systematically assessed. We studied the possible association between asynchrony and respiratory mechanics in patients ready to be enrolled for a home non-invasive ventilatory program. Secondarily, we looked for possible differences in the amount of asynchronies between obstructive and restrictive patients and a possible role of asynchrony in influencing the tolerance of non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Methods The respiratory pattern and mechanics of 69 consecutive patients with chronic respiratory failure were recorded during spontaneous breathing. After that patients underwent non-invasive ventilation for 60 minutes with a "dedicated" NIV platform in a pressure support mode during the day. In the last 15 minutes of this period, asynchrony events were detected and classified as ineffective effort (IE), double triggering (DT) and auto-triggering (AT). Results The overall number of asynchronies was not influenced by any variable of respiratory mechanics or by the underlying pathologies (that is, obstructive vs restrictive patients). There was a high prevalence of asynchrony events (58% of patients). IEs were the most frequent asynchronous events (45% of patients) and were associated with a higher level of pressure support. A high incidence of asynchrony events and IE were associated with a poor tolerance of NIV. Conclusions Our study suggests that in non-invasively ventilated patients for a chronic respiratory failure, the incidence of patient-ventilator asynchronies was relatively high, but did not correlate with any parameters of respiratory mechanics or underlying disease. PMID:23531269

  3. Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.

  4. The influence of music during mechanical ventilation and weaning from mechanical ventilation: A review.

    PubMed

    Hetland, Breanna; Lindquist, Ruth; Chlan, Linda L

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) causes many distressing symptoms. Weaning, the gradual decrease in ventilator assistance leading to termination of MV, increases respiratory effort, which may exacerbate symptoms and prolong MV. Music, a non-pharmacological intervention without side effects may benefit patients during weaning from mechanical ventilatory support. A narrative review of OVID Medline, PsychINFO, and CINAHL databases was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of music intervention in MV and MV weaning. Music intervention had a positive impact on ventilated patients; 16 quantitative and 2 qualitative studies were identified. Quantitative studies included randomized clinical trials (10), case controls (3), pilot studies (2) and a feasibility study. Evidence supports music as an effective intervention that can lesson symptoms related to MV and promote effective weaning. It has potential to reduce costs and increase patient satisfaction. However, more studies are needed to establish its use during MV weaning.

  5. The influence of music during mechanical ventilation and weaning from mechanical ventilation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hetland, Breanna; Lindquist, Ruth; Chlan, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mechanical ventilation (MV) causes many distressing symptoms. Weaning, the gradual decrease in ventilator assistance leading to termination of MV, increases respiratory effort, which may exacerbate symptoms and prolong MV. Music, a non-pharmacological intervention without side effects may benefit patients during weaning from mechanical ventilatory support. Methods A narrative review of OVID Medline, PsychINFO, and CINAHL databases was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of music intervention in MV and MV weaning. Results Music intervention had a positive impact on ventilated patients; 16 quantitative and 2 qualitative studies were identified. Quantitative studies included randomized clinical trials (10), case controls (3), pilot studies (2) and a feasibility study. Conclusions Evidence supports music as an effective intervention that can lesson symptoms related to MV and promote effective weaning. It has potential to reduce costs and increase patient satisfaction. However, more studies are needed to establish its use during MV weaning. PMID:26227333

  6. Oxygen Therapeutics and Mechanical Ventilation Advances.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Brian; Kaplan, Lewis J

    2017-04-01

    Advances in intensive care unit (ICU) therapeutics are plentiful and rooted in technological enhancements as well as recognition of patient care priorities. A plethora of new devices and modes are available for use to enhance patient safety and support liberation from mechanical ventilation while preserving oxygenation and carbon dioxide clearance. Increased penetrance of closed loop systems is one means to reduce care variation in appropriate populations. The intelligent design of the ICU space needs to integrate the footprint of that device and the data streaming from it into a coherent whole that supports patient, family, and caregivers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Design Features of Modern Mechanical Ventilators.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Neil

    2016-12-01

    A positive-pressure breath ideally should provide a VT that is adequate for gas exchange and appropriate muscle unloading while minimizing any risk for injury or discomfort. The latest generation of ventilators uses sophisticated feedback systems to sculpt positive-pressure breaths according to patient effort and respiratory system mechanics. Currently, however, these new control strategies are not totally closed-loop systems. This is because the automatic input variables remain limited, some clinician settings are still required, and the specific features of the perfect breath design still are not entirely clear. Despite these limitations, there are some rationale for many of these newer feedback features.

  8. Mechanisms regulating glioma invasion.

    PubMed

    Paw, Ivy; Carpenter, Richard C; Watabe, Kounosuke; Debinski, Waldemar; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2015-06-28

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive, deadliest, and most common brain malignancy in adults. Despite the advances made in surgical techniques, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the median survival for GBM patients has remained at a mere 14 months. GBM poses several unique challenges to currently available treatments for the disease. For example, GBM cells have the propensity to aggressively infiltrate/invade into the normal brain tissues and along the vascular tracks, which prevents complete resection of all malignant cells and limits the effect of localized radiotherapy while sparing normal tissue. Although anti-angiogenic treatment exerts anti-edematic effect in GBM, unfortunately, tumors progress with acquired increased invasiveness. Therefore, it is an important task to gain a deeper understanding of the intrinsic and post-treatment invasive phenotypes of GBM in hopes that the gained knowledge would lead to novel GBM treatments that are more effective and less toxic. This review will give an overview of some of the signaling pathways that have been shown to positively and negatively regulate GBM invasion, including, the PI3K/Akt, Wnt, sonic hedgehog-GLI1, and microRNAs. The review will also discuss several approaches to cancer therapies potentially altering GBM invasiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Monitorization of respiratory mechanics in the ventilated patient].

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, E; Amado-Rodríguez, L; Albaiceta, G M

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring during mechanical ventilation allows the measurement of different parameters of respiratory mechanics. Accurate interpretation of these data can be useful for characterizing the situation of the different components of the respiratory system, and for guiding ventilator settings. In this review, we describe the basic concepts of respiratory mechanics, their interpretation, and their potential use in fine-tuning mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimates of the demand for mechanical ventilation in the US during an influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Martin I.; Patel, Anita; Koonin, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak in China in April 2013 of human illnesses due to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus provided reason for U.S. public health officials to revisit existing national pandemic response plans. We built a spreadsheet model to examine the potential demand for invasive mechanical ventilation (excluding “rescue therapy" ventilation). We considered scenarios of either 20% or 30% gross influenza clinical attack rate (CAR), with a “low severity” scenario with case fatality rates (CFR) of 0.05%–0.1%, or a “high severity” scenario (CFR: 0.25%–0.5%). We used rates-of-influenza-related illness to calculate the numbers of potential clinical cases, hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units (ICUs), and need for mechanical ventilation. We assumed 10 days ventilator use per ventilated patient, 13% of total ventilator demand will occur at peak, and a 33.7% weighted average mortality risk while on a ventilator. At peak, for a 20% CAR, low severity scenario, an additional 7,000 to 11,000 ventilators will be needed, averting a pandemic total of 35,000 to 55,000 deaths. A 30% CAR, high severity scenario, will need approximately 35,000 to 60,500 additional ventilators, averting a pandemic total 178,000 to 308,000 deaths. Estimates of deaths averted may not be realized because successful ventilation also depends on sufficient numbers of suitably trained staff, needed supplies (e.g., drugs, reliable oxygen sources, suction apparatus, circuits, and monitoring equipment) and timely ability to match access to ventilators with critically ill cases. There is a clear challenge to plan and prepare to meet demands for mechanical ventilators for a future severe pandemic. PMID:25878301

  11. Estimates of the demand for mechanical ventilation in the United States during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Martin I; Patel, Anita; Ajao, Adebola; Nystrom, Scott V; Koonin, Lisa M

    2015-05-01

    An outbreak in China in April 2013 of human illnesses due to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus provided reason for US public health officials to revisit existing national pandemic response plans. We built a spreadsheet model to examine the potential demand for invasive mechanical ventilation (excluding "rescue therapy" ventilation). We considered scenarios of either 20% or 30% gross influenza clinical attack rate (CAR), with a "low severity" scenario with case fatality rates (CFR) of 0.05%-0.1%, or a "high severity" scenario (CFR: 0.25%-0.5%). We used rates-of-influenza-related illness to calculate the numbers of potential clinical cases, hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units, and need for mechanical ventilation. We assumed 10 days ventilator use per ventilated patient, 13% of total ventilator demand will occur at peak, and a 33.7% weighted average mortality risk while on a ventilator. At peak, for a 20% CAR, low severity scenario, an additional 7000 to 11,000 ventilators will be needed, averting a pandemic total of 35,000 to 55,000 deaths. A 30% CAR, high severity scenario, will need approximately 35,000 to 60,500 additional ventilators, averting a pandemic total 178,000 to 308,000 deaths. Estimates of deaths averted may not be realized because successful ventilation also depends on sufficient numbers of suitably trained staff, needed supplies (eg, drugs, reliable oxygen sources, suction apparatus, circuits, and monitoring equipment) and timely ability to match access to ventilators with critically ill cases. There is a clear challenge to plan and prepare to meet demands for mechanical ventilators for a future severe pandemic.

  12. SIMPLIFIED METHODS FOR COMBINING MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND NATURAL INFILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Modera, M.; Peterson, F.

    1985-01-01

    During the past ten years, the means of ventilating single-family residences has received considerable attention. In many areas, the use of natural ventilation for infiltration has either come under close scrutiny, or has already been supplanted by mechanical ventilation systems. To evaluate the energy efficiency and ventilation effectiveness of both mechanical and natural ventilation strategies, both complex and simplified infiltration models are used. This paper examines the inaccuracies associated with using simplified models to compare ventilation strategies. Two simplified techniques for combining mechanical ventilation flows to the flows caused by wind and stack effects are examined. The simplified combination techniques are compared with the results obtained with an iterative flow-balance simulation. The flow-balance simulation determines the ventilation by balancing the incoming and outgoing flows under the pressure conditions resulting from the combination of wind effect, stack effect and mechanical ventilation. These comparisons result in three major conclusions: (1) the commonly used flow superposition technique (flow combination in quadrature) provides better estimates of the total flow than does a technique that takes into account measured flow exponents, (2) although flow combination in quadrature overpredicts ventilation when combining wind-induced and stack-induced flows, this is not the case when mechanical ventilation is added to the picture, and (3) a simple correction for the errors caused by the simplified flow superposition technique is not easy to achieve due to the large variations in error that occur with changes in wind direction and individual flow ratios.

  13. Music interventions for mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Bradt, Joke; Dileo, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation often causes major distress and anxiety in patients. The sensation of breathlessness, frequent suctioning, inability to talk, uncertainty regarding surroundings or condition, discomfort, isolation from others, and fear contribute to high levels of anxiety. Side effects of analgesia and sedation may lead to the prolongation of mechanical ventilation and, subsequently, to a longer length of hospitalization and increased cost. Therefore, non-pharmacological interventions should be considered for anxiety and stress management. Music interventions have been used to reduce anxiety and distress and improve physiological functioning in medical patients; however, their efficacy for mechanically ventilated patients needs to be evaluated. This review was originally published in 2010 and was updated in 2014. To update the previously published review that examined the effects of music therapy or music medicine interventions (as defined by the authors) on anxiety and other outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients. Specifically, the following objectives are addressed in this review.1. To conduct a meta-analysis to compare the effects of participation in standard care combined with music therapy or music medicine interventions with standard care alone.2. To compare the effects of patient-selected music with researcher-selected music.3. To compare the effects of different types of music interventions (e.g., music therapy versus music medicine). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2014), CINAHL (1980 to March 2014), EMBASE (1980 to March 2014), PsycINFO (1967 to March 2014), LILACS (1982 to March 2014), Science Citation Index (1980 to March 2014), www.musictherapyworld.net (1 March 2008) (database is no longer functional), CAIRSS for Music (to March 2014), Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to March 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (2000 to March 2014), Current

  14. Nutritional support of the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Shikora, S A; Benotti, P N

    1997-03-01

    As with all critically ill patients, those requiring mechanical ventilation are susceptible to the wasting of illness and cannot survive without prompt nutritional support. It may be fair to say that the proper provision of nutrients, and in particular the avoidance of overfeeding, are even more crucial for this subset of critically ill patients. To maximize the overall benefits of feeding, it is crucial to provide the nutritional support early and enterally whenever possible. Therefore, the best strategy for early removal of the mechanical ventilatory support must include the timely and careful administration of nutrients, micronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and fluid, in conjunction with standard intensive care therapeutics and the appropriate respiratory muscle-strengthening program.

  15. The Therapeutic Outcomes of Mechanical Ventilation in Hematological Malignancy Patients with Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Marumo, Atsushi; Omori, Ikuko; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Yui, Shunsuke; Fukunaga, Keiko; Ryotokuji, Takeshi; Hirakawa, Tsuneaki; Okabe, Masahiro; Wakita, Satoshi; Tamai, Hayato; Okamoto, Muneo; Nakayama, Kazutaka; Takeda, Shinhiro; Inokuchi, Koiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective In hematological malignancy patients, the complication of acute respiratory failure often reaches a degree of severity that necessitates mechanical ventilation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic outcomes of mechanical ventilation in hematological malignancy patients with respiratory failure and to analyze the factors that are associated with successful treatment in order to identify the issues that should be addressed in the future. Methods The present study was a retrospective analysis of 71 hematological malignancy patients with non-cardiogenic acute respiratory failure who were treated with mechanical ventilation at Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2003 and 2014. Results Twenty-six patients (36.6%) were treated with mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) was applied in 29 cases (40.8%). The rate of successful mechanical ventilation treatment with NPPV alone was 13.8%. The rate of endotracheal extubation was 17.7%. A univariate analysis revealed that the following factors were associated with the successful extubation of patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation: respiratory management in an ICU (p=0.012); remission of the hematological disease (p=0.011); female gender (p=0.048); low levels of accompanying non-respiratory organ failure (p=0.041); and the non-use of extracorporeal circulation (p=0.005). A subsequent multivariate analysis revealed that respiratory management in an ICU was the only variable associated with successful extubation (p=0.030). Conclusion The outcomes of hematological malignancy patients who receive mechanical ventilation treatment for respiratory failure are very poor. Respiratory management in an ICU environment may be useful in improving the therapeutic outcomes of such patients.

  16. Optimizing Communication in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, Vinciya; Smith, Christine P.; Cole, Therese Kling; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Mirski, Marek A.; Yarmus, Lonny B.; Feller-Kopman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the types of talking tracheostomy tubes available, present four case studies of critically ill patients who used a specialized tracheostomy tube to improve speech, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, propose patient selection criteria, and provide practical recommendations for medical care providers. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients who underwent tracheostomy in 2010. Results Of the 220 patients who received a tracheostomy in 2010, 164 (74.55%) received a percutaneous tracheostomy and 56 (25.45%) received an open tracheostomy. Among the percutaneous tracheostomy patients, speech-language pathologists were consulted on 113 patients, 74 of whom were on a ventilator. Four of these 74 patients received a talking tracheostomy tube, and all four were able to speak successfully while on the mechanical ventilator even though they were unable to tolerate cuff deflation. Conclusions Talking tracheostomy tubes allow patients who are unable to tolerate-cuff deflation to achieve phonation. Our experience with talking tracheostomy tubes suggests that clinicians should consider their use for patients who cannot tolerate cuff deflation. PMID:25429193

  17. Ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Lambert, D; Bruguerolle, B; Saux, P; Freney, J; Fleurette, J; Meugnier, H; Gouin, F

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin were studied in 12 intensive care patients, 6 of whom were under controlled mechanical ventilation. All patients had a creatinine clearance of greater than 80 ml/min per 1.73 m2. They were given 3 mg of ofloxacin per kg of body weight intravenously at a constant flow rate in 30 min twice a day for 7 days. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed on days 1 and 7. Between days 1 and 7, significant increases in the alpha (distribution) and beta (elimination) phase half-lives, the area under the serum concentration-time curve, and peak and trough levels in serum were observed, together with a marked decrease (greater than 50%) in total body clearance. Possible contributing factors for alteration of ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in ventilated patients were patient age, liver dysfunction, drug interaction, and drug accumulation in a deep compartment. This study shows that in intensive care patients the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin differ from those reported for healthy volunteers. PMID:1929329

  18. The growing role of noninvasive ventilation in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2012-06-01

    For many patients with chronic respiratory failure requiring ventilator support, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is preferable to invasive support by tracheostomy. Currently available evidence does not support the use of nocturnal NIV in unselected patients with stable COPD. Several European studies have reported benefit for high intensity NIV, in which setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate are selected to achieve normocapnia. There have also been studies reporting benefit for the use of NIV as an adjunct to exercise training. NIV may be useful as an adjunct to airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis. Accumulating evidence supports the use of NIV in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. There is considerable observational evidence supporting the use of NIV in patients with chronic respiratory failure related to neuromuscular disease, and one randomized controlled trial reported that the use of NIV was life-prolonging in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A variety of interfaces can be used to provide NIV in patients with stable chronic respiratory failure. The mouthpiece is an interface that is unique in this patient population, and has been used with success in patients with neuromuscular disease. Bi-level pressure ventilators are commonly used for NIV, although there are now a new generation of intermediate ventilators that are portable, have a long battery life, and can be used for NIV and invasive applications. Pressure support ventilation, pressure controlled ventilation, and volume controlled ventilation have been used successfully for chronic applications of NIV. New modes have recently become available, but their benefits await evidence to support their widespread use. The success of NIV in a given patient population depends on selection of an appropriate patient, selection of an appropriate interface, selection of an appropriate ventilator and ventilator settings, the skills of the clinician, the

  19. Adapting to domiciliary non-invasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Gale, Nicola K; Jawad, Maryam; Dave, Chirag; Turner, Alice M

    2015-03-01

    Domiciliary non-invasive ventilation may be used in palliative care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, although there is uncertainty regarding effect on quality of life. Explore experiences of domiciliary non-invasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, to understand decision-making processes and improve future palliative care. Qualitative interview study, based on constructivist grounded theory, and using the framework method for data management and analysis. 20 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, 4 carers and 15 healthcare professionals. Most patients had very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data were categorised into four domains - clinical, technical, socio-economic and experiential. Healthcare professionals felt uncertain regarding clinical evidence, emphasising social support and tolerance as deciding factors in non-invasive ventilation use. Conversely, patients reported symptomatic benefit, which generally outweighed negative experiences and led to continued use. Healthcare professionals felt that patients chose to be on non-invasive ventilation; however, most patients felt that they had no choice as healthcare professionals recommended non-invasive ventilation or their poor health mandated it. Our study identifies 'adapting to non-invasive ventilation' as the central process enabling long-term use in palliative care, although the way in which this is approached by healthcare professionals and patients does not always converge. We present ideas emerging from the data on potential interventions to improve patient experience and adaptation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation and acute respiratory failure: indications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Muir, J F; Cuvelier, A; Verin, E; Tengang, B

    1997-02-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NMV) now represents the first step in the management of acute on chronic respiratory failure (A/CRF). During the last 5 yrs, many studies have confirmed the feasibility of NMV in an acute setting, either by facial or nasal interface, used in addition to volumetric or barometric respirators, to manage A/CRF. The best indications for NMV are slowly progressive A/CRF, frequently represented by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or restrictive pulmonary disease. The criteria to initiate NMV in such patients are worsening of respiratory status and arterial blood gas (ABG) values, with increased hypoxia, hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis, despite optimal management with medication, physiotherapy and oxygen therapy. Respiratory encephalopathy is not an absolute contraindication; however, bronchial hypersecretion indicates that care is needed under NMV. Invasive mechanical ventilation with endotracheal (ET) intubation is discussed in the case of failure of NMV, when clinical status and ABG values worsen in spite of it. The signal for ET intubation is then obvious, represented by severe dyspnoea leading to respiratory pauses or arrest, severe cyanosis, and signs of haemodynamic instability. Despite immediate evidence of ominous cardiorespiratory inefficiency, ET intubation may be delayed and often avoided with the help of NMV. Criteria should be studied to identify guidelines for cessation of NMV, in order not to continue with the technique too long considering the safety of the patient. Indications for NMV in other kinds of ARF have received less study and are more controversial.

  1. Optimizing patient-ventilator synchrony during invasive ventilator assist in children and infants remains a difficult task*.

    PubMed

    Vignaux, Laurence; Grazioli, Serge; Piquilloud, Lise; Bochaton, Nathalie; Karam, Oliver; Jaecklin, Thomas; Levy-Jamet, Yann; Tourneux, Pierre; Jolliet, Philippe; Rimensberger, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    To document and compare the prevalence of asynchrony events during invasive-assisted mechanical ventilation in pressure support mode and in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in children. Prospective, randomized, and crossover study. Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. Intubated and mechanically ventilated children, between 4 weeks and 5 years old. Two consecutive ventilation periods (pressure support and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist) were applied in random order. During pressure support, three levels of expiratory trigger setting were compared: expiratory trigger setting as set by the clinician in charge (PSinit), followed by a 10% (in absolute values) increase and decrease of the clinician's expiratory trigger setting. The pressure support session with the least number of asynchrony events was defined as PSbest. Therefore, three periods were compared: PSinit, PSbest, and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist. Asynchrony events, trigger delay, and inspiratory time in excess were quantified for each of them. Data from 19 children were analyzed. Main asynchrony events during PSinit were autotriggering (3.6 events/min [0.7-8.2]), ineffective efforts (1.2/min [0.6-5]), and premature cycling (3.5/min [1.3-4.9]). Their number was significantly reduced with PSbest: autotriggering 1.6/min (0.2-4.9), ineffective efforts 0.7/min (0-2.6), and premature cycling 2/min (0.1-3.1), p < 0.005 for each comparison. The median asynchrony index (total number of asynchronies/triggered and not triggered breaths ×100) was significantly different between PSinit and PSbest: 37.3% [19-47%] and 29% [24-43%], respectively, p < 0.005). With neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, all types of asynchrony events except double-triggering and inspiratory time in excess were significantly reduced resulting in an asynchrony index of 3.8% (2.4-15%) (p < 0.005 compared to PSbest). Asynchrony events are frequent during pressure support in

  2. The Impact of Ventilator-Associated Events in Critically Ill Subjects With Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hidetsugu; Uchino, Shigehiko; Takinami, Masanori; Uezono, Shoichi

    2017-07-18

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released a surveillance definition for respiratory complications in ventilated patients, ventilator-associated events (VAE), to replace ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAE consists of ventilator-associated conditions (VAC), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC), and possible VAP. A duration of mechanical ventilation of at least 4 d is required to diagnose VAE. However, the observed duration of mechanical ventilation was < 4 d in many previous studies. We evaluated the impact of VAE on clinical outcomes in critically ill subjects who required mechanical ventilation for ≥ 4 d. This single-center retrospective cohort study was conducted in the general ICU of an academic hospital. We included 407 adult subjects who were admitted to the ICU and required mechanical ventilation for at least 4 d. VAC and IVAC were identified from the electronic medical records. VAP was defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2008 criteria and was identified from the surveillance data of the infection control team of our hospital. Clinical outcomes were studied in the VAC, IVAC, and VAP groups. Possible VAP was not investigated. Higher mortality was seen in VAC and IVAC subjects, but not in VAP subjects, compared with those without VAEs and VAP. By multivariable hazard analysis for hospital mortality, IVAC was independently associated with hospital mortality (hazard ratio 2.42, 95% CI 1.39-4.20, P = .002). VAC also tended to show a similar association with hospital mortality (hazard ratio 1.45, 95% CI 0.97-2.18, P = .07). On the other hand, VAP did not increase a hazard of hospital death (hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.44-2.66, P = .87). We found that VAE was related to hospital mortality in critically ill subjects with prolonged mechanical ventilation, and that VAP was not. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Optimal Delivery of Aerosols to Infants During Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Mandana; Hindle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine optimal aerosol delivery conditions for a full-term (3.6 kg) infant receiving invasive mechanical ventilation by evaluating the effects of aerosol particle size, a new wye connector, and timing of aerosol delivery. Methods: In vitro experiments used a vibrating mesh nebulizer and evaluated drug deposition fraction and emitted dose through ventilation circuits containing either a commercial (CM) or new streamlined (SL) wye connector and 3-mm endotracheal tube (ETT) for aerosols with mass median aerodynamic diameters of 880 nm, 1.78 μm, and 4.9 μm. The aerosol was released into the circuit either over the full inhalation cycle (T1 delivery) or over the first half of inhalation (T2 delivery). Validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and whole-lung model predictions were used to assess lung deposition and exhaled dose during cyclic ventilation. Results: In vitro experiments at a steady-state tracheal flow rate of 5 L/min resulted in 80–90% transmission of the 880-nm and 1.78-μm aerosols from the ETT. Based on CFD simulations with cyclic ventilation, the SL wye design reduced depositional losses in the wye by a factor of approximately 2–4 and improved lung delivery efficiencies by a factor of approximately 2 compared with the CM device. Delivery of the aerosol over the first half of the inspiratory cycle (T2) reduced exhaled dose from the ventilation circuit by a factor of 4 compared with T1 delivery. Optimal lung deposition was achieved with the SL wye connector and T2 delivery, resulting in 45% and 60% lung deposition for optimal polydisperse (∼1.78 μm) and monodisperse (∼2.5 μm) particle sizes, respectively. Conclusions: Optimization of selected factors and use of a new SL wye connector can substantially increase the lung delivery efficiency of medical aerosols to infants from current values of <1–10% to a range of 45–60%. PMID:24299500

  4. Optimal delivery of aerosols to infants during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Longest, P Worth; Azimi, Mandana; Hindle, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal aerosol delivery conditions for a full-term (3.6 kg) infant receiving invasive mechanical ventilation by evaluating the effects of aerosol particle size, a new wye connector, and timing of aerosol delivery. In vitro experiments used a vibrating mesh nebulizer and evaluated drug deposition fraction and emitted dose through ventilation circuits containing either a commercial (CM) or new streamlined (SL) wye connector and 3-mm endotracheal tube (ETT) for aerosols with mass median aerodynamic diameters of 880 nm, 1.78 μm, and 4.9 μm. The aerosol was released into the circuit either over the full inhalation cycle (T1 delivery) or over the first half of inhalation (T2 delivery). Validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and whole-lung model predictions were used to assess lung deposition and exhaled dose during cyclic ventilation. In vitro experiments at a steady-state tracheal flow rate of 5 L/min resulted in 80-90% transmission of the 880-nm and 1.78-μm aerosols from the ETT. Based on CFD simulations with cyclic ventilation, the SL wye design reduced depositional losses in the wye by a factor of approximately 2-4 and improved lung delivery efficiencies by a factor of approximately 2 compared with the CM device. Delivery of the aerosol over the first half of the inspiratory cycle (T2) reduced exhaled dose from the ventilation circuit by a factor of 4 compared with T1 delivery. Optimal lung deposition was achieved with the SL wye connector and T2 delivery, resulting in 45% and 60% lung deposition for optimal polydisperse (∼1.78 μm) and monodisperse (∼2.5 μm) particle sizes, respectively. Optimization of selected factors and use of a new SL wye connector can substantially increase the lung delivery efficiency of medical aerosols to infants from current values of <1-10% to a range of 45-60%.

  5. [Analgesia, sedation and relaxation in the child with mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Valdivielso-Serna, A

    2008-02-01

    The basic concepts of sedation and analgesia and the tools to asses the level of sedation and analgesia are review. The different methods of sedation and the non pharmacological interventions are described. Sedatives, analgesics and muscle relaxants, their pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in children, their indications in specific situations (intubation, pain control, sedation and neuromuscular blocking) are reviewed. The etiology of patient-ventilator asynchrony in ventilated children and how to treat it are analyzed, giving guides of how to adapt sedation to the level of mechanical ventilation therapy. Finally, general recommendations are given for the analgesia and sedation in mechanically ventilated children.

  6. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency. Non-invasive long-term ventilation methods].

    PubMed

    Aubier, M; Muir, J F; Robert, D; Leger, P; Langevin, B; Benhamou, D

    1993-01-01

    The techniques of non-invasive ventilation have reappeared in force as an assortment of therapeutic techniques since the end of the 1980's. At the same time there was a transient renewed interest in perithoracic ventilation favouring the use of new methods of connection to the patient (e.g. poncho). The principal feature has been the use of intermittent positive pressure ventilation by the nasal route, which rapidly became essential for home therapy in patients with chronic restrictive respiratory failure notably in those secondary to thoracic deformation and to neuromuscular pathology. The concept of resting the respiratory muscles has been the basis for techniques of ventilatory assistance and in part the nasal route has now replaced home ventilation using a tracheotomy. Also in certain types of acute respiratory failure, nasal ventilation widely preferred over endotracheal ventilation.

  7. Comparison and Evaluation of the Effects of Administration of Postoperative Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Methods (CPAP and BIPAP) on Respiratory Mechanics and Gas Exchange in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yağlıoğlu, Hatice; Köksal, Güniz Meyancı; Erbabacan, Emre; Ekici, Birsel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of two different methods of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) and oxygen support under spontaneous ventilation on respiration mechanics, gas exchange, dry mouth and face mask lesion during an early postoperative period in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Methods Eighty patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery with laparotomy, between the age of 25 and 75 years and American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status score (ASA) II–III with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis were included to the study. Subjects were randomly allocated in to four groups. During the first postoperative hour, the first group received BIPAP, second group received high-flow CPAP, third group received low-flow CPAP and fourth group received deep breathing exercises, respiratory physiotherapy and O2 therapy. Preoperative, postoperative before and after treatment PaO2, PaCO2, SpO2, tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR) levels were recorded. Subjects with dry mouth or face mask lesion were recorded. Results In all groups, PaO2 and TV measurements were higher at the postoperative first hour than the postoperative zero hour. We found that low-flow CPAP increased PaO2 and SpO2 values more, and TV levels were higher in the postoperative period than the preoperative period. PaCO2 levels were elevated at the zero hour postoperatively and at the end of the first hour; they decreased approximately to preoperative values, except in the fourth group. Conclusion Administration of prophylactic respiratory support can prevent the deterioration of pulmonary functions and hypoxia in patients with COPD undergoing upper abdominal surgery. In addition, we found that low-flow CPAP had better effects on PaO2, SpO2, TV compared to other techniques. PMID:27366506

  8. Comparison and Evaluation of the Effects of Administration of Postoperative Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Methods (CPAP and BIPAP) on Respiratory Mechanics and Gas Exchange in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Yağlıoğlu, Hatice; Köksal, Güniz Meyancı; Erbabacan, Emre; Ekici, Birsel

    2015-08-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of two different methods of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) and oxygen support under spontaneous ventilation on respiration mechanics, gas exchange, dry mouth and face mask lesion during an early postoperative period in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Eighty patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery with laparotomy, between the age of 25 and 75 years and American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status score (ASA) II-III with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis were included to the study. Subjects were randomly allocated in to four groups. During the first postoperative hour, the first group received BIPAP, second group received high-flow CPAP, third group received low-flow CPAP and fourth group received deep breathing exercises, respiratory physiotherapy and O2 therapy. Preoperative, postoperative before and after treatment PaO2, PaCO2, SpO2, tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR) levels were recorded. Subjects with dry mouth or face mask lesion were recorded. In all groups, PaO2 and TV measurements were higher at the postoperative first hour than the postoperative zero hour. We found that low-flow CPAP increased PaO2 and SpO2 values more, and TV levels were higher in the postoperative period than the preoperative period. PaCO2 levels were elevated at the zero hour postoperatively and at the end of the first hour; they decreased approximately to preoperative values, except in the fourth group. Administration of prophylactic respiratory support can prevent the deterioration of pulmonary functions and hypoxia in patients with COPD undergoing upper abdominal surgery. In addition, we found that low-flow CPAP had better effects on PaO2, SpO2, TV compared to other techniques.

  9. Mechanical ventilation triggers hippocampal apoptosis by vagal and dopaminergic pathways.

    PubMed

    González-López, Adrián; López-Alonso, Inés; Aguirre, Alina; Amado-Rodríguez, Laura; Batalla-Solís, Estefanía; Astudillo, Aurora; Tomás-Zapico, Cristina; Fueyo, Antonio; dos Santos, Claudia C; Talbot, Konrad; Albaiceta, Guillermo M

    2013-09-15

    Critically ill patients frequently develop neuropsychological disturbances including acute delirium or memory impairment. The need for mechanical ventilation is a risk factor for these adverse events, but a mechanism that links lung stretch and brain injury has not been identified. To identify the mechanisms that lead to brain dysfunction during mechanical ventilation. Brains from mechanically ventilated mice were harvested, and signals of apoptosis and alterations in the Akt survival pathway were studied. These measurements were repeated in vagotomized or haloperidol-treated mice, and in animals intracerebroventricularly injected with selective dopamine-receptor blockers. Hippocampal slices were cultured and treated with micromolar concentrations of dopamine, with or without dopamine receptor blockers. Last, levels of dysbindin, a regulator of the membrane availability of dopamine receptors, were assessed in the experimental model and in brain samples from ventilated patients. Mechanical ventilation triggers hippocampal apoptosis as a result of type 2 dopamine receptor activation in response to vagal signaling. Activation of these receptors blocks the Akt/GSK3β prosurvival pathway and activates the apoptotic cascade, as demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. Vagotomy, systemic haloperidol, or intracerebroventricular raclopride (a type 2 dopamine receptor blocker) ameliorated this effect. Moreover, ventilation induced a concomitant change in the expression of dysbindin-1C. These results were confirmed in brain samples from ventilated patients. These results prove the existence of a pathogenic mechanism of lung stretch-induced hippocampal apoptosis that could explain the neurological changes in ventilated patients and may help to identify novel therapeutic approaches.

  10. Review of ventilatory techniques to optimize mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Raghu M; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global healthcare problem. Studies vary widely in the reported frequency of mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbations of COPD. Invasive intubation and mechanical ventilation may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A good understanding of the airway pathophysiology and lung mechanics in COPD is necessary to appropriately manage acute exacerbations and respiratory failure. The basic pathophysiology in COPD exacerbation is the critical expiratory airflow limitation with consequent dynamic hyperinflation. These changes lead to further derangement in ventilatory mechanics, muscle function and gas exchange which may result in respiratory failure. This review discusses the altered respiratory mechanics in COPD, ways to detect these changes in a ventilated patient and formulating ventilatory techniques to optimize management of respiratory failure due to exacerbation of COPD.

  11. Review of ventilatory techniques to optimize mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Raghu M; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global healthcare problem. Studies vary widely in the reported frequency of mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbations of COPD. Invasive intubation and mechanical ventilation may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A good understanding of the airway pathophysiology and lung mechanics in COPD is necessary to appropriately manage acute exacerbations and respiratory failure. The basic pathophysiology in COPD exacerbation is the critical expiratory airflow limitation with consequent dynamic hyperinflation. These changes lead to further derangement in ventilatory mechanics, muscle function and gas exchange which may result in respiratory failure. This review discusses the altered respiratory mechanics in COPD, ways to detect these changes in a ventilated patient and formulating ventilatory techniques to optimize management of respiratory failure due to exacerbation of COPD. PMID:18268918

  12. Morphine Pharmacodynamics in Mechanically Ventilated Preterm Neonates Undergoing Endotracheal Suctioning.

    PubMed

    Välitalo, P A; Krekels, E H; van Dijk, M; Simons, Shp; Tibboel, D; Knibbe, C A

    2017-04-01

    To date, morphine pharmacokinetics (PKs) are well quantified in neonates, but results about its efficacy are ambiguous. This work presents an analysis of a previously published study on pain measurements in mechanically ventilated preterm neonates who received either morphine or placebo to improve comfort during invasive ventilation. The research question was whether morphine reduces the pain associated with endotracheal or nasal suctioning before, during, and after suctioning. Because these neonates cannot verbalize their pain levels, pain was assessed on the basis of several validated pain measurement instruments (i.e., COMFORT-B, preterm infant pain profile [PIPP], Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), and visual analogue scale (VAS)). The item response theory (IRT) was used to analyze the data in order for us to handle the data from multiple-item pain scores. The analysis showed an intra-individual relationship between morphine concentrations and pain reduction, as measured by COMFORT-B and VAS. However, the small magnitude of the morphine effect was not considered clinically relevant for this intervention in preterm neonates. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  13. Update on clinical trials in home mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Luke E; Murphy, Patrick B

    2016-02-01

    Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is an increasingly common intervention and is initiated for a range of pathological processes, including neuromuscular disease (NMD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity related respiratory failure. There have been important recent data published in this area, which helps to guide practice by indicating which populations may benefit from this intervention and the optimum method of setting up and controlling sleep disordered breathing. Recent superficially conflicting data has been published regarding HMV in COPD, with a trial in post-exacerbation patients suggesting no benefit, but in stable chronic hypercapnic patients suggesting a clear and sustained mortality benefit. The two studies are critiqued and the potential reasons for the differing results are discussed. Early and small trial data is frequently contradicted with larger randomised controlled trials and this has been the case with diaphragm pacing being shown to be potentially harmful in the latest data, confirming the importance of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in NMD such as motor neurone disease. Advances in ventilator technology have so far appeared quicker than the clinical data to support their use; although small and often unblinded, the current data suggests equivalence to standard modes of NIV, but with potential comfort benefits that may enhance adherence. The indications for NIV have expanded since its inception, with an effort to treat sleep disordered breathing as a result of chronic heart failure (HF). The SERVE-HF trial has recently demonstrated no clear advantage to this technology and furthermore detected a potentially deleterious effect, with a worsening of all cause and cardiovascular mortality in the treated group compared to controls. The review serves to provide the reader with a critical review of recent advances in the field of sleep disordered breathing and HMV.

  14. Trends in mechanical ventilation: are we ventilating our patients in the best possible way?

    PubMed Central

    Veneroni, Chiara; Farre’, Ramon

    2017-01-01

    This review addresses how the combination of physiology, medicine and engineering principles contributed to the development and advancement of mechanical ventilation, emphasising the most urgent needs for improvement and the most promising directions of future development. Several aspects of mechanical ventilation are introduced, highlighting on one side the importance of interdisciplinary research for further development and, on the other, the importance of training physicians sufficiently on the technological aspects of modern devices to exploit properly the great complexity and potentials of this treatment. Educational aims To learn how mechanical ventilation developed in recent decades and to provide a better understanding of the actual technology and practice. To learn how and why interdisciplinary research and competences are necessary for providing the best ventilation treatment to patients. To understand which are the most relevant technical limitations in modern mechanical ventilators that can affect their performance in delivery of the treatment. To better understand and classify ventilation modes. To learn the classification, benefits, drawbacks and future perspectives of automatic ventilation tailoring algorithms. PMID:28620428

  15. Development of acute parotitis after non-invasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic exploratory laparotomy for evaluation of suspected mesenteric ischemia. She was promptly extubated postoperatively and transferred to the intensive care unit, where on the first postoperative day she developed hypoxemia necessitating initiation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP). After 8 hours of BiPAP, she was noted to have swelling, erythema and tenderness in the right preauricular area. Ultrasound evaluation demonstrated an enlarged right parotid gland. With discontinuation of BiPAP and supportive measures, parotitis resolved within 6 days. The mechanism of NIV-induced acute parotitis likely involves transmission of positive pressure to the oral cavity, causing obstruction to salivary flow within the parotid (Stensen) duct. Conditions that increase salivary viscosity and promote salivary stasis, such as advanced age, dehydration, and absence of salivary gland stimulation due to restriction of oral intake, may render patients more susceptible to this complication. As NIV will continue to be a commonly-used modality for the treatment of acute respiratory failure, clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon. PMID:28840025

  16. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in children

    PubMed Central

    Abadesso, Clara; Nunes, Pedro; Silvestre, Catarina; Matias, Ester; Loureiro, Helena; Almeida, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the clinical efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in avoiding endotracheal intubation (ETI), to demonstrate clinical and gasometric improvement and to identify predictive risk factors associated with NIV failure. An observational prospective clinical study was carried out. Included Patients with acute respiratory disease (ARD) treated with NIV, from November 2006 to January 2010 in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). NIV was used in 151 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Patients were divided in two groups: NIV success and NIV failure, if ETI was required. Mean age was 7.2±20.3 months (median: 1 min: 0,3 max.: 156). Main diagnoses were bronchiolitis in 102 (67.5%), and pneumonia in 44 (29%) patients. There was a significant improvement in respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), pH, and pCO2 at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset (P<0.05) in both groups. Improvement in pulse oximetric saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) was verified at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset in the success group (P<0.001). In the failure group, significant SpO2/FiO2 improvement was only observed in the first 4 hours. NIV failure occurred in 34 patients (22.5%). Risk factors for NIV failure were apnea, prematurity, pneumonia, and bacterial co-infection (P<0.05). Independent risk factors for NIV failure were apneia (P<0.001; odds ratio 15.8; 95% confidence interval: 3.42–71.4) and pneumonia (P<0.001, odds ratio 31.25; 95% confidence interval: 8.33–111.11). There were no major complications related with NIV. In conclusion this study demonstrates the efficacy of NIV as a form of respiratory support for children and infants with ARF, preventing clinical deterioration and avoiding ETI in most of the patients. Risk factors for failure were related with immaturity and severe infection. PMID:22802994

  17. Acute respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation in pregnant patient: A narrative review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Pradeep Kumar; Biyani, Ghansham; Mohammed, Sadik; Sethi, Priyanka; Bihani, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Physiological changes of pregnancy imposes higher risk of acute respiratory failure (ARF) with even a slight insult and remains an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although pregnant women have different respiratory physiology and different causes of ARF, guidelines specific to ventilatory settings, goals of oxygenation and weaning process could not be framed due to lack of large-scale randomized controlled trials. During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, pregnant women had higher morbidity and mortality compared to nonpregnant women. During this period, alternative strategies of ventilation such as high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, inhalational of nitric oxide, prone positioning, and extra corporeal membrane oxygenation were increasingly used as a desperate measure to rescue pregnant patients with severe hypoxemia who were not improving with conventional mechanical ventilation. This article highlights the causes of ARF and recent advances in invasive, noninvasive and alternative strategies of ventilation used during pregnancy. PMID:28096571

  18. Respiratory mechanics to understand ARDS and guide mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Tommaso; Lazzeri, Marta; Bellani, Giacomo; Zanella, Alberto; Grasselli, Giacomo

    2017-10-02

    As precision medicine is becoming standard of care to select tailored rather than average treatments, physiological measurements might represent the first step to apply personalized therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). Systematic assessment of respiratory mechanics in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could represent a step towards this direction for two main reasons. On the one hand, respiratory mechanics are a powerful physiological method to understand the severity of this syndrome in each single patient. Decreased respiratory system compliance, for example, is associated with low end expiratory lung volume and more severe lung injury. On the other, respiratory mechanics might guide protective mechanical ventilation settings. Improved gravitationally dependent regional lung compliance could support selection of positive end-expiratory pressure and maximize alveolar recruitment. Moreover, the association between driving airway pressure and mortality in ARDS patients potentially underlines the importance of sizing tidal volume on respiratory system compliance rather than on predicted body weight. The present review article aims to describe the main alterations of respiratory mechanics in ARDS as a potent bedside tool to understand severity and guide mechanical ventilation settings, thus representing a readily available clinical resource for ICU physicians. © 2017 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  19. Provision of home mechanical ventilation and sleep services for England survey.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Suh, E; Davies, M; Smith, I; Maher, T M; Elliott, M W; Davidson, A C; Hart, N

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Health is promoting the generation of specialist networks to manage long term ventilatory weaning and domiciliary non-invasive ventilation patients. Currently the availability of these services in England is not known. We performed a short survey to establish the prevalence of sleep and ventilation diagnostic and treatment services. The survey focussed on diagnostic services and Home Mechanical Ventilation (HMV) provision, and was divided into (a) availability of diagnostics, (b) funding, and (c) patient groups. This survey has confirmed that the majority of Home Mechanical Ventilation set-ups are currently for Obesity Related Respiratory Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We have found that there is variable provision of diagnostic services, with the majority of units offering overnight oximetry (95%) but only 55% of responders providing a home mechanical ventilation service. Even more interestingly, less than two thirds of units charged their primary care trust for this service. These data may assist in the development of regional networks and specialist home mechanical ventilation centres.

  20. Inspiratory muscle training is ineffective in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Pedro; Denari, Silvia D C; Ruiz, Soraia A L; Bernal, Karla G; Manfrin, Gabriela M; Friedrich, Celena; Deheinzelin, Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation is associated with complications, and its abbreviation is desirable. The imbalance between increased workload, decreased inspiratory muscle strength and endurance is an important determinant of ventilator dependence. Low endurance may be present due to respiratory muscle atrophy, critical illness, or steroid use. Specific inspiratory muscle training may increase or preserve endurance. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that inspiratory muscle training from the beginning of mechanical ventilation would abbreviate the weaning duration and decrease reintubation rate. As a secondary objective, we described the evolution of inspiratory muscle strength with and without inspiratory muscle training. Prospective, randomized clinical trial in an adult clinical-surgical intensive care unit. Twelve patients trained the inspiratory muscles twice a day, and 13 patients did not (control). Training was performed adjusting the sensitivity of the ventilator based on the maximal inspiratory pressure. Patients underwent daily surveillance of the maximal inspiratory pressure. The weaning duration (31 +/- 22 hr, control and 23 +/- 11 hr, training group; P = .24) and reintubation rate (5 control and 3 training group; P = .39) were not statistically different. The maximal inspiratory pressure of the control group showed a trend toward a modest increase. In contrast, the training group showed a small decrease (P = .34). In acute critically ill patients, inspiratory muscle training from the beginning of mechanical ventilation neither abbreviated the weaning duration, nor decreased the reintubation rate. Inspiratory muscle strength tended to stay constant, along the mechanical ventilation, with or without this specific inspiratory muscle training.

  1. Non-invasive determination of respiratory effort in spontaneous breathing and support ventilation: a validation study with healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Navas, Kristel; Brandt, Sebastian; Strutz, Merle; Gehring, Hartmut; Wenkebach, Ullrich

    2014-08-01

    The proper setting of support ventilation aims to follow the patients' demands, ensuring adequate assistance to their respiratory effort. Effort assessment is thus necessary. But invasive procedures like measuring transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) are impractical in long-term ventilation. Our purpose was therefore the development of the Occlusion+Delta (O+D) method for non-invasive continuous assessment of effort, quantified by the inspiratory pressure-time-product (PTPinsp), during ventilatory support. Flow and airway pressure were measured from 25 healthy volunteers at three effort levels. For the non-invasive method, short expiratory occlusions were executed each three to seven cycles to estimate resistance and compliance with a fitting algorithm fed with the differences between occluded and undisturbed cycles. Signals and estimates were then used to calculate the effort. For the validation of O+D, its estimations were compared to the results from invasive measurement of Pdi using balloon catheters. The agreement between PTPinsp from the invasive measurement and the proposed alternative was confirmed by regression analysis (PTP(O+D)=1.13PTP(Pdi)- 0.85, R²=0.84) and calculation of their differences (mean±SD=1.78±7.18 cm H2O s). Repeated execution of the non-invasive O+D method facilitates a safe automatic assessment of respiratory mechanics and breathing effort, promoting the rapid recognition of changes in patient's demands and the adaptation of support.

  2. Ammonia emissions from two mechanically ventilated UK livestock buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmers, T. G. M.; Burgess, L. R.; Short, J. L.; Phillips, V. R.; Clark, J. A.; Wathes, C. M.

    Ammonia emission rates from livestock buildings are required to construct an accurate emission inventory for the UK. Ventilation and ammonia emission rates from a fattening pig unit and a broiler house, both mechanically ventilated, were estimated using fan wheel anemometers and thermal converters with a chemiluminescence NO x-analyser to measure the ventilation rate and the ammonia concentration, respectively. The estimated ammonia emission factors were 46.9 and 16.6 kg lu -1 a -1 for the fattening pig unit and the broiler house, respectively. Both emission factors were within the range reported in the literature. A tracer gas (CO) method, based on a constant tracer release rate, was validated for measuring ventilation rates from naturally ventilated livestock buildings. Air inlets and outlets were identified using the air temperature or tracer concentration in the opening. Tracer concentration was found to be a more suitable criterion than temperature. In both houses, a significant correlation between the estimated ventilation rate using the tracer method and the measured ventilation rate using fan wheel anemometers was found. The ventilation rate was underestimated by 12 and 6% for the piggery and broiler house, respectively. The instantaneous ammonia emission derived from the tracer gas method was lower than the ammonia emission derived from the fan wheel anemometer method by 14 and 16% for the piggery and broiler house, respectively. The ventilation and ammonia emission estimates using the tracer method were within acceptable range from the ventilation and emission rates measured using measuring fans, but because of its accuracy and simplicity the fan wheel anemometer method is preferred for long-term measurements of ventilation rate in mechanically ventilated buildings.

  3. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients' Perspectives on Use of Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. All believed that they alone should make decision regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Factors they considered important were quality of life, severity of disability, availability of ventilation by means of nasal mask, possible admission to long-term care facility, ability to discontinue…

  4. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients' Perspectives on Use of Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jenny M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. All believed that they alone should make decision regarding use of mechanical ventilation. Factors they considered important were quality of life, severity of disability, availability of ventilation by means of nasal mask, possible admission to long-term care facility, ability to discontinue…

  5. Variability in home mechanical ventilation prescription.

    PubMed

    Escarrabill, Joan; Tebé, Cristian; Espallargues, Mireia; Torrente, Elena; Tresserras, Ricard; Argimón, J

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have analyzed the prevalence and accessibility of home mechanical ventilation (HMV). The aim of this study was to characterize the prevalence of HMV and variability in prescriptions from administrative data. Prescribing rates of HMV in the 37 healthcare sectors of the Catalan Health Service were compared from billing data from 2008 to 2011. Crude accumulated activity rates (per 100,000 population) were calculated using systematic component of variation (SCV) and empirical Bayes (EB) methods. Standardized activity ratios (SAR) were described using a map of healthcare sectors. A crude rate of 23 HMV prescriptions per 100,000 population was observed. Rates increase with age and have increased by 39%. Statistics measuring variation not due to chance show a high variation in women (CSV=0.20 and EB=0.30) and in men (CSV=0.21 and EB=0.40), and were constant over time. In a multilevel Poisson model, hospitals with a chest unit were associated with a greater number of cases (beta=0.68, P<.0001). High variability in prescribing HMV can be explained, in part, by the attitude of professionals towards treatment and accessibility to specialist centers with a chest unit. Analysis of administrative data and variability mapping help identify unexplained variations and, in the absence of systematic records, are a feasible way of tracking treatment. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of self-perception of mechanical ventilation knowledge among Brazilian final-year medical students, residents and emergency physicians

    PubMed Central

    Tallo, Fernando Sabia; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; de Andrade Negri, Alexandre Jorgi; Filho, Paulo Cesar; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Lopes, Antônio Carlos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present self-assessments of knowledge about mechanical ventilation made by final-year medical students, residents, and physicians taking qualifying courses at the Brazilian Society of Internal Medicine who work in urgent and emergency settings. METHODS: A 34-item questionnaire comprising different areas of knowledge and training in mechanical ventilation was given to 806 medical students, residents, and participants in qualifying courses at 11 medical schools in Brazil. The questionnaire’s self-assessment items for knowledge were transformed into scores. RESULTS: The average score among all participants was 21% (0-100%). Of the total, 85% respondents felt they did not receive sufficient information about mechanical ventilation during medical training. Additionally, 77% of the group reported that they would not know when to start noninvasive ventilation in a patient, and 81%, 81%, and 89% would not know how to start volume control, pressure control and pressure support ventilation modes, respectively. Furthermore, 86.4% and 94% of the participants believed they would not identify the basic principles of mechanical ventilation in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively, and would feel insecure beginning ventilation. Finally, 77% said they would fear for the safety of a patient requiring invasive mechanical ventilation under their care. CONCLUSION: Self-assessment of knowledge and self-perception of safety for managing mechanical ventilation were deficient among residents, students and emergency physicians from a sample in Brazil. PMID:28273238

  7. Evidence-Based Utilization of Non-Invasive Ventilation and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Anuj B; Douglas, Ivor S; Walkey, Allan J

    2017-05-25

    Strong evidence supports use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for patients with respiratory distress from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure (strong evidence conditions). Despite unclear benefits of NIV for other causes of acute respiratory failure, utilization for conditions with weaker evidence is increasing despite evidence demonstrating higher mortality for patients who suffer NIV failure (progression from NIV to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)) compared to being treated initially with IMV. Determine the association of hospital variation in evidence-based utilization of NIV with patient outcomes. Using the California State Inpatient Database 2011, we identified adult patients who received NIV. Patients were considered to have a strong evidence condition for NIV if they had an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart failure. We used multivariable hierarchical logistic regression to determine the association between hospital rates of NIV use for strong evidence conditions and patient risk of NIV failure (need for invasive mechanical ventilation after NIV). Among 22,706 hospitalizations with NIV as the initial ventilatory strategy, 6,820 (30.0%) had strong evidence conditions. Patients with strong evidence conditions had lower risk of NIV failure than patients with weak evidence conditions (8.1% vs 18.2%, p<0.0001). Regardless of underlying diagnosis, patients admitted to hospitals with greater use of NIV for strong evidence conditions had lower risk of NIV failure (Quartile 4 vs Quartile 1 aOR=0.62, 95% CI 0.49-0.80). Even patients without a strong evidence condition benefited from admission to hospitals that used NIV more often for patients with strong evidence conditions (Quartile 4 vs Quartile 1 aOR for NIV failure = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.88). Most patients who received NIV did not have conditions with strong supporting evidence for its use with wide institutional variation in patient selection for NIV

  8. A Porcine Model for Initial Surge Mechanical Ventilator Assessment and Evaluation of Two Limited Function Ventilators

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P; Hotchkin, David L; Lamm, Wayne JE; Hinkson, Carl; Pierson, David J; Glenny, Robb W; Rubinson, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To adapt an animal model of acute lung injury for use as a standard protocol for a screening, initial evaluation of limited function, or “surge,” ventilators for use in mass casualty scenarios. Design Prospective, experimental animal study. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects 12 adult pigs. Interventions 12 spontaneously breathing pigs (6 in each group) were subjected to acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) via pulmonary artery infusion of oleic acid. Following development of respiratory failure, animals were mechanically ventilated with a limited function ventilator (Simplified Automatic Ventilator [SAVe] I or II; Automedx) for one hour or until the ventilator could not support the animal. The limited function ventilator was then exchanged for a full function ventilator (Servo 900C; Siemens). Measurements and Main Results Reliable and reproducible levels of ALI/ARDS were induced. The SAVe I was unable to adequately oxygenate 5 animals, with PaO2 (52.0 ± 11.1 torr) compared to the Servo (106.0 ± 25.6 torr; p=0.002). The SAVe II was able to oxygenate and ventilate all 6 animals for one hour with no difference in PaO2 (141.8 ± 169.3 torr) compared to the Servo (158.3 ± 167.7 torr). Conclusions We describe a novel in vivo model of ALI/ARDS that can be used to initially screen limited function ventilators considered for mass respiratory failure stockpiles, and is intended to be combined with additional studies to defintively assess appropriateness for mass respiratory failure. Specifically, during this study we demonstrate that the SAVe I ventilator is unable to provide sufficient gas exchange, while the SAVe II, with several more functions, was able to support the same level of hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to ALI/ARDS for one hour. PMID:21187747

  9. Home non-invasive ventilation: a brief guide for primary care staff.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Trevor

    An increasing number of patients with a wide range of respiratory problems are using non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at home to optimise their respiratory function. It has been estimated that in 1999 between 2,500 and 3,000 people in the UK (5 per 100,000 head of population) were using domiciliary NIV (Leger, 2001). As a consequence, health professionals working in the community are now more likely to encounter patients using this type of ventilation.

  10. Mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury in healthy lungs.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro Leme; Negrini, Daniela; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macêdo

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an essential method of patient support, but it may induce lung damage, leading to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). VILI is the result of a complex interplay among various mechanical forces that act on lung structures, such as type I and II epithelial cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, peripheral airways, and the extracellular matrix (ECM), during mechanical ventilation. This article discusses ongoing research focusing on mechanisms of VILI in previously healthy lungs, such as in the perioperative period, and the development of new ventilator strategies for surgical patients. Several experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of mechanotransduction in each cell type and in the ECM, as well as the role of different ventilator parameters in inducing or preventing VILI. VILI may be attenuated by reducing the tidal volume; however, the use of higher or lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuvers during the perioperative period is a matter of debate. Many questions concerning the mechanisms of VILI in surgical patients remain unanswered. The optimal threshold value of each ventilator parameter to reduce VILI is also unclear. Further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to better evaluate ventilator settings during the perioperative period in different types of surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Variability in Mechanical Ventilation: What's All the Noise About?

    PubMed

    Naik, Bhiken I; Lynch, Carl; Durbin, Charles G

    2015-08-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation is characterized by a fixed breathing frequency and tidal volume. Physiological and mathematical models have demonstrated the beneficial effects of varying tidal volume and/or inspiratory pressure during positive-pressure ventilation. The addition of noise (random changes) to a monotonous nonlinear biological system, such as the lung, induces stochastic resonance that contributes to the recruitment of collapsed alveoli and atelectatic lung segments. In this article, we review the mechanism of physiological pulmonary variability, the principles of noise and stochastic resonance, and the emerging understanding that there are beneficial effects of variability during mechanical ventilation.

  12. Energy and protein intakes of hospitalised patients with acute respiratory failure receiving non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Anneli; White, Hayden; Sosnowski, Kellie; Tran, Khoa; Jones, Mark; Palmer, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional intake of patients in acute respiratory failure receiving non-invasive ventilation has not previously been described, and no protocols have been developed to guide practice to optimise nutritional status. We aimed to measure energy and protein intakes of patients in acute respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation receiving standard hospital nutritional care. Food and fluid intake forms were completed by nursing staff for all meals and mid meals for patients admitted with respiratory failure commencing on non-invasive ventilation. Intake was converted from quartiles of food consumed into energy and protein to enable comparison with estimated daily requirements using descriptive statistics. Multinomial stepwise regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with inadequate protein and energy intake. Over 283 total days of intake, 36 participants (67% female, aged 65 ± 9 years) achieved on average 1434 ± 627 kcal and 63 ± 29 g protein daily. Overall, 28 patients (78%, 95% CI: 61-90%) met less than 80% of estimated energy requirements and 27 patients (75%, 95% CI: 58-88%) met less than 80% of estimated protein requirements. Being fed orally, longer time on non-invasive ventilation and higher BMI were associated with poorer intakes. Better nutritional status on admission and measuring intake closer to hospital discharge was associated with improved intakes. Patients with acute respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation often had inadequate oral intake, particularly with increasing time on non-invasive ventilation, and earlier during their hospital admission. Development of protocols to optimise nutritional intake for these patients may improve outcomes and reduce regular readmission rates. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline: Pediatric Chronic Home Invasive Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sterni, Laura M; Collaco, Joseph M; Baker, Christopher D; Carroll, John L; Sharma, Girish D; Brozek, Jan L; Finder, Jonathan D; Ackerman, Veda L; Arens, Raanan; Boroughs, Deborah S; Carter, Jodi; Daigle, Karen L; Dougherty, Joan; Gozal, David; Kevill, Katharine; Kravitz, Richard M; Kriseman, Tony; MacLusky, Ian; Rivera-Spoljaric, Katherine; Tori, Alvaro J; Ferkol, Thomas; Halbower, Ann C

    2016-04-15

    Children with chronic invasive ventilator dependence living at home are a diverse group of children with special health care needs. Medical oversight, equipment management, and community resources vary widely. There are no clinical practice guidelines available to health care professionals for the safe hospital discharge and home management of these complex children. To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the hospital discharge and home/community management of children requiring chronic invasive ventilation. The Pediatric Assembly of the American Thoracic Society assembled an interdisciplinary workgroup with expertise in the care of children requiring chronic invasive ventilation. The experts developed four questions of clinical importance and used an evidence-based strategy to identify relevant medical evidence. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to formulate and grade recommendations. Clinical practice recommendations for the management of children with chronic ventilator dependence at home are provided, and the evidence supporting each recommendation is discussed. Collaborative generalist and subspecialist comanagement is the Medical Home model most likely to be successful for the care of children requiring chronic invasive ventilation. Standardized hospital discharge criteria are suggested. An awake, trained caregiver should be present at all times, and at least two family caregivers should be trained specifically for the child's care. Standardized equipment for monitoring, emergency preparedness, and airway clearance are outlined. The recommendations presented are based on the current evidence and expert opinion and will require an update as new evidence and/or technologies become available.

  14. Assessment of respiratory output in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Franco

    2005-06-01

    Mechanically ventilated patients are subject to few pathophysiologic disturbances that have such intuitive importance as abnormal function of the respiratory output. Abnormal function of the respiratory output plays a fundamental role in all aspects of mechanical ventilation: in determining which patients require mechanical ventilation, in determining the interaction between a patient and the ventilator, and in determining when a patient can tolerate discontinuation of mechanical ventilation. Monitoring indexes such as the rate of rise in electrical activity of the diaphragm, Po.1, (dP/dt)max, and Pmus, has provided insight into the performance of the respiratory centers in critically ill patients, but these methods require considerable refinement. A large body of research on measurements of energy expenditure of the respiratory muscles, such as pressure-time product, and measurements of inspiratory effort, such as the tension-time index, is currently accumulating. Several challenges, however, lay ahead regarding these indices. First, there is the need to identify the correct level of pressure generation and respiratory muscle effort that should be attained in the day-to-day management of mechanically ventilated patients. The correct titration of ventilator setting should not cause iatrogenic muscle damage because the support is excessive or insufficient. One of the challenges in reaching this goal is that for the same patient, different underlying pathologic conditions (eg, sepsis or ventilator-associated muscle injury) may require different levels of support. Second, many of the measurements of pressure generation and effort have been confined to the research laboratory. Modifications of the technology to achieve accurate measurements in the intensive care unit-outside of the research laboratory--are needed. To facilitate individual titration of ventilator settings, the new technologies must provide easier access to quantification of drive, pressure output, and

  15. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Beurskens, Charlotte J; Brevoord, Daniel; Lagrand, Wim K; van den Bergh, Walter M; Vroom, Margreeth B; Preckel, Benedikt; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes. Methods. This is an observational cohort substudy of a single arm intervention study. Twenty-four ICU patients were included, who were admitted after a cardiac arrest and mechanically ventilated for 3 hours with heliox (50% helium; 50% oxygen). A fixed protective ventilation protocol (6 mL/kg) was used, with prospective observation for changes in lung mechanics and gas exchange. Statistics was by Bonferroni post-hoc correction with statistical significance set at P < 0.017. Results. During heliox ventilation, respiratory rate decreased (25 ± 4 versus 23 ± 5 breaths min(-1), P = 0.010). Minute volume ventilation showed a trend to decrease compared to baseline (11.1 ± 1.9 versus 9.9 ± 2.1 L min(-1), P = 0.026), while reducing PaCO2 levels (5.0 ± 0.6 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 kPa, P = 0.011) and peak pressures (21.1 ± 3.3 versus 19.8 ± 3.2 cm H2O, P = 0.024). Conclusions. Heliox improved CO2 elimination while allowing reduced minute volume ventilation in adult patients during protective mechanical ventilation.

  16. [Weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation at 72 hours of spontaneous breathing].

    PubMed

    Villalba, Darío; Plotnikow, Gustavo; Feld, Viviana; Rivero Vairo, Noelia; Scapellato, José; Díaz Nielsen, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the population admitted to a weaning center (WC) to receive invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), analyze their evolution and identify weaning failure predictors. The medical records of 763 patients admitted to the respiratory care service in the period between May 2005 and January 2012 were reviewed; 372 were selected among 415 tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated. Different variables were analyzed as weaning failure predictors. The mean age of patients admitted was 69 years (SD 14.7), 57% were men. The median length of hospitalization in ICU was 33 days (IQR 26-46). Admission to ICU was due to medical causes in 86% of cases. During hospitalization in WC 186 (50%) patients achieved the successful weaning at a median of 13 days (interquartile range-IQR 5-38). A predictor of weaning failure was age. When we studied the subpopulation with partial disconnection of mechanical ventilation, we found a history of COPD and ageas predictors. Although 25% of the patients died, or required referral to a center of major complexity before 2 weeks of hospitalization, more than half of the patients were able to be removed permanently from the invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), this could support the care of chronic critical patients in MV and rehabilitation centers in Argentina because patients in these centers have a chance of weaning from MV, despite the high chances of developing complications.

  17. Sedation in mechanically ventilated patients—time to stay awake?

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Fabio Tanzillo

    2016-01-01

    On June, 2016, Klompas and colleagues published an article in the Chest entitled “Associations between different sedatives and ventilator-associated events, length of stay, and mortality in patients who were mechanically ventilated”, which investigated the effects of different sedatives on ventilator-associated events (VAEs), length of stay, and mortality in patients who were mechanically ventilated. This study used data of over 9,603 patients in order to investigate patients over the age of 18 who underwent mechanical ventilation for more than 3 days over a 7-year period in a large academic medical center. The investigators found that propofol and dexmedetomidine were associated with less time to extubation compared with benzodiazepines, but dexmedetomidine was also associated with less time to extubation vs. propofol. This study raises important questions about the sedation of critically ill patients. PMID:27826584

  18. Issues in weaning from mechanical ventilation: literature review.

    PubMed

    Rose, Louise; Nelson, Sioban

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to raise questions on the effect of skill mix and organizational structure on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation is an essential life-saving technology. There are, however, numerous associated complications that influence the morbidity and mortality of patients receiving intensive care. Therefore, it was essential to use the safest and most effective form of ventilation for the shortest possible duration. Because of the potential complications and costs of mechanical ventilation, research to date have focused on accurate weaning readiness assessment, methods and organizational aspects that influence the weaning process. In early 2005, the literature was reviewed from 1986 to 2004 by accessing the following databases: Medline, Proquest, Science Direct, CINAHL, and Blackwell Science. The keywords mechanical ventilation, weaning, protocols, critical care, nursing role, decision-making and weaning readiness were used separately and combinations. Controversy exists in weaning practices about appropriate and efficacious weaning readiness assessment indicators, the best method of weaning and the use of weaning protocols. Arguably, the implementation of weaning protocols may have little effect in an environment that favours collaboration between nursing and medical staff, autonomous nursing decision-making in relation to weaning practices, and high numbers of nurses qualified at postgraduate level. Further research is required that better quantifies critical care nurses' role in weaning practices and the contextual issues that influence both the nursing role and the process of weaning from mechanical ventilation.

  19. Numerical investigation of pulmonary drug delivery under mechanical ventilation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Arindam; van Rhein, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    The effects of mechanical ventilation waveform on fluid flow and particle deposition were studied in a computer model of the human airways. The frequency with which aerosolized drugs are delivered to mechanically ventilated patients demonstrates the importance of understanding the effects of ventilation parameters. This study focuses specifically on the effects of mechanical ventilation waveforms using a computer model of the airways of patient undergoing mechanical ventilation treatment from the endotracheal tube to generation G7. Waveforms were modeled as those commonly used by commercial mechanical ventilators. Turbulence was modeled with LES. User defined particle force models were used to model the drag force with the Cunningham correction factor, the Saffman lift force, and Brownian motion force. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was found to be an important geometric feature, causing a fluid jet towards the right main bronchus, increased turbulence, and a recirculation zone in the right main bronchus. In addition to the enhanced deposition seen at the carinas of the airway bifurcations, enhanced deposition was also seen in the right main bronchus due to impaction and turbulent dispersion resulting from the fluid structures created by the ETT. Authors acknowledge financial support through University of Missouri Research Board Award.

  20. [Cases and duration of mechanical ventilation in German hospitals : An analysis of DRG incentives and developments in respiratory medicine].

    PubMed

    Biermann, A; Geissler, A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) have been used to reimburse hospitals services in Germany since 2003/04. Like any other reimbursement system, DRGs offer specific incentives for hospitals that may lead to unintended consequences for patients. In the German context, specific procedures and their documentation are suspected to be primarily performed to increase hospital revenues. Mechanical ventilation of patients and particularly the duration of ventilation, which is an important variable for the DRG-classification, are often discussed to be among these procedures. The aim of this study was to examine incentives created by the German DRG-based payment system with regard to mechanical ventilation and to identify factors that explain the considerable increase of mechanically ventilated patients in recent years. Moreover, the assumption that hospitals perform mechanical ventilation in order to gain economic benefits was examined. In order to gain insights on the development of the number of mechanically ventilated patients, patient-level data provided by the German Federal Statistical Office and the German Institute for the Hospital Remuneration System were analyzed. The type of performed ventilation, the total number of ventilation hours, the age distribution, mortality and the DRG distribution for mechanical ventilation were calculated, using methods of descriptive and inferential statistics. Furthermore, changes in DRG-definitions and changes in respiratory medicine were compared for the years 2005-2012. Since the introduction of the DRG-based payment system in Germany, the hours of ventilation and the number of mechanically ventilated patients have substantially increased, while mortality has decreased. During the same period there has been a switch to less invasive ventilation methods. The age distribution has shifted to higher age-groups. A ventilation duration determined by DRG definitions could not be found. Due to advances in respiratory medicine, new

  1. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Anne; Rossor, Thomas E; Sundaresan, Adesh; Murthy, Vadivelam; Milner, Anthony D

    2016-09-01

    During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by manipulation of rate and inspiratory time during conventional ventilation and employment of patient-triggered ventilation. To compare the efficacy of:(i) synchronised mechanical ventilation, delivered as high-frequency positive pressure ventilation (HFPPV) or patient-triggered ventilation (assist control ventilation (ACV) and synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV)), with conventional ventilation or high-frequency oscillation (HFO);(ii) different types of triggered ventilation (ACV, SIMV, pressure-regulated volume control ventilation (PRVCV), SIMV with pressure support (PS) and pressure support ventilation (PSV)). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to June 5 2016), EMBASE (1980 to June 5 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to June 5 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials comparing synchronised ventilation delivered as HFPPV to CMV, or ACV/SIMV to CMV or HFO in neonates. Randomised trials comparing different triggered ventilation modes (ACV, SIMV, SIMV plus PS, PRVCV and PSV) in neonates. Data were collected regarding clinical outcomes including mortality, air leaks (pneumothorax or pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE)), severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grades 3 and 4), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (oxygen dependency beyond 28 days), moderate/severe BPD (oxygen

  2. Synchronized mechanical ventilation for respiratory support in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Anne; Murthy, Vadivelam; Milner, Anthony D; Rossor, Thomas E; Sundaresan, Adesh

    2016-08-19

    During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by manipulation of rate and inspiratory time during conventional ventilation and employment of patient-triggered ventilation. To compare the efficacy of:(i) synchronised mechanical ventilation, delivered as high-frequency positive pressure ventilation (HFPPV) or patient-triggered ventilation (assist control ventilation (ACV) and synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV)), with conventional ventilation or high-frequency oscillation (HFO);(ii) different types of triggered ventilation (ACV, SIMV, pressure-regulated volume control ventilation (PRVCV), SIMV with pressure support (PS) and pressure support ventilation (PSV)). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to June 5 2016), EMBASE (1980 to June 5 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to June 5 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials comparing synchronised ventilation delivered as HFPPV to CMV, or ACV/SIMV to CMV or HFO in neonates. Randomised trials comparing different triggered ventilation modes (ACV, SIMV, SIMV plus PS, PRVCV and PSV) in neonates. Data were collected regarding clinical outcomes including mortality, air leaks (pneumothorax or pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE)), severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grades 3 and 4), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (oxygen dependency beyond 28 days), moderate/severe BPD (oxygen

  3. Leakage estimation using Kalman filtering in noninvasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G G; Freitas, U S; Bounoiare, D; Aguirre, L A; Letellier, C

    2013-05-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is today often used to assist patient with chronic respiratory failure. One of the main reasons evoked to explain asynchrony events, discomfort, unwillingness to be treated, etc., is the occurrence of nonintentional leaks in the ventilation circuit, which are difficult to account for because they are not measured. This paper describes a solution to the problem of variable leakage estimation based on a Kalman filter driven by airflow and the pressure signals, both of which are available in the ventilation circuit. The filter was validated by showing that based on the attained leakage estimates, practically all the untriggered cycles can be explained.

  4. The use of mechanical ventilation in the ED.

    PubMed

    Easter, Benjamin D; Fischer, Christopher; Fisher, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    Although EDs are responsible for the initial care of critically ill patients and the amount of critical care provided in the ED is increasing, there are few data examining mechanical ventilation (MV) in the ED. In addition, characteristics of ED-based ventilation may affect planning for ventilator shortages during pandemic influenza or bioterrorist events. The study examined the epidemiology of MV in US EDs, including demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics; indications for MV; ED length of stay (LOS); and in-hospital mortality. This study was a retrospective review of the 1993 to 2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey ED data sets. Ventilated patients were compared with ED patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and to all other ED visits. There were 3.6 million ED MV visits (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2-4.0 million) over the study period. Sex, age, race, and payment source were similar for mechanically ventilated and ICU patients (P > .05 for all). Approximately 12.5% of ventilated patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation compared with 1.7% of ICU admissions and 0.2% of all other ED visits (P < .0001). Accordingly, in-hospital mortality was significantly higher for ventilated patients (24%; 95% CI, 13.1%-34.9%) than both comparison groups (9.3% and 2.5%, respectively). Median LOS for ventilated patients was 197 minutes (interquartile range, 112-313 minutes) compared with 224 minutes for ICU admissions and 140 minutes for all other ED visits. Patients undergoing ED MV have particularly high in-hospital mortality rates, but their ED LOS is sufficient for implementation of evidence-based ventilator interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of music on anxiety and pain in patients with mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Naváis, M; Via Clavero, G; Vázquez Guillamet, B; Moreno Duran, A M; Martínez Estalella, G

    2013-01-01

    The power of music to relieve anxiety or pain has been widely used throughout history. To evaluate effects of music on anxiety and pain in patients on invasive mechanical ventilation. A randomized controlled trial with repeated measures. This was a randomized, experimental prospective study in a tertiary hospital conducted from January 2009 to June 2010. The sample was made up of 44 participants. Intervention consisted in a 30-minute musical session in which the subject used a headset and was in an individual room. For the control group, the usual setting of an intensive care unit was maintained unchanged. Each patient underwent a minimum of 3 and maximum of 5 sessions. The patient per se selected the music from among a selection prepared by the investigator team. Anxiety and pain and hemodynamic variables of heart rate, respiratory rate systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline, after the music session and then one-hour later. Music therapy significantly decreased anxiety score (P=.000) when measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scale. There were no differences in pain in the experimental group (P=.157) when measured with the visual analogue scale. No summative effects were demonstrated during multiple sessions. Music reduces anxiety in patients with invasive mechanical ventilation. Invasive mechanical ventilation can be established as a non-pharmacologic tool added to the available therapeutic options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Rialp Cervera, G; del Castillo Blanco, A; Pérez Aizcorreta, O; Parra Morais, L

    2014-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with conventional therapy improves the outcome of patients with acute respiratory failure due to hypercapnic decompensation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). This review summarizes the main effects of NIV in these pathologies. In COPD, NIV improves gas exchange and symptoms, reducing the need for endotracheal intubation, hospital mortality and hospital stay compared with conventional oxygen therapy. NIV may also avoid reintubation and may decrease the length of invasive mechanical ventilation. In ACPE, NIV accelerates the remission of symptoms and the normalization of blood gas parameters, reduces the need for endotracheal intubation, and is associated with a trend towards lesser mortality, without increasing the incidence of myocardial infarction. The ventilation modality used in ACPE does not affect the patient prognosis.

  7. Clinical review: Respiratory mechanics in spontaneous and assisted ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Grinnan, Daniel C; Truwit, Jonathon Dean

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary disease changes the physiology of the lungs, which manifests as changes in respiratory mechanics. Therefore, measurement of respiratory mechanics allows a clinician to monitor closely the course of pulmonary disease. Here we review the principles of respiratory mechanics and their clinical applications. These principles include compliance, elastance, resistance, impedance, flow, and work of breathing. We discuss these principles in normal conditions and in disease states. As the severity of pulmonary disease increases, mechanical ventilation can become necessary. We discuss the use of pressure–volume curves in assisting with poorly compliant lungs while on mechanical ventilation. In addition, we discuss physiologic parameters that assist with ventilator weaning as the disease process abates. PMID:16277736

  8. Mechanical Power and Development of Ventilator-induced Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Cressoni, Massimo; Gotti, Miriam; Chiurazzi, Chiara; Massari, Dario; Algieri, Ilaria; Amini, Martina; Cammaroto, Antonio; Brioni, Matteo; Montaruli, Claudia; Nikolla, Klodiana; Guanziroli, Mariateresa; Dondossola, Daniele; Gatti, Stefano; Valerio, Vincenza; Vergani, Giordano Luca; Pugni, Paola; Cadringher, Paolo; Gagliano, Nicoletta; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2016-05-01

    The ventilator works mechanically on the lung parenchyma. The authors set out to obtain the proof of concept that ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) depends on the mechanical power applied to the lung. Mechanical power was defined as the function of transpulmonary pressure, tidal volume (TV), and respiratory rate. Three piglets were ventilated with a mechanical power known to be lethal (TV, 38 ml/kg; plateau pressure, 27 cm H2O; and respiratory rate, 15 breaths/min). Other groups (three piglets each) were ventilated with the same TV per kilogram and transpulmonary pressure but at the respiratory rates of 12, 9, 6, and 3 breaths/min. The authors identified a mechanical power threshold for VILI and did nine additional experiments at the respiratory rate of 35 breaths/min and mechanical power below (TV 11 ml/kg) and above (TV 22 ml/kg) the threshold. In the 15 experiments to detect the threshold for VILI, up to a mechanical power of approximately 12 J/min (respiratory rate, 9 breaths/min), the computed tomography scans showed mostly isolated densities, whereas at the mechanical power above approximately 12 J/min, all piglets developed whole-lung edema. In the nine confirmatory experiments, the five piglets ventilated above the power threshold developed VILI, but the four piglets ventilated below did not. By grouping all 24 piglets, the authors found a significant relationship between the mechanical power applied to the lung and the increase in lung weight (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) and lung elastance (r = 0.33, P < 0.01) and decrease in PaO2/FIO2 (r = 0.40, P < 0.001) at the end of the study. In piglets, VILI develops if a mechanical power threshold is exceeded.

  9. Fatal brain gas embolism during non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, Claire B; Chevrolet, Jean-Claude; Gasche, Yvan; Charbonney, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Gas embolism is a dreaded complication following invasive medical procedures, traumatic lung injury and decompression accidents. We report a case of fatal gas embolism following the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP). The patient initially underwent left bronchial artery embolisation for massive haemoptysis in the context of severe tuberculotic sequels. Under NIV and after heavy coughing he became hemiparetic and his level of consciousness suddenly dropped. Computed tomography of the brain showed multiple air embolism and ischaemic lesions were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Echocardiographic investigations showed no intracardiac defect. Vasculo-pulmonary abnormalities in the context of heavy coughing and non-invasive ventilation may have played a major role in the occurrence of this event. New neurological events in a patient with tuberculotic sequels or any known vascular pulmonary abnormalities and NIV should raise the suspicion of brain gas embolism. PMID:21716825

  10. Higher Pulmonary Dead Space May Predict Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Thida; Stuart-Killion, Regan B.; Daniel, Brian M.; Presnell, Laura B.; Zhuo, Hanjing; Matthay, Michael A.; Liu, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Children undergoing congenital heart surgery are at risk for prolonged mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay. We investigated the prognostic value of pulmonary dead space fraction as a non-invasive, physiologic marker in this population. In a prospective, cross-sectional study, we measured pulmonary dead space fraction in 52 intubated, pediatric patients within 24 hr postoperative from congenital heart surgery. Measurements were obtained with a bedside, non-invasive cardiac output (NICO) monitor (Respironics Novametrix, Inc., Wallingford, CT). Median pulmonary dead space fraction was 0.46 (25–75% IQR 0.34–0.55). Pulmonary dead space fraction significantly correlated with duration of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay in the entire cohort (rs=0.51, P=0.0002; rs=0.51, P=0.0002) and in the subset of patients without residual intracardiac shunting (rs=0.45, P=0.008; rs=0.49, P=0.004). In a multivariable logistic regression model, pulmonary dead space fraction remained an independent predictor for prolonged mechanical ventilation in the presence of cardiopulmonary bypass time and ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.14–4.38; P=0.02). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for this model was 0.91. Elevated pulmonary dead space fraction is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospital stay in pediatric patients who undergo surgery for congenital heart disease and has additive predictive value in identifying those at risk for longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary dead space may be a useful prognostic tool for clinicians in patients who undergo congenital heart surgery. PMID:19382217

  11. Enhancing rehabilitation of mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, David; Weblin, Jonathan; Atkins, Gemma; Bion, Julian; Williams, Jenny; Elliott, Catherine; Whitehouse, Tony; Snelson, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    Prolonged periods of mechanical ventilation are associated with significant physical and psychosocial adverse effects. Despite increasing evidence supporting early rehabilitation strategies, uptake and delivery of such interventions in Europe have been variable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an early and enhanced rehabilitation program for mechanically ventilated patients in a large tertiary referral, mixed-population intensive care unit (ICU). A new supportive rehabilitation team was created within the ICU in April 2012, with a focus on promoting early and enhanced rehabilitation for patients at high risk for prolonged ICU and hospital stays. Baseline data on all patients invasively ventilated for at least 5 days in the previous 12 months (n = 290) were compared with all patients ventilated for at least 5 days in the 12 months after the introduction of the rehabilitation team (n = 292). The main outcome measures were mobility level at ICU discharge (assessed via the Manchester Mobility Score), mean ICU, and post-ICU length of stay (LOS), ventilator days, and in-hospital mortality. The introduction of the ICU rehabilitation team was associated with a significant increase in mobility at ICU discharge, and this was associated with a significant reduction in ICU LOS (16.9 vs 14.4 days, P = .007), ventilator days (11.7 vs 9.3 days, P < .05), total hospital LOS (35.3 vs 30.1 days, P < .001), and in-hospital mortality (39% vs 28%, P < .05). A quality improvement strategy to promote early and enhanced rehabilitation within this European ICU improved levels of mobility at critical care discharge, and this was associated with reduced ICU and hospital LOS and reduced days of mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enteral alimentation and gastrointestinal bleeding in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Pingleton, S K; Hadzima, S K

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in mechanically ventilated ICU patients receiving enteral alimentation was reviewed and compared to bleeding occurring in ventilated patients receiving prophylactic antacids or cimetidine. Of 250 patients admitted to our ICU during a 1-yr time period, 43 ventilated patients were studied. Patients in each group were comparable with respect to age, respiratory diagnosis, number of GI hemorrhage risk factors, and number of ventilator, ICU, and hospital days. Twenty-one patients had evidence of GI bleeding. Fourteen of 20 patients receiving antacids and 7 of 9 patients receiving cimetidine had evidence of GI bleeding. No bleeding occurred in 14 patients receiving enteral alimentation. Complications of enteral alimentation were few and none required discontinuation of enteral alimentation. Our preliminary data suggest the role of enteral alimentation in critically ill patients may include not only protection against malnutrition but also protection against GI bleeding.

  13. Outcome of mechanically ventilated patients who require a tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Esteban, Andrés; Apezteguía, Carlos; Anzueto, Antonio; Nightingale, Peter; González, Marco; Soto, Luis; Rodrigo, Carlos; Raad, Jean; David, Cide M; Matamis, Dimitros; D' Empaire, Gabriel

    2005-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of, the risk factors associated with, and the outcome of tracheostomy in a heterogeneous population of mechanically ventilated patients. Prospective, observational cohort study. A total of 361 intensive care units from 12 countries. A cohort of 5,081 patients mechanically ventilated for >12 hrs. None. A total of 546 patients (10.7%) had a tracheostomy during their stay in the intensive care unit. Tracheostomy was performed at a median time of 12 days (interquartile range, 7-17) from the beginning of mechanical ventilation. Variables associated with the performance of tracheostomy were duration of mechanical ventilation, need for reintubation, and neurologic disease as the primary reason of mechanical ventilation. The intensive care unit stay of patients with or without tracheostomy was a median of 21 days (interquartile range, 12-32) vs. 7 days (interquartile range, 4-12; p < .001), respectively, and the hospital stay was a median 36 days (interquartile range, 23-53) vs. 15 days (interquartile range, 8-26; p < .001), respectively. Adjusting by other variables, tracheostomy was independently related with survival in the intensive care unit (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-2.86). Mortality in the hospital was similar in both groups (39% vs. 40%, p = .65). Tracheostomy is a common surgical procedure in the intensive care unit that is associated with a lower mortality in the unit but with a longer stay and a similar mortality in the hospital than in patients without tracheostomy.

  14. Non-invasive ventilation in prone position for refractory hypoxemia after bilateral lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Feltracco, Paolo; Serra, Eugenio; Barbieri, Stefania; Persona, Paolo; Rea, Federico; Loy, Monica; Ori, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Temporary graft dysfunction with gas exchange abnormalities is a common finding during the postoperative course of a lung transplant and is often determined by the post-reimplantation syndrome. Supportive measures including oxygen by mask, inotropes, diuretics, and pulmonary vasodilators are usually effective in non-severe post-reimplantation syndromes. However, in less-responsive clinical pictures, tracheal intubation with positive pressure ventilation, or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV), is necessary. We report on the clinical course of two patients suffering from refractory hypoxemia due to post-reimplantation syndrome treated with NIV in the prone and Trendelenburg positions. NIV was well tolerated and led to resolution of atelectactic areas and dishomogeneous lung infiltrates. Repeated turning from supine to prone under non invasive ventilation determined a stable improvement of gas exchange and prevented a more invasive approach. Even though NIV in the prone position has not yet entered into clinical practice, it could be an interesting option to achieve a better match between ventilation and perfusion. This technique, which we successfully applied in lung transplantation, can be easily extended to other lung diseases with non-recruitable dorso-basal areas.

  15. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline: Pediatric Chronic Home Invasive Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Collaco, Joseph M.; Baker, Christopher D.; Carroll, John L.; Sharma, Girish D.; Brozek, Jan L.; Finder, Jonathan D.; Ackerman, Veda L.; Arens, Raanan; Boroughs, Deborah S.; Carter, Jodi; Daigle, Karen L.; Dougherty, Joan; Gozal, David; Kevill, Katharine; Kravitz, Richard M.; Kriseman, Tony; MacLusky, Ian; Rivera-Spoljaric, Katherine; Tori, Alvaro J.; Ferkol, Thomas; Halbower, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with chronic invasive ventilator dependence living at home are a diverse group of children with special health care needs. Medical oversight, equipment management, and community resources vary widely. There are no clinical practice guidelines available to health care professionals for the safe hospital discharge and home management of these complex children. Purpose: To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the hospital discharge and home/community management of children requiring chronic invasive ventilation. Methods: The Pediatric Assembly of the American Thoracic Society assembled an interdisciplinary workgroup with expertise in the care of children requiring chronic invasive ventilation. The experts developed four questions of clinical importance and used an evidence-based strategy to identify relevant medical evidence. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to formulate and grade recommendations. Results: Clinical practice recommendations for the management of children with chronic ventilator dependence at home are provided, and the evidence supporting each recommendation is discussed. Conclusions: Collaborative generalist and subspecialist comanagement is the Medical Home model most likely to be successful for the care of children requiring chronic invasive ventilation. Standardized hospital discharge criteria are suggested. An awake, trained caregiver should be present at all times, and at least two family caregivers should be trained specifically for the child’s care. Standardized equipment for monitoring, emergency preparedness, and airway clearance are outlined. The recommendations presented are based on the current evidence and expert opinion and will require an update as new evidence and/or technologies become available. PMID:27082538

  16. Utility of Transcutaneous Capnography for Optimization of Non-Invasive Ventilation Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Gehrer, Simone; Pandey, Kamlesh V; Vaidya, Preyas J; Leuppi, Joerg D.; Tamm, Michael; Strobel, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nocturnal Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV) is the treatment of choice in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Continuous oxygen saturation measured with a pulse oximeter provides a surrogate measure of arterial oxygen saturation but does not completely reflect ventilation. Currently, Partial Pressure of Arterial (PaCO2) measured by arterial blood analysis is used for estimating the adequacy of ventilatory support and serves as the gold standard Aim To examine the safety, feasibility and utility of cutaneous capnography to re-titrate the non-invasive positive pressure ventilation settings in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Materials and Methods Twelve patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure prospectively underwent complete polysomnography and cutaneous capnography measurement on the ear lobe. Non-invasive ventilation pressures were adjusted with the aim of normalizing cutaneous carbon dioxide or at least reducing it by 10 to 15 mmHg. Sensor drift for cutaneous carbon dioxide of 0.7 mmHg per hour was integrated in the analysis. Results Mean baseline cutaneous carbon dioxide was 45.4 ± 6.5 mmHg and drift corrected awake value was 45.1 ± 8.3 mmHg. The correlation of baseline cutaneous carbon dioxide and the corrected awake cutaneous carbon dioxide with arterial blood gas values were 0.91 and 0.85 respectively. Inspiratory positive airway pressures were changed in nine patients (75%) and expiratory positive airway pressures in eight patients (66%). Epworth sleepiness score before and after the study showed no change in five patients, improvement in six patients and deterioration in one patient. Conclusion Cutaneous capnography is feasible and permits the optimization of non-invasive ventilation pressure settings in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Continuous cutaneous capnography might serve as

  17. Characteristics and outcomes of ventilated patients according to time to liberation from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas, Oscar; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Fernández, Cristina; Anzueto, Antonio; Epstein, Scott K; Apezteguía, Carlos; González, Marco; Nin, Nicholas; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Tomicic, Vinko; Desmery, Pablo; Arabi, Yaseen; Pelosi, Paolo; Kuiper, Michael; Jibaja, Manuel; Matamis, Dimitros; Ferguson, Niall D; Esteban, Andrés

    2011-08-15

    A new classification of patients based on the duration of liberation of mechanical ventilation has been proposed. To analyze outcomes based on the new weaning classification in a cohort of mechanically ventilated patients. Secondary analysis included 2,714 patients who were weaned and underwent scheduled extubation from a cohort of 4,968 adult patients mechanically ventilated for more than 12 hours. Patients were classified according to a new weaning classification: 1,502 patients (55%) as simple weaning,1,058 patients (39%) as difficult weaning, and 154 (6%) as prolonged weaning.Variables associated with prolonged weaning(.7d)were: severity at admission (odds ratio [OR] per unit of Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–1.02), duration of mechanical ventilation before first attempt of weaning (OR per day, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06–1.13), chronic pulmonary disease other than chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR,13.23; 95% CI, 3.44–51.05), pneumonia as the reason to start mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.07–3.08), and level of positive end-expiratory pressure applied before weaning (OR per unit,1.09; 95% CI, 1.04–1.14). The prolonged weaning group had a nonsignificant trend toward a higher rate of reintubation (P ¼ 0.08),tracheostomy (P ¼ 0.15), and significantly longer length of stay and higher mortality in the intensive care unit (OR for death, 1.97;95%CI, 1.17–3.31). The adjusted probability of death remained constant until Day 7, at which point it increased to 12.1%.

  18. Effects of Multiple Ventilation Courses and Duration of Mechanical Ventilation on Respiratory Outcomes in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Erik A; DeMauro, Sara B; Kornhauser, Michael; Aghai, Zubair H; Greenspan, Jay S; Dysart, Kevin C

    2015-11-01

    Extubation failure is common in extremely preterm infants. The current paucity of data on the adverse long-term respiratory outcomes associated with reinitiation of mechanical ventilation prevents assessment of the risks and benefits of a trial of extubation in this population. To evaluate whether exposure to multiple courses of mechanical ventilation increases the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes before and after adjustment for the cumulative duration of mechanical ventilation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW; birth weight <1000 g) infants born from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2012, who were receiving mechanical ventilation. Analysis was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015. Data were obtained from the Alere Neonatal Database. The primary study exposures were the cumulative duration of mechanical ventilation and the number of ventilation courses. The primary outcome was bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) among survivors. Secondary outcomes were death, use of supplemental oxygen at discharge, and tracheostomy. We identified 3343 ELBW infants, of whom 2867 (85.8%) survived to discharge. Among the survivors, 1695 (59.1%) were diagnosed as having BPD, 856 (29.9%) received supplemental oxygen at discharge, and 31 (1.1%) underwent tracheostomy. Exposure to a greater number of mechanical ventilation courses was associated with a progressive increase in the risk of BPD and use of supplemental oxygen at discharge. Compared with a single ventilation course, the adjusted odds ratios for BPD ranged from 1.88 (95% CI, 1.54-2.31) among infants with 2 ventilation courses to 3.81 (95% CI, 2.88-5.04) among those with 4 or more courses. After adjustment for the cumulative duration of mechanical ventilation, the odds of BPD were only increased among infants exposed to 4 or more ventilation courses (adjusted odds ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04-2.01). The number of ventilation courses was not associated with increased

  19. Non-invasive ventilation in the treatment of sleep-related breathing disorders: A review and update.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, A; Banfi, P; Grecchi, B; Lax, A; Walterspacher, S; Barlascini, C; Robert, D

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) was originally used in patients with acute respiratory compromises or exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases as an alternative to intubation. Over the last thirty years NIV has been used during the night in patients with stable chronic lung diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea, the overlap syndrome (COPD and obstructive sleep apnea), neuromuscular disorders, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome and in other conditions such as sleep disorders associated with congestive heart failure. In this review we discuss the different types of NIV, the specific conditions in which they can be used as well as the indications, recommendations, and evidence supporting the efficacy of NIV.

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Noninvasive and Invasive Ventilation in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Mihaela S.; Nathanson, Brian H.; Higgins, Thomas L.; Steingrub, Jay S.; Lagu, Tara; Rothberg, Michael B.; Lindenauer, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics and hospital outcomes of patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) treated in the ICU with initial noninvasive (NIV) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Design Retrospective, multicenter cohort studyof prospectively collected data. We used propensity matching to compare the outcomes of patients treated with NIV to those treated with IMV. We also assessed predictors for NIV failure. Setting Thirty-eight hospitals participating in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) database from 2008 through 2012. Subjects A total of 3,520 with a diagnosis of COPD exacerbation including 27.7% who received NIV and 45.5% who received IMV. Measurements and Main Results NIV failure was recorded in 13.7% from patients ventilated noninvasively. Hospital mortality was 7.4% for patients treated with NIV; 16.1% for those treated with IMV; and 22.5% for those who failed NIV. In the propensity matched analysis, patients initially treated with NIV had a 41% lower risk of death compared with those treated with IMV (RR: 0.59, 95% CI 0.36, 0.97). Factors that were independently associated with NIV failure were SAPS-II score (relative risk = 1.04 per point increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.04) and the presence of cancer (2.29, 95% CI: 0.96, 5.45). Conclusions Among critically ill adults with COPD exacerbation, the receipt of NIV was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality compared to IMV; NIV failure was associated with the worst outcomes. These results support the use NIV as a first line therapy in appropriately selected critically ill patients with COPD while also highlighting the risks associated with NIV failure and the need to be cautious in the face of severe disease. PMID:25768682

  1. Respiratory muscle unloading during auto-adaptive non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dellweg, Dominic; Barchfeld, Thomas; Klauke, Matthias; Eiger, Glenn

    2009-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in acute and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. A new timed, automated, auto-adaptive non-invasive ventilatory mode (TA-mode) has been recently introduced. To investigate the degree of respiratory muscle unloading with this new mode in comparison to assisted (S-mode) NIV in healthy individuals. Work of breathing, pressure time product and transdiaphragmatic pressure time product were measured during unassisted breathing, assisted and TA-mode-NIV in eight healthy, awake volunteers at inspiratory pressures of 20 and expiratory pressures of 4hPa. Assisted and TA-mode-NIV reduced the work of breathing by 50 and 89.1%, pressure time product by 61.5 and 72.6% and transdiaphragmatic pressure time product by 77 and 88.7%, respectively when compared to unassisted breathing. The degree of respiratory muscle unloading was higher during TA-mode-NIV when compared to assisted non-invasive ventilation (work of breathing p<0.001, pressure time product p=0.04 and transdiaphragmatic pressure time product p=0,01). TA-mode-NIV achieved significant higher levels of respiratory muscle unloading in healthy individuals when compared to assisted non-invasive ventilation.

  2. Clinical Profile of Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation and their Outcome in a Tertiary Care Medical ICU.

    PubMed

    Vora, Chakor S; Karnik, Niteen D; Gupta, Vishal; Nadkar, Milind Y; Shetye, Jaimala V

    2015-10-01

    An increasing number of patients require mechanical ventilation and there has been a proportional increase in patients needing prolonged mechanical ventilation (ventilated for ≥ 21 days, for atleast 6 hours per day). It accounts for about 10% of all mechanically ventilated patients. Although these patients represent a smaller proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) patients, they consume substantial ICU resources. We studied etiology, metabolic and clinical profile, complications and outcome of these patients. This was a prospective observational study in the medical ICUs of a tertiary hospital over 18 months. All patients above 12 years of age requiring prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation were recruited. Detailed clinical and laboratory records were noted. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was calculated on admission. Of a total 1150 patients who were admitted in ICU during study duration, 34.5% (n= 397) needed mechanical ventilation and 3.91% (n=45) required prolonged mechanical ventilation. Most common patient subsets were: acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) 28.50% (n=13), cerebro-vascular accident (CVA): 17.30% (n=8), tetanus 8.60% (n=4) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) 6.50% (n=3). The mean age of patients was 32 years. Electrolyte imbalances observed were hypocalcaemia (84.44%), hypomagnesaemia (40.9%), hypokalemia (31.11%) and hypophosphatemia (23.8%). Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (53.33%) was the most frequent complication, followed by decubitus ulcers (40%) and deep vein thrombosis (8.89%). Mean duration of ICU stay was 57.02 days ± 44.73 days. Twenty six out of 45 patients (57.75%) were successfully weaned off ventilator support and discharged from the hospital. The SOFA score of patients who survived (mean 2.15) was lesser than that of patients who expired (mean 2.89) (p= 0.36, ns). The incidence of prolonged mechanical ventilation in our study was 3.91% of total 1150 ICU admissions and

  3. Links between the mechanics of ventilation and spine stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Simon; McGill, Stuart M

    2008-05-01

    Spine stability is ensured through isometric coactivation of the torso muscles; however, these same muscles are used cyclically to assist ventilation. Our objective was to investigate this apparent paradoxical role (isometric contraction for stability or rhythmic contraction for ventilation) of some selected torso muscles that are involved in both ventilation and support of the spine. Eight, asymptomatic, male subjects provided data on low back moments, motion, muscle activation, and hand force. These data were input to an anatomically detailed, biologically driven model from which spine load and a lumbar spine stability index was obtained. Results revealed that subjects entrained their torso stabilization muscles to breathe during demanding ventilation tasks. Increases in lung volume and back extensor muscle activation coincided with increases in spine stability, whereas declines in spine stability were observed during periods of low lung inflation volume and simultaneously low levels of torso muscle activation. As a case study, aberrant ventilation motor patterns (poor muscle entrainment), seen in one subject, compromised spine stability. Those interested in rehabilitation of patients with lung compromise and concomitant back troubles would be assisted with knowledge of the mechanical links between ventilation during tasks that impose spine loading.

  4. Mechanical ventilation in patients subjected to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

    PubMed

    López Sanchez, M

    2017-02-08

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a crucial element in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), because there is high level evidence that a low tidal volume of 6ml/kg (protective ventilation) improves survival. In these patients with refractory respiratory insufficiency, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used. This salvage technique improves oxygenation, promotes CO2 clearance, and facilitates protective and ultraprotective MV, potentially minimizing ventilation-induced lung injury. Although numerous trials have investigated different ventilation strategies in patients with ARDS, consensus is lacking on the optimal MV settings during venovenous ECMO. Although the concept of "lung rest" was introduced years ago, there are no evidence-based guidelines on its use in application to MV in patients supported by ECMO. How MV in ECMO patients can promote lung recovery and weaning from ventilation is not clear. The purpose of this review is to describe the ventilation strategies used during venovenous ECMO in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Weaning from mechanical ventilation in paediatrics. State of the art.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Jorge; Araneda, Patricio; Cruces, Pablo

    2014-03-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation is one of the greatest volume and strength issues in evidence-based medicine in critically ill adults. In these patients, weaning protocols and daily interruption of sedation have been implemented, reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation and associated morbidity. In paediatrics, the information reported is less consistent, so that as yet there are no reliable criteria for weaning and extubation in this patient group. Several indices have been developed to predict the outcome of weaning. However, these have failed to replace clinical judgement, although some additional measurements could facilitate this decision. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical ventilation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Radunovic, Aleksandar; Annane, Djillali; Rafiq, Muhammad K; Brassington, Ruth; Mustfa, Naveed

    2017-10-06

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease, is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Neuromuscular respiratory failure is the most common cause of death, which usually occurs within two to five years of the disease onset. Supporting respiratory function with mechanical ventilation may improve survival and quality of life. This is the second update of a review first published in 2009. To assess the effects of mechanical ventilation (tracheostomy-assisted ventilation and non-invasive ventilation (NIV)) on survival, functional measures of disease progression, and quality of life in ALS, and to evaluate adverse events related to the intervention. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, and AMED on 30 January 2017. We also searched two clinical trials registries for ongoing studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs involving non-invasive or tracheostomy-assisted ventilation in participants with a clinical diagnosis of ALS, independent of the reported outcomes. We included comparisons with no intervention or the best standard care. For the original review, four review authors independently selected studies for assessment. Two review authors reviewed searches for this update. All review authors independently extracted data from the full text of selected studies and assessed the risk of bias in studies that met the inclusion criteria. We attempted to obtain missing data where possible. We planned to collect adverse event data from the included studies. For the original Cochrane Review, the review authors identified two RCTs involving 54 participants with ALS receiving NIV. There were no new RCTs or quasi-RCTs at the first update. One new RCT was identified in the second update but was excluded for the reasons outlined below.Incomplete data were available for one published study comparing early and late initiation of

  7. Mechanical exsufflation, noninvasive ventilation, and new strategies for pulmonary rehabilitation and sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed Central

    Bach, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Manual and mechanical exsufflation are important but underutilized ways to clear airway secretions. These methods are especially useful when used in concert with noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance to facilitate extubation and ventilator weaning. This can be used as much as 24 hours a day as an alternative to tracheostomy ventilation or body ventilator use for patients with paralytic restrictive ventilatory insufficiency. These techniques expedite community management of ventilator assisted individuals by avoiding tracheostomy and need for invasive suctioning and ongoing wound care. For these techniques to be effective and to prevent further suppression of ventilatory drive, supplemental oxygen administration must be avoided unless pO2 is less than 60 mm Hg despite normalization of pCO2. Custom molded interfaces for the delivery of noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance can also be used to facilitate the delivery of variable inspiratory expiratory positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance or body ventilator use can rest the respiratory muscles of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This and pulmonary rehabilitation programs geared to exercise reconditioning are therapeutic options that significantly improve the quality of life of these patients. For both paralytic restrictive and obstructive pulmonary patients, these techniques decrease cost and frequency of hospitalizations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1586868

  8. Lung mechanics in the TIMP3 null mouse and its response to mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erica L; Truscott, Emily A; Bailey, Timothy C; Leco, Kevin J; McCaig, Lynda A; Lewis, James F; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2007-03-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) null mice develop emphysema-like airspace enlargement due to an enzymatic imbalance. This study investigates how these abnormalities alter lung mechanics and the response to 2 different mechanical ventilation strategies. Phenotypically, TIMP3 null mice had increased compliance, and decreased resistance, tissue damping, and tissue elastance over wild-type controls. Decreased compliance and increased resistance were observed following the injurious ventilation strategy; however, the TIMP3 null response to both ventilation strategies was similar to wild-type mice. In conclusion, TIMP3 null mice have significant alterations in lung mechanics; however, this does not affect their response to ventilation.

  9. Influences of Duration of Inspiratory Effort, Respiratory Mechanics, and Ventilator Type on Asynchrony With Pressure Support and Proportional Assist Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Renata S; Sales, Raquel P; Melo, Luíz H de P; Marinho, Liégina S; Bastos, Vasco Pd; Nogueira, Andréa da Nc; Ferreira, Juliana C; Holanda, Marcelo A

    2017-05-01

    Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is often associated with patient-ventilator asynchrony. Proportional assist ventilation (PAV) offers inspiratory assistance proportional to patient effort, minimizing patient-ventilator asynchrony. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of respiratory mechanics and patient effort on patient-ventilator asynchrony during PSV and PAV plus (PAV+). We used a mechanical lung simulator and studied 3 respiratory mechanics profiles (normal, obstructive, and restrictive), with variations in the duration of inspiratory effort: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s. The Auto-Trak system was studied in ventilators when available. Outcome measures included inspiratory trigger delay, expiratory trigger asynchrony, and tidal volume (VT). Inspiratory trigger delay was greater in the obstructive respiratory mechanics profile and greatest with a effort of 2.0 s (160 ms); cycling asynchrony, particularly delayed cycling, was common in the obstructive profile, whereas the restrictive profile was associated with premature cycling. In comparison with PSV, PAV+ improved patient-ventilator synchrony, with a shorter triggering delay (28 ms vs 116 ms) and no cycling asynchrony in the restrictive profile. VT was lower with PAV+ than with PSV (630 mL vs 837 mL), as it was with the single-limb circuit ventilator (570 mL vs 837 mL). PAV+ mode was associated with longer cycling delays than were the other ventilation modes, especially for the obstructive profile and higher effort values. Auto-Trak eliminated automatic triggering. Mechanical ventilation asynchrony was influenced by effort, respiratory mechanics, ventilator type, and ventilation mode. In PSV mode, delayed cycling was associated with shorter effort in obstructive respiratory mechanics profiles, whereas premature cycling was more common with longer effort and a restrictive profile. PAV+ prevented premature cycling but not delayed cycling, especially in obstructive respiratory mechanics profiles

  10. ICU Occupancy and mechanical ventilator use in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wunsch, Hannah; Wagner, Jason; Herlim, Maximilian; Chong, David; Kramer, Andrew; Halpern, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Detailed data on occupancy and use of mechanical ventilators in United States intensive care units (ICU) over time and across unit types, are lacking. We sought to describe the hourly bed occupancy and use of ventilators in US ICUs to improve future planning of both the routine and disaster provision of intensive care. Design Retrospective cohort study. We calculated mean hourly bed occupancy in each ICU and hourly bed occupancy for patients on mechanical ventilators. We assessed trends in overall occupancy over the three years. We also assessed occupancy and mechanical ventilation rates across different types and sizes of ICUs. Setting 97 US ICUs participating in Project IMPACT from 2005–07. Patients 226,942 consecutive admissions to ICUs. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Over the three years studied, total ICU occupancy ranged from 57.4% to 82.1% and the number of beds filled with mechanically ventilated patients ranged from 20.7% to 38.9%. There was no change in occupancy across years and no increase in occupancy during influenza seasons. Mean hourly occupancy across ICUs was 68.2% SD ± 21.3, and was substantially higher in ICUs with fewer beds (mean 75.8% (± 16.5) for 5–14 beds versus 60.9% (± 22.1) for 20+ beds, P = 0.001), and in academic hospitals (78.7% (± 15.9) versus 65.3% (± 21.3) for community not-for profit hospitals, P < 0.001). More than half (53.6%) of ICUs had 4+ beds available more than half the time. The mean percentage of ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilation in any given hour was 39.5% (± 15.2), and a mean of 29.0% (± 15.9) of ICU beds were filled with a patient on a ventilator. Conclusions Occupancy of US ICUs was stable over time, but there is uneven distribution across different types and sizes of units. Only three out of ten beds were filled at any time with mechanically ventilated patients, suggesting substantial surge capacity throughout the system to care for acutely critically ill patients

  11. Long term non-invasive domiciliary assisted ventilation for respiratory failure following thoracoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M.; Smith, I.; King, M.; Shneerson, J.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Ventilatory failure is a well recognised complication of patients who have had a thoracoplasty for tuberculosis, but there are few data regarding the value of long term non-invasive assisted ventilation in this situation. METHODS--Thirty two patients who had had a thoracoplasty 20-46 years previously and who had developed respiratory failure were treated with nocturnal cuirass assisted ventilation or nasal positive pressure ventilation. Their survival and changes in arterial blood gases, nocturnal oximetry, and pulmonary function tests were assessed. RESULTS--The actuarial survival rates at one, three, five, and seven years after starting treatment were 91%, 74%, 64%, and 55%, respectively. Only seven of the 13 deaths were directly attributable to chronic respiratory or cardiac failure. The arterial PO2, PCO2, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation, vital capacity, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures had all improved at the time of the initial post-treatment assessment (mean 12 days after starting treatment), but no subsequent improvements were seen after up to 48 months of follow up. Neither survival nor physiological improvements were correlated with the patients' age, the interval since thoracoplasty, or the pretreatment arterial blood gas tensions or results of pulmonary function tests. CONCLUSIONS--These results show that, even when ventilatory failure has developed, the prognosis with non-invasive assisted ventilation is good and the physiological abnormalities can be partially reversed. Patients who develop respiratory failure after a thoracoplasty should be considered for this type of long term domiciliary treatment. PMID:7940434

  12. From mechanical ventilation to intensive care medicine: a challenge for Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Thiéry, Guillaume; Kovacević, Pedja; Straus, Slavenka; Vidovic, Jadranka; Iglica, Amer; Festic, Emir; Gajic, Ognjen

    2009-10-01

    Intensive care medicine is a relatively new specialty, which was created in the 1950's, after invent of mechanical ventilation, which allowed caring for critically ill patients who otherwise would have died. First created for treating mechanically ventilated patients, ICUs extended their scope and care to all patients with life threatening conditions. Over the years, intensive care medicine developed further and became a truly multidisciplinary speciality, encompassing patients from various fields of medicine and involving specialists from a range of base specialties, with additional (subspecialty) training in intensive care medicine. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the founding of the society of intensive care medicine in 2006, the introduction of non invasive ventilation in 2007, and opening of a multidisciplinary ICUs in Banja Luka and Sarajevo heralded a new age of intensive care medicine. The number of admissions, high severity scores and needs for mechanical ventilation during the first several months in the medical ICU in Banja Luka confirmed the need of these kinds of units in the country. In spite of still suboptimal personnel training, creation of ICUs in Bosnia and Herzegovina may serve as example for other developing countries in the region. However, in order to achieve modern ICU standards and follow European trends toward harmonisation of medicine, Bosnia and Herzegovina needs to take up this challenge by recognizing intensive care medicine as a distinctive specialty, by implementing a specific training program and by setting up multidisciplinary ICUs in acute care hospitals.

  13. Haemodynamic effects of non-invasive ventilation in patients with obesity-hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Castro-Añón, Olalla; Golpe, Rafael; Pérez-de-Llano, Luis A; López González, María Jesús; Escalona Velasquez, Edgar J; Pérez Fernández, Ruth; Testa Fernández, Ana; González Quintela, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    Although it has been reported that pulmonary hypertension is more frequent in patients with obesity-hypoventilation syndrome than in patients with 'pure' obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, little is known about the haemodynamic repercussions of this entity. The aim was to describe the haemodynamic status, as assessed by echocardiography and 6-min walk test (6MWT), of patients with a newly diagnosed, most severe form of obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, and to evaluate the impact of non-invasive ventilation in these patients. A prospective, descriptive, and single-centre follow-up study was conducted. At baseline, patients underwent echocardiography, spirometry, static lung volume measurement, 6MWT, overnight pulse-oximetry and polygraphic recording. Changes in echocardiography and 6MWT were assessed after 6 months of non-invasive ventilation. Right ventricular overload was defined on the basis of right ventricular dilatation, hypokinesis, paradoxical septal motion and/or pulmonary hypertension. Thirty patients (20 women; mean age 69 ± 11) were tested. The percentage of patients with right ventricular overload did not change significantly after non-invasive ventilation (43.3-41.6%; P = 0.24). In patients with right ventricular overload at diagnosis, pulmonary artery systolic pressure decreased significantly at six months (58 ± 11 to 44 ± 12 mm Hg; P = 0.014), and mean distance on 6MWT increased from 350 ± 110 to 426 ± 78 m (P = 0.006), without significant changes in body mass index. Right ventricular overload is a frequent finding in patients with the most severe form of obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. Treatment with non-invasive ventilation is associated with a decrease in pulmonary artery systolic pressure at six months and an increase in the distance covered during the 6MWT. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. Lung hyperinflation by mechanical ventilation versus isolated tracheal aspiration in the bronchial hygiene of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Crisiela Brum; Vieira, Paulo José Cardoso; Kutchak, Fernanda; Rieder, Marcelo de Mello; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim; Forgiarini Junior, Luiz Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of lung hyperinflation maneuvers via a mechanical ventilator compared to isolated tracheal aspiration for removing secretions, normalizing hemodynamics and improving lung mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation. Methods This was a randomized crossover clinical trial including patients admitted to the intensive care unit and on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Patients were randomized to receive either isolated tracheal aspiration (Control Group) or lung hyperinflation by mechanical ventilator (MVH Group). Hemodynamic and mechanical respiratory parameters were measured along with the amount of aspirated secretions. Results A total of 50 patients were included. The mean age of the patients was 44.7 ± 21.6 years, and 31 were male. Compared to the Control Group, the MVH Group showed greater aspirated secretion amount (3.9g versus 6.4g, p = 0.0001), variation in mean dynamic compliance (-1.3 ± 2.3 versus -2.9 ± 2.3; p = 0.008), and expired tidal volume (-0.7 ± 0.0 versus -54.1 ± 38.8, p = 0.0001) as well as a significant decrease in peak inspiratory pressure (0.2 ± 0.1 versus 2.5 ± 0.1; p = 0.001). Conclusion In the studied sample, the MVH technique led to a greater amount of aspirated secretions, significant increases in dynamic compliance and expired tidal volume and a significant reduction in peak inspiratory pressure. PMID:27096673

  15. Spontaneous gasping during cardiopulmonary resuscitation without mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Noc, M; Weil, M H; Sun, S; Tang, W; Bisera, J

    1994-09-01

    Spontaneous gasping is frequently observed during cardiac arrest, especially when mechanical ventilation is withheld during precordial compression. We related spontaneous gasping to pulmonary gas exchange and cardiac resuscitability in a rodent model of cardiac arrest. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced in 15 Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 min untreated ventricular fibrillation, precordial compression was initiated. Coronary perfusion pressure was maintained between 25 and 30 mm Hg. Oxygen was supplied at the tracheal tube port coincident with start of precordial compression in 10 animals. Five additional control animals were identically treated except they were mechanically ventilated coincident with start of precordial compression. After 6 min precordial compression, defibrillation was attempted and five of 10 nonventilated animals, and all control animals, were resuscitated by direct current countershock. In the successfully resuscitated, nonventilated animals, the frequency of spontaneous gasping during precordial compression progressively increased to an average of 19 gasps/min but it was < 6 gasps/min in nonresuscitated animals. More frequent gasping was associated with correspondingly greater arterial PO2 (110 versus 51 mm Hg, p < 0.01) and lesser PCO2 (55 versus 91 mm Hg, p < 0.01). In control animals, no spontaneous gasping was observed during precordial compression. Arterial PO2 and PCO2 of mechanically ventilated animals was more like that of spontaneously gasping rats. According, the frequency of spontaneous gasping in absence of mechanical ventilation is predictive of cardiac resuscitation success and associated with improved arterial oxygenation and CO2 removal.

  16. Optimizing Oxygenation in the Mechanically Ventilated Patient: Nursing Practice Implications.

    PubMed

    Barton, Glenn; Vanderspank-Wright, Brandi; Shea, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    Critical care nurses constitute front-line care provision for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Hypoxemic respiratory compromise/failure is a primary reason that patients require ICU admission and mechanical ventilation. Critical care nurses must possess advanced knowledge, skill, and judgment when caring for these patients to ensure that interventions aimed at optimizing oxygenation are both effective and safe. This article discusses fundamental aspects of respiratory physiology and clinical indices used to describe oxygenation status. Key nursing interventions including patient assessment, positioning, pharmacology, and managing hemodynamic parameters are discussed, emphasizing their effects toward mitigating ventilation-perfusion mismatch and optimizing oxygenation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation of end-tidal carbon dioxide with arterial carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Razi, Ebrahim; Moosavi, Gholam Abbass; Omidi, Keivan; Khakpour Saebi, Ashkan; Razi, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Patients undergone mechanical ventilation need rapid and reliable evaluation of their respiratory status. Monitoring of End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) as a surrogate, noninvasive measurement of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is one of the methods used for this purpose in intubated patients. The aim of the present trial was to study the relationship between end-tidal CO2 tensions with PaCO2 measurements in mechanically ventilated patients. End-tidal carbon dioxide levels were recorded at the time of arterial blood gas sampling. Patients who were undergoing one of the mechanical ventilation methods such as: synchronized mandatory mechanical ventilation (SIMV), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and T-Tube were enrolled in this study. The difference between ETCO2 and PaCO2 was tested with a paired t-test. The correlation of end-tidal carbon dioxide to (ETCO2) CO2 was obtained in all patients. A total of 219 arterial blood gases were obtained from 87 patients (mean age, 71.7 ± 15.1 years). Statistical analysis demonstrated a good correlation between the mean of ETCO2 and PaCO2 in each of the modes of SIMV, CPAP and T-Tube; SIMV (42.5 ± 17.3 and 45.8 ± 17.1; r = 0.893, P < 0.0001), CPAP (37 ± 9.7 and 39.4 ± 10.1; r = 0.841, P < 0.0001) and T-Tube (36.1 ± 9.9 and 39.4 ± 11; r = 0.923, P < 0.0001), respectively. End-tidal CO2 measurement provides an accurate estimation of PaCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients. Its use may reduce the need for invasive monitoring and/or repeated arterial blood gas analyses.

  18. A model of neonatal tidal liquid ventilation mechanics.

    PubMed

    Costantino, M L; Fiore, G B

    2001-09-01

    Tidal liquid ventilation (TLV) with perfluorocarbons (PFC) has been proposed to treat surfactant-deficient lungs of preterm neonates, since it may prevent pulmonary instability by abating saccular surface tension. With a previous model describing gas exchange, we showed that ventilator settings are crucial for CO(2) scavenging during neonatal TLV. The present work is focused on some mechanical aspects of neonatal TLV that were hardly studied, i.e. the distribution of mechanical loads in the lungs, which is expected to differ substantially from gas ventilation. A new computational model is presented, describing pulmonary PFC hydrodynamics, where viscous losses, kinetic energy changes and lung compliance are accounted for. The model was implemented in a software package (LVMech) aimed at calculating pressures (and approximately estimate shear stresses) within the bronchial tree at different ventilator regimes. Simulations were run taking the previous model's outcomes into account. Results show that the pressure decrease due to high saccular compliance may compensate for the increased pressure drops due to PFC viscosity, and keep airway pressure low. Saccules are exposed to pressures remarkably different from those at the airway opening; during expiration negative pressures, which may cause airway collapse, are moderate and appear in the upper airways only. Delivering the fluid with a slightly smoothed square flow wave is convenient with respect to a sine wave. The use of LVMech allows to familiarize with LV treatment management taking the lungs' mechanical load into account, consistently with a proper respiratory support.

  19. [Current status of non-invasive ventilation in German ICU's -- a postal survey].

    PubMed

    Kumle, B; Haisch, G; Suttner, S W; Piper, S N; Maleck, W; Boldt, J

    2003-01-01

    The status of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in intensive care units (ICU) in Germany was analysed by a national survey. Questionnaires consisting of multiple-choice and short-answer questions were sent to ICUs of university hospitals, hospitals with >1000 beds, with 500 - 1000 beds, and hospitals with <500 beds separated with regard to different specialties (anesthesia ICUs, surgical ICUs, cardiac surgical ICUs, neurosurgical ICUs, internal ICUs, interdiscipline ICUs). Of the 716 questionnaires sent 223 (32 %) were returned and analysed. The use of NIV in all specialties increased during the last 3 years. 14 % of ICUs in some specialties treated more than 30 % of patients with NIV. CPAP (88 %), BIPAP (45 %) and ASB/PSV (48 %) were most frequently used as NIV-strategies. 10 % of all ICUs reported to have experience with proportional assist ventilation. NIV was most frequently used for disease states like COPD (82 %), pneumonia (64 %), pulmonary oedema (50 %), bronchial asthma (35 %) and ALI/ARDS (22 %). The use of NIV was considered when clinical signs of ventilation (93 %) and oxygenation [arterial blood gas analysis (92 %) and oxygen saturation (66 %)] were inadequate. Complications observed during NIV were panic reaction (83 %), ulceration of nose (38 %) and aspiration (14 %). The reasons to reject NIV were (total 13 %): lack of ventilators (64 %), expenditure of personnel (57 %) and risk of the procedure (11 %). 38 % of the ventilators used were older than 5 years. 56 % of the ICUs were content with the equipment for NIV. 76 % of the ICUs were interested to buy new equipment of NIV. 99 % of the survey have declined NIV as an alternative method of ventilation. In summary we found NIV as an accepted additional method of ventilatory support in respiratory failure in German ICUs. We found no significant increase in frequency of NIV in the last three years.

  20. Microbial profiling of dental plaque from mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Sands, Kirsty M; Twigg, Joshua A; Lewis, Michael A O; Wise, Matt P; Marchesi, Julian R; Smith, Ann; Wilson, Melanie J; Williams, David W

    2016-02-01

    Micro-organisms isolated from the oral cavity may translocate to the lower airways during mechanical ventilation (MV) leading to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Changes within the dental plaque microbiome during MV have been documented previously, primarily using culture-based techniques. The aim of this study was to use community profiling by high throughput sequencing to comprehensively analyse suggested microbial changes within dental plaque during MV. Bacterial 16S rDNA gene sequences were obtained from 38 samples of dental plaque sampled from 13 mechanically ventilated patients and sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequences were processed using Mothur, applying a 97% gene similarity cut-off for bacterial species level identifications. A significant 'microbial shift' occurred in the microbial community of dental plaque during MV for nine out of 13 patients. Following extubation, or removal of the endotracheal tube that facilitates ventilation, sampling revealed a decrease in the relative abundance of potential respiratory pathogens and a compositional change towards a more predominantly (in terms of abundance) oral microbiota including Prevotella spp., and streptococci. The results highlight the need to better understand microbial shifts in the oral microbiome in the development of strategies to reduce VAP, and may have implications for the development of other forms of pneumonia such as community-acquired infection.

  1. Mechanical Ventilation Boot Camp: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Jennifer; Fuenning, Charles; George, Richard; Hejal, Rana; Haines, Nhi; Dunn, Diane; Gothard, M. David; Ahmed, Rami A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Management of mechanically ventilated patients may pose a challenge to novice residents, many of which may not have received formal dedicated critical care instruction prior to starting their residency training. There is a paucity of data regarding simulation and mechanical ventilation training in the medical education literature. The purpose of this study was to develop a curriculum to educate first-year residents on addressing and troubleshooting ventilator alarms. Methods. Prospective evaluation was conducted of seventeen residents undergoing a twelve-hour three-day curriculum. Residents were assessed using a predetermined critical action checklist for each case, as well as pre- and postcurriculum multiple-choice cognitive knowledge questionnaires and confidence surveys. Results. Significant improvements in cognitive knowledge, critical actions, and self-reported confidence were demonstrated. The mean change in test score from before to after intervention was +26.8%, and a median score increase of 25% was noted. The ARDS and the mucus plugging cases had statistically significant improvements in critical actions, p < 0.001. A mean increase in self-reported confidence was realized (1.55 to 3.64), p = 0.049. Conclusions. A three-day simulation curriculum for residents was effective in increasing competency, knowledge, and confidence with ventilator management. PMID:26949545

  2. Microbial profiling of dental plaque from mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Twigg, Joshua A.; Lewis, Michael A. O.; Wise, Matt P.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Smith, Ann; Wilson, Melanie J.; Williams, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-organisms isolated from the oral cavity may translocate to the lower airways during mechanical ventilation (MV) leading to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Changes within the dental plaque microbiome during MV have been documented previously, primarily using culture-based techniques. The aim of this study was to use community profiling by high throughput sequencing to comprehensively analyse suggested microbial changes within dental plaque during MV. Bacterial 16S rDNA gene sequences were obtained from 38 samples of dental plaque sampled from 13 mechanically ventilated patients and sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequences were processed using Mothur, applying a 97 % gene similarity cut-off for bacterial species level identifications. A significant ‘microbial shift’ occurred in the microbial community of dental plaque during MV for nine out of 13 patients. Following extubation, or removal of the endotracheal tube that facilitates ventilation, sampling revealed a decrease in the relative abundance of potential respiratory pathogens and a compositional change towards a more predominantly (in terms of abundance) oral microbiota including Prevotella spp., and streptococci. The results highlight the need to better understand microbial shifts in the oral microbiome in the development of strategies to reduce VAP, and may have implications for the development of other forms of pneumonia such as community-acquired infection. PMID:26690690

  3. Automated mechanical ventilation: adapting decision making to different disease states.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Zahonero, S; Gottlieb, D; Haberthür, C; Guttmann, J; Möller, K

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to introduce a novel methodology for adapting and upgrading decision-making strategies concerning mechanical ventilation with respect to different disease states into our fuzzy-based expert system, AUTOPILOT-BT. The special features are: (1) Extraction of clinical knowledge in analogy to the daily routine. (2) An automated process to obtain the required information and to create fuzzy sets. (3) The controller employs the derived fuzzy rules to achieve the desired ventilation status. For demonstration this study focuses exclusively on the control of arterial CO(2) partial pressure (p(a)CO(2)). Clinical knowledge from 61 anesthesiologists was acquired using a questionnaire from which different disease-specific fuzzy sets were generated to control p(a)CO(2). For both, patients with healthy lung and with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the fuzzy sets show different shapes. The fuzzy set "normal", i.e., "target p(a)CO(2) area", ranges from 35 to 39 mmHg for healthy lungs and from 39 to 43 mmHg for ARDS lungs. With the new fuzzy sets our AUTOPILOT-BT reaches the target p(a)CO(2) within maximal three consecutive changes of ventilator settings. Thus, clinical knowledge can be extended, updated, and the resulting mechanical ventilation therapies can be individually adapted, analyzed, and evaluated.

  4. Mechanical ventilation in mass casualty scenarios. Augmenting staff: project XTREME.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Michael E; Bogdan, Gregory M

    2008-02-01

    Disaster preparedness typically includes plans that address the need for surge capacity to manage mass-casualty events. A major concern of disaster preparedness in respiratory therapy focuses on responding to a sudden increase in the volume of patients who require mechanical ventilation. Plans for such disasters must include contingencies to address surge capacity in ventilator inventories and the respiratory therapy staff who will manage the ventilators. Tactics to address these situations include efforts to lower demand by transferring patients to other institutions as well as efforts to augment staffing levels. Staff can be augmented by mobilization of deployable teams of volunteers from outside the region and through exploitation of local resources. The latter includes strategies to recruit local respiratory therapists who are currently in either non-clinical or non-hospital-based positions and policies that optimize existing respiratory therapy resources within an institution by canceling elective surgeries, altering shift structure, and postponing vacations. An alternative approach would employ non-respiratory-therapy staff to assist in the management of patients with respiratory failure. Project XTREME (Cross-Training Respiratory Extenders for Medical Emergencies) is a cross-training program developed to facilitate training of non-respiratory-therapy health professionals to assist in the management of patients who require mechanical ventilation. It includes an interactive digital video disc as well as a competency validation laboratory and is designed to be performed at the time of an emergency. Pilot testing of the program suggests it is effective.

  5. Analysis of atelectasis, ventilated, and hyperinflated lung during mechanical ventilation by dynamic CT.

    PubMed

    David, Matthias; Karmrodt, Jens; Bletz, Carsten; David, Sybil; Herweling, Annette; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Markstaller, Klaus

    2005-11-01

    To study the dynamics of lung compartments by dynamic CT (dCT) imaging during uninterrupted pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) settings in healthy and damaged lungs. Experimental animal investigation. Experimental animal facility of a university department. In seven anesthetized pigs, static inspiratory pressure volume curves were obtained to identify the individual lower inflection point (LIP) before and after saline solution lung lavage. During PCV, PEEP was adjusted 5 millibars (mbar) below the individually determined LIP (LIP - 5), at the LIP, and 5 mbar above the LIP (LIP + 5). Measurements were repeated before and after induction of lung damage. Hemodynamics, arterial and mixed venous blood gases, and dCT imaging in one juxtadiaphragmatic slice (effective temporal resolution of 100 ms) were assessed during uninterrupted PCV in series of three successive respiratory cycles. The mean fractional area (FA) of the hyperinflated lung (FA-H), mean FA of ventilated lung, mean FA of poorly ventilated lung, and mean FA of nonventilated lung (FA-NV), and the change in FA of the whole lung area (DeltaFA) were compared at different PEEP settings. Calculated pulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) was compared to FA-NV. LIP + 5 decreased the amount of atelectasis (FA-NV) and increased hyperinflation (FA-H) in healthy and injured lungs. Cyclic changes of atelectasis (DeltaFA-NV) and hyperinflation (DeltaFA-H) were observed in both healthy and injured lungs. In the injured but not in the healthy lungs, the amount of cyclic changes of atelectasis and hyperinflation were independent from the adjusted PEEP level. FA-NV correlated with the calculated Qs/Qt, with a slight overestimation (mean +/- SEM, 2.1 +/- 4.1%). dCT imaging allows the following: (1) the quantification of the extent of atelectasis, ventilated, poorly ventilated, and hyperinflated lung parenchyma during ongoing mechanical ventilation; (2) the detection and quantification

  6. Ventilation distribution and chest wall mechanics in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paiva, M.; Wantier, M.; Verbanck, S.; Engel, L. A.; Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J. B.; West, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of gravity on lung ventilation distribution and the mechanisms of the chest wall were investigated. The following tests were performed with the respiratory monitoring system of the Anthorack, flown onboard Spacelab D2 mission: single breath washout (SBW), multiple breath washout (MBW) and argon rebreathing (ARB). In order to study chest wall mechanisms in microgravity, a respiratory inductive plethysmograph was used. The SBW tests did not reach statistical significance, while the ARB tests showed that gravity independent inhomogeneity of specific ventilation is larger than gravity dependent inhomogeneity. In which concerns the chest wall mechanisms, the analysis on the four astronauts during the normal respirations of the relaxation maneuver showed a 40 percent increase on the abdominal contribution to respiration.

  7. Ventilation distribution and chest wall mechanics in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paiva, M.; Wantier, M.; Verbanck, S.; Engel, L. A.; Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J. B.; West, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of gravity on lung ventilation distribution and the mechanisms of the chest wall were investigated. The following tests were performed with the respiratory monitoring system of the Anthorack, flown onboard Spacelab D2 mission: single breath washout (SBW), multiple breath washout (MBW) and argon rebreathing (ARB). In order to study chest wall mechanisms in microgravity, a respiratory inductive plethysmograph was used. The SBW tests did not reach statistical significance, while the ARB tests showed that gravity independent inhomogeneity of specific ventilation is larger than gravity dependent inhomogeneity. In which concerns the chest wall mechanisms, the analysis on the four astronauts during the normal respirations of the relaxation maneuver showed a 40 percent increase on the abdominal contribution to respiration.

  8. [Lung-brain interaction in the mechanically ventilated patient].

    PubMed

    López-Aguilar, J; Fernández-Gonzalo, M S; Turon, M; Quílez, M E; Gómez-Simón, V; Jódar, M M; Blanch, L

    2013-10-01

    Patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) admitted to the ICU present neuropsychological alterations, which in most cases extend beyond the acute phase and have an important adverse effect upon quality of life. The aim of this review is to deepen in the analysis of the complex interaction between lung and brain in critically ill patients subjected to mechanical ventilation. This update first describes the neuropsychological alterations occurring both during the acute phase of ICU stay and at discharge, followed by an analysis of lung-brain interactions during mechanical ventilation, and finally explores the etiology and mechanisms leading to the neurological disorders observed in these patients. The management of critical patients requires an integral approach focused on minimizing the deleterious effects over the short, middle or long term. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Early predictors of success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, D; Prasad, Bnbm; Tampi, P S; Ramprasad, R

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has emerged as a significant advancement in the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring ventilation therapy (respiratory rate [RR] of > 30 breaths per minutes, PaCO2 > 55 mmHg and arterial pH < 7.35) were included in the study. Baseline clinical parameters and arterial blood gas (ABG) were recorded before initiating NIPPV. Clinical parameters including heart rate (HR), RR, oxygen saturation and ABG were revaluated at 1, 4, and 24 hours after initiation of NIPPV. Change in these parameters and need for intubation was evaluated. Of the 100 patients, 76 (76%) showed improvement in clinical parameters and ABG. There was improvement in HR and RR, pH, and PCO2 within the first hour in the success group and these parameters continued to improve even after four and 24 hours of NIPPV treatment. Out of 24 (24%) patients who failed to respond, 13 (54%) needed endotracheal intubation within one hour. The failure group had higher baseline HR than the success group. Improvement in HR, RR, pH, and PCO2 one hour after putting the patient on NIPPV predicts success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  10. Improved survival with an ambulatory model of non-invasive ventilation implementation in motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Sheers, Nicole; Berlowitz, David J; Rautela, Linda; Batchelder, Ian; Hopkinson, Kim; Howard, Mark E

    2014-06-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) increases survival and quality of life in motor neuron disease (MND). NIV implementation historically occurred during a multi-day inpatient admission at this institution; however, increased demand led to prolonged waiting times. The aim of this study was to evaluate the introduction of an ambulatory model of NIV implementation. A prospective cohort study was performed. Inclusion criteria were referral for NIV implementation six months pre- or post-commencement of the Day Admission model. This model involved a 4-h stay to commence ventilation with follow-up in-laboratory polysomnography titration and outpatient attendance. Outcome measures included waiting time, hospital length of stay, adverse events and polysomnography data. Results indicated that after changing to the Day Admission model the median waiting time fell from 30 to 13.5 days (p < 0.04) and adverse events declined (4/17 pre- (three deaths, one acute admission) vs. 0/12 post-). Survival was also prolonged (median (IQR) 278 (51-512) days pre- vs 580 (306-1355) days post-introduction of the Day Admission model; hazard ratio 0.41, p = 0.04). Daytime PaCO2 was no different. In conclusion, reduced waiting time to commence ventilation and improved survival were observed following introduction of an ambulatory model of NIV implementation in people with MND, with no change in the effectiveness of ventilation.

  11. [Prevalence of mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care units in Spain].

    PubMed

    Balcells Ramírez, J; López-Herce Cid, J; Modesto Alapont, V

    2004-12-01

    To study the prevalence and characteristics of mechanical ventilation in children admitted to Spanish pediatric intensive care units (PICU). A prospective, multicenter, observational study was performed using a written questionnaire sent to the 46 PICUs in Spain. Clinical data and mechanical ventilation settings in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation on 19th February 2002 were collected. Thirty-three PICUs participated in the study (27 had patients undergoing mechanical ventilation on the study day). The prevalence of mechanical ventilation was 86 patients (45.5 %). The mean age of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation was 36 months and the median was 8 months. Sixty percent of the patients were boys. The main indications for mechanical ventilation were acute respiratory failure (46.5 %), chronic respiratory failure (10.4 %), coma (11.6 %) and postoperative status (10.5 %). Endotracheal tubes were used in 73.2 % and a tracheostomy tube was used in 23.2 %. The most frequent mechanical ventilation modalities used were synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) in 43 % and control or assisted-control ventilation in 36 %. In 30 % of the patients the duration of mechanical ventilation was longer than 1 month. From the initiation of mechanical ventilation to the study day, pneumothorax developed in 8.1 % of the patients, accidental extubation occurred in 10.5 % and ventilator-associated pneumonia developed in 17.4 %. A high percentage of children admitted to the PICU requires mechanical ventilation. The most frequent indication is respiratory failure. The most frequently used modality in children aged less than 1 month is pressure SIMV. In children older than 1 month volume-cycled or pressure-limited ventilation and volume-cycled SMIV are used in similar proportions. The prevalence of prolonged mechanical ventilation and the incidence of ventilator-associated complications are very high.

  12. Randomized cross-over trial of ventilator modes during non-invasive ventilation titration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vrijsen, Bart; Buyse, Bertien; Belge, Catharina; Vanpee, Goele; Van Damme, Philip; Testelmans, Dries

    2017-08-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival, quality of life and sleep in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nevertheless, NIV titration is conducted in different ways. We aim to provide more insight into NIV titration by comparing the effects of a spontaneous (S) and spontaneous-timed (ST) modes on gas exchange, sleep architecture and patient-ventilator asynchronies (PVAs). After an initial night of NIV titration, patients were randomized to S or ST mode in a cross-over design. NIV was titrated using polysomnography, oximetry (oxygen saturation, SpO2 %) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO2 ) measurement. PVAs were analysed breath-by-breath. Thirteen patients were analysed after inclusion. ST mode showed better results in gas exchange (minimal SpO2 %: 83 (80-89)% vs 87 (84-89)%; oxygen desaturation index: 15 (5-28)/h sleep vs 7 (3-9)/h sleep; PtcCO2 >55 mm Hg: 20 (0-59)% vs 0 (0-27)% total sleep time for S and ST mode, respectively, all P < 0.05) and respiratory events (obstructive: 8.9 (1.2-18.3)/h sleep vs 1.8 (0.3-4.9)/h sleep and central: 2.6 (0.4-14.1)/h sleep vs 0.2 (0.0-1.1)/h sleep for S and ST mode, respectively, both P < 0.01). No differences in sleep architecture were found. Ineffective efforts and respiratory events were more frequently present in S mode. Nevertheless, four patients were discharged on S mode as these patients showed clinically better results for sleep architecture and PVA during the night on S mode. ST mode shows better results in gas exchange, respiratory events and PVA. Nevertheless, accurate NIV titration remains necessary as some patients show equal or better results when using the S mode. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. Best Practices for Managing Pain, Sedation, and Delirium in the Mechanically Ventilated Patient.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Kitty M

    2016-12-01

    Nursing management of pain, agitation, and delirium in mechanically ventilated patients is a challenge in critical care. Oversedation can lead to delayed extubation, prolonged ventilator days, unnecessary neurologic testing, and complications such as weakness and delirium. Undersedation can lead to self-extubation, invasive line removal, unnecessary patient distress, and injury to self or others. Acquiring an optimal level of sedation requires the bedside nurse to be more vigilant than ever with patient assessment and medication titration. This article provides a historical perspective of the management of pain, agitation, and delirium, and disseminates information contained in revised Society for Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines (January 2013) to promote their implementation in day-to-day nursing care.

  14. A Case of Shunting Postoperative Patent Foramen Ovale Under Mechanical Ventilation Controlled by Different Ventilator Settings.

    PubMed

    Pragliola, Claudio; Di Michele, Sara; Galzerano, Domenico

    2017-06-07

    A 56-year old male with ischemic heart disease and an unremarkable preoperative echocardiogram underwent surgical coronary revascularization. An intraoperative post pump trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TOE) performed while the patient was being ventilated at a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cm H2O demonstrated a right to left interatrial shunt across a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Whereas oxygen saturation was normal, a reduction of the PEEP to 3 cm H2O led to the complete resolution of the shunt with no change in arterial blood gases. Attempts to increase the PEEP level above 3 mmHg resulted in recurrence of the interatrial shunt. The remaining of the TEE was unremarkable. Mechanical ventilation, particularly with PEEP, causes an increase in intrathoracic pressure. The resulting rise in right atrial pressure, mostly during inspiration, may unveil and pop open an unrecognized PFO, thus provoking a right to left shunt across a seemingly intact interatrial septum. This phenomenon increases the risk of paradoxical embolism and can lead to hypoxemia. The immediate management would be to adjust the ventilatory settings to a lower PEEP level. A routine search for a PFO should be performed in ventilated patients who undergo a TEE.

  15. Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Turner, W A; Bearg, D W; Brennan, T

    1995-01-01

    This chapter begins with an overview of the history of ventilation guidelines, which has led to the guidelines that are in effect today. Of particular interest is the most recent return in the past 5 years to ventilation rates that more closely reflect a mean or average of the range of guidelines that have existed over the past century. OSHA's and the EPA's recognition of the need to operate ventilation systems in buildings in an accountable manner is also of note. Of even more interest is the resurgence of the concept of minimum mixing and once-through ventilation air that has been pursued in parts of Northern Europe for the past 10 years, and in a school that is being designed with this concept in New Hampshire. In addition, the design concept of equipping office buildings with low pressure drop high efficiency particle filtration to remove fine particles from all of the air that is supplied to the occupants is being used increasingly in the U.S. This chapter also presents an overview of the various types of ventilation systems found in homes and commercial office buildings and the common indoor air quality problems that may be associated with them. It also offers an overview of common HVAC evaluation techniques that can be used to determine if a ventilation system is performing in a manner that makes sense for the use of the space and the needs of the occupants. Are the occupants receiving a reasonable supply of outdoor air? Is the air that they receive of reasonable quality? Are obvious pollutants being exhausted? Ventilation systems have become extremely complex and more difficult to run and maintain over the past 40 years. This trend will continue to drive the need for professionally maintained HVAC equipment that is serviced and run by individuals who are accountable for the quality of the air that the system delivers.

  16. Inspired gas humidity and temperature during mechanical ventilation with the Stephanie ventilator.

    PubMed

    Preo, Bianca L; Shadbolt, Bruce; Todd, David A

    2013-11-01

    To measure inspired gas humidity and temperature delivered by a Stephanie neonatal ventilator with variations in (i) circuit length; (ii) circuit insulation; (iii) proximal airway temperature probe (pATP) position; (iv) inspiratory temperature (offset); and (v) incubator temperatures. Using the Stephanie neonatal ventilator, inspired gas humidity and temperature were measured during mechanical ventilation at the distal inspiratory limb and 3 cm down the endotracheal tube. Measurements were made with a long or short circuit; with or without insulation of the inspiratory limb; proximal ATP (pATP) either within or external to the incubator; at two different inspiratory temperature (offset) of 37(-0.5) and 39(-2.0)°C; and at three different incubator temperatures of 32, 34.5, and 37°C. Long circuits produced significantly higher inspired humidity than short circuits at all incubator settings, while only at 32°C was the inspired temperature higher. In the long circuits, insulation further improved the inspired humidity especially at 39(-2.0)°C, while only at incubator temperatures of 32 and 37°C did insulation significantly improve inspired temperature. Positioning the pATP outside the incubator did not result in higher inspired humidity but did significantly improve inspired temperature. An inspiratory temperature (offset) of 39(-2.0)°C delivered significantly higher inspired humidity and temperature than the 37(-0.5)°C especially when insulated. Long insulated Stephanie circuits should be used for neonatal ventilation when the infant is nursed in an incubator. The recommended inspiratory temperature (offset) of 37(-0.5)°C produced inspired humidity and temperature below international standards, and we suggest an increase to 39(-2.0)°C. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Depressive Disorders during Weaning from Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Jubran, Amal; Lawm, Gerald; Kelly, Joanne; Duffner, Lisa A.; Gungor, Gokay; Collins, Eileen G.; Lanuza, Dorothy M.; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Tobin, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Patients who require mechanical ventilation are at risk of emotional stress because of total dependence on a machine for breathing. The stress may negatively impact ventilator weaning and survival. The purpose of this study was to determine whether depressive disorders in patients being weaned from prolonged mechanical ventilation are linked to weaning failure and decreased survival. Methods A prospective study of 478 consecutive patients transferred to a long-term acute care hospital for weaning from prolonged ventilation was undertaken. A clinical psychologist conducted a psychiatric interview to assess for the presence of depressive disorders. Results Of the 478 patients, 142 had persistent coma or delirium and were unable to be evaluated for depressive disorders. Of the remaining 336 patients, 142 (42%) were diagnosed with depressive disorders. In multivariate analysis, co-morbidity score (odds ratio [OR], 1.23, p=0.007), functional dependence before the acute illness (OR, 1.70, p=0.03), and history of psychiatric disorders (OR, 3.04, p=0.0001) were independent predictors of depressive disorders. The rate of weaning failure was higher in patients with depressive disorders than in those without such disorders (61% versus 33%, p=0.0001), as was mortality (24% versus 10%, p=0.0008). The presence of depressive disorders was independently associated with mortality (OR, 4.3; p=0.0002); age (OR, 1.06; p=0.001) and co-morbidity score (OR, 1.24; p=0.02) also predicted mortality. Conclusion Depressive disorders were diagnosed in 42% of patients who are being weaned from prolonged ventilation. Patients with depressive disorders were more likely to experience weaning failure and death. PMID:20232042

  18. NanoClusters Enhance Drug Delivery in Mechanical Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pornputtapitak, Warangkana

    The overall goal of this thesis was to develop a dry powder delivery system for patients on mechanical ventilation. The studies were divided into two parts: the formulation development and the device design. The pulmonary system is an attractive route for drug delivery since the lungs have a large accessible surface area for treatment or drug absorption. For ventilated patients, inhaled drugs have to successfully navigate ventilator tubing and an endotracheal tube. Agglomerates of drug nanoparticles (also known as 'NanoClusters') are fine dry powder aerosols that were hypothesized to enable drug delivery through ventilator circuits. This Thesis systematically investigated formulations of NanoClusters and their aerosol performance in a conventional inhaler and a device designed for use during mechanical ventilation. These engineered powders of budesonide (NC-Bud) were delivered via a MonodoseRTM inhaler or a novel device through commercial endotracheal tubes, and analyzed by cascade impaction. NC-Bud had a higher efficiency of aerosol delivery compared to micronized stock budesonide. The delivery efficiency was independent of ventilator parameters such as inspiration patterns, inspiration volumes, and inspiration flow rates. A novel device designed to fit directly to the ventilator and endotracheal tubing connections and the MonodoseRTM inhaler showed the same efficiency of drug delivery. The new device combined with NanoCluster formulation technology, therefore, allowed convenient and efficient drug delivery through endotracheal tubes. Furthermore, itraconazole (ITZ), a triazole antifungal agent, was formulated as a NanoCluster powder via milling (top-down process) or precipitation (bottom-up process) without using any excipients. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by wet milling showed better aerosol performance compared to micronized stock ITZ and ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation methods also showed an amorphous state

  19. Convexity, Jensen's inequality and benefits of noisy mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Brewster, John F; Graham, M Ruth; Mutch, W Alan C

    2005-09-22

    Mechanical ventilators breathe for you when you cannot or when your lungs are too sick to do their job. Most ventilators monotonously deliver the same-sized breaths, like clockwork; however, healthy people do not breathe this way. This has led to the development of a biologically variable ventilator--one that incorporates noise. There are indications that such a noisy ventilator may be beneficial for patients with very sick lungs. In this paper we use a probabilistic argument, based on Jensen's inequality, to identify the circumstances in which the addition of noise may be beneficial and, equally important, the circumstances in which it may not be beneficial. Using the local convexity of the relationship between airway pressure and tidal volume in the lung, we show that the addition of noise at low volume or low pressure results in higher mean volume (at the same mean pressure) or lower mean pressure (at the same mean volume). The consequence is enhanced gas exchange or less stress on the lungs, both clinically desirable. The argument has implications for other life support devices, such as cardiopulmonary bypass pumps. This paper illustrates the benefits of research that takes place at the interface between mathematics and medicine.

  20. Postoperative Pulmonary Dysfunction and Mechanical Ventilation in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Badenes, Rafael; Lozano, Angels; Belda, F. Javier

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction (PPD) is a frequent and significant complication after cardiac surgery. It contributes to morbidity and mortality and increases hospitalization stay and its associated costs. Its pathogenesis is not clear but it seems to be related to the development of a systemic inflammatory response with a subsequent pulmonary inflammation. Many factors have been described to contribute to this inflammatory response, including surgical procedure with sternotomy incision, effects of general anesthesia, topical cooling, and extracorporeal circulation (ECC) and mechanical ventilation (VM). Protective ventilation strategies can reduce the incidence of atelectasis (which still remains one of the principal causes of PDD) and pulmonary infections in surgical patients. In this way, the open lung approach (OLA), a protective ventilation strategy, has demonstrated attenuating the inflammatory response and improving gas exchange parameters and postoperative pulmonary functions with a better residual functional capacity (FRC) when compared with a conventional ventilatory strategy. Additionally, maintaining low frequency ventilation during ECC was shown to decrease the incidence of PDD after cardiac surgery, preserving lung function. PMID:25705516

  1. Non-invasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: management of acute type 2 respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C M; Brown, J L; Reinhardt, A K; Kaul, S; Scales, K; Mikelsons, C; Reid, K; Winter, R; Young, K; Restrick, L; Plant, P K

    2008-10-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in the management of acute type 2 respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents one of the major technical advances in respiratory care over the last decade. This document updates the 2002 British Thoracic Society guidance and provides a specific focus on the use of NIV in COPD patients with acute type 2 respiratory failure. While there are a variety of ventilator units available most centres now use bi-level positive airways pressure units and this guideline refers specifically to this form of ventilatory support although many of the principles encompassed are applicable to other forms of NIV. The guideline has been produced for the clinician caring for COPD patients in the emergency and ward areas of acute hospitals.

  2. Expiratory flow limitation in morbidly obese postoperative mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Koutsoukou, A; Koulouris, N; Bekos, B; Sotiropoulou, C; Kosmas, E; Papadima, K; Roussos, C

    2004-10-01

    Although obesity promotes tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFL), with concurrent dynamic hyperinflation (DH), intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi) and risk of low lung volume injury, the prevalence and magnitude of EFL, DH and PEEPi have not yet been studied in mechanically ventilated morbidly obese subjects. In 15 postoperative mechanically ventilated morbidly obese subjects, we assessed the prevalence of EFL [using the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique], PEEPi, DH, respiratory mechanics, arterial oxygenation and PEEPi inequality index as well as the levels of PEEP required to abolish EFL. In supine position at zero PEEP, 10 patients exhibited EFL with a significantly higher PEEPi and DH and a significantly lower PEEPi inequality index than found in the five non-EFL (NEFL) subjects. Impaired gas exchange was found in all cases without significant differences between the EFL and NEFL subjects. Application of 7.5 +/- 2.5 cm H2O of PEEP (range: 4-16) abolished EFL with a reduction of PEEPi and DH and an increase in FRC and the PEEPi inequality index but no significant effect on gas exchange. The present study indicates that: (a) on zero PEEP, EFL is present in most postoperative mechanically ventilated morbidly obese subjects; (b) EFL (and concurrent risk of low lung volume injury) is abolished with appropriate levels of PEEP; and (c) impaired gas exchange is common in these patients, probably mainly due to atelectasis.

  3. Mechanical ventilation in ICUs in Poland: a multi-center point-prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Andrzej; Maciejewski, Dariusz; Adamik, Barbara; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata

    2013-06-03

    Mechanical ventilation is the primary method of supporting organ function in patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Lung damage from mechanical ventilation can be avoided by using the correct ventilation modes. This study was designed to assess the epidemiology and treatment strategies of patients receiving mechanical ventilation in ICUs in Poland. This study was done using a point-prevalence methodology. Questionnaires requesting demographic data, indications for ventilation, variables involved in ventilation, airway access, methods of sedation, and mode of weaning were sent to 148 ICUs. Eighty-three ICUs took part in the study. The rate of ventilated patients was 73.6%. The indications for mechanical ventilation were: acute respiratory failure (40%), coma (40%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation (14%), and neuromuscular diseases (5%). Patients were ventilated by orotracheal tube (58%), tracheostomy tube (41%), and mask/helmet (1%). The mean tidal volume was 8 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure was commonly used. The mean oxygen concentration was 40%. Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with pressure support was the most frequently used ventilatory mode. Benzodiazepine and opioids were used for sedation in 91% of centers. A systematic testing of the depth of sedation was performed at 48% surveyed ICUs. Ventilation monitoring with biomechanical methods was used at 53% of centers. Mechanical ventilation is commonly used in ICUs in Poland. Almost half of the ventilated patients had extrapulmonary indications. Patients were ventilated with low concentrations of oxygen, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was commonly employed.

  4. Use of non-invasive ventilation in acute pulmonary edema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation in emergency medicine: predictors of failure.

    PubMed

    Passarini, Juliana Nalin de Souza; Zambon, Lair; Morcillo, André Moreno; Kosour, Carolina; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda

    2012-09-01

    This study analyzed acute respiratory failure caused by acute pulmonary edema, as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, that was treated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation to identify the factors that are associated with the success or failure non-invasive mechanical ventilation in urgent and emergency service. This study was a prospective, descriptive and analytical study. We included patients of both genders aged >18 years who used non-invasive mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure that was secondary to acute pulmonary edema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Patients with acute respiratory failure that was secondary to pathologies other than acute pulmonary edema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or who presented with contraindications for the technique were excluded. Expiratory pressures between 5 and 8 cmH2O and inspiratory pressures between 10 and 12 cmH2O were used. Supplemental oxygen maintained peripheral oxygen saturation at >90%. The primary outcome was endotracheal intubation. A total of 152 patients were included. The median non-invasive mechanical ventilation time was 6 hours (range 1 - 32 hours) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (n=60) and 5 hours (range 2 - 32 hours) for acute pulmonary edema patients (n=92). Most (75.7%) patients progressed successfully. However, reduced APACHE II scores and lower peripheral oxygen saturation were observed. These results were statistically significant in patients who progressed to intubation (p<0.001). BiPAP (Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure portable ventilator), as continuous positive airway pressure use increased the probability of endotracheal intubation 2.3 times (p=0.032). Patients with acute pulmonary edema and elevated GCS scores also increased the probability of success. Respiratory frequency >25 rpm, higher APACHE II scores, BiPAP use and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosis were associated with

  5. Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pneumoperitoneum and Surgical Emphysema in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamha, A; Alzeer, H; Elithy, M

    2008-01-01

    A 29 year old male patient of Indian ancestry was admitted to an outside hospital with rapid deterioration of his level of consciousness. The patient required mechanical ventilation and transfer to MICU at Hamad Medical Corporation. The patient remained hypoxic. Chest X-ray, CT of chest, abdomen, pelvis and proximal areas of both lower limbs were performed. Pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum, and extensive surgical emphysema were the diagnoses. PMID:21516154

  6. Ventilator-related causes of lung injury: the mechanical power.

    PubMed

    Gattinoni, L; Tonetti, T; Cressoni, M; Cadringher, P; Herrmann, P; Moerer, O; Protti, A; Gotti, M; Chiurazzi, C; Carlesso, E; Chiumello, D; Quintel, M

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesized that the ventilator-related causes of lung injury may be unified in a single variable: the mechanical power. We assessed whether the mechanical power measured by the pressure-volume loops can be computed from its components: tidal volume (TV)/driving pressure (∆P aw), flow, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and respiratory rate (RR). If so, the relative contributions of each variable to the mechanical power can be estimated. We computed the mechanical power by multiplying each component of the equation of motion by the variation of volume and RR: [Formula: see text]where ∆V is the tidal volume, ELrs is the elastance of the respiratory system, I:E is the inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratio, and R aw is the airway resistance. In 30 patients with normal lungs and in 50 ARDS patients, mechanical power was computed via the power equation and measured from the dynamic pressure-volume curve at 5 and 15 cmH2O PEEP and 6, 8, 10, and 12 ml/kg TV. We then computed the effects of the individual component variables on the mechanical power. Computed and measured mechanical powers were similar at 5 and 15 cmH2O PEEP both in normal subjects and in ARDS patients (slopes = 0.96, 1.06, 1.01, 1.12 respectively, R (2) > 0.96 and p < 0.0001 for all). The mechanical power increases exponentially with TV, ∆P aw, and flow (exponent = 2) as well as with RR (exponent = 1.4) and linearly with PEEP. The mechanical power equation may help estimate the contribution of the different ventilator-related causes of lung injury and of their variations. The equation can be easily implemented in every ventilator's software.

  7. Leaky ryanodine receptors contribute to diaphragmatic weakness during mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Matecki, Stefan; Dridi, Haikel; Jung, Boris; Saint, Nathalie; Reiken, Steven R.; Scheuermann, Valérie; Mrozek, Ségolène; Umanskaya, Alisa; Petrof, Basil J.; Jaber, Samir; Marks, Andrew R.; Lacampagne, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD) refers to the diaphragm muscle weakness that occurs following prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation (MV). The presence of VIDD impedes recovery from respiratory failure. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms accounting for VIDD are still not fully understood. Here, we show in human subjects and a mouse model of VIDD that MV is associated with rapid remodeling of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in the diaphragm. The RyR1 macromolecular complex was oxidized, S-nitrosylated, Ser-2844 phosphorylated, and depleted of the stabilizing subunit calstabin1, following MV. These posttranslational modifications of RyR1 were mediated by both oxidative stress mediated by MV and stimulation of adrenergic signaling resulting from the anesthesia. We demonstrate in the murine model that such abnormal resting SR Ca2+ leak resulted in reduced contractile function and muscle fiber atrophy for longer duration of MV. Treatment with β-adrenergic antagonists or with S107, a small molecule drug that stabilizes the RyR1–calstabin1 interaction, prevented VIDD. Diaphragmatic dysfunction is common in MV patients and is a major cause of failure to wean patients from ventilator support. This study provides the first evidence to our knowledge of RyR1 alterations as a proximal mechanism underlying VIDD (i.e., loss of function, muscle atrophy) and identifies RyR1 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27457930

  8. Management and outcome of mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Sutherasan, Yuda; Peñuelas, Oscar; Muriel, Alfonso; Vargas, Maria; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Brunetti, Iole; Raymondos, Konstantinos; D'Antini, Davide; Nielsen, Niklas; Ferguson, Niall D; Böttiger, Bernd W; Thille, Arnaud W; Davies, Andrew R; Hurtado, Javier; Rios, Fernando; Apezteguía, Carlos; Violi, Damian A; Cakar, Nahit; González, Marco; Du, Bin; Kuiper, Michael A; Soares, Marco Antonio; Koh, Younsuck; Moreno, Rui P; Amin, Pravin; Tomicic, Vinko; Soto, Luis; Bülow, Hans-Henrik; Anzueto, Antonio; Esteban, Andrés; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-05-08

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the changes in ventilator management and complications over time, as well as variables associated with 28-day hospital mortality in patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) after cardiac arrest. We performed a secondary analysis of three prospective, observational multicenter studies conducted in 1998, 2004 and 2010 in 927 ICUs from 40 countries. We screened 18,302 patients receiving MV for more than 12 hours during a one-month-period. We included 812 patients receiving MV after cardiac arrest. We collected data on demographics, daily ventilator settings, complications during ventilation and outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios, determining which variables within 24 hours of hospital admission were associated with 28-day hospital mortality and occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia acquired during ICU stay at 48 hours after admission. Among 812 patients, 100 were included from 1998, 239 from 2004 and 473 from 2010. Ventilatory management changed over time, with decreased tidal volumes (VT) (1998: mean 8.9 (standard deviation (SD) 2) ml/kg actual body weight (ABW), 2010: 6.7 (SD 2) ml/kg ABW; 2004: 9 (SD 2.3) ml/kg predicted body weight (PBW), 2010: 7.95 (SD 1.7) ml/kg PBW) and increased positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (1998: mean 3.5 (SD 3), 2010: 6.5 (SD 3); P <0.001). Patients included from 2010 had more sepsis, cardiovascular dysfunction and neurological failure, but 28-day hospital mortality was similar over time (52% in 1998, 57% in 2004 and 52% in 2010). Variables independently associated with 28-day hospital mortality were: older age, PaO2 <60 mmHg, cardiovascular dysfunction and less use of sedative agents. Higher VT, and plateau pressure with lower PEEP were associated with occurrence of ARDS and pneumonia acquired during ICU stay. Protective mechanical ventilation with lower VT and higher PEEP is more

  9. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae induced ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Q; Zhou, M; Zou, M; Liu, W-e

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP) induced ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the microbiological characteristics and epidemiology of the hvKP strains. A retrospective study of 49 mechanically ventilated patients with K. pneumoniae induced VAP was conducted at a university hospital in China from January 2014 to December 2014. Clinical characteristics and K. pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm formation were analyzed. Genes of capsular serotypes K1, K2, K5, K20, K54 and K57 and virulence factors plasmid rmpA(p-rmpA), iroB, iucA, mrkD, entB, iutA, ybtS, kfu and allS were also evaluated. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to study the clonal relationship of the K. pneumoniae strains. Strains possessed p-rmpA and iroB and iucA were defined as hvKP. Of 49 patients, 14 patients (28.6 %) were infected by hvKP. Antimicrobial resistant rate was significantly higher in cKP than that in hvKP. One ST29 K54 extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing hvKP strain was detected. The prevalence of K1 and K2 in hvKP was 42.9 % and 21.4 %, respectively. The incidences of K1, K2, K20, p-rmpA, iroB, iucA, iutA, Kfu and alls were significantly higher in hvKP than those in cKP. ST23 was dominant among hvKP strains, and all the ST23 strains had identical RAPD pattern. hvKP has become a common pathogen of VAP in mechanically ventilated patients in China. Clinicians should increase awareness of hvKP induced VAP and enhance epidemiologic surveillance.

  10. [Design of a lung simulator for teaching lung mechanics in mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Heili-Frades, Sarah; Peces-Barba, Germán; Rodríguez-Nieto, María Jesús

    2007-12-01

    Over the last 10 years, noninvasive ventilation has become a treatment option for respiratory insufficiency in pulmonology services. The technique is currently included in pulmonology teaching programs. Physicians and nurses should understand the devices they use and the interaction between the patient and the ventilator in terms of respiratory mechanics, adaptation, and synchronization. We present a readily assembled lung simulator for teaching purposes that is reproducible and interactive. Based on a bag-in-box system, this model allows the concepts of respiratory mechanics in mechanical ventilation to be taught simply and graphically in that it reproduces the patterns of restriction, obstruction, and the presence of leaks. It is possible to demonstrate how each ventilation parameter acts and the mechanical response elicited. It can also readily simulate asynchrony and demonstrate how this problem can be corrected.

  11. [Central alveolar hypoventilation with cor pulmonale: successful treatment by non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation].

    PubMed

    Montiel, G C; Roncoroni, A J; Quadrelli, S A; De Vito, E L

    1994-01-01

    A 62 year-old woman with a bilateral carotid body paraganglioma presented, 2 years after the removal of the right one, with signs of right-heart failure. Hypoxemia, hypercapnia, polycythemia and pulmonary hypertension with normal ventilatory capacity were found. Central alveolar hypoventilation was diagnosed on the basis of absence of ventilatory response and sensation of provoked hypercapnia, prolonged breath-holding time and correction of hypercapnia by voluntary ventilation. Progesterone (200 mg/d during 3 weeks) or naloxone did not improve either arterial blood gases (ABG) or the P 0.1/PCO2 curve. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia were not corrected during metabolic acidosis provoked by acetazolamide (250 mg/d). Nasal CPAP did not control hypoventilation periods. Mechanical ventilation was initiated with negative pressure (NPV) through a poncho. The patient presented severe discomfort with NPV and obstructive apneas were verified during it. She refused to continue NPV. Mechanical ventilation was initiated with positive intermittent pressure (IPPV) through a nasal mask. The patient had excellent tolerance to the procedure. SpO2 during IPPV was always higher than 95%. During sleep induction (under IPPV), respiration in phase with the ventilator 1: 1 was observed; instead, during consolidated sleep there was a complete dependence of the ventilator with apnea for over 2 min when IPPV was interrupted (Fig. 1). After 2 months of treatment, a relief of right ventricular failure occurred and hematocrit fell to 39%. There was an improvement of day-time ABG (Table I). The P. 0.1/PaCO2 curve 3 months after IPPV was the same as the previous one (Fig. 2). The patient has been for 18 months on home ventilation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Mechanical ventilation for imaging the small animal lung.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Laurence W; Johnson, G Allan

    2002-01-01

    This review emphasizes some of the challenges and benefits of in vivo imaging of the small animal lung. Because mechanical ventilation plays a key role in high-quality, high-resolution imaging of the small animal lung, the article focuses particularly on the problems of ventilation support, control of breathing motion and lung volume, and imaging during different phases of the breathing cycle. Solutions for these problems are discussed primarily in relation to magnetic resonance imaging, both conventional proton imaging and the newer, hyperpolarized helium imaging of pulmonary airways. Examples of applications of these imaging solutions to normal and diseased lung are illustrated in the rat and guinea pig. Although difficult to perform, pulmonary imaging in the small animal can be a valuable source of information not only for the normal lung, but also for the lung challenged by disease.

  13. Numerical simulation of volume-controlled mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Bolun; Cai, Maolin; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2016-11-09

    Mechanical ventilation is a key therapy for patients who cannot breathe adequately by themselves, and dynamics of mechanical ventilation system is of great significance for life support of patients. Recently, models of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 1 lung are used to simulate the respiratory system of patients. However, humans have 2 lungs. When the respiratory characteristics of 2 lungs are different, a single-lung model cannot reflect real respiratory system. In this paper, to illustrate dynamic characteristics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs, we propose a mathematical model of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs and conduct experiments to verify the model. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of mechanical ventilated respiratory system with 2 different lungs. This research study can be used for improving the efficiency and safety of volume-controlled mechanical ventilation system.

  14. Use of volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Abad, Montserrat; Brown, John Edward

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in which most patients die of respiratory failure. Although volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) ventilation has been studied in patients with chronic respiratory failure of various etiologies, its use in ALS has not been reported. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman with ALS and respiratory failure treated with volume-targeted BPAP ventilation for 15 weeks. Weekly data downloads showed that disease progression was associated with increased respiratory muscle weakness, decreased spontaneous breathing, and increased use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, whereas tidal volume and minute ventilation remained relatively constant. PMID:25210968

  15. Mechanical ventilation increases the inflammatory response induced by lung contusion.

    PubMed

    van Wessem, Karlijn J P; Hennus, Marije P; van Wagenberg, Linda; Koenderman, Leo; Leenen, Luke P H

    2013-07-01

    Posttraumatic lung contusion is common after blunt chest trauma, and patients often need ventilatory support. Lung contusion induces an inflammatory response signified by primed polymorph neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs) in blood and tissue. Mechanical ventilation (MV) can also cause an inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to develop an animal model to investigate the effect of high-volume ventilation on the inflammatory response in blunt chest trauma. We assigned 23 male Sprague-Dawley rats to either MV or bilateral lung contusion followed by MV. We used three extra rats as controls. Lung contusion was induced by a blast generator, a device releasing a single pressure blast wave centered on the chest. We determined tissue and systemic inflammation by absolute PMN numbers in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-6, IL 1β, growth-related oncogene-KC, and IL-10 in both plasma and BALF. Survival after blunt chest trauma was correlated to the distance to the blast generator. Compared with controls, both MV and blast plus MV rats showed increased systemic and pulmonary inflammation, expressed by higher PMNs, myeloperoxidase levels, and cytokine levels in both blood and BALF. Blast plus MV rats showed a higher systemic and pulmonary inflammatory response than MV rats. The blast generator generated reproducible blunt chest trauma in rats. Mechanical ventilation after lung contusion induced a larger overall inflammatory response than MV alone, which indicates that local damage contributes not only to local inflammation, but also to systemic inflammation. This emphasizes the importance of lung protective ventilation strategies after pulmonary contusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recurrent Recruitment Manoeuvres Improve Lung Mechanics and Minimize Lung Injury during Mechanical Ventilation of Healthy Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Lucy Kathleen; Kowallik, Anke; Uhlig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical ventilation (MV) of mice is increasingly required in experimental studies, but the conditions that allow stable ventilation of mice over several hours have not yet been fully defined. In addition, most previous studies documented vital parameters and lung mechanics only incompletely. The aim of the present study was to establish experimental conditions that keep these parameters within their physiological range over a period of 6 h. For this purpose, we also examined the effects of frequent short recruitment manoeuvres (RM) in healthy mice. Methods Mice were ventilated at low tidal volume VT = 8 mL/kg or high tidal volume VT = 16 mL/kg and a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 2 or 6 cmH2O. RM were performed every 5 min, 60 min or not at all. Lung mechanics were followed by the forced oscillation technique. Blood pressure (BP), electrocardiogram (ECG), heart frequency (HF), oxygen saturation and body temperature were monitored. Blood gases, neutrophil-recruitment, microvascular permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood serum as well as histopathology of the lung were examined. Results MV with repetitive RM every 5 min resulted in stable respiratory mechanics. Ventilation without RM worsened lung mechanics due to alveolar collapse, leading to impaired gas exchange. HF and BP were affected by anaesthesia, but not by ventilation. Microvascular permeability was highest in atelectatic lungs, whereas neutrophil-recruitment and structural changes were strongest in lungs ventilated with high tidal volume. The cytokines IL-6 and KC, but neither TNF nor IP-10, were elevated in the BAL and serum of all ventilated mice and were reduced by recurrent RM. Lung mechanics, oxygenation and pulmonary inflammation were improved by increased PEEP. Conclusions Recurrent RM maintain lung mechanics in their physiological range during low tidal volume ventilation of healthy mice by preventing atelectasis and

  17. [The classification and risk analysis of clinical claims for mechanical ventilator].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanwu; Wang, Ruitong; Xiao, Shengchun; Wang, Weidong

    2011-08-01

    The risk analysis of clinical claims of mechanical ventilator can provide the useful information to the application of the availability and safety of mechanical ventilators. This paper classifies the clinical claims of two types of mechanical ventilations, and tries to find the distribution characteristics of the failure rate of the clinical claims by using the hazard analysis method. All of the distribution characteristics are related to the factors as ventilator design, environment human factors, etc. The method of risk analysis, combining with the classification of clinical claims, is useful for the clinical application and engineering services of mechanical ventilation.

  18. Use of the virtual ventilator, a screen-based computer simulation, to teach the principles of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Robert; Henderson, Tom; Brown, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Examination scores from 109 students enrolled in the professional veterinary program at Washington State University were evaluated to determine the effectiveness and utility of the Virtual Ventilator computer simulation for teaching the principles of mechanical ventilation in an anesthesia course. Students were randomly assigned to either a live-animal mechanical ventilation laboratory (LIVE-1st) or a computer laboratory using the mechanical ventilation simulation (SIM-1st) in week 1. During week 2, students in the LIVE-1st group participated in the ventilation simulation while students in the SIM-1st group participated in the live-animal laboratory. Student knowledge was evaluated using two similar written quizzes administered following each laboratory. Student opinions concerning the value of the simulation were assessed using an online survey. Differences in quiz scores within and between groups were compared using t-tests while survey results were tabulated. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Within the LIVE-1st group, scores for the second quiz, which was taken after the students had completed the simulation exercise, were significantly higher than those obtained from the first quiz. Accordingly, the Virtual Ventilator simulation was at least equivalent to the live-animal laboratory in the ability to present information that was subsequently tested for on the quizzes. Students in the SIM-1st group reported that use of the simulation prior to a live-animal ventilation laboratory enhanced their understanding of and ability to provide mechanical ventilation to anesthetized patients. The Virtual Ventilator simulation appears to be a useful and well-received teaching tool.

  19. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants protect against mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm weakness.

    PubMed

    Powers, Scott K; Hudson, Matthew B; Nelson, W Bradley; Talbert, Erin E; Min, Kisuk; Szeto, Hazel H; Kavazis, Andreas N; Smuder, Ashley J

    2011-07-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention used to provide adequate pulmonary ventilation in patients suffering from respiratory failure. However, prolonged mechanical ventilation is associated with significant diaphragmatic weakness resulting from both myofiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Although several signaling pathways contribute to diaphragm weakness during mechanical ventilation, it is established that oxidative stress is required for diaphragmatic weakness to occur. Therefore, identifying the site(s) of mechanical ventilation- induced reactive oxygen species production in the diaphragm is important. These experiments tested the hypothesis that elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission is required for mechanical ventilation-induced oxidative stress, atrophy, and contractile dysfunction in the diaphragm. Cause and effect was determined by preventing mechanical ventilation-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission in the diaphragm of rats using a novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (SS-31). None. Compared to mechanically ventilated animals treated with saline, animals treated with SS-31 were protected against mechanical ventilation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and protease activation in the diaphragm. Importantly, treatment of animals with the mitochondrial antioxidant also protected the diaphragm against mechanical ventilation-induced myofiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. These results reveal that prevention of mechanical ventilation-induced increases in diaphragmatic mitochondrial reactive oxygen species emission protects the diaphragm from mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness. This important new finding indicates that mitochondria are a primary source of reactive oxygen species production in the diaphragm during prolonged mechanical ventilation. These results could lead to the development of a therapeutic intervention to impede mechanical ventilation

  20. Non-Invasive Ventilation in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Hugo Souza; dos Reis, Helena França Correia; Lima, Melissa Santos; Gomes Neto, Mansueto

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) may perfect respiratory and cardiac performance in patients with heart failure (HF). The objective of the study to establish, through systematic review and meta-analysis, NIV influence on functional capacity of HF patients. A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized studies was carried out through research of databases of Cochrane Library, SciELO, Pubmed and PEDro, using the key-words: heart failure, non-invasive ventilation, exercise tolerance; and the free terms: bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and functional capacity (terms were searched for in English and Portuguese) using the Boolean operators AND and OR. Methodological quality was ensured through PEDro scale. Weighted averages and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The meta-analysis was done thorugh the software Review Manager, version 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration). Four randomized clinical trials were included. Individual studies suggest NIV improved functional capacity. NIV resulted in improvement in the distance of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) (68.7m 95%CI: 52.6 to 84.9) in comparison to the control group. We conclude that the NIV is an intervention that promotes important effects in the improvement of functional capacity of HF patients. However, there is a gap in literature on which are the most adequate parameters for the application of this technique. PMID:28099587

  1. Non-invasive Ventilation as Airway Clearance Technique in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Hortal, Maria Cecilia; Nygren-Bonnier, Malin; Hjelte, Lena

    2017-07-01

    For patients with cystic fibrosis, chest physiotherapy is crucial for evacuating airway secretions. Because chest physiotherapy increases energy expenditure, fatigue and dyspnoea, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) could be beneficial for severely ill patients during airway clearance. The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the effects between NIV and positive expiratory pressure (PEP) on airway clearance. Prospective, randomized trial compares PEP to NIV. Thirty-two subjects, mean age 31 years, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second 47% (±14) and mean forced vital capacity 69% (±13), completed a 3-month randomized trial comparing NIV with standard PEP treatment as airway clearance technique. Lung functions testing, 6-minute walk test, blood gases, sputum culture and inflammatory parameters were measured before and after the treatment period. There was a significant reduction in lung clearance index (LCI) following NIV compared with PEP (p = 0.01). LCI is performed within the lung function testing. Non-invasive ventilation was shown to be a good alternative to PEP in chest physiotherapy for patients with cystic fibrosis who are severely ill. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for respiratory failure due to severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Antonello; Ferraioli, Gianluca; Ferrari-Bravo, Maura; Barlascini, Cornelius; Santo, Mario; Ferrera, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) have been as defined pneumonia requiring admission to the intensive care unit or carrying a high risk of death. Currently, the treatment of sCAP consists of antibiotic therapy and ventilator support. The use of invasive ventilation causes several complications as does admission to ICU. For this reason, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for acute respiratory failure to avoid endotracheal intubation. However, few studies have currently assessed the usefulness of NIV in sCAP. We prospectively assessed 127 patients with sCAP and severe acute respiratory failure [oxygen arterial pressure/oxygen inspiratory fraction ratio (PaO2/FiO2) <250]. We defined successful NIV as avoidance of intubation and the achievement of PaO2/FiO2 >250 with spontaneous breathing. We assessed predictors of NIV failure and hospital mortality using univariate and multivariate analyses. NIV failed in 32 patients (25.1%). Higher chest X-ray score at admission, chest X-ray worsening, and a lower PaO2/FiO2 and higher alveolar-arteriolar gradient (A-aDO2) after 1 h of NIV all independently predicted NIV failure. Higher lactate dehydrogenase and confusion, elevated blood urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure plus age ≥65 years at admission, higher A-aDO2, respiratory rate and lower PaO2/FiO2 after 1 h of NIV and intubation rate were directly related to hospital mortality. Successful treatment is strongly related to less severe illness as well as to a good initial and sustained response to medical therapy and NIV treatment. Constant monitoring of these patients is mandatory. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Transient-state mechanisms of wind-induced burrow ventilation.

    PubMed

    Turner, J Scott; Pinshow, Berry

    2015-01-15

    Burrows are common animal habitations, yet living in a burrow presents physiological challenges for its inhabitants because the burrow isolates them from sources and sinks for oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and ammonia. Conventionally, the isolation is thought to be overcome by either diffusion gas exchange within the burrow or some means of capturing wind energy to power steady or quasi-steady bulk flows of air through it. Both are examples of what may be called 'DC' models, namely steady to quasi-steady flows powered by steady to quasi-steady winds. Natural winds, however, are neither steady nor quasi-steady, but are turbulent, with a considerable portion of the energy contained in so-called 'AC' (i.e. unsteady) components, where wind velocity varies chaotically and energy to power gas exchange is stored in some form. Existing DC models of burrow gas exchange do not account for this potentially significant source of energy for ventilation. We present evidence that at least two AC mechanisms operate to ventilate both single-opening burrows (of the Cape skink, Trachylepis capensis) and double-opening model burrows (of Sundevall's jird, Meriones crassus). We propose that consideration of the physiological ecology and evolution of the burrowing habit has been blinkered by the long neglect of AC ventilation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Mechanical Ventilation and Diaphragmatic Atrophy in Critically Ill Patients: An Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Zambon, Massimo; Beccaria, Paolo; Matsuno, Jun; Gemma, Marco; Frati, Elena; Colombo, Sergio; Cabrini, Luca; Landoni, Giovanni; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical ventilation contributes to diaphragmatic atrophy and dysfunction, and few techniques exist to assess diaphragmatic function: the purpose of this study was to quantify diaphragm atrophy in a population of critically ill mechanically ventilated patients with ultrasound and to identify risk factors that can worsen diaphragmatic activity. Prospective observational study. ICU of a 1,200-bed university hospital. Newly intubated adult critically ill patients. Diaphragm thickness in the zone of apposition was measured daily with ultrasound, from the first day of mechanical ventilation till discharge to the main ward. Daily atrophy rate (ΔTdi/d) was calculated as the reduction in percentage from the previous measurement. To analyze the difference in atrophy rate (ΔTdi/d), ventilation was categorized into four classes: spontaneous breathing or continuous positive airway pressure; pressure support ventilation 5-12 cm H2O (low pressure support ventilation); pressure support ventilation greater than 12 cm H2O (high pressure support ventilation); and controlled mechanical ventilation. Multivariate analysis with ventilation support and other clinical variables was performed to identify risk factors for atrophy. Forty patients underwent a total of 153 ultrasonographic evaluations. Mean (SD) ΔTdi/d was -7.5% (12.3) during controlled mechanical ventilation, -5.3% (12.9) at high pressure support ventilation, -1.5% (10.9) at low pressure support ventilation, +2.3% (9.5) during spontaneous breathing or continuous positive airway pressure. At multivariate analysis, only the ventilation support was predictive of diaphragm atrophy rate. Pressure support predicted diaphragm thickness with coefficient -0.006 (95% CI, -0.010 to -0.002; p = 0.006). In critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, there is a linear relationship between ventilator support and diaphragmatic atrophy rate.

  5. Pulmonary deposition of a nebulised aerosol during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S H; O'Doherty, M J; Fidler, H M; Page, C J; Treacher, D F; Nunan, T O

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing use of therapeutic aerosols in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Few studies have measured aerosol delivery to the lungs under these conditions with adequate experimental methods. Hence this study was performed to measure pulmonary aerosol deposition and to determine the reproducibility of the method of measurement during mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Nine male patients were studied during mechanical ventilation after open heart surgery and two experiments were performed in each to determine the reproducibility of the method. A solution of technetium-99m labelled human serum albumin (99mTc HSA (50 micrograms); activity in experiment 1, 74 MBq; in experiment 2, 185 MBq) in 3 ml saline was administered with a Siemens Servo 945 nebuliser system (high setting) and a System 22 Acorn nebuliser unit. Pulmonary deposition was quantified by means of a gamma camera and corrections derived from lung phantom studies. RESULTS: Pulmonary aerosol deposition was completed in 22 (SD 4) minutes. Total pulmonary deposition (% nebuliser dose (SD)) was 2.2 (0.8)% with 1.5% and 0.7% depositing in the right and left lungs respectively; 0.9% of the nebuliser activity was detected in the endotracheal tube or trachea and 51% was retained within the nebuliser unit. Considerable variability between subjects was found for total deposition (coefficient of variation (CV) 46%), but within subject reproducibility was good (CV 15%). CONCLUSIONS: Administration of aerosol in this way is inefficient and further research is needed to find more effective alternatives in patients who require mechanical respiratory support. This method of measurement seems suitable for the assessment of new methods of aerosol delivery in these patients. Images PMID:8493630

  6. Impact of adding a filter for protection from toxic inhalational compounds to the ventilation circuit of mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Be'eri, Eliezer; Owen, Simon; Shachar, Mark; Barlavie, Yaron; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2016-01-01

    Standard-issue Chemical-Biological-Radio-Nuclear (CBRN) gasmasks, as used for protection from non-conventional warfare agents or toxic industrial compounds, cannot be used by ventilated patients, leaving them exposed to toxic agents inhaled via their ventilators. This study was conducted to determine the safety of a CBRN filter added to the patient circuit of a ventilator, as a method for affording inhalational protection to ventilated patients. A Landrace pig was ventilated sequentially with 3 types of ventilators according to 17 different ventilation protocols, with and without a CBRN filters added in-line to the ventilation tubing for each protocol. For each protocol, physiological parameters, including oxygen saturation, inspired CO2, end tidal CO2, inspired oxygen, respiratory rate, and pulse rate, as well as airflow parameters including peak inspiratory pressure, positive end expiratory pressure and tidal volume were measured. The impact on the ventilator's trigger/sensitivity function was evaluated in vitro using a Michigan test lung. On average, the addition of the CBRN filter resulted in a 16 ml (5 %) decrease (range 0-50 ml) in the tidal volume, a 1.7 cm H2O (10 %) decrease (range 1-3 cm H2O) in the peak inspiratory pressure, and a 0.1 cm H2O (3 %) decrease (range 0-1 cm H2O) in the positive end expiratory pressure delivered to the animal. Some ventilators compensated for these airflow changes while others did not, depending on the design of the ventilator's pressure/flow sensing mechanism. Significant rebreathing occurred when the filter was positioned directly on the animal's endotracheal tube, but not when positioned on the air outflow port of the ventilator. In vitro measurements showed that the addition of the CBRN filter added a mean pressure gradient of 0.45 cm H2O to the trigger/sensitivity function of the system. In-line addition of a CBRN filter to ventilation tubing is a feasible strategy for affording inhalational protection to

  7. [Sleep-apnea syndrome, mechanical ventilation and critical care in Archivos de Bronconeumología (December 2009-December 2010)].

    PubMed

    Abad Fernández, Araceli; Pumarega, Irene Cano; Hernández, Concepción; Sampol, Gabriel; Terán-Santos, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to review all the major articles on respiratory sleep disorders, mechanical ventilation, and respiratory critical care published in the last year in Archivos de bronconeumología. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 15 studies on these topics were published in Archivos de bronconeumología. Ten of these studies dealt with respiratory sleep disorders, consisting of six original articles, one special article, one review article, one letter to the editor and one supplement on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its association with sleep apneas. Five articles were published on non-invasive mechanical ventilation: one editorial, one special article, one article in a supplement and two original articles. As in previous years, there was a marked difference in the number of articles published on non-invasive mechanical ventilation and sleep-apnea syndrome, with a greater number of articles being published on the latter. Although some articles highlight the importance of the place where ventilation is commenced, no study specifically dealing with intermediate care units was published in Archivos de bronconeumología in 2010. This absence could be interpreted as a result of the low implantation of this type of unit in Spain, contrasting with the high activity undertaken in this field by pneumology services.

  8. Pleural liquid and kinetic friction coefficient of mesothelium after mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bodega, Francesca; Sironi, Chiara; Porta, Cristina; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    Volume and protein concentration of pleural liquid in anesthetized rabbits after 1 or 3h of mechanical ventilation, with alveolar pressure equal to atmospheric at end expiration, were compared to those occurring after spontaneous breathing. Moreover, coefficient of kinetic friction between samples of visceral and parietal pleura, obtained after spontaneous or mechanical ventilation, sliding in vitro at physiological velocity under physiological load, was determined. Volume of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was similar to that previously found during spontaneous ventilation. This finding is contrary to expectation of Moriondo et al. (2005), based on measurement of lymphatic and interstitial pressure. Protein concentration of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was also similar to that occurring after spontaneous ventilation. Coefficient of kinetic friction after mechanical ventilation was 0.023±0.001, similar to that obtained after spontaneous breathing.

  9. Components of respiratory resistance monitored in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Babik, B; Peták, F; Asztalos, T; Deák, Z I; Bogáts, G; Hantos, Z

    2002-12-01

    The interrupter technique is commonly adopted to monitor respiratory resistance (Rrs,int) during mechanical ventilation; however, Rrs,int is often interpreted as an index of airway resistance (Raw). This study compared the values of Rrs,int provided by a Siemens 940 Lung Mechanics Monitor with total respiratory impedance (Zrs) parameters in 39 patients with normal spirometric parameters, who were undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery. Zrs was determined at the airway opening with pseudorandom oscillations of 0.2-6 Hz at end inspiration. Raw and tissue resistance (Rti) were derived from the Zrs data by model fitting; Rti and total resistance (Rrs,osc=Raw+Rti) were calculated at the actual respirator frequencies. Lower airway resistance (Rawl) was estimated by measuring tracheal pressure. Although good agreement was obtained between Rrs,osc and Rrs,int, with a ratio of 1.07+/-0.19 (mean+/-SD), they correlated poorly (r2=0.36). Rti and the equipment component of Raw accounted for most of Rrs,osc (39.8+/-11.9 and 43.0+/-6.9%, respectively), whereas only a small portion belonged to Rawl (17.2+/-6.3%). It is concluded that respiratory resistance may become very insensitive to changes in lower airway resistance and therefore, inappropriate for following alterations in airway tone during mechanical ventilation, especially in patients with relatively normal respiratory mechanics, where the tissue and equipment resistances represent the vast majority of the total resistance.

  10. Non-invasive ventilation for children with acute respiratory failure in the developing world: literature review and an implementation example.

    PubMed

    Balfour-Lynn, R E; Marsh, G; Gorayi, D; Elahi, E; LaRovere, J

    2014-06-01

    Over 2 million children die of acute respiratory infection every year, with around 98% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. Depending upon the clinical status of the patient, supplemental oxygen is usually the first line therapy. However this often proves inadequate for acute respiratory failure (ARF), in which case intubation and mechanical positive pressure ventilation are required. Adult intensive care successfully introduced non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) to treat ARF over a decade ago. This experience, coupled with the use of NIPPV in children with chronic respiratory insufficiency, has led to increasing use of NIPPV to treat ARF in paediatric populations. NIPPV can have similar or improved outcomes to IPPV, but with fewer complications. However there are no controlled trials of its use in children, and most data come from observational studies and retrospective reviews. In a developing world setting, where mortality from ARF is high and the risks of intubation are great and often not feasible, NIPPV can be a simple and cost-effective way to treat these patients. Its implementation in rural Northern Ghana shows NIPPV for ARF can be delivered safely with minimal training, and appears to impact significantly on mortality in those under 5 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Communication of mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Carina Isabel Ferreira; Rodrigues, Inês Tello Rato Milheiras

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to translate and culturally and linguistically adapt the Ease of Communication Scale and to assess the level of communication difficulties for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation with orotracheal intubation, relating these difficulties to clinical and sociodemographic variables. Methods This study had three stages: (1) cultural and linguistic adaptation of the Ease of Communication Scale; (2) preliminary assessment of its psychometric properties; and (3) observational, descriptive-correlational and cross-sectional study, conducted from March to August 2015, based on the Ease of Communication Scale - after extubation answers and clinical and sociodemographic variables of 31 adult patients who were extubated, clinically stable and admitted to five Portuguese intensive care units. Results Expert analysis showed high agreement on content (100%) and relevance (75%). The pretest scores showed a high acceptability regarding the completion of the instrument and its usefulness. The Ease of Communication Scale showed excellent internal consistency (0.951 Cronbach's alpha). The factor analysis explained approximately 81% of the total variance with two scale components. On average, the patients considered the communication experiences during intubation to be "quite hard" (2.99). No significant correlation was observed between the communication difficulties reported and the studied sociodemographic and clinical variables, except for the clinical variable "number of hours after extubation" (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study translated and adapted the first assessment instrument of communication difficulties for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units into European Portuguese. The preliminary scale validation suggested high reliability. Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation reported that communication during intubation was "quite hard", and these communication difficulties apparently existed regardless of the

  12. Mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm disuse in humans triggers autophagy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sabah N A; Mofarrahi, Mahroo; Sigala, Ioanna; Kim, Ho Cheol; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Maltais, Francois; Bellenis, Ion; Chaturvedi, Rakesh; Gottfried, Stewart B; Metrakos, Peter; Danialou, Gawiyou; Matecki, Stefan; Jaber, Samir; Petrof, Basil J; Goldberg, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) results in atrophy of the human diaphragm. The autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) contributes to skeletal muscle proteolysis, but its contribution to diaphragmatic protein degradation in mechanically ventilated patients is unknown. To evaluate the autophagy pathway responses to CMV in the diaphragm and limb muscles of humans and to identify the roles of FOXO transcription factors in these responses. Muscle biopsies were obtained from nine control subjects and nine brain-dead organ donors. Subjects were mechanically ventilated for 2 to 4 hours and 15 to 276 hours, respectively. Activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system was detected by measuring mRNA expressions of Atrogin-1, MURF1, and protein expressions of UBC2, UBC4, and the α subunits of the 20S proteasome (MCP231). Activation of the ALP was detected by electron microscopy and by measuring the expressions of several autophagy-related genes. Total carbonyl content and HNE-protein adduct formation were measured to assess oxidative stress. Total AKT, phosphorylated and total FOXO1, and FOXO3A protein levels were also measured. Prolonged CMV triggered activation of the ALP as measured by the appearance of autophagosomes in the diaphragm and increased expressions of autophagy-related genes, as compared with controls. Induction of autophagy was associated with increased protein oxidation and enhanced expression of the FOXO1 gene, but not the FOXO3A gene. CMV also triggered the inhibition of both AKT expression and FOXO1 phosphorylation. We propose that prolonged CMV causes diaphragm disuse, which, in turn, leads to activation of the ALP through oxidative stress and the induction of the FOXO1 transcription factor.

  13. Communication of mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Carina Isabel Ferreira; Rodrigues, Inês Tello Rato Milheiras

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and culturally and linguistically adapt the Ease of Communication Scale and to assess the level of communication difficulties for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation with orotracheal intubation, relating these difficulties to clinical and sociodemographic variables. This study had three stages: (1) cultural and linguistic adaptation of the Ease of Communication Scale; (2) preliminary assessment of its psychometric properties; and (3) observational, descriptive-correlational and cross-sectional study, conducted from March to August 2015, based on the Ease of Communication Scale - after extubation answers and clinical and sociodemographic variables of 31 adult patients who were extubated, clinically stable and admitted to five Portuguese intensive care units. Expert analysis showed high agreement on content (100%) and relevance (75%). The pretest scores showed a high acceptability regarding the completion of the instrument and its usefulness. The Ease of Communication Scale showed excellent internal consistency (0.951 Cronbach's alpha). The factor analysis explained approximately 81% of the total variance with two scale components. On average, the patients considered the communication experiences during intubation to be "quite hard" (2.99). No significant correlation was observed between the communication difficulties reported and the studied sociodemographic and clinical variables, except for the clinical variable "number of hours after extubation" (p < 0.05). This study translated and adapted the first assessment instrument of communication difficulties for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units into European Portuguese. The preliminary scale validation suggested high reliability. Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation reported that communication during intubation was "quite hard", and these communication difficulties apparently existed regardless of the presence of other clinical and

  14. Effects of manual hyperinflation in preterm newborns under mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Camila Chaves; Nicolau, Carla Marques; Juliani, Regina Celia Turola Passos; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Krebs, Vera Lucia Jornada

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of manual hyperinflation, performed with a manual resuscitator with and without the positive end-expiratory pressure valve, on the respiratory function of preterm newborns under mechanical ventilation. Methods Cross-sectional study of hemodynamically stable preterm newborns with gestational age of less than 32 weeks, under mechanical ventilation and dependent on it at 28 days of life. Manual hyperinflation was applied randomly, alternating the use or not of the positive end-expiratory pressure valve, followed by tracheal aspiration for ending the maneuver. For nominal data, the two-tailed Wilcoxon test was applied at the 5% significance level and 80% power. Results Twenty-eight preterm newborns, with an average birth weight of 1,005.71 ± 372.16g, an average gestational age of 28.90 ± 1.79 weeks, an average corrected age of 33.26 ± 1.78 weeks, and an average mechanical ventilation time of 29.5 (15 - 53) days, were studied. Increases in inspiratory and expiratory volumes occurred between time-points A5 (before the maneuver) and C1 (immediately after tracheal aspiration) in both the maneuver with the valve (p = 0.001 and p = 0.009) and without the valve (p = 0.026 and p = 0.001), respectively. There was also an increase in expiratory resistance between time-points A5 and C1 (p = 0.044). Conclusion Lung volumes increased when performing the maneuver with and without the valve, with a significant difference in the first minute after aspiration. There was a significant difference in expiratory resistance between the time-points A5 (before the maneuver) and C1 (immediately after tracheal aspiration) in the first minute after aspiration within each maneuver. PMID:27737427

  15. Comparison of respiratory and hemodynamic stability in patients with traumatic brain injury ventilated by two ventilator modes: Pressure regulated volume control versus synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Aghadavoudi, Omid; Alikiaii, Babak; Sadeghi, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare pressure regulated volume control (PRVC) and synchronized intermittent mechanical ventilation (SIMV) modes of ventilation according to respiratory and hemodynamic stability in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: In a randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial study, 100 patients who hospitalized in ICU due to TBI were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The first and second groups were ventilated by PRVC and SIMV modes, respectively. During mechanical ventilation, arterial blood gas and respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were also recorded and compared between the two groups. Results: According to the t-test, the mean rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) after the first 8 h of mechanical ventilation was significantly higher in SIMV group compared with PRVC group (107.6 ± 2.75 vs. 102.2 ± 5.2, respectively, P < 0.0001). Further, according to ANOVA with repeated measures, the trend of RSBI changes had a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). The trend of ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen was different between the two groups according to Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Using PRVC mode might be more desirable than using SIMV mode in patients with TBI due to better stability of ventilation and oxygenating. To ensure for more advantages of PRVC mode, further studies with longer follow-up and more detailed measurements are recommended. PMID:28028515

  16. Nuclear factor-κB signaling contributes to mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm weakness*.

    PubMed

    Smuder, Ashley J; Hudson, Matthew B; Nelson, W Bradley; Kavazis, Andreas N; Powers, Scott K

    2012-03-01

    Although mechanical ventilation is a life-saving measure for patients in respiratory failure, prolonged mechanical ventilation results in diaphragmatic weakness attributable to fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Therefore, identifying the signaling pathways responsible for mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness is important. In this context, it is established that oxidative stress is required for mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness to occur. Numerous redox-sensitive signaling pathways exist in muscle including the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Although it has been suggested that nuclear factor-κB contributes to proteolytic signaling in inactivity-induced atrophy in locomotor muscles, the role that nuclear factor-κB plays in mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that nuclear factor-κB activation plays a key signaling role in mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness and that oxidative stress is required for nuclear factor-κB activation. Cause and effect was determined by independently treating mechanically ventilated animals with either a specific nuclear factor-κB inhibitor (SN50) or a clinically relevant antioxidant (curcumin). Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activity partially attenuated both mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Further, treatment with the antioxidant curcumin prevented mechanical ventilation-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB in the diaphragm and rescued the diaphragm from both mechanical ventilation-induced atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that nuclear factor-κB activation plays a significant signaling role in mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness and that oxidative stress is an upstream activator of nuclear factor-κB. Finally, our results suggest that prevention of mechanical ventilation

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in children admitted to hospital but ventilated mechanically for other reasons.

    PubMed

    von Renesse, Anja; Schildgen, Oliver; Klinkenberg, Dennis; Müller, Andreas; von Moers, Arpad; Simon, Arne

    2009-01-01

    One thousand five hundred sixty-eight RSV infections were documented prospectively in 1,541 pediatric patients. Of these, 20 (1.3%) had acquired the RSV infection while treated by mechanical ventilation for reasons other than the actual RSV infection (group ventilated mechanically). The clinical characteristics of children who were infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection while ventilated mechanically for other reasons are described and compared with a matched control group. Sixty percent of the group ventilated mechanically had at least one additional risk factor for a severe course of infection (prematurity 50%, chronic lung disease 20%, congenital heart disease 35%, immunodeficiency 20%). The median age at diagnosis in the group ventilated mechanically was 4.2 months. The matched pairs analysis (group ventilated mechanically vs. control group) revealed a higher proportion of patients with hypoxemia and apnoea in the group ventilated mechanically; more patients in the control group showed symptoms of airway obstruction (wheezing). At least one chest radiography was performed in 95% of the patients (n = 19) in the group ventilated mechanically versus 45% (n = 9) in the control group (P = 0.001). The frequency of pneumonia was 40% in the group ventilated mechanically and 20% in the control group. Despite existing consensus recommendations, only two patients (10%) of the group ventilated mechanically had received palivizumab previously. Significantly more patients in the group ventilated mechanically received antibiotic treatment (85% vs. 45%, P = 0.008), and attributable mortality was higher in the group ventilated mechanically (15% [n = 3] vs. 0% in the control group, P = 0.231). Children treated by long term mechanical ventilation may acquire RSV infection by transmission by droplets or caregivers and face an increased risk of a severe course of RSV infection. The low rate of immunoprophylaxis in this particular risk group should be improved.

  18. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ira J; Godinez, Guillermo L; Singh, Baljit K; McCaughey, Kelly M; Alcantara, Raniel R; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S; Nguyen, Henry N; Friera, Annabelle M; White, Kathy A; McLaughlin, John R; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M; Baltgalvis, Kristen A; Claypool, Mark D; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C; Gelman, Marina S; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L; Creger, Daniel P; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J; Wiggs, Michael P; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J; Powers, Scott K; Masuda, Esteban S; Taylor, Vanessa C; Payan, Donald G; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.-Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  19. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ira J.; Godinez, Guillermo L.; Singh, Baljit K.; McCaughey, Kelly M.; Alcantara, Raniel R.; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S.; Nguyen, Henry N.; Friera, Annabelle M.; White, Kathy A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Claypool, Mark D.; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C.; Gelman, Marina S.; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L.; Creger, Daniel P.; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Powers, Scott K.; Masuda, Esteban S.; Taylor, Vanessa C.; Payan, Donald G.; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.—Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  20. Microbial invasions: the process, patterns, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Cyrus Alexander; Elsas, Jan Dirk van; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2015-11-01

    There has recently been a surge of literature examining microbial invasions into a variety of environments. These studies often include a component of biological diversity as a major factor determining an invader's fate, yet common results are rarely cross-compared. Since many studies only present a snapshot of the entire invasion process, a bird's eye view is required to piece together the entire continuum, which we find consists of introduction, establishment, spread, and impact phases. We further examine the patterns and mechanisms associated with invasion resistance and create a mechanistic synthesis governed by the species richness, species evenness, and resource availability of resident communities. We conclude by exploring the advantages of using a theoretical invasion framework across different fields.

  1. Home mechanical ventilation: outcomes according to remoteness from health center and different family education levels.

    PubMed

    Pekcan, Sevgi; Aslan, Ayşe Tana; Kiper, Nural; Köse, Mehmet; Cobanoglu, Nazan; Yalçin, Ebru; Doğru, Deniz; Ozçelik, Uğur

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is being increasingly employed to treat patients suffering from chronic respiratory failure. This present study aimed to examine the characteristics and outcomes of 27 children seen in our department over a four-year period who were treated with HMV. The causes of chronic respiratory failure were as follows: 16 (59.3%) neuromuscular disease, 6 (22.2%) primary respiratory diseases, 3 (11.1%) congenital heart disease, and 2 (7.4%) storage disease. The mean age was 59.4 months (1 day-15 years); mean follow-up for invasive ventilation was 356 (0-1200) days and for non-invasive HMV was 517 (30-1440) days. With respect to maternal educational level, 13 had graduated from elementary school and 14 from high school or university. Nine of our patients resided in Ankara, while 18 lived in rural areas of Turkey. Eleven of the 27 patients died during the HMV period (1-36 months) at home. Five patients were weaned from HMV between 1-19 months. Our experience showed that HMV can be applied successfully in chronic respiratory failure patients in Turkey. Length of the follow-up period and mortality rate were not affected by the patient's place of residence (city center or rural) or maternal level of education.

  2. Carbon dioxide elimination and oxygen consumption in mechanically ventilated children.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Craig D; Walsh, Brian K; Bechard, Lori J; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2015-05-01

    Accurate measurement of carbon dioxide elimination (V̇CO2 ) and oxygen consumption (V̇O2 ) at the bedside may help titrate nutritional and respiratory support in mechanically ventilated patients. Continuous V̇CO2 monitoring is now available with many ventilators. However, because normative data are sparsely available in the literature, we aimed to describe the range of V̇CO2 and V̇O2 values observed in mechanically ventilated children. We also aimed to examine the characteristics of V̇CO2 values that are associated with standard steady state (5-min period when V̇CO2 and V̇O2 variability are < 10%). Mechanically ventilated patients who underwent indirect calorimetry testing were eligible for inclusion, and subjects who achieved standard steady state were included. Normalized V̇CO2 and V̇O2 values (mL/kg/min) were modeled against subject height, and correlation coefficients were computed to quantify the goodness of fit. A steady-state definition using only V̇CO2 was developed (V̇CO2 variability of < 5% for a 5-min period) and tested against standard steady state using sensitivity and specificity. Steady-state data from 87 indirect calorimetry tests (in 70 subjects) were included. For age groups < 0.5, 0.5-8, and > 8 y, the mean V̇CO2 values were 7.6, 5.8, and 3.5 mL/kg/min. Normalized V̇CO2 and V̇O2 values were inversely related to subject height and age. The relationships between normalized gas exchange values and height were demonstrated by the models: V̇CO2 = 115 × (height in cm)(-0.71) (R = 0.61, P < .001) and V̇O2 = 130 × (height in cm)(-0.72) (R = 0.61, P < .001). Steady-state V̇CO2 predicted standard steady state (sensitivity of 0.84, specificity of 1.0, P < .01). V̇CO2 and V̇O2 measurements correlated with subject height and age. Smaller and younger subjects produced larger amounts of CO2 and consumed more O2 per unit of body weight. The use of a 5-min period when V̇CO2 varied by < 5% predicted standard steady state. Our observations

  3. Delirium After Mechanical Ventilation in Intensive Care Units: The Cognitive and Psychosocial Assessment (CAPA) Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Bulic, Daniella; Bennett, Michael; Rodgers, Helen; Nourse, Mary; Rubie, Patrick; Looi, Jeffrey Cl; Van Haren, Frank

    2017-02-28

    In the intensive care unit (ICU), critical illness delirium occurs in the context of multiple comorbidities, multi-organ failure, and invasive management techniques, such as mechanical ventilation, sedation, and lack of sleep. Delirium is characterized by an acute confusional state defined by fluctuating mental status, inattention, and either disorganized thinking or an altered level of consciousness. The long-term cognitive and psychosocial function of patients that experience delirium in the ICU is of crucial interest because preliminary data suggest a strong association between ICU-related delirium and long-term cognitive impairment. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between delirium in the ICU and adverse outcomes by following mechanically ventilated patients for one year following their discharge from the ICU and collecting data on their long-term cognition and psychosocial function. This study will be conducted by enrolling patients in two tertiary ICUs in Australia. We aim to recruit 200 patients who have been mechanically ventilated for more than 24 hours. Data will be collected at the following three time points: (1) at discharge where they will be administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); (2) at 6 months after discharge from the ICU discharge where the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IES-R) and the Telephone Inventory for Cognitive Status (TICS) tests will be administered; and (3) at 12 months after discharge from the ICU where the patients will be administered the TICS and IES-R tests, as well as the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). The IQCODE will be administered to their "person responsible" or the significant other of the patient. Long-term cognition and psychosocial function will be the primary outcome of this study. Mortality will also be investigated as a secondary outcome. Active enrollment will take place until the end of September 2016 and data collection will conclude at the

  4. Mechanical ventilation weaning protocol improves medical adherence and results.

    PubMed

    Borges, Luís Guilherme Alegretti; Savi, Augusto; Teixeira, Cassiano; de Oliveira, Roselaine Pinheiro; De Camillis, Marcio Luiz Ferreira; Wickert, Ricardo; Brodt, Sérgio Fernando Monteiro; Tonietto, Túlio Frederico; Cremonese, Ricardo; da Silva, Leonardo Silveira; Gehm, Fernanda; Oliveira, Eubrando Silvestre; Barth, Jose Herve Diel; Macari, Juçara Gasparetto; de Barros, Cíntia Dias; Vieira, Sílvia Regina Rios

    2017-10-01

    Implementation of a weaning protocol is related to better patient prognosis. However, new approaches may take several years to become the standard of care in daily practice. We conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the effectiveness of a multifaceted strategy to implement a protocol to wean patients from mechanical ventilation (MV) and to evaluate the weaning success rate as well as practitioner adherence to the protocol. We investigated all consecutive MV-dependent subjects admitted to a medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) for >24h over 7years. The multifaceted strategy consisted of continuing education of attending physicians and ICU staff and regular feedback regarding patient outcomes. The study was conducted in three phases: protocol development, protocol and multifaceted strategy implementation, and protocol monitoring. Data regarding weaning outcomes and physician adherence to the weaning protocol were collected during all phases. We enrolled 2469 subjects over 7years, with 1,943 subjects (78.7%) experiencing weaning success. Physician adherence to the protocol increased during the years of protocol and multifaceted strategy implementation (from 38% to 86%, p<0.01) and decreased in the protocol monitoring phase (from 73.9% to 50.0%, p<0.01). However, during the study years, the weaning success of all subjects increased (from 73.1% to 85.4%, p<0.001). When the weaning protocol was evaluated step-by-step, we found high adherence for noninvasive ventilation use (95%) and weaning predictor measurement (91%) and lower adherence for control of fluid balance (57%) and daily interruption of sedation (24%). Weaning success was higher in patients who had undergone the weaning protocol compared to those who had undergone weaning based in clinical practice (85.6% vs. 67.7%, p<0.001). A multifaceted strategy consisting of continuing education and regular feedback can increase physician adherence to a weaning protocol for mechanical ventilation

  5. Impact of tongue biofilm removal on mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; Mariano, Marcelo; Kallas, Monira Samaan; Vilela, Maria Carolina Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tongue cleaner in the removal of tongue biofilm in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods Tongue biofilm and tracheal secretion samples were collected from a total of 50 patients: 27 in the study group (SG) who were intubated or tracheostomized under assisted ventilation and treated with the tongue cleaner and 23 in the control group (CG) who did not undergo tongue cleaning. Oral and tracheal secretion cultures of the SG (initially and after 5 days) and the CG (at a single time-point) were performed to evaluate the changes in bacterial flora. Results The median age of the SG patients was 77 years (45-99 years), and that of the CG patients was 79 years (21-94 years). The length of hospital stay ranged from 17-1,370 days for the SG with a median stay of 425 days and from 4-240 days for the CG with a median stay of 120 days. No significant differences were found when the dental plaque indexes were compared between the SG and the CG. There was no correlation between the index and the length of hospital stay. The same bacterial flora was found in the dental plaque of 9 of the 27 SG patients before and after the tongue scraper was used for 5 days compared with the CG (p=0.683). Overall, 7 of the 27 SG patients had positive bacterial cultures for the same strains in both tongue biofilm and tracheal secretions compared with the CG (p=0.003). Significant similarities in strain resistance and susceptibility of the assessed microorganisms were observed between oral and tracheal microflora in 6/23 cases in the CG (p=0.006). Conclusion The use of a tongue cleaner is effective at reducing tongue biofilm in patients on mechanical ventilation and facilitates oral hygiene interventions performed by caregivers. Clinical Trials Registry NCT01294943 PMID:23887759

  6. A Non Invasive Estimate of Dead Space Ventilation from Exercise Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Paola; Apostolo, Anna; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Sciomer, Susanna; Palange, Paolo; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Rationale During exercise, heart failure patients (HF) show an out-of-proportion ventilation increase, which in patients with COPD is blunted. When HF and COPD coexist, the ventilatory response to exercise is unpredictable. Objectives We evaluated a human model of respiratory impairment in 10 COPD-free HF patients and in 10 healthy subjects, tested with a progressive workload exercise with different added dead space. We hypothesized that increased serial dead space upshifts the VE vs. VCO2 relationship and that the VE-axis intercept might be an index of dead space ventilation. Measurements All participants performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test with 0, 250 and 500 mL of additional dead space. Since DS does not contribute to gas exchange, ventilation relative to dead space is ventilation at VCO2 = 0, i.e. VE-axis intercept. We compared dead space volume, estimated dividing VE-axis intercept by the intercept on respiratory rate axis of the respiratory rate vs. VCO2 relationship with standard method measured DS. Main results In HF, adding dead space increased VE-axis intercept (+0 mL = 4.98±1.63 L; +250 mL = 9.69±2.91 L; +500 mL = 13.26±3.18 L; p<0.001) and upshifted the VE vs.VCO2 relationship, with a minor slope rise (+0 mL = 27±4 L; +250 = 28±5; +500 = 29±4; p<0.05). In healthy, adding dead space increased VE-axis intercept (+0 mL = 4.9±1.4 L; +250 = 9.3±2.4; +500 = 13.1±3.04; p<0.001) without slope changes. Measured and estimated dead space volumes were similar both in HF and healthy subjects. Conclusions VE-axis intercept is related to dead space ventilation and dead space volume can be non-invasively estimated. PMID:24498096

  7. Increasing inspiratory time exacerbates ventilator-induced lung injury during high-pressure/high-volume mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Casetti, Alfredo V; Bartlett, Robert H; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2002-10-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury may be caused by overdistension of alveoli during high-pressure ventilation. In this study, we examined the effects of increasing inspiratory time on ventilator-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four different groups with ten animals per group. Each group was then ventilated for 30 mins with one of four ventilator strategies. All groups were ventilated with an Fio2 of 1.0 and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0 cm H2O. Group LoP was the negative control group and was ventilated with low pressures (peak inspiratory pressure = 12 cm H2O, rate = 30, and inspiratory time = 0.5 secs). Groups iT = 0.5, iT = 1.0, and iT = 1.5 were the experimental groups and were ventilated with high pressures (peak inspiratory pressure = 45 cm H2O, rate = 10, and inspiratory times = 0.5 secs, iT = 1.0 sec, and iT = 1.5 secs, respectively). Outcome measures included lung compliance, Pao /Fio ratio, wet/dry lung weight, and dry lung/body weight. Final static lung compliance (p =.0002) and Pao2/Fio2 (p =.001) decreased as inspiratory time increased. Wet/dry lung weights (p <.0001) and dry lung/body weights (p <.0001) increased as inspiratory time increased. Light microscopy revealed evidence of intra-alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the iT = 1.0 and iT = 1.5 animals but not the LoP and iT = 0.5 animals. Increasing inspiratory time during high-pressure/high-volume mechanical ventilation is associated with an increase in variables of lung injury.

  8. Outcomes Associated With Invasive and Noninvasive Ventilation Among Patients Hospitalized With Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lindenauer, Peter K.; Stefan, Mihaela S.; Shieh, Meng-Shiou; Pekow, Penelope S.; Rothberg, Michael B.; Hill, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Small clinical trials have shown that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is efficacious in reducing the need for intubation and improving short-term survival among patients with severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of NIV in routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVE To compare the outcomes of patients with COPD treated with NIV to those treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This was a retrospective cohort study of 25 628 patients hospitalized for exacerbation of COPD who received mechanical ventilation on the first or second hospital day at 420 US hospitals participating in the Premier Inpatient Database. EXPOSURES Initial ventilation strategy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES In-hospital mortality, hospital-acquired pneumonia, hospital length of stay and cost, and 30-day readmission. RESULTS In the study population, a total of 17 978 (70%) were initially treated with NIV on hospital day 1 or 2. When compared with those initially treated with IMV, NIV-treated patients were older, had less comorbidity, and were less likely to have concomitant pneumonia present on admission. In a propensity-adjusted analysis, NIV was associated with lower risk of mortality than IMV (odds ratio [OR] 0.54; [95% CI, 0.48–0.61]). Treatment with NIV was associated with lower risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia (OR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.44–0.64]), lower costs (ratio, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.67–0.69]), and a shorter length of stay (ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.79–0.82]), but no difference in 30-day all-cause readmission (OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.94–1.15]) or COPD-specific readmission (OR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.91–1.22]). Propensity matching attenuated these associations. The benefits of NIV were similar in a sample restricted to patients younger than 85 years and were attenuated among patients with higher levels of comorbidity and concomitant pneumonia. Using the hospital as an

  9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: impact of pulmonary follow-up and mechanical ventilation on survival. A study of 114 cases.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán-López, Pilar; Valiño-López, Paz; Ricoy-Gabaldón, Jorge; Verea-Hernando, Héctor

    2014-12-01

    To study the impact of ventilatory management and treatment on the survival of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Retrospective analysis of 114 consecutive patients admitted to a general hospital, evaluating demographic data, type of presentation, clinical management, treatment with mechanical ventilation and survival. descriptive and Kaplan-Meier estimator. Sixty four patients presented initial bulbar involvement. Overall mean survival after diagnosis was 28.0 months (95%CI, 21.1-34.8). Seventy patients were referred to the pulmonary specialist (61.4%) and 43 received non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at 12.7 months (median) after diagnosis. Thirty seven patients continued to receive NIV with no subsequent invasive ventilation. The mean survival of these patients was 23.3 months (95%CI, 16.7-28.8), higher in those without bulbar involvement, although below the range of significance. Survival in the 26 patients receiving programmed NIV was higher than in the 11 patients in whom this was indicated without prior pulmonary assessment (considered following diagnosis, P<.012, and in accordance with the start of ventilation, P<.004). A total of 7 patients were treated invasively; mean survival in this group was 72 months (95%CI, 14.36-129.6), median 49.6±17.5 (95%CI, 15.3-83.8), and despite the difficulties involved in home care, acceptance and tolerance was acceptable. Long-term mechanical ventilation prolongs survival in ALS. Programmed pulmonary assessment has a positive impact on survival of ALS patients and is key to the multidisciplinary management of this disease. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Antipsychotic Drug Use and Screening for Delirium in Mechanically Ventilated Patients in Canadian Intensive Care Units: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Thiboutot, Zoé; Perreault, Marc M; Williamson, David R; Rose, Louise; Mehta, Sangeeta; Guenette, Melanie D; Cook, Deborah; Burry, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Critically ill patients frequently experience delirium, and antipsychotic drugs are often used to manage symptoms. Objectives: To describe the use of antipsychotic drugs and delirium screening tools in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients in Canadian intensive care units (ICUs) and to identify factors associated with the use of antipsychotic drugs. Methods: Pharmacists from 51 Canadian ICUs prospectively collected data on antipsychotic use and delirium screening in all patients for whom invasive mechanical ventilation was initiated during a chosen 2-week period occurring sometime in 2008 or 2009. Results: Data were collected for a total of 712 patients, of whom 115 (16.2%) received at least one dose of an antipsychotic. The antipsychotic prescribed, the total daily dose, and the administration schedule varied across sites. Delirium screening tools, validated for use in mechanically ventilated patients and endorsed by professional society guidelines, were part of routine care in a minority of ICUs (7/51 [13.7%]), and delirium screening was documented for few patients overall (41/712 patients [5.8%]). In a multivariable analysis, administration of antipsychotics was independently associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.17), daily interruption of sedation (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01–2.90), and use of physical restraints (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.27–3.65). Conclusion: A minority of mechanically ventilated patients in Canadian ICUs received antipsychotic drugs, and screening for delirium with validated tools was rare. Antipsychotic drug use was independently associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation, daily interruption of sedation, and use of physical restraints. PMID:27168631

  11. Mechanical ventilation modulates TLR4 and IRAK-3 in a non-infectious, ventilator-induced lung injury model.

    PubMed

    Villar, Jesús; Cabrera, Nuria E; Casula, Milena; Flores, Carlos; Valladares, Francisco; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Muros, Mercedes; Slutsky, Arthur S; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2010-03-03

    Previous experimental studies have shown that injurious mechanical ventilation has a direct effect on pulmonary and systemic immune responses. How these responses are propagated or attenuated is a matter of speculation. The goal of this study was to determine the contribution of mechanical ventilation in the regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase-3 (IRAK-3) during experimental ventilator-induced lung injury. Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study using male, healthy adults Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g. Animals were anesthetized and randomized to spontaneous breathing and to two different mechanical ventilation strategies for 4 hours: high tidal volume (VT) (20 ml/kg) and low VT (6 ml/kg). Histological evaluation, TLR2, TLR4, IRAK3 gene expression, IRAK-3 protein levels, inhibitory kappa B alpha (IkappaBalpha), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL6) gene expression in the lungs and TNF-alpha and IL-6 protein serum concentrations were analyzed. High VT mechanical ventilation for 4 hours was associated with a significant increase of TLR4 but not TLR2, a significant decrease of IRAK3 lung gene expression and protein levels, a significant decrease of IkappaBalpha, and a higher lung expression and serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The current study supports an interaction between TLR4 and IRAK-3 signaling pathway for the over-expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines during ventilator-induced lung injury. Our study also suggests that injurious mechanical ventilation may elicit an immune response that is similar to that observed during infections.

  12. Inhibition of forkhead boxO-specific transcription prevents mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smuder, Ashley J; Sollanek, Kurt J; Min, Kisuk; Nelson, W Bradley; Powers, Scott K

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving measure for patients with respiratory failure. However, prolonged mechanical ventilation results in diaphragm weakness, which contributes to problems in weaning from the ventilator. Therefore, identifying the signaling pathways responsible for mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm weakness is essential to developing effective countermeasures to combat this important problem. In this regard, the forkhead boxO family of transcription factors is activated in the diaphragm during mechanical ventilation, and forkhead boxO-specific transcription can lead to enhanced proteolysis and muscle protein breakdown. Currently, the role that forkhead boxO activation plays in the development of mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm weakness remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanical ventilation-induced increases in forkhead boxO signaling contribute to ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness. University research laboratory. Young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Cause and effect was determined by inhibiting the activation of forkhead boxO in the rat diaphragm through the use of a dominant-negative forkhead boxO adeno-associated virus vector delivered directly to the diaphragm. Our results demonstrate that prolonged (12 hr) mechanical ventilation results in a significant decrease in both diaphragm muscle fiber size and diaphragm-specific force production. However, mechanically ventilated animals treated with dominant-negative forkhead boxO showed a significant attenuation of both diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction. In addition, inhibiting forkhead boxO transcription attenuated the mechanical ventilation-induced activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the autophagy/lysosomal system, and caspase-3. Forkhead boxO is necessary for the activation of key proteolytic systems essential for mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Collectively, these results suggest that

  13. Effect of not monitoring residual gastric volume on risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults receiving mechanical ventilation and early enteral feeding: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reignier, Jean; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Le Gouge, Amelie; Boulain, Thierry; Desachy, Arnaud; Bellec, Frederic; Clavel, Marc; Frat, Jean-Pierre; Plantefeve, Gaetan; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Lascarrou, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-16

    Monitoring of residual gastric volume is recommended to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients receiving early enteral nutrition. However, studies have challenged the reliability and effectiveness of this measure. To test the hypothesis that the risk of VAP is not increased when residual gastric volume is not monitored compared with routine residual gastric volume monitoring in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and early enteral nutrition. Randomized, noninferiority, open-label, multicenter trial conducted from May 2010 through March 2011 in adults requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 2 days and given enteral nutrition within 36 hours after intubation at 9 French intensive care units (ICUs); 452 patients were randomized and 449 included in the intention-to-treat analysis (3 withdrew initial consent). Absence of residual gastric volume monitoring. Intolerance to enteral nutrition was based only on regurgitation and vomiting in the intervention group and based on residual gastric volume greater than 250 mL at any of the 6 hourly measurements and regurgitation or vomiting in the control group. Proportion of patients with at least 1 VAP episode within 90 days after randomization, as assessed by an adjudication committee blinded to patient group. The prestated noninferiority margin was 10%. In the intention-to-treat population, VAP occurred in 38 of 227 patients (16.7%) in the intervention group and in 35 of 222 patients (15.8%) in the control group (difference, 0.9%; 90% CI, -4.8% to 6.7%). There were no significant between-group differences in other ICU-acquired infections, mechanical ventilation duration, ICU stay length, or mortality rates. The proportion of patients receiving 100% of their calorie goal was higher in the intervention group (odds ratio, 1.77; 90% CI, 1.25-2.51; P = .008). Similar results were obtained in the per-protocol population. Among adults requiring mechanical ventilation and receiving

  14. Mechanical ventilation, diaphragm weakness and weaning: A rehabilitation perspective

    PubMed Central

    Martin, A Daniel; Smith, Barbara; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Most patients are easily liberated from mechanical ventilation (MV) following resolution of respiratory failure and a successful trial of spontaneous breathing, but about 25% of patients experience difficult weaning. MV use leads to cellular changes and weakness, which has been linked to weaning difficulties and has been labeled ventilator induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD). Aggravating factors in human studies with prolonged weaning include malnutrition, chronic electrolyte abnormalities, hyperglycemia, excessive resistive and elastic loads, corticosteroids, muscle relaxant exposure, sepsis and compromised cardiac function. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of MV on diaphragm function. Virtually all of these studies have concluded that MV use rapidly leads to VIDD and have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms of VIDD. Molecular and functional studies on the effects of MV on the human diaphragm have largely confirmed the animal results and identified potential treatment strategies. Only recently have potential VIDD treatments been tested in humans, including pharmacologic interventions and diaphragm “training”. A limited number of human studies have found that specific diaphragm training can increase respiratory muscle strength in FTW patients and facilitate weaning, but larger, multicenter trials are needed. PMID:23692928

  15. Mechanical ventilation, diaphragm weakness and weaning: a rehabilitation perspective.

    PubMed

    Daniel Martin, A; Smith, Barbara K; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    Most patients are easily liberated from mechanical ventilation (MV) following resolution of respiratory failure and a successful trial of spontaneous breathing, but about 25% of patients experience difficult weaning. MV use leads to cellular changes and weakness, which has been linked to weaning difficulties and has been labeled ventilator induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD). Aggravating factors in human studies with prolonged weaning include malnutrition, chronic electrolyte abnormalities, hyperglycemia, excessive resistive and elastic loads, corticosteroids, muscle relaxant exposure, sepsis and compromised cardiac function. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of MV on diaphragm function. Virtually all these studies have concluded that MV use rapidly leads to VIDD and have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms of VIDD. Molecular and functional studies on the effects of MV on the human diaphragm have largely confirmed the animal results and identified potential treatment strategies. Only recently potential VIDD treatments have been tested in humans, including pharmacologic interventions and diaphragm "training". A limited number of human studies have found that specific diaphragm training can increase respiratory muscle strength in FTW patients and facilitate weaning, but larger, multicenter trials are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adequacy of oxygenation parameters in elderly patients undergoing mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Luana Petruccio Cabral Monteiro; Delfino, Fabrício Costa; de Faria, Flavia Perassa; de Melo, Gislane Ferreira; Carvalho, Gustavo de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare ideal PaO2 with PaO2 found, ideal PaO2/FiO2 of room air with the one found, and ideal FiO2 with FiO2 found in mechanically ventilated elderly patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study that evaluated elderly mechanically ventilated patients for at least 72 hours and who underwent three subsequent blood gas analyses. Results: The sample consisted of 48 elderly with mean age of 74.77±9.36 years. There was a significant difference between the ideal PaO2 and the one found (p<0.001), between FiO2 corrected and the offered one, and also between ideal PaO2/FiO2 of room air and the PaO2/FiO2 found (p<0,001). Conclusion: A significant increase was seen in PaO2 and FiO2 and in alterations of gas exchange by PaO2/FiO2 index than those found in normal parameters. PMID:24488386

  17. Regional tidal lung strain in mechanically ventilated normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Paula, Luis Felipe; Wellman, Tyler J; Winkler, Tilo; Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Venegas, Jose G; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Carvalho, Alysson R; Vidal Melo, Marcos F

    2016-12-01

    Parenchymal strain is a key determinant of lung injury produced by mechanical ventilation. However, imaging estimates of volumetric tidal strain (ε = regional tidal volume/reference volume) present substantial conceptual differences in reference volume computation and consideration of tidally recruited lung. We compared current and new methods to estimate tidal volumetric strains with computed tomography, and quantified the effect of tidal volume (VT) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on strain estimates. Eight supine pigs were ventilated with VT = 6 and 12 ml/kg and PEEP = 0, 6, and 12 cmH2O. End-expiratory and end-inspiratory scans were analyzed in eight regions of interest along the ventral-dorsal axis. Regional reference volumes were computed at end-expiration (with/without correction of regional VT for intratidal recruitment) and at resting lung volume (PEEP = 0) corrected for intratidal and PEEP-derived recruitment. All strain estimates demonstrated vertical heterogeneity with the largest tidal strains in middependent regions (P < 0.01). Maximal strains for distinct estimates occurred at different lung regions and were differently affected by VT-PEEP conditions. Values consistent with lung injury and inflammation were reached regionally, even when global measurements were below critical levels. Strains increased with VT and were larger in middependent than in nondependent lung regions. PEEP reduced tidal-strain estimates referenced to end-expiratory lung volumes, although it did not affect strains referenced to resting lung volume. These estimates of tidal strains in normal lungs point to middependent lung regions as those at risk for ventilator-induced lung injury. The different conditions and topography at which maximal strain estimates occur allow for testing the importance of each estimate for lung injury.

  18. Exhaled breath condensate pH in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Nannini, L J; Quintana, R; Bagilet, D H; Druetta, M; Ramírez, M; Nieto, R; Guelman Greta, G

    2013-12-01

    In this prospective clinical trial we aimed to answer if spontaneous exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in the trap of the expiratory arm of the ventilator could replace EBC collected by coolant chamber standardized with Argon as an inert gas. Second, if EBC pH could predict ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) and mortality. We included 34 critically ill patients (males = 26), aged = 54.85 ± 19.86 (mean ± SD) yrs, that required mechanical ventilation due to non-pulmonary direct cause (APACHE II score = 23.58 ± 14.7; PaO(2)/FiO(2) = 240.00 ± 98.29). ICU with 9 beds from a regional teaching hospital. The patients were followed up until development of VAP, successful weaning or death. There were significant differences between mean EBC pH from the 4 procedures with the exception of spontaneous EBC de-aerated with Argon (n = 79; 6.74 ± 0.28) and coolant chamber deaerated with Argon (n = 79; 6.70 ± 0.36; p = NS by Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test). However, none of the procedures were extrapolated between each other according to Bland & Altman method. The mean EBC pH from the trap without Argon was 6.50 ± 0.28. From the total of 34 patients, 22 survived and were discharged and 12 patients died in the ICU. Spontaneous EBC pH could not be extrapolated to EBC pH from coolant chamber and it did not change in subjects who dead, neither subject with VAP in comparison with baseline data. The lack of other biomarker in EBC and the lack of a control group determinate the need for further studies in this setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. [Starting experience with non-invasive ventilation in paediatric intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, F; de Halleux, Q; Ruiz, N; Scalfaro, P; Cotting, J; Stucki, P

    2003-10-01

    Non-invasive ventilation in pressure support (NIV) is well described in the adult and child over 5 years. However, its use in children less than 1 year of age remains anecdotal. We report our preliminary experience with the use of NIV in six children aged from 5 days to 10 months. NIV was delivered with a flow generator (VPAP IIST, Resmed Ltd, North Ryde, NSW, Australia) in association with specific tubings and a nasal mask. The use of NIV resulted in a significant decrease of both the respiratory rate (from 53 to 39 breaths per min, p < 0.01) and the PvCO(2) (from 9.33 to 6.28 kPa, p < 0.01). These results show that NIV can be used in children under 1 year of age with improvement of physiological parameters.

  20. Non-invasive ventilation for sleep-disordered breathing in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Connor, Victoria; Zhao, Sizheng; Angus, Robert

    2016-08-05

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by behavioural disturbances, intellectual disability and early onset obesity. The physical features of this syndrome are well characterised; however, behavioural features, such as sleep disturbance, are less well understood and difficult to manage. Sleep issues in SMS are likely due to a combination of disturbed melatonin cycle, facial anatomy and obesity-related ventilatory problems. Sleep disorders can be very distressing to patients and their families, as exemplified by our patient's experience, and can worsen behavioural issues as well as general health. This case demonstrates the successful use of non-invasive ventilation in treating underlying obesity hypoventilation syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea. As a consequence of addressing abnormalities in sleep patterns, some behavioural problems improved.

  1. [Pneumomediastinum: an aspect of pulmonary barotrauma during mechanical ventilation of acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Y; En-Nafaa, I; Chkoura, K; Boughalem, M; Kamili, N Drissi

    2014-06-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a fundamental treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite compliance with the recommendations of protective mechanical ventilation, it can results in serious complications including the pulmonary barotrauma. This is often manifested by a pneumothorax. This observation describes an unusual aspect of barotrauma which is pneumomediastinum. The authors also point out the role of chest imaging in the management of mechanical ventilation during ARDS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical review: Humidifiers during non-invasive ventilation - key topics and practical implications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate gas conditioning during non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can impair the anatomy and function of nasal mucosa. The resulting symptoms may have a negative effect on patients' adherence to ventilatory treatment, especially for chronic use. Several parameters, mostly technical aspects of NIV, contribute to inefficient gas conditioning. Factors affecting airway humidity during NIV include inspiratory flow, inspiratory oxygen fraction, leaks, type of ventilator, interface used to deliver NIV, temperature and pressure of inhaled gas, and type of humidifier. The correct application of a humidification system may avoid the effects of NIV-induced drying of the airway. This brief review analyses the consequences of airway dryness in patients receiving NIV and the technical tools necessary to guarantee adequate gas conditioning during ventilatory treatment. Open questions remain about the timing of gas conditioning for acute or chronic settings, the choice and type of humidification device, the interaction between the humidifier and the underlying disease, and the effects of individual humidification systems on delivered humidity. PMID:22316078

  3. Non-invasive ventilation in the recovery room for postoperative respiratory failure: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Anne; Michotte, Jean-Bernard; Tassaux, Didier; van Gessel, Elisabeth; Jolliet, Philippe

    2005-06-11

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has become a standard of care in acute respiratory failure. However, little data is available on its usefulness in recovery ward patients after general surgery. The present study aimed to document the feasibility of implementing NIV in this setting, and its impact on lung function. During a 12-month period, all adult patients who underwent elective general surgical procedures under general anaesthesia during weekdays, were transferred to the recovery ward after extubation, and those who required NIV were included in this prospective observational study. NIV was applied with a bilevel device (VPAP II ST, ResMed, North Ryde, Australia). 4622 patients were admitted to the recovery ward, 83 of whom needed NIV. NIV increased pH (7.38 +/- .06 vs 7.30 +/- .05), reduced PaCO2 (7.38 +/- .06 vs 7.30 +/- .05) in hypercapnic patients (44 +/- 9 vs 55 +/- 10 mm Hg), and increased PaO2 in non-hypercapnic patients (80 +/- 10 vs 70 +/- 11 mm Hg). No complications attributable to NIV occurred. Most patients improved after 1-2 NIV trials, and all were transferred to the ward the same day. In recovery ward patients after general surgery, NIV is seldom required. When applied, NIV seems to exert favourable effects on lung function. NIV can be safely implemented with a bilevel device in a recovery ward not accustomed to the use of ICU ventilators. The cost-effectiveness of its systematic use in this setting should be assessed.

  4. Domiciliary Non-invasive Ventilation in COPD: An International Survey of Indications and Practices.

    PubMed

    Crimi, Claudia; Noto, Alberto; Princi, Pietro; Cuvelier, Antoine; Masa, Juan F; Simonds, Anita; Elliott, Mark W; Wijkstra, Peter; Windisch, Wolfram; Nava, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that metanalyses and clinical guidelines do not recommend the routine use of domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for patients diagnosed with severe stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and with chronic respiratory failure, it is common practice in some countries. We conducted an international web-survey of physicians involved in provision of long-term NIV to examine patterns of domiciliary NIV use in patients diagnosed with COPD. The response rate was 41.6%. A reduction of hospital admissions, improvements in quality of life and dyspnea relief were considered as the main expected benefits for patients. Nocturnal oxygen saturation assessment was the principal procedure performed before NIV prescription. Recurrent exacerbations (>3) requiring NIV and failed weaning from in hospital NIV were the most important reasons for starting domiciliary NIV. Pressure support ventilation (PSV) was the most common mode, with "low" intensity settings (PSV-low) the most popular (44.4 ± 30.1%) compared with "high" intensity (PSV-high) strategies (26.9 ± 25.9%), with different geographical preferences. COPD is confirmed to be a common indication for domiciliary NIV. Recurrent exacerbations and failed weaning from in-hospital NIV were the main reasons for its prescription.

  5. Practice of excessive F(IO(2)) and effect on pulmonary outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Rachmale, Sonal; Li, Guangxi; Wilson, Gregory; Malinchoc, Michael; Gajic, Ognjen

    2012-11-01

    Optimal titration of inspired oxygen is important to prevent hyperoxia in mechanically ventilated patients in ICUs. There is mounting evidence of the deleterious effects of hyperoxia; however, there is a paucity of data about F(IO(2)) practice and oxygen exposure among patients in ICUs. We therefore sought to assess excessive F(IO(2)) exposure in mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury and to evaluate the effect on pulmonary outcomes. From a database of ICU patients with acute lung injury identified by prospective electronic medical record screening, we identified those who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation for > 48 hours from January 1 to December 31, 2008. Ventilator settings, including F(IO(2)) and corresponding S(pO(2)), were collected from the electronic medical record at 15-min intervals for the first 48 hours. Excessive F(IO(2)) was defined as F(IO(2)) > 0.5 despite S(pO(2)) > 92%. The association between the duration of excessive exposure and pulmonary outcomes was assessed by change in oxygenation index from baseline to 48 hours and was analyzed by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Of 210 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 155 (74%) were exposed to excessive F(IO(2)) for a median duration of 17 hours (interquartile range 7.5-33 h). Prolonged exposure to excessive F(IO(2)) correlated with worse oxygenation index at 48 hours in a dose-response manner (P < .001.). Both exposure to higher F(IO(2)) and longer duration of exposure were associated with worsening oxygenation index at 48 hours (P < .001), more days on mechanical ventilation, longer ICU stay, and longer hospital stay (P = .004). No mortality difference was noted. Excessive oxygen supplementation is common in mechanically ventilated patients with ALI and may be associated with worsening lung function.

  6. Effects of expiratory rib-cage compression on oxygenation, ventilation, and airway-secretion removal in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Unoki, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Yuri; Mizutani, Taro; Fujino, Yoko; Yanagisawa, Yaeko; Ishimatsu, Shinichi; Tamura, Fumiko; Toyooka, Hidenori

    2005-11-01

    Expiratory rib-cage compression, a chest physiotherapy technique, is well known as the "squeezing" technique in Japan. To determine the effects of rib-cage compression on airway-secretion removal, oxygenation, and ventilation in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. An intensive care unit of an emergency and critical care center at a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Thirty-one intubated, mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit were studied in a randomized, crossover trial. The patients received endotracheal suctioning with or without rib-cage compression, with a minimum 3-hour interval between the 2 interventions. Rib-cage compression was performed for 5 min before endotracheal suctioning. Arterial blood gas and respiratory mechanics were measured 5 min before endotracheal suctioning (baseline) and 25 min after suctioning. The 2 measurement periods were carried out on the same day. There were no significant differences in the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen, P(aCO2), or dynamic compliance of the respiratory system between the 2 periods (before and after endotracheal suctioning). Moreover, there were no significant differences in airway-secretion removal between the 2 periods. This study suggests that rib-cage compression prior to endotracheal suctioning does not improve airway-secretion removal, oxygenation, or ventilation after endotracheal suctioning in this unselected population of mechanically ventilated patients.

  7. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F.; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality. PMID:26561823

  8. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-06

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality.

  9. Fifty Years of Research in ARDS. Spontaneous Breathing during Mechanical Ventilation. Risks, Mechanisms, and Management.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Fujino, Yuji; Amato, Marcelo B P; Kavanagh, Brian P

    2017-04-15

    Spontaneous respiratory effort during mechanical ventilation has long been recognized to improve oxygenation, and because oxygenation is a key management target, such effort may seem beneficial. Also, disuse and loss of peripheral muscle and diaphragm function is increasingly recognized, and thus spontaneous breathing may confer additional advantage. Reflecting this, epidemiologic data suggest that the use of partial (vs. full) support modes of ventilation is increasing. Notwithstanding the central place of spontaneous breathing in mechanical ventilation, accumulating evidence indicates that it may cause-or worsen-acute lung injury, especially if acute respiratory distress syndrome is severe and spontaneous effort is vigorous. This Perspective reviews the evidence for this phenomenon, explores mechanisms of injury, and provides suggestions for clinical management and future research.

  10. Mechanical ventilation in ICUs in Poland: A multi-center point-prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, Andrzej; Maciejewski, Dariusz; Adamik, Barbara; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanical ventilation is the primary method of supporting organ function in patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Lung damage from mechanical ventilation can be avoided by using the correct ventilation modes. This study was designed to assess the epidemiology and treatment strategies of patients receiving mechanical ventilation in ICUs in Poland. Material/Methods This study was done using a point-prevalence methodology. Questionnaires requesting demographic data, indications for ventilation, variables involved in ventilation, airway access, methods of sedation, and mode of weaning were sent to 148 ICUs. Results Eighty-three ICUs took part in the study. The rate of ventilated patients was 73.6%. The indications for mechanical ventilation were: acute respiratory failure (40%), coma (40%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation (14%), and neuromuscular diseases (5%). Patients were ventilated by orotracheal tube (58%), tracheostomy tube (41%), and mask/helmet (1%). The mean tidal volume was 8 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure was commonly used. The mean oxygen concentration was 40%. Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with pressure support was the most frequently used ventilatory mode. Benzodiazepine and opioids were used for sedation in 91% of centers. A systematic testing of the depth of sedation was performed at 48% surveyed ICUs. Ventilation monitoring with biomechanical methods was used at 53% of centers. Conclusions Mechanical ventilation is commonly used in ICUs in Poland. Almost half of the ventilated patients had extrapulmonary indications. Patients were ventilated with low concentrations of oxygen, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was commonly employed. PMID:23727991

  11. Injurious mechanical ventilation in the normal lung causes a progressive pathologic change in dynamic alveolar mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, Lucio A; Albert, Scott; Carney, David; Gatto, Louis A; Halter, Jeffrey M; Nieman, Gary F

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Acute respiratory distress syndrome causes a heterogeneous lung injury, and without protective mechanical ventilation a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury can occur. To ventilate noncompliant lung regions, high inflation pressures are required to 'pop open' the injured alveoli. The temporal impact, however, of these elevated pressures on normal alveolar mechanics (that is, the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during ventilation) is unknown. In the present study we found that ventilating the normal lung with high peak pressure (45 cmH20) and low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP of 3 cmH2O) did not initially result in altered alveolar mechanics, but alveolar instability developed over time. Methods Anesthetized rats underwent tracheostomy, were placed on pressure control ventilation, and underwent sternotomy. Rats were then assigned to one of three ventilation strategies: control group (n = 3, Pcontrol = 14 cmH2O, PEEP = 3 cmH2O), high pressure/low PEEP group (n = 6, Pcontrol = 45 cmH2O, PEEP = 3 cmH2O), and high pressure/high PEEP group (n = 5, Pcontrol = 45 cmH2O, PEEP = 10 cmH2O). In vivo microscopic footage of subpleural alveolar stability (that is, recruitment/derecruitment) was taken at baseline and than every 15 minutes for 90 minutes following ventilator adjustments. Alveolar recruitment/derecruitment was determined by measuring the area of individual alveoli at peak inspiration (I) and end expiration (E) by computer image analysis. Alveolar recruitment/derecruitment was quantified by the percentage change in alveolar area during tidal ventilation (%I – EΔ). Results Alveoli were stable in the control group for the entire experiment (low %I – EΔ). Alveoli in the high pressure/low PEEP group were initially stable (low %I – EΔ), but with time alveolar recruitment/derecruitment developed. The development of alveolar instability in the high pressure/low PEEP group was associated with histologic lung injury. Conclusion A

  12. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: why are we still looking for alternative methods?

    PubMed

    Frutos-Vivar, F; Esteban, A

    2013-12-01

    Most patients who require mechanical ventilation for longer than 24 hours, and who improve the condition leading to the indication of ventilatory support, can be weaned after passing a first spontaneous breathing test. The challenge is to improve the weaning of patients who fail that first test. We have methods that can be referred to as traditional, such as the T-tube, pressure support or synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV). In recent years, however, new applications of usual techniques as noninvasive ventilation, new ventilation methods such as automatic tube compensation (ATC), mandatory minute ventilation (MMV), adaptive support ventilation or automatic weaning systems based on pressure support have been described. Their possible role in weaning from mechanical ventilation among patients with difficult or prolonged weaning remains to be established. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of Breathing During Mechanical Ventilation: Who Is the Boss?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kathleen; Hinojosa-Kurtzberg, Marina; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, concepts of control of breathing have increasingly moved from being theoretical concepts to “real world” applied science. The purpose of this review is to examine the basics of control of breathing, discuss the bidirectional relationship between control of breathing and mechanical ventilation, and critically assess the application of this knowledge at the patient’s bedside. The principles of control of breathing remain under-represented in the training curriculum of respiratory therapists and pulmonologists, whereas the day-to-day bedside application of the principles of control of breathing continues to suffer from a lack of outcomes-based research in the intensive care unit. In contrast, the bedside application of the principles of control of breathing to ambulatory subjects with sleep-disordered breathing has out-stripped that in critically ill patients. The evolution of newer technologies, faster real-time computing abilities, and miniaturization of ventilator technology can bring the concepts of control of breathing to the bedside and benefit the critically ill patient. However, market forces, lack of scientific data, lack of research funding, and regulatory obstacles need to be surmounted. PMID:21333174

  14. The role of tracheostomy in weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, J Michael; Littlewood, Keith A; Durbin, Charles G

    2002-04-01

    A common clinical observation is that patients wean more rapidly from mechanical ventilation following tracheotomy. Expected changes in tube resistance and dead space are not adequate to explain this observation in adult patients. Theoretical considerations are too complicated to allow evaluation of expected changes in work of breathing following tracheotomy. The resistance of the upper airway is about the same as breathing quietly through an 8.0 mm endotracheal tube; however, many patients experience a higher work of breathing following extubation. This is not true in infants, in whom the reduction in airway diameter is profound and a marked reduction in resistance is seen following extubation. The other benefits of tracheostomy include better secretion removal, improved oral hygiene, less laryngeal damage, and ability to eat and speak. These should be considered when proposing this procedure. There may be less late ventilator-associated pneumonia following early tracheotomy. The assumed better safety of tracheostomy has been questioned. That patients appear to wean more rapidly is probably accounted for by the variety of factors mentioned above.

  15. Mechanical ventilation reduces rat diaphragm blood flow and impairs oxygen delivery and uptake.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert T; Bruells, Christian S; Stabley, John N; McCullough, Danielle J; Powers, Scott K; Behnke, Bradley J

    2012-10-01

    Although mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention in patients suffering from respiratory failure, prolonged mechanical ventilation is often associated with numerous complications including problematic weaning. In contracting skeletal muscle, inadequate oxygen supply can limit oxidative phosphorylation resulting in muscular fatigue. However, whether prolonged mechanical ventilation results in decreased diaphragmatic blood flow and induces an oxygen supply-demand imbalance in the diaphragm remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation results in a time-dependent reduction in rat diaphragmatic blood flow and microvascular PO2 and that prolonged mechanical ventilation would diminish the diaphragm's ability to increase blood flow in response to muscular contractions. Compared to 30 mins of mechanical ventilation, 6 hrs of mechanical ventilation resulted in a 75% reduction in diaphragm blood flow (via radiolabeled microspheres), which did not occur in the intercostal muscle or high-oxidative hindlimb muscle (e.g., soleus). There was also a time-dependent decline in diaphragm microvascular PO2 (via phosphorescence quenching). Further, contrary to 30 mins of mechanical ventilation, 6 hrs of mechanical ventilation significantly compromised the diaphragm's ability to increase blood flow during electrically-induced contractions, which resulted in a ~80% reduction in diaphragm oxygen uptake. In contrast, 6 hrs of spontaneous breathing in anesthetized animals did not alter diaphragm blood flow or the ability to augment flow during electrically-induced contractions. These new and important findings reveal that prolonged mechanical ventilation results in a time-dependent decrease in the ability of the diaphragm to augment blood flow to match oxygen demand in response to contractile activity and could be a key contributing factor to difficult weaning. Although additional experiments are required to confirm, it is tempting to

  16. Inspiratory muscle training facilitates weaning from mechanical ventilation among patients in the intensive care unit: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Mark; Dentice, Ruth

    2015-07-01

    Does inspiratory muscle training improve inspiratory muscle strength in adults receiving mechanical ventilation? Does it improve the duration or success of weaning? Does it affect length of stay, reintubation, tracheostomy, survival, or the need for post-extubation non-invasive ventilation? Is it tolerable and does it cause adverse events? Systematic review of randomised trials. Adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Inspiratory muscle training versus sham or no inspiratory muscle training. Data were extracted regarding: inspiratory muscle strength and endurance; the rapid shallow breathing index; weaning success and duration; duration of mechanical ventilation; reintubation; tracheostomy; length of stay; use of non-invasive ventilation after extubation; survival; readmission; tolerability and adverse events. Ten studies involving 394 participants were included. Heterogeneity within some meta-analyses was high. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that the training significantly improved maximal inspiratory pressure (MD 7 cmH2O, 95% CI 5 to 9), the rapid shallow breathing index (MD 15 breaths/min/l, 95% CI 8 to 23) and weaning success (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.76). Although only assessed in individual studies, significant benefits were also reported for the time spent on non-invasive ventilation after weaning (MD 16 hours, 95% CI 13 to 18), length of stay in the intensive care unit (MD 4.5 days, 95% CI 3.6 to 5.4) and length of stay in hospital (MD 4.4 days, 95% CI 3.4 to 5.5). Weaning duration decreased in the subgroup of patients with known weaning difficulty. The other outcomes weren't significantly affected or weren't measured. Inspiratory muscle training for selected patients in the intensive care unit facilitates weaning, with potential reductions in length of stay and the duration of non-invasive ventilatory support after extubation. The heterogeneity among the results suggests that the effects of inspiratory muscle training may vary; this perhaps depends

  17. The optimum timing to wean invasive ventilation for patients with AECOPD or COPD with pulmonary infection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuanlin; Chen, Rongchang; Zhan, Qingyuan; Chen, Shujing; Luo, Zujin; Ou, Jiaxian; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    COPD is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function and mental and physical comorbidities. It is a significant burden worldwide due to its growing prevalence, comorbidities, and mortality. Complication by bronchial-pulmonary infection causes 50%–90% of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), which may lead to the aggregation of COPD symptoms and the development of acute respiratory failure. Non-invasive or invasive ventilation (IV) is usually implemented to treat acute respiratory failure. However, ventilatory support (mainly IV) should be discarded as soon as possible to prevent the onset of time-dependent complications. To withdraw IV, an optimum timing has to be selected based on weaning assessment and spontaneous breathing trial or replacement of IV by non-IV at pulmonary infection control window. The former method is more suitable for patients with AECOPD without significant bronchial-pulmonary infection while the latter method is more suitable for patients with AECOPD with acute significant bronchial-pulmonary infection. PMID:27042042

  18. [Clinical significance of dynamic pressure-volume curve in neonatal mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan-Peng; Ma, Li-Ya; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Lu, Guang-Jin; Han, Yu-Kun

    2009-07-01

    To study the characteristics and role of dynamic pressure-volume curve (P-V curve) in neonatal mechanical ventilation. A dynamic P-V curve was automatically drawn by the Stephanie ventilator. The slope rate of dynamic P-V curve was measured in 25 neonates who received mechanical ventilation 1, 24, 48 and 72 hrs after ventilation and before weaning from ventilation. Minute-ventilation (MV), mean airway pressure (Pmean), and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) were recorded. The patterns of dynamic P-V curve during abnormal ventilation (resistance to ventilator, part or complete airway obstruction, airway leaking and tracheal catheter exodus) were observed. With the improvement of pulmonary disease, the slope rate of P-V curve and MV increased, Pmean and FiO2 decreased, and the P-V curve shifted to the volume axle. The slope rate of curve 48 and 72 hrs after ventilation and before weaning from ventilation (1.05+/-0.48, 1.10+/-0.42 and 1.13+/-0.37 mL/cmH2O respectively) increased significantly compared with that 1 hr after ventilation (0.76+/-0.53 mL/cmH2O) (p<0.05 or 0.01). Abnormal ventilation led to abnormal appearance of dynamic P-V curve. The increasing slope rate of dynamic P-V curve and the curve shifting to volume axle in neonatal mechanical ventilation may be associated with the improvement of pulmonary disease. The appearance changes of the curve may be of value in the assessment of abnormal ventilation.

  19. Mechanical ventilation and lung infection in the genesis of air-space enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Alfonso; Lu, Qin; Vieira, Silvia; Tonnellier, Marc; Lenaour, Gilles; Goldstein, Ivan; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Air-space enlargement may result from mechanical ventilation and/or lung infection. The aim of this study was to assess how mechanical ventilation and lung infection influence the genesis of bronchiolar and alveolar distention. Methods Four groups of piglets were studied: non-ventilated-non-inoculated (controls, n = 5), non-ventilated-inoculated (n = 6), ventilated-non-inoculated (n = 6), and ventilated-inoculated (n = 8) piglets. The respiratory tract of intubated piglets was inoculated with a highly concentrated solution of Escherichia coli. Mechanical ventilation was maintained during 60 hours with a tidal volume of 15 ml/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure. After sacrifice by exsanguination, lungs were fixed for histological and lung morphometry analyses. Results Lung infection was present in all inoculated piglets and in five of the six ventilated-non-inoculated piglets. Mean alveolar and mean bronchiolar areas, measured using an analyzer computer system connected through a high-resolution color camera to an optical microscope, were significantly increased in non-ventilated-inoculated animals (+16% and +11%, respectively, compared to controls), in ventilated-non-inoculated animals (+49% and +49%, respectively, compared to controls), and in ventilated-inoculated animals (+95% and +118%, respectively, compared to controls). Mean alveolar and mean bronchiolar areas significantly correlated with the extension of lung infection (R = 0.50, p < 0.01 and R = 0.67, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Lung infection induces bronchiolar and alveolar distention. Mechanical ventilation induces secondary lung infection and is associated with further air-space enlargement. The combination of primary lung infection and mechanical ventilation markedly increases air-space enlargement, the degree of which depends on the severity and extension of lung infection. PMID:17274806

  20. Mechanical ventilation: past lessons and the near future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The ability to compensate for life-threatening failure of respiratory function is perhaps the signature technology of intensive care medicine. Unchanging needs for providing effective life-support with minimized risk and optimized comfort have been, are now, and will be the principal objectives of providing mechanical ventilation. Important lessons acquired over nearly half-a-century of ICU care have brought us closer to meeting them, as technological advances in instrumentation now effectively put this hard-won knowledge into action. Rising demand in the face of economic constraints is likely to drive future innovations focused on reducing the need for user input, automating multi-element protocols, and carefully monitoring the patient for progress and complications. PMID:23514222

  1. Opioid Analgesics for Sedation and Analgesia During Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Brandy; Giebe, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Neonates are exposed to repetitive pain and stress during their stay in a NICU, which can lead to chronic complications related to their neurodevelopment and neurobehavior. Approximately 20 percent of all neonates in a NICU are intubated, mechanically ventilated, and require suctioning, which can cause both acute and chronic pain. Pain management in the neonate can be challenging. Nurses and other caregivers need to be well trained to assess pain in the neonate to effectively identify and provide appropriate pain management strategies. There is a lack of evidence to support routine administration of opiates in the neonate. As with any medication, the possibility of short- and long-term adverse reactions must be considered. Nonpharmacologic therapy should be used as much as possible.

  2. Mechanical ventilation: past lessons and the near future.

    PubMed

    Marini, John J

    2013-01-01

    The ability to compensate for life-threatening failure of respiratory function is perhaps the signature technology of intensive care medicine. Unchanging needs for providing effective life-support with minimized risk and optimized comfort have been, are now, and will be the principal objectives of providing mechanical ventilation. Important lessons acquired over nearly half-a-century of ICU care have brought us closer to meeting them, as technological advances in instrumentation now effectively put this hard-won knowledge into action. Rising demand in the face of economic constraints is likely to drive future innovations focused on reducing the need for user input, automating multi-element protocols, and carefully monitoring the patient for progress and complications.

  3. Quantitative investigation of alveolar structures with OCT using total liquid ventilation during mechanical ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Christian; Gaertner, Maria; Meissner, Sven; Koch, Edmund

    2012-02-01

    To develop new treatment possibilities for patients with severe lung diseases it is crucial to understand the lung function on an alveolar level. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in combination with intravital microscopy (IVM) are used for imaging subpleural alveoli in animal models to gain information about dynamic and morphological changes of lung tissue during mechanical ventilation. The image content suitable for further analysis is influenced by image artifacts caused by scattering, refraction, reflection, and absorbance. Because the refractive index varies with each air-tissue interface in lung tissue, these effects decrease OCT image quality exceedingly. The quality of OCT images can be increased when the refractive index inside the alveoli is matched to the one of tissue via liquid-filling. Thereby, scattering loss can be decreased and higher penetration depth and tissue contrast can be achieved. To use the advantages of liquid-filling for in vivo imaging of small rodent lungs, a suitable breathing fluid (perfluorodecalin) and a special liquid respirator are necessary. Here we show the effect of liquid-filling on OCT and IVM image quality of subpleural alveoli in a mouse model.

  4. Evaluation of the user interface simplicity in the modern generation of mechanical ventilators.

    PubMed

    Uzawa, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Suzukawa, Masayuki

    2008-03-01

    We designed this study to evaluate the simplicity of the user interface in modern-generation mechanical ventilators. We hypothesized that different designs in the user interface could result in different rates of operational failures. A laboratory in a tertiary teaching hospital. Crossover design. Twenty-one medical resident physicians who did not possess operating experience with any of the selected ventilators. Four modern mechanical ventilators were selected: Dräger Evita XL, Maquet Servo-i, Newport e500, and Puritan Bennett 840. Each subject was requested to perform 8 tasks on each ventilator. Two objective variables (the number of successfully completed tasks without operational failures and the operational time) and the overall subjective rating of the ease of use, measured with a 100-mm visual analog scale were recorded. The total percentage of operational failures made for all subjects, for all tasks, was 23%. There were significant differences in the rates of operational failures and operational time among the 4 ventilators. Subjects made more operational failures in setting up the ventilators and in making ventilator-setting changes than in reacting to alarms. The subjective feeling of the ease of use was also significantly different among the ventilators. The design of the user interface is relevant to the occurrence of operational failures. Our data indicate that ventilator designers could optimize the user-interface design to reduce the operational failures; therefore, basic user interface should be standardized among the clinically used mechanical ventilators.

  5. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    PubMed Central

    Navajas, Daniel; Montserrat, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support. PMID:27730162

  6. Effect of expiratory flow increase technique on pulmonary function of infants on mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Celize C B; Ribeiro, Jose D; Almeida-Júnior, Armando A; Zeferino, Angelica M B

    2005-01-01

    Although chest physiotherapy techniques are commonly used in the treatment of respiratory diseases, there are, however, few studies in the literature on the effectiveness of these techniques in paediatric patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the expiratory flow increase technique (EFIT) on the pulmonary function of infants on invasive mechanical pulmonary ventilation. A prospective, non-randomized study design was used, with consecutive enrolment conducted in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a university hospital. All infants with acute obstructive respiratory failure who were on invasive mechanical pulmonary ventilation between April 2001 and April 2003 were included in this study. Respiratory rate, PaO2, PaCO2, SatO2, PaO2/FiO2, P(A-a)O2/PaO2, PaO2/PAO2, VD/VT, dynamic compliance, inspiratory and expiratory resistance values were compared before and after application of the EFIT. Blood gas and pulmonary function measurements were recorded before and after EFIT. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. The results were considered statistically significant when p values were < 0.05. Twenty-two infants were enrolled. There was a significant increase in respiratory rate, SatO2 and PaO2/PAO2 and a significant decrease in P(A-a)O2/PaO2 after application of the EFIT. There was a short-term improvement in the oxygenation of infants who were submitted to the EFIT. Additional studies are necessary to establish the efficacy and effectiveness of this technique.

  7. Tracheomegaly and tracheosephagial fistula following mechanical ventilation: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kucuk, Canan; Arda, Kemal; Ata, Naim; Turkkani, Mustafa Hamidullah; Yildiz, Özgür Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Postintubation Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a rare complication. Acquired TEF most commonly occurred following prolonged mechanical ventilation with an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube, cuff-related tracheal injury, post-intubation injury. We present a case of both tracheomegaly and tracheosephagial fistula following mechanical ventilation for 15 days, in the light of the literature. PMID:27222792

  8. Palliative care and circumstances of dying in German ALS patients using non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kühnlein, Peter; Kübler, Andrea; Raubold, Sabine; Worrell, Marcia; Kurt, Anja; Gdynia, Hans-Jürgen; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Ludolph, Albert Christian

    2008-04-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is known to improve quality of life and to prolong survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. However, little is known about the circumstances of dying in ventilated ALS patients. In the light of the debate on legalizing euthanasia it is important to provide empirical data about the process of dying in these patients. In a structured interview, 29 family caregivers of deceased ALS patients were asked about their own and the patient's attitude toward physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia, circumstances of dying, and the use of palliative medication. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis was performed on the data. Non-recurring suicidal thoughts were reported by five patients. Three patients and seven relatives had thought about PAS. Seventeen caregivers described the patients' death as "peaceful", while choking was reported in six bulbar patients. In final stages of dying, the general practitioner (GP) was involved in the treatment of 10 patients, with palliative medication including sedatives and opiates being administered in eight cases. In conclusion, in contrast to the Netherlands, where 20% of terminal ALS patients die from PAS or euthanasia, only a small minority of our patients seems to have thought about PAS. The legal situation in Germany (where euthanasia is illegal), a bias due to the selection of NIV patients as well as a high percentage of religious patients and those with good levels of social support from family and friends, might account for this. Most of our patients died peacefully at home from carbon dioxide narcosis, but choking was described in some bulbar patients. Thus, palliative care, especially the use of opiates, anxiolytics and sedatives should be optimized, and the involvement of GP should be strongly encouraged, especially in bulbar patients.

  9. Current opinions on non-invasive ventilation as a treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Michelle; Hart, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    This review examines the current reports, the evidence and the issues surrounding the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in both the acute and domiciliary setting. With the increasing use of NIV, more recent studies have focused on investigating the outcomes of our current practice. Although overall morbidity and mortality outcomes in the acute setting have improved, patients who initially stabilize but then deteriorate during an acute exacerbation of COPD have a poor prognosis. The focus must be on phenotyping this high-risk group to investigate other potential rescue treatments, including extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal. Indeed, phenotyping appears to favour the obese COPD patient, which may have a protective role in reducing the risk of NIV failure and recurrent hospital admissions. Randomized controlled trial evidence to support the use of NIV in a domiciliary setting as a treatment for COPD is awaited, and until the data from a number of ongoing clinical trials are available, the wide variation in global practice will continue. Increased understanding of patient ventilator asynchrony has improved domiciliary NIV set up, which is expected to enhance the tolerability of NIV, promoting patient adherence. NIV is the established standard of care to treat acute hypercapnic exacerbations of COPD postoptimal medical management. NIV as a long-term treatment for COPD remains controversial based on the evidence from the published randomized controlled trials. With increasing experience of NIV therapy, patient outcomes are improving; however, further work is still required to better characterize and target the patients who will most benefit from NIV.

  10. Non-invasive ventilation for weaning, avoiding reintubation after extubation and in the postoperative period: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Glossop, A J; Shephard, N; Shepherd, N; Bryden, D C; Mills, G H

    2012-09-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a supportive therapy that improves mortality in acute respiratory failure (RF). It may also be used in patients recently extubated in intensive care units (ICUs), after operation, and to aid weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV) by reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with further MV. A meta-analysis of the available evidence was performed on the use of NIV in three areas: weaning, reduction in reintubation rates post-extubation on ICU, and reduction in RF after major surgery. Sixteen relevant randomized controlled trials were identified by three reviewers after a detailed search of identified medical databases. A meta-analysis of summary statistics relating to predetermined endpoints (ICU and hospital length of stay, ICU and hospital mortality, reintubation, pneumonia) was performed. NIV reduced the ICU length of stay when used for weaning (5.12 days) and post-surgery (0.44 days). NIV reduced reintubation rates post-surgery [odds ratio (OR) 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.50] and the incidence of pneumonia in weaning (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05-0.31) and post-surgery (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.77). There was insufficient evidence to suggest that NIV improves ICU survival, but an increased hospital survival in post-surgery (OR 4.54, [corrected] 95% CI 1.35-15.31) and a reduction after weaning (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.98) [corrected] was seen. A meta analysis of NIV use in selected subgroups of recently extubated patients suggests that the judicious NIV use may reduce ICU and hospital length of stay, pneumonia, and reintubation rates and hospital survival.

  11. Autophagy in pulmonary macrophages mediates lung inflammatory injury via NLRP3 inflammasome activation during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Gongjian; Dull, Randal O; Schwartz, David E; Hu, Guochang

    2014-07-15

    The inflammatory response is a primary mechanism in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. Autophagy is an essential, homeostatic process by which cells break down their own components. We explored the role of autophagy in the mechanisms of mechanical ventilation-induced lung inflammatory injury. Mice were subjected to low (7 ml/kg) or high (28 ml/kg) tidal volume ventilation for 2 h. Bone marrow-derived macrophages transfected with a scrambled or autophagy-related protein 5 small interfering RNA were administered to alveolar macrophage-depleted mice via a jugular venous cannula 30 min before the start of the ventilation protocol. In some experiments, mice were ventilated in the absence and presence of autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (15 mg/kg ip) or trichostatin A (1 mg/kg ip). Mechanical ventilation with a high tidal volume caused rapid (within minutes) activation of autophagy in the lung. Conventional transmission electron microscopic examination of lung sections showed that mechanical ventilation-induced autophagy activation mainly occurred in lung macrophages. Autophagy activation in the lungs during mechanical ventilation was dramatically attenuated in alveolar macrophage-depleted mice. Selective silencing of autophagy-related protein 5 in lung macrophages abolished mechanical ventilation-induced nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and lung inflammatory injury. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy also significantly attenuated the inflammatory responses caused by lung hyperinflation. The activation of autophagy in macrophages mediates early lung inflammation during mechanical ventilation via NLRP3 inflammasome signaling. Inhibition of autophagy activation in lung macrophages may therefore provide a novel and promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of ventilator-induced lung injury.

  12. FAMILY PRESENCE AND SURVEILLANCE DURING WEANING FROM PROLONGED MECHANICAL VENTILATION

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth; Swigart, Valerie A.; Tate, Judith A.; Arnold, Robert A.; Sereika, Susan M.; Hoffman, Leslie A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The research was designed to describe the care and communication processes during weaning from long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV). A portion of those findings, specifically, how family members interact with the patient and respond to the ventilator and associated ICU bedside equipment during LTMV weaning, are reported here. Methods Ethnography conducted in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and step-down MICU following 30 adults who were weaning from LTMV (> 4 days). Data collection involved field observations conducted from November 2001 to July 2003, interviews with patients, family members, and MICU clinicians, and clinical record review. Results Family members were present at the LTMV patients’ bedside during 46% of weaning trials and interacted with patients through touch, talking, and surveillance. Families’ bedside surveillance activities were interpretive of numerical monitor displays and laboratory values, protective of patient safety and comfort, and often focused exclusively on weaning. Interpretive language and surveillance were learned from and imitative of clinician behaviors. Clinicians characterized the family’s presence as helpful, a hindrance, or having no effect on the weaning process. Quantitative analysis using random coefficient modeling examining the effect of family presence on length of weaning trials showed significantly longer daily weaning trials when families were present (p < .0001). Conclusion Critical care clinicians influence families’ acquisition of interpretive surveillance skills at the bedside of patients who are weaning from LTMV. This study provides a potentially useful conceptual framework of family behaviors with long-term critically ill patients that could enhance the dialogue about family-centered care and guide future research on family presence in the ICU. PMID:17234477

  13. The comparison of manual and LabVIEW-based fuzzy control on mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Guler, Hasan; Ata, Fikret

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a knowledge-based therapy for management of rats with respiratory distress. A mechanical ventilator was designed to achieve this aim. The designed ventilator is called an intelligent mechanical ventilator since fuzzy logic was used to control the pneumatic equipment according to the rat's status. LabVIEW software was used to control all equipments in the ventilator prototype and to monitor respiratory variables in the experiment. The designed ventilator can be controlled both manually and by fuzzy logic. Eight female Wistar-Albino rats were used to test the designed ventilator and to show the effectiveness of fuzzy control over manual control on pressure control ventilation mode. The anesthetized rats were first ventilated for 20 min manually. After that time, they were ventilated for 20 min by fuzzy logic. Student's t-test for p < 0.05 was applied to the measured minimum, maximum and mean peak inspiration pressures to analyze the obtained results. The results show that there is no statistical difference in the rat's lung parameters before and after the experiments. It can be said that the designed ventilator and developed knowledge-based therapy support artificial respiration of living things successfully.

  14. Impact of kinetic beds on the incidence of atelectasis in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Chandy, Dipak; Sahityani, Rachna; Aronow, Wilbert S; Khan, Safdar; DeLorenzo, Lawrence J

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the impact of kinetic beds on the incidence of atelectasis in mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). All bronchoscopies performed for atelectasis on mechanically ventilated patients between July 2000 and June 2001 and between July 2002 and June 2003 were reviewed. On July 26, 2001, 50 kinetic beds, 20 continuous lateral rotation therapy modules, and 20 percussion and vibration modules were introduced to our institution. Of the 3399 ICU admissions between July 2000 and June 2001, 71 patients developed atelectasis while being mechanically ventilated. Of the 3065 ICU admissions between July 2002 and June 2003, 83 patients developed atelectasis while being mechanically ventilated. Of these, 48 (58%) patients had left-sided atelectasis, 30 (36%) had right-sided atelectasis, and 5 (6%) had bilateral atelectasis. There was no decrease in the incidence of atelectasis in mechanically ventilated patients at our institution after the introduction of kinetic beds and vibration, percussion, and rotation modules despite their widespread availability.

  15. Adaptive mechanical backup ventilation for preterm infants on respiratory assist modes - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Herber-Jonat, Susanne; Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther; Hummler, Helmut; Schulze, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    Mechanical respiratory-assist modes, such as assist/control, low-rate intermittent mandatory ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure, or proportional assist ventilation (PAV), require a continuous respiratory effort. Because of the frequent occurrence of periodic breathing and/or apnea, mechanical backup ventilation must be initiated during episodes of reduced or absent respiratory drive to maintain gas exchange. The common approach to this problem is a regular conventional mechanical ventilation, which is initiated and withdrawn in an "on/off" function. To develop and evaluate a mechanical backup ventilation mode that is adaptive to the rapidly changing breathing pattern of preterm infants. Prospective randomized clinical crossover trial. Neonatal intensive care unit at the University of Munich, Germany. Preterm infants undergoing PAV. The infants were ventilated with PAV using a newly developed adaptive backup support, with and without pulse-oximetry-guided operation (SpO(2)-sensitive backup). Each infant was ventilated with both modes of backup support on 2 consecutive days, with the sequence randomized. The analysis on 11 preterm infants showed a statistically significant and clinically relevant reduction of the incidence (33%) and duration of oxygen desaturations (52%) when SpO(2)-sensitive adaptive backup support was used. SpO(2)-sensitive adaptive backup proved safe and effective in reducing the incidence and duration of oxygen desaturation in this short-term trial. This technology is potentially applicable to other assisted modalities of ventilation, such as noninvasive nasal ventilation.

  16. Lung Injury After One-Lung Ventilation: A Review of the Pathophysiologic Mechanisms Affecting the Ventilated and the Collapsed Lung.

    PubMed

    Lohser, Jens; Slinger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Lung injury is the leading cause of death after thoracic surgery. Initially recognized after pneumonectomy, it has since been described after any period of 1-lung ventilation (OLV), even in the absence of lung resection. Overhydration and high tidal volumes were thought to be responsible at various points; however, it is now recognized that the pathophysiology is more complex and multifactorial. All causative mechanisms known to trigger ventilator-induced lung injury have been described in the OLV setting. The ventilated lung is exposed to high strain secondary to large, nonphysiologic tidal volumes and loss of the normal functional residual capacity. In addition, the ventilated lung experiences oxidative stress, as well as capillary shear stress because of hyperperfusion. Surgical manipulation and/or resection of the collapsed lung may induce lung injury. Re-expansion of the collapsed lung at the conclusion of OLV invariably induces duration-dependent, ischemia-reperfusion injury. Inflammatory cytokines are released in response to localized injury and may promote local and contralateral lung injury. Protective ventilation and volatile anesthesia lessen the degree of injury; however, increases in biochemical and histologic markers of lung injury appear unavoidable. The endothelial glycocalyx may represent a common pathway for lung injury creation during OLV, because it is damaged by most of the recognized lung injurious mechanisms. Experimental therapies to stabilize the endothelial glycocalyx may afford the ability to reduce lung injury in the future. In the interim, protective ventilation with tidal volumes of 4 to 5 mL/kg predicted body weight, positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 to 10 cm H2O, and routine lung recruitment should be used during OLV in an attempt to minimize harmful lung stress and strain. Additional strategies to reduce lung injury include routine volatile anesthesia and efforts to minimize OLV duration and hyperoxia.

  17. Anaesthesia ventilators

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajnish K; Swaminathan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits. PMID:24249886

  18. Pulmonary Mechanics and Mortality in Mechanically Ventilated Patients without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Brian M; Page, David; Stephens, Robert J; Roberts, Brian W; Drewry, Anne M; Ablordeppey, Enyo; Mohr, Nicholas M; Kollef, Marin H

    2017-08-25

    Driving pressure has been proposed as a major determinant of outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but there is little data examining the association between pulmonary mechanics, include driving pressure, and outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients without ARDS. Secondary analysis from 1,705 mechanically ventilated patients enrolled in a clinical study that examined outcomes associated with the use of early lung-protective mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcome was the incidence of ARDS. Multivariable models were constructed to: 1) define the association between pulmonary mechanics (driving pressure, plateau pressure, and compliance) and mortality; and 2) evaluate if driving pressure contributed information beyond that provided by other pulmonary mechanics. The mortality rate for the entire cohort was 26.0%. Compared with survivors, non-survivors had significantly higher driving pressure [15.9 (5.4) vs. 14.9 (4.4), p = 0.005] and plateau pressure [21.4 (5.7) vs. 20.4 (4.6)), p = 0.001]. Driving pressure was independently associated with mortality [adjusted OR, 1.04 (1.01-1.07)]. Models related to plateau pressure also revealed an independent association with mortality, with similar effect size and interval estimates as driving pressure. There were 152 patients that progressed to ARDS (8.9%). Along with driving pressure and plateau pressure, mechanical power [adjusted OR, 1.03 (1.00-1.06)] was also independently associated with ARDS development CONCLUSIONS:: In mechanically ventilated patients, driving pressure and plateau pressure are risk factors for mortality and ARDS, and provide similar information. Mechanical power is also a risk factor for ARDS.

  19. Early Fluid Overload Prolongs Mechanical Ventilation in Children With Viral-Lower Respiratory Tract Disease.

    PubMed

    Ingelse, Sarah A; Wiegers, Hanke M G; Calis, Job C; van Woensel, Job B; Bem, Reinout A

    2017-03-01

    Viral-lower respiratory tract disease is common in young children worldwide and is associated with high morbidity. Acute respiratory failure due to viral-lower respiratory tract disease necessitates PICU admission for mechanical ventilation. In critically ill patients in PICU settings, early fluid overload is common and associated with adverse outcomes such as prolonged mechanical ventilation and increased mortality. It is unclear, however, if this also applies to young children with viral-lower respiratory tract disease induced acute respiratory failure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation of early fluid overload with adverse outcomes in mechanically ventilated children with viral-lower respiratory tract disease in a retrospective dataset. Retrospective cohort study. Single, tertiary referral PICU. One hundred thirty-five children (< 2 yr old) with viral-lower respiratory tract disease requiring mechanical ventilation admitted to the PICU of the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam between 2008 and 2014. None. The cumulative fluid balance on day 3 of mechanical ventilation was compared against duration of mechanical ventilation (primary outcome) and daily mean oxygen saturation index (secondary outcome), using uni- and multivariable linear regression. In 132 children, the mean cumulative fluid balance on day 3 was + 97.9 (49.2) mL/kg. Higher cumulative fluid balance on day 3 was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation in multivariable linear regression (β = 0.166; p = 0.048). No association was found between the fluid status and oxygen saturation index during the period of mechanical ventilation. Early fluid overload is an independent predictor of prolonged mechanical ventilation in young children with viral-lower respiratory tract disease. This study suggests that avoiding early fluid overload is a potential target to reduce duration of mechanical ventilation in these children. Prospective testing in a clinical trial is

  20. AT1 receptor blocker losartan protects against mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Hall, Stephanie E.; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Morton, Aaron B.; Talbert, Erin E.; Toklu, Hale Z.; Tumer, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged ventilator support results in diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction leading to diaphragm weakness, which is predicted to contribute to problems in weaning patients from the ventilator. While it is established that ventilator-induced oxidative stress is required for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness, the signaling pathway(s) that trigger oxidant production remain unknown. However, recent evidence reveals that increased plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) result in oxidative stress and atrophy in limb skeletal muscles. Using a well-established animal model of mechanical ventilation, we tested the hypothesis that increased circulating levels of ANG II are required for both ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress and diaphragm weakness. Cause and effect was determined by administering an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) to prevent ventilator-induced increases in plasma ANG II levels, and the ANG II type 1 receptor antagonist (losartan) was provided to prevent the activation of ANG II type 1 receptors. Enalapril prevented the increase in plasma ANG II levels but did not protect against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress or diaphragm weakness. In contrast, losartan attenuated both ventilator-induced oxidative stress and diaphragm weakness. These findings indicate that circulating ANG II is not essential for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness but that activation of ANG II type 1 receptors appears to be a requirement for ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness. Importantly, these experiments provide the first evidence that the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug losartan may have clinical benefits to protect against ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness in humans. PMID:26359481

  1. AT1 receptor blocker losartan protects against mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Smuder, Ashley J; Wiggs, Michael P; Hall, Stephanie E; Sollanek, Kurt J; Morton, Aaron B; Talbert, Erin E; Toklu, Hale Z; Tumer, Nihal; Powers, Scott K

    2015-11-15

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged ventilator support results in diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction leading to diaphragm weakness, which is predicted to contribute to problems in weaning patients from the ventilator. While it is established that ventilator-induced oxidative stress is required for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness, the signaling pathway(s) that trigger oxidant production remain unknown. However, recent evidence reveals that increased plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) result in oxidative stress and atrophy in limb skeletal muscles. Using a well-established animal model of mechanical ventilation, we tested the hypothesis that increased circulating levels of ANG II are required for both ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress and diaphragm weakness. Cause and effect was determined by administering an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) to prevent ventilator-induced increases in plasma ANG II levels, and the ANG II type 1 receptor antagonist (losartan) was provided to prevent the activation of ANG II type 1 receptors. Enalapril prevented the increase in plasma ANG II levels but did not protect against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress or diaphragm weakness. In contrast, losartan attenuated both ventilator-induced oxidative stress and diaphragm weakness. These findings indicate that circulating ANG II is not essential for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness but that activation of ANG II type 1 receptors appears to be a requirement for ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness. Importantly, these experiments provide the first evidence that the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug losartan may have clinical benefits to protect against ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness in humans.

  2. Non lineal respiratory systems mechanics simulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Madorno, Matias; Rodriguez, Pablo O

    2010-01-01

    Model and simulation of biological systems help to better understand these systems. In ICUs patients often reach a complex situation where supportive maneuvers require special expertise. Among them, mechanical ventilation in patients suffering from acuter respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is specially challenging. This work presents a model which can be simulated and use to help in training of physicians and respiratory therapists to analyze the respiratory mechanics in this kind of patients. We validated the model in 2 ARDS patients.

  3. Heat stress protects against mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ichinoseki-Sekine, Noriko; Yoshihara, Toshinori; Kakigi, Ryo; Sugiura, Takao; Powers, Scott K; Naito, Hisashi

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention in patients who are incapable of maintaining adequate pulmonary gas exchange due to respiratory failure or other disorders. However, prolonged MV is associated with the development of respiratory muscle weakness. We hypothesized that a single exposure to whole body heat stress would increase diaphragm expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and that this treatment would protect against MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 38) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: an acutely anesthetized control group (CON) with no MV; 12-h controlled MV group (CMV); 1-h whole body heat stress (HS); or 1-h whole body heat stress 24 h prior to 12-h controlled MV (HSMV). Compared with CON animals, diaphragmatic HSP72 expression increased significantly in the HS and HSMV groups (P < 0.05). Prolonged MV resulted in significant atrophy of type I, type IIa, and type IIx fibers in the costal diaphragm (P < 0.05). Whole body heat stress attenuated this effect. In contrast, heat stress did not protect against MV-induced diaphragm contractile dysfunction. The mechanisms responsible for this heat stress-induced protection remain unclear but may be linked to increased expression of HSP72 in the diaphragm. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Long-term non-invasive ventilation therapies in children: a scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Castro Codesal, Maria L; Featherstone, Robin; Martinez Carrasco, Carmen; Katz, Sherri L; Chan, Elaine Y; Bendiak, Glenda N; Almeida, Fernanda R; Young, Rochelle; Olmstead, Deborah; Waters, Karen A; Sullivan, Collin; Woolf, Vicki; Hartling, Lisa; MacLean, Joanna E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in children has become an increasingly common modality of breathing support where pressure support is delivered through a mask interface or less commonly through other non-invasive interfaces. At this time, NIV is considered a first-line option for ventilatory support of chronic respiratory insufficiency associated with a range of respiratory and sleep disorders. Previous reviews on the effectiveness, complications and adherence to NIV treatment have lacked systematic methods. The purpose of this scoping review is to provide an overview of the evidence for the use of long-term NIV in children. Methods and analysis We will use previously established scoping methodology. Ten electronic databases will be searched to identify studies in children using NIV for longer than 3 months outside an intensive care setting. Grey literature search will include conference proceedings, thesis and dissertations, unpublished trials, reports from regulatory agencies and manufacturers. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts for inclusion, followed by full-text screening of potentially relevant articles to determine final inclusion. Data synthesis will be performed at three levels: (1) an analysis of the number, publication type, publication year, and country of publication of the studies; (2) a summary of the study designs, outcomes measures used; (3) a thematic analysis of included studies by subgroups. Ethics and dissemination This study will provide a wide and rigorous overview of the evidence on the use of long-term NIV in children and provide critical information for healthcare professionals and policymakers to better care for this group of children. We will disseminate our findings through conference proceedings and publications, and evaluate the results for further systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PMID:26270951

  5. Automated versus non-automated weaning for reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation for critically ill adults and children.

    PubMed

    Rose, Louise; Schultz, Marcus J; Cardwell, Chris R; Jouvet, Philippe; McAuley, Danny F; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2014-06-10

    Automated closed loop systems may improve adaptation of mechanical support for a patient's ventilatory needs and facilitate systematic and early recognition of their ability to breathe spontaneously and the potential for discontinuation of ventilation. This review was originally published in 2013 with an update published in 2014. The primary objective for this review was to compare the total duration of weaning from mechanical ventilation, defined as the time from study randomization to successful extubation (as defined by study authors), for critically ill ventilated patients managed with an automated weaning system versus no automated weaning system (usual care).Secondary objectives for this review were to determine differences in the duration of ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS), mortality, and adverse events related to early or delayed extubation with the use of automated weaning systems compared to weaning in the absence of an automated weaning system. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 8); MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1948 to September 2013); EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to September 2013); CINAHL (EBSCOhost) (1982 to September 2013); and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). Relevant published reviews were sought using the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and the Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA Database). We also searched the Web of Science Proceedings; conference proceedings; trial registration websites; and reference lists of relevant articles. The original search was run in August 2011, with database auto-alerts up to August 2012. We included randomized controlled trials comparing automated closed loop ventilator applications to non-automated weaning strategies including non-protocolized usual care and protocolized weaning in patients over four weeks of age receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in

  6. [The effectiveness of music therapy in reducing physiological and psychological anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiau-Jiun; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2008-10-01

    Anxiety, a common reaction in patients receiving ventilation therapy, often impacts negatively on patient recovery. Music therapy, a non-invasion intervention, is readily accepted by patients and has been used to relieve patient anxiety with encouraging results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of music therapy on reducing anxiety in patients on mechanical ventilators. An experimental design was used and all cases were collected from a medical center in southern Taiwan. While the experimental group patients took a 30-minute music therapy session, control group patients were asked to rest. Both facility anxiety and anxiety visual scales were used as research tools, with other non-invasive medical instruments employed to measure heartbeat and breathing, blood pressure and blood oxygen saturation in both patient groups. When compared with the control group, patients in the experimental group showed significant improvement in sense of anxiety (Brief Anxiety Scale, BAS, t(29) = -4.80, p < .001; Visual Analogue Anxiety Scales, VAAS, t(29) = -3.38, p = .002), diastolic pressure (t(29) = -2.74, p = .002), mean arterial pressure(t(29) = -2.26, p = .031) and breathing rate (t(29) = -4.84, p < .001). In analyzing data from the two groups, we found that the sense of anxiety (BAS, t(58) = -3.21, p = .002; VAAS, t(58) = -2.90, p = .005) and breathing rate (t(58) = -3.20, p = .002) in the experimental group decreased significantly following music therapy. Study results are hoped to serve as an important reference for clinical nursing staff. Also, it is hoped that the music therapy method may help facilitate achievement of broader humanized nursing goals.

  7. [Non-invasive ventilation improves comfort in pediatric palliative care patients].

    PubMed

    Bosch-Alcaraz, A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the appropriate use of non-invasive ventilation and its contribution to improving comfort in pediatric palliative care patients. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study comprising 55 palliative care patients from San Juan de Dios Hospital in Barcelona. The effectiveness was evaluated using a register of socio-demographic, clinical-ventilatory and oxymetric parameters, the comfort and dyspnea's grade using Silverman Anderson scale, and pain level using pediatric scales. The effectiveness of the technique was proved by a decreased heart rate (133.53±25.8 vs. 111.04±23.1; p<0.0001), respiratory rate (35.02±12.9 vs. 25.63±5.7; p<0.0001) and an increase of partial oxygen saturation (95.7±2.9 vs. 96.87±7.2; p<0.0001) and partial oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (297.12±113.4 vs. 336.97±100.7; p<0.0001). Dyspnea and pain levels improved in 100% of the patients. The therapy was effective and the comfort improved in 100% of the patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term non-invasive ventilation in cystic fibrosis -- experience over two decades.

    PubMed

    Flight, William G; Shaw, Jonathan; Johnson, Susan; Webb, A Kevin; Jones, Andrew M; Bentley, Andrew M; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J

    2012-05-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is accepted as a bridge to lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis (CF) but there is little evidence to support its use outside this setting. We reviewed the records of all patients with CF who received domiciliary NIV at our centre between 1991 and 2010. Of 47 patients studied, 36% underwent lung transplantation, 28% died without transplantation and 30% remain alive on NIV. Median duration of NIV was 16 months (range 2-90). Mean FEV(1) fell by 212 ml over the year before NIV but increased by 18 ml in the following year (p<0.01). Individual response to NIV was associated with lower baseline and more rapid decline in FEV(1). From 1991 to 2000, 70% underwent lung transplantation; from 2001 to 2010 only 27% were transplanted. NIV may slow or reverse the decline in lung function in advanced CF. NIV is increasingly used beyond a bridge to transplantation at our centre. Copyright © 2011 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of impaired communication in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with tracheostomy-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yuki; Shimizu, Toshio; Mochizuki, Yoko; Hayashi, Kentaro; Matsuda, Chiharu; Nagao, Masahiro; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Kawata, Akihiro; Oyanagi, Kiyomitsu; Isozaki, Eiji; Nakano, Imaharu

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of communication impairment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using tracheostomy-invasive ventilation (TIV) were investigated. Seventy-six ALS patients using TIV were enrolled and classified into three subgroups of communication ability: patients who could communicate with communication devices (Stage I), patients who had difficulty with communication (Stage II, III, or IV), and patients who could not communicate by any means (Stage V). Predictors of communication impairment were analysed by the Cox proportional hazard model. Results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in disease duration between subgroups. Within 24 months after disease onset, patients who needed TIV and tube feeding, developed oculomotor impairment or became totally quadriplegic and progressed from Stage I to II and V significantly earlier. Multivariate analyses revealed that within 24 months from onset, the need for TIV and progression to total quadriplegia were significant events in patients who progressed to Stage II, whereas the development of oculomotor limitation was significant in patients who progressed to Stage V. In conclusion, TIV, impaired oculomotor movement and total quadriplegia are predictors of severe communication impairment. Rapid disease progression might indicate future communication impairment after the use of TIV. We highly recommend early detection of impaired communication and identification of the best methods of communication.

  10. Predictors of non-invasive ventilation failure in severe respiratory failure due to community acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Antonello; Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Barlascini, Cornelius; Senarega, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for acute respiratory failure to avoid endotracheal intubation and intensive care admission. Few studies have assessed the usefulness of NIV in patients with severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The use of NIV in severe CAP is controversial because there is a greater variability in success compared to other pulmonary conditions. We retrospectively followed 130 patients with CAP and severe acute respiratory failure (PaO2/FiO2 < 250) admitted to a Respiratory Monitoring Unit (RMU) and underwent NIV. We assessed predictors of NIV failure and hospital mortality using univariate and multivariate analyses. NIV failed in 26 patients (20.0%). Higher chest X-ray score at admission, higher heart rate after 1 hour of NIV, and a higher alveolar-arteriolar gradient (A-aDO2) after 24 hours of NIV each independently predicted NIV failure. Higher chest X ray score, higher LDH at admission, higher heart rate after 24 hours of NIV and higher A-aDO2 after 24 hours of NIV were directly related to hospital mortality. NIV treatment had high rate of success. Successful treatment is related to less lung involvement and to early good response to NIV and continuous improvement in clinical response.

  11. Comparison of usual and alternative methods to measure height in mechanically ventilated patients: potential impact on protective ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bojmehrani, Azadeh; Bergeron-Duchesne, Maude; Bouchard, Carmelle; Simard, Serge; Bouchard, Pierre-Alexandre; Vanderschuren, Abel; L'Her, Erwan; Lellouche, François

    2014-07-01

    Protective ventilation implementation requires the calculation of predicted body weight (PBW), determined by a formula based on gender and height. Consequently, height inaccuracy may be a limiting factor to correctly set tidal volumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods in measuring heights in mechanically ventilated patients. Before cardiac surgery, actual height was measured with a height gauge while subjects were standing upright (reference method); the height was also estimated by alternative methods based on lower leg and forearm measurements. After cardiac surgery, upon ICU admission, a subject's height was visually estimated by a clinician and then measured with a tape measure while the subject was supine and undergoing mechanical ventilation. One hundred subjects (75 men, 25 women) were prospectively included. Mean PBW was 61.0 ± 9.7 kg, and mean actual weight was 30.3% higher. In comparison with the reference method, estimating the height visually and using the tape measure were less accurate than both lower leg and forearm measurements. Errors above 10% in calculating the PBW were present in 25 and 40 subjects when the tape measure or visual estimation of height was used in the formula, respectively. With lower leg and forearm measurements, 15 subjects had errors above 10% (P < .001). Our results demonstrate that significant variability exists between the different methods used to measure height in bedridden patients on mechanical ventilation. Alternative methods based on lower leg and forearm measurements are potentially interesting solutions to facilitate the accurate application of protective ventilation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. [Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist: a revolution of mechanical ventilation?].

    PubMed

    Piquilloud, Lise; Jolliet, Philippe; Tassaux, Didier

    2010-12-15

    Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist or NAVA is a new assisted ventilatory mode which, in comparison with pressure support, leads to improved patient-ventilator synchrony and a more variable ventilatory pattern. It also improves arterial oxygenation. With NAVA, the electrical activity of the diaphragm is recorded through a nasogastric tube equipped with electrodes. This electrical activity is then used to pilot the ventilator. With NAVA, the patient's respiratory pattern controls the ventilator's timing of triggering and cycling as well as the magnitude of pressurization, which is proportional to inspiratory demand. The effect of NAVA on patient outcome remains to be determined through well-designed prospective studies.

  13. Evaluation of a volume targeted NIV device: bench evaluation of the Breathe Technologies non-invasive open ventilation system (NIOV™).

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas; Branson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Early ambulation in the ventilated patient is gaining wider acceptance. We evaluated a new portable (1 lb), gas powered, volume ventilator designed for NIV via a proprietary nasal pillows interface (Breathe Technologies, CA). We developed a model to approximate a patient's nose, upper airway and trachea. The model was connected to a test lung (ASL5000, Ingmar Medical, Pittsburgh, PA) via 22 mm ID corrugated tubing. The nasal pillows were adjusted in the nares using a lanyard. The ASL was set to represent a normal patient, a COPD patient, and a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The Breathe ventilator was set at delivered volumes of 100 mL, 150 mL, 200 mL, and 250 mL. Baseline data was also collected without the appliance connected. Delivered volume, inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2), inspiratory flow (V), and peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) were recorded for each breath. Data for 10 breaths were used to calculate the mean at each condition (± SD). The Breathe volume ventilator delivered an augmented simulated patient tidal volume of 362 to 823 mL, augmenting the simulated patient's spontaneous volume by up to 459 mL, depending on ventilator settings and ASL lung conditions. Delivered FIO2 ranged from 0.36 to 0.45 and was also dependent on ventilator settings and ASL lung conditions. The PIP, delivered tidal volumes, and measured FIO2 support the hypothesis that this system can augment minute ventilation and supply supplemental oxygen in spontaneously breathing patients with a simple, non-invasive interface.

  14. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation during sleep at 3800 m: Relationship to acute mountain sickness and sleeping oxyhaemoglobin saturation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pamela L; Popa, Daniel A; Prisk, G Kim; Edwards, Natalie; Sullivan, Colin E

    2010-02-01

    Overnight oxyhaemoglobin desaturation is related to AMS. AMS can be debilitating and may require descent. Positive pressure ventilation during sleep at high altitude may prevent AMS and therefore be useful in people travelling to high altitude, who are known to suffer from AMS. Ascent to high altitude results in hypobaric hypoxia and some individuals will develop acute mountain sickness (AMS), which has been shown to be associated with low oxyhaemoglobin saturation during sleep. Previous research has shown that positive end-expiratory pressure by use of expiratory valves in a face mask while awake results in a reduction in AMS symptoms and higher oxyhaemoglobin saturation. We aimed to determine whether positive pressure ventilation would prevent AMS by increasing oxygenation during sleep. We compared sleeping oxyhaemoglobin saturation and the incidence and severity of AMS in seven subjects sleeping for two consecutive nights at 3800 m above sea level using either non-invasive positive pressure ventilation that delivered positive inspiratory and expiratory airway pressure via a face mask, or sleeping without assisted ventilation. The presence and severity of AMS were assessed by administration of the Lake Louise questionnaire. We found significant increases in the mean and minimum sleeping oxyhaemoglobin saturation and decreases in AMS symptoms in subjects who used positive pressure ventilation during sleep. Mean and minimum sleeping SaO2 was lower in subjects who developed AMS after the night spent without positive pressure ventilation. The use of positive pressure ventilation during sleep at 3800 m significantly increased the sleeping oxygen saturation; we suggest that the marked reduction in symptoms of AMS is due to this higher sleeping SaO2. We agree with the findings from previous studies that the development of AMS is associated with a lower sleeping oxygen saturation.

  15. Mechanisms of cellular invasion by intracellular parasites.

    PubMed

    Walker, Dawn M; Oghumu, Steve; Gupta, Gaurav; McGwire, Bradford S; Drew, Mark E; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2014-04-01

    Numerous disease-causing parasites must invade host cells in order to prosper. Collectively, such pathogens are responsible for a staggering amount of human sickness and death throughout the world. Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, and malaria are neglected diseases and therefore are linked to socio-economical and geographical factors, affecting well-over half the world's population. Such obligate intracellular parasites have co-evolved with humans to establish a complexity of specific molecular parasite-host cell interactions, forming the basis of the parasite's cellular tropism. They make use of such interactions to invade host cells as a means to migrate through various tissues, to evade the host immune system, and to undergo intracellular replication. These cellular migration and invasion events are absolutely essential for the completion of the lifecycles of these parasites and lead to their for disease pathogenesis. This review is an overview of the molecular mechanisms of protozoan parasite invasion of host cells and discussion of therapeutic strategies, which could be developed by targeting these invasion pathways. Specifically, we focus on four species of protozoan parasites Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium, and Toxoplasma, which are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality.

  16. What is the role of the physiotherapist in paediatric intensive care units? A systematic review of the evidence for respiratory and rehabilitation interventions for mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Ellie; Jones, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Physiotherapy in intensive care units (ICU) has traditionally focussed on the respiratory management of mechanically ventilated patients. Gradually, focus has shifted to include rehabilitation in adult ICUs, though evidence of a similar shift in the paediatric ICU (PICU) is limited. Review the evidence to determine the role of physiotherapists in the management of mechanically ventilated patients in PICU. A search was conducted of: PEDro, CINAHL, Medline, PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Studies involving PICU patients who received physiotherapy while invasively ventilated were included in this review. Those involving neonatal or adult ICU patients, or patients on non-invasive or long-term ventilation, were not included in the study. All articles were critically appraised by two reviewers and results were analysed descriptively. Six studies on chest physiotherapy (CPT) met the selection criteria. Results support the use of the expiratory flow increase technique and CPT, especially manual hyperinflation and vibrations, for secretion clearance. Evidence does not support the routine use of either CPT or suction alone. No studies investigating rehabilitation in PICU met selection criteria. A lack of high level evidence was available to inform this review. Evidence indicates that CPT is still the focus of physiotherapy intervention in PICU for mechanically ventilated patients, and supports its use for secretion clearance in this setting. PROSPERO register for systematic reviews (registration no. CRD42014009582). Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation after Open Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Totonchi, Ziae; Baazm, Farah; Chitsazan, Mitra; Seifi, Somayeh; Chitsazan, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the importance of prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) as a postoperative complication, predicting "high-risk" patients by identifying predisposing risk factors is of important issue. The present study was aimed to identify perioperative variables associated with PMV in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Methods: A total of 743 consecutive patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class III, who were scheduled to undergo open heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass were included in this observational study. Perioperative variables were compared between the patients with and without PMV, as defined by an extubation time of >48 h. Results: PMV occurred in 45 (6.1%) patients. On univariate analysis, pre-operative variables; including gender, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); chronic kidney disease and endocarditis, intra-operative variables; including type of surgery, operation time, pump time, transfusion in operating room and postoperative variables; including bleeding and inotrope-dependency were significantly different between patients with and without PMV (all P<0.001, except for COPD and transfusion in operating room; P=0.004 and P=0.017, respectively). Conclusion: Our findings reinforce that risk stratification for predicting delayed extubation should be an important aspect of preoperative clinical evaluation in all anesthesiology settings. PMID:25610551

  18. Early mobilization and recovery in mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU: a bi-national, multi-centre, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Carol; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Berney, Susan; Bailey, Michael; Buhr, Heidi; Denehy, Linda; Harrold, Megan; Higgins, Alisa; Presneill, Jeff; Saxena, Manoj; Skinner, Elizabeth; Young, Paul; Webb, Steven

    2015-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate current mobilization practice, strength at ICU discharge and functional recovery at 6 months among mechanically ventilated ICU patients. This was a prospective, multi-centre, cohort study conducted in twelve ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Patients were previously functionally independent and expected to be ventilated for >48 hours. We measured mobilization during invasive ventilation, sedation depth using the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS), co-interventions, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) at ICU discharge, mortality at day 90, and 6-month functional recovery including return to work. We studied 192 patients (mean age 58.1 ± 15.8 years; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) (IQR) II score, 18.0 (14 to 24)). Mortality at day 90 was 26.6% (51/192). Over 1,351 study days, we collected information during 1,288 planned early mobilization episodes in patients on mechanical ventilation for the first 14 days or until extubation (whichever occurred first). We recorded the highest level of early mobilization. Despite the presence of dedicated physical therapy staff, no mobilization occurred in 1,079 (84%) of these episodes. Where mobilization occurred, the maximum levels of mobilization were exercises in bed (N = 94, 7%), standing at the bed side (N = 11, 0.9%) or walking (N = 26, 2%). On day three, all patients who were mobilized were mechanically ventilated via an endotracheal tube (N = 10), whereas by day five 50% of the patients mobilized were mechanically ventilated via a tracheostomy tube (N = 18). Early mobilization of patients receiving mechanical ventilation was uncommon. More than 50% of patients discharged from the ICU had developed ICU-acquired weakness, which was associated with death between ICU discharge and day-90. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01674608. Registered 14 August 2012.

  19. Brachial artery peak velocity variation to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Although several parameters have been proposed to predict the hemodynamic response to fluid expansion in critically ill patients, most of them are invasive or require the use of special monitoring devices. The aim of this study is to determine whether noninvasive evaluation of respiratory variation of brachial artery peak velocity flow measured using Doppler ultrasound could predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods We conducted a prospective clinical research in a 17-bed multidisciplinary ICU and included 38 mechanically ventilated patients for whom fluid administration was planned due to the presence of acute circulatory failure. Volume expansion (VE) was performed with 500 mL of a synthetic colloid. Patients were classified as responders if stroke volume index (SVi) increased ≥ 15% after VE. The respiratory variation in Vpeakbrach (ΔVpeakbrach) was calculated as the difference between maximum and minimum values of Vpeakbrach over a single respiratory cycle, divided by the mean of the two values and expressed as a percentage. Radial arterial pressure variation (ΔPPrad) and stroke volume variation measured using the FloTrac/Vigileo system (ΔSVVigileo), were also calculated. Results VE increased SVi by ≥ 15% in 19 patients (responders). At baseline, ΔVpeakbrach, ΔPPrad and ΔSVVigileo were significantly higher in responder than nonresponder patients [14 vs 8%; 18 vs. 5%; 13 vs 8%; P < 0.0001, respectively). A ΔVpeakbrach value >10% predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 95%. A ΔPPrad value >10% and a ΔSVVigileo >11% predicted volume responsiveness with a sensitivity of 95% and 79%, and a specificity of 95% and 89%, respectively. Conclusions Respiratory variations in brachial artery peak velocity could be a feasible tool for the noninvasive assessment of fluid responsiveness in patients with mechanical ventilatory support and acute circulatory failure. Trial Registration

  20. Differences in the prognosis among severe trauma and medical patients requiring mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Santana-Cabrera, Luciano; Sánchez-Palacios, Manuel; Rodríguez, Alina Uriarte

    2013-01-01

    Objetive. To find the differences between the prognosis of the patients with severe traumatism injury and those who were admitted with medical pathology who also required mechanical ventilation in our ICU. Patients and Method. Retrospective descriptive study in a polyvalent ICU of a third level hospital for a period of 8 years. Epidemiological variables such as age, sex, average stay, mortality, APACHE II at admission and days of mechanical ventilation, were analyzed in patients with severe traumatism injury and patients with medical pathology that were admitted in ICU and received mechanical ventilation during this period. Results. During the study period were admitted 208 patients with severe traumatism injury and 732 medical patients, all of them required mechanical ventilation. Patients with severe traumatism injury are more younger (41.8 vs 55.3 years, p = 0.001) and entered ICU in a state of minor severity, according to the prognostic index APACHE II (14.8 vs 17.4, p < 0.001), despite which they required more days of mechanical ventilation (9.8 vs 7.8 days, p = 0.017) and had a higher average stay (11.4 vs 9.4 days, p = 0.027), although the mortality was significantly lower (38.2% vs 28.2%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed as independent variables associated with mortality, the APACHE II (p < 0.0001), the average stay in ICU (p < 0.0001), days of mechanical ventilation (p < 0.0001) and type patient (p = 0.016). Conclusions. Patients with severe traumatic injury that require mechanical ventilation despite to be admitted in ICU in a state of greater severity, having an increased ICU stay and more days of mechanical ventilation, have a better prognosis than medical patients that required also mechanical ventilation at ICU stay, likely to be younger.

  1. [Efficacy and safety of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation therapy in acute pulmonary edema].

    PubMed

    Sarullo, Filippo Maria; D'Alfonso, Giovanni; Brusca, Ignazio; De Michele, Piero; Taormina, Andrea; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Castello, Antonio

    2004-03-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is an effective treatment for acute respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We assessed the efficacy and safety of this therapy in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). In addition to routine therapy consisting of oxygen, nitrates and diuretics, 60 patients (39 male, 21 female, mean age 72.5 +/- 15.8 years) were started on full mask NIPPV using a Sullivan VPAP II ventilator delivering pressure support 15 cm H2O, PEEP 5 cm H2O, FiO2 100%. Pressure support were titrated to achieve oxygen saturation (SaO2) > 95%. Physiological measurements were obtained in the first 2 h and at 3 h, 4 h, and 10 h. Outcome measures included arterial blood gas (ABG), Borg dyspnea score, vital signs, and need for endotracheal intubation (ETI). Initial mean values on FiO2 100% by non nonrebreather mask: pH 7.11 +/- 0.25, paCO2 67.7 +/- 17.5 mmHg, paO2 71.5 +/- 29.7 mmHg, SaO2 83 +/- 12%, lactate concentrations 4.7 +/- 2.3 mmol/L, Borg score 8.6 +/- 1.3, respiratory rate (RR) 41 +/- 7. At 60 minutes of NIPPV, improvement was statistically significant: pH 7.35 +/- 0.18 (difference 0.24; p < 0.0001), paCO2 43 +/- 13 mmHg (difference 24.7; p < 0.0001), paO2 102 +/- 10 mmHg (difference 30.5; p < 0.0001), SaO2 99 +/- 5% (difference 16; p < 0.0001), lactate concentrations 1.2 +/- 0.8 (difference 3.5; p < 0.0001) Borg score 3.6 +/- 0.9 (difference 5; p < 0.0001), RR 24.6 +/- 5 (difference 17.1; p < 0.0001). NIPPV duration ranged from 40 minutes to 24 hours (median 3 hours, 30 minutes). Fifty-six patients (93.4%) improved allowing cessation of NIPPV. ETI was required in four (6.6%) of 60 patients. There were non complications of NIPPV. In this study of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, NIPPV is an effective treatment and may help prevent ETI.

  2. Living with severe physical impairment, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy and home mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Pia S.; Steffensen, Birgit F.; Pedersen, Birthe D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To study life-experiences of people living with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD), home mechanical ventilation (HMV) and physical impairment. Background Since the introduction of invasive HMV in the late 1980s people with DMD in Denmark live longer and have the experience of adulthood and a high degree of physical dependency. Method Nineteen patients with DMD and invasive HMV were interviewed in 2007. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed according to a method inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Findings HMV not only extended the participants lifespan, it also gave them the capacity to live an active life. They were totally dependent in everyday living, but in spite of this, they did not see themselves as physically impaired. They realised that there were activities that were physically impossible, but they considered themselves to be just the same person they had always been. This dependency was described as “independent dependency”. Conclusion The lived-experience of physical impairment is found to be “independent dependency” in an active life. To solve problems with loneliness, society needs to work with prejudice and misunderstanding and for better physical accessibility to enable full participation. PMID:20689774

  3. Living with severe physical impairment, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy and home mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Pia S; Steffensen, Birgit F; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2010-08-02

    To study life-experiences of people living with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD), home mechanical ventilation (HMV) and physical impairment. Since the introduction of invasive HMV in the late 1980s people with DMD in Denmark live longer and have the experience of adulthood and a high degree of physical dependency. Nineteen patients with DMD and invasive HMV were interviewed in 2007. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed according to a method inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. HMV not only extended the participants lifespan, it also gave them the capacity to live an active life. They were totally dependent in everyday living, but in spite of this, they did not see themselves as physically impaired. They realised that there were activities that were physically impossible, but they considered themselves to be just the same person they had always been. This dependency was described as "independent dependency". The lived-experience of physical impairment is found to be "independent dependency" in an active life. To solve problems with loneliness, society needs to work with prejudice and misunderstanding and for better physical accessibility to enable full participation.

  4. Respiratory muscle dysfunction: a multicausal entity in the critically ill patient undergoing mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Magda C; Ospina-Tascón, Gustavo A; Salazar C, Blanca C

    2014-02-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction, particularly of the diaphragm, may play a key role in the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to difficulty in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. The limited mobility of critically ill patients, and of the diaphragm in particular when prolonged mechanical ventilation support is required, promotes the early onset of respiratory muscle dysfunction, but this can also be caused or exacerbated by other factors that are common in these patients, such as sepsis, malnutrition, advanced age, duration and type of ventilation, and use of certain medications, such as steroids and neuromuscular blocking agents. In this review we will study in depth this multicausal origin, in which a common mechanism is altered protein metabolism, according to the findings reported in various models. The understanding of this multicausality produced by the same pathophysiological mechanism could facilitate the management and monitoring of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of mechanical ventilation on physiological parameters in ball pythons (Python regius).

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Sashia L; Williams, Catherine J A; Wang, Tobias; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2017-02-10

    Mechanical ventilation is widely recommended for reptiles during anesthesia, and while it is well-known that their low ectothermic metabolism requires much lower ventilation than in mammals, very little is known about the influence of ventilation protocol on the recovery from anesthesia. Here, 15 ball pythons (Python regius) were induced and maintained with isoflurane for 60min at one of three ventilation protocols (30, 125, or 250mlmin(-1)kg(-1) body mass) while an arterial catheter was inserted, and ventilation was then continued on 100% oxygen at the specified rate until voluntary extubation. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured, and arterial blood samples collected at 60, 80, 180min and 12 and 24h after intubation. In all three groups, there was evidence of a metabolic acidosis, and snakes maintained at 30mlmin(-1)kg(-1) experienced an additional respiratory acidosis, while the two other ventilation