Science.gov

Sample records for inverse electron demand

  1. Norbornenes in inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions.

    PubMed

    Vrabel, Milan; Kölle, Patrick; Brunner, Korbinian M; Gattner, Michael J; López-Carrillo, Verónica; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina; Carell, Thomas

    2013-09-27

    Significant differences in the reactivity of norbornene derivatives in the inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction with tetrazines were revealed by kinetic studies. Substantial rate enhancement for the exo norbornene isomers was observed. Quantum-chemical calculations were used to rationalize and support the observed experimental data.

  2. Highly accelerated inverse electron-demand cycloaddition of electron-deficient azides with aliphatic cyclooctynes.

    PubMed

    Dommerholt, Jan; van Rooijen, Olivia; Borrmann, Annika; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; van Delft, Floris L

    2014-01-01

    Strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) as a conjugation tool has found broad application in material sciences, chemical biology and even in vivo use. However, despite tremendous effort, SPAAC remains fairly slow (0.2-0.5 M(-1) s(-1)) and efforts to increase reaction rates by tailoring of cyclooctyne structure have suffered from a poor trade-off between cyclooctyne reactivity and stability. We here wish to report tremendous acceleration of strain-promoted cycloaddition of an aliphatic cyclooctyne (bicyclo[6.1.0]non-4-yne, BCN) with electron-deficient aryl azides, with reaction rate constants reaching 2.0-2.9 M(-1) s(-1). A remarkable difference in rate constants of aliphatic cyclooctynes versus benzoannulated cyclooctynes is noted, enabling a next level of orthogonality by a judicious choice of azide-cyclooctyne combinations, which is inter alia applied in one-pot three-component protein labelling. The pivotal role of azide electronegativity is explained by density-functional theory calculations and electronic-structure analyses, which indicates an inverse electron-demand mechanism is operative with an aliphatic cyclooctyne. PMID:25382411

  3. An intramolecular inverse electron demand Diels–Alder approach to annulated α-carbolines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Ni, Feng; Woo, Grace H C; Lo, Sie-Mun; Roveto, Philip M; Schaus, Scott E

    2012-01-01

    Summary Intramolecular inverse electron demand cycloadditions of isatin-derived 1,2,4-triazines with acetylenic dienophiles tethered by amidations or transesterifications proceed in excellent yields to produce lactam- or lactone-fused α-carbolines. Beginning with various isatins and alkynyl dienophiles, a pilot-scale library of eighty-eight α-carbolines was prepared by using this robust methodology for biological evaluation. PMID:23015831

  4. Asymmetric synthesis of bicyclic dihydropyrans via organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reactions of enolizable aliphatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Long; Yang, Kai-Chuan; Li, Yi; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Hong-Ping; Han, Bo; Peng, Cheng; Zhi, Yong-Gang; Gou, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-23

    A highly enantioselective organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reaction involving aqueous acetaldehyde has been discovered. The reaction, in which cyclic enones serve as dienes in the presence of readily available secondary amine catalysts, allows facile construction of optically active bicyclic dihydropyrans. Other typical enolizable aliphatic aldehydes can also serve as competent dienophiles in the reaction. PMID:27436351

  5. Harnessing the Bioorthogonal Inverse Electron Demand Diels-Alder Cycloaddition for Pretargeted PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their exquisite affinity and specificity, antibodies have become extremely promising vectors for the delivery of radioisotopes to cancer cells for PET imaging. However, the necessity of labeling antibodies with radionuclides with long physical half-lives often results in high background radiation dose rates to non-target tissues. In order to circumvent this issue, we have employed a pretargeted PET imaging strategy based on the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. The methodology decouples the antibody from the radioactivity and thus exploits the positive characteristics of antibodies, while eschewing their pharmacokinetic drawbacks. The system is composed of four steps: (1) the injection of a mAb-trans-cyclooctene (TCO) conjugate; (2) a localization time period during which the antibody accumulates in the tumor and clears from the blood; (3) the injection of the radiolabeled tetrazine; and (4) the in vivo click ligation of the components followed by the clearance of excess radioligand. In the example presented in the work at hand, a 64Cu-NOTA-labeled tetrazine radioligand and a trans-cyclooctene-conjugated humanized antibody (huA33) were successfully used to delineate SW1222 colorectal cancer tumors with high tumor-to-background contrast. Further, the pretargeting methodology produces high quality images at only a fraction of the radiation dose to non-target tissue created by radioimmunoconjugates directly labeled with 64Cu or 89Zr. Ultimately, the modularity of this protocol is one of its greatest assets, as the trans-cyclooctene moiety can be appended to any non-internalizing antibody, and the tetrazine can be attached to a wide variety of radioisotopes. PMID:25742199

  6. Harnessing the bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition for pretargeted PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Thomas; Lewis, Jason S; Zeglis, Brian M

    2015-02-03

    Due to their exquisite affinity and specificity, antibodies have become extremely promising vectors for the delivery of radioisotopes to cancer cells for PET imaging. However, the necessity of labeling antibodies with radionuclides with long physical half-lives often results in high background radiation dose rates to non-target tissues. In order to circumvent this issue, we have employed a pretargeted PET imaging strategy based on the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. The methodology decouples the antibody from the radioactivity and thus exploits the positive characteristics of antibodies, while eschewing their pharmacokinetic drawbacks. The system is composed of four steps: (1) the injection of a mAb-trans-cyclooctene (TCO) conjugate; (2) a localization time period during which the antibody accumulates in the tumor and clears from the blood; (3) the injection of the radiolabeled tetrazine; and (4) the in vivo click ligation of the components followed by the clearance of excess radioligand. In the example presented in the work at hand, a (64)Cu-NOTA-labeled tetrazine radioligand and a trans-cyclooctene-conjugated humanized antibody (huA33) were successfully used to delineate SW1222 colorectal cancer tumors with high tumor-to-background contrast. Further, the pretargeting methodology produces high quality images at only a fraction of the radiation dose to non-target tissue created by radioimmunoconjugates directly labeled with (64)Cu or (89)Zr. Ultimately, the modularity of this protocol is one of its greatest assets, as the trans-cyclooctene moiety can be appended to any non-internalizing antibody, and the tetrazine can be attached to a wide variety of radioisotopes.

  7. Recent Advances in Inverse-Electron-Demand Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of 1-Oxa-1,3-Butadienes.

    PubMed

    Pałasz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    This review is an endeavor to highlight the progress in the inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxa-1,3-butadienes in recent years. The huge number of examples of 1-oxadienes cycloadditions found in the literature clearly demonstrates the incessant importance of this transformation in pyran ring synthesis. This type of reaction is today one of the most important methods for the synthesis of dihydropyrans which are the key building blocks in structuring of carbohydrate and other natural products. Two different modes, inter- and intramolecular, of inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxadienes are discussed. The domino Knoevenagel hetero-Diels-Alder reactions are also described. In recent years the use of chiral Lewis acids, chiral organocatalysts, new optically active heterodienes or dienophiles have provided enormous progress in asymmetric synthesis. Solvent-free and aqueous hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxabutadienes were also investigated. The reactivity of reactants, selectivity of cycloadditions, and chemical stability in aqueous solutions and under physiological conditions were taken into account to show the potential application of the described reactions in bioorthogonal chemistry. New bioorthogonal ligation by click inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition of in situ-generated 1-oxa-1,3-butadienes and vinyl ethers was developed. It seems that some of the hetero-Diels-Alder reactions described in this review can be applied in bioorthogonal chemistry because they are selective, non-toxic, and can function in biological conditions taking into account pH, an aqueous environment, and temperature. PMID:27573264

  8. Recent Advances in Inverse-Electron-Demand Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of 1-Oxa-1,3-Butadienes.

    PubMed

    Pałasz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    This review is an endeavor to highlight the progress in the inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxa-1,3-butadienes in recent years. The huge number of examples of 1-oxadienes cycloadditions found in the literature clearly demonstrates the incessant importance of this transformation in pyran ring synthesis. This type of reaction is today one of the most important methods for the synthesis of dihydropyrans which are the key building blocks in structuring of carbohydrate and other natural products. Two different modes, inter- and intramolecular, of inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxadienes are discussed. The domino Knoevenagel hetero-Diels-Alder reactions are also described. In recent years the use of chiral Lewis acids, chiral organocatalysts, new optically active heterodienes or dienophiles have provided enormous progress in asymmetric synthesis. Solvent-free and aqueous hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxabutadienes were also investigated. The reactivity of reactants, selectivity of cycloadditions, and chemical stability in aqueous solutions and under physiological conditions were taken into account to show the potential application of the described reactions in bioorthogonal chemistry. New bioorthogonal ligation by click inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition of in situ-generated 1-oxa-1,3-butadienes and vinyl ethers was developed. It seems that some of the hetero-Diels-Alder reactions described in this review can be applied in bioorthogonal chemistry because they are selective, non-toxic, and can function in biological conditions taking into account pH, an aqueous environment, and temperature.

  9. Synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones via microwave-activated inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder reactions

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Salah; Hajbi, Youssef; Khouili, Mostafa; Lazar, Said

    2014-01-01

    Summary Substituted 3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones have been synthesized with the inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction from 1,2,4-triazines bearing an acylamino group with a terminal alkyne side chain. Alkynes were first subjected to the Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction with aryl halides, the product of which then underwent an intramolecular inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction to yield 5-aryl-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones by an efficient synthetic route. PMID:24605148

  10. Activation-strain analysis reveals unexpected origin of fast reactivity in heteroaromatic azadiene inverse-electron-demand diels-alder cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Austin; Devarajan, Deepa; Gustafson, Samantha J; Fernández, Israel; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Ess, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Heteroaromatic azadienes, especially 1,2,4,5-tetrazines, are extremely reactive partners with alkenes in inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions. Azadiene cycloaddition reactions are used to construct heterocycles in synthesis and are popular as bioorthogonal reactions. The origin of fast azadiene cycloaddition reactivity is classically attributed to the inverse frontier molecular orbital (FMO) interaction between the azadiene LUMO and alkene HOMO. Here, we use a combination of ab initio, density functional theory, and activation-strain model calculations to analyze physical interactions in heteroaromatic azadiene-alkene cycloaddition transition states. We find that FMO interactions do not control reactivity because, while the inverse FMO interaction becomes more stabilizing, there is a decrease in the forward FMO interaction that is offsetting. Rather, fast cycloadditions are due to a decrease in closed-shell Pauli repulsion between cycloaddition partners. The kinetic-thermodynamic relationship found for these inverse-electron-demand cycloadditions is also due to the trend in closed-shell repulsion in the cycloadducts. Cycloaddition regioselectivity, however, is the result of differences in occupied-unoccupied orbital interactions due to orbital overlap. These results provide a new predictive model and correct physical basis for heteroaromatic azadiene reactivity and regioselectivity with alkene dieneophiles.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of dihydrocoumarin derivatives by chiral scandium(III)-complex catalyzed inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haipeng; Liu, Yangbin; Guo, Jing; Lin, Lili; Xu, Yali; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    An asymmetric inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reaction between o-quinone methides and azlactones to generate potentially pharmacological active dihydrocoumarins has been achieved efficiently by using a chiral N,N'-dioxide-Sc(III) complex as the catalyst. The desired products were obtained in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities and diastereoselectivities (up to 94% yield, 96% ee and >19 : 1 dr) under mild reaction conditions. A concerted reaction pathway was confirmed by Operando IR and control experiments.

  12. Inverse Electron Demand Diels–Alder Reactions of 1,2,3-Triazines: Pronounced Substituent Effects on Reactivity and Cycloaddition Scope

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erin D.; Boger, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic study of the inverse electron demand Diels–Alder reactions of 1,2,3-triazines is disclosed, including an examination of the impact of a C5 substituent. Such substituents were found to exhibit a remarkable impact on the cycloaddition reactivity of the 1,2,3-triazine without altering, and perhaps even enhancing, the intrinsic cycloaddition regioselectivity. The study revealed that not only may the reactivity be predictably modulated by a C5 substituent (R = CO2Me > Ph > H), but that the impact is of a magnitude to convert 1,2,3-triazine (1) and its modest cycloaddition scope into a heterocyclic azadiene system with a reaction scope that portends extensive synthetic utility, expanding the range of participating dienophiles. Significantly, the studies define a now powerful additional heterocyclic azadiene, complementary to the isomeric 1,2,4-triazines and 1,3,5-triazines, capable of dependable participation in inverse electron demand Diels–Alder reactions, extending the number of complementary heterocyclic ring systems accessible with implementation of the methodology. PMID:21736324

  13. ent-Kaurane-Based Regio- and Stereoselective Inverse Electron Demand Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions: Synthesis of Dihydropyran-Fused Diterpenoids†

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chunyong; Wang, Lili; Chen, Haijun; Wild, Christopher; Ye, Na; Ding, Ye; Wang, Tianzhi; White, Mark A.; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    A mild and concise approach for the construction of 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran ring integrated into the A-ring of the natural product oridonin using an optimized inverse electron demand hetero-Diels-Alder (IED HDA) reaction is reported herein. A self-dimerization of the exocyclic enone installed in the A-ring through a homo-HDA reaction was identified to exclusively give a dimeric ent-kaurane diterpenoid with the spirochroman core. Moreover, the efficient cross-HDA cycloadditions of this enone with various vinyl ethers or vinyl sulfides, instead of its own homo-HDA dimerization, were achieved in regio- and stereoselective manners, thus providing the access to novel dihydropyran-fused diterpenoids as potential anticancer agents to overcome chemoresistance. PMID:25225052

  14. The Diels-Alder-Reaction with inverse-Electron-Demand, a very efficient versatile Click-Reaction Concept for proper Ligation of variable molecular Partners

    PubMed Central

    Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Kliem, Christian; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Braun, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The ligation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for working with image processing systems in diagnostics (MRT) attracts increasing notice and scientific interest. The Diels-Alder ligation Reaction with inverse electron demand (DARinv) turns out to be an appropriate candidate. The DARinv is characterized by a specific distribution of electrons of the diene and the corresponding dienophile counterpart. Whereas the reactants in the classical Diels-Alder Reaction feature electron-rich diene and electron-poor dienophile compounds, the DARinv exhibits exactly the opposite distribution of electrons. Substituents with pushing electrones increase and, with pulling electrons reduce the electron density of the dienes as used in the DARinv. We report here that the DARinv is an efficient route for coupling of multifunctional molecules like active peptides, re-formulated drugs or small molecules like the alkyalting agent temozolomide (TMZ). This is an example of our contribution to the "Click chemistry" technology. In this case TMZ is ligated by DARinv as a cargo to transporter molecules facilitating the passage across the cell membranes into cells and subsequently into subcellular components like the cell nucleus by using address molecules. With such constructs we achieved high local concentrations at the desired target site of pharmacological action. The DARinv ligation was carried out using the combination of several technologies, namely: the organic chemistry and the solid phase peptide synthesis which can produce 'tailored' solutions for questions not solely restricted to the medical diagnostics or therapy, but also result in functionalizations of various surfaces qualified amongst others also for array development. We like to acquaint you with the DARinv and we like to exemplify that all ligation products were generated after a rapid and complete reaction in organic solutions at room temperature, in high purity, but also, hurdles and difficulties on the way to the

  15. The Diels-Alder-reaction with inverse-electron-demand, a very efficient versatile click-reaction concept for proper ligation of variable molecular partners.

    PubMed

    Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Kliem, Christian; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Braun, Klaus

    2009-12-05

    The ligation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for working with image processing systems in diagnostics (MRT) attracts increasing notice and scientific interest. The Diels-Alder ligation Reaction with inverse electron demand (DAR(inv)) turns out to be an appropriate candidate. The DAR(inv) is characterized by a specific distribution of electrons of the diene and the corresponding dienophile counterpart. Whereas the reactants in the classical Diels-Alder Reaction feature electron-rich diene and electron-poor dienophile compounds, the DAR(inv) exhibits exactly the opposite distribution of electrons. Substituents with pushing electrones increase and, with pulling electrons reduce the electron density of the dienes as used in the DAR(inv).We report here that the DAR(inv) is an efficient route for coupling of multifunctional molecules like active peptides, re-formulated drugs or small molecules like the alkyalting agent temozolomide (TMZ). This is an example of our contribution to the "Click chemistry" technology. In this case TMZ is ligated by DAR(inv) as a cargo to transporter molecules facilitating the passage across the cell membranes into cells and subsequently into subcellular components like the cell nucleus by using address molecules. With such constructs we achieved high local concentrations at the desired target site of pharmacological action. The DAR(inv) ligation was carried out using the combination of several technologies, namely: the organic chemistry and the solid phase peptide synthesis which can produce 'tailored' solutions for questions not solely restricted to the medical diagnostics or therapy, but also result in functionalizations of various surfaces qualified amongst others also for array development.We like to acquaint you with the DAR(inv) and we like to exemplify that all ligation products were generated after a rapid and complete reaction in organic solutions at room temperature, in high purity, but also, hurdles and difficulties on

  16. The Diels-Alder-reaction with inverse-electron-demand, a very efficient versatile click-reaction concept for proper ligation of variable molecular partners.

    PubMed

    Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Kliem, Christian; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Braun, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The ligation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for working with image processing systems in diagnostics (MRT) attracts increasing notice and scientific interest. The Diels-Alder ligation Reaction with inverse electron demand (DAR(inv)) turns out to be an appropriate candidate. The DAR(inv) is characterized by a specific distribution of electrons of the diene and the corresponding dienophile counterpart. Whereas the reactants in the classical Diels-Alder Reaction feature electron-rich diene and electron-poor dienophile compounds, the DAR(inv) exhibits exactly the opposite distribution of electrons. Substituents with pushing electrones increase and, with pulling electrons reduce the electron density of the dienes as used in the DAR(inv).We report here that the DAR(inv) is an efficient route for coupling of multifunctional molecules like active peptides, re-formulated drugs or small molecules like the alkyalting agent temozolomide (TMZ). This is an example of our contribution to the "Click chemistry" technology. In this case TMZ is ligated by DAR(inv) as a cargo to transporter molecules facilitating the passage across the cell membranes into cells and subsequently into subcellular components like the cell nucleus by using address molecules. With such constructs we achieved high local concentrations at the desired target site of pharmacological action. The DAR(inv) ligation was carried out using the combination of several technologies, namely: the organic chemistry and the solid phase peptide synthesis which can produce 'tailored' solutions for questions not solely restricted to the medical diagnostics or therapy, but also result in functionalizations of various surfaces qualified amongst others also for array development.We like to acquaint you with the DAR(inv) and we like to exemplify that all ligation products were generated after a rapid and complete reaction in organic solutions at room temperature, in high purity, but also, hurdles and difficulties on

  17. Four mechanisms in the reactions of 3-aminopyrrole with 1,3,5-triazines: inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloadditions vs S(N)Ar reactions via uncatalyzed and acid-catalyzed pathways.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Michael; Arnold, David; Hartline, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Reaction of 3-aminopyrrole with seven 1,3,5-triazines was studied in a one-step reaction (in situ formation of 3-aminopyrrole) and a two-step reaction (using the tetraphenylborate salt and an amine base). An inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder reaction (IEDDA) was observed with R1 = CF3, CO2Et, and H with the formation of 5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives. S(N)Ar was observed when 2,4,6-trifluoro- or 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine were used--1,3,5-triazines that had leaving groups. If excess 1,3,5-triazine was present the initial S(N)Ar product reacted further, in the presence of acid and water, with another equivalent of 1,3,5-triazine to give compounds containing three linked heterocyclic rings. No reaction was observed with R1 = C6H5 and OCH3. Four mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results: uncatalyzed and acid catalyzed inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cascades leading to cycloaddition, and uncatalyzed and acid-catalyzed S(N)Ar reactions leading, respectively, to single and double substitution products. Acid catalysis was a factor when there was reduced reactivity in either reactant.

  18. Partitioning of on-demand electron pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubbelohde, Niels; Hohls, Frank; Kashcheyevs, Vyacheslavs; Wagner, Timo; Fricke, Lukas; Kästner, Bernd; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W.; Haug, Rolf J.

    2015-01-01

    The on-demand generation and separation of entangled photon pairs are key components of quantum information processing in quantum optics. In an electronic analogue, the decomposition of electron pairs represents an essential building block for using the quantum state of ballistic electrons in electron quantum optics. The scattering of electrons has been used to probe the particle statistics of stochastic sources in Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiments and the recent advent of on-demand sources further offers the possibility to achieve indistinguishability between multiple sources in Hong-Ou-Mandel experiments. Cooper pairs impinging stochastically at a mesoscopic beamsplitter have been successfully partitioned, as verified by measuring the coincidence of arrival. Here, we demonstrate the splitting of electron pairs generated on demand. Coincidence correlation measurements allow the reconstruction of the full counting statistics, revealing regimes of statistically independent, distinguishable or correlated partitioning, and have been envisioned as a source of information on the quantum state of the electron pair. The high pair-splitting fidelity opens a path to future on-demand generation of spin-entangled electron pairs from a suitably prepared two-electron quantum-dot ground state.

  19. Inverse free-electron laser accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.; Campisi, R.

    1982-01-01

    We first describe the basic physical properties of an inverse free-electron laser and make an estimate of the order of magnitude of the accelerating field obtainable with such a system; then apply the general ideas to the design of an actual device and through this example we give a more accurate evaluation of the fundamental as well as the technical limitations that this acceleration scheme imposes.

  20. Inverse calculation of biochemical oxygen demand models based on time domain for the tidal Foshan River.

    PubMed

    Er, Li; Xiangying, Zeng

    2014-01-01

    To simulate the variation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the tidal Foshan River, inverse calculations based on time domain are applied to the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (E(x)) and BOD decay rate (K(x)) in the BOD model for the tidal Foshan River. The derivatives of the inverse calculation have been respectively established on the basis of different flow directions in the tidal river. The results of this paper indicate that the calculated values of BOD based on the inverse calculation developed for the tidal Foshan River match the measured ones well. According to the calibration and verification of the inversely calculated BOD models, K(x) is more sensitive to the models than E(x) and different data sets of E(x) and K(x) hardly affect the precision of the models. PMID:25026574

  1. Electronic Eye: Streaming Video On-Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meulen, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of on-demand streaming video in school libraries. Explains how streaming works, considers advantages and technical issues, and describes products from three companies that are pioneering streaming in the educational video market. (LRW)

  2. Program Calculates Power Demands Of Electronic Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    CURRENT computer program calculates power requirements of electronic designs. For given design, CURRENT reads in applicable parts-list file and file containing current required for each part. Program also calculates power required for circuit at supply potentials of 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5 volts. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. Sun version of program (NPO-19590). PC version of program (NPO-19111).

  3. Bowl Inversion and Electronic Switching of Buckybowls on Gold.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shintaro; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-09-21

    Bowl-shaped π-conjugated compounds, or buckybowls, are a novel class of sp(2)-hybridized nanocarbon materials. In contrast to tubular carbon nanotubes and ball-shaped fullerenes, the buckybowls feature structural flexibility. Bowl-to-bowl structural inversion is one of the unique properties of the buckybowls in solutions. Bowl inversion on a surface modifies the metal-molecule interactions through bistable switching between bowl-up and bowl-down states on the surface, which makes surface-adsorbed buckybowls a relevant model system for elucidation of the mechano-electronic properties of nanocarbon materials. Here, we report a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements and ab initio atomistic simulations to identify the adlayer structure of the sumanene buckybowl on Au(111) and reveal its unique bowl inversion behavior. We demonstrate that the bowl inversion can be induced by approaching the STM tip toward the molecule. By tuning the local metal-molecule interaction using the STM tip, the sumanene buckybowl exhibits structural bistability with a switching rate that is two orders of magnitude faster than that of the stochastic inversion process. PMID:27556409

  4. Inverse photoelectron spectrometer with magnetically focused electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, Isay L.

    1991-01-01

    An inverse photoelectron spectrometer is described which is based on the design of a magnetically focused low energy electron gun. The magnetic lens extends its field over a relatively large segment of the electron trajectory, which could provide a better focusing effect on a high-current-density low-velocity electron beam, providing the magnetic field in the vicinity of the target is reduced sufficiently to preserve the collinearity of the beam. In order to prove the concept, ray tracing is conducted using the Herrmannsfeldt program for solving electron trajectories in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems. The program allows the calculation of the angles of the electron trajectories with the z axis, at the target location. The results of the ray-tracing procedure conducted for this gun are discussed. Some of the advantages of the magnetic focusing are also discussed.

  5. Quasi-ballistic Electronic Thermal Conduction in Metal Inverse Opals.

    PubMed

    Barako, Michael T; Sood, Aditya; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Junjie; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Zheng, Xiaolin; Braun, Paul V; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2016-04-13

    Porous metals are used in interfacial transport applications that leverage the combination of electrical and/or thermal conductivity and the large available surface area. As nanomaterials push toward smaller pore sizes to increase the total surface area and reduce diffusion length scales, electron conduction within the metal scaffold becomes suppressed due to increased surface scattering. Here we observe the transition from diffusive to quasi-ballistic thermal conduction using metal inverse opals (IOs), which are metal films that contain a periodic arrangement of interconnected spherical pores. As the material dimensions are reduced from ∼230 nm to ∼23 nm, the thermal conductivity of copper IOs is reduced by more than 57% due to the increase in surface scattering. In contrast, nickel IOs exhibit diffusive-like conduction and have a constant thermal conductivity over this size regime. The quasi-ballistic nature of electron transport at these length scales is modeled considering the inverse opal geometry, surface scattering, and grain boundaries. Understanding the characteristics of electron conduction at the nanoscale is essential to minimizing the total resistance of porous metals for interfacial transport applications, such as the total electrical resistance of battery electrodes and the total thermal resistance of microscale heat exchangers. PMID:26986050

  6. Quasi-ballistic Electronic Thermal Conduction in Metal Inverse Opals.

    PubMed

    Barako, Michael T; Sood, Aditya; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Junjie; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Zheng, Xiaolin; Braun, Paul V; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2016-04-13

    Porous metals are used in interfacial transport applications that leverage the combination of electrical and/or thermal conductivity and the large available surface area. As nanomaterials push toward smaller pore sizes to increase the total surface area and reduce diffusion length scales, electron conduction within the metal scaffold becomes suppressed due to increased surface scattering. Here we observe the transition from diffusive to quasi-ballistic thermal conduction using metal inverse opals (IOs), which are metal films that contain a periodic arrangement of interconnected spherical pores. As the material dimensions are reduced from ∼230 nm to ∼23 nm, the thermal conductivity of copper IOs is reduced by more than 57% due to the increase in surface scattering. In contrast, nickel IOs exhibit diffusive-like conduction and have a constant thermal conductivity over this size regime. The quasi-ballistic nature of electron transport at these length scales is modeled considering the inverse opal geometry, surface scattering, and grain boundaries. Understanding the characteristics of electron conduction at the nanoscale is essential to minimizing the total resistance of porous metals for interfacial transport applications, such as the total electrical resistance of battery electrodes and the total thermal resistance of microscale heat exchangers.

  7. Electron electric dipole moment in Inverse Seesaw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abada, Asmaa; Toma, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    We consider the contribution of sterile neutrinos to the electric dipole moment of charged leptons in the most minimal realisation of the Inverse Seesaw mechanism, in which the Standard Model is extended by two right-handed neutrinos and two sterile fermion states. Our study shows that the two pairs of (heavy) pseudo-Dirac mass eigen-states can give significant contributions to the electron electric dipole moment, lying close to future experimental sensitivity if their masses are above the electroweak scale. The major contribution comes from two-loop diagrams with pseudo-Dirac neutrino states running in the loops. In our analysis we further discuss the possibility of having a successful leptogenesis in this framework, compatible with a large electron electric dipole moment.

  8. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2002-01-01

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  9. Inverse planning of energy-modulated electron beams in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, John R. . E-mail: gentryj@gmh.org; Steeves, Richard; Paliwal, Bhudatt A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of megavoltage electron beams often poses a clinical challenge in that the planning target volume (PTV) is anterior to other radiosensitive structures and has variable depth. To ensure that skin as well as the deepest extent of the PTV receives the prescribed dose entails prescribing to a point beyond the depth of peak dose for a single electron energy. This causes dose inhomogeneities and heightened potential for tissue fibrosis, scarring, and possible soft tissue necrosis. Use of bolus on the skin improves the entrant dose at the cost of decreasing the therapeutic depth that can be treated. Selection of a higher energy to improve dose homogeneity results in increased dose to structures beyond the PTV, as well as enlargement of the volume receiving heightened dose. Measured electron data from a linear accelerator was used as input to create an inverse planning tool employing energy and intensity modulation using bolus (e-IMRT{sup TM}). Using tools readily available in a radiotherapy department, the applications of energy and intensity modulation on the central axis makes it possible to remove hot spots of 115% or more over the depths clinically encountered. The e-IMRT{sup TM} algorithm enables the development of patient-specific dose distributions with user-defined positions of peak dose, range, and reduced dose to points beyond the prescription point.

  10. Inversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…

  11. Electron energy and electron trajectories in an inverse free-electron laser accelerator based on a novel electrostatic wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikrah, M.; Jafari, S.

    2016-06-01

    We expand here a theory of a high-gradient laser-excited electron accelerator based on an inverse free-electron laser (inverse-FEL), but with innovations in the structure and design. The electrostatic wiggler used in our scheme, namely termed the Paul wiggler, is generated by segmented cylindrical electrodes with applied oscillatory voltages {{V}\\text{osc}}(t) over {{90}\\circ} segments. The inverse-FEL interaction can be described by the equations that govern the electron motion in the combined fields of both the laser pulse and Paul wiggler field. A numerical study of electron energy and electron trajectories has been made using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. The results indicate that the electron attains a considerable energy at short distances in this device. It is found that if the electron has got sufficient suitable wiggler amplitude intensities, it can not only gain higher energy in longer distances, but also can retain it even after the passing of the laser pulse. In addition, the results reveal that the electron energy gains different peaks for different initial axial velocities, so that a suitable small initial axial velocity of e-beam produces substantially high energy gain. With regard to the transverse confinement of the electron beam in a Paul wiggler, there is no applied axial guide magnetic field in this device.

  12. Electron energy and electron trajectories in an inverse free-electron laser accelerator based on a novel electrostatic wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikrah, M.; Jafari, S.

    2016-06-01

    We expand here a theory of a high-gradient laser-excited electron accelerator based on an inverse free-electron laser (inverse-FEL), but with innovations in the structure and design. The electrostatic wiggler used in our scheme, namely termed the Paul wiggler, is generated by segmented cylindrical electrodes with applied oscillatory voltages {{V}\\text{osc}}(t) over {{90}\\circ} segments. The inverse-FEL interaction can be described by the equations that govern the electron motion in the combined fields of both the laser pulse and Paul wiggler field. A numerical study of electron energy and electron trajectories has been made using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The results indicate that the electron attains a considerable energy at short distances in this device. It is found that if the electron has got sufficient suitable wiggler amplitude intensities, it can not only gain higher energy in longer distances, but also can retain it even after the passing of the laser pulse. In addition, the results reveal that the electron energy gains different peaks for different initial axial velocities, so that a suitable small initial axial velocity of e-beam produces substantially high energy gain. With regard to the transverse confinement of the electron beam in a Paul wiggler, there is no applied axial guide magnetic field in this device.

  13. Electronic structure of normal, inverse, and partially inverse spinels in the MgAl2O4 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Shang-Di; Ching, W. Y.

    1996-12-01

    The electronic structure of normal, inverse, and partially inverse spinels in the MgAl2O4 system are studied by means of first-principles calculations. For the normal spinel, the calculated ground-state properties are in good agreement with experimental data. A local-density-approximation band gap of 5.80 eV is obtained. For the inverse and partially inverse spinels, in which up to eight Mg atoms in a tetrahedral coordination are interchanged with eight of the 16 Al atoms in octahedral coordination, the atomic positions are relaxed by realistic interatomic pair potentials. Based on the relaxed models, the electronic structure and their dependence on the inversion parameter λ are studied. The total lattice energy increases as λ increases with a change of slope at λ=4/16. It is found that the general features in the density of states (DOS) in these spinels are quite similar with subtle differences in the peak structures between normal and inverse spinels. The smallest band gap of 4.84 eV is found at λ=4/16. The orbital decomposition of the partial DOS of Al and Mg in different coordination environments is fully analyzed. These results are discussed in the context of an order-disorder phenomenon associated with a cation site interchange, and their implications on spectroscopic detections.

  14. High-quality electron beams from a helical inverse free-electron laser accelerator.

    PubMed

    Duris, J; Musumeci, P; Babzien, M; Fedurin, M; Kusche, K; Li, R K; Moody, J; Pogorelsky, I; Polyanskiy, M; Rosenzweig, J B; Sakai, Y; Swinson, C; Threlkeld, E; Williams, O; Yakimenko, V

    2014-09-15

    Compact, table-top sized accelerators are key to improving access to high-quality beams for use in industry, medicine and academic research. Among laser-based accelerating schemes, the inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) enjoys unique advantages. By using an undulator magnetic field in combination with a laser, GeV m(-1) gradients may be sustained over metre-scale distances using laser intensities several orders of magnitude less than those used in laser wake-field accelerators. Here we show for the first time the capture and high-gradient acceleration of monoenergetic electron beams from a helical IFEL. Using a modest intensity (~10(13) W cm(-2)) laser pulse and strongly tapered 0.5 m long undulator, we demonstrate >100 MV m(-1) accelerating gradient, >50 MeV energy gain and excellent output beam quality. Our results pave the way towards compact, tunable GeV IFEL accelerators for applications such as driving soft X-ray free-electron lasers and producing γ-rays by inverse Compton scattering.

  15. A Monte Carlo study on electron mobility in quantized cubic silicon carbide inversion layers

    SciTech Connect

    Gamiz, F.; Roldan, J.B.; Lopez-Villanueva, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    Electron transport properties in cubic silicon carbide ({beta}-SiC) quantized inversion layers have been studied and the results of electron mobility calculations at room and higher temperatures have been reported. To do so, we have developed a Monte Carlo simulator used in conjunction with the self-consistent solution of the Poisson and Schroedinger equations. We show that for a fixed inversion charge concentration, {beta}-SiC inversion layer electrons spread less into the bulk than Si ones as a consequence of the effective mass values. Therefore, the defects of the SiO{sub 2}/{beta}-SiC (interface roughness, charged centers) will strongly affect electron transport properties. We present simulated mobility curves for quantized {beta}-SiC inversion layers taking into account different scattering mechanisms which are then compared to Si mobility curves. Special attention has been paid to the effect of Coulomb scattering due to both interface- and oxide-trapped charges. Mobility curves obtained for different interface-trapped charge concentrations show that electrons in silicon carbide inversion layers are more affected by surface defects at room and higher temperatures than they are in silicon inversion layers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Electron orbits in the microwave inverse FEL accelerator (MIFELA)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.B.; Marshall, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    The MIFELA is a new device based on stimulated absorption of microwaves by electrons moving along an undulator. An intense microwave field is used (a{sub s} = eE{sub s}/k{sub s} m c{sup 2} = 0.2) as well as a large undulator field (a{sub w}/{gamma} = eB{sub {perpendicular}}/{gamma}k{sub w} mc{sup 2} = 1/2) to accelerate electrons emitted at 6MeV from a rf gun to 20MeV in 1.5m. The spiral radius of the electrons in the undulator is 8mm, in a waveguide of diameter 34mm, with undulator period about 10cm. There is a small guiding field, and the electrons move in type I orbits. We describe three problems connected with the orbital motion of the electrons in this structure: (i) injecting the electrons in an increasing undulator field prior to entering the MIFELA; (ii) orbital motion and stability inside the MIFELA; (iii) extraction of electrons from the spiral orbit in the accelerator into an axially-propagating beam, obtaining {Beta}{sub {perpendicular}} < 0.02. These studies have application to a MIFELA which is under construction at Yale University by Omega-P.

  17. Control of wire heating with resistively guided fast electrons through an inverse conical taper

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A. P. L. Schmitz, H.; Green, J. S.; Booth, N.; Ridgers, C. P.; Pasley, J.

    2015-04-15

    The heating of a solid wire embedded in a solid substrate (of lower Z material) with relativistic electrons generated by ultra-intense laser irradiation is considered. Previously, it has been noted that the initial angular distribution of the fast electrons is a highly important factor in the efficacy of the heating [Robinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122701 (2013)]. We show that, using 3D numerical simulations, the addition of an inverse conical taper at the front of wire can considerably improve the heating of the wire due to the reduction of angular spread of the fast electrons which is caused by transport through the inverse conical taper [Robinson et al., “Guiding of laser-generated fast electrons by exploiting the resistivity-gradients around a conical guide element,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion (to be published)].

  18. Proton laser accelerator by means of the inverse free electron laser mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Zakowicz, W.

    1984-07-01

    The inverse free electron laser accelerator is considered to be a potential high gradient electron accelerator. In this accelerator electrons oscillating in the magnetic field of a wiggler can gain energy from a strong laser beam propagating collinearly. The same mechanism of acceleration can work for protons and all other heavier particles. One can expect that the proton acceleration will be less effective, as it is more difficult to wiggle a heavier particle. It is indeed so, but this less efficient coupling of the proton and laser beam is partly compensated by the negligible radiative losses. These losses impose restrictions on the electron acceleration above 100 Gev. 6 references, 2 figures.

  19. Effect of electron collisions on transport coefficients induced by the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hueller, S.

    2005-03-01

    The transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the electron Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the electron mean-free-path {lambda}{sub ei} compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. Electron-electron collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the transport coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L.

  20. Unoccupied electronic resonances of Sc adsorbed on W(001) by k-resolved inverse photoemission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamouri, A.; Krainsky, I. L.; Petukhov, A. G.; Lambrecht, W. R. L.; Segall, B.

    1995-01-01

    Scandium adsorbed on the (001) face of tungsten has been studied using Auger-electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, k-resolved inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, work-function measurements, and relativistic-electronic-structure calculations. We find that the work function of W(001) does not decrease monotonically as a function of scandium adsorption but reaches a minimum value of Phi = 3.25 eV at 50% coverage. For a complete monolayer, an order 1 X 1 Sc overlayer is formed. Inverse photoemission in the isochromat mode was used to map the unoccupied energy levels of this overlayer along the bar-Gamma(bar-Mu) symmetry direction of the surface Brillouin zone. Local-density-functional calculations using the muffin-tin orbital method were performed for a 1 X 1 Sc overlayer on W and are compared with the experimental two-dimensional band structure.

  1. High-energy, laser accelerator for electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.R.; Pantell, R.H.

    1983-08-01

    A laser method for accelerating electrons is described, based on the inverse Cherenkov effect in a gas. The laser fields are in the form of a cylindrical cone of plane waves on whose axis travel the electrons, with the cone angle and the gas refraction index such that each electron sees constant fields in time. Expressions are obtained relating the overall energy transfer to total laser power and wavelength, and to gas index and interaction length. With laser powers now available, energy increments of tens of GeV are possible. For comparative purposes, a related alternative scheme involving electrons in vacuum and evanescent laser fields is also analyzed. It is found that the method applies particularly well to adding energy to the electron bunches produced by large microwave accelerators, as collision effects are less troublesome at high injection energies.

  2. Rotatable spin-polarized electron source for inverse-photoemission experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stolwijk, S. D. Wortelen, H.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.

    2014-01-15

    We present a ROtatable Spin-polarized Electron source (ROSE) for the use in spin- and angle-resolved inverse-photoemission (SR-IPE) experiments. A key feature of the ROSE is a variable direction of the transversal electron beam polarization. As a result, the inverse-photoemission experiment becomes sensitive to two orthogonal in-plane polarization directions, and, for nonnormal electron incidence, to the out-of-plane polarization component. We characterize the ROSE and test its performance on the basis of SR-IPE experiments. Measurements on magnetized Ni films on W(110) serve as a reference to demonstrate the variable spin sensitivity. Moreover, investigations of the unoccupied spin-dependent surface electronic structure of Tl/Si(111) highlight the capability to analyze complex phenomena like spin rotations in momentum space. Essentially, the ROSE opens the way to further studies on complex spin-dependent effects in the field of surface magnetism and spin-orbit interaction at surfaces.

  3. Magnetic helicity conservation and inverse energy cascade in electron magnetohydrodynamic wave packets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2011-05-13

    Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.

  4. Inversion of Dynamical Scattering from Large-Angle Rocking-Beam Electron Diffraction Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Pennington, Robert S.; Koch, Christoph T.

    2016-07-01

    A method for ab initio structure factor retrieval from large-angle rocking-beam electron diffraction data of thin crystals is described and tested with experimental and simulated data. No additional information, such as atomicity or information about chemical composition, has been made use of. Our numerical experiments show that the inversion of dynamical scattering works best, if the beam tilt range is large and the specimen not too thick, because for moderate multiple scattering, the large tilt amplitude effectively removes local minima in this global optimization problem.

  5. Detecting Band Inversions by Measuring the Environment: Fingerprints of Electronic Band Topology in Bulk Phonon Linewidths.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kush; Légaré, Katherine; Garate, Ion

    2015-10-23

    The interplay between topological phases of matter and dissipative baths constitutes an emergent research topic with links to condensed matter, photonic crystals, cold atomic gases, and quantum information. While recent studies suggest that dissipative baths can induce topological phases in intrinsically trivial quantum materials, the backaction of topological invariants on dissipative baths is overlooked. By exploring this backaction for a centrosymmetric Dirac insulator coupled to phonons, we show that the linewidths of bulk optical phonons can reveal electronic band inversions. This result is the first known example where topological phases of an open quantum system may be detected by measuring the bulk properties of the surrounding environment.

  6. The theory and design of a chirped-pulse inverse free-electron laser: An innovative, compact, high-energy, vacuum-based, electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troha, Anthony Lawrence

    As current high-energy accelerator facilities continue to increase in both size and cost, there is a growing need for a relatively small and inexpensive alternative. Numerous experiments over the past decade have shown the inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) to be a feasible laser-driven particle accelerator. In the present work, a new variant of the IFEL is proposed, which uses a short-duration, chirped laser pulse to greatly increase the energy exchange from the drive-laser pulse to the electron bunch. An extensive investigation is then conducted, starting with analytical and numerical studies of the dynamics of an electron interacting with a high-intensity, focused laser pulse. Following a review of the physics behind a free-electron laser (FEL), a detailed analysis of several variants of the IFEL is performed, from which it is determined that an IFEL driven by a chirped laser pulse will not suffer the detrimental effects experienced by other IFEL schemes. The design specifications for the chirped-pulse inverse free-electron laser (CPIFEL) are then obtained from theoretical and computational models of the interaction, which culminates in a device that has an acceleration gradient approaching 1 GeV/m over an interaction distance of less than 5 cm. The acceleration mechanism is very efficient, providing a nearly uniform acceleration to a picosecond-duration charge bunch. The demands on laser technology are stringent, but not extreme. The laser must produce chirped-pulse durations only a few optical cycles long and intensities near 9 x 1016 W/cm2 at the focal plane. The IFEL is also an appealing choice, because it is essentially an FEL functioning in a different operational mode. FEL's are a well-established, familiar technology, routinely and reliably employed in a variety of research facilities throughout the world. Thus, the development of the IFEL has a strong foundation upon which to build, a heritage that will hopefully hasten the realization of a CPIFEL

  7. Silicon-carbon bond inversions driven by 60-keV electrons in graphene.

    PubMed

    Susi, Toma; Kotakoski, Jani; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Mangler, Clemens; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Zan, Recep; Bangert, Ursel; Ayala, Paola; Meyer, Jannik C; Ramasse, Quentin

    2014-09-12

    We demonstrate that 60-keV electron irradiation drives the diffusion of threefold-coordinated Si dopants in graphene by one lattice site at a time. First principles simulations reveal that each step is caused by an electron impact on a C atom next to the dopant. Although the atomic motion happens below our experimental time resolution, stochastic analysis of 38 such lattice jumps reveals a probability for their occurrence in a good agreement with the simulations. Conversions from three- to fourfold coordinated dopant structures and the subsequent reverse process are significantly less likely than the direct bond inversion. Our results thus provide a model of nondestructive and atomically precise structural modification and detection for two-dimensional materials.

  8. Chirped-Pulse Inverse Free Electron Laser: A Tabletop, High-Gradient Vacuum Laser Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Troha, A L; Baldis, H A

    2001-03-05

    The inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) interaction is studied both theoretically and numerically in the case where the drive laser intensity approaches the relativistic regime, and the pulse duration is only a few optical cycles long. We show that by using an ultrashort, ultrahigh-intensity drive laser pulse, the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased considerably, thus yielding large energy gains. Using a chirped pulse and negative dispersion focusing optics allows one to take further advantage of the laser optical bandwidth and produce a chromatic line focus maximizing the gradient. The combination of these novel ideas results in a compact vacuum laser accelerator capable of accelerating picosecond electron bunches with a high gradient (GeV/m) and very low energy spread. A computer code which takes into account the three-dimensional nature of the interaction is currently in development and results are expected this Spring.

  9. High Harmonic Inverse Free-Electron-Laser Interaction at 800nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Christopher M.S.; Colby, Eric; Cowan, Ben; Siemann, Robert H.; Spencer, James; Byer, Robert L.; Plettner, Tomas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-05-13

    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and used as a short wavelength modulator for micro bunching of beams for laser acceleration experiments [1,2]. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.5 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. We also compare the experimental results to a simple analytic model that describes coupling to high order harmonics of the interaction.

  10. High-Harmonic Inverse Free-Electron-Laser Interaction at 800nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, C

    2006-02-17

    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and used as a short wavelength modulator for micro bunching of beams for laser acceleration experiments [1,2]. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.5 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. We also compare the experimental results to a simple analytic model that describes coupling to high order harmonics of the interaction.

  11. Halide-Substituted Electronic Properties of Organometal Halide Perovskite Films: Direct and Inverse Photoemission Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi; Wei, Jian; Sato, Mikio; Koike, Harunobu; Xie, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Yan-Qing; Kanai, Kaname; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2016-05-11

    Solution-processed perovskite solar cells are attracting increasing interest due to their potential in next-generation hybrid photovoltaic devices. Despite the morphological control over the perovskite films, quantitative information on electronic structures and interface energetics is of paramount importance to the optimal photovoltaic performance. Here, direct and inverse photoemission spectroscopies are used to determine the electronic structures and chemical compositions of various methylammonium lead halide perovskite films (MAPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I), revealing the strong influence of halide substitution on the electronic properties of perovskite films. Precise control over halide compositions in MAPbX3 films causes the manipulation of the electronic properties, with a qualitatively blue shift along the I → Br → Cl series and showing the increase in ionization potentials from 5.96 to 7.04 eV and the change of transport band gaps in the range from 1.70 to 3.09 eV. The resulting light absorption of MAPbX3 films can cover the entire visible region from 420 to 800 nm. The results presented here provide a quantitative guide for the analysis of perovskite-based solar cell performance and the selection of optimal carrier-extraction materials for photogenerated electrons and holes. PMID:27101940

  12. High performance electronic device for the measurement of the inverse spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Javier E.; Guillén, Matías; Butera, Alejandro; Albaugh, Neil P.

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a high performance analog electronic device that can be used for the measurement of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) as a function of the applied magnetic field. The electronic circuit is based on the synchronous detection technique with a careful selection of the active components in order to optimize the response in this application. The electronic accessory was adapted for the simultaneous measurement of the ISHE signal and the microwave absorption in an electron spin resonance spectrometer and tested with a bilayer sample of 5 nm of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) and 5 nm of tantalum. The response of the electronic device was characterized as a function of the microwave power, the amplitude and frequency of the modulation signal, and the relative phase between signal and reference. This last characterization reveals a simple method to put in phase the signal with the reference. The maximum signal to noise ratio was achieved for a modulation frequency between 6 and 12 kHz, for the largest possible values of field modulation amplitude and microwave power.

  13. High performance electronic device for the measurement of the inverse spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Javier E; Guillén, Matías; Butera, Alejandro; Albaugh, Neil P

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a high performance analog electronic device that can be used for the measurement of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) as a function of the applied magnetic field. The electronic circuit is based on the synchronous detection technique with a careful selection of the active components in order to optimize the response in this application. The electronic accessory was adapted for the simultaneous measurement of the ISHE signal and the microwave absorption in an electron spin resonance spectrometer and tested with a bilayer sample of 5 nm of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) and 5 nm of tantalum. The response of the electronic device was characterized as a function of the microwave power, the amplitude and frequency of the modulation signal, and the relative phase between signal and reference. This last characterization reveals a simple method to put in phase the signal with the reference. The maximum signal to noise ratio was achieved for a modulation frequency between 6 and 12 kHz, for the largest possible values of field modulation amplitude and microwave power. PMID:26931877

  14. Inverse Compton Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool for the Measurement of Electron Beam Energies in Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchley, A. D. J.

    2003-10-01

    The main emphasis of the diode research project at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) UK is to produce small diameter radiographic spot sizes at high dose to improve the resolution of the transmission radiographs taken during hydrodynamic experiments. Experimental measurements of conditions within the diodes of Pulsed Power driven flash x-ray machines are vital to provide a benchmark for electromagnetic PIC codes such as LSP which are used to develop new diode designs. The potential use of inverse Compton scattering (ICS) as a diagnostic technique in the determination of electron energies within the diode has been investigated. The interaction of a laser beam with a beam of high-energy electrons will create an ICS spectrum of photons. Theoretically, one should be able to glean information on the energies and positions of the electrons from the energy spectrum and differential cross section of the scattered photons. The feasibility of fielding this technique on various diode designs has been explored, and an experimental setup with the greatest likelihood of success is proposed.

  15. The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Background While much is known about the demand for conventional cigarettes, little is known about the determinants of demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes). The goal of this study is to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and to examine the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free policies on e-cigarette sales. Methods Quarterly e-cigarette prices and sales and conventional cigarette prices from 2009 to 2012 were constructed from commercial retail store scanner data from 52 US markets, for food, drug and mass stores, and from 25 markets, for convenience stores. Fixed-effects models were used to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and associations between e-cigarette sales and cigarette prices and smoke-free policies. Results Estimated own price elasticities for disposable e-cigarettes centred around −1.2, while those for reusable e-cigarettes were approximately −1.9. Disposable e-cigarette sales were higher in markets where reusable e-cigarette prices were higher and where less of the population was covered by a comprehensive smoke-free policy. There were no consistent and statistically significant relationships between cigarette prices and e-cigarette sales. Conclusions E-cigarette sales are very responsive to own price changes. Disposable e-cigarettes appear to be substitutes for reusable e-cigarettes. Policies increasing e-cigarette retail prices, such as limiting rebates, discounts and coupons and imposing a tax on e-cigarettes, could potentially lead to significant reductions in e-cigarette sales. Differential tax policies based on product type could lead to substitution between different types of e-cigarettes. PMID:24935898

  16. Electronic Properties of Pseudomorphic Metallic Films: Photoemission and Inverse Photoemission Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankey, Gary Jay

    Recent developments in experimental physics have made possible the production and characterization of ultrathin metallic films of atomic dimension. The methods used to grow pseudomorphic fcc films of Ni, Co, and Fe on Cu(001) are described. High-quality epitaxial films are produced by vapor deposition in an ultra-high vacuum environment on suitably prepared substrates. The morphology of these films is characterized using a variety of experimental techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and thermal desorption spectroscopy of adsorbed hydrogen. The magnetic properties of the films are measured with a surface magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometer. The occupied and unoccupied electronic band dispersions and critical point energies are determined with photoemission and inverse photoemission measurements. These measurements are used as eigenvalues for an empirical combined interpolation scheme bandstructure calculation of the energy bands along the fcc(001) surface normal. Results are presented for Cu(001), Ni(001), Co(001), and paramagnetic Fe(001). Changes in the unoccupied electronic states in the ultrathin film limit are determined for Co and Fe films on Cu(111). The Co films exhibit a bulk-like electronic structure similar to hcp Co(0001) down to films one atomic layer thick. The low-spin ferromagnetic phase of fcc Fe is produced on Cu(111) for films below 5 atomic layers thick. Above this thickness, the Fe films revert to a bulk-like bcc(110) phase. The development of the electronic structure is measured for ultrathin Cu films grown on a specially prepared fcc Co(001) substrate. The Cu 3d band is significantly narrowed for films 1 atomic layer thick and bulk-like for films 3 atomic layers thick (one fcc unit cell). The s, p band exhibits quantum-well states due to the discretization of reciprocal space in the direction perpendicular to the film surface. These quantum-well states are

  17. Carr-Purcell Pulsed Electron Double Resonance with Shaped Inversion Pulses.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Philipp E; Waclawska, Izabela; Endeward, Burkhard; Plackmeyer, Jörn; Ziegler, Christine; Prisner, Thomas F

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy allows the determination of distances, in the range of 1.5-8 nm, between two spin-labels attached to macromolecules containing protons. Unfortunately, for hydrophobic lipid-bound or detergent-solubilized membrane proteins, the maximum distance accessible is much lower, because of a strongly reduced coherence time of the electron spins. Here we introduce a pulse sequence, based on a Carr-Purcell decoupling scheme on the observer spin, where each π-pulse is accompanied by a shaped sech/tanh inversion pulse applied to the second spin, to overcome this limitation. This pump/probe excitation scheme efficiently recouples the dipolar interaction, allowing a substantially longer observation time window to be achieved. This increases the upper limit and accuracy of distances that can be determined in membrane protein complexes. We validated the method on a bis-nitroxide model compound and applied this technique to the trimeric betaine transporter BetP. Interprotomer distances as long as 6 nm could be reliably determined, which is impossible with the existing methods. PMID:26538047

  18. Accelerating atomic orbital-based electronic structure calculation via pole expansion and selected inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Mohan; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin

    2013-07-01

    We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion and selected inversion (PEXSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating the charge density, the total energy, the Helmholtz free energy and the atomic forces (including both the Hellmann-Feynman force and the Pulay force) without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEXSI is that it has a computational complexity much lower than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEXSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEXSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundreds. Both the wall clock time and the memory requirement of PEXSI are modest. This even makes it possible to perform Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for 10 000-atom nanotubes with a sequential implementation of the selected inversion algorithm. We also perform an accurate geometry optimization calculation on a truncated (8, 0) boron nitride nanotube system containing 1024 atoms. Numerical results indicate that the use of PEXSI does not lead to loss of the accuracy required in a practical DFT calculation.

  19. Electron acceleration in the inverse free electron laser with a helical wiggler by axial magnetic field and ion-channel guiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Khazaeinezhad; Mahdi, Esmaeilzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Electron acceleration in the inverse free electron laser (IFEL) with a helical wiggler in the presence of ion-channel guiding and axial magnetic field is investigated in this article. The effects of tapering wiggler amplitude and axial magnetic field are calculated for the electron acceleration. In free electron lasers, electron beams lose energy through radiation while in IFEL electron beams gain energy from the laser. The equation of electron motion and the equation of energy exchange between a single electron and electromagnetic waves are derived and then solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The tapering effects of a wiggler magnetic field on electron acceleration are investigated and the results show that the electron acceleration increases in the case of a tapered wiggler magnetic field with a proper taper constant.

  20. Role-based access control through on-demand classification of electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Basant; Kumar, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) provides convenient method to exchange medical information of patients between different healthcare providers. Access control mechanism in healthcare services characterises authorising users to access EHR records. Role Based Access Control helps to restrict EHRs to users in a certain role. Significant works have been carried out for access control since last one decade but little emphasis has been given to on-demand role based access control. Presented work achieved access control through physical data isolation which is more robust and secure. We propose an algorithm in which selective combination of policies for each user of the EHR database has been defined. We extend well known data mining technique 'classification' to group EHRs with respect to the given role. Algorithm works by taking various roles as class and defined their features as a vector. Here, features are used as a Feature Vector for classification to describe user authority. PMID:26559071

  1. Role-based access control through on-demand classification of electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Basant; Kumar, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) provides convenient method to exchange medical information of patients between different healthcare providers. Access control mechanism in healthcare services characterises authorising users to access EHR records. Role Based Access Control helps to restrict EHRs to users in a certain role. Significant works have been carried out for access control since last one decade but little emphasis has been given to on-demand role based access control. Presented work achieved access control through physical data isolation which is more robust and secure. We propose an algorithm in which selective combination of policies for each user of the EHR database has been defined. We extend well known data mining technique 'classification' to group EHRs with respect to the given role. Algorithm works by taking various roles as class and defined their features as a vector. Here, features are used as a Feature Vector for classification to describe user authority.

  2. Accelerating Atomic Orbital-based Electronic Structure Calculation via Pole Expansion plus Selected Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Mohan; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin

    2012-02-10

    We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEpSI is that it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEpSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEpSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundreds. Both the wall clock time and the memory requirement of PEpSI is modest. This makes it even possible to perform Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for 10,000-atom nanotubes on a single processor. We also show that the use of PEpSI does not lead to loss of accuracy required in a practical DFT calculation.

  3. CONSTRAINING CHANGES IN THE PROTON-ELECTRON MASS RATIO WITH INVERSION AND ROTATIONAL LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Kanekar, Nissim

    2011-02-10

    We report deep Green Bank Telescope spectroscopy in the redshifted NH{sub 3} (1,1), CS 1-0, and H{sub 2}CO 0{sub 00}-1{sub 01} lines from the z {approx} 0.685 absorber toward B0218+357. The inversion (NH{sub 3}) and rotational (CS, H{sub 2}CO) line frequencies have different dependences on the proton-electron mass ratio {mu}, implying that a comparison between the line redshifts is sensitive to changes in {mu}. A joint three-component fit to the NH{sub 3}, CS, and H{sub 2}CO lines yields [{Delta}{mu}/{mu}] = (-3.5 {+-} 1.2) x 10{sup -7}, from z {approx} 0.685 to today, where the error includes systematic effects from comparing lines from different species and possible frequency-dependent source morphology. Two additional sources of systematic error remain, due to time variability in the source morphology and velocity offsets between nitrogen-bearing and carbon-bearing species. We find no statistically significant ({>=}3{sigma}) evidence for changes in {mu} and obtain the stringent 3{sigma} constraint, [{Delta}{mu}/{mu}] < 3.6 x 10{sup -7}, over 6.2 Gyr; this is the best present limit on temporal changes in {mu} from any technique, and for any look-back time, by a factor {approx}>5.

  4. Optical and Electronic Properties of Si Nanoclusters Synthesized in Inverse Micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Provencio, P.N.; Samara, G.A.; Wilcoxon, J.P.

    1998-12-14

    Highly crystalline, size-selected silicon (Si) nanocrystals in the size range 2-10 nm were grown in inverse micelles and their optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) properties were studied. High resolution TEM and electron diffraction results show that these nanocrystals retain their cubic diamond stuctures down to sizes {approximately}4 nm in diameter, and optical absorption data suggest that this structure and bulk-like properties are retained down to the smallest sizes produced ({approximately}1.8 nm diameter containing about 150 Si atoms). High pressure liquid chromatography techniques with on-line optical and electrical diagnostics were developed to purify and separate the clusters into pure, monodisperse populations. The optical absorption revealed features associated with both the indirect and direct bandgap transitions, and these transitions exhibited different quantum confinement effects. The indirect bandgap shifts from 1.1 eV in the bulk to {approximately}2.1 eV for nanocrystals {approximately}2 nm in diameter and the direct transition at r(l_"X - r15) blue shifts by 0.4 eV from its 3.4 eV bulk value over the same size range. Tailorable, visible, room temperature PL in the range 700-350 nm (1.8 - 3.5 eV) was observed from these nanocrystals. The most intense PL was in the violet region of the spectrum ({approximately}400 nm) and is attributed to direct electron-hole recombination. Other less intense PL peaks are attributed to surface state and to indirect bandgap recombination. The results are compared to earlier work on Si clusters grown by other techniques and to the predictions of various model calculations. Currently, the wide variations in the theoretical predictions of the various models along with considerable uncertainties in experimental size determination for clusters less than 3-4 nm, make it difficult to select among competing models.

  5. Unconventional exo selectivity in thermal normal-electron-demand Diels–Alder reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Guo-Ming; Huang, Ci-Jhang; Li, Elise Yu-Tzu; Hsu, Sheng-Kai; Wu, Ti; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Wu, Kevin Binchia; Hung, Shang-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    The Diels–Alder reaction is a useful tool for generating functionalized chiral molecules through the concerted cycloaddition of dienes and dienophiles leading to six-membered rings. Traditionally, the selective predictions of the products rely heavily on consideration of the secondary orbital interactions that stabilize the endo pathway. However, there remain some basic examples defying this notion and produce the exo-isomer as major product. Here we systematically evaluated of the structural features driving exo selectivity in thermal normal-electron-demand Diels–Alder reactions. Substitution at the Cβ position and the size and electronegativity of the electron-withdrawing group of the dienophile are contributing factors. Experimental and computational studies both point toward the steric and electrostatic forces between the substituents in both the diene and the dienophile that increase the likelihood of the exo pathway. For these substrates, the dominance of the endo pathway is reduced by transition state distortions and poor structural alignments of the reacting partners. We also noted the tilt of the dienophile with respect to the diene causing steric strain on the functionalities at the more advanced bond forming carbon-carbon position of the endo transition state. Insights into such factors may benefit synthetic planning and asserting control over this important named reaction.

  6. Unconventional exo selectivity in thermal normal-electron-demand Diels–Alder reactions

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Guo-Ming; Huang, Ci-Jhang; Li, Elise Yu-Tzu; Hsu, Sheng-Kai; Wu, Ti; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Wu, Kevin Binchia; Hung, Shang-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The Diels–Alder reaction is a useful tool for generating functionalized chiral molecules through the concerted cycloaddition of dienes and dienophiles leading to six-membered rings. Traditionally, the selective predictions of the products rely heavily on consideration of the secondary orbital interactions that stabilize the endo pathway. However, there remain some basic examples defying this notion and produce the exo-isomer as major product. Here we systematically evaluated of the structural features driving exo selectivity in thermal normal-electron-demand Diels–Alder reactions. Substitution at the Cβ position and the size and electronegativity of the electron-withdrawing group of the dienophile are contributing factors. Experimental and computational studies both point toward the steric and electrostatic forces between the substituents in both the diene and the dienophile that increase the likelihood of the exo pathway. For these substrates, the dominance of the endo pathway is reduced by transition state distortions and poor structural alignments of the reacting partners. We also noted the tilt of the dienophile with respect to the diene causing steric strain on the functionalities at the more advanced bond forming carbon-carbon position of the endo transition state. Insights into such factors may benefit synthetic planning and asserting control over this important named reaction. PMID:27731360

  7. Design and operation of an inverse free-electron-laser accelerator in the microwave regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Rodney Bruce

    2000-09-01

    A novel electron accelerator demonstrating the inverse free-electron-laser (IFEL) principle has been designed, built, and operated using radio-frequency power at 2.856 GHz. Such an accelerator uses a stationary, periodic magnetic field to impart transverse motion to charged particles, which are then accelerated by guided electromagnetic waves. The experiment described here demonstrates for the first time the phase dependence of IFEL acceleration. This design uses up to 15 MW of RF power propagating in a smooth-walled circular waveguide surrounded by a pulsed bifilar helical undulator; an array of solenoids provides an axial guiding magnetic field undulator; pitch, which is initially 11.75 cm, is linearly increased to 12.3 cm. over the 1-meter length of the structure to maintain acceleration gradient. Numerical computations predict an energy gain of up to 0.7 MeV using a 6 MeV injected beam from a 2-1/2 cell RF gun, with small energy spread and strong phase trapping. The initial injection phase is the most important parameter, determining the rate of energy gain or loss. These simulations are compared with experimental measurements at low power in which electron beams at energies between 5 and 6 MeV gain up to 0.35 MeV with minimal energy spread, all exiting particles having been accelerated. The predicted phase sensitivity of the mechanism is verified, with beams injected into accelerating phases gaining energy cleanly while those injected into ``decelerating'' phases are shown to be degraded in quality and hardly changed in energy, demonstrating the asymmetry of a tapered-wiggler design. Agreement with simulation is very good for accelerating phases, though less exact otherwise. Scaling to higher power and frequency is investigated. The maximum attainable acceleration gradient for a MIFELA using 150 MW of RF power at 34 GHz is estimated to be at least 30 MV/m, and laser IFELs could conceivably reach gradients in the GeV/m range.

  8. Benzofurans as efficient dienophiles in normal electron demand [4 + 2] cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Nathalie; Gérard, Hélène; Chataigner, Isabelle; Piettre, Serge R

    2009-02-01

    Dearomatization of electron-poor benzofurans is possible through involvement of the aromatic 2,3-carbon-carbon double bond as dienophile in normal electron demand [4 + 2] cycloadditions. The tricyclic heterocycles thereby produced bear a quaternary center at the cis ring junction, a feature of many alkaloids such as morphine, galanthamine, or lunaridine. The products arising from the reaction have been shown to depend on different factors among which the type of the electron-withdrawing substituent of the benzofuran, the nature of the reacting diene, and the method of activation. In the presence of all-carbon dienes, the reaction yields the expected Diels-Alder adducts. When thermal activation is insufficient, a biactivation associating zinc chloride catalysis and high pressure is required to generate the cycloadducts in good yields and high stereoselectivities, for instance, when cyclohexadiene is involved in the process. The use of more functionalized dienes, such as those bearing alkoxy or silyloxy substituents, also shows the limits of the thermal activation, and hyperbaric conditions are, in this case, well-suited. The involvement of Danishefsky's diene induces a competition in the site of reactivity. The aromatic 2,3-carbon-carbon double bond is unambiguously the most reactive dienophile, and the 3-carbonyl unit becomes a competitive site of reactivity with benzofurans bearing substituents prone to heterocyloaddition, in particular under Lewis acid activation. The sequential involvement of both the aromatic double bond and the carbonyl moiety as dienophiles is then possible by using an excess of diene under high-pressure activation. In line with the experimental results, DFT computations suggest that the Diels-Alder process involving the aromatic double bond is preferred over the hetero-Diels-Alder route through an asynchronous concerted transition state. However, Lewis acid catalysis appears to favor the heterocycloaddition pathway through a stepwise

  9. Simplified Formulae System for Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering of a Fast Electron in an Intense Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, J. H.; Chen, W. P.; Zhang, S. N.; Chen, L.; Liu, D.; Chou, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    We present simple analytical formulae for the emission spectrum and total power of a special kind of resonant inverse Compton scattering (RICS) of a relativistic electron in an intense magnetic field. In contrast with the available formulae system, we obtain a markedly simplified one based on the semiclassical quantum theory, which is more understandable for people who are unfamiliar with quantum electrodynamics. We show that the RICS process, under an appropriate 'accommodation condition' derived in this paper, is predominantly much more efficient than the coexistent ordinary inverse Compton scattering, and produces highly beamed high-frequency radiation with moderately good monochromaticity. Our formulae are simple to use - thus offering a lucid physical intuition for the theory - and may find wide applications in hard X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysics.

  10. Validation of Spherically Symmetric Inversion by Use of a Tomographically Reconstructed Three-Dimensional Electron Density of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the coronal electron density by the inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) measurements by coronagraphs is a classic problem in solar physics. An inversion technique based on the spherically symmetric geometry (spherically symmetric inversion, SSI) was developed in the 1950s and has been widely applied to interpret various observations. However, to date there is no study of the uncertainty estimation of this method. We here present the detailed assessment of this method using a three-dimensional (3D) electron density in the corona from 1.5 to 4 solar radius as a model, which is reconstructed by a tomography method from STEREO/COR1 observations during the solar minimum in February 2008 (Carrington Rotation, CR 2066).We first show in theory and observation that the spherically symmetric polynomial approximation (SSPA) method and the Van de Hulst inversion technique are equivalent. Then we assess the SSPA method using synthesized pB images from the 3D density model, and find that the SSPA density values are close to the model inputs for the streamer core near the plane of the sky (POS) with differences generally smaller than about a factor of two; the former has the lower peak but extends more in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions than the latter. We estimate that the SSPA method may resolve the coronal density structure near the POS with angular resolution in longitude of about 50 deg. Our results confirm the suggestion that the SSI method is applicable to the solar minimum streamer (belt), as stated in some previous studies. In addition, we demonstrate that the SSPA method can be used to reconstruct the 3D coronal density, roughly in agreement with the reconstruction by tomography for a period of low solar activity (CR 2066). We suggest that the SSI method is complementary to the 3D tomographic technique in some cases, given that the development of the latter is still an ongoing research effort.

  11. Electron transport in electrically biased inverse parabolic double-barrier structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Bati; S, Sakiroglu; I, Sokmen

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical study of resonant tunneling is carried out for an inverse parabolic double-barrier structure subjected to an external electric field. Tunneling transmission coefficient and density of states are analyzed by using the non-equilibrium Green’s function approach based on the finite difference method. It is found that the resonant peak of the transmission coefficient, being unity for a symmetrical case, reduces under the applied electric field and depends strongly on the variation of the structure parameters.

  12. Demonstration of inverse free-electron laser seeding in a sub-80 K, short period cryogenic undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OʼShea, F. H.; Knyazik, Andrey; Marinelli, A.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Dunning, M.; Hast, C.; Hemsing, E.; Jobe, K.; Nelson, J.; Weathersby, S.; Xiang, D.; Holy, F.; Grüner, F.; Bahrdt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Short period, high field undulators have been shown to permit operation of x-ray free-electron lasers with short gain-lengths, and at unprecedented short wavelengths. In addition, the reduced beam energy required to reach resonance with a given radiation wavelength in short period undulators could prove useful in advanced inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) seeding schemes for future light sources, such as high-gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation, or in IFEL acceleration. We report here the in situ beam testing of a 9 mm period length cryogenic undulator having undulator parameter near unity in the context appropriate for advanced seeding and acceleration schemes, a linear accelerator. Because of the short period length of the undulator, a 47 MeV high-brightness electron beam could be used to produce near infrared photons via the undulator radiation mechanism. The undulator radiation was observed through a filter and the spectral response of the undulator is compared to simulation. Finally, an 800 nm seed laser was introduced in order to generate an energy modulation via the IFEL mechanism. Resonance between the electron beam and the laser seed was achieved without detailed knowledge of the temperature dependent undulator magnetic field through the observation of the undulator radiation. The energy modulation (and concomitant energy spread increase) of the electron beam was observed both directly in an electron beam spectrometer and indirectly via coherent transition radiation after conversion to a density modulation in a longitudinally dispersive chicane.

  13. Electron bunch acceleration in an inverse free-electron laser with a helical magnetic wiggler and axial guide field

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Asri, Mehdi; Toosi, Ershad Sadeghi

    2006-12-15

    Electron bunch acceleration by a laser pulse having Gaussian radial and temporal profiles of intensity has been studied numerically in a static helical magnetic wiggler in vacuum. The main electron bunch parameters for simulations are 10 MeV initial energy with 0.1% longitudinal energy spread, 1 mm mrad rms transverse emittance, and 3x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} density. It is shown that the radial Gaussian profile can decrease the acceleration gradient compared with that of the plane-wave approximation due to the reduction of electron-pulse interaction area. In order to collimate electron bunch and overcome the decreasing of the acceleration gradient, an external axial magnetic field is used. The importance of the electron initial phase with respect to laser pulse is considered, and some appropriate values are found. Finally, acceleration of a femtosecond (fs) microbunch with an optimum appropriate initial phase is considered, which leads to a nearly monoenergetic microbunch and an acceleration gradient of about {approx_equal}0.2 GeV/m.

  14. Amplification of radiation near cyclotron frequency due to electron population inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Wu, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Amplification of electromagnetic waves via the cyclotron maser mechanism by a population of weakly relativistic electrons is studied. The effect of a tenuous population of low energy background plasma is included. It is found that both the ordinary and extraordinary modes can be excited by the weakly relativistic electrons with a loss-cone distribution. The growth rate for the extraordinary mode is much higher than that for the ordinary mode. Velocity spread in the energetic electron distribution function may reduce the growth rate by a factor of approximately 10 from that in the monoenergetic case. The maximum growth rate for the fast extraordinary mode (X mode) occurs near the upper hybrid cutoff frequency. Numerical results are obtained and discussed.

  15. Pure absorption electron spin echo envelope modulation spectra by using the filter-diagonalization method for harmonic inversion.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, G; Mandelshtam, V A; Shaka, A J

    1999-03-01

    Harmonic inversion of electron spin echo envelope (ESEEM) time-domain signals by filter diagonalization is investigated as an alternative to Fourier transformation. It is demonstrated that this method features enhanced resolution compared to Fourier-transform magnitude spectra, since it can eliminate dispersive contributions to the line shape, even if no linear phase correction is possible. Furthermore, instrumental artifacts can be easily removed from the spectra if they are narrow either in time or frequency domain. This applies to echo crossings that are only incompletely eliminated by phase cycling and to spurious spectrometer frequencies, respectively. The method is computationally efficient and numerically stable and does not require extensive parameter adjustments or advance knowledge of the number of spectral lines. Experiments on gamma-irradiated methyl-alpha-d-glucopyranoside show that more information can be obtained from typical ESEEM time-domain signals by filter-diagonalization than by Fourier transformation.

  16. Customizable electron beams from optically controlled laser plasma acceleration for γ-ray sources based on inverse Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Shadwick, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons in the blowout regime can be controlled by tailoring the laser pulse phase and the plasma target. The 100 nm-scale bandwidth and negative frequency chirp of the optical driver compensate for the nonlinear frequency red-shift imparted by wakefield excitation. This mitigates pulse self-steepening and suppresses continuous injection. The plasma channel suppresses diffraction of the pulse leading edge, further reducing self-steepening, making injection even quieter. Besides, the channel destabilizes the pulse tail confined within the accelerator cavity (the electron density "bubble"), causing oscillations in the bubble size. The resulting periodic injection generates background-free comb-like beams - sequences of synchronized, low phase-space volume bunches. Controlling the number of bunches, their energy, and energy spacing by varying the channel radius and the pulse length (as permitted by the large bandwidth) enables the design of a tunable, all-optical source of polychromatic, pulsed γ-rays using the mechanism of inverse Thomson scattering. Such source may radiate ~107 quasi-monochromatic 10 MeV-scale photons per shot into a microsteradian-scale observation angle. The photon energy is distributed among several distinct bands, each having sub-25% energy spread dictated by the mrad-scale divergence of electron beam.

  17. Biological lipid membranes for on-demand, wireless drug delivery from thin, bioresorbable electronic implants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Hojun; Harburg, Daniel V; Park, Gayoung; Ma, Yinji; Pan, Taisong; Kim, Jae Soon; Lee, Na Yeon; Kim, Bong Hoon; Jang, Kyung-In; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Huang, Yonggang; Kim, Jeongmin; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Leal, Cecilia; Rogers, John A

    2016-01-01

    On-demand, localized release of drugs in precisely controlled, patient-specific time sequences represents an ideal scenario for pharmacological treatment of various forms of hormone imbalances, malignant cancers, osteoporosis, diabetic conditions and others. We present a wirelessly operated, implantable drug delivery system that offers such capabilities in a form that undergoes complete bioresorption after an engineered functional period, thereby obviating the need for surgical extraction. The device architecture combines thermally actuated lipid membranes embedded with multiple types of drugs, configured in spatial arrays and co-located with individually addressable, wireless elements for Joule heating. The result provides the ability for externally triggered, precision dosage of drugs with high levels of control and negligible unwanted leakage, all without the need for surgical removal. In vitro and in vivo investigations reveal all of the underlying operational and materials aspects, as well as the basic efficacy and biocompatibility of these systems. PMID:27175221

  18. Understanding Clinician Information Demands and Synthesis of Clinical Documents in Electronic Health Record Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farri, Oladimeji Feyisetan

    2012-01-01

    Large quantities of redundant clinical data are usually transferred from one clinical document to another, making the review of such documents cognitively burdensome and potentially error-prone. Inadequate designs of electronic health record (EHR) clinical document user interfaces probably contribute to the difficulties clinicians experience while…

  19. Anisotropic electron-distribution function in inverse-bremsstrahlung-heated plasmas.

    PubMed

    Bendib, A; Bendib-Kalache, K; Cros, B; Maynard, G

    2016-04-01

    The electron-distribution function in homogeneous plasmas heated by a high-frequency laser field is calculated in velocity space from the Vlasov-Landau equation. The kinetic model is valid for moderate laser intensity defined by the relevant parameter α=v_{0}^{2}/v_{t}^{2}<0.5 where v_{0} and v_{t} are the peak velocity of oscillation in the high-frequency electric field and the thermal velocity, respectively. The results obtained constitute an improvement of the results reported in the literature devoted to weak electric field intensities. The electron-distribution function is calculated solving the kinetic equation with the use of the Legendre polynomial expansion within the laser field dipole approximation. It results in an infinite set of equations for the isotropic component f_{0}(v) and the anisotropic components f_{n≥1}(v) that we have solved numerically with appropriate truncation. For the second anisotropy f_{2}(v), we found that its maximum increases from the weak electric field intensity (α<0.01) to a moderate one (α=0.5) by a factor f_{2max}(α=0.5)/f_{2max}(α=0.01)≈48. Applications to the radiation pressure, electromagnetic instabilities, and photoabsorption are also considered.

  20. Status of UCLA Helical Permanent-Magnet Inverse Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazik, A.; Tikhoplav, R.; Frederico, J. T.; Affolter, M.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2009-01-22

    A helical undulator, utilizing permanent-magnet of cylindrically symmetric (Halbach) geometry is being developed at UCLA's Neptune Facility. The initial prototype is a short 10 cm, 7 periods long helical undulator, designed to test the electron-photon coupling by observing the micro-bunching is currently being constructed. The Neptune IFEL facility utilizes a 15 MeV Photoinjector-generated electron beam of 0.5 nC interacting with CO{sub 2} of peak energy up to 100 J, estimated to have acceleration of 100 MeV/m. An Open Iris-Loaded Waveguide Structure (OILS) scheme which conserves laser mode size and wave fronts throughout the undulator, is utilized to avoid Gouy phase shift caused by focusing of the drive laser. Undulator design was tested by computer simulations Radia and Genesis 1.3. Coherent Transition Radiation and Coherent Cherenkov Radiation will be used for micro-bunching diagnostic. Currently permanent dipoles and their aluminum holders have been built, and the project is in its final state of assembly and undulator testing.

  1. Anisotropic electron-distribution function in inverse-bremsstrahlung-heated plasmas.

    PubMed

    Bendib, A; Bendib-Kalache, K; Cros, B; Maynard, G

    2016-04-01

    The electron-distribution function in homogeneous plasmas heated by a high-frequency laser field is calculated in velocity space from the Vlasov-Landau equation. The kinetic model is valid for moderate laser intensity defined by the relevant parameter α=v_{0}^{2}/v_{t}^{2}<0.5 where v_{0} and v_{t} are the peak velocity of oscillation in the high-frequency electric field and the thermal velocity, respectively. The results obtained constitute an improvement of the results reported in the literature devoted to weak electric field intensities. The electron-distribution function is calculated solving the kinetic equation with the use of the Legendre polynomial expansion within the laser field dipole approximation. It results in an infinite set of equations for the isotropic component f_{0}(v) and the anisotropic components f_{n≥1}(v) that we have solved numerically with appropriate truncation. For the second anisotropy f_{2}(v), we found that its maximum increases from the weak electric field intensity (α<0.01) to a moderate one (α=0.5) by a factor f_{2max}(α=0.5)/f_{2max}(α=0.01)≈48. Applications to the radiation pressure, electromagnetic instabilities, and photoabsorption are also considered. PMID:27176419

  2. Precipitating Electron Population Inversion from Auroral Optical Data during the MICA Rocket Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrns, J.; Hampton, D. L.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.; Michell, R. G.; Samara, M.; Powell, S.; Lynch, K. A.; Fernandes, P. A.; Lessard, M.

    2012-12-01

    The MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvèn Resonator) sounding rocket was launched from Poker Flat, AK on Feb 19, 2012, into a series of discrete auroral arcs immediately following auroral breakup. We operated a set of ground-based optical imagers in support of the launch which captured the event, including more than an hour of auroral activity in the eventual rocket trajectory prior to launch at a variety of temporal (~1 second cadence to video frame rate) and spatial (all-sky to sub-kilometer) resolutions and in several spectral emission lines. Our imagers were located at Poker Flat, Fort Yukon, and Venetie AK (the last of which viewed the auroral conjugate of the rocket at magnetic zenith with sub-kilometer resolution) which allows a 3-dimensional reconstruction of certain auroral features from the optical data. We use this data, along with an electron transport model, to estimate the precipitating electron population and its effect on the background plasma to characterize the energy input prior to and during the rocket flight.

  3. Simple analytical approximations for treatment of inverse Compton scattering of relativistic electrons in the blackbody radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Khangulyan, D.; Kelner, S. R. E-mail: Felix.Aharonian@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2014-03-10

    The inverse Compton (IC) scattering of relativistic electrons is one of the major gamma-ray production mechanisms in different environments. Often, the target photons for IC scattering are dominated by blackbody (or graybody) radiation. In this case, the precise treatment of the characteristics of IC radiation requires numerical integrations over the Planckian distribution. Formally, analytical integrations are also possible but they result in series of several special functions; this limits the efficiency of usage of these expressions. The aim of this work is the derivation of approximate analytical presentations that would provide adequate accuracy for the calculations of the energy spectra of upscattered radiation, the rate of electron energy losses, and the mean energy of emitted photons. Such formulae have been obtained by merging the analytical asymptotic limits. The coefficients in these expressions are calculated via the least-squares fitting of the results of numerical integrations. The simple analytical presentations, obtained for both the isotropic and anisotropic target radiation fields, provide adequate (as good as 1%) accuracy for broad astrophysical applications.

  4. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital ISIS-2 Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Vertical Electron-Density Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.; Truhlik, V.; Huang, X.; Wang, Y.; Bilitza, D.

    2011-01-01

    The topside-sounders on the four satellites of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35-mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the TOPside Ionogram Scalar with True-height (TOPIST) algorithm has been produced that enables the automatic inversion of ISIS-2 ionogram reflection traces into topside vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). More than million digital Alouette/ISIS topside ionograms have been produced and over 300,000 are from ISIS 2. Many of these ISIS-2 ionograms correspond to a passive mode of operation for the detection of natural radio emissions and thus do not contain ionospheric reflection traces. TOPIST, however, is not able to produce Ne(h) profiles from all of the ISIS-2 ionograms with reflection traces because some of them did not contain frequency information. This information was missing due to difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame-sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. Of the many digital topside ionograms that TOPIST was able to process, over 200 were found where direct comparisons could be made with Ne(h) profiles that were produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. While many of these comparisons indicated excellent agreement (<10% average difference over the entire profile) there were also many cases with large differences (more than a factor of two). Here we will report on two approaches to improve the automatic inversion process: (1) improve the quality of the digital ionogram database by remedying the missing frequency-information problem when possible, and (2) using the above-mentioned comparisons as

  5. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital Alouette/ISIS Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Electron Density Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Huang, Xueqin; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The topside sounders of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35 mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the Topside Ionogram Scalar With True-Height (TOPIST) algorithm, has been produced and used for the automatic inversion of the ionogram reflection traces on more than 100,000 ISIS-2 digital topside ionograms into topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h). Here we present some topside ionospheric solar cycle variations deduced from the TOPIST database to illustrate the scientific benefit of improving and expanding the topside ionospheric Ne(h) database. The profile improvements will be based on improvements in the TOPIST software motivated by direct comparisons between TOPIST profiles and profiles produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. The database expansion will be based on new software designed to overcome limitations in the original digital topside ionogram database caused by difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. This improved and expanded TOPIST topside Ne(h) database will greatly enhance investigations into both short- and long-term ionospheric changes, e.g., the observed topside ionospheric responses to magnetic storms, induced by interplanetary magnetic clouds, and solar cycle variations, respectively.

  6. A New Inversion Routine to Produce Vertical Electron-Density Profiles from Ionospheric Topside-Sounder Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yongli; Benson, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Two software applications have been produced specifically for the analysis of some million digital topside ionograms produced by a recent analog-to-digital conversion effort of selected analog telemetry tapes from the Alouette-2, ISIS-1 and ISIS-2 satellites. One, TOPIST (TOPside Ionogram Scalar with True-height algorithm) from the University of Massachusetts Lowell, is designed for the automatic identification of the topside-ionogram ionospheric-reflection traces and their inversion into vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). TOPIST also has the capability of manual intervention. The other application, from the Goddard Space Flight Center based on the FORTRAN code of John E. Jackson from the 1960s, is designed as an IDL-based interactive program for the scaling of selected digital topside-sounder ionograms. The Jackson code has also been modified, with some effort, so as to run on modern computers. This modification was motivated by the need to scale selected ionograms from the millions of Alouette/ISIS topside-sounder ionograms that only exist on 35-mm film. During this modification, it became evident that it would be more efficient to design a new code, based on the capabilities of present-day computers, than to continue to modify the old code. Such a new code has been produced and here we will describe its capabilities and compare Ne(h) profiles produced from it with those produced by the Jackson code. The concept of the new code is to assume an initial Ne(h) and derive a final Ne(h) through an iteration process that makes the resulting apparent-height profile fir the scaled values within a certain error range. The new code can be used on the X-, O-, and Z-mode traces. It does not assume any predefined profile shape between two contiguous points, like the exponential rule used in Jackson s program. Instead, Monotone Piecewise Cubic Interpolation is applied in the global profile to keep the monotone nature of the profile, which also ensures better smoothness

  7. Selective rearrangement of Nd{sup 3+} centers in LiNbO{sub 3} under ferroelectric domain inversion by electron beam writing

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, P.; Ramirez, M. O.; Garcia Sole, J.; Bausa, L. E.; Garcia, B. J.

    2008-07-01

    Different values of the electronic charge provided by a direct electron beam writing system have been used to produce polarization inverted domain regions in the micrometer range on Nd{sup 3+} optically activated LiNbO{sub 3}. The effect of the electronic charge on the Nd{sup 3+} center structure has been studied by means of low-temperature luminescence from Nd{sup 3+} ions. The axial crystal field acting on the Nd{sup 3+} centers has been analyzed through the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} energy-level splitting of the Nd{sup 3+} ions. From there we have determined the position of Nd{sup 3+} ions into the Li{sup +} octahedra for the different unequivalent centers in domains reversed with different electronic doses. The results show that the axial crystal field acting on the unequivalent Nd{sup 3+} centers can be selectively modified by means of the different doses applied to produce the inversion of the polarization. Moreover, a control of the discrete shifts suffered by the Nd{sup 3+} ions into the Li{sup +} octahedra after the inversion process can be carried out in the range 0-0.02 A by selecting the type of Nd center to be shifted by means of the different electronic charge. The behavior of each Nd{sup 3+} center after the polarization inversion under different doses can be discriminated and the different nature, as well as the polar character of the Nd{sup 3+} centers, is clearly manifested.

  8. Inverse problem for Bremsstrahlung radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, K.E.; Fisch, N.J.

    1991-10-01

    For certain predominantly one-dimensional distribution functions, an analytic inversion has been found which yields the velocity distribution of superthermal electrons given their Bremsstrahlung radiation. 5 refs.

  9. Demonstration of the branching ratio inversion for the electron attachment to phosphoryl chloride POCl3 in the gas phase between 300 and 200 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carles, Sophie; Saidani, Ghassen; Le Garrec, Jean-Luc; Guen, Ngary; Mitchell, James B. A.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Shuman, Nicholas S.

    2016-04-01

    Electron attachment to phosphoryl chloride (phosphorus oxychloride) POCl3 has been studied in the gas phase by mass spectrometry at several low temperatures (47.7, 74.5, 169.7 and 199.5 K) with the CRESU method. By measuring over this temperature range and data from [8], we have demonstrated the inversion of the branching ratio between the exothermic non-dissociative exit channel POCl3- and the thermo-neutral dissociative exit channel POCl2- + Cl. A kinetic model in terms of statistical theory is used to fit the experimental data.

  10. Population inversions in ablation plasmas generated by intense electron beams. Final report, 1 November 1985-31 October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Gilgenbach, R.M.; Kammash, T.; Brake, M.L.

    1988-11-01

    Experiments during the past three years have concerned the generation and spectroscopic study of electron beam-driven carbon plasmas in order to explore the production of optical and ultraviolet radiation from nonequilibrium populations. The output of MELBA (Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator), has been connected to an electron-beam diode consisting of an aluminum (or brass) cathode stalk and a carbon anode. Magnetic-field coils were designed, procured, and utilized to focus the electron beam. A side viewing port permitted spectroscopic diagnostics to view across the surface of the anode. Spectroscopic diagnosis was performed using a 1-m spectrograph capable of operation from the vacuum-ultraviolet through the visible. This spectrograph is coupled to a 1024-channel optical multichannel analyzer. Spectra taken during the initial 400-ns period of the e-beam pulse showed a low effective-charge plasma with primarily molecular components (C/sub 2/, CH) as well as atomic hydrogen and singly ionized carbon (CII). When the generator pulse was crowbarred after the first 400 ns, the spectra revealed a continuation of the low-charge-state plasma. At times greater than 400 ns in non-crowbarred shots, the spectra revealed a highly ionized plasma with a very large intensity line at 2530 Angstroms due to CIV (5g-4f), and lower-intensity lines due to CIII and CII. This CIV line emission increased with time, peaking sharply between 750 and 900 ns, and decayed rapidly in less than 100 ns. Emission from these high ionization states may be due to electron beam-plasma instabilities, as this emission was accompanied by high levels of radio frequency and microwave emission.

  11. Calibration of high-resolution electronic autocollimators with demanded low uncertainties using single reading head angle encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandayan, Tanfer; Asli Akgoz, S.; Asar, Muharrem

    2014-01-01

    Calibration of high-resolution electronic autocollimators is carried out in TUBITAK UME using an angle comparator to ensure direct traceability to the SI unit of plane angle, radian (rad). The device is a specially designed air-bearing rotary table fitted with a commercially available angular encoder utilizing a single reading head. It is shown that high-resolution electronic autocollimators in the large measurement range (e.g. ±1000 arcsec) can be calibrated with an expanded uncertainty of 0.035 arcsec (k = 2) in conventional dimensional laboratory conditions, applying good measurement strategy for single reading head angle encoders and taking simple but smart precautions. Description of the angle comparator is presented with various test results derived using different high-precision autocollimators, and a detailed uncertainty budget is given for the calibration of a high-resolution electronic autocollimator.

  12. A Fast Parallel Algorithm for Selected Inversion of Structured Sparse Matrices with Application to 2D Electronic Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Lu, Jiangfeng; Ying, Lexing; E, Weinan

    2009-09-25

    We present an efficient parallel algorithm and its implementation for computing the diagonal of $H^-1$ where $H$ is a 2D Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian discretized on a rectangular domain using a standard second order finite difference scheme. This type of calculation can be used to obtain an accurate approximation to the diagonal of a Fermi-Dirac function of $H$ through a recently developed pole-expansion technique \\cite{LinLuYingE2009}. The diagonal elements are needed in electronic structure calculations for quantum mechanical systems \\citeHohenbergKohn1964, KohnSham 1965,DreizlerGross1990. We show how elimination tree is used to organize the parallel computation and how synchronization overhead is reduced by passing data level by level along this tree using the technique of local buffers and relative indices. We analyze the performance of our implementation by examining its load balance and communication overhead. We show that our implementation exhibits an excellent weak scaling on a large-scale high performance distributed parallel machine. When compared with standard approach for evaluating the diagonal a Fermi-Dirac function of a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian associated a 2D electron quantum dot, the new pole-expansion technique that uses our algorithm to compute the diagonal of $(H-z_i I)^-1$ for a small number of poles $z_i$ is much faster, especially when the quantum dot contains many electrons.

  13. Polarization of inverse plasmon scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windsor, R. A.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The scattering of electrostatic plasma waves by a flux of ultrarelativistic electrons passing through a plasma gives rise to a radiation spectrum which is similar to a synchrotron radiation spectrum. This mechanism, first considered by Gailitis and Tsytovich, is analagous to inverse Compton scattering, and we have named it inverse plasmon scattering. For a power-law electron flux, both inverse plasmon scattering and synchrotron radiation have the same spectral index. In an attempt to distinguish between these mechanisms, we have calculated the polarization level expected from inverse plasmon scattering. The polarization level found is similar to that obtained from a synchrotron radiation source. This means that the radiation produced by two mechanisms, synchrotron radiation and inverse plasmon scattering, is indistinguishable; and this attempt to differentiate between them by polarization effects has been unsuccessful.

  14. Indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Since Doug MacAyeal's pioneering studies of the ice-stream basal traction optimizations by control methods, inversions for unknown parameters (e.g., basal traction, accumulation patterns, etc) have become a hallmark of the present-day ice-sheet modeling. The common feature of such inversion exercises is a direct relationship between optimized parameters and observations used in the optimization procedure. For instance, in the standard optimization for basal traction by the control method, ice-stream surface velocities constitute the control data. The optimized basal traction parameters explicitly appear in the momentum equations for the ice-stream velocities (compared to the control data). The inversion for basal traction is carried out by minimization of the cost (or objective, misfit) function that includes the momentum equations facilitated by the Lagrange multipliers. Here, we build upon this idea, and demonstrate how to optimize for parameters indirectly related to observed data using a suite of nested constraints (like Russian dolls) with additional sets of Lagrange multipliers in the cost function. This method opens the opportunity to use data from a variety of sources and types (e.g., velocities, radar layers, surface elevation changes, etc.) in the same optimization process.

  15. The defect-induced changes of the electronic and magnetic properties in the inverse Heusler alloy Ti{sub 2}CoAl

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Bo; Yuan, Hongkuan; Feng, Yu; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-15

    The first-principles calculations are performed to investigate the effect of swap, antisite and vacancy defects of three classes on the electronic and magnetic properties in the inverse Heusler alloy Ti{sub 2}CoAl of half-metallicity. Our calculations reveal that Ti(A/B)–Co and Co–Al swaps, Ti(A/B) and Al vacancy defects as well as Co{sub Ti(A)/Al} and Al{sub Ti(A)/Ti(B)} antisite defects are likely to form in a concentration as high as 12.5%. Among them, Co{sub Ti(A)} antisite is detected to be the most probable defect. It is shown that the spin polarizations of Ti{sub 2}CoAl are considerably reduced by the Ti(A/B)–Co swap and Ti(B)/Al vacancy defects, while a quite high spin polarization around 95% is observed in Co–Al swap as well as Ti(A) vacancy. Remarkably, all the likely antisite defects almost retain the half-metallic character in a concentration of 12.5% even if they have the possibility to form. However, induced by antisites, the Fermi levels shift to the edge of band gap with small peaks arising just above the Fermi level, which may destroy the half-metallicity by spin-flip excitation. - Graphical abstract: The spin polarization and formation energy of various possible defects in inverse Heusler alloy Ti{sub 2}CoAl. The triangle, star and square represent the swap, antisite and vacancy defects, respectively. - Highlights: • The swap, antisite, and vacancy defects are studied in half-metallic Ti{sub 2}CoAl. • The Co{sub Ti(A)} antisite is the most probable among the studied defects. • The antisite defects almost retain the half-metallicity. • Most of swap and vacancy defects have degraded the half-metallicity. • High spin polarizations are detected in Co–Al swap and Ti(A) vacancy defects.

  16. Demanding Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  17. Donor states in inverse opals

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-21

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  18. Donor states in inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  19. EXTERNAL INVERSE COMPTON SPECTRA FOR MONOENERGETIC AND BLACKBODY PHOTON FIELDS UPSCATTERED BY A POWER-LAW ELECTRON DISTRIBUTION WITH A FINITE ENERGY RANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S. E-mail: souichaoui@usthb.dz

    2011-08-20

    We have calculated the inverse Compton (IC) integrated spectral power within the Thomson limit for a monoenergetic isotropic photon field upscattered off highly relativistic electrons assuming an isotropic power-law distribution of the latter, N({gamma}) = C{gamma}{sup -p}, with Lorentz parameter values {gamma}{sub 1} < {gamma} < {gamma}{sub 2}. Our interest was essentially focused on the case of a finite energy range (finite {gamma}{sub 2}) possibly having realistic applications in high-energy astrophysical sites, mainly relativistic shock regions. To this end, we have defined and derived a dimensionless parametric function, F{sub p} (z{sub 1}, {eta}), with variables z{sub 1} = {epsilon}{sub 1}/4{gamma}{sup 2}{sub 1}{epsilon} and {eta} = {gamma}{sub 2}/{gamma}{sub 1}. This result was used to derive the IC-integrated spectral power for an upscattered blackbody (BB) photon field using a dimensionless parametric function, W{sub p} ({xi}, {eta}), with variable {xi} = {epsilon}{sub 1}/4{gamma}{sup 2}{sub 1} kT. Asymptotic forms of this function have been derived for three energy ranges, i.e., {xi} << 1, 1 << {xi} << {eta}{sup 2}, and {xi} >> {eta}{sup 2}. Then, a characteristic value, {eta}{sub c}(p, {epsilon}) with {epsilon} << 1, of parameter {eta} was defined such that the middle range asymptotic form of W{sub p} ({xi}, {eta}) could be valid and good when {eta} {approx}> {eta}{sub c}(p, {epsilon}), by deriving an approximate expression of this particular value for {epsilon} = 10{sup -3}. The resulting spectra featured by a high-energy cutoff in the case of low values of the ratio {eta} can be discussed at least for a population of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), those best described by the cutoff power-law model with a low-energy spectral index, {alpha} {approx} 0. Furthermore, it is suggested that for GRB spectra with {alpha} < -1/2 pertaining to the prompt emission phase, the IC is a likely emission mechanism for both monoenergetic and BB photon fields if one

  20. Inverse Floatation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Anish; Chatterjee, Souvick; Ganguly, Ranjan; Sen, Swarnendu; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    We have observed that capillarity forces may cause floatation in a few non-intuitive configurations. These may be divided into 2 categories: i) floatation of heavier liquid droplets on lighter immiscible ones and ii) fully submerged floatation of lighter liquid droplets in a heavier immiscible medium. We call these counter-intuitive because of the inverse floatation configuration. For case (i) we have identified and studied in detail the several factors affecting the shape and maximum volume of the floating drop. We used water and vegetable oil combinations as test fluids and established the relation between Bond Number and maximum volume contained in a floating drop (in the order of μL). For case (ii), we injected vegetable oil drop-wise into a pool of water. The fully submerged configuration of the drop is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number establishes the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also shows the temporal variation of the gap thickness. Jadavpur University, Jagadis Bose Centre of Excellence, Virginia Tech.

  1. Physical demands in worklife.

    PubMed

    Astrand, I

    1988-01-01

    Industrial occupations which are physically strenuous in the traditional sense of the word have decreased in number. They have partly been replaced by "light," repetitive, monotonous work tasks performed in a sitting position. The number of heavy work tasks within the service sector has increased. Specialization has been intensified. The individual's capacity for strenuous work is still of importance to successful work performance. Many studies show that an optional choice of work pace in physically demanding occupational work results in an adaptation of pace or intensity until the worker is utilizing 40-50% of her or his capacity. When the work rate is constrained, the relative strain of the individual varies inversely with the physical work capacity. The frequency of musculoskeletal disorders has concurrently increased with the implementation of industrial mechanization. New, wise, ergonomic moves are needed to stop this development.

  2. Inverse compton effect: some consequences for quasars.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, J; Grewing, M

    1966-12-16

    The inverse Compton effect can transform enough energy of relativistic electrons into radiation so that an upper limit to the mean energy of the electrons is set. In quasars, the limit is too small to allow the production of any appreciable amount of synchrotron or inverse Compton radiation, unless either the distances are not cosmological or the lifetimes of the relativistic electrons are extremely short, of the order of hours.

  3. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    1997-03-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  4. Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, Michael

    2008-12-01

    1. J. J. Thomson and the discovery of the electron A. B. P. Pippard; 2. The isolated electron W. N. Cottingham; 3. The relativistic electron D. I. Olive; 4. The electron glue B. L. Gyorffy; 5. The electron fluid P. Coleman; 6. The magnetic electron G. G. Lonzarich; 7. The paired electron A. J. Leggett; 8. The heavy electron M. Springford; 9. The coherent electron Y. Imry and M. Peskin; 10. The composite electron R. Nicholas; 11. The electron in the cosmos M. S. Longair.

  5. Doctors Swamped by 'E-Medicine' Demands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Demands Survey found those who have to use electronic health records report more burnout, job dissatisfaction To ... HealthDay News) -- Doctors say they're drowning in electronic paperwork, feeling burned out and dissatisfied with their ...

  6. Acoustic source identification using a Generalized Weighted Inverse Beamforming technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presezniak, Flavio; Zavala, Paulo A. G.; Steenackers, Gunther; Janssens, Karl; Arruda, Jose R. F.; Desmet, Wim; Guillaume, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    In the last years, acoustic source identification has gained special attention, mainly due to new environmental norms, urbanization problems and more demanding acoustic comfort expectation of consumers. From the current methods, beamforming techniques are of common use, since normally demands affordable data acquisition effort, while producing clear source identification in most of the applications. In order to improve the source identification quality, this work presents a method, based on the Generalized Inverse Beamforming, that uses a weighted pseudo-inverse approach and an optimization procedure, called Weighted Generalized Inverse Beamforming. To validate this method, a simple case of two compact sources in close vicinity in coherent radiation was investigated by numerical and experimental assessment. Weighted generalized inverse results are compared to the ones obtained by the conventional beamforming, MUltiple Signal Classification, and Generalized Inverse Beamforming. At the end, the advantages of the proposed method are outlined together with the computational effort increase compared to the Generalized Inverse Beamforming.

  7. Spectroscopic Evidence for a 3d(10) Ground State Electronic Configuration and Ligand Field Inversion in [Cu(CF3)4](1-).

    PubMed

    Walroth, Richard C; Lukens, James T; MacMillan, Samantha N; Finkelstein, Kenneth D; Lancaster, Kyle M

    2016-02-17

    The contested electronic structure of [Cu(CF3)4](1-) is investigated with UV/visible/near IR spectroscopy, Cu K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and 1s2p resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. These data, supported by density functional theory, multiplet theory, and multireference calculations, support a ground state electronic configuration in which the lowest unoccupied orbital is of predominantly trifluoromethyl character. The consensus 3d(10) configuration features an inverted ligand field in which all five metal-localized molecular orbitals are located at lower energy relative to the trifluoromethyl-centered σ orbitals.

  8. Inverse anticipating chaos synchronization.

    PubMed

    Shahverdiev, E M; Sivaprakasam, S; Shore, K A

    2002-07-01

    We derive conditions for achieving inverse anticipating synchronization where a driven time-delay chaotic system synchronizes to the inverse future state of the driver. The significance of inverse anticipating chaos in delineating synchronization regimes in time-delay systems is elucidated. The concept is extended to cascaded time-delay systems.

  9. Pyramidal inversion domain boundaries revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Remmele, T.; Albrecht, M.; Irmscher, K.; Fornari, R.; Strassburg, M.

    2011-10-03

    The structure of pyramidal inversion domain boundaries in GaN:Mg was investigated by aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. The analysis shows the upper (0001) boundary to consist of a single Mg layer inserted between polarity inverted GaN layers in an abcab stacking. The Mg bound in these defects is at least one order of magnitude lower than the chemical Mg concentration. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements show that up to 27% of the Mg acceptors is electrically compensated.

  10. Frequency-switching inversion-recovery for severely hyperfine-shifted NMR: evidence of asymmetric electron relaxation in high-spin Co(II).

    PubMed

    Riley, Erin A; Petros, Amy K; Smith, Karen Ann; Gibney, Brian R; Tierney, David L

    2006-12-11

    A new method for reliably measuring longitudinal relaxation rates for severely hyperfine-shifted NMR signals in aqueous solutions is presented. The method is illustrated for a well-defined cobalt tetracysteinate, with relevance to cobalt-substituted metalloproteins. The relaxation measurements are indicative of asymmetric electronic relaxation of the high-spin Co(II) ion.

  11. Inverse Cherenkov and inverse FEL accelerator experiments at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; vanSteenbergen, A.; Babzien, M.

    1995-12-31

    Status update on the ongoing inverse Cherenkov acceleration experiment and prospects to its 100 MeV short-term upgrade. The first report on 1 MeV electron acceleration with the 0.5 GW CO{sub 2} laser used in the inverse FEL scheme. (author). 22 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. What Extent Are Current New York State High School Electronics Programs Preparing Students with the Competencies Necessary for Employment in the Electronics Field Based on Industrial Demands in the Greater Rochester Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Earl Dwight

    Since there are no clearly defined set of priorities on which to base a program of study in secondary school electronics, this study determined to what extent New York State high school electronics programs are preparing students with the technical competencies, knowledge, and equipment orientation necessary for employment in the electronics field…

  13. Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Shocked Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    There has recently been interest in the role of inverse bremsstrahlung, the emission of photons by fast suprathermal ions in collisions with ambient electrons possessing relatively low velocities, in tenuous plasmas in various astrophysical contexts. This follows a long hiatus in the application of suprathermal ion bremsstrahlung to astrophysical models since the early 1970s. The potential importance of inverse bremsstrahlung relative to normal bremsstrahlung, i.e. where ions are at rest, hinges upon the underlying velocity distributions of the interacting species. In this paper, we identify the conditions under which the inverse bremsstrahlung emissivity is significant relative to that for normal bremsstrahlung in shocked astrophysical plasmas. We determine that, since both observational and theoretical evidence favors electron temperatures almost comparable to, and certainly not very deficient relative to proton temperatures in shocked plasmas, these environments generally render inverse bremsstrahlung at best a minor contributor to the overall emission. Hence inverse bremsstrahlung can be safely neglected in most models invoking shock acceleration in discrete sources such as supernova remnants. However, on scales approximately > 100 pc distant from these sources, Coulomb collisional losses can deplete the cosmic ray electrons, rendering inverse bremsstrahlung, and perhaps bremsstrahlung from knock-on electrons, possibly detectable.

  14. Increased power, pulse length, and spectral purity free-electron laser for inverse-Compton X-ray production and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of thin film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Jeremy M.

    The free-electron laser (FEL) system can be configured to produce X-ray or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light via Compton backscattering and to perform many types of spectroscopy including laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In it's most common incarnation, the FEL is limited by three major factors: average laser power, laser spectral purity, and laser pulse length. Some examples of the limitations that these shortcomings give rise to include limiting the range of remote spectroscopy, degrading spectroscopic precision, and lowering the attainable x-ray flux, respectively. In this work, we explored three methods of improving the FEL. First, a beam expanding optic dubbed the TIRBBE was designed, built, and tested to prevent laser damage to the resonator mirrors and allow for higher average power. This optic had the added benefit of increasing the spectral purity. Second, a intra-cavity etalon filter dubbed the FROZEN FISH was designed, built, and tested to increase spectral purity and eliminate the frequency pulling (tendency of an FEL to pull towards longer wavelengths during a macropulse) all in a high damage threshold, fully wavelength adjustable package. Finally, a laser cooling scheme which allows for extension of the electron beam macropulse used to create the FEL light by counter-acting electron back-heating was explored. The first measurements of the back-heating temperature rise were taken, calculations of the required laser parameters were made, design of the full system was completed, and construction has begun. Experimental work using LIBS to characterize thin film solar cells was also completed in anticipation of using the improved FEL to better characterize such materials. The frequency tunability and picosecond micropulse width of the FEL will allow for exploration of the frequency response of LIBS ablation and fine resolution of the make up of these materials with depth unattainable with a conventional fixed frequency nanosecond pulse laser.

  15. On the two dimensional effective electron mass in quantum wells, inversion layers and NIPI superlattices of Kane type semiconductors in the presence of strong light waves: Simplified theory and relative comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; De, D.; Adhikari, S. M.; Ghatak, K. P.

    2012-02-01

    An attempt is made to study the two dimensional (2D) effective electron mass (EEM) in quantum wells (Qws), inversion layers (ILs) and NIPI superlattices of Kane type semiconductors in the presence of strong external photoexcitation on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion laws within the framework of k.p. formalism. It has been found, taking InAs and InSb as examples, that the EEM in Qws, ILs and superlattices increases with increasing concentration, light intensity and wavelength of the incident light waves, respectively and the numerical magnitudes in each case is band structure dependent. The EEM in ILs is quantum number dependent exhibiting quantum jumps for specified values of the surface electric field and in NIPI superlattices; the same is the function of Fermi energy and the subband index characterizing such 2D structures. The appearance of the humps of the respective curves is due to the redistribution of the electrons among the quantized energy levels when the quantum numbers corresponding to the highest occupied level changes from one fixed value to the others. Although the EEM varies in various manners with all the variables as evident from all the curves, the rates of variations totally depend on the specific dispersion relation of the particular 2D structure. Under certain limiting conditions, all the results as derived in this paper get transformed into well known formulas of the EEM and the electron statistics in the absence of external photo-excitation and thus confirming the compatibility test. The results of this paper find three applications in the field of microstructures.

  16. Ultrahigh-intensity inverse bremsstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Rax, J.-M.

    1999-01-01

    We study inverse bremsstrahlung in the ultrahigh intensity relativistic regime. The fully relativistic ultrahigh intensity absorption (emission) coefficient is derived for an arbitrary scattering potential and small-angle scattering. We find that in the Coulomb field case this absorption (emission) coefficient can be calculated as a function of the quiver energy, drift momentum, and impact parameter in two complementary regimes: (i) for remote collisions when the impact parameter is larger than the amplitude of the quiver motion, and (ii) for instantaneous collisions when the scattering time is shorter than the period of the wave. Both circular and linear polarizations are considered, and this study reveals that in this relativistic regime inverse bremsstrahlung absorption can be viewed as a harmonic Compton resonance heating of the laser-driven electron by the virtual photon of the ion Coulomb field. The relativistic modification of Marcuse's effect [Bell Syst. Tech. J. 41, 1557 (1962)] are also discussed, and relations with previous nonrelativistic results are elucidated.

  17. Momentum resolution in inverse photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Zumbülte, A.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.

    2015-01-15

    We present a method to determine the electron beam divergence, and thus the momentum resolution, of an inverse-photoemission setup directly from a series of spectra measured on Cu(111). Simulating these spectra with different beam divergences shows a distinct influence of the divergence on the appearance of the Shockley surface state. Upon crossing the Fermi level, its rise in intensity can be directly linked with the beam divergence. A comparison of measurement and simulation enables us to quantify the momentum resolution independent of surface quality, energy resolution, and experimental geometry. With spin resolution, a single spectrum taken around the Fermi momentum of a spin-split surface state, e.g., on Au(111), is sufficient to derive the momentum resolution of an inverse-photoemission setup.

  18. Momentum resolution in inverse photoemission.

    PubMed

    Zumbülte, A; Schmidt, A B; Donath, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to determine the electron beam divergence, and thus the momentum resolution, of an inverse-photoemission setup directly from a series of spectra measured on Cu(111). Simulating these spectra with different beam divergences shows a distinct influence of the divergence on the appearance of the Shockley surface state. Upon crossing the Fermi level, its rise in intensity can be directly linked with the beam divergence. A comparison of measurement and simulation enables us to quantify the momentum resolution independent of surface quality, energy resolution, and experimental geometry. With spin resolution, a single spectrum taken around the Fermi momentum of a spin-split surface state, e.g., on Au(111), is sufficient to derive the momentum resolution of an inverse-photoemission setup.

  19. Solution uniquity of an inverse VLF problem: A case-study of the polar, ground-based, VLF radio signal disturbances caused by the ultra-energetic relativistic electron precipitations and of their southern boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remenets, G. F.; Astafiev, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Here we present the results of a case study of the rare, abnormal, qualitatively specific behavior of Aldra (northern Norway) and GBR (UK) VLF transmitter signals (10-16 kHz) received at Kola Peninsula. The abnormal amplitude and the phase disturbances of signals were used as a proxy for ultra-energetic relativistic (solar?) electron precipitation (URE, ∼100 MeV) into the middle polar atmosphere. The disturbances have been observed under quiet or moderately disturbed geomagnetic activity. Based on bearing results, it was established that the abnormal variations of the electric conductivity of ionized middle atmosphere (of a sporadic Ds layer under the regular ionosphere D layer) were characterized by the following: (i) the time function of height h(t) of an effective spherical waveguide between the Earth surface and the sporadic Ds layer shows a minimum value equal to ∼30 km and (ii) the reflection coefficient R(t) of radio wave with a grazing angle of incidence from a virtual boundary with height h(t) has a minimum value equal to ∼0.4. The southern boundaries of the ultra-energetic relativistic electron precipitations have been found as well. They turned out to be not southerly than 61 degree of magnetic latitude and similar to the ones obtained in our previous study of the events for other dates under the similar geophysical conditions although we do not know anything definite about the rigidity and density of the electron fluxes. A used calculation method of analysis is based on a necessary condition that a number n of input data should be greater than a number m of output parameter-functions. We have stated by numerical testing that a decrease of n from 6 to 4 generates a lack of uniqueness of an inverse VLF problem solution for m = 2. It is important for future VLF ground-based monitoring of the URE precipitation events.

  20. Prediction of phase transition, mechanical and electronic properties of inverse Heusler compound Y2RuPb, via FP-LMTO method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labair, M.; Rached, H.; Rached, D.; Benalia, S.; Abidri, B.; Khenata, R.; Ahmed, R.; Omran, S. Bin; Bouhemadou, A.; Syrotyuk, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Topological insulators (TI) are immensely investigated due to their promising characteristics for spintronics and quantum computing applications. In this regard, although bismuth, telluride, selenide and antimony containing compounds are typically considered as topological insulators, materials with Hg2CuTi-type structure have also shown their potential for TIs as well. Here, we present first principles study of the Y2RuPb compound, pertaining to its structural, mechanical, electrical and the optical properties. Calculations are executed at the level of the parameterized Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA), employing the full-potential (FP) linearized muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) approach, as designed within the density functional theory (DFT). The study is carried out on the Hg2CuTi-type and Cu2MnAl-type structures of the Y2RuPb compound. From our structural calculations, it is found that Y2RuPb is more stable in its Hg2CuTi-type structure; however, the analysis of the mechanical properties reveals its stability in both phases against any kind of elastic deformation. Similarly, Dirac cone shaped surface energy levels found in the predicted electronic band structure of the Y2RuPb compound, and good agreement of the obtained results with Zhang et al., demonstrates that it is a topological insulating material. Additionally, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function ɛ (ω) and refractive index n (ω), for an energy range up to 14eV, are analyzed as well.

  1. Seismic Inversion Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiewicz, Jason

    2009-09-01

    With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

  2. Seismic Inversion Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jackiewicz, Jason

    2009-09-16

    With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

  3. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  4. New advances in Inverse Cerenkov acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, W.D.; Babzien, M.; Cline, D.B.; Fiorito, R.B.; Fontana, J.R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gottschalk, S.C.; Kusche, K.P. |; Liu, Y.; Pogorelsky, I.V.; Quimby, D.C.; Pantell, R.H.; Rule, D.W.; Skaritka, J.; Sandweiss, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Yakimenko, V.

    1997-02-01

    Inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) has entered a new phase in its development. The issue of staging and rephasing the optical wave with a microbunched electron beam is now being examined. This ability to accelerate over multiple stages is important for scaling laser accelerator devices to higher energies. An inverse free electron laser (IFEL) will be positioned upstream from the ICA experiment and used to prebunch the electrons. These electrons will then be focused into the ICA interaction region for rephasing and acceleration by the laser beam. Issues that will be examined during these combined ICA/IFEL experiments include rephasing the laser beam with the microbunches, minimizing bunch smearing, and trapping the electrons in an acceleration bucket. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. A survey of microwave inverse FEL and inverse cerenkov accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, T. C.; Zhang, T. B.

    1997-02-01

    A Microwave Inverse FEL Accelerator (MIFELA) and a Microwave Inverse Cerenkov Accelerator (MICA) are currently under construction at the Yale Beam Physics Laboratory. MIFELA and MICA will share the same injector, a thermionic cathode rf gun that should furnish 5 psec, 6 MeV, 0.2 nC electron pulses spaced by 350 psec, using microwave power of many MW provided from a 2.85 GHz klystron. MIFELA is to operate with ˜4 Mw of 11.4 GHz microwave power in the TE11 mode, with beam injection into each fourth rf cycle; a variable pitch and field undulator together with a guide magnetic field are present as well. MICA will operate at 2.85 GHz using an alumina-lined waveguide driven in the TM01 mode; the phase velocity is just below c, with no guide field. MIFELA produces a beam of spiralling electrons, while MICA makes an axially-directed beam. This is a survey of the operating principles of these smooth-bore "tabletop" accelerators (˜15 MeV) as they are understood prior to operation.

  6. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  7. Solar inverse theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, D.

    1984-12-01

    Helioseismological inversion, as with the inversion of any other data, is divided into three phases. The first is the solution of the so-called forward problem: namely, the calculation of the eigenfrequencies of a theoretical equilibrium state. The second is an attempt to understand the results, either empirically by determining how those frequencies vary as chosen parameters defining the equilibrium model are varied, or analytically from asymptotic expansions in limiting cases of high order or degree. The third phase is to pose and solve an inverse problem, which seeks to find a plausible equilibrium model of the Sun whose eigenfrequencies are consistent with observation. The three phases are briefly discussed in this review, and the third, which is not yet widely used in helioseismology, is illustrated with some selected inversions of artificial solar data.

  8. Observation of intrinsic inverse spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Werake, Lalani K; Ruzicka, Brian A; Zhao, Hui

    2011-03-11

    We report observation of intrinsic inverse spin Hall effect in undoped GaAs multiple quantum wells with a sample temperature of 10 K. A transient ballistic pure spin current is injected by a pair of laser pulses through quantum interference. By time resolving the dynamics of the pure spin current, the momentum relaxation time is deduced, which sets the lower limit of the scattering time between electrons and holes. The transverse charge current generated by the pure spin current via the inverse spin Hall effect is simultaneously resolved. We find that the charge current is generated well before the first electron-hole scattering event. Generation of the transverse current in the scattering-free ballistic transport regime provides unambiguous evidence for the intrinsic inverse spin Hall effect. PMID:21469830

  9. Generalized emissivity inverse problem.

    PubMed

    Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E

    2002-04-01

    Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations.

  10. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  11. Direct and indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virieux, Jean; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Operto, Stéphane; Ribodetti, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    A bridge is highlighted between the direct inversion and the indirect inversion. They are based on fundamental different approaches: one is looking after a projection from the data space to the model space while the other one is reducing a misfit between observed data and synthetic data obtained from a given model. However, it is possible to obtain similar structures for model perturbation, and we shall focus on P-wave velocity reconstruction. This bridge is built up through the Born approximation linearizing the forward problem with respect to model perturbation and through asymptotic approximations of the Green functions of the wave propagation equation. We first describe the direct inversion and its ingredients and then we focus on a specific misfit function design leading to a indirect inversion. Finally, we shall compare this indirect inversion with more standard least-squares inversion as the FWI, enabling the focus on small weak velocity perturbations on one side and the speed-up of the velocity perturbation reconstruction on the other side. This bridge has been proposed by the group led by Raul Madariaga in the early nineties, emphasizing his leading role in efficient imaging workflows for seismic velocity reconstruction, a drastic requirement at that time.

  12. Dirac Points in Two-Dimensional Inverse Opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2013-10-01

    The electron energy states and energy bands are calculated for a two-dimensional inverse opal structure. Assume that the opal structure is closed-packed circles, the inverse opal has the honeycomb lattice. The honeycomb lattice in two dimensions has a Dirac point. Its properties can be manipulated by altering the structure of the inverse opal: the radius of the circle, and the small gap between circles.

  13. Radiation-Insensitive Inverse Majority Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    To help satisfy a need for high-density logic circuits insensitive to radiation, it has been proposed to realize inverse majority gates as microscopic vacuum electronic devices. In comparison with solid-state electronic devices ordinarily used in logic circuits, vacuum electronic devices are inherently much less adversely affected by radiation and extreme temperatures. The proposed development would involve state-of-the-art micromachining and recent advances in the fabrication of carbon-nanotube-based field emitters. A representative three-input inverse majority gate would be a monolithic, integrated structure that would include three gate electrodes, six bundles of carbon nanotubes (serving as electron emitters) at suitable positions between the gate electrodes, and an overhanging anode. The bundles of carbon nanotubes would be grown on degenerately doped silicon substrates that would be parts of the monolithic structure. The gate electrodes would be fabricated as parts of the monolithic structure by means of a double-silicon-on-insulator process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The tops of the bundles of carbon nanotubes would lie below the plane of the tops of the gate electrodes. The particular choice of shapes, dimensions, and relative positions of the electrodes and bundles of carbon nanotubes would provide for both field emission of electrons from the bundles of carbon nanotubes and control of the electron current to obtain the inverse majority function, which is described in the paper.

  14. Inversion of triton moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, R. B.; Levinger, J. S.

    1981-02-01

    We use the formalism of hyperspherical harmonics to calculate several moments for the triton photoeffect, for a Volkov spin-independent potential. First, we improve the accuracy of Maleki's calculations of the moments σ2 and σ3 by including more terms in the hyperspherical expansion. We also calculate moments σ0 and σ1 for a Serber mixture. We find reasonable agreement between our moments found by sum rules and those found from the cross sections calculated by Fang et al. and Levinger-Fitzgibbon. We then develop a technique of inversion of a finite number of moments by making the assumption that the cross section can be written as a sum of several Laguerre polynomials multiplied by a decreasing exponential. We test our inversion technique successfully on several model potentials. We then modify it and apply it to the five moments (σ-1 to σ3) for a force without exchange, and find fair agreement with Fang's values of the cross section. Finally, we apply the inversion technique to our three moments (σ-1,σ0,and σ1) for a Serber mixture, and find reasonable agreement with Gorbunov's measurements of the 3He photoeffect. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Triton photoeffects, hyperspherical harmonics, moments of photoeffect, inversion of moments.

  15. Latin American demand

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    From Mexico to Argentina, independent power companies are finding great demand for their services in Latin America. But while legal and economic conditions are increasingly favorable, political and financial uncertainties make power development challenging.

  16. Impact of Energy Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambel, Ali B.

    1970-01-01

    The types of pollutants associated with the process of power production are identified. A nine-point proposal is presented on the ways the increase in power demands might be achieved with the minimum threat to the environment. (PR)

  17. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  18. AVO inversion based on inverse operator estimation in trust region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xing-Yao; Deng, Wei; Zong, Zhao-Yun

    2016-04-01

    Amplitude variation with offset (AVO) inversion is widely utilized in exploration geophysics, especially for reservoir prediction and fluid identification. Inverse operator estimation in the trust region algorithm is applied for solving AVO inversion problems in which optimization and inversion directly are integrated. The L1 norm constraint is considered on the basis of reasonable initial model in order to improve effciency and stability during the AVO inversion process. In this study, high-order Zoeppritz approximation is utilized to establish the inversion objective function in which variation of {{v}\\text{p}}/{{v}\\text{s}} with time is taken into consideration. A model test indicates that the algorithm has a relatively higher stability and accuracy than the damp least-squares algorithm. Seismic data inversion is feasible and inversion values of three parameters ({{v}\\text{p}},{{v}\\text{s}},ρ ) maintain good consistency with logging curves.

  19. Inverse heat conduction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlande, Helcio Rangel Barreto

    We present the solution of the following inverse problems: (1) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance Between Periodically Contacting Surfaces; (2) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance During Solidification via Conjugate Gradient Method; (3) Determination of the Reaction Function in a Reaction-Diffusion Parabolic Problem; and (4) Simultaneous Estimation of Thermal Diffusivity and Relaxation Time with Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Model. Also, we present the solution of a direct problem entitled: Transient Thermal Constriction Resistance in a Finite Heat Flux Tube. The Conjugate Gradient Method with Adjoint Equation was used in chapters 1-3. The more general function estimation approach was treated in these chapters. In chapter 1, we solve the inverse problem of estimating the timewise variation of the interface conductance between periodically contacting solids, under quasi-steady-state conditions. The present method is found to be more accurate than the B-Spline approach for situations involving small periods, which are the most difficult on which to perform the inverse analysis. In chapter 2, we estimate the timewise variation of the interface conductance between casting and mold during the solidification of aluminum. The experimental apparatus used in this study is described. In chapter 3, we present the estimation of the reaction function in a one dimensional parabolic problem. A comparison of the present function estimation approach with the parameter estimation technique, wing B-Splines to approximate the reaction function, revealed that the use of function estimation reduces the computer time requirements. In chapter 4 we present a finite difference solution for the transient constriction resistance in a cylinder of finite length with a circular contact surface. A numerical grid generation scheme was used to concentrate grid points in the regions of high temperature gradients in order to reduce discretization errors. In chapter 6, we

  20. Package inspection using inverse diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2008-08-01

    More efficient cost-effective hand-held methods of inspecting packages without opening them are in demand for security. Recent new work in TeraHertz sources,1 millimeter waves, presents new possibilities. Millimeter waves pass through cardboard and styrofoam, common packing materials, and also pass through most materials except those with high conductivity like metals which block light and are easily spotted. Estimating refractive index along the path of the beam through the package from observations of the beam passing out of the package provides the necessary information to inspect the package and is a nonlinear problem. So we use a generalized linear inverse technique that we first developed for finding oil by reflection in geophysics.2 The computation assumes parallel slices in the packet of homogeneous material for which the refractive index is estimated. A beam is propagated through this model in a forward computation. The output is compared with the actual observations for the package and an update computed for the refractive indices. The loop is repeated until convergence. The approach can be modified for a reflection system or to include estimation of absorption.

  1. PHYSICAL BASIS OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Inversion-free amplification of a probe field in a medium consisting of two-level degenerate atoms in the presence of a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopleva, N. P.; Tumaikin, Anatolii M.

    1999-08-01

    The propagation of a probe field in a medium consisting of two-level atoms, degenerate in relation to the Jg = 1/2 → Je = 1/2 transition, is examined. The atoms are pumped by a circularly polarised resonant field in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is shown that under these conditions one of the normal waves may be amplified in the absence of inversion in the medium. In strong optical and magnetic fields, inversion-free amplification is possible for a pump with a finite spectral width, which may be much greater than the natural width of the excited level.

  2. Introduction to the 30th volume of Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Alfred K.

    2014-01-01

    The field of inverse problems is a fast-developing domain of research originating from the practical demands of finding the cause when a result is observed. The woodpecker, searching for insects, is probing a tree using sound waves: the information searched for is whether there is an insect or not, hence a 0-1 decision. When the result has to contain more information, ad hoc solutions are not at hand and more sophisticated methods have to be developed. Right from its first appearance, the field of inverse problems has been characterized by an interdisciplinary nature: the interpretation of measured data, reinforced by mathematical models serving the analyzing questions of observability, stability and resolution, developing efficient, stable and accurate algorithms to gain as much information as possible from the input and to feedback to the questions of optimal measurement configuration. As is typical for a new area of research, facets of it are separated and studied independently. Hence, fields such as the theory of inverse scattering, tomography in general and regularization methods have developed. However, all aspects have to be reassembled to arrive at the best possible solution to the problem at hand. This development is reflected by the first and still leading journal in the field, Inverse Problems. Founded by pioneers Roy Pike from London and Pierre Sabatier from Montpellier, who enjoyably describes the journal's nascence in his book Rêves et Combats d'un Enseignant-Chercheur, Retour Inverse [1], the journal has developed successfully over the last few decades. Neither the Editors-in-Chief, formerly called Honorary Editors, nor the board or authors could have set the path to success alone. Their fruitful interplay, complemented by the efficient and highly competent publishing team at IOP Publishing, has been fundamental. As such it is my honor and pleasure to follow my renowned colleagues Pierre Sabatier, Mario Bertero, Frank Natterer, Alberto Grünbaum and

  3. Inverse Functions and their Derivatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapper, Ernst

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a method of interchanging the x-axis and y-axis for viewing the graph of the inverse function. Discussed are the inverse function and the usual proofs that are used for the function. (KR)

  4. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.

  5. Lesson on Demand. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Sue

    This lesson plan helps students understand the role consumer demand plays in the market system, i.e., how interactions in the marketplace help determine pricing. Students will participate in an activity that demonstrates the concepts of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, and the law of demand. The lesson plan provides student objectives;…

  6. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  7. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  8. Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration experiment at ATF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. J.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fernow, R.; Kusche, K. P.; Liu, Y.; Kimura, W. D.; Kim, G. H.; Romea, R. D.; Steinhauer, L. C.

    Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration was demonstrated using an axicon optical system at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The ATF S-band linac and a high power 10.6 MICROMETERSCO2 laser were used for the experiment. Experimental arrangement and the laser and the electron beams synchronization are discussed. The electrons were accelerated more than 0.7 MeV for a 34 MW CO2 laser power. More than 3.7 MeV acceleration was measured with 0.7 GW CO2 laser power, which is more than 20 times of the previous ICA experiment. The experimental results are compared with computer program TRANSPORT simulations.

  9. Cognitive task demands, self-control demands and the mental well-being of office workers.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Robert S; Brasher, Kate

    2011-09-01

    The cognitive task demands of office workers and the self-control demands of their work roles were measured in a sample of 196 employees in two different office layouts using a self-report questionnaire, which was circulated electronically. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both factors were associated with mental well-being, but not with physical well-being, while controlling for exposure to psychosocial stressors. The interaction between cognitive task demands and self-control demands had the strongest association with mental well-being, suggesting that the deleterious effect of one was greater when the other was present. An exploratory analysis revealed that the association was stronger for employees working in a large open-plan office than for those working in smaller offices with more privacy. Frustration of work goals was the cognitive task demand having the strongest negative impact on mental well-being. Methodological limitations and scale psychometrics (particularly the use of the NASA Task Load Index) are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Modern office work has high mental demands and low physical demands and there is a need to design offices to prevent adverse psychological reactions. It is shown that cognitive task demands interact with self-control demands to degrade mental well-being. The association was stronger in an open-plan office. PMID:21846282

  10. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  11. Distribution of Childrearing Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith D.; And Others

    The tools of economic analysis were applied to demographic data in order to develop a social indicator measuring the extent of inequality in the distribution of childrearing responsibility in households from 1940 to 1980. With data drawn from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census, a "demand intensity" measure was developed.…

  12. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard University in…

  13. Demand surge following earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  14. Stress inversion assumptions review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejri, Mostfa; Maerten, Frantz; Maerten, Laurent; Joonnenkindt, Jean Pierre; Soliva, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Wallace (1951) and Bott (1959) were the first to introduce the idea that the slip on each fault surface has the same direction and sense as the maximum shear stress resolved on that surface. This hypothesis are based on the assumptions that (i) faults are planar, (ii) blocks are rigid, (iii) neither stress perturbations nor block rotations along fault surfaces occur and (iv), the applied stress state is uniform. However, this simplified hypothesis is questionable since complex fault geometries, heterogeneous fault slip directions, evidences of stress perturbations in microstructures and block rotations along fault surfaces were reported in the literature. Earlier numerical geomechanical models confirmed that the striation lines (slip vectors) are not necessarily parallel to the maximum shear stress vector but is consistent with local stress perturbations. This leads us to ask as to what extent the Wallace and Bott simplifications are reliable as a basis hypothesis for stress inversion. In this presentation, a geomechanical multi-parametric study using 3D boundary element method (BEM), covering (i) fault geometries such as intersected faults or corrugated fault surfaces, (ii) the full range of Andersonian state of stress, (iii) fault friction, (iv) half space effect and (v), rock properties, is performed in order to understand the effect of each parameter on the angular misfit between geomechanical slip vectors and the resolved shear stresses. It is shown that significant angular misfits can be found under specific configurations and therefore we conclude that stress inversions based on the Wallace-Bott hypothesis might sometime give results that should be interpreted with care. Major observations are that (i) applying optimum tectonic stress conditions on complex fault geometries can increase the angular misfit, (ii) elastic material properties, combined to half-space effect, can enhance this effect, and (iii) an increase of the sliding friction leads to a

  15. Inverse magnetorheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arco, L; López-López, M T; Zubarev, A Y; Gdula, K; Durán, J D G

    2014-09-01

    We report a new kind of field-responsive fluid consisting of suspensions of diamagnetic (DM) and ferromagnetic (FM) microparticles in ferrofluids. We designate them as inverse magnetorheological (IMR) fluids for analogy with inverse ferrofluids (IFFs). Observations on the particle self-assembly in IMR fluids upon magnetic field application showed that DM and FM microparticles were assembled into alternating chains oriented along the field direction. We explain such assembly on the basis of the dipolar interaction energy between particles. We also present results on the rheological properties of IMR fluids and, for comparison, those of IFFs and bidispersed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. Interestingly, we found that upon magnetic field application, the rheological properties of IMR fluids were enhanced with respect to bidispersed MR fluids with the same FM particle concentration, by an amount greater than the sum of the isolated contribution of DM particles. Furthermore, the field-induced yield stress was moderately increased when up to 30% of the total FM particle content was replaced with DM particles. Beyond this point, the dependence of the yield stress on the DM content was non-monotonic, as expected for FM concentrations decreasing to zero. We explain these synergistic results by two separate phenomena: the formation of exclusion areas for FM particles due to the perturbation of the magnetic field by DM particles and the dipole-dipole interaction between DM and FM particles, which enhances the field-induced structures. Based on the second phenomenon, we present a theoretical model for the yield stress that semi-quantitatively predicts the experimental results. PMID:25022363

  16. Wavelet Sparse Approximate Inverse Preconditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Tang, W.-P.; Wan, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using sparse approximate inverses as preconditioners for Krylov subspace iterative methods. Recent studies of Grote and Huckle and Chow and Saad also show that sparse approximate inverse preconditioner can be effective for a variety of matrices, e.g. Harwell-Boeing collections. Nonetheless a drawback is that it requires rapid decay of the inverse entries so that sparse approximate inverse is possible. However, for the class of matrices that, come from elliptic PDE problems, this assumption may not necessarily hold. Our main idea is to look for a basis, other than the standard one, such that a sparse representation of the inverse is feasible. A crucial observation is that the kind of matrices we are interested in typically have a piecewise smooth inverse. We exploit this fact, by applying wavelet techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse in the wavelet basis. We shall justify theoretically and numerically that our approach is effective for matrices with smooth inverse. We emphasize that in this paper we have only presented the idea of wavelet approximate inverses and demonstrated its potential but have not yet developed a highly refined and efficient algorithm.

  17. Dividends with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, O.; Pratt, D.

    2003-10-31

    To assist facility managers in assessing whether and to what extent they should participate in demand response programs offered by ISOs, we introduce a systematic process by which a curtailment supply curve can be developed that integrates costs and other program provisions and features. This curtailment supply curve functions as bid curve, which allows the facility manager to incrementally offer load to the market under terms and conditions acceptable to the customer. We applied this load curtailment assessment process to a stylized example of an office building, using programs offered by NYISO to provide detail and realism.

  18. Introduction to the 30th volume of Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Alfred K.

    2014-01-01

    The field of inverse problems is a fast-developing domain of research originating from the practical demands of finding the cause when a result is observed. The woodpecker, searching for insects, is probing a tree using sound waves: the information searched for is whether there is an insect or not, hence a 0-1 decision. When the result has to contain more information, ad hoc solutions are not at hand and more sophisticated methods have to be developed. Right from its first appearance, the field of inverse problems has been characterized by an interdisciplinary nature: the interpretation of measured data, reinforced by mathematical models serving the analyzing questions of observability, stability and resolution, developing efficient, stable and accurate algorithms to gain as much information as possible from the input and to feedback to the questions of optimal measurement configuration. As is typical for a new area of research, facets of it are separated and studied independently. Hence, fields such as the theory of inverse scattering, tomography in general and regularization methods have developed. However, all aspects have to be reassembled to arrive at the best possible solution to the problem at hand. This development is reflected by the first and still leading journal in the field, Inverse Problems. Founded by pioneers Roy Pike from London and Pierre Sabatier from Montpellier, who enjoyably describes the journal's nascence in his book Rêves et Combats d'un Enseignant-Chercheur, Retour Inverse [1], the journal has developed successfully over the last few decades. Neither the Editors-in-Chief, formerly called Honorary Editors, nor the board or authors could have set the path to success alone. Their fruitful interplay, complemented by the efficient and highly competent publishing team at IOP Publishing, has been fundamental. As such it is my honor and pleasure to follow my renowned colleagues Pierre Sabatier, Mario Bertero, Frank Natterer, Alberto Grünbaum and

  19. Modular theory of inverse systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between multivariable zeros and inverse systems was explored. A definition of zero module is given in such a way that it is basis independent. The existence of essential right and left inverses were established. The way in which the abstract zero module captured previous definitions of multivariable zeros is explained and examples are presented.

  20. Inversion exercises inspired by mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2016-02-01

    An elementary calculus transform, inspired by the centroid and gyration radius, is introduced as a prelude to the study of more advanced transforms. Analysis of the transform, including its inversion, makes use of several key concepts from basic calculus and exercises in the application and inversion of the transform provide practice in the use of technology in calculus.

  1. 41 CFR 105-55.010 - Demand for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Internet inquiries. In determining the timing of the demand letter(s), GSA will give due regard to the need... demand, notification by electronic mail (e-mail) and/or Internet delivery is considered a form of written... comply with Executive Order 12988 (3 CFR, 1996 Comp. pp. 157-163) and may be given as part of a...

  2. Inverse Problems of Thermoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Luste, O. J.; Kuz, R. V.; Strutinsky, M. N.

    2011-05-01

    Classical thermoelectricity is based on the use of the Seebeck and Thomson effects that occur in the near-contact areas between n- and p-type materials. A conceptually different approach to thermoelectric power converter design that is based on the law of thermoelectric induction of currents is also known. The efficiency of this approach has already been demonstrated by its first applications. More than 10 basically new types of thermoelements were discovered with properties that cannot be achieved by thermocouple power converters. Therefore, further development of this concept is of practical interest. This paper provides a classification and theory for solving the inverse problems of thermoelectricity that form the basis for devising new thermoelement types. Computer methods for their solution for anisotropic and inhomogeneous media are elaborated. Regularities related to thermoelectric current excitation in anisotropic and inhomogeneous media are established. The possibility of obtaining eddy currents of a particular configuration through control of the temperature field and material parameters for the creation of new thermo- element types is demonstrated for three-dimensional (3D) models of anisotropic and inhomogeneous media.

  3. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.

    2005-03-01

    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  4. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-06-01

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling's iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step.

  5. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-06-28

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling’s iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step.

  6. A scatterometry inverse problem in optical mask metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Model, R.; Rathsfeld, A.; Gross, H.; Wurm, M.; Bodermann, B.

    2008-11-01

    We discuss the solution of the inverse problem in scatterometry i.e. the determination of periodic surface structures from light diffraction patterns. With decreasing details of lithography masks, increasing demands on metrology techniques arise. By scatterometry as a non-imaging indirect optical method critical dimensions (CD) like side-wall angles, heights, top and bottom widths are determined. The numerical simulation of diffraction is based on the finite element solution of the Helmholtz equation. The inverse problem seeks to reconstruct the grating geometry from measured diffraction patterns. The inverse operator maps efficiencies of diffracted plane wave modes to the grating parameters. We employ a Newton type iterative method to solve the resulting minimum problem. The reconstruction quality surely depends on the angles of incidence, on the wave lengths and/or the number of propagating scattered wave modes and will be discussed by numerical examples.

  7. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  8. Observation of the inverse Doppler effect.

    PubMed

    Seddon, N; Bearpark, T

    2003-11-28

    We report experimental observation of an inverse Doppler shift, in which the frequency of a wave is increased on reflection from a receding boundary. This counterintuitive effect has been produced by reflecting a wave from a moving discontinuity in an electrical transmission line. Doppler shifts produced by this system can be varied in a reproducible manner by electronic control of the transmission line and are typically five orders of magnitude greater than those produced by solid objects with kinematic velocities. Potential applications include the development of tunable and multifrequency radiation sources.

  9. New demands on desalter operations

    SciTech Connect

    Witzig, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Increased demands for improved desalter performance focus primarily on salt content and BS and W (basic sediment and water) content of the desalted crude. Recent demands target removal of other inorganic impurities which deactivate catalysts and contaminate finish products. The specific demand or performance need is usually apparent and easily quantified. This paper focuses on methods to achieve these demands through process optimization, chemical treatment, and employing an integrated process approach to desalting.

  10. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-26

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation.

  11. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation.

  12. Stylolite stress inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Daniel; Toussaint, Renaud; Ebner, Marcus; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul; Rood, Daisy

    2014-05-01

    Stylolites are localized dissolution seams that can be found in a variety of rocks, and can form due to sediment compaction or tectonic forces. Dissolution of the host-rock next to the stylolite is a function of the applied stress on the stylolite plane. Stylolite teeth indicate the direction of the main compressive stress. Recent advances have shown that the stylolite roughness also shows a stress scaling relation that can be used to calculate magnitudes of stress. Elastic and surface energies produce a different roughness, and the transition between the two is stress dependent and can be quantified. In order to measure the roughness a two or three-dimensional section of a stylolite plane is taken and transferred to a one-dimensional function. The cross-over in the roughness is then picked with the help of an FFT plot. Using this method the burial depth of sedimentary stylolites can be determined. Moreover, tectonic stylolites can be used to determine the full three-dimensional stress tensor if the paleodepth of the tectonic stylolite is known. Stylolites can also be used to find fault offsets and to understand when these faults were active and how the paleotopography looked like at the time the stylolites grew. However, uncertainties remain since Youngs Modulus, Poisson Ratio and surface energy may vary in rocks. In addition, the stylolites record only a snapshot in time, probably the moment when they closed and stopped dissolving. We show examples of the use of stress inversion for stylolite formation conditions in different tectonic settings, and discuss the potential of the method.

  13. Microwave inverse Cerenkov accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. B.; Marshall, T. C.; LaPointe, M. A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1997-03-01

    A Microwave Inverse Cerenkov Accelerator (MICA) is currently under construction at the Yale Beam Physics Laboratory. The accelerating structure in MICA consists of an axisymmetric dielectrically lined waveguide. For the injection of 6 MeV microbunches from a 2.856 GHz RF gun, and subsequent acceleration by the TM01 fields, particle simulation studies predict that an acceleration gradient of 6.3 MV/m can be achieved with a traveling-wave power of 15 MW applied to the structure. Synchronous injection into a narrow phase window is shown to allow trapping of all injected particles. The RF fields of the accelerating structure are shown to provide radial focusing, so that longitudinal and transverse emittance growth during acceleration is small, and that no external magnetic fields are required for focusing. For 0.16 nC, 5 psec microbunches, the normalized emittance of the accelerated beam is predicted to be less than 5πmm-mrad. Experiments on sample alumina tubes have been conducted that verify the theoretical dispersion relation for the TM01 mode over a two-to-one range in frequency. No excitation of axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric competing waveguide modes was observed. High power tests showed that tangential electric fields at the inner surface of an uncoated sample of alumina pipe could be sustained up to at least 8.4 MV/m without breakdown. These considerations suggest that a MICA test accelerator can be built to examine these predictions using an available RF power source, 6 MeV RF gun and associated beam line.

  14. Forward and Inverse Cascades in EMHD Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2016-05-01

    Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a simple fluid-like description of physics below the proton gyro-scale in collisionless plasmas, such as the solar wind. In this paper, we discuss forward and inverse cascades in EMHD turbulence in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field. Similar to Alfvén waves, EMHD waves, or EMHD perturbations, propagate along magnetic field lines. Therefore, two types of EMHD waves can exist: waves moving parallel to and waves moving anti-parallel to the the magnetic field lines. For energy cascade in EMHD turbulence, the relative amplitudes of opposite-traveling waves are important. When the amplitudes are balanced, we will see fully-developed forward cascade with a k -7/3 energy spectrum and a scale-dependent anisotropy. On the other hand, when the amplitudes are imbalanced, we will see inverse cascade, as well as (presumably not fully developed) forward cascade. The underlying physics for the inverse cascade is magnetic helicity conservation.

  15. Temperature inversion in China seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jiajia; Chen, Yongli; Wang, Fan

    2010-12-01

    Temperature inversion was reported as a common phenomenon in the areas near the southeastern Chinese coast (region A), west and south of the Korean Peninsula (region B), and north and east of the Shandong Peninsula (region C) during October-May in the present study, based on hydrographic data archived from 1930 through 2001 (319,029 profiles). The inversion was found to be remarkable with obvious temporal and spatial variabilities in both magnitude and coverage, with higher probabilities in region A (up to about 60%) and region C (40%-50%) than in region B (15%-20%). The analysis shows that seasonal variation of the net air-sea heat flux is closely related to the occurrence time of the inversion in the three areas, while the Yangtze and Yellow river freshwater plumes in the surface layer and ocean origin saline water in the subsurface layer maintain stable stratification. It seems that the evaporation/excessive precipitation flux makes little contribution to maintaining the stable inversion. Advection of surface fresh water by the wind-driven coastal currents results in the expansion of inversion in regions A and C. The inversion lasts for the longest period in region A (October-May) sustained by the Taiwan Warm Current carrying the subsurface saline water, while evolution of the inversion in region B is mainly controlled by the Yellow Sea Warm Current.

  16. Polymer sol-gel composite inverse opal structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Blanchard, G J

    2015-03-25

    We report on the formation of composite inverse opal structures where the matrix used to form the inverse opal contains both silica, formed using sol-gel chemistry, and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. We find that the morphology of the inverse opal structure depends on both the amount of PEG incorporated into the matrix and its molecular weight. The extent of organization in the inverse opal structure, which is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical reflectance data, is mediated by the chemical bonding interactions between the silica and PEG constituents in the hybrid matrix. Both polymer chain terminus Si-O-C bonding and hydrogen bonding between the polymer backbone oxygens and silanol functionalities can contribute, with the polymer mediating the extent to which Si-O-Si bonds can form within the silica regions of the matrix due to hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:25734614

  17. Polymer sol-gel composite inverse opal structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Blanchard, G J

    2015-03-25

    We report on the formation of composite inverse opal structures where the matrix used to form the inverse opal contains both silica, formed using sol-gel chemistry, and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. We find that the morphology of the inverse opal structure depends on both the amount of PEG incorporated into the matrix and its molecular weight. The extent of organization in the inverse opal structure, which is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical reflectance data, is mediated by the chemical bonding interactions between the silica and PEG constituents in the hybrid matrix. Both polymer chain terminus Si-O-C bonding and hydrogen bonding between the polymer backbone oxygens and silanol functionalities can contribute, with the polymer mediating the extent to which Si-O-Si bonds can form within the silica regions of the matrix due to hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  18. Optimal filling fraction of Ta2O5 inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubio, C. R.; Guitian, F.; Gil, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) inverse opals were prepared by combining the self-assembly process and sol-gel chemistry-based opal infiltration. The inverse opal was made by the infiltration of a tantalum(V) ethoxide solution in the interstices of the polystyrene colloidal crystal template, and then removing the original opal template by calcination. The infiltration process as well as the optimal precursor concentration has been investigated in order to obtain Ta2O5 inverse opals with the optimal filling fraction. The effects of processing, template sphere size, morphology, structural properties, filling fraction and composition of the inverse opal are provided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis (EDS) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results correlate the concentration of the precursor with the filling fraction of the template.

  19. Givental Graphs and Inversion Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, Petr; Shadrin, Sergey; Spitz, Loek

    2013-05-01

    Inversion symmetry is a very non-trivial discrete symmetry of Frobenius manifolds. It was obtained by Dubrovin from one of the elementary Schlesinger transformations of a special ODE associated to a Frobenius manifold. In this paper, we review the Givental group action on Frobenius manifolds in terms of Feynman graphs and obtain an interpretation of the inversion symmetry in terms of the action of the Givental group. We also consider the implication of this interpretation of the inversion symmetry for the Schlesinger transformations and for the Hamiltonians of the associated principle hierarchy.

  20. Source Inversion Validation: Quantifying Uncertainties in Earthquake Source Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, P. M.; Page, M. T.; Schorlemmer, D.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake source inversions image the spatio-temporal rupture evolution on one or more fault planes using seismic and/or geodetic data. Source inversion methods thus represent an important research tool in seismology to unravel the complexity of earthquake ruptures. Subsequently, source-inversion results are used to study earthquake mechanics, to develop spontaneous dynamic rupture models, to build models for generating rupture realizations for ground-motion simulations, and to perform Coulomb-stress modeling. In all these applications, the underlying finite-source rupture models are treated as “data” (input information), but the uncertainties in these data (i.e. source models obtained from solving an inherently ill-posed inverse problem) are hardly known, and almost always neglected. The Source Inversion Validation (SIV) project attempts to better understand the intra-event variability of earthquake rupture models. We plan to build a long-standing and rigorous testing platform to examine the current state-of-the-art in earthquake source inversion that also facilitates to develop robust approaches to quantify rupture-model uncertainties. Our contribution reviews the current status of the SIV project, recent forward-modeling tests for point and extended sources in layered media, and discusses the strategy of the SIV-project for the coming years.

  1. Demand illumination control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

  2. Uterine Inversion; A case report.

    PubMed

    Bouchikhi, C; Saadi, H; Fakhir, B; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Banani, A; Melhouf, Ma

    2008-01-01

    The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The mechanisms are not completely known. However, extrinsic factors such as oxytocic arrests after a prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction or abdominal expression are pointed. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, various placental localizations, fundic myoma or short umbilical cord were also reported. The diagnosis of the uterine inversion is mainly supported by clinical symptoms. It is based on three elements: haemorrhage, shock and a strong pelvic pain. The immediate treatment of the uterine inversion is required. It is based on a medical reanimation associated with firstly a manual reduction then surgical treatment using various techniques. We report an observation of a 25 years old grand multiparous patient with a subacute uterine inversion after delivery at home. PMID:21516244

  3. Uterine Inversion; A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bouchikhi, C; Saadi, H; Fakhir, B; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Banani, A; Melhouf, MA

    2008-01-01

    The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The mechanisms are not completely known. However, extrinsic factors such as oxytocic arrests after a prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction or abdominal expression are pointed. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, various placental localizations, fundic myoma or short umbilical cord were also reported. The diagnosis of the uterine inversion is mainly supported by clinical symptoms. It is based on three elements: haemorrhage, shock and a strong pelvic pain. The immediate treatment of the uterine inversion is required. It is based on a medical reanimation associated with firstly a manual reduction then surgical treatment using various techniques. We report an observation of a 25 years old grand multiparous patient with a subacute uterine inversion after delivery at home. PMID:21516244

  4. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, M.; Mai, P.M.; Schorlemmer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  5. Inversion layer MOS solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Fat Duen

    1986-01-01

    Inversion layer (IL) Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) solar cells were fabricated. The fabrication technique and problems are discussed. A plan for modeling IL cells is presented. Future work in this area is addressed.

  6. Temperature Inversions Have Cold Bottoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.; Brown, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    Uses discussion and illustrations of several demonstrations on air temperature differences and atmospheric stability to explain the phenomena of temperature inversions. Relates this to the smog in Los Angeles and discusses the implications. (DC)

  7. Moebius inversion formula and inverting lattice sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millane, Rick P.

    2000-11-01

    The Mobius inversion formula is an interesting theorem from number theory that has application to a number inverse problems, particularly lattice problems. Specific inverse problems, however, often require related Mobius inversion formulae that can be derived from the fundamental formula. Derivation of such formulae is not easy for the non- specialist, however. Examples of the kinds of inversion formulae that can be derived and their application to inverse lattice problems are described.

  8. Breast ultrasound computed tomography using waveform inversion with source encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Matthews, Thomas; Anis, Fatima; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) holds great promise for improving the detection and management of breast cancer. Because they are based on the acoustic wave equation, waveform inversion-based reconstruction methods can produce images that possess improved spatial resolution properties over those produced by ray-based methods. However, waveform inversion methods are computationally demanding and have not been applied widely in USCT breast imaging. In this work, source encoding concepts are employed to develop an accelerated USCT reconstruction method that circumvents the large computational burden of conventional waveform inversion methods. This method, referred to as the waveform inversion with source encoding (WISE) method, encodes the measurement data using a random encoding vector and determines an estimate of the speed-of-sound distribution by solving a stochastic optimization problem by use of a stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Computer-simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the use of the WISE method. Using a single graphics processing unit card, each iteration can be completed within 25 seconds for a 128 × 128 mm2 reconstruction region. The results suggest that the WISE method maintains the high spatial resolution of waveform inversion methods while significantly reducing the computational burden.

  9. Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration experiment at ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fernow, R.; Kusche, K.P.; Liu, Y.; Kimura, W.D.; Kim, G.H.; Romea, R.D.; Steinhauer, L.C.

    1994-09-01

    Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration was demonstrated using an axicon optical system at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The ATF S-band linac and a high power 10.6 {mu}m CO{sub 2} laser were used for the experiment. Experimental arrangement and the laser and the electron beams synchronization are discussed. The electrons were accelerated more than 0.7 MeV for a 34 MW CO{sub 2} laser power. More than 3.7 MeV acceleration was measured with 0.7 GW CO{sub 2} laser power, which is more than 20 times of the previous ICA experiment. The experimental results are compared with computer program TRANSPORT simulations.

  10. Stoner magnetism in an inversion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosov, D. I.

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by recent experimental work on magnetic properties of Si-MOSFETs, we report a calculation of magnetisation and susceptibility of electrons in an inversion layer, taking into account the co-ordinate dependence of electron wave function in the direction perpendicular to the plane. It is assumed that the inversion-layer carriers interact via a contact repulsive potential, which is treated at a mean-field level, resulting in a self-consistent change of profile of the wave functions. We find that the results differ significantly from those obtained in the pure 2DEG case (where no provision is made for a quantum motion in the transverse direction). Specifically, the critical value of interaction needed to attain the ferromagnetic (Stoner) instability is decreased and the Stoner criterion is therefore relaxed. This leads to an increased susceptibility and ultimately to a ferromagnetic transition deep in the high-density metallic regime. In the opposite limit of low carrier densities, a phenomenological treatment of the in-plane correlation effects suggests a ferromagnetic instability above the metal-insulator transition. Results are discussed in the context of the available experimental data.

  11. Synthesis of metal colloids in inverse microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnickel, P.; Wokaun, A.

    Colloidal silver and gold particles have been prepared by reduction of aqueous metal salt solutions in inverse microemulsions. The sols are characterized by absorption spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Ultrasound treatment during reduction results in a narrower size distribution of the colloidal particles, as evidenced by a narrower absorption band. Photochemical silver and gold sol formation, without the addition of a reducing agent, has been observed for inverse microemulsions of metal salt solutions in a medium consisting of dodecyl-heptaethyleneglycol-ether and hexane. The particle sizes determined from electron microscopy have been used as input parameters for the simulation of absorption spectra, based on the electromagnetic theory of localized surface plasmon excitation. For the gold sols a quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated spectra is obtained. With the silver colloids, the observed red-shift of the absorption maximum points to the presence of an ionic layer on the surface of the particles. When this layer is included in the theoretical model, good agreement with the experiment is achieved.

  12. Adamantyl-group containing mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds for capillary electrochromatography. Part II. Characterization of the synthesized monoliths by inverse size exclusion chromatography and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ayat Allah Al-Massaedh; Pyell, Ute

    2014-01-17

    In our previous article we have described the synthesis of a new amphiphilic monolithic stationary phase by in situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-adamantyl acrylamide, piperazinediacrylamide, methacrylamide and vinylsulfonic acid in aqueous medium in pre-treated fused silica capillaries of 100μm I.D. In the present work, we study the morphology of different monolithic stationary phases synthesized under variation of the concentration of ammonium sulfate in the polymerization mixture. The pore size distribution is determined with inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) using the retention data of a series of polystyrene standards with narrow molecular size distribution and known average molar mass ranging from 1560 to 2010000gmol(-1). The impact of the concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate in the polymerization mixture on the formed morphology, the pore size distribution, and the fractional volume of mesopores and macropores is determined. The homogeneity and uniformity of the formed monolith over the length of the capillary and the covalent attachment to the confining walls are confirmed. Repetition of the synthesis procedure shows that these morphology parameters are well controlled as there is an excellent capillary-to-capillary, day-to-day, and run-to-run reproducibility reached for the electroosmotic mobility and the retention factor determined with alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode. PMID:24380653

  13. Multidimensional NMR inversion without Kronecker products: Multilinear inversion.

    PubMed

    Medellín, David; Ravi, Vivek R; Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required by the LH or BRD methods. It can also be extended to arbitrary dimensions and adapted to include non-separable kernels, linear constraints, and arbitrary regularization terms. Additionally, it is easy to implement because only a cost function and its first derivative are required to perform the inversion. PMID:27209370

  14. Multidimensional NMR inversion without Kronecker products: Multilinear inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellín, David; Ravi, Vivek R.; Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required by the LH or BRD methods. It can also be extended to arbitrary dimensions and adapted to include non-separable kernels, linear constraints, and arbitrary regularization terms. Additionally, it is easy to implement because only a cost function and its first derivative are required to perform the inversion.

  15. An integrated communications demand model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, C. F.

    1980-11-01

    A computer model of communications demand is being developed to permit dynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of demand for communications media in the U.K. to be made under alternative assumptions about social, economic and technological trends in British Telecom's business environment. The context and objectives of the project and the potential uses of the model are reviewed, and four key concepts in the demand for communications media, around which the model is being structured are discussed: (1) the generation of communications demand; (2) substitution between media; (3) technological convergence; and (4) competition. Two outline perspectives on the model itself are given.

  16. Global inversion for anisotropy during full-waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debens, H. A.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a powerful tool for quantitative estimation of high-resolution high-fidelity models of subsurface seismic parameters, typically P-wave velocity. The solution to FWI's posed nonlinear inverse problem is obtained via an iterative series of linearized local updates to a start model, assuming this model lies within the basin of attraction to the global minimum. Thanks to many successful published applications to three-dimensional (3D) field datasets, its advance has been rapid and driven in large-part by the oil and gas industry. The consideration of seismic anisotropy during FWI is of vital importance, as it holds influence over both the kinematics and dynamics of seismic waveforms. If not appropriately taken into account then inadequacies in the anisotropy model are likely to manifest as significant error in the recovered velocity model. Conventionally, anisotropic FWI employs either an a priori anisotropy model, held fixed during FWI, or it uses a multi-parameter local inversion scheme to recover the anisotropy as part of the FWI; both of these methods can be problematic. Constructing an anisotropy model prior to FWI often involves intensive (and hence expensive) iterative procedures, such as travel-time tomography or moveout velocity analysis. On the other hand, introducing multiple parameters to FWI itself increases the complexity of what is already an underdetermined inverse problem. We propose that global rather than local FWI can be used to recover the long-wavelength acoustic anisotropy model, and that this can then be followed by more-conventional local FWI to recover the detailed model. We validate this approach using a full 3D field dataset, demonstrating that it avoids problems associated to crosstalk that can bedevil local inversion schemes, and reconciles well with in situ borehole measurements. Although our approach includes a global inversion for anisotropy, it is nonetheless affordable and practical for 3D field data.

  17. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and

  18. Inversion strategies for visco-acoustic waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, R.; Pratt, R. G.

    2013-08-01

    Visco-acoustic waveform inversion can potentially yield quantitative images of the distribution of both velocity and the attenuation parameters from seismic data. Intrinsic P-wave attenuation has been of particular interest, but has also proven challenging. Frequency-domain inversion allows attenuation and velocity relations to be easily incorporated, and allows a natural multiscale approach. The Laplace-Fourier approach extends this to allow the natural damping of waveforms to enhance early arrivals. Nevertheless, simultaneous inversion of velocity and attenuation leads to significant `cross-talk' between the resulting images, reflecting a lack of parameter resolution and indicating the need for pre-conditioning and regularization of the inverse problem. We analyse the cross-talk issue by partitioning the inversion parameters into two classes; the velocity parameter class, and the attenuation parameter class. Both parameters are defined at a reference frequency, and a dispersion relation is assumed that describes these parameters at any other frequency. We formulate the model gradients at a forward modelling frequency, and convert them to the reference frequency by employing the Jacobian of the coordinate change represented by the dispersion relation. We show that at a given modelling frequency, the Fréchet derivatives corresponding to these two parameter classes differ only by a 90° phase shift, meaning that the magnitudes of resulting model updates will be unscaled, and will not reflect the expected magnitudes in realistic (Q-1 ≪ 1) media. Due to the lack of scaling, cross-talk will be enhanced by poor subsurface illumination, by errors in kinematics, and by data noise. To solve these issues, we introduce an attenuation scaling term (the inverse of a penalty term) that is used to pre-condition the gradient by controlling the magnitudes of the updates to the attenuation parameters. Initial results from a suite of synthetic cross-hole tests using a three

  19. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  20. Harnessing the power of demand

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

    2008-03-15

    Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  1. CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

    THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

  2. Population inversion in plasmas generated during recombination cascades.

    PubMed

    Pert, G J

    2007-11-01

    The collisional-radiative model for hydrogenlike ions is used to investigate the scaling of recombination at low temperatures in order to identify the necessary conditions of electron density and temperature, which will allow population inversion between the first excited state and the ground state to be developed. Numerical calculations show that at low temperatures the population growth in the hydrogenic states can be represented by similarity relations. The physical origin of these forms is presented. A table of minimum densities at which inversion will occur is given as a function of temperature for ions of arbitrary atomic number.

  3. Opal shell structures: direct assembly versus inversion approach.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tian-Song; Sharifi, Parvin; Marlow, Frank

    2013-09-16

    Opal shell structures can be fabricated in two ways: By direct assembly from hollow spheres (hs-opal) or by infiltration of precursors into opal templates and inversion. The resulting lattice disturbances were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, and transmission spectra. The hs-opal system shows much lower disturbances, for example, a lower number of cracks and lattice deformations. The strong suppression of crack formation in one of these inverse opal structures can be considered as promising candidates for the fabrication of more perfect photonic crystals. PMID:23843257

  4. Opal shell structures: direct assembly versus inversion approach.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tian-Song; Sharifi, Parvin; Marlow, Frank

    2013-09-16

    Opal shell structures can be fabricated in two ways: By direct assembly from hollow spheres (hs-opal) or by infiltration of precursors into opal templates and inversion. The resulting lattice disturbances were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, and transmission spectra. The hs-opal system shows much lower disturbances, for example, a lower number of cracks and lattice deformations. The strong suppression of crack formation in one of these inverse opal structures can be considered as promising candidates for the fabrication of more perfect photonic crystals.

  5. Inversion domains in AlN grown on (0001) sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Paduano, Q.S.; Weyburne, D.W.

    2003-08-25

    Al-polarity inversion domains formed during AlN layer growth on (0001) sapphire were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They resemble columnar inversion domains reported for GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire. However, for AlN, these columns have a V-like shape with boundaries that deviate by 2 {+-} 0.5{sup o} from the c-axis. TEM identification of these defects agrees with the post-growth surface morphology as well as with the microstructure revealed by etching in hot aqueous KOH.

  6. Thermoelectric properties of inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.; Poilvert, N.; Crespi, V. H.

    2016-02-01

    Rayleigh's method [Philos. Mag. Ser. 5 34, 481 (1892)] is used to solve for the classical thermoelectric equations in inverse opals. His theory predicts that in an inverse opal, with periodic holes, the Seebeck coefficient and the figure of merit are identical to that of the bulk material. We also provide a major revision to Rayleigh's method, in using the electrochemical potential as an important variable, instead of the electrostatic potential. We also show that in some cases, the thermal boundary resistance is important in the effective thermal conductivity.

  7. Darwin's "strange inversion of reasoning".

    PubMed

    Dennett, Daniel

    2009-06-16

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive "inversion of reasoning" (according to a 19th century critic): "to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it" [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own.

  8. Population inversion by chirped pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Tianshi

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, we analyze the condition for complete population inversion by a chirped pulse over a finite duration. The nonadiabatic transition probability is mapped in the two-dimensional parameter space of coupling strength and detuning amplitude. Asymptotic forms of the probability are derived by the interference of nonadiabatic transitions for sinusoidal and triangular pulses. The qualitative difference between the maps for the two types of pulses is accounted for. The map is used for the design of stable inversion pulses under specific accuracy thresholds.

  9. Multiphase inverse modeling: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1998-03-01

    Inverse modeling is a technique to derive model-related parameters from a variety of observations made on hydrogeologic systems, from small-scale laboratory experiments to field tests to long-term geothermal reservoir responses. If properly chosen, these observations contain information about the system behavior that is relevant to the performance of a geothermal field. Estimating model-related parameters and reducing their uncertainty is an important step in model development, because errors in the parameters constitute a major source of prediction errors. This paper contains an overview of inverse modeling applications using the ITOUGH2 code, demonstrating the possibilities and limitations of a formalized approach to the parameter estimation problem.

  10. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  11. Inverse dielectric response function for copper oxide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. C.; Kulshrestha, Ina

    1992-09-01

    We use a layered-electron-gas model to calculate the inverse electronic dielectric response functions for the normal state of copper oxide superconductors with one and two copper oxide layers per unit cell. Our calculation demonstrates that the low-energy electronic collective-excitation spectrum consists of both acoustic and optic plasmons. The acoustic plasmon modes are found to be well behaved only for certain restricted values of the wave vector and damping parameter. Our computed optical inverse dielectric response function exhibits one peak in the low-energy region and varies as βω2 for 0<=ω<=ωp. Here β is a material-dependent parameter and ωp is the position of the peak that corresponds to the intraband optic plasmon mode. Our calculated optical dielectric response functions show excellent agreement with the experimental results of Bozovic for 0<=ω<=ωp.

  12. External inverse-Compton Emission from Blazar Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, Jennifer E.; Chiang, James; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    According to leptonic models for the high-energy emission from blazars, relativistic electrons in the inner jets inverse-Compton scatter photons from a variety of sources. Seed photons are certainly introduced via the synchrotron process from the electrons themselves, but external sources of seed photons may also be present. In this paper, we present detailed derivations of the equations describing external inverse-Compton scattering from two sources of seed photons: direct emission from the accretion disk, and accretion disk photons that have scattered off the broad line region. For each source, we derive the seed photon spectrum incident on the jet, the single electron energy loss rate, and the emitted photon spectrum.

  13. Microfluidic electronics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  14. Optimal inversion of the generalized Anscombe transformation for Poisson-Gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Mäkitalo, Markku; Foi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Many digital imaging devices operate by successive photon-to-electron, electron-to-voltage, and voltage-to-digit conversions. These processes are subject to various signal-dependent errors, which are typically modeled as Poisson-Gaussian noise. The removal of such noise can be effected indirectly by applying a variance-stabilizing transformation (VST) to the noisy data, denoising the stabilized data with a Gaussian denoising algorithm, and finally applying an inverse VST to the denoised data. The generalized Anscombe transformation (GAT) is often used for variance stabilization, but its unbiased inverse transformation has not been rigorously studied in the past. We introduce the exact unbiased inverse of the GAT and show that it plays an integral part in ensuring accurate denoising results. We demonstrate that this exact inverse leads to state-of-the-art results without any notable increase in the computational complexity compared to the other inverses. We also show that this inverse is optimal in the sense that it can be interpreted as a maximum likelihood inverse. Moreover, we thoroughly analyze the behavior of the proposed inverse, which also enables us to derive a closed-form approximation for it. This paper generalizes our work on the exact unbiased inverse of the Anscombe transformation, which we have presented earlier for the removal of pure Poisson noise.

  15. Optimal inversion of the generalized Anscombe transformation for Poisson-Gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Mäkitalo, Markku; Foi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Many digital imaging devices operate by successive photon-to-electron, electron-to-voltage, and voltage-to-digit conversions. These processes are subject to various signal-dependent errors, which are typically modeled as Poisson-Gaussian noise. The removal of such noise can be effected indirectly by applying a variance-stabilizing transformation (VST) to the noisy data, denoising the stabilized data with a Gaussian denoising algorithm, and finally applying an inverse VST to the denoised data. The generalized Anscombe transformation (GAT) is often used for variance stabilization, but its unbiased inverse transformation has not been rigorously studied in the past. We introduce the exact unbiased inverse of the GAT and show that it plays an integral part in ensuring accurate denoising results. We demonstrate that this exact inverse leads to state-of-the-art results without any notable increase in the computational complexity compared to the other inverses. We also show that this inverse is optimal in the sense that it can be interpreted as a maximum likelihood inverse. Moreover, we thoroughly analyze the behavior of the proposed inverse, which also enables us to derive a closed-form approximation for it. This paper generalizes our work on the exact unbiased inverse of the Anscombe transformation, which we have presented earlier for the removal of pure Poisson noise. PMID:22692910

  16. Inversions. Popular Lectures in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakel'man, I. Ya

    Inversions are transformations of geometric figures, under which straight lines may be mapped to circles, and conversely. The use of such mapping allows development of a unified method of solution for many of the problems of elementary geometry, especially those concerning constructions and "pencils" of curves. This book discusses the inversion…

  17. Action Understanding as Inverse Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Chris L.; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the…

  18. Ceria based inverse opals for thermochemical fuel production: Quantification and prediction of high temperature behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, Danielle Courtney

    Solar energy has the potential to supply more than enough energy to meet humanity's energy demands. Here, a method for thermochemical solar energy storage through fuel production is presented. A porous non-stoichiometric oxide, ceria, undergoes partial thermal reduction and oxidation with concentrated solar energy as a heat source, and water as an oxidant. The resulting yields for hydrogen fuel and oxygen are produced in two discrete steps, while the starting material maintains its original phase. Ordered porosity has been shown superior to random porosity for thermochemical fuel production applications, but stability limits for these structures are currently undefined. Ceria-based inverse opals are currently being investigated to assess the architectural influence on thermochemical hydrogen production. Low tortuosity and continuous interconnected pore network allow for facile gas transport and improved reaction kinetics. Ceria-based ordered materials have recently been shown to increase maximum hydrogen production over non-ordered porous ceria. Thermal stability of ordered porosity was quantified using quantitative image analysis. Fourier analysis was applied to SEM images of the material. The algorithm results in an order parameter gamma that describes the degree of long range order maintained by these structures, where gamma>4 signifies ordered porosity. According to this metric, a minimum zirconium content of 20 atomic percent (at%) is necessary for these architectures to survive aggressive annealing up to 1000°C. Zirconium substituted ceria (ZSC) with Zr loadings in excess of 20at% developed undesired tetragonal phases. Through gamma, we were able to find a balance between the benefit of zirconium additions on structural stability and its negative impact on phase. This work demonstrates the stability of seemingly delicate architectures, and the operational limit for ceria based inverse opals to be 1000°C for 1microm pore size. Inverse opals having sub

  19. Quantization effects on the inversion mode of a double gate MOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondol, Kalyan; Hasan, Md. Manzurul; Arafath, Yeasir; Alam, Khairul

    We investigate the quantization effects on the gate capacitance and charge distribution of a double gate MOSFET using a self-consistent solution of Poisson and Schrödinger equations of the industry standard simulation package Silvaco. Quantization effects on the gate C-V are simulated by varying the electron and hole effective masses. We notice that the inversion capacitance value decreases as the effective mass goes below 0.1mo and the shape of the C-V curve changes to step like in the inversion. We also notice that the inversion switches from surface inversion to volume inversion for low effective mass, and the quantization effect (step like shape) in C-V and volume inversion in charge profile happen at the same effective mass.

  20. Applications of inverse pattern projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wansong; Bothe, Thorsten; Kalms, Michael K.; von Kopylow, Christoph; Jueptner, Werner P. O.

    2003-05-01

    Fast and robust 3D quality control as well as fast deformation measurement is of particular importance for industrial inspection. Additionally a direct response about measured properties is desired. Therefore, robust optical techniques are needed which use as few images as possible for measurement and visualize results in an efficient way. One promising technique for this aim is the inverse pattern projection which has the following advantages: The technique codes the information of a preceding measurement into the projected inverse pattern. Thus, it is possible to do differential measurements using only one camera frame for each state. Additionally, the results are optimized straight fringes for sampling which are independent of the object curvature. The hardware needs are low as just a programmable projector and a standard camera are necessary. The basic idea of inverse pattern projection, necessary algorithms and found optimizations are demonstrated, roughly. Evaluation techniques were found to preserve a high quality phase measurement under imperfect conditions. The different application fields can be sorted out by the type of pattern used for inverse projection. We select two main topics for presentation. One is the incremental (one image per state) deformation measurement which is a promising technique for high speed deformation measurements. A video series of a wavering flag with projected inverse pattern was evaluated to show the complete deformation series. The other application is the optical feature marking (augmented reality) that allows to map any measured result directly onto the object under investigation. Any properties can be visualized directly on the object"s surface which makes inspections easier than with use of a separated indicating device. The general ability to straighten any kind of information on 3D surfaces is shown while preserving an exact mapping of camera image and object parts. In many cases this supersedes an additional monitor to

  1. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  2. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  3. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  4. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  5. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  6. Wave-Propagation Modeling and Inversion Using Frequency-Domain Integral Equation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Christopher E.

    Full waveform inverse methods describe the full physics of wave propagation and can potentially overcome the limitations of ray theoretic methods. This work explores the use of integral equation based methods for simulation and inversion and illustrates their potential for computationally demanding problems. A frequency-domain integral equation approach to simulate wave-propagation in heterogeneous media and solve the inverse wave-scattering problem will be presented for elastic, acoustic, and electromagnetic systems. The method will be illustrated for georadar (ground- or ice-penetrating radar) applications and compared to results obtained using ray theoretic methods. In order to tackle the non-linearity of the problem, the inversion incorporates a broad range of frequencies to stabilize the solution. As with most non-linear inversion methods, a starting model that reasonably approximates the true model is critical to convergence of the algorithm. To improve the starting model, a variable reference inversion technique is developed that allows the background reference medium to vary for each source-receiver data pair and is less restrictive than using a single reference medium for the entire dataset. The reference medium can be assumed homogeneous (although different for each data point) to provide a computationally efficient, single-step, frequency-domain inversion approach that incorporates finite frequency effects not captured by ray based methods. The inversion can then be iterated on to further refine the solution.

  7. Doped organic transistors operating in the inversion and depletion regime

    PubMed Central

    Lüssem, Björn; Tietze, Max L.; Kleemann, Hans; Hoßbach, Christoph; Bartha, Johann W.; Zakhidov, Alexander; Leo, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The inversion field-effect transistor is the basic device of modern microelectronics and is nowadays used more than a billion times on every state-of-the-art computer chip. In the future, this rigid technology will be complemented by flexible electronics produced at extremely low cost. Organic field-effect transistors have the potential to be the basic device for flexible electronics, but still need much improvement. In particular, despite more than 20 years of research, organic inversion mode transistors have not been reported so far. Here we discuss the first realization of organic inversion transistors and the optimization of organic depletion transistors by our organic doping technology. We show that the transistor parameters—in particular, the threshold voltage and the ON/OFF ratio—can be controlled by the doping concentration and the thickness of the transistor channel. Injection of minority carriers into the doped transistor channel is achieved by doped contacts, which allows forming an inversion layer. PMID:24225722

  8. Simplified, inverse, ejector design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechant, Lawrence J.

    1993-01-01

    A simple lumped parameter based inverse design tool has been developed which provides flow path geometry and entrainment estimates subject to operational, acoustic, and design constraints. These constraints are manifested through specification of primary mass flow rate or ejector thrust, fully-mixed exit velocity, and static pressure matching. Fundamentally, integral forms of the conservation equations coupled with the specified design constraints are combined to yield an easily invertible linear system in terms of the flow path cross-sectional areas. Entrainment is computed by back substitution. Initial comparison with experimental and analogous one-dimensional methods show good agreement. Thus, this simple inverse design code provides an analytically based, preliminary design tool with direct application to High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design studies.

  9. Inverse psoriasis treated with ustekinumab.

    PubMed

    Campos, Manuel António; Varela, Paulo; Baptista, Armando; Moreira, Ana Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Inverse psoriasis is characterised by the involvement of flexural skin folds. This form of psoriasis has distinct clinical and therapeutic features. This report refers to the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian man who was observed in our department, with a clinically and biopsy proven diagnosis of inverse psoriasis. For 2 years, the patient was treated with different combinations of corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues and methotrexate, with no satisfactory response. Given the lack of a clinical response and comorbidities, latent tuberculosis was excluded, and we started treatment with ustekinumab. We chose this biological agent because the patient was a long-distance truck driver and refused the possibility of autoinjections. The patient underwent three ustekinumab injections, which resulted in significant improvement of pruritus, erythaematous lesions and quality of life. PMID:27222277

  10. Stochastic inversion by ray continuation

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, A.; Viallix

    1989-05-01

    The conventional tomographic inversion consists in minimizing residuals between measured and modelled traveltimes. The process tends to be unstable and some additional constraints are required to stabilize it. The stochastic formulation generalizes the technique and sets it on firmer theoretical bases. The Stochastic Inversion by Ray Continuation (SIRC) is a probabilistic approach, which takes a priori geological information into account and uses probability distributions to characterize data correlations and errors. It makes it possible to tie uncertainties to the results. The estimated parameters are interval velocities and B-spline coefficients used to represent smoothed interfaces. Ray tracing is done by a continuation technique between source and receives. The ray coordinates are computed from one path to the next by solving a linear system derived from Fermat's principle. The main advantages are fast computations, accurate traveltimes and derivatives. The seismic traces are gathered in CMPs. For a particular CMP, several reflecting elements are characterized by their time gradient measured on the stacked section, and related to a mean emergence direction. The program capabilities are tested on a synthetic example as well as on a field example. The strategy consists in inverting the parameters for one layer, then for the next one down. An inversion step is divided in two parts. First the parameters for the layer concerned are inverted, while the parameters for the upper layers remain fixed. Then all the parameters are reinverted. The velocity-depth section computed by the program together with the corresponding errors can be used directly for the interpretation, as an initial model for depth migration or for the complete inversion program under development.

  11. Inversions for axisymmetric galactic disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiotelis, N.; Patsis, P. A.

    1993-08-01

    We use two models for the distribution function to solve an inverse problem for axisymmetric disks. These systems may be considered - under certain assumptions - as galactic disks. In some cases the solutions of the resulting integral equations are simple, which allows the determination of the kinematic properties of self-consistent models for these systems. These properties for then = 1 Toomre disk are presented in this study.

  12. Phenomenological description of phase inversion.

    PubMed

    Piela, K; Ooms, G; Sengers, J V

    2009-02-01

    We propose an extended Ginzburg-Landau model for a description of the ambivalence region associated with the phenomenon of phase inversion observed in dispersed water-oil flow through a pipe. In analogy to the classical mean-field theory of phase transitions, it is shown that a good quantitative representation of the ambivalence region is obtained by using the injected phase volume fraction and a friction factor as the appropriate physical parameters.

  13. Inversion domains in GaN grown on sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, L.T.; Northrup, J.E.; OKeefe, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Planar defects observed in GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire have been identified as inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) by a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, multiple dark field imaging, and convergent beam electron diffraction techniques. Films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metalorganic vapor deposition (MOCVD), and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were investigated and all were found to contain IDBs. The IDBs in the MBE and HVPE films extended from the interface to the film surface and formed columnar domains that ranged in width from 3 to 20 nm in the MBE films and up to 100 nm in the HVPE films. For the films investigated, the MBE films had the highest density, and the MOCVD films had the lowest density of IDBs. The nucleation of inversion domains (IDs) may result from step-related inhomogeneities of the GaN/sapphire interface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Energy supply and demand in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  15. On the Magic Square and Inverse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elzaidi, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    In this note, we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix without using the usual methods for finding the inverse of a matrix. Also we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix whose entries are also matrices. By using these ideas, we can construct large matrices whose…

  16. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-09-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination.

  17. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-01-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination. PMID:10471710

  18. The demand for children as a factor in fertility trends.

    PubMed

    Lee, A C

    1989-01-01

    Research studies conducted in the Philippines in 1987 indicate that various factors influence family size preferences and decisions. For instance, surveys found that child mortality, child sex preferences, and parental desire for security in old-age were positively correlated with fertility. On the other hand, maternal education, and the desire for financial and occupational status were inversely related to fertility. As the demand for children is a major determinant in fertility trends, it is important to understand the factors involved in the demand for children. Many of these factors can be subject to policy management, namely, improved education, health, nutrition, and greater participation of women in the labor force. Smaller families may become more desirable if favorable political, economic, and social climates are instituted.

  19. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  20. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  1. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  2. Status of the microwave inverse FEL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, R. B.; Marshall, T. C.; Wang, Mei; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1999-07-01

    A status report is presented on an inverse free-electron-laser accelerator experiment operating in the microwave regime (1). This proof-of-principle electron accelerator is powered by up to 15 MW of RF power at 2.86 GHz, which propagates in a smooth-walled circular waveguide surrounded by a pulsed bifilar helical undulator: solenoids provide an axial guiding magnetic field. Undulator pitch, which is initially 11.75 cm, is up-tapered to 13.5 cm over the 1-meter length of the structure to maintain acceleration gradient. Numerical computations predict an energy gain of 0.7 MeV using a 6 MeV injected beam from a 2-1/2 cell RF gun, with small energy spread and strong phase trapping. The maximum attainable acceleration gradient with such a design, using 150 MW of RF power at 34 GHz, is estimated to be at least 30 MV/m. Results from bench tests of the structure and undulator are presented, along with preliminary beam measurements.

  3. Recombination and population inversion in plasmas generated by tunneling ionization.

    PubMed

    Pert, G J

    2006-06-01

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) ionization by linearly polarized light has been proposed by several authors as a means of driving recombination lasers in the soft x-ray spectral region. The pump radiation generates a cold electron plasma with ions in a single ionization stage, which is an ideal starting condition for strong recombination. Population inversions form during the recombination cascade to the ground state of the next ionization stage. In the absence of any relaxation the electron distribution is strongly peaked near zero energy. However, a number of different processes all heat the cold electrons towards Maxwellian, and may thereby reduce the recombination rate in the higher levels. Using numerical models we investigate these relaxation processes and their effect on recombination. We show that the recombination can be well described by the standard cascade model, provided an appropriate temperature is used. We examine two cases in detail, hydrogen-like lithium where the inversion is with respect to the ground state, and lithium-like nitrogen where it is with the first excited state. The two cases differ markedly in the degree of relaxation achieved, and in the duration of the population inversion.

  4. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  5. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  6. Block tridiagonal matrix inversion and fast transmission calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Dan Erik Sorensen, Hans Henrik B.; Hansen, Per Christian; Skelboe, Stig; Stokbro, Kurt

    2008-03-01

    A method for the inversion of block tridiagonal matrices encountered in electronic structure calculations is developed, with the goal of efficiently determining the matrices involved in the Fisher-Lee relation for the calculation of electron transmission coefficients. The new method leads to faster transmission calculations compared to traditional methods, as well as freedom in choosing alternate Green's function matrix blocks for transmission calculations. The new method also lends itself to calculation of the tridiagonal part of the Green's function matrix. The effect of inaccuracies in the electrode self-energies on the transmission coefficient is analyzed and reveals that the new algorithm is potentially more stable towards such inaccuracies.

  7. The equivalence of inverse Compton scattering and the undulator concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y,; /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    Inverse Compton scattering is a method to produce very high frequency photon beam. However, the production mechanism can also be viewed as a undulator emission. This is because the electron sees electric and magnetic fields of the incident laser beam and is driven into transverse oscillatory motion in exactly the same way when the electron passes through a undulator consisting of alternating magnetic field. This note gives a detailed examination of the similarity about the two views. Equivalent undulator parameters are derived for the incident laser beam, as well as the differential cross section of photon emission.

  8. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Xuben; Li, Zhirong; Li, Qiong; Li, Zhengwen

    2009-06-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  9. Lightcurve Inversion for 65 Cybele

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Lorenzo; Pilcher, Frederick

    2015-07-01

    We present a shape and spin axis model for main-belt asteroid 65 Cybele. The model was obtained with lightcurve inversion process, using combined dense photometric data obtained during fifteen apparitions from 1977 to 2014 and sparse data from USNO Flagstaff. Analysis of the resulting data found a sidereal period P = 6.081434 ± 0.000005 hours and two possible pole solutions: (l = 208°, b = -7°) and (l = 27°, b = -14°) with an error of ±15 degrees.

  10. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  11. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  12. Managed care demands flexibility, creativity.

    PubMed

    1996-05-01

    The definition of hospice care is changing as home care providers come under managed care regulations. Hospice care for AIDS patients is demanding, requiring extra time from home care providers. The managed care cost-cutting measures require creativitity and patience. The Visiting Nurses and Hospice of San Francisco (VNH) has held seminars to help providers adapt to managed care.

  13. Smart Buildings and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2011-11-01

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  14. Managed care demands flexibility, creativity.

    PubMed

    1996-05-01

    The definition of hospice care is changing as home care providers come under managed care regulations. Hospice care for AIDS patients is demanding, requiring extra time from home care providers. The managed care cost-cutting measures require creativitity and patience. The Visiting Nurses and Hospice of San Francisco (VNH) has held seminars to help providers adapt to managed care. PMID:11363252

  15. Faculty Demand in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the factors that shift the demand curve for faculty at not-for-profit private institutions. It is unique in that to the author's knowledge no other study has directly addressed the question of how the positive correlation between average faculty salaries and faculty-student ratios can be reconciled with…

  16. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  17. Inversion of Chelyabinsk Meteorite Micromagnetic Maps - Implication for Inversions of Mars Magnetic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazanec, M.; Kletetschka, G.

    2014-12-01

    The largest fragment of Chelyabinsk meteorite fell into the Russian lake Chebarkul on February 15, 2013. We used magnetic scanner constructed by Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE, see Kletetschka et al 2013) to obtain micromagnetic maps of one of the Chelyabinsk's meteorite fragment. Our instrument has a Hall effect magnetic sensor and maps vertical component of the magnetic field approximately 0.3 mm above the planar surface of meteorite sample. Advantage of this instrument is a constant background field due to static position of the sensor. We applied fast Fourier transform inversion technique developed by Lima et al (2013). This technique is tailored for scanning magnetic microscopy (SMM), but may be also modified for aeromagnetic or satellite survey. It retrieves planar unidirectional magnetization distribution from micromagnetic field map. With this technique we achieved verifiable information about the source of the magnetic anomalies in our meteorite sample. Specific areas of detected magnetization were used for compositional analyses by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This way we obtain the ground truth for the source of magnetic anomalies of our meteorite thin section. Measurement of chemical composition of magnetic grains can be directly linked to the amount of magnetization for the specific magnetic mineralogy. The inversion technique was extended for interpretation of real magnetic anomalies on Mars. Lima, E. A., B. P. Weiss, L. Baratchart,D. P.Hardin, and E. B. Saff (2013), Fast inversion ofmagnetic field maps of unidirectional planar geological magnetization, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 2723-2752, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50229.Kletetschka, G., Schnabl, P., Sifnerova, K., Tasaryova, Z., Manda, S., and Pruner, P., 2013, Magnetic scanning and interpretation of paleomagnetic data from Prague Synform's volcanics: Studia Geophysica Et Geodaetica, v. 57, no. 1, p. 103-117.

  18. Nanoparticle “switch-on” by tetrazine triggering† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc05118a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Kevin; Jain, Sarthak

    2016-01-01

    This work describes how a small-molecule chemical trigger, reacting through the mediatory of an inverse electron demand Diels–Alder reaction, results in enhanced cellular uptake and selective nanoparticle disintegration and cargo liberation, via gross polymeric morphological alterations. The power of these responsive nanoparticles is demonstrated through encapsulation of the anti-cancer agent doxorubicin and its triggered release, allowing controlled cell death in response to a small-molecule chemical trigger. PMID:27559829

  19. Self-annihilation of inversion domains by high energy defects in III-Nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Koukoula, T.; Kioseoglou, J. Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.

    2014-04-07

    Low-defect density InN films were grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy over an ∼1 μm thick GaN/AlN buffer/nucleation layer. Electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of inverse polarity domains propagating across the GaN layer and terminating at the sharp GaN/InN (0001{sup ¯}) interface, whereas no inversion domains were detected in InN. The systematic annihilation of GaN inversion domains at the GaN/InN interface is explained in terms of indium incorporation on the Ga-terminated inversion domains forming a metal bonded In-Ga bilayer, a structural instability known as the basal inversion domain boundary, during the initial stages of InN growth on GaN.

  20. Nanoscale Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiaoye

    Continuous downscaling in microelectronics has pushed conventional CMOS technology to its physical limits, while Moore's Law has correctly predicted the trend for decades, each step forward is accompanied with unprecedented technological difficulties and near-exponential increase in cost. At the same time, however, demands for low-power, low-cost and high-speed devices have never diminished, instead, even more stringent requirements have been imposed on device performances. It is therefore crucial to explore alternative materials and device architectures in order to alleviate the pressure caused by downscaling. To this end, we investigated two different approaches: (1) InSb nanowire based field effect transistors (NWFETs) and (2) single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) -- peptide nucleic acid (PNA) --SWCNT conjugate. Two types of InSb nanowires were synthesized by template-assisted electrochemistry and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) respectively. In both cases, NWFETs were fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL) and crystallinity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns. For electrochemistry nanowire, ambipolar conduction was observed with strong p-type conduction, the effect of thermal annealing on the conductivity was analyzed, a NWFET model that took into consideration the underlapped region in top-gated NWFET was proposed. Hole mobility in the channel was calculated to be 292.84 cm2V-1s -1 with a density of 1.5x1017/cm3. For CVD nanowire, the diameter was below 40nm with an average of 20nm. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process was speculated to be the mechanism responsible for nanowire growth. The efficient gate control was manifested by high ION/I OFF ratio which was on the order of 106 and a small inverse subthreshold slope (<200 mV/decade). Scale analysis was used to successfully account for disparities observed among a number of sample devices. N-type conduction was found in all NWFETs with

  1. Inverse parabolic quantum dot: The transition energy under magnetic field effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safwan, S. A.; El Meshed, Nagwa

    2016-08-01

    We present here, the evolution of the transition energy with a static magnetic field, when the electron and the hole are confined in inverse parabolic quantum dot (IPQD). The unexpected behavior is found, at the weak confinement regime the conduction band minimum and the top of valance band change from s-state to p-state or d-state for confined electron and hole inside IPQD, respectively. The strength of the inverse parabolic potential (potential hump) inside a quantum dot has the upper hand in tuning the ground state momentum for both electron and hole, and consequently their interband transition energy is changed. Knowing that this is not the case for the other types of potentials. The quantum size, the magnetic field and inverse potential hump effects on electron and hole ground and excited states are discussed.

  2. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    SciTech Connect

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  3. Multi-Skip Tomographic Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Arno; Bloom, Joost; Lorenz, Maarten

    2011-06-01

    Inspection of corrosion at pipe support locations is difficult because of accessibility limitations. Recently a screening technique has been developed called Multi-Skip ultrasonics. The method utilizes a pitch-catch set-up. Shear waves are transmitted that reflect multiple times in the pipe wall, from which integral wall thickness information is obtained. The method turns out to be very sensitive in detecting the presence of wall loss, but it turns out to be difficult to determine the extent of the wall loss. If the extent is not known, only a conservative estimate of depth can be derived from the Multi-Skip signals, because of the accumulative nature of the change in arrival time due to wall loss. Multi-Skip tomography appears to be a promising method in addition to Multi-Skip screening as a follow-up inspection technique. It uses full wave field inversion to determine a wall thickness profile at a particular location of the pipe on the support. As with the Multi-Skip screening method, Multi-Skip tomography is applied with the transmitter and receiver on both sides of the pipe support location and waves traveling in the axial pipe direction. The wave field inversion consists of a forward modeling step that predicts the measured wave field after which an iterative comparison process with the actually measured wave field results in an estimate of the wall thickness profile under the support.

  4. Computation in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Earl J

    2016-01-01

    Some uses of the computer and computation in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy are reviewed. The theory of image calculation using Bloch wave and multislice methods with and without aberration correction is reviewed and some applications are discussed. The inverse problem of reconstructing the specimen structure from an experimentally measured electron microscope image is discussed. Some future directions of software development are given. PMID:26697863

  5. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  6. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing the Drazin Inverse.

    PubMed

    Stanimirović, Predrag S; Zivković, Ivan S; Wei, Yimin

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a recurrent neural network (RNN) for computing the Drazin inverse of a real matrix in real time. This recurrent neural network (RNN) is composed of n independent parts (subnetworks), where n is the order of the input matrix. These subnetworks can operate concurrently, so parallel and distributed processing can be achieved. In this way, the computational advantages over the existing sequential algorithms can be attained in real-time applications. The RNN defined in this paper is convenient for an implementation in an electronic circuit. The number of neurons in the neural network is the same as the number of elements in the output matrix, which represents the Drazin inverse. The difference between the proposed RNN and the existing ones for the Drazin inverse computation lies in their network architecture and dynamics. The conditions that ensure the stability of the defined RNN as well as its convergence toward the Drazin inverse are considered. In addition, illustrative examples and examples of application to the practical engineering problems are discussed to show the efficacy of the proposed neural network.

  7. Geophysical Inversion through Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Alex; Huisman, Johan A.

    2010-05-01

    Geophysical investigation is a powerful tool that allows non-invasive and non-destructive mapping of subsurface states and properties. However, non-uniqueness associated with the inversion process halts these methods from becoming of more quantitative use. One major direction researchers are going is constraining the inverse problem by hydrological observations and models. An alternative to the commonly used direct inversion methods are global optimization schemes (such as genetic algorithms and Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods). However, the major limitation here is the desired high resolution of the tomographic image, which leads to a large number of parameters and an unreasonably high computational effort when using global optimization schemes. One way to overcome these problems is to combine the advantages of both direct and global inversion methods through hierarchical inversion. That is, starting the inversion with relatively coarse resolution of parameters, achieving good inversion using one of the two inversion schemes (global or direct), and then refining the resolution and applying a combination of global and direct inversion schemes for the whole domain or locally. In this work we explore through synthetic case studies the option of using a global optimization scheme for inversion of electrical resistivity tomography data through hierarchical refinement of the model resolution.

  8. Sapphire decomposition and inversion domains in N-polar aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, Lindsay White, Ryan M.; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Isaac; Guo, Wei; Osterman, Katherine; Haidet, Brian; Bryan, Zachary; Bobea, Milena; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Mita, Seiji

    2014-01-20

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching confirmed that inversion domains in the N-polar AlN grown on c-plane sapphire were due to the decomposition of sapphire in the presence of hydrogen. The inversion domains were found to correspond to voids at the AlN and sapphire interface, and transmission electron microscopy results showed a V-shaped, columnar inversion domain with staggered domain boundary sidewalls. Voids were also observed in the simultaneously grown Al-polar AlN, however no inversion domains were present. The polarity of AlN grown above the decomposed regions of the sapphire substrate was confirmed to be Al-polar by KOH etching and TEM.

  9. The effect of electron-electron interaction induced dephasing on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kahnoj, Sina Soleimani; Touski, Shoeib Babaee; Pourfath, Mahdi E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at

    2014-09-08

    The effect of dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons is theoretically investigated. In the presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons, wavefunction of electrons can set up standing waves along the channel and the conductance exponentially decreases with the ribbon's length. Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism along with an accurate model for describing the dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction, we show that this kind of interaction prevents localization and transport of electrons remains in the diffusive regime where the conductance is inversely proportional to the ribbon's length.

  10. Advertising increases demand for vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Mckenzie, M

    1996-01-01

    The recent evaluation of a 2-year no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) training program providing on-site, hands-on training for physicians working in 43 publicly funded health centers in 17 states found that demand for vasectomy in low-income and minority communities in the US increased following the implementation of innovative advertising strategies. The program also provided sites with surgical instruments, training materials, a press kit, and some help with public information activities. Participating clinics used a range of formal and informal advertising strategies, including radio and printed advertisements, to inform potential clients about vasectomy services. Many interested clients presented to clinics to undergo vasectomy once they had been made aware of the service and its availability. Several providers even stated that advertising caused the demand for vasectomy to exceed their capacity to provide services. The provision of low- or no-cost procedures helped to attract new clients. PMID:12321999

  11. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  12. Three-dimensional induced polarization data inversion for complex resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Williams, K.H.; Hubbard, S.S.

    2011-03-15

    The conductive and capacitive material properties of the subsurface can be quantified through the frequency-dependent complex resistivity. However, the routine three-dimensional (3D) interpretation of voluminous induced polarization (IP) data sets still poses a challenge due to large computational demands and solution nonuniqueness. We have developed a flexible methodology for 3D (spectral) IP data inversion. Our inversion algorithm is adapted from a frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) inversion method primarily developed for large-scale hydrocarbon and geothermal energy exploration purposes. The method has proven to be efficient by implementing the nonlinear conjugate gradient method with hierarchical parallelism and by using an optimal finite-difference forward modeling mesh design scheme. The method allows for a large range of survey scales, providing a tool for both exploration and environmental applications. We experimented with an image focusing technique to improve the poor depth resolution of surface data sets with small survey spreads. The algorithm's underlying forward modeling operator properly accounts for EM coupling effects; thus, traditionally used EM coupling correction procedures are not needed. The methodology was applied to both synthetic and field data. We tested the benefit of directly inverting EM coupling contaminated data using a synthetic large-scale exploration data set. Afterward, we further tested the monitoring capability of our method by inverting time-lapse data from an environmental remediation experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Similar trends observed in both our solution and another 2D inversion were in accordance with previous findings about the IP effects due to subsurface microbial activity.

  13. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  14. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  15. Energy demand and population change.

    PubMed

    Allen, E L; Edmonds, J A

    1981-09-01

    During the post World War 2 years energy consumption has grown 136% while population grew about 51%; per capita consumption of energy expanded, therefore, about 60%. For a given population size, demographic changes mean an increase in energy needs; for instance the larger the group of retirement age people, the smaller their energy needs than are those for a younger group. Estimates indicate that by the year 2000 the energy impact will be toward higher per capita consumption with 60% of the population in the 19-61 age group of workers. Rising female labor force participation will increase the working group even more; it has also been found that income and energy grow at a proportional rate. The authors predict that gasoline consumption within the US will continue to rise with availability considering the larger number of female drivers and higher per capita incomes. The flow of illegal aliens (750,000/year) will have a major impact on income and will use greater amounts of energy than can be expected. A demographic change which will lower energy demands will be the slowdown of the rate of household formation caused by the falling number of young adults. The response of energy demand to price changes is small and slow but incomes play a larger role as does the number of personal automobiles and social changes affecting household formation. Households, commercial space, transportation, and industry are part of every demand analysis and population projections play a major role in determining these factors.

  16. Development and Initial Validation of the Coping with Academic Demands Scale: How Students in Accelerated High School Curricula Cope with School-Related Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Fefer, Sarah A.; Ferron, John

    2015-01-01

    Successful coping with academic demands is important given the inverse relationship between stress and positive adjustment in adolescents. The Coping With Academic Demands Scale (CADS) is a new measure of coping appropriate for students pursuing advanced high school curricula, specifically Advanced Placement (AP) classes and the International…

  17. Applications of matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warp, Richard J.; Godfrey, Devon J.; Dobbins, James T., III

    2000-04-01

    The improved image quality and characteristics of new flat- panel x-ray detectors have renewed interest in advanced algorithms such as tomosynthesis. Digital tomosynthesis is a method of acquiring and reconstructing a three-dimensional data set with limited-angle tube movement. Historically, conventional tomosynthesis reconstruction has suffered contamination of the planes of interest by blurred out-of- plane structures. This paper focuses on a Matrix Inversion Tomosynthesis (MITS) algorithm to remove unwanted blur from adjacent planes. The algorithm uses a set of coupled equations to solve for the blurring function in each reconstructed plane. This paper demonstrates the use of the MITS algorithm in three imaging applications: small animal microscopy, chest radiography, and orthopedics. The results of the MITS reconstruction process demonstrate an improved reduction of blur from out-of-plane structures when compared to conventional tomosynthesis. We conclude that the MITS algorithm holds potential in a variety of applications to improve three-dimensional image reconstruction.

  18. Action understanding as inverse planning.

    PubMed

    Baker, Chris L; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2009-12-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the principle of rationality: the expectation that agents will plan approximately rationally to achieve their goals, given their beliefs about the world. The mental states that caused an agent's behavior are inferred by inverting this model of rational planning using Bayesian inference, integrating the likelihood of the observed actions with the prior over mental states. This approach formalizes in precise probabilistic terms the essence of previous qualitative approaches to action understanding based on an "intentional stance" [Dennett, D. C. (1987). The intentional stance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] or a "teleological stance" [Gergely, G., Nádasdy, Z., Csibra, G., & Biró, S. (1995). Taking the intentional stance at 12 months of age. Cognition, 56, 165-193]. In three psychophysical experiments using animated stimuli of agents moving in simple mazes, we assess how well different inverse planning models based on different goal priors can predict human goal inferences. The results provide quantitative evidence for an approximately rational inference mechanism in human goal inference within our simplified stimulus paradigm, and for the flexible nature of goal representations that human observers can adopt. We discuss the implications of our experimental results for human action understanding in real-world contexts, and suggest how our framework might be extended to capture other kinds of mental state inferences, such as inferences about beliefs, or inferring whether an entity is an intentional agent.

  19. Constrained resistivity inversion using seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, J. H.; Herwanger, J. V.; Pain, C. C.; Worthington, M. H.; de Oliveira, C. R. E.

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we describe and apply a method for constraining structure in anisotropic electrical resistivity inversion. Structural constraints are routinely used to achieve improved model inversion. Here, a second-order (curvature-based) regularization tensor (model covariance) is used to build structure in the model. This structure could be obtained from other imaging methods such as seismic tomography, core samples or otherwise known structure in the model. Our method allows the incorporation of existing geophysical data into the inversion, in a general form that does not rely on any one-to-one correlation between data sets or material properties. Ambiguities in the resistivity distribution from electrical inversion, and in particular anisotropic inversion, may be reduced with this approach. To demonstrate the approach we invert a synthetic data set, showing the regularization tensor explicitly in different locations. We then apply the method to field data where we have some knowledge of the subsurface from seismic imaging. Our results show that it is possible to achieve a high level of convergence while using spatially varying structural constraints. Common problems associated with resistivity inversion such as source/receiver effects and false imaging of strongly resistive or conductive zones may also be reduced. As part of the inversion method we show how the magnitude of the constraints in the form of penalty parameters appropriate to an inversion may be estimated, reducing the computational expense of resistivity inversion.

  20. Human inversions and their functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Marta; Casillas, Sònia; Villatoro, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphic inversions are a type of structural variants that are difficult to analyze owing to their balanced nature and the location of breakpoints within complex repeated regions. So far, only a handful of inversions have been studied in detail in humans and current knowledge about their possible functional effects is still limited. However, inversions have been related to phenotypic changes and adaptation in multiple species. In this review, we summarize the evidences of the functional impact of inversions in the human genome. First, given that inversions have been shown to inhibit recombination in heterokaryotes, chromosomes displaying different orientation are expected to evolve independently and this may lead to distinct gene-expression patterns. Second, inversions have a role as disease-causing mutations both by directly affecting gene structure or regulation in different ways, and by predisposing to other secondary arrangements in the offspring of inversion carriers. Finally, several inversions show signals of being selected during human evolution. These findings illustrate the potential of inversions to have phenotypic consequences also in humans and emphasize the importance of their inclusion in genome-wide association studies. PMID:25998059

  1. Inverse compton scattering gamma ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, S.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Ruelas, M.; Jovanovic, I.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G.

    2009-09-01

    Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) (e.g. U-235, Pu-239) can be detected by active interrogation with gamma rays (>6 MeV) through photofission. For long-range detection (˜1 km), an intense beam of gamma rays (˜10 14 per second) is required in order to produce measurable number of neutrons. The production of such fluxes of gamma rays, and in the pulse formats useful for detection, presents many technical challenges, and requires novel approaches to the accelerator and laser technology. RadiaBeam is currently designing a gamma ray source based on Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) from a high-energy electron beam. To achieve this, improvements in photoinjector, linac, final focus, and laser system are planned. These enhanced sub-systems build on parallel work being performed at RadiaBeam, UCLA, and elsewhere. A high-repetition rate photoinjector, a high-gradient S-band linac, and a laser pulse recirculator will be used. The proposed system will be a transportable source of high-flux, high-energy quasi-monochromatic gamma rays for active interrogation of special nuclear materials.

  2. Inverse-Transition Radiation Laser Acceleration Experiments at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, Eric R.; Ischebeck, R.; Mcguinness, C.; Noble, R.J.; Sears, CMS; Siemann, Robert H.; Spencer, James E.; Walz, D.R.; Byer, R.L.; Plettner, T.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-01-16

    We present a series of laser-driven particle acceleration experiments that are aimed at studying laser-particle acceleration as an inverse-radiation process. To this end we employ a semi-open vacuum setup with a thin planar boundary that interacts with the laser and the electromagnetic field of the electron beam. Particle acceleration from different types of boundaries will be studied and compared to the theoretical expectations from the Inverse-radiation picture and the field path integral method. We plan to measure the particle acceleration effect from transparent, reflective, black, and rough surface boundaries. While the agreement between the two acceleration pictures is straightforward to prove analytically for the transparent and reflective boundaries the equivalence is not clear-cut for the absorbing and rough-surface boundaries. Experimental observation may provide the evidence to distinguish between the models.

  3. Multifunctional inverse opal particles for drug delivery and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Huan; Ye, Baofen; Shang, Luoran; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-06-01

    Particle-based delivery systems have a demonstrated value for drug discovery and development. Here, we report a new type of particle-based delivery system that has controllable release and is self-monitoring. The particles were composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel with an inverse opal structure. The presence of macropores in the particles provides channels for active drug loading and release from the materials.Particle-based delivery systems have a demonstrated value for drug discovery and development. Here, we report a new type of particle-based delivery system that has controllable release and is self-monitoring. The particles were composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel with an inverse opal structure. The presence of macropores in the particles provides channels for active drug loading and release from the materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02324f

  4. Implement Method for Automated Testing of Markov Chain Convergence into INVERSE for ORNL12-RS-108J: Advanced Multi-Dimensional Forward and Inverse Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, Keith C.

    2015-04-01

    The DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) method is a powerful optimization/uncertainty quantification tool used to solve inverse transport problems in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s INVERSE code system. The DREAM method has been shown to be adept at accurate uncertainty quantification, but it can be very computationally demanding. Previously, the DREAM method in INVERSE performed a user-defined number of particle transport calculations. This placed a burden on the user to guess the number of calculations that would be required to accurately solve any given problem. This report discusses a new approach that has been implemented into INVERSE, the Gelman-Rubin convergence metric. This metric automatically detects when an appropriate number of transport calculations have been completed and the uncertainty in the inverse problem has been accurately calculated. In a test problem with a spherical geometry, this method was found to decrease the number of transport calculations (and thus time required) to solve a problem by an average of over 90%. In a cylindrical test geometry, a 75% decrease was obtained.

  5. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun

    2015-10-01

    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  6. Physical demands during folk dancing.

    PubMed

    Wigaeus, E; Kilbom, A

    1980-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the aerobic demands during one of the most popular and demanding Swedish folk dances the "hambo". Six men and six women, ranging in age from 22 to 32, participated. Their physical work capacity was investigated on a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill, using two to three submaximal and one maximal loads. All subjects were moderately well-trained and their average maximal oxygen uptake on the treadmill were 2.5 and 3.7 l/min (42.8 and 53.2 ml/kg . min-1) for women and men, respectively. When dancing the "hambo" the heart rate was telemetered, and the Douglas bag technique was used for measurements of pulmonary ventilation and oxygen uptake. The physical demand during "hambo" dancing was high in all subjects. Oxygen uptake was 38.5 and 37.3 ml/kg . min-1 and heart rate 179 and 172 in women and men, respectively. Women used 90% and men 70% of their maximal aerobic power obtained on the treadmill. The pulmonary ventilation and respiratory quotient of the female subjects were lower when dancing as compared to running, possibly because of voluntary restriction of the movements of the thoracic cage. Some popular Scandinavian folk dances are performed at a speed and with an activity pattern resembling the "hambo", while others are performed at a slower pace. The exercise intensity used in "hambo" is more than sufficient to induce training effects in the average individual provided that the dancing is performed at the frequency and for length of time usually recommended for physical training. For older or less fit people dances with a slow pace can be used for training purposes.

  7. Developing a Near Real-time System for Earthquake Slip Distribution Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li; Hsieh, Ming-Che; Luo, Yan; Ji, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Advances in observational and computational seismology in the past two decades have enabled completely automatic and real-time determinations of the focal mechanisms of earthquake point sources. However, seismic radiations from moderate and large earthquakes often exhibit strong finite-source directivity effect, which is critically important for accurate ground motion estimations and earthquake damage assessments. Therefore, an effective procedure to determine earthquake rupture processes in near real-time is in high demand for hazard mitigation and risk assessment purposes. In this study, we develop an efficient waveform inversion approach for the purpose of solving for finite-fault models in 3D structure. Full slip distribution inversions are carried out based on the identified fault planes in the point-source solutions. To ensure efficiency in calculating 3D synthetics during slip distribution inversions, a database of strain Green tensors (SGT) is established for 3D structural model with realistic surface topography. The SGT database enables rapid calculations of accurate synthetic seismograms for waveform inversion on a regular desktop or even a laptop PC. We demonstrate our source inversion approach using two moderate earthquakes (Mw~6.0) in Taiwan and in mainland China. Our results show that 3D velocity model provides better waveform fitting with more spatially concentrated slip distributions. Our source inversion technique based on the SGT database is effective for semi-automatic, near real-time determinations of finite-source solutions for seismic hazard mitigation purposes.

  8. AIDA - from Airborne Data Inversion to In-Depth Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Goetze, H.; Schroeder, M.; Boerner, R.; Tezkan, B.; Winsemann, J.; Siemon, B.; Alvers, M.; Stoll, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    The rising competition in land use especially between water economy, agriculture, forestry, building material economy and other industries often leads to irreversible deterioration in the water and soil system (as salinization and degradation) which results in a long term damage of natural resources. A sustainable exploitation of the near subsurface by industry, economy and private households is a fundamental demand of a modern society. To fulfill this demand, a sound and comprehensive knowledge on structures and processes of the near subsurface is an important prerequisite. A spatial survey of the usable underground by aerogeophysical means and a subsequent ground geophysics survey targeted at special locations will deliver essential contributions within short time that make it possible to gain the needed additional knowledge. The complementary use of airborne and ground geophysics as well as the validation, assimilation and improvement of current findings by geological and hydrogeological investigations and plausibility tests leads to the following key questions: a) Which new and/or improved automatic algorithms (joint inversion, data assimilation and such) are useful to describe the structural setting of the usable subsurface by user specific characteristics as i.e. water volume, layer thicknesses, porosities etc.? b) What are the physical relations of the measured parameters (as electrical conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities, densities, etc.)? c) How can we deduce characteristics or parameters from the observations which describe near subsurface structures as ground water systems, their charge, discharge and recharge, vulnerabilities and other quantities? d) How plausible and realistic are the numerically obtained results in relation to user specific questions and parameters? e) Is it possible to compile material flux balances that describe spatial and time dependent impacts of environmental changes on aquifers and soils by repeated airborne surveys? In

  9. Probing the heavy neutrinos of inverse seesaw model at the LHeC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Subhadeep; Rai, Santosh Kumar

    2016-08-01

    We consider the production of a heavy neutrino and its possible signals at the Large Hadron-electron Collider (LHeC) in the context of an inverse-seesaw model for neutrino mass generation. The inverse seesaw model extends the Standard Model (SM) particle content by adding two neutral singlet fermions for each lepton generation. It is a well-motivated model in the context of generating nonzero neutrino masses and mixings. The proposed future LHeC machine presents us with a particularly interesting possibility to probe such extensions of the SM with new leptons due to the presence of an electron beam in the initial state. We show that the LHeC will be able to probe an inverse scenario with much better efficacy compared to the LHC with very nominal integrated luminosities as well as exploit the advantage of having the electron beam polarized to enhance the heavy neutrino production rates.

  10. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation. PMID:26111643

  11. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation. PMID:26111643

  12. Inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for beam plasma research

    SciTech Connect

    Yushkov, Yu. G. Zolotukhin, D. B.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Oks, E. M.

    2014-08-15

    The paper describes the design and principle of operation of an inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for research in the plasma produced by an electron beam in the forevacuum pressure range (5–20 Pa). In the spectrometer, the deflecting plates as well as the drift tube and the primary ion beam measuring system are at high potential with respect to ground. This provides the possibility to measure the mass-charge constitution of the plasma created by a continuous electron beam with a current of up to 300 mA and electron energy of up to 20 keV at forevacuum pressures in the chamber placed at ground potential. Research results on the mass-charge state of the beam plasma are presented and analyzed.

  13. Inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for beam plasma research.

    PubMed

    Yushkov, Yu G; Oks, E M; Zolotukhin, D B; Tyunkov, A V; Savkin, K P

    2014-08-01

    The paper describes the design and principle of operation of an inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for research in the plasma produced by an electron beam in the forevacuum pressure range (5-20 Pa). In the spectrometer, the deflecting plates as well as the drift tube and the primary ion beam measuring system are at high potential with respect to ground. This provides the possibility to measure the mass-charge constitution of the plasma created by a continuous electron beam with a current of up to 300 mA and electron energy of up to 20 keV at forevacuum pressures in the chamber placed at ground potential. Research results on the mass-charge state of the beam plasma are presented and analyzed. PMID:25173261

  14. An exact inverse method for subsonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daripa, Prabir

    1988-01-01

    A new inverse method for the aerodynamic design of airfoils is presented for subcritical flows. The pressure distribution in this method can be prescribed as a function of the arclength of the still unknown body. It is shown that this inverse problem is mathematically equivalent to solving only one nonlinear boundary value problem subject to known Dirichlet data on the boundary.

  15. Inversion in Mathematical Thinking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Inversion is a fundamental relational building block both within mathematics as the study of structures and within people's physical and social experience, linked to many other key elements such as equilibrium, invariance, reversal, compensation, symmetry, and balance. Within purely formal arithmetic, the inverse relationships between addition and…

  16. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  17. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  18. Economic demand and essential value.

    PubMed

    Hursh, Steven R; Silberberg, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The strength of a rat's eating reflex correlates with hunger level when strength is measured by the response frequency that precedes eating (B. F. Skinner, 1932a, 1932b). On the basis of this finding, Skinner argued response frequency could index reflex strength. Subsequent work documented difficulties with this notion because responding was affected not only by the strengthening properties of the reinforcer but also by the rate-shaping effects of the schedule. This article obviates this problem by measuring strength via methods from behavioral economics. This approach uses demand curves to map how reinforcer consumption changes with changes in the "price" different ratio schedules impose. An exponential equation is used to model these demand curves. The value of this exponential's rate constant is used to scale the strength or essential value of a reinforcer, independent of the scalar dimensions of the reinforcer. Essential value determines the consumption level to be expected at particular prices and the response level that will occur to support that consumption. This approach permits comparing reinforcers that differ in kind, contributing toward the goal of scaling reinforcer value.

  19. Inverse Problem of Vortex Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protas, Bartosz; Danaila, Ionut

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the following question: given incomplete measurements of the velocity field induced by a vortex, can one determine the structure of the vortex? Assuming that the flow is incompressible, inviscid and stationary in the frame of reference moving with the vortex, the ``structure'' of the vortex is uniquely characterized by the functional relation between the streamfunction and vorticity. To focus attention, 3D axisymmetric vortex rings are considered. We show how this inverse problem can be framed as an optimization problem which can then be efficiently solved using variational techniques. More precisely, we use measurements of the tangential velocity on some contour to reconstruct the function defining the streamfunction-vorticity relation in a continuous setting. Two test cases are presented, involving Hill's and Norbury vortices, in which very good reconstructions are obtained. A key result of this study is the application of our approach to obtain an optimal inviscid vortex model in an actual viscous flow problem based on DNS data which leads to a number of nonintuitive findings.

  20. Inverse magnetic/shear catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Brett

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark-Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce "inverse magnetic catalysis", signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magnetic field at low values of the baryonic chemical potential, but that it can actually decrease that effect at high chemical potentials.

  1. Inversion based on computational simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; Saquib, S.S.

    1998-09-01

    A standard approach to solving inversion problems that involve many parameters uses gradient-based optimization to find the parameters that best match the data. The authors discuss enabling techniques that facilitate application of this approach to large-scale computational simulations, which are the only way to investigate many complex physical phenomena. Such simulations may not seem to lend themselves to calculation of the gradient with respect to numerous parameters. However, adjoint differentiation allows one to efficiently compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to all the variables of a simulation. When combined with advanced gradient-based optimization algorithms, adjoint differentiation permits one to solve very large problems of optimization or parameter estimation. These techniques will be illustrated through the simulation of the time-dependent diffusion of infrared light through tissue, which has been used to perform optical tomography. The techniques discussed have a wide range of applicability to modeling including the optimization of models to achieve a desired design goal.

  2. A preprocessing strategy for helioseismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Thompson, M. J.

    1993-05-01

    Helioseismic inversion in general involves considerable computational expense, due to the large number of modes that is typically considered. This is true in particular of the widely used optimally localized averages (OLA) inversion methods, which require the inversion of one or more matrices whose order is the number of modes in the set. However, the number of practically independent pieces of information that a large helioseismic mode set contains is very much less than the number of modes, suggesting that the set might first be reduced before the expensive inversion is performed. We demonstrate with a model problem that by first performing a singular value decomposition the original problem may be transformed into a much smaller one, reducing considerably the cost of the OLA inversion and with no significant loss of information.

  3. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    PubMed

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  4. Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.

  5. Rapid approximate inversion of airborne TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullagar, Peter K.; Pears, Glenn A.; Reid, James E.; Schaa, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Rapid interpretation of large airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) datasets is highly desirable for timely decision-making in exploration. Full solution 3D inversion of entire airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys is often still not feasible on current day PCs. Therefore, two algorithms to perform rapid approximate 3D interpretation of AEM have been developed. The loss of rigour may be of little consequence if the objective of the AEM survey is regional reconnaissance. Data coverage is often quasi-2D rather than truly 3D in such cases, belying the need for `exact' 3D inversion. Incorporation of geological constraints reduces the non-uniqueness of 3D AEM inversion. Integrated interpretation can be achieved most readily when inversion is applied to a geological model, attributed with lithology as well as conductivity. Geological models also offer several practical advantages over pure property models during inversion. In particular, they permit adjustment of geological boundaries. In addition, optimal conductivities can be determined for homogeneous units. Both algorithms described here can operate on geological models; however, they can also perform `unconstrained' inversion if the geological context is unknown. VPem1D performs 1D inversion at each ATEM data location above a 3D model. Interpretation of cover thickness is a natural application; this is illustrated via application to Spectrem data from central Australia. VPem3D performs 3D inversion on time-integrated (resistive limit) data. Conversion to resistive limits delivers a massive increase in speed since the TEM inverse problem reduces to a quasi-magnetic problem. The time evolution of the decay is lost during the conversion, but the information can be largely recovered by constructing a starting model from conductivity depth images (CDIs) or 1D inversions combined with geological constraints if available. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated on Spectrem data from Brazil. Both separately and in

  6. Enhancing Spin Filters by Use of Bulk Inversion Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David; Cartoixa,Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical calculations have shown that the degrees of spin polarization in proposed nonmagnetic semiconductor resonant tunneling spin filters could be increased through exploitation of bulk inversion asymmetry (BIA). These enhancements would be effected through suitable orientation of spin collectors (or spin-polarization- inducing lateral electric fields), as described below. Spin filters -- more precisely, sources of spin-polarized electron currents -- have been sought for research on, and development of, the emerging technological discipline of spintronics (spin-transport electronics). The proposed spin filters were to be based on the Rashba effect, which is an energy splitting of what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spinorbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry (SIA) in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. In a spin filter, the spin-polarized currents produced by the Rashba effect would be extracted by quantum-mechanical resonant tunneling.

  7. A storage ring based inverse Compton scattering angiography source?

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, E.B.

    1993-09-01

    Producing the 33.17 keV photons required for coronary angiography with synchrotron radiation requires a combination of a high energy storage ring with an extremely high field wiggler. Such a source may be too big and expensive to be installed in even the largest medical center. Something other than synchrotron radiation may be needed for a practical source. Inverse Compton scattering has been used in the LEGS experiment at NSLS and elsewhere to produce high energy photons. In this process, a head on collision between a low energy photon and a high energy electron transfers energy to the photon which is then emitted in approximately the direction of the incoming electron. For a given electron energy, more higher energy photons can be produced by this method than by synchrotron radiation. This suggests that inverse Compton scattering can possibly be used for a low cost angiography source. The prospects for such a source will be examined in this paper. Unfortunately, the results will show that although it is easy to obtain the required photon energy, an extremely complicated source will be needed to produce the required number of photons.

  8. A method for determining void arrangements in inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Blanford, C F; Carter, C B; Stein, A

    2004-12-01

    The periodic arrangement of voids in ceramic materials templated by colloidal crystal arrays (inverse opals) has been analysed by transmission electron microscopy. Individual particles consisting of an approximately spherical array of at least 100 voids were tilted through 90 degrees along a single axis within the transmission electron microscope. The bright-field images of these particles at high-symmetry points, their diffractograms calculated by fast Fourier transforms, and the transmission electron microscope goniometer angles were compared with model face-centred cubic, body-centred cubic, hexagonal close-packed, and simple cubic lattices in real and reciprocal space. The spatial periodicities were calculated for two-dimensional projections. The systematic absences in these diffractograms differed from those found in diffraction patterns from three-dimensional objects. The experimental data matched only the model face-centred cubic lattice, so it was concluded that the packing of the voids (and, thus, the polymer spheres that composed the original colloidal crystals) was face-centred cubic. In face-centred cubic structures, the stacking-fault displacement vector is a/6<211> . No stacking faults were observed when viewing the inverse opal structure along the orthogonal <110>-type directions, eliminating the possibility of a random hexagonally close-packed structure for the particles observed. This technique complements synchrotron X-ray scattering work on colloidal crystals by allowing both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis to be carried out on a smaller cross-sectional area.

  9. External inverse-Compton emission from jetted tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-05-01

    The recent discoveries of Sw J1644+57 and Sw J2058+05 show that tidal disruption events (TDEs) can launch relativistic jets. Super-Eddington accretion produces a strong radiation field of order Eddington luminosity. In a jetted TDE, electrons in the jet will inverse-Compton scatter the photons from the accretion disc and wind (external radiation field). Motivated by observations of thermal optical-UV spectra in Sw J2058+05 and several other TDEs, we assume the spectrum of the external radiation field intercepted by the relativistic jet to be blackbody. Hot electrons in the jet scatter this thermal radiation and produce luminosities 1045-1048 erg s- 1 in the X/γ-ray band. This model of thermal plus inverse-Compton radiation is applied to Sw J2058+05. First, we show that the blackbody component in the optical-UV spectrum most likely has its origin in the super-Eddington wind from the disc. Then, using the observed blackbody component as the external radiation field, we show that the X-ray luminosity and spectrum are consistent with the inverse-Compton emission, under the following conditions: (1) the jet Lorentz factor is Γ ≃ 5-10; (2) electrons in the jet have a power-law distribution dN_e/dγ _e ∝ γ _e^{-p} with γmin ˜ 1 and p = 2.4; (3) the wind is mildly relativistic (Lorentz factor ≳ 1.5) and has isotropic-equivalent mass-loss rate ˜ 5 M⊙ yr- 1. We describe the implications for jet composition and the radius where jet energy is converted to radiation.

  10. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  11. Cut Electric Bills by Controlling Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumman, David L.

    1974-01-01

    Electric bills can be reduced by lowering electric consumption and by controlling demand -- the amount of electricity used at a certain point in time. Gives tips to help reduce electric demand at peak power periods. (Author/DN)

  12. Price elasticity of demand: An overlooked concept

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    An all-too-common mistake in analyzing the uranium market is to assume that demand for uranium is driven only by the design and operational parameters of nuclear power plants. Because it is generally accepted that demand for uranium is inelastic, not much attention has been given to how prices can indirectly affect demand. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that are most sensitive to uranium prices, and to show how they alter uranium demand.

  13. Computer modeling of inversion layer MOS solar cells and arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Fat Duen

    1991-01-01

    A two dimensional numerical model of the inversion layer metal insulator semiconductor (IL/MIS) solar cell is proposed by using the finite element method. The two-dimensional current flow in the device is taken into account in this model. The electrostatic potential distribution, the electron concentration distribution, and the hole concentration distribution for different terminal voltages are simulated. The results of simple calculation are presented. The existing problems for this model are addressed. Future work is proposed. The MIS structures are studied and some of the results are reported.

  14. Charge control of the inverse trans-influence.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Henry S; Rosenzweig, Michael; Kosog, Boris; Hauser, Christina; Heinemann, Frank W; Liddle, Stephen T; Meyer, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of uranium(VI) mono(imido) complexes, by the oxidation of corresponding uranium(V) species, are presented. These experimental results, paired with DFT analyses, allow for the comparison of the electronic structure of uranium(VI) mono(oxo) and mono(imido) ligands within a conserved ligand framework and demonstrate that the magnitude of the ground state stabilization derived from the inverse trans-influence (ITI) is governed by the relative charge localization on the multiply bonded atom or group. PMID:26430823

  15. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  16. Fabrication of titania inverse opals by multi-cycle dip-infiltration for optical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chun-Chen; Tuyen, Le Dac; Ren, Ching-Rung; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Wu, Cheng Yi; Huang, Ping-Ji; Hsu, Chia Chen

    2016-04-01

    We have demonstrated a low-cost method to fabricate TiO2 inverse opal photonic crystals with high refractive index skeleton. The TiO2 inverse opal films were fabricated from a polystyrene opal template by multi-cycle dip-infiltration-coating method. The properties of the TiO2 inverse opal films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Bragg reflection spectroscopy. The reflection spectroscopic measurements of the TiO2 inverse opal films were compared with theories of photonic band calculations and Bragg law. The agreement between experiment and theory indicates that we can precisely predict the refractive index of the infiltrated liquid sample in the TiO2 inverse opal films from the measurement results. The red-shift of the peak wavelength in the Bragg reflection spectra for both alcohol mixtures and aqueous sucrose solutions of increasing refractive index was observed and respective refractive index sensitivities of 296 and 286 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) were achieved. As the fabrication of the TiO2 inverse opal films and reflection spectroscopic measurement are fairly easy, the TiO2 inverse opal films have potential applications in optical sensing.

  17. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p < 0.001), while backs were involved in more ball carries and covered more total distance and distance at high speed per minute of game time (p < 0.01). Loose forwards, inside and outside backs covered significantly more distance at high speed (p < 0.01), while there was a negligible difference with number of impacts between the forward positions. There was also minimal difference between positions in the percentage change in NP, cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game.

  18. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p < 0.001), while backs were involved in more ball carries and covered more total distance and distance at high speed per minute of game time (p < 0.01). Loose forwards, inside and outside backs covered significantly more distance at high speed (p < 0.01), while there was a negligible difference with number of impacts between the forward positions. There was also minimal difference between positions in the percentage change in NP, cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game. PMID:25830235

  19. Support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Safaeinili, A.

    1994-04-24

    This report discusses the following topics on support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering: Minimum support inversion; forward modelling of elastodynamic wave scattering; minimum support linearized acoustic inversion; support minimized nonlinear acoustic inversion without absolute phase; and support minimized nonlinear elastic inversion.

  20. 12 CFR 390.290 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demand accounts. 390.290 Section 390.290 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Savings Associations § 390.290 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means non-interest-bearing...

  1. 12 CFR 161.16 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demand accounts. 161.16 Section 161.16 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means...

  2. 12 CFR 561.16 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Demand accounts. 561.16 Section 561.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means non-interest-bearing...

  3. 12 CFR 561.16 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand accounts. 561.16 Section 561.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means...

  4. 12 CFR 561.16 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demand accounts. 561.16 Section 561.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means...

  5. 12 CFR 161.16 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demand accounts. 161.16 Section 161.16 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means...

  6. 12 CFR 561.16 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Demand accounts. 561.16 Section 561.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means non-interest-bearing...

  7. 12 CFR 390.290 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demand accounts. 390.290 Section 390.290 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Savings Associations § 390.290 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means non-interest-bearing...

  8. 12 CFR 390.290 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demand accounts. 390.290 Section 390.290 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Savings Associations § 390.290 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means non-interest-bearing...

  9. 12 CFR 561.16 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demand accounts. 561.16 Section 561.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means...

  10. 12 CFR 161.16 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demand accounts. 161.16 Section 161.16 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means...

  11. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds (kernelweight basis) which commercial distributors and users such as the wholesale, chain store,...

  12. Methodology for determining multilayered temperature inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fochesatto, G. J.

    2015-05-01

    Temperature sounding of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and lower troposphere exhibits multilayered temperature inversions specially in high latitudes during extreme winters. These temperature inversion layers are originated based on the combined forcing of local- and large-scale synoptic meteorology. At the local scale, the thermal inversion layer forms near the surface and plays a central role in controlling the surface radiative cooling and air pollution dispersion; however, depending upon the large-scale synoptic meteorological forcing, an upper level thermal inversion can also exist topping the local ABL. In this article a numerical methodology is reported to determine thermal inversion layers present in a given temperature profile and deduce some of their thermodynamic properties. The algorithm extracts from the temperature profile the most important temperature variations defining thermal inversion layers. This is accomplished by a linear interpolation function of variable length that minimizes an error function. The algorithm functionality is demonstrated on actual radiosonde profiles to deduce the multilayered temperature inversion structure with an error fraction set independently.

  13. Photo-induced persistent inversion of germanium in a 200-nm-deep surface region.

    PubMed

    Prokscha, T; Chow, K H; Stilp, E; Suter, A; Luetkens, H; Morenzoni, E; Nieuwenhuys, G J; Salman, Z; Scheuermann, R

    2013-01-01

    The controlled manipulation of the charge carrier concentration in nanometer thin layers is the basis of current semiconductor technology and of fundamental importance for device applications. Here we show that it is possible to induce a persistent inversion from n- to p-type in a 200-nm-thick surface layer of a germanium wafer by illumination with white and blue light. We induce the inversion with a half-life of ~12 hours at a temperature of 220 K which disappears above 280 K. The photo-induced inversion is absent for a sample with a 20-nm-thick gold capping layer providing a Schottky barrier at the interface. This indicates that charge accumulation at the surface is essential to explain the observed inversion. The contactless change of carrier concentration is potentially interesting for device applications in opto-electronics where the gate electrode and gate oxide could be replaced by the semiconductor surface.

  14. Whistler turbulence forward vs. inverse cascade. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Ouliang; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph

    2015-02-12

    In this study, we present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta βe = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in themore » inverse cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.« less

  15. WHISTLER TURBULENCE FORWARD CASCADE VERSUS INVERSE CASCADE: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ouliang; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph E-mail: pgary@lanl.gov

    2015-02-20

    We present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta β {sub e} = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in the inverse cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.

  16. Whistler turbulence forward vs. inverse cascade. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ouliang; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph

    2015-02-12

    In this study, we present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta βe = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in the inverse cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.

  17. On the inversion-indel distance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inversion distance, that is the distance between two unichromosomal genomes with the same content allowing only inversions of DNA segments, can be computed thanks to a pioneering approach of Hannenhalli and Pevzner in 1995. In 2000, El-Mabrouk extended the inversion model to allow the comparison of unichromosomal genomes with unequal contents, thus insertions and deletions of DNA segments besides inversions. However, an exact algorithm was presented only for the case in which we have insertions alone and no deletion (or vice versa), while a heuristic was provided for the symmetric case, that allows both insertions and deletions and is called the inversion-indel distance. In 2005, Yancopoulos, Attie and Friedberg started a new branch of research by introducing the generic double cut and join (DCJ) operation, that can represent several genome rearrangements (including inversions). Among others, the DCJ model gave rise to two important results. First, it has been shown that the inversion distance can be computed in a simpler way with the help of the DCJ operation. Second, the DCJ operation originated the DCJ-indel distance, that allows the comparison of genomes with unequal contents, considering DCJ, insertions and deletions, and can be computed in linear time. Results In the present work we put these two results together to solve an open problem, showing that, when the graph that represents the relation between the two compared genomes has no bad components, the inversion-indel distance is equal to the DCJ-indel distance. We also give a lower and an upper bound for the inversion-indel distance in the presence of bad components. PMID:24564182

  18. Geoacoustic reflectivity inversion: A Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmer, Jan

    Propagation and reverberation of acoustic fields in shallow water depend strongly on the spatial variability of seabed geoacoustic parameters; and lack of knowledge of seabed variability is often a limiting factor in acoustic modelling applications. However, direct sampling (e.g., coring) of vertical and lateral variability is expensive and laborious, and matched-field and other long-range inversion methods fail to provide sufficient resolution. This thesis develops a new joint time/frequency domain inversion for high-resolution single-bounce reflection data. The inversion approach has the potential to resolve fine-scale sediment profiles over small seafloor footprints (˜100 m). The approach utilises sequential Bayesian inversion of time- and frequency-domain reflectivity data, employing ray-tracing inversion for reflection travel times and a layer-packet stripping method for spherical-wave reflection coefficient inversion. Rigorous uncertainty estimation is of key importance to yield high quality inversion results. Quantitative geoacoustic uncertainties are provided by a nonlinear Gibbs sampling approach together with full data error covariance estimation (including non-stationary effects). The small footprint of the measurement technique combined with the rigorous inversion of both time and frequency domain data provides a powerful new tool to examine seabed structure on finer scales than heretofore possible. The Bayesian inversion is applied to two data sets collected on the Malta Plateau and the Strait of Sicily during the SCARAB98 experiment. The first application aims to recover multi-layered seabed structure and the second application recovers density and sound velocity gradient structure in the uppermost sediment layer. An interesting new method of deriving reflectivity data from ambient noise measurements is briefly considered in simulation to examine the resolving power and limits of the approach.

  19. Optimal inverse functions created via population-based optimization.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Alan L; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2014-06-01

    Finding optimal inputs for a multiple-input, single-output system is taxing for a system operator. Population-based optimization is used to create sets of functions that produce a locally optimal input based on a desired output. An operator or higher level planner could use one of the functions in real time. For the optimization, each agent in the population uses the cost and output gradients to take steps lowering the cost while maintaining their current output. When an agent reaches an optimal input for its current output, additional agents are generated in the output gradient directions. The new agents then settle to the local optima for the new output values. The set of associated optimal points forms an inverse function, via spline interpolation, from a desired output to an optimal input. In this manner, multiple locally optimal functions can be created. These functions are naturally clustered in input and output spaces allowing for a continuous inverse function. The operator selects the best cluster over the anticipated range of desired outputs and adjusts the set point (desired output) while maintaining optimality. This reduces the demand from controlling multiple inputs, to controlling a single set point with no loss in performance. Results are demonstrated on a sample set of functions and on a robot control problem. PMID:24235281

  20. Optimal inverse functions created via population-based optimization.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Alan L; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2014-06-01

    Finding optimal inputs for a multiple-input, single-output system is taxing for a system operator. Population-based optimization is used to create sets of functions that produce a locally optimal input based on a desired output. An operator or higher level planner could use one of the functions in real time. For the optimization, each agent in the population uses the cost and output gradients to take steps lowering the cost while maintaining their current output. When an agent reaches an optimal input for its current output, additional agents are generated in the output gradient directions. The new agents then settle to the local optima for the new output values. The set of associated optimal points forms an inverse function, via spline interpolation, from a desired output to an optimal input. In this manner, multiple locally optimal functions can be created. These functions are naturally clustered in input and output spaces allowing for a continuous inverse function. The operator selects the best cluster over the anticipated range of desired outputs and adjusts the set point (desired output) while maintaining optimality. This reduces the demand from controlling multiple inputs, to controlling a single set point with no loss in performance. Results are demonstrated on a sample set of functions and on a robot control problem.

  1. Range aliasing in frequency coherent geoacoustic inversion.

    PubMed

    Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the effects of frequency selection on source localization and geoacoustic inversion methods that use frequency coherent objective functions. Matched-field processors based on frequency-coherent objective functions often have rapidly fluctuating range ambiguity surfaces. Insufficient sampling in frequency domain results in range aliasing terms that affect geoacoustic inversion. Range aliasing and its effects on source localization and environmental parameter inversion are demonstrated on data collected during the MAPEX2000 experiment. Guidance for frequency selection to avoid range aliasing is provided.

  2. Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, M.

    1980-12-01

    Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10/sup 8/ cm/sup -3/, which is much higher then that (approx. =10/sup 5/ cm/sup -3/) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model.

  3. An inverse problem in thermal imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Kurt; Caudill, Lester F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines uniqueness and stability results for an inverse problem in thermal imaging. The goal is to identify an unknown boundary of an object by applying a heat flux and measuring the induced temperature on the boundary of the sample. The problem is studied both in the case in which one has data at every point on the boundary of the region and the case in which only finitely many measurements are available. An inversion procedure is developed and used to study the stability of the inverse problem for various experimental configurations.

  4. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Inverse Problems. Activities for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2003-06-01

    This book is a valuable introduction to inverse problems. In particular, from the educational point of view, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes an inverse problem and how and why we should study them. Such an approach has been eagerly awaited for a long time. Professor Groetsch, of the University of Cincinnati, is a world-renowned specialist in inverse problems, in particular the theory of regularization. Moreover, he has made a remarkable contribution to educational activities in the field of inverse problems, which was the subject of his previous book (Groetsch C W 1993 Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences (Braunschweig: Vieweg)). For this reason, he is one of the most qualified to write an introductory book on inverse problems. Without question, inverse problems are important, necessary and appear in various aspects. So it is crucial to introduce students to exercises in inverse problems. However, there are not many introductory books which are directly accessible by students in the first two undergraduate years. As a consequence, students often encounter diverse concrete inverse problems before becoming aware of their general principles. The main purpose of this book is to present activities to allow first-year undergraduates to learn inverse theory. To my knowledge, this book is a rare attempt to do this and, in my opinion, a great success. The author emphasizes that it is very important to teach inverse theory in the early years. He writes; `If students consider only the direct problem, they are not looking at the problem from all sides .... The habit of always looking at problems from the direct point of view is intellectually limiting ...' (page 21). The book is very carefully organized so that teachers will be able to use it as a textbook. After an introduction in chapter 1, sucessive chapters deal with inverse problems in precalculus, calculus, differential equations and linear algebra. In order to let one gain some insight

  6. Analysis of Temperature Distributions in Nighttime Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telyak, Oksana; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    Adequate prediction of temperature inversion in the atmospheric boundary layer is one of prerequisites for successful forecasting of meteorological parameters and severe weather events. Examples include surface air temperature and precipitation forecasting as well as prediction of fog, frosts and smog with hazardous levels of atmospheric pollution. At the same time, reliable forecasting of temperature inversions remains an unsolved problem. For prediction of nighttime inversions over some specific territory, it is important to study characteristic features of local circulation cells formation and to properly take local factors into account to develop custom modeling techniques for operational use. The present study aims to investigate and analyze vertical temperature distributions in tropospheric inversions (isotherms) over the territory of Belarus. We study several specific cases of formation, evolution and decay of deep nighttime temperature inversions in Belarus by means of mesoscale numerical simulations with WRF model, considering basic mechanisms of isothermal and inverse temperature layers formation in the troposphere and impact of these layers on local circulation cells. Our primary goal is to assess the feasibility of advance prediction of inversions formation with WRF. Modeling results reveal that all cases under consideration have characteristic features of radiative inversions (e.g., their formation times, development phases, inversion intensities, etc). Regions of "blocking" layers formation are extensive and often spread over the entire territory of Belarus. Inversions decay starts from the lowermost (near surface) layer (altitudes of 5 to 50 m). In all cases, one can observe formation of temperature gradients that substantially differ from the basic inversion gradient, i.e. the layer splits into smaller layers, each having a different temperature stratification (isothermal, adiabatic, etc). As opposed to various empirical techniques as well as

  7. a method of gravity and seismic sequential inversion and its GPU implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Meng, X.

    2011-12-01

    In this abstract, we introduce a gravity and seismic sequential inversion method to invert for density and velocity together. For the gravity inversion, we use an iterative method based on correlation imaging algorithm; for the seismic inversion, we use the full waveform inversion. The link between the density and velocity is an empirical formula called Gardner equation, for large volumes of data, we use the GPU to accelerate the computation. For the gravity inversion method , we introduce a method based on correlation imaging algorithm,it is also a interative method, first we calculate the correlation imaging of the observed gravity anomaly, it is some value between -1 and +1, then we multiply this value with a little density ,this value become the initial density model. We get a forward reuslt with this initial model and also calculate the correaltion imaging of the misfit of observed data and the forward data, also multiply the correaltion imaging result a little density and add it to the initial model, then do the same procedure above , at last ,we can get a inversion density model. For the seismic inveron method ,we use a mothod base on the linearity of acoustic wave equation written in the frequency domain,with a intial velociy model, we can get a good velocity result. In the sequential inversion of gravity and seismic , we need a link formula to convert between density and velocity ,in our method , we use the Gardner equation. Driven by the insatiable market demand for real time, high-definition 3D images, the programmable NVIDIA Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) as co-processor of CPU has been developed for high performance computing. Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) is a parallel programming model and software environment provided by NVIDIA designed to overcome the challenge of using traditional general purpose GPU while maintaining a low learn curve for programmers familiar with standard programming languages such as C. In our inversion processing

  8. Investigation of approaches for hydrogeophysical joint inversion using a parallel computing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commer, M.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Doetsch, J.; Newman, G. A.; Finsterle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Owing to the computational demands of joint inverse problems, we have developed a parallel inversion framework based on the inverse modeling tool iTOUGH2. The software provides inverse modeling capabilities for TOUGH2, a general-purpose simulator for multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal flows in multidimensional fractured-porous media. Our parallel version of iTOUGH2 realizes a hierarchically parallel architecture using the Message Passing Interface. This architecture allows for large numbers of parallel processes to be employed for addressing many-parameter inverse problems on large meshes. To provide geophysical modeling capabilities, we have further combined iTOUGH2 with the geophysical simulator Electromagnetic Geological Mapper (EMGeo), which features a suite of methods for modeling electrical and electromagnetic data types, including controlled-source electromagnetics, magnetotellurics, electrical resistivity tomography, and (spectral) induced polarization. Here, we consider the estimation of hydrological parameters through inverse modeling of hydrological and geophysical data associated with experiments from the shallow unconfined uranium-contaminated aquifer at the DOE Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site at Rifle, Colorado. Our study draws on examples from ongoing research at the IFRC site, and investigates different approaches for jointly inverting electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and tracer concentration data. Exploiting complementary hydrological-geophysical modeling and parallel computing capabilities of the inversion framework, we investigate a few sequential and coupled inversion approaches, initially using synthetic examples. In the first approach, done as a pre-processing step before hydrological inversion, geophysical inversion of crosswell ERT data yields spatial maps of the subsurface electrical resistivity. During subsequent hydrological inversion, these maps are matched with their counterparts calculated from a

  9. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.

  10. The match demands of international rugby sevens.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alex; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the global match demands of international rugby sevens and to compare the match demands of forwards and backs, and between tournament rounds. To assess the match demands, global positioning system (GPS) and video analysis were collected from 27 international rugby sevens players from the same team across an entire International Rugby Board Sevens World Series season. Differences in running demands and match activities between forwards and backs were mostly trivial and small (ES = 0.05-0.84) while differences in running demands and match activities between Pool and Cup rounds were trivial (ES = 0.001-0.12). Cup round matches showed an increase in long-duration ball-in-play sequences (proportion ratio 0.46). These findings suggest international rugby sevens forwards and backs experience similar match demands while overall match demands remain consistent across tournament rounds. PMID:25555035

  11. Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording: Fundamental Limits to Inverse Electromagnetic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Samarth

    (NSOM), which is the incumbent technology allowing the focus of light to the nano-scale. Even in these lower power NSOM probe tips, optical self-heating and deformation of the nano- gold tips are significant reliability and performance bottlenecks. Hence, the design and manufacture of the higher power optical nano-focusing system for HAMR must overcome great engineering challenges in optical and thermal performance. There has been much debate about alternative materials for metal-optics and plasmonics to cure the current plague of optical loss and thermal reliability in this burgeoning field. We clear the air. For an application like HAMR, where intense self-heating occurs, refractory metals and metals nitrides with high melting points but low optical and thermal conductivities are inferior to noble metals. This conclusion is contradictory to several claims and may be counter-intuitive to some, but the analysis is simple, evident and relevant to any engineer working on metal-optics and plasmonics. Indeed, the best metals for DC and RF electronics are also the best at optical frequencies. We also argue that the geometric design of electromagnetic structures (especially sub-wavelength devices) is too cumbersome for human designers, because the wave nature of light necessitates that this inverse problem be non-convex and non-linear. When the computation for one forward simulation is extremely demanding (hours on a high-performance computing cluster), typical designers constrain themselves to only 2 or 3 degrees of freedom. We attack the inverse electromagnetic design problem using gradient-based optimization after leveraging the adjoint-method to efficiently calculate the gradient (ie. the sensitivity) of an objective function with respect to thousands to millions of parameters. This approach results in creative computational designs of electromagnetic structures that human designers could not have conceived yet yield better optical performance. After gaining key insights

  12. Zinc oxide inverse opal enzymatic biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Xueqiu; Pikul, James H.; King, William P.; Pak, James J.

    2013-06-01

    We report ZnO inverse opal- and nanowire (NW)-based enzymatic glucose biosensors with extended linear detection ranges. The ZnO inverse opal sensors have 0.01-18 mM linear detection range, which is 2.5 times greater than that of ZnO NW sensors and 1.5 times greater than that of other reported ZnO sensors. This larger range is because of reduced glucose diffusivity through the inverse opal geometry. The ZnO inverse opal sensors have an average sensitivity of 22.5 μA/(mM cm2), which diminished by 10% after 35 days, are more stable than ZnO NW sensors whose sensitivity decreased by 10% after 7 days.

  13. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R

    2016-08-31

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  14. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R

    2016-01-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe. PMID:27578317

  15. Inverse problem of electro-seismic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    When a porous rock is saturated with an electrolyte, electrical fields are coupled with seismic waves via the electro-seismic conversion. Pride (1994 Phys. Rev. B 50 15678-96) derived the governing models, in which Maxwell equations are coupled with Biot's equations through the electro-kinetic mobility parameter. The inverse problem of the linearized electro-seismic conversion consists in two steps, namely the inversion of Biot's equations and the inversion of Maxwell equations. We analyze the reconstruction of conductivity and electro-kinetic mobility parameter in Maxwell equations with internal measurements, while the internal measurements are provided by the results of the inversion of Biot's equations. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines these two parameters. Moreover, a Lipschitz-type stability is proved based on the same sets of well-chosen boundary conditions.

  16. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  17. Case of paracentric inversion 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Bettio, D.; Rizzi, N.; Giardino, D.

    1995-09-25

    Paracentric inversions have been described less frequently than pericentric ones. It is not known whether this is due to their rarity or rather to difficulty in detecting intra-arm rearrangements. Paracentric inversions have been noted in all chromosomes except chromosome 19; the short arm was involved in 21 cases and the long arm in 87. We describe the first case of paracentric inversion in chromosome 19. The patient, a 29-year-old man, was referred for cytogenetic investigation because his wife had had 3 spontaneous abortions. No history of subfertility was recorded. Chromosome studies on peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated an abnormal QFQ banding pattern in the short arm of one chromosome 19. The comparison between QFQ, GTG and RBA banding led us to suspect a paracentric inversion involving the chromosome 19 short arm. CBG banding resulted in an apparently normal position of the centromere. Parental chromosome studies showed the same anomaly in the patient`s mother. 4 refs.

  18. Magnetostatics of superconductors without an inversion center

    SciTech Connect

    Levitov, L.S.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Eliashberg, G.M.

    1985-05-10

    The penetration of a magnetic field into a London superconductor without an inversion center is analyzed. The magnetization produced in the Meissner layer corresponds to a magnetic-induction jump at the superconductor surface.

  19. Analytic solutions of inverse heat conduction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Najem, N. M.

    A direct analytic approach is systematically developed for solving inverse heat conduction problems in multi-dimensional finite regions. The inverse problems involve the determination of the surface conditions from the knowledge of the time variation of the temperature at an interior point in the region. In the present approach, the unknown surface temperature is represented by a polynominal in time and a splitting-up procedure is employed to develop a rapidly converging inverse solution. The least square technique is then utilized to estimate the unknown parameters associated with the solution. The method is developed first for the analysis of one-dimensional cases, and then it is generalized to handle two- and three-dimensional situations. It provides an efficient, stable and systematic approach for inverse heat condition problems. The stability and accuracy of the current method of analysis are demonstrated by several numerical examples chosen to provide a very strict test.

  20. Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.C.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.

  1. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  2. BATMAN: MOS Spectroscopy on Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, E.; Zamkotsian, F.; Moschetti, M.; Spano, P.; Boschin, W.; Cosentino, R.; Ghedina, A.; González, M.; Pérez, H.; Lanzoni, P.; Ramarijaona, H.; Riva, M.; Zerbi, F.; Nicastro, L.; Valenziano, L.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Coretti, I.; Cirami, R.

    2016-10-01

    Multi-Object Spectrographs (MOS) are the major instruments for studying primary galaxies and remote and faint objects. Current object selection systems are limited and/or difficult to implement in next generation MOS for space and ground-based telescopes. A promising solution is the use of MOEMS devices such as micromirror arrays, which allow the remote control of the multi-slit configuration in real time. TNG is hosting a novelty project for real-time, on-demand MOS masks based on MOEMS programmable slits. We are developing a 2048×1080 Digital-Micromirror-Device-based (DMD) MOS instrument to be mounted on the Galileo telescope, called BATMAN. It is a two-arm instrument designed for providing in parallel imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. With a field of view of 6.8×3.6 arcmin and a plate scale of 0.2 arcsec per micromirror, this astronomical setup can be used to investigate the formation and evolution of galaxies. The wavelength range is in the visible and the spectral resolution is R=560 for a 1 arcsec object, and the two arms will have 2k × 4k CCD detectors. ROBIN, a BATMAN demonstrator, has been designed, realized and integrated. We plan to have BATMAN first light by mid-2016.

  3. Growing collateral arteries on demand.

    PubMed

    Oh, Charles C; Klein, Jason D; Migrino, Raymond Q; Thornburg, Kent L

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have significantly advanced our understanding of arteriogenesis, raising hope that therapies to increase collateral arterial formation may become important new tools in the treatment of ischemic disease. The most important initiating trigger for arteriogenesis is the marked increase in shear stress which is sensed by the endothelium and leads to characteristic changes. Intracellularly, it was shown that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to increased shear stress, suggesting a role as a possible mechanoreceptor for dynamic and continual monitoring of shear stress. The signal generated by PECAM-1 leads to the activation of the Rho pathway among others. More than 40 genes have been shown to have a shear stress responsive element. The Rho pathway is activated early and appears to be essential to the arteriogenic response as inhibiting it abolished the effect of fluid shear stress. Overexpression of a Rho pathway member, Actin-binding Rho protein (Abra), led to a 60% increase in collateral perfusion over simple femoral artery occlusion. A patent for the Abra gene has been filed recently. It may be a harbinger of a future where collateral arteries grown on demand may become an effective treatment for ischemic vascular disease. PMID:21861827

  4. Physiological demands of competitive basketball.

    PubMed

    Narazaki, K; Berg, K; Stergiou, N; Chen, B

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess physiological demands of competitive basketball by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) and other variables during practice games. Each of 12 players (20.4 +/- 1.1 years) was monitored in a 20-min practice game, which was conducted in the same way as actual games with the presence of referees and coaches. VO2 was measured by a portable system during the game and blood lactate concentration (LA) was measured in brief breaks. Subjects were also videotaped for time-motion analysis. Female and male players demonstrated respective VO2 of 33.4 +/- 4.0 and 36.9 +/- 2.6 mL/kg/min and LA of 3.2 +/- 0.9 and 4.2 +/- 1.3 mmol/L in the practice games (P>0.05). They spent 34.1% of play time running and jumping, 56.8% walking, and 9.0% standing. Pre-obtained VO(2max) was correlated to VO(2) during play (r=0.673) and to percent of duration for running and jumping (r=0.935 and 0.962 for females and males, respectively). This study demonstrated a greater oxygen uptake for competitive basketball than that estimated based on a previous compendium. The correlation between aerobic capacity and activity level suggests the potential benefit of aerobic conditioning in basketball.

  5. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  6. Titanium induced polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X.; Li, H.; Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Draxl, C.; Trampert, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the formation of polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns grown on a Ti-masked GaN-buffered sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal a stacking fault-like planar defect at the homoepitaxial GaN interface due to Ti incorporation, triggering the generation of N-polar domains in Ga-polar nanocolumns. Density functional theory calculations are applied to clarify the atomic configurations of a Ti monolayer occupation on the GaN (0002) plane and to prove the inversion effect. The polarity inversion leads to an enhanced indium incorporation in the subsequent (In,Ga)N segment of the nanocolumn. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effects of Ti mask in the well-controlled selective area growth of (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

  7. Titanium induced polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

    PubMed

    Kong, X; Li, H; Albert, S; Bengoechea-Encabo, A; Sanchez-Garcia, M A; Calleja, E; Draxl, C; Trampert, A

    2016-02-12

    We report on the formation of polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns grown on a Ti-masked GaN-buffered sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal a stacking fault-like planar defect at the homoepitaxial GaN interface due to Ti incorporation, triggering the generation of N-polar domains in Ga-polar nanocolumns. Density functional theory calculations are applied to clarify the atomic configurations of a Ti monolayer occupation on the GaN (0002) plane and to prove the inversion effect. The polarity inversion leads to an enhanced indium incorporation in the subsequent (In,Ga)N segment of the nanocolumn. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effects of Ti mask in the well-controlled selective area growth of (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

  8. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance

    PubMed Central

    Khilnani, Gurudas; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced) receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity) or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity). Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity). Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors) have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics) have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H1 and H2 antihistaminics (antagonists) have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D2 receptors antagonist), antihypertensive (AT1 receptor antagonists), antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103), a highly selective 5-HT2A inverse

  9. A fluorophosphate-based inverse Keggin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fielden, John; Quasdorf, Kyle; Cronin, Leroy; Kogerler, Paul

    2012-07-17

    An unusual PFO(3)(2-)-templated "inverse Keggin" polyanion, [Mo(12)O(46)(PF)(4)](4-), has been isolated from the degradation reaction of an {Mo(132)}-type Keplerate to [PMo(12)O(40)](3-) by [Cu(MeCN)(4)](PF(6)) in acetonitrile. (31)P-NMR studies suggest a structure-directing role for [Cu(MeCN)(4)](+) in the formation of the highly unusual all-inorganic inverse Keggin structure.

  10. Inversion of elastic impedance for unconsolidated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2006-01-01

    Elastic properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are important for quantifying gas hydrate amounts as well as discriminating the gas hydrate effect on velocity from free gas or pore pressure. This paper presents an elastic inversion method for estimating elastic properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments from angle stacks using sequential inversion of P-wave impedance from the zero-offset stack and S-wave impedance from the far-offset stack without assuming velocity ratio.

  11. Waveform Inversion with Source Encoding for Breast Sound Speed Reconstruction in Ultrasound Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Matthews, Thomas; Anis, Fatima; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) holds great promise for improving the detection and management of breast cancer. Because they are based on the acoustic wave equation, waveform inversion-based reconstruction methods can produce images that possess improved spatial resolution properties over those produced by ray-based methods. However, waveform inversion methods are computationally demanding and have not been applied widely in USCT breast imaging. In this work, source encoding concepts are employed to develop an accelerated USCT reconstruction method that circumvents the large computational burden of conventional waveform inversion methods. This method, referred to as the waveform inversion with source encoding (WISE) method, encodes the measurement data using a random encoding vector and determines an estimate of the sound speed distribution by solving a stochastic optimization problem by use of a stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Both computer-simulation and experimental phantom studies are conducted to demonstrate the use of the WISE method. The results suggest that the WISE method maintains the high spatial resolution of waveform inversion methods while significantly reducing the computational burden. PMID:25768816

  12. Chiral magnetic order at surfaces driven by inversion asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Bode, M; Heide, M; von Bergmann, K; Ferriani, P; Heinze, S; Bihlmayer, G; Kubetzka, A; Pietzsch, O; Blügel, S; Wiesendanger, R

    2007-05-10

    Chirality is a fascinating phenomenon that can manifest itself in subtle ways, for example in biochemistry (in the observed single-handedness of biomolecules) and in particle physics (in the charge-parity violation of electroweak interactions). In condensed matter, magnetic materials can also display single-handed, or homochiral, spin structures. This may be caused by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which arises from spin-orbit scattering of electrons in an inversion-asymmetric crystal field. This effect is typically irrelevant in bulk metals as their crystals are inversion symmetric. However, low-dimensional systems lack structural inversion symmetry, so that homochiral spin structures may occur. Here we report the observation of magnetic order of a specific chirality in a single atomic layer of manganese on a tungsten (110) substrate. Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals that adjacent spins are not perfectly antiferromagnetic but slightly canted, resulting in a spin spiral structure with a period of about 12 nm. We show by quantitative theory that this chiral order is caused by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and leads to a left-rotating spin cycloid. Our findings confirm the significance of this interaction for magnets in reduced dimensions. Chirality in nanoscale magnets may play a crucial role in spintronic devices, where the spin rather than the charge of an electron is used for data transmission and manipulation. For instance, a spin-polarized current flowing through chiral magnetic structures will exert a spin-torque on the magnetic structure, causing a variety of excitations or manipulations of the magnetization and giving rise to microwave emission, magnetization switching, or magnetic motors.

  13. SiC/C nanocomposites with inverse opal structure.

    PubMed

    Emelchenko, G A; Zhokhov, A A; Masalov, V M; Maximuk, M Yu; Fursova, T N; Bazhenov, A V; Zverkova, I I; Khasanov, S S; Steinman, E A; Tereshenko, A N

    2010-11-26

    The synthesis, morphology, structural and optical characteristics of SiC/C nanocomposites with an inverse opal lattice have been investigated. The samples were prepared by thermochemical treatment of opal matrices filled with carbon compounds which was followed by silicon dioxide dissolution. The samples were studied by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, IR and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The electron microscopy data revealed a highly porous periodic structure which was a three-dimensional replica of the voids of the initial opal lattice. The hexagonal silicon carbide was found to be non-uniformly distributed throughout the volume, its greater part located in the surface layer up to 50 µm deep. The data of x-ray diffraction, IR and Raman scattering spectroscopy enabled us to assume that the composite had hexagonal diamond fragments. The photoluminescence and optical reflection spectra of the composites have been measured. PMID:21030770

  14. Acceleration results from the microwave inverse FEL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, R. B.; Marshall, T. C.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    An inverse free-electron-laser accelerator has been developed, built, and operated in the microwave regime. Development of this device has been described at previous Workshops; the accelerator is driven by RF power at 2.8 GHz propagating in a smooth-walled circular waveguide surrounded by a pulsed bifilar helical undulator with tapered pitch, while an array of solenoid coils provides an axial guide magnetic field. In low-power experiments, injected electron beams at energies between 5 and 6 MeV have gained up to 0.35 MeV with minimal energy spread, and the phase sensitivity of the IFEL mechanism has been clearly demonstrated for the first time. Agreement with simulation is very good for accelerating phases, though less exact otherwise. Scaling the device to high power and high frequency is discussed.

  15. Geoacoustic inversion with ships as sources.

    PubMed

    Koch, Robert A; Knobles, David P

    2005-02-01

    Estimation of geoacoustic parameters using acoustic data from a surface ship was performed for a shallow water region in the Gulf of Mexico. The data were recorded from hydrophones in a bottom mounted, horizontal line array (HLA). The techniques developed to produce the geoacoustic inversion are described, and an efficient method for geoacoustic inversion with broadband beam cross-spectral data is demonstrated. The performance of cost functions that involve coherent or incoherent sums over frequency and one or multiple time segments is discussed. Successful inversions for the first sediment layer sound speed and thickness and some of the parameters for the deeper layers were obtained with the surface ship at nominal ranges of 20, 30, or 50 water depths. The data for these inversions were beam cross-spectra from four subapertures of the HLA spanning a little more than two water depths. The subaperture beams included ten frequencies equally spaced in the 120-200 Hz band. The values of the geoacoustic parameters from the inversions are validated by comparisons with geophysical observations and with the parameter values from previous inversions by other invesigators, and by comparing transmission loss (TL) measured in the experiment with modeled TL based on the inverted geoacoustic parameters.

  16. Inverse scattering problems with multi-frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Gang; Li, Peijun; Lin, Junshan; Triki, Faouzi

    2015-09-01

    This paper is concerned with computational approaches and mathematical analysis for solving inverse scattering problems in the frequency domain. The problems arise in a diverse set of scientific areas with significant industrial, medical, and military applications. In addition to nonlinearity, there are two common difficulties associated with the inverse problems: ill-posedness and limited resolution (diffraction limit). Due to the diffraction limit, for a given frequency, only a low spatial frequency part of the desired parameter can be observed from measurements in the far field. The main idea developed here is that if the reconstruction is restricted to only the observable part, then the inversion will become stable. The challenging task is how to design stable numerical methods for solving these inverse scattering problems inspired by the diffraction limit. Recently, novel recursive linearization based algorithms have been presented in an attempt to answer the above question. These methods require multi-frequency scattering data and proceed via a continuation procedure with respect to the frequency from low to high. The objective of this paper is to give a brief review of these methods, their error estimates, and the related mathematical analysis. More attention is paid to the inverse medium and inverse source problems. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the effectiveness of these methods.

  17. On the edge of an inverse cascade.

    PubMed

    Seshasayanan, Kannabiran; Benavides, Santiago Jose; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate that systems with a parameter-controlled inverse cascade can exhibit critical behavior for which at the critical value of the control parameter the inverse cascade stops. In the vicinity of such a critical point, standard phenomenological estimates for the energy balance will fail since the energy flux towards large length scales becomes zero. We demonstrate this using the computationally tractable model of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamics in a periodic box. In the absence of any external magnetic forcing, the system reduces to hydrodynamic fluid turbulence with an inverse energy cascade. In the presence of strong magnetic forcing, the system behaves as 2D magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with forward energy cascade. As the amplitude of the magnetic forcing is varied, a critical value is met for which the energy flux towards the large scales becomes zero. Close to this point, the energy flux scales as a power law with the departure from the critical point and the normalized amplitude of the fluctuations diverges. Similar behavior is observed for the flux of the square vector potential for which no inverse flux is observed for weak magnetic forcing, while a finite inverse flux is observed for magnetic forcing above the critical point. We conjecture that this behavior is generic for systems of variable inverse cascade. PMID:25493730

  18. Sol-gel co-assembly of hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns.

    PubMed

    Haibin, Ni; Ming, Wang; Wei, Chen

    2011-12-19

    A facile approach of fabricating hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns by sol-gel co-assembly method was proposed. Polystyrene (PS) colloidal suspension added with hydrolyzed silicate precursor solution was used to self-assemble composite colloidal crystals which consist of PS colloidal crystal template and infiltrated silica gel in the interstitial of microspheres. Continuous hollow cylindrical composite colloidal crystal films have been produced on capillaries' outside and internal surface. Composite colloidal crystal columns which filling up the interior of a capillary were fabricated by pressure assisted sol-gel co-assembly method. Hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns were obtained after removing PS colloidal crystal from the composite colloidal crystal. Optical properties of the silica hollow cylindrical inverse opals were characterized by transmission spectrum and a stop band was observed. Structure and optical properties of the inverse opal columns were investigated. PMID:22274178

  19. Sol-gel co-assembly of hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns.

    PubMed

    Haibin, Ni; Ming, Wang; Wei, Chen

    2011-12-19

    A facile approach of fabricating hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns by sol-gel co-assembly method was proposed. Polystyrene (PS) colloidal suspension added with hydrolyzed silicate precursor solution was used to self-assemble composite colloidal crystals which consist of PS colloidal crystal template and infiltrated silica gel in the interstitial of microspheres. Continuous hollow cylindrical composite colloidal crystal films have been produced on capillaries' outside and internal surface. Composite colloidal crystal columns which filling up the interior of a capillary were fabricated by pressure assisted sol-gel co-assembly method. Hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns were obtained after removing PS colloidal crystal from the composite colloidal crystal. Optical properties of the silica hollow cylindrical inverse opals were characterized by transmission spectrum and a stop band was observed. Structure and optical properties of the inverse opal columns were investigated.

  20. Electronic document interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.

  1. Application of the least-squares inversion method: Fourier series versus waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Dong-Joo; Shin, Jungkyun; Shin, Changsoo

    2015-11-01

    We describe an implicit link between waveform inversion and Fourier series based on inversion methods such as gradient, Gauss-Newton, and full Newton methods. Fourier series have been widely used as a basic concept in studies on seismic data interpretation, and their coefficients are obtained in the classical Fourier analysis. We show that Fourier coefficients can also be obtained by inversion algorithms, and compare the method to seismic waveform inversion algorithms. In that case, Fourier coefficients correspond to model parameters (velocities, density or elastic constants), whereas cosine and sine functions correspond to components of the Jacobian matrix, that is, partial derivative wavefields in seismic inversion. In the classical Fourier analysis, optimal coefficients are determined by the sensitivity of a given function to sine and cosine functions. In the inversion method for Fourier series, Fourier coefficients are obtained by measuring the sensitivity of residuals between given functions and test functions (defined as the sum of weighted cosine and sine functions) to cosine and sine functions. The orthogonal property of cosine and sine functions makes the full or approximate Hessian matrix become a diagonal matrix in the inversion for Fourier series. In seismic waveform inversion, the Hessian matrix may or may not be a diagonal matrix, because partial derivative wavefields correlate with each other to some extent, making them semi-orthogonal. At the high-frequency limits, however, the Hessian matrix can be approximated by either a diagonal matrix or a diagonally-dominant matrix. Since we usually deal with relatively low frequencies in seismic waveform inversion, it is not diagonally dominant and thus it is prohibitively expensive to compute the full or approximate Hessian matrix. By interpreting Fourier series with the inversion algorithms, we note that the Fourier series can be computed at an iteration step using any inversion algorithms such as the

  2. NASA STI Program Seminar: Electronic documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The theme of this NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Seminar was electronic documents. Topics covered included Electronic Documents Management at the CASI, the Impact of Electronic Publishing on User Expectations and Searching Image Record Management, Secondary Publisher Considerations for Electronic Journal Literature, and the Technical Manual Publishing On Demand System (TMPODS).

  3. Demand forecast model based on CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuancui; Chen, Lichao

    2006-11-01

    With interiorizing day by day management thought that regarding customer as the centre, forecasting customer demand becomes more and more important. In the demand forecast of customer relationship management, the traditional forecast methods have very great limitation because much uncertainty of the demand, these all require new modeling to meet the demands of development. In this paper, the notion is that forecasting the demand according to characteristics of the potential customer, then modeling by it. The model first depicts customer adopting uniform multiple indexes. Secondly, the model acquires characteristic customers on the basis of data warehouse and the technology of data mining. The last, there get the most similar characteristic customer by their comparing and forecast the demands of new customer by the most similar characteristic customer.

  4. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Uliasz, M.; Parazoo, N.; Andrews, A. E.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous global inversions including the Transcom suite of inversions have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into larger aggregated regions. An extreme example of this might be where corrections to NEE imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the Parameterized Chemical Transport Model (PCTM) models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a mean estimate 0.57 Pg/yr sink in North America

  5. The Market Demand for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    Although the presentation will touch upon the areas of market for air transportation, the theoretical foundations of the demand function, the demand models, and model selection and evaluation, the emphasis of the presentation will be on a qualitative description of the factors affecting the demand for air transportation. The presentation will rely heavily on the results of market surveys carried out by the Port of New York Authority, the University of Michigan, and Census of Transportation.

  6. Figuring on energy: ratcheting down demand

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, P.

    1984-03-26

    The plan to increase natural gas supply by raising prices has lowered demand and led to a gas glut. The industry needs to continue high prices, however, in order to pay off creditors, while analysts worry about keeping a major role for gas. Critical of a March Atlantic Monthly article, the author notes that the loss in gas demand has not been a gain for oil. He suggests that the demand elasticity of gas may exceed that of supply.

  7. DRFM requirements demand innovative technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, G.; Culp, J.; Robinson, M.

    1986-02-01

    In the context of the operation of emerging electronic countermeasures (ECM) jamming systems, a coherent means of capturing a received threat waveform is needed. The present paper is concerned with digital RF memory (DRFM) technology, which can be used to satisfy the involved requirements, taking into account high-performance multibit systems currently under development. System-driven requirements are considered along with a DRFM design implementation sampler/digitizer, Mux/Demux and memory, and packaging. It is pointed out that one of the most promising approaches for DRFM packaging involves surface mount technology (SMT). The development of low power and highspeed GaAs memory will provide DRFM designers with alternative options to the solution of power dissipation problems.

  8. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to themore » uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.« less

  9. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to the uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.

  10. Income distribution trends and future food demand.

    PubMed

    Cirera, Xavier; Masset, Edoardo

    2010-09-27

    This paper surveys the theoretical literature on the relationship between income distribution and food demand, and identifies main gaps of current food modelling techniques that affect the accuracy of food demand projections. At the heart of the relationship between income distribution and food demand is Engel's law. Engel's law establishes that as income increases, households' demand for food increases less than proportionally. A consequence of this law is that the particular shape of the distribution of income across individuals and countries affects the rate of growth of food demand. Our review of the literature suggests that existing models of food demand fail to incorporate the required Engel flexibility when (i) aggregating different food budget shares among households; and (ii) changing budget shares as income grows. We perform simple simulations to predict growth in food demand under alternative income distribution scenarios taking into account nonlinearity of food demand. Results suggest that (i) distributional effects are to be expected from changes in between-countries inequality, rather than within-country inequality; and (ii) simulations of an optimistic and a pessimistic scenario of income inequality suggest that world food demand in 2050 would be 2.7 per cent higher and 5.4 per cent lower than distributional-neutral growth, respectively.

  11. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions.

  12. Inversion concept of the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Kompanichenko, V N

    2012-06-01

    The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).

  13. The rotation-inversion spectrum of cyanamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, W. G.; Cohen, E. A.; Pickett, H. M.

    1986-02-01

    The microwave, millimeter, and submillimeter spectra of cyanamide were studied to better determine the inversion-rotation parameters of the ground and first excited states. A total of 146 transitions including 64 rotation-inversion frequencies between 7 and 500 GHz have been measured at this laboratory. An additional 118 a-type R-branch transitions between 139 and 262 GHz measured by Möller and Winnewisser at Justus Liebig University, Giessen, have also been included in the analysis. The data were fitted to a Hamiltonian which contains a rotation-inversion interaction as an off-diagonal inertial term. The interpretation of the interaction term in terms of the molecular structure and inversion motion is in good agreement with experiment. Higher order rotational effects were handled with a Watson " S" centrifugal distortion Hamiltonian. The inversion splitting, rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, nitrogen nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors including χac for the amino nitrogen, and the a and c components of the electric dipole moment are reported.

  14. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  15. On the nonuniqueness of receiver function inversions

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon, C.J. ); Randall, G.E. ); Zandt, G. )

    1990-09-10

    To study the resolving power of teleseismic P waveforms for receiver structure, the authors model synthetic waveforms using a time domain waveform inversion scheme beginning with a range of initial models to estimate the range of acceptable velocity structures. To speed up the waveform inversions, they implement Randall's (1989) efficient algorithms for calculating differential seismograms and include a smoothness constraint on all the resulting velocity models utilizing the jumping inversion technique of Shaw and Orcutt (1985). They present the results of more than 235 waveform inversions for one-dimensional velocity structures that indicate that the primary sensitivity of a receiver function is to high wavenumber velocity changes, and a depth-velocity product, not simply velocity. The range of slownesses in a typical receiver function study does not appear to be broad enough to remove the depth-velocity ambiguity; the inclusion of a priori information is necessary. They also present inversion results for station RSCP, located in the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee. The results are similar to those from a previous study by Owens et al. (1984) and demonstrate the uncertainties in the resulting velocity estimate more clearly.

  16. Structural state testing using eddy current inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, N. Y.; Chernov, L. A.

    2000-05-01

    The inverse eddy current problem can be described as the task of reconstructing an unknown distribution of electrical conductivity from eddy-current probe voltage measurements recorded as function of excitation frequency. Conductivity variation may be a result of surface processing with substances like hydrogen and carbon or surface heating. We developed mathematical reasons and supporting software for inverse conductivity profiling. Inverse problem was solved for layered plane and cylindrical conductors. Because the inverse problem is nonlinear, we propose using an iterative algorithm which can be formalized as the minimization of an error functional related to the difference between the probe voltages theoretically predicted by the direct problem solving and the measured probe voltages. Numerical results were obtained for some models of conductivity distribution. It was shown that inverse problem can be solved exactly in case of correct measurements. Good estimation of the true conductivity distribution takes place also for measurement noise about 2 percent but in the case of 5 percent error, results are worse.

  17. Inversion Concept of the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompanichenko, V. N.

    2012-06-01

    The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).

  18. Inverse kinematic-based robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolovich, W. A.; Flueckiger, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    A fundamental problem which must be resolved in virtually all non-trivial robotic operations is the well-known inverse kinematic question. More specifically, most of the tasks which robots are called upon to perform are specified in Cartesian (x,y,z) space, such as simple tracking along one or more straight line paths or following a specified surfacer with compliant force sensors and/or visual feedback. In all cases, control is actually implemented through coordinated motion of the various links which comprise the manipulator; i.e., in link space. As a consequence, the control computer of every sophisticated anthropomorphic robot must contain provisions for solving the inverse kinematic problem which, in the case of simple, non-redundant position control, involves the determination of the first three link angles, theta sub 1, theta sub 2, and theta sub 3, which produce a desired wrist origin position P sub xw, P sub yw, and P sub zw at the end of link 3 relative to some fixed base frame. Researchers outline a new inverse kinematic solution and demonstrate its potential via some recent computer simulations. They also compare it to current inverse kinematic methods and outline some of the remaining problems which will be addressed in order to render it fully operational. Also discussed are a number of practical consequences of this technique beyond its obvious use in solving the inverse kinematic question.

  19. Drivers of U.S. mineral demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sznopek, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The word 'demand' has different meanings for different people. To some, it means their 'wants and needs,' to others it is what they consume. Yet, when considering economics, demand refers to the specific amounts of goods or services that individuals will purchase at various prices. Demand is measured over a given time period. It is determined by a number of factors including income, tastes, and the price of complementary and substitute goods. In this paper, the term consumption is used fairly synonymously with the term demand. Most mineral commodities, like iron ore, copper, zinc, and gravel, are intermediate goods, which means that they are used in the production of other goods, called final goods. Demand for intermediate goods is called derived demand because such demand is derived from the demand for final goods. When demand increases for a commodity, generally the price rises. With everything else held constant, this increases the profits for those who provide this commodity. Normally, this would increase profits of existing producers and attract new producers to the market. When demand for a commodity decreases, generally the price falls. Normally, this would cause profits to fall and, as a consequence, the least efficient firms may be forced from the industry. Demand changes for specific materials as final goods or production techniques are reengineered while maintaining or improving product performance, for example, the use of aluminum in the place of copper in long distance electrical transmission lines or plastic replacing steel in automobile bumpers. Substitution contributes to efficient material usage by utilizing cheaper or technically superior materials. In this way, it may also alleviate materials scarcity. If a material becomes relatively scarce (and thus more expensive), a more abundant (and less expensive) material generally replaces it (Wagner and others, 2003, p. 91).

  20. Improved Abel transform inversion: First application to COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon-Angel, A.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.; Sanz, J.

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the first results of Ionospheric Tomographic inversion are presented, using the Improved Abel Transform on the COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 constellation of 6 LEO satellites, carrying on-board GPS receivers.[- 4mm] The Abel transform inversion is a wide used technique which in the ionospheric context makes it possible to retrieve electron densities as a function of height based of STEC (Slant Total Electron Content) data gathered from GPS receivers on board of LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellites. Within this precise use, the classical approach of the Abel inversion is based on the assumption of spherical symmetry of the electron density in the vicinity of an occultation, meaning that the electron content varies in height but not horizontally. In particular, one implication of this assumption is that the VTEC (Vertical Total Electron Content) is a constant value for the occultation region. This assumption may not always be valid since horizontal ionospheric gradients (a very frequent feature in some ionosphere problematic areas such as the Equatorial region) could significantly affect the electron profiles. [- 4mm] In order to overcome this limitation/problem of the classical Abel inversion, a studied improvement of this technique can be obtained by assuming separability in the electron density (see Hernández-Pajares et al. 2000). This means that the electron density can be expressed by the multiplication of VTEC data and a shape function which assumes all the height dependency in it while the VTEC data keeps the horizontal dependency. Actually, it is more realistic to assume that this shape fuction depends only on the height and to use VTEC information to take into account the horizontal variation rather than considering spherical symmetry in the electron density function as it has been carried out in the classical approach of the Abel inversion.[-4mm] Since the above mentioned improved Abel inversion technique has already been tested and proven to be a useful

  1. Interplay of Nitrogen-Atom Inversion and Conformational Inversion in Enantiomerization of 1H-1-Benzazepines.

    PubMed

    Ramig, Keith; Subramaniam, Gopal; Karimi, Sasan; Szalda, David J; Ko, Allen; Lam, Aaron; Li, Jeffrey; Coaderaj, Ani; Cavdar, Leyla; Bogdan, Lukasz; Kwon, Kitae; Greer, Edyta M

    2016-04-15

    A series of 2,4-disubstituted 1H-1-benzazepines, 2a-d, 4, and 6, were studied, varying both the substituents at C2 and C4 and at the nitrogen atom. The conformational inversion (ring-flip) and nitrogen-atom inversion (N-inversion) energetics were studied by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy and computations. The steric bulk of the nitrogen-atom substituent was found to affect both the conformation of the azepine ring and the geometry around the nitrogen atom. Also affected were the Gibbs free energy barriers for the ring-flip and the N-inversion. When the nitrogen-atom substituent was alkyl, as in 2a-c, the geometry of the nitrogen atom was nearly planar and the azepine ring was highly puckered; the result was a relatively high-energy barrier to ring-flip and a low barrier to N-inversion. Conversely, when the nitrogen-atom substituent was a hydrogen atom, as in 2d, 4, and 6, the nitrogen atom was significantly pyramidalized and the azepine ring was less puckered; the result here was a relatively high energy barrier to N-inversion and a low barrier to ring-flip. In these N-unsubstituted compounds, it was found computationally that the lowest-energy stereodynamic process was ring-flip coupled with N-inversion, as N-inversion alone had a much higher energy barrier.

  2. Children's Understanding of the Arithmetic Concepts of Inversion and Associativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Katherine M.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Gray, Melissa L.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that even preschoolers can solve inversion problems of the form a + b - b by using the knowledge that addition and subtraction are inverse operations. In this study, a new type of inversion problem of the form d x e [divided by] e was also examined. Grade 6 and 8 students solved inversion problems of both types as well…

  3. Integral inversion to Fraunhofer diffraction for particle sizing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhang; Xu, Lijun; Ding, Jie

    2009-09-01

    A new solution to the inversion of Fraunhofer diffraction for particle sizing was introduced. Compared with the well-known Chin-Shifrin inversion, it is an inversion of the form of integral transform and less sensitive to noise. Simulation results with noise-contaminated data were obtained and showed that the new inversion is better than the Chin-Shifrin inversion. Especially when the particle diameter was small, the new inversion still performed well, whereas the Chin-Shifrin inversion did not converge.

  4. Inverse Papular Acrokeratosis of Oswaldo Costa

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Lidiane Pereira; Trope, Beatriz Moritz; Pina, Juliana Carnevale; Cuzzi, Tullia

    2010-01-01

    Acrokeratoelastoidosis of Oswaldo Costa, or inverse papular acrokeratosis, is a rare genodermatosis first described in 1952 by Oswaldo Costa, a Brazilian dermatologist. It is characterized by flesh-colored papules on the lateral aspects of the palms and soles and dorsum of hands. The histological features are hyperkeratosis, hyalinized and homogenous collagen, and a decrease in and fragmentation of the elastic fibers (elastorrhexis). In the absence of elastic fiber fragmentation, a similar clinical presentation is diagnosed as focal acral hyperkeratosis. Many cases of inverse papular acrokeratosis of Oswaldo Costa may have been considered focal acral hyperkeratosis since it can be difficult to find the elastorrhexis. The authors report a case of a 51-year-old woman with inverse papular acrokeratosis of Oswaldo Costa with poor response to topical treatments. PMID:20725552

  5. Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

  6. Inverse Scattering Approach to Improving Pattern Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G; Fu, C

    2005-02-15

    The Helmholtz machine provides what may be the best existing model for how the mammalian brain recognizes patterns. Based on the observation that the ''wake-sleep'' algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is similar to the problem of finding the potential for a multi-channel Schrodinger equation, we propose that the construction of a Schrodinger potential using inverse scattering methods can serve as a model for how the mammalian brain learns to extract essential information from sensory data. In particular, inverse scattering theory provides a conceptual framework for imagining how one might use EEG and MEG observations of brain-waves together with sensory feedback to improve human learning and pattern recognition. Longer term, implementation of inverse scattering algorithms on a digital or optical computer could be a step towards mimicking the seamless information fusion of the mammalian brain.

  7. Inverse scattering approach to improving pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapline, George; Fu, Chi-Yung

    2005-05-01

    The Helmholtz machine provides what may be the best existing model for how the mammalian brain recognizes patterns. Based on the observation that the "wake-sleep" algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is similar to the problem of finding the potential for a multi-channel Schrodinger equation, we propose that the construction of a Schrodinger potential using inverse scattering methods can serve as a model for how the mammalian brain learns to extract essential information from sensory data. In particular, inverse scattering theory provides a conceptual framework for imagining how one might use EEG and MEG observations of brain-waves together with sensory feedback to improve human learning and pattern recognition. Longer term, implementation of inverse scattering algorithms on a digital or optical computer could be a step towards mimicking the seamless information fusion of the mammalian brain.

  8. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-10

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

  9. Optimization and Inverse Design of Pump Impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyauchi, S.; Zhu, B.; Luo, X.; Piao, B.; Matsumoto, H.; Sano, M.; Kassai, N.

    2012-11-01

    As for pump impellers, the meridional flow channel and blade-to-blade flow channel, which are relatively independent of each other but greatly affect performance, are designed in parallel. And the optimization design is used for the former and the inverse design is used for the latter. To verify this new design method, a mixed-flow impeller was made. Next, we use Tani's inverse design method for the blade loading of inverse design. It is useful enough to change a deceleration rate freely and greatly. And it can integrally express the rear blade loading of various methods by NACA, Zangeneh and Stratford. We controlled the deceleration rate by shape parameter m, and its value became almost same with Tani's recommended value of the laminar airfoil.

  10. A new strategy for helioseismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eff-Darwich, A.; Perez Hernandez, F.

    1997-10-01

    Helioseismic inversion techniques have been revealed as powerful tools for inferring the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun. One of the most popular techniques is Regularized Least Squares. When it is used, it is necessary to define an inversion mesh and a penalty function, without an a priori knowledge of the behaviour of the solution. In addition, this penalty function is weighted by a trade-off parameter that must be fixed in order to obtain the solution. We present here a new technique, developed in order to find the optimal mesh and smoothing function by means of a deep analysis of the basis functions of the inversion problem. We have found that the method is suitable in particular for obtaining the sound speed and density profiles simultaneously, without any reference to the equation of state.

  11. Inverse obstacle scattering for elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peijun; Wang, Yuliang; Wang, Zewen; Zhao, Yue

    2016-11-01

    Consider the scattering of a time-harmonic plane wave by a rigid obstacle which is embedded in an open space filled with a homogeneous and isotropic elastic medium. An exact transparent boundary condition is introduced to reduce the scattering problem into a boundary value problem in a bounded domain. Given the incident field, the direct problem is to determine the displacement of the wave field from the known obstacle; the inverse problem is to determine the obstacle’s surface from the measurement of the displacement on an artificial boundary enclosing the obstacle. In this paper, we consider both the direct and inverse problems. The direct problem is shown to have a unique weak solution by examining its variational formulation. The domain derivative is derived for the displacement with respect to the variation of the surface. A continuation method with respect to the frequency is developed for the inverse problem. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Psycholinguistic Evidence for Inverse Scope in Korean.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunyoung; O'Grady, William

    2016-08-01

    We use experimental data to shed light on the ongoing question of whether Korean allows inverse scope interpretation in sentences containing an indefinite subject and a universally quantified direct object (e.g., 'Someone bought each loaf of bread at the bakery'). The results of an off-line acceptability judgment task (n = 38) and an online self-paced reading task (n [Formula: see text] 22) indicate that inverse scope interpretations are in fact permitted in Korean as a secondary option, as is also the case in English. We argue that the dispreference for the inverse scope reading reflects processing considerations related to burden on working memory.

  13. Inversion for seismic anisotropy using genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, S. Univ. of Edinburgh . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); MacBeth, C. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1994-11-01

    A general inversion scheme based on a genetic algorithm is developed to invert seismic observations for anisotropic parameters. The technique is applied to the inversion of shear-wave observations from two azimuthal VSP data sets from the Conoco test site in Oklahoma. Horizontal polarizations and time-delays are inverted for hexagonal and orthorhombic symmetries. The model solutions are consistent with previous studies using trial and error matching of full waveform synthetics. The shear-wave splitting observations suggest the presence of a shear-wave line singularity and are consistent with a dipping fracture system which is known to exist at the test site. Application of the inversion scheme prior to full waveform modeling demonstrates that a considerable saving in time is possible while retaining the same degree of accuracy.

  14. Joint inversion for mapping subsurface hydrologicalparameters

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha

    2001-03-07

    Using electromagnetic (EM) and seismic travel time data and a least-square criteria, a two-dimensional joint inversion algorithm is under development to assess the feasibility of directly mapping subsurface hydrological properties in a crosswell setup. A simplified Archie's law combined with the time average equation relates the magnetic fields and seismic travel time to two hydrological parameters; rock porosity and pore fluid electrical conductivity. For simplicity, the hydrological parameter distributions are assumed to be two-dimensional. Preliminary results show that joint inversion does have better resolving power for the interpretation than using the EM method alone. Various inversion scenarios have been tested, and it has been found that alternately perturbing just one of the two parameters at each iteration gives the best data fit.

  15. Reservoir parameter inversion based on weighted statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Jin-Yong; Gao, Jian-Hu; Yong, Xue-Shan; Li, Sheng-Jun; Liu, Bin-Yang; Zhao, Wan-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Variation of reservoir physical properties can cause changes in its elastic parameters. However, this is not a simple linear relation. Furthermore, the lack of observations, data overlap, noise interference, and idealized models increases the uncertainties of the inversion result. Thus, we propose an inversion method that is different from traditional statistical rock physics modeling. First, we use deterministic and stochastic rock physics models considering the uncertainties of elastic parameters obtained by prestack seismic inversion and introduce weighting coefficients to establish a weighted statistical relation between reservoir and elastic parameters. Second, based on the weighted statistical relation, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to generate the random joint distribution space of reservoir and elastic parameters that serves as a sample solution space of an objective function. Finally, we propose a fast solution criterion to maximize the posterior probability density and obtain reservoir parameters. The method has high efficiency and application potential.

  16. Tracer diffusion in silica inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Cherdhirankorn, Thipphaya; Retsch, Markus; Jonas, Ulrich; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Koynov, Kaloian

    2010-06-15

    We employed fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to study the diffusion of small fluorescence tracers in liquid filled silica inverse opals. The inverse opals consisted of a nanoporous silica scaffold spanning a hexagonal crystal of spherical voids of 360 nm diameter connected by circular pores of 70 nm diameter. The diffusion of Alexa Fluor 488 in water and of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) in toluene was studied. Three diffusion modes could be distinguished: (1) Free diffusion limited by the geometric constraints given by the inverse opal, where, as compared to the free solution, this diffusion is slowed down by a factor of 3-4, (2) slow diffusion inside the nanoporous matrix of the silica scaffold, and (3) diffusion limited by adsorption. On the length scale of the focus of a confocal microscope of roughly 400 nm diffusion was non-Fickian in all cases.

  17. Engineering Manpower: Supply and Demand Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Robert D.; Hartman, J. Paul

    This paper provides a review of pertinent statistical information related to supply and demand, a consideration of "forcing" factors in supply/demand analyses, a discussion of training versus task requirements as related to job performance, a presentation of a tentative "engineering occupations" model, and an emphasis on definition of the various…

  18. Information management - Assessing the demand for information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Information demand is defined in terms of both information content (what information) and form (when, how, and where it is needed). Providing the information richness required for flight crews to be informed without overwhelming their information processing capabilities will require a great deal of automated intelligence. It is seen that the essence of this intelligence is comprehending and capturing the demand for information.

  19. Career Technical Education and Labor Market Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Current data indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) graduates with high school diplomas or postsecondary skills are preparing for careers in fields that are growing or in high-demand. Matching employability skills with workforce demand has been an issue among industries across the nation. CTE provides relevant academic and technical…

  20. Faculty Supply and Demand in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Sharon; Arends, Richard I.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated current levels of faculty supply and demand at 752 American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education member institutions. Survey data indicate that demand is greater than supply, shortages are more critical in some program areas than others (e.g., early childhood and special education), the percentage of minority hires has…

  1. Today's Principalship: New Dimensions/ New Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Robert P.

    1974-01-01

    The fundamental responsibilities of the principalship are undergoing significant new demands in the '70s - demands challenging the principal to be a planner of futures, an allocator of resources, a stimulator of improvement, a coordinator of concerted effort, and an evaluator of process and product. (Editor)

  2. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  3. Demand for NGL as olefin plant feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, A.R.

    1997-12-31

    Olefin plant demand for natural gas liquids as feedstock constitutes a key market for the NGL industry. Feedstock flexibility and the price sensitive nature of petrochemical demand are described. Future trends are presented. The formation and objectives of the Petrochemical Feedstock Association of the Americas are discussed.

  4. Energy infrastructure: Mapping future electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janetos, Anthony C.

    2016-08-01

    Electricity distribution system planners rely on estimations of future energy demand to build adequate supply, but these are complicated to achieve. An approach that combines spatially resolved projections of population movement and climate change offers a method for building better demand maps to mid-century.

  5. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  6. [Demand for child and death anxiety].

    PubMed

    Boizard-Regnault, D

    2007-10-01

    The question stands between oncology and Assisted reproductive techniques (ART). This kind of demand strongly embarrasses the physicians of both specialities because it mixes the urgent care of a serious pathology with a personal demand requiring nonetheless medical aid, and with long-term psychological, social and ethical consequences.

  7. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  8. Recent Advancements in Quantitative Full-Wavefield Electromagnetic Induction and Ground Penetrating Radar Inversion for Shallow Subsurface Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Kruk, J.; Yang, X.; Klotzsche, A.; von Hebel, C.; Busch, S.; Mester, A.; Huisman, J. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ray-based or approximate forward modeling techniques have been often used to reduce the computational demands for inversion purposes. Due to increasing computational power and possible parallelization of inversion algorithms, accurate forward modeling can be included in advanced inversion approaches such that the full-wavefield content can be exploited. Here, recent developments of large-scale quantitative electromagnetic induction (EMI) inversion and full-waveform ground penetrating radar (GPR) inversions are discussed that yield higher resolution of quantitative medium properties compared to conventional approaches due to the use of accurate modeling tools that are based on Maxwell's equations. For a limited number of parameters, a combined global and local search using the simplex search algorithm or the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) can be used for inversion. Examples will be shown where calibrated large-scale multi-configuration EMI data measured with new generation multi-offset EMI systems are inverted for a layered electrical conductivity earth, and quantitative permittivity and conductivity values of a layered subsurface can be obtained using on-ground GPR full-waveform inversion that includes the estimation of the unknown source wavelet. For a large number of unknowns, gradient-based optimization methods are commonly used that need a good start model to prevent it from being trapped in a local minimum. Examples will be shown where the non-linearity invoked by the presence of high contrast media can be tamed by using a novel combined frequency-time-domain full-waveform inversion, and a low-velocity waveguide layer can be imaged by using crosshole GPR full-waveform inversion, after adapting the starting model using waveguide identification in the measured data. Synthetic data calculated using the inverted permittivity and conductivity models show similar amplitudes and phases as observed in the measured data, which indicates the reliability of the

  9. Acquired prosopagnosia abolishes the face inversion effect.

    PubMed

    Busigny, Thomas; Rossion, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Individual faces are notoriously difficult to recognize when they are presented upside-down. Since acquired prosopagnosia (AP) has been associated with an impairment of expert face processes, a reduced or abolished face inversion effect (FIE) is expected in AP. However, previous studies have incongruently reported apparent normal effects of inversion, a decreased or abolished FIE, but also a surprisingly better performance for inverted faces for some patients. While these discrepant observations may be due to the variability of high-level processes impaired, a careful look at the literature rather suggests that the pattern of FIE in prosopagnosia has been obscured by a selection of patients with associated low-level defects and general visual recognition impairments, as well as trade-offs between accuracy and correct RT measures. Here we conducted an extensive investigation of upright and inverted face processing in a well-characterized case of face-selective AP, PS (Rossion et al., 2003). In 4 individual face discrimination experiments, PS did not present any inversion effect at all, taking into account all dependent measures of performance. However, she showed a small inversion cost for individualizing members of a category of non-face objects (cars), just like normal observers. A fifth experiment with personally familiar faces to recognize confirmed the lack of inversion effect for PS. Following the present report and a survey of the literature, we conclude that the FIE is generally absent, or at least clearly reduced following AP. We also suggest that the paradoxical superior performance for inverted faces observed in rare cases may be due to additional upper visual field defects rather than to high-level competing visual processes. These observations are entirely compatible with the view that AP is associated with a disruption of a process that is also abolished following inversion: the holistic representation of individual exemplars of the face class.

  10. Acoustic Inversion in Optoacoustic Tomography: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Amir; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic tomography enables volumetric imaging with optical contrast in biological tissue at depths beyond the optical mean free path by the use of optical excitation and acoustic detection. The hybrid nature of optoacoustic tomography gives rise to two distinct inverse problems: The optical inverse problem, related to the propagation of the excitation light in tissue, and the acoustic inverse problem, which deals with the propagation and detection of the generated acoustic waves. Since the two inverse problems have different physical underpinnings and are governed by different types of equations, they are often treated independently as unrelated problems. From an imaging standpoint, the acoustic inverse problem relates to forming an image from the measured acoustic data, whereas the optical inverse problem relates to quantifying the formed image. This review focuses on the acoustic aspects of optoacoustic tomography, specifically acoustic reconstruction algorithms and imaging-system practicalities. As these two aspects are intimately linked, and no silver bullet exists in the path towards high-performance imaging, we adopt a holistic approach in our review and discuss the many links between the two aspects. Four classes of reconstruction algorithms are reviewed: time-domain (so called back-projection) formulae, frequency-domain formulae, time-reversal algorithms, and model-based algorithms. These algorithms are discussed in the context of the various acoustic detectors and detection surfaces which are commonly used in experimental studies. We further discuss the effects of non-ideal imaging scenarios on the quality of reconstruction and review methods that can mitigate these effects. Namely, we consider the cases of finite detector aperture, limited-view tomography, spatial under-sampling of the acoustic signals, and acoustic heterogeneities and losses. PMID:24772060

  11. Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, George E.

    1996-12-01

    By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error δz = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error δz is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

  12. Reducing Peak Demand by Time Zone Divisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, A.

    2014-09-01

    For a large country like India, the electrical power demand is also large and the infrastructure cost for power is the largest among all the core sectors of economy. India has an emerging economy which requires high rate of growth of infrastructure in the power generation, transmission and distribution. The current peak demand in the country is approximately 1,50,000 MW which shall have a planned growth of at least 50 % over the next five years (Seventeenth Electric Power Survey of India, Central Electricity Authority, Government of India, March 2007). By implementing the time zone divisions each comprising of an integral number of contiguous states based on their total peak demand and geographical location, the total peak demand of the nation can be significantly cut down by spreading the peak demand of various states over time. The projected reduction in capital expenditure over a plan period of 5 years is substantial. Also, the estimated reduction in operations expenditure cannot be ignored.

  13. Spin Polarization Inversion at Benzene-Absorbed Fe4N Surface

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Wang, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    We report a first-principle study on electronic structure and simulation of the spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy graphic of a benzene/Fe4N interface. Fe4N is a compound ferromagnet suitable for many spintronic applications. We found that, depending on the particular termination schemes and interface configurations, the spin polarization on the benzene surface shows a rich variety of properties ranging from cosine-type oscillation to polarization inversion. Spin-polarization inversion above benzene is resulting from the hybridizations between C pz and the out-of-plane d orbitals of Fe atom. PMID:26012892

  14. 'Wrong' bond interactions at inversion domain boundaries in GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrecht, W. R. L.; Amador, C.; Segall, B.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations of GaAs inversion-domain boundaries (IDBs) on different planes are reported. The resulting interface energies are analyzed in terms of the number of 'wrong' bonds (Ga-Ga and As-As) and their mutual compensation. The compensation energy varies roughly inversely proportionally to the distance between the wrong bonds. This favors local compensation in stoichiometric material. This automatically occurs for 110-plane planes or by chemical reconstruction for other planes. Ga-rich IDBs are predicted to have low energy in either Ga-rich or n-type material.

  15. Synergy of slow photon and chemically amplified photochemistry in platinum nanocluster-loaded inverse titania opals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer I L; Loso, Edward; Ebrahim, Naazia; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2008-04-23

    We show that the photodegradation efficiency of TiO2 has been amplified 4-fold via the cooperativity of slow photons in photonic crystal and the incorporation of Pt nanoclusters. Various loadings of Pt nanoparticles were photodeposited on the surface of TiO2 inverse opals and the photodegradation of adsorbed acid orange was investigated. While slow photons increased the effective path length of light, Pt nanoparticles extended the lifetimes of the UV-excited electrons and holes. With 2-4 wt % of Pt on the TiO2 inverse opal, we demonstrate a synergistic optical and chemical enhancement for the first time.

  16. Increasing demands for quality measurement.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Robert J; Gitomer, Richard S; Greene, William H; Webster, Patricia Reagan; Landry, Kevin R; Riccobono, Charles A

    2013-11-13

    Measurement of health care quality and patient safety is rapidly evolving, in response to long-term needs and more recent efforts to reform the US health system around "value." Development and choice of quality measures is now guided by a national quality strategy and priorities, with a public-private partnership, the National Quality Forum, helping determine the most worthwhile measures for evaluating and rewarding quality and safety of patient care. Yet there remain a number of challenges, including diverse purposes for quality measurement, limited availability of true clinical measures leading to frequent reliance on claims data with its flaws in determining quality, fragmentation of measurement systems with redundancy and conflicting conclusions, few high-quality comprehensive measurement systems and registries, and rapid expansion of required measures with hundreds of measures straining resources. The proliferation of quality measures at the clinician, hospital, and insurer level has created challenges and logistical problems. Recommendations include raising the bar for qualtiy measurements to achieve transformational rather than incremental change in the US quality measurement system, promoting a logical set of measures for the various levels of the health system, leaving room for internal organizational improvement, harmonizing the various national and local quality measurement systems, anchoring on National Quality Forum additions and subtractions of measures to be applied, reducing reliance on and retiring claims-based measures as quickly as possible, promoting comprehensive measurement such as through registries with deep understanding of patient risk factors and outcomes, reducing attention to proprietary report cards, prompt but careful transition to measures from electronic health records, and allocation of sufficient resources to accomplish the goals of an efficient, properly focused measurement system.

  17. Increasing demands for quality measurement.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Robert J; Gitomer, Richard S; Greene, William H; Webster, Patricia Reagan; Landry, Kevin R; Riccobono, Charles A

    2013-11-13

    Measurement of health care quality and patient safety is rapidly evolving, in response to long-term needs and more recent efforts to reform the US health system around "value." Development and choice of quality measures is now guided by a national quality strategy and priorities, with a public-private partnership, the National Quality Forum, helping determine the most worthwhile measures for evaluating and rewarding quality and safety of patient care. Yet there remain a number of challenges, including diverse purposes for quality measurement, limited availability of true clinical measures leading to frequent reliance on claims data with its flaws in determining quality, fragmentation of measurement systems with redundancy and conflicting conclusions, few high-quality comprehensive measurement systems and registries, and rapid expansion of required measures with hundreds of measures straining resources. The proliferation of quality measures at the clinician, hospital, and insurer level has created challenges and logistical problems. Recommendations include raising the bar for qualtiy measurements to achieve transformational rather than incremental change in the US quality measurement system, promoting a logical set of measures for the various levels of the health system, leaving room for internal organizational improvement, harmonizing the various national and local quality measurement systems, anchoring on National Quality Forum additions and subtractions of measures to be applied, reducing reliance on and retiring claims-based measures as quickly as possible, promoting comprehensive measurement such as through registries with deep understanding of patient risk factors and outcomes, reducing attention to proprietary report cards, prompt but careful transition to measures from electronic health records, and allocation of sufficient resources to accomplish the goals of an efficient, properly focused measurement system. PMID:24219953

  18. Vacancy-Induced Formation and Growth of Inversion Domains in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayer

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Junhao; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Zhou, Wu

    2015-04-23

    Sixty degree grain boundaries in semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers have been shown to act as conductive channels that have profound influence on both the transport properties and exciton behavior of the monolayers. We show that annealing TMDC monolayers at high temperature induces the formation of large-scale inversion domains surrounded by such 60° grain boundaries. To study the formation mechanism of such inversion domains, we use the electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope to activate the dynamic process within pristine TMDC monolayers. Moreover, the electron beam acts to generate chalcogen vacancies in TMDC monolayers and provide energy formore » them to undergo structural evolution. We directly visualize the nucleation and growth of such inversion domains and their 60° grain boundaries atom-by-atom within a MoSe2 monolayer and explore their formation mechanism. Combined with density functional theory, we conclude that the nucleation of the inversion domains and migration of their 60° grain boundaries are driven by the collective evolution of Se vacancies and subsequent displacement of Mo atoms, where such a dynamical process reduces the vacancy-induced lattice shrinkage and stabilizes the system. Our results can help to understand the performance of such materials under severe conditions (e.g., high temperature).« less

  19. Vacancy-Induced Formation and Growth of Inversion Domains in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Junhao; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Zhou, Wu

    2015-04-23

    Sixty degree grain boundaries in semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers have been shown to act as conductive channels that have profound influence on both the transport properties and exciton behavior of the monolayers. We show that annealing TMDC monolayers at high temperature induces the formation of large-scale inversion domains surrounded by such 60° grain boundaries. To study the formation mechanism of such inversion domains, we use the electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope to activate the dynamic process within pristine TMDC monolayers. Moreover, the electron beam acts to generate chalcogen vacancies in TMDC monolayers and provide energy for them to undergo structural evolution. We directly visualize the nucleation and growth of such inversion domains and their 60° grain boundaries atom-by-atom within a MoSe2 monolayer and explore their formation mechanism. Combined with density functional theory, we conclude that the nucleation of the inversion domains and migration of their 60° grain boundaries are driven by the collective evolution of Se vacancies and subsequent displacement of Mo atoms, where such a dynamical process reduces the vacancy-induced lattice shrinkage and stabilizes the system. Our results can help to understand the performance of such materials under severe conditions (e.g., high temperature).

  20. Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy. PMID:24941308

  1. Relative risk regression models with inverse polynomials.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yang; Woodward, Mark

    2013-08-30

    The proportional hazards model assumes that the log hazard ratio is a linear function of parameters. In the current paper, we model the log relative risk as an inverse polynomial, which is particularly suitable for modeling bounded and asymmetric functions. The parameters estimated by maximizing the partial likelihood are consistent and asymptotically normal. The advantages of the inverse polynomial model over the ordinary polynomial model and the fractional polynomial model for fitting various asymmetric log relative risk functions are shown by simulation. The utility of the method is further supported by analyzing two real data sets, addressing the specific question of the location of the minimum risk threshold.

  2. Aneesur Rahman Prize: The Inverse Ising Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swendsen, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Many methods are available for carrying out computer simulations of a model Hamiltonian to obtain thermodynamic information by generating a set of configurations. The inverse problem consists of recreating the parameters of the Hamiltonian, given a set of configurations. The problem arises in a variety of contexts, and there has been much interest recently in the inverse Ising problem, in which the configurations consist of Ising spins. I will discuss an efficient method for solving the problem and what it can tell us about the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.

  3. Direct and Inverse problems in Electrocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulakia, M.; Fernández, M. A.; Gerbeau, J. F.; Zemzemi, N.

    2008-09-01

    We present numerical results related to the direct and the inverse problems in electrocardiography. The electrical activity of the heart is described by the bidomain equations. The electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded in different points on the body surface are obtained by coupling the bidomain equation to a Laplace equation in the torso. The simulated ECGs are quite satisfactory. As regards the inverse problem, our goal is to estimate the parameters of the bidomain-torso model. Here we present some preliminary results of a parameter estimation for the torso model.

  4. 3D geophysical inversion for contact surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelièvre, Peter; Farquharson, Colin

    2014-05-01

    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. In contrast, standard minimum-structure volumetric inversions (performed on meshes of space-filling cells) recover smooth models inconsistent with such interpretations. There are several approaches through which geophysical inversion can help recover models with the desired characteristics. Some authors have developed iterative strategies in which several volumetric inversions are performed with regularization parameters changing to achieve sharper interfaces at automatically determined locations. Another approach is to redesign the regularization to be consistent with the desired model characteristics, e.g. L1-like norms or compactness measures. A few researchers have taken approaches that limit the recovered values to lie within particular ranges, resulting in sharp discontinuities; these include binary inversion, level set methods and clustering strategies. In most of the approaches mentioned above, the model parameterization considers the physical properties in each of the many space-filling cells within the volume of interest. The exception are level set methods, in which a higher dimensional function is parameterized and the contact surface is determined from the zero-level of that function. However, even level-set methods rely on an underlying volumetric mesh. We are researching a fundamentally different type of inversion that parameterizes the Earth in terms of the contact surfaces between rock units. 3D geological Earth models typically comprise wireframe surfaces of tessellated triangles or other polygonal planar facets. This wireframe representation allows for flexible and efficient generation of complicated geological structures. Therefore, a natural approach for representing a geophysical model in an inversion is to parameterize the wireframe contact surfaces as the coordinates of the nodes (facet vertices). The geological and

  5. Bayesian Inference in Satellite Gravity Inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, K. I.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wittmann, G.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Torony, B.; Mayer-Guerr, T.

    2005-01-01

    To solve a geophysical inverse problem means applying measurements to determine the parameters of the selected model. The inverse problem is formulated as the Bayesian inference. The Gaussian probability density functions are applied in the Bayes's equation. The CHAMP satellite gravity data are determined at the altitude of 400 kilometer altitude over the South part of the Pannonian basin. The model of interpretation is the right vertical cylinder. The parameters of the model are obtained from the minimum problem solved by the Simplex method.

  6. Aerosol physical properties from satellite horizon inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. R.; Malchow, H. L.; Merritt, D. C.; Var, R. E.; Whitney, C. K.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of determining the physical properties of aerosols globally in the altitude region of 10 to 100 km from a satellite horizon scanning experiment. The investigation utilizes a horizon inversion technique previously developed and extended. Aerosol physical properties such as number density, size distribution, and the real and imaginary components of the index of refraction are demonstrated to be invertible in the aerosol size ranges (0.01-0.1 microns), (0.1-1.0 microns), (1.0-10 microns). Extensions of previously developed radiative transfer models and recursive inversion algorithms are displayed.

  7. Molecular seismology: an inverse problem in nanobiology.

    PubMed

    Hinow, Peter; Boczko, Erik M

    2007-05-01

    The density profile of an elastic fiber like DNA will change in space and time as ligands associate with it. This observation affords a new direction in single molecule studies provided that density profiles can be measured in space and time. In fact, this is precisely the objective of seismology, where the mathematics of inverse problems have been employed with success. We argue that inverse problems in elastic media can be directly applied to biophysical problems of fiber-ligand association, and demonstrate that robust algorithms exist to perform density reconstruction in the condensed phase.

  8. Dispersion analysis with inverse dielectric function modelling.

    PubMed

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    We investigate how dispersion analysis can profit from the use of a Lorentz-type description of the inverse dielectric function. In particular at higher angles of incidence, reflectance spectra using p-polarized light are dominated by bands from modes that have their transition moments perpendicular to the surface. Accordingly, the spectra increasingly resemble inverse dielectric functions. A corresponding description can therefore eliminate the complex dependencies of the dispersion parameters, allow their determination and facilitate a more accurate description of the optical properties of single crystals.

  9. 3D Electromagnetic inversion using conjugate gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, G.A.; Alumbaugh, D.L.

    1997-06-01

    In large scale 3D EM inverse problems it may not be possible to directly invert a full least-squares system matrix involving model sensitivity elements. Thus iterative methods must be employed. For the inverse problem, we favor either a linear or non-linear (NL) CG scheme, depending on the application. In a NL CG scheme, the gradient of the objective function is required at each relaxation step along with a univariate line search needed to determine the optimum model update. Solution examples based on both approaches will be presented.

  10. Dispersion analysis with inverse dielectric function modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    We investigate how dispersion analysis can profit from the use of a Lorentz-type description of the inverse dielectric function. In particular at higher angles of incidence, reflectance spectra using p-polarized light are dominated by bands from modes that have their transition moments perpendicular to the surface. Accordingly, the spectra increasingly resemble inverse dielectric functions. A corresponding description can therefore eliminate the complex dependencies of the dispersion parameters, allow their determination and facilitate a more accurate description of the optical properties of single crystals.

  11. Inverse source problems for eddy current equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso Rodríguez, Ana; Camaño, Jessika; Valli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We study the inverse source problem for the eddy current approximation of Maxwell equations. As for the full system of Maxwell equations, we show that a volume current source cannot be uniquely identified by knowledge of the tangential components of the electromagnetic fields on the boundary, and we characterize the space of non-radiating sources. On the other hand, we prove that the inverse source problem has a unique solution if the source is supported on the boundary of a subdomain or if it is the sum of a finite number of dipoles. We address the applicability of this result for the localization of brain activity from electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography measurements.

  12. Inverse potential scattering in duct acoustics.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Barbara J; Pike, E Roy; Sharp, David B; Aktosun, Tuncay

    2006-01-01

    The inverse problem of the noninvasive measurement of the shape of an acoustical duct in which one-dimensional wave propagation can be assumed is examined within the theoretical framework of the governing Klein-Gordon equation. Previous deterministic methods developed over the last 40 years have all required direct measurement of the reflectance or input impedance but now, by application of the methods of inverse quantum scattering to the acoustical system, it is shown that the reflectance can be algorithmically derived from the radiated wave. The potential and area functions of the duct can subsequently be reconstructed. The results are discussed with particular reference to acoustic pulse reflectometry.

  13. The Inverse Problem in Jet Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooddruff, S. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The inverse problem for jet acoustics, or the determination of noise sources from far-field pressure information, is proposed as a tool for understanding the generation of noise by turbulence and for the improved prediction of jet noise. An idealized version of the problem is investigated first to establish the extent to which information about the noise sources may be determined from far-field pressure data and to determine how a well-posed inverse problem may be set up. Then a version of the industry-standard MGB code is used to predict a jet noise source spectrum from experimental noise data.

  14. Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy.

  15. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  16. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  17. Intersubband Auger recombination and population inversion in quantum-well subbands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borenstain, S.; Katz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The intersubband-Auger-recombination time of electrons under population-inversion conditions in a single quantum well is calculated by taking into account momentum- and energy-conservation rules, and by employing Fermi-Dirac statistics. The screened matrix element of the electron-electron interaction and the overlap integral are calculated for an infinitely deep quantum well. The results are in a good agreement with published experimental data. As a major nonradiative process, the Auger recombination is related to threshold current of infrared lasers based on intersubband transitions in quantum-well structures. The realization of these devices and other limitations to achieving population inversion are discussed. In view of the results, development of these lasers for emission wavelengths corresponding to energies below the LO-phonon energy seems feasible.

  18. Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Martin A.; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2013-12-01

    Bright AGN frequently show ultrafast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ˜ 0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one-temperature regime, 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component. The limits on the 2T emission are far weaker, and in fact it is possible that the observed soft X-ray excess of AGN is partially or fully due to the 2T shock emission. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encourage X-ray observers to look for the inverse Compton components calculated here in order to constrain AGN feedback models further.

  19. The inverse problems of wing panel manufacture processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikov, A. I.; Bormotin, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that inverse problems of steady-state creep bending of plates in both the geometrically linear and nonlinear formulations can be represented in a variational formulation. Steady-state values of the obtained functionals corresponding to the solutions of the problems of inelastic deformation and springback are determined by applying a finite element procedure to the functionals. Optimal laws of creep deformation are formulated using the criterion of minimizing damage in the functionals of the inverse problems. The formulated problems are reduced to the problems solved by the finite element method using MSC.Marc software. Currently, forming of light metals poses tremendous challenges due to their low ductility at room temperature and their unusual deformation characteristics at hot-cold work: strong asymmetry between tensile and compressive behavior, and a very pronounced anisotropy. We used the constitutive models of steady-state creep of initially transverse isotropy structural materials the kind of the stress state has influence. The paper gives basics of the developed computer-aided system of design, modeling, and electronic simulation targeting the processes of manufacture of wing integral panels. The modeling results can be used to calculate the die tooling, determine the panel processibility, and control panel rejection in the course of forming.

  20. The inverse problems of wing panel manufacture processes

    SciTech Connect

    Oleinikov, A. I.; Bormotin, K. S.

    2013-12-16

    It is shown that inverse problems of steady-state creep bending of plates in both the geometrically linear and nonlinear formulations can be represented in a variational formulation. Steady-state values of the obtained functionals corresponding to the solutions of the problems of inelastic deformation and springback are determined by applying a finite element procedure to the functionals. Optimal laws of creep deformation are formulated using the criterion of minimizing damage in the functionals of the inverse problems. The formulated problems are reduced to the problems solved by the finite element method using MSC.Marc software. Currently, forming of light metals poses tremendous challenges due to their low ductility at room temperature and their unusual deformation characteristics at hot-cold work: strong asymmetry between tensile and compressive behavior, and a very pronounced anisotropy. We used the constitutive models of steady-state creep of initially transverse isotropy structural materials the kind of the stress state has influence. The paper gives basics of the developed computer-aided system of design, modeling, and electronic simulation targeting the processes of manufacture of wing integral panels. The modeling results can be used to calculate the die tooling, determine the panel processibility, and control panel rejection in the course of forming.

  1. Simple method for the synthesis of inverse patchy colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oostrum, P. D. J.; Hejazifar, M.; Niedermayer, C.; Reimhult, E.

    2015-06-01

    Inverse patchy colloids (IPC's) have recently been introduced as a conceptually simple model to study the phase-behavior of heterogeneously charged units. This class of patchy particles is referred to as inverse to highlight that the patches repel each other in contrast to the attractive interactions of conventional patches. IPCs demonstrate a complex interplay between attractions and repulsions that depend on their patch size and charge, their relative orientations as well as on charge of the substrate below; the resulting wide array of different types of aggregates that can be formed motivates their fabrication and use as model system. We present a novel method that does not rely on clean-room facilities and that is easily scalable to modify the surface of colloidal particles to create two polar regions with the opposite charge with respect to that of the equatorial region. The patch size is characterized by electron microscopy and fluorescently labeled to facilitate using confocal microscopy to study their phase behavior. We show that the pH can be used to tune the charges of the IPCs thus offering a tool to steer the self assembly.

  2. Simple method for the synthesis of inverse patchy colloids.

    PubMed

    van Oostrum, P D J; Hejazifar, M; Niedermayer, C; Reimhult, E

    2015-06-17

    Inverse patchy colloids (IPC's) have recently been introduced as a conceptually simple model to study the phase-behavior of heterogeneously charged units. This class of patchy particles is referred to as inverse to highlight that the patches repel each other in contrast to the attractive interactions of conventional patches. IPCs demonstrate a complex interplay between attractions and repulsions that depend on their patch size and charge, their relative orientations as well as on charge of the substrate below; the resulting wide array of different types of aggregates that can be formed motivates their fabrication and use as model system. We present a novel method that does not rely on clean-room facilities and that is easily scalable to modify the surface of colloidal particles to create two polar regions with the opposite charge with respect to that of the equatorial region. The patch size is characterized by electron microscopy and fluorescently labeled to facilitate using confocal microscopy to study their phase behavior. We show that the pH can be used to tune the charges of the IPCs thus offering a tool to steer the self assembly.

  3. Dynamics of the inverse MAPLE nanoparticle deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthew A.; Fitz-Gerald, James M.

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is a processing technique by which laser-sensitive materials are dissolved or placed into colloidal solution with a strongly absorbing sacrificial solvent, which when frozen into a solid target and irradiated under vacuum disperses the undamaged solute material onto a desired substrate. We present an inversion of the original MAPLE process, where the irradiation of metal-based acetate precursors in solution with UV transparent water results in the deposition of inorganic nanoparticles. A theory is forwarded to explain the underlying multiscale sequence of events that control the inverse MAPLE process from acetate decomposition to nanoparticle formation and subsequent ejection. Support for this theory is provided through the analysis of deposited nanoparticles and by novel characterization of MAPLE targets post-irradiation via cryostage scanning electron microscopy. Ejection is shown to proceed through the same phase-explosion mechanism that drives conventional MAPLE, relating the two techniques and advancing the broader understanding of MAPLE deposition processes.

  4. Short-term municipal water demand forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougadis, John; Adamowski, Kaz; Diduch, Roman

    2005-01-01

    Water demand forecasts are needed for the design, operation and management of urban water supply systems. In this study, the relative performance of regression, time series analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) models are investigated for short-term peak water demand forecasting. The significance of climatic variables (rainfall and maximum air temperature, in addition to past water demand) on water demand management is also investigated.Numerical analysis was performed on data from the city of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The existing water supply infrastructure will not be able to meet the demand for projected population growth; thus, a study is needed to determine the effect of peak water demand management on the sizing and staging of facilities for developing an expansion strategy. Three different ANNs and regression models and seven time-series models have been developed and compared. The ANN models consistently outperformed the regression and time-series models developed in this study. It has been found that water demand on a weekly basis is more significantly correlated with the rainfall amount than the occurrence of rainfall. Copyright

  5. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim

    2007-01-01

    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  6. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe. PMID:27578317

  7. Multifrequency inversion in magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Sebastian; Hirsch, Sebastian; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2012-04-21

    Time-harmonic shear wave elastography is capable of measuring viscoelastic parameters in living tissue. However, finite tissue boundaries and waveguide effects give rise to wave interferences which are not accounted for by standard elasticity reconstruction methods. Furthermore, the viscoelasticity of tissue causes dispersion of the complex shear modulus, rendering the recovered moduli frequency dependent. Therefore, we here propose the use of multifrequency wave data from magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for solving the inverse problem of viscoelasticity reconstruction by an algebraic least-squares solution based on the springpot model. Advantages of the method are twofold: (i) amplitude nulls appearing in single-frequency standing wave patterns are mitigated and (ii) the dispersion of storage and loss modulus with drive frequency is taken into account by the inversion procedure, thereby avoiding subsequent model fitting. As a result, multifrequency inversion produces fewer artifacts in the viscoelastic parameter map than standard single-frequency parameter recovery and may thus support image-based viscoelasticity measurement. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by simulated wave data and MRE experiments on a phantom and in vivo human brain. Implemented as a clinical method, multifrequency inversion may improve the diagnostic value of time-harmonic MRE in a large variety of applications.

  8. Inversion Symmetry Breaking in Endohedral C_60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clougherty, Dennis; Anderson, Frederick

    1998-03-01

    A pseudo--Jahn--Teller model describing central atom distortions is proposed for endohedral fullerenes of the form A@C_60 where A is either a rare gas or a metal atom. A critical (dimensionless) coupling gc is found, at or below which the symmetric configuration is stable and above which inversion symmetry is broken. Vibronic parameters are given for selected endohedral fullerenes.

  9. [Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Face Inversion Effect].

    PubMed

    Sugase-Miyamoto, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Narihisa; Kawano, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    The ability to recognize faces is reduced with a picture-plane inversion of the faces, known as the face inversion effect. It has been reported that the configuration of facial features, for example, the distance between the eyes and mouth, becomes less perceptible when the face is inverted. In macaque monkeys, designated cortical areas, i.e., face patches, where face images are processed, have been found in the temporal visual cortex along the ventral visual pathway. Neurons in the anterior face patch (anterior part of the inferior temporal cortex) are known to encode view-invariant identity information. Thus, the anterior face patch is believed to be the final processing stage in the face patch system. A recent study showed that the face-inversion decreases the amount of the information about facial identity and facial expression conveyed by neurons, though it did not affect the information about the global category of the stimulus images (monkey versus human versus shape). The anterior face patch may, therefore, serve as the neural basis underlying the face inversion effect. PMID:26450075

  10. The role of nonlinearity in inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snieder, Roel

    1998-06-01

    In many practical inverse problems, one aims to retrieve a model that has infinitely many degrees of freedom from a finite amount of data. It follows from a simple variable count that this cannot be done in a unique way. Therefore, inversion entails more than estimating a model: any inversion is not complete without a description of the class of models that is consistent with the data; this is called the appraisal problem. Nonlinearity makes the appraisal problem particularly difficult. The first reason for this is that nonlinear error propagation is a difficult problem. The second reason is that for some nonlinear problems the model parameters affect the way in which the model is being interrogated by the data. Two examples are given of this, and it is shown how the nonlinearity may make the problem more ill-posed. Finally, three attempts are shown to carry out the model appraisal for nonlinear inverse problems that are based on an analytical approach, a numerical approach and a common sense approach.

  11. [Sex inversion and epigenetic regulation in Vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Trukhina, A V; Lukina, N A; Nekrasova, A A; Smirnov, A F

    2015-03-01

    This review discusses issues related to the regulation of sex determination and differentiation in various groups of Vertebrates. Special attention was paid to factors of external and internal control for various genetic systems of sex determination, as well as to the epigenetic control of this process. Opportunities for sex inversion in various animals were also discussed.

  12. Using GPU Programming for Inverse Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts; N. Fredette; H. Wimberly

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a detector that relies heavily on computationally expensive inverse spectroscopy algorithms to determine probabilistic three dimensional mappings of the source and its intensity. This inverse spectroscopy algorithm applies to material accountability due to the potential to determine where nuclear sources are present as a function of time and space. And yet because the novel algorithm can become prohibitively expensive on a standard desktop PC, the INL has incorporated new hardware from the commercial graphics community. General programming for graphics processing units (GPUs) is not a new concept. However, the application of GPUs to evidence theory-based inverse spectroscopy is both novel and particularly apropos. Improvements while using a (slightly upgraded) standard PC are approximately three orders of magnitude, making a ten hour computation in less than four seconds. This significantly changes the concept of prohibitively expensive calculations and makes application to materials accountability possible in near real time. Indeed, the sensor collection time is now expected to dominate the time required to determine the source and its intensity, instead of the inverse spectroscopy method.

  13. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping

    2011-01-01

    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…

  14. Identification of Selective ERRγ Inverse Agonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Im, Chun Young; Yoo, Eun Kyung; Ma, Min Jung; Kim, Sang-Bum; Hong, Eunmi; Chin, Jungwook; Hwang, Hayoung; Lee, Sungwoo; Kim, Nam Doo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Lee, In-Kyu; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Sung Jin

    2016-01-12

    GSK5182 (4) is currently one of the lead compounds for the development of estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) inverse agonists. Here, we report the design, synthesis, pharmacological and in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET) properties of a series of compounds related to 4. Starting from 4, a series of analogs were structurally modified and their ERRγ inverse agonist activity was measured. A key pharmacophore feature of this novel class of ligands is the introduction of a heterocyclic group for A-ring substitution in the core scaffold. Among the tested compounds, several of them are potent ERRγ inverse agonists as determined by binding and functional assays. The most promising compound, 15g, had excellent binding selectivity over related subtypes (IC50 = 0.44, >10, >10, and 10 μM at the ERRγ, ERRα, ERRβ, and ERα subtypes, respectively). Compound 15g also resulted in 95% transcriptional repression at a concentration of 10 μM, while still maintaining an acceptable in vitro ADMET profile. This novel class of ERRγ inverse agonists shows promise in the development of drugs targeting ERRγ-related diseases.

  15. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  16. Unstructured discontinuous Galerkin for seismic inversion.

    SciTech Connect

    van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Ober, Curtis Curry; Collis, Samuel Scott

    2010-04-01

    This abstract explores the potential advantages of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the time-domain inversion of media parameters within the earth's interior. In particular, DG methods enable local polynomial refinement to better capture localized geological features within an area of interest while also allowing the use of unstructured meshes that can accurately capture discontinuous material interfaces. This abstract describes our initial findings when using DG methods combined with Runge-Kutta time integration and adjoint-based optimization algorithms for full-waveform inversion. Our initial results suggest that DG methods allow great flexibility in matching the media characteristics (faults, ocean bottom and salt structures) while also providing higher fidelity representations in target regions. Time-domain inversion using discontinuous Galerkin on unstructured meshes and with local polynomial refinement is shown to better capture localized geological features and accurately capture discontinuous-material interfaces. These approaches provide the ability to surgically refine representations in order to improve predicted models for specific geological features. Our future work will entail automated extensions to directly incorporate local refinement and adaptive unstructured meshes within the inversion process.

  17. Sparse matrix orderings for factorized inverse preconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Benzi, M.; Tuama, M.

    1998-09-01

    The effect of reorderings on the performance of factorized sparse approximate inverse preconditioners is considered. It is shown that certain reorderings can be very beneficial both in the preconditioner construction phase and in terms of the rate of convergence of the preconditioned iteration.

  18. Inverse-Square Orbits: A Geometric Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainwater, James C.; Weinstock, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Presents a derivation of Kepler's first law of planetary motion from Newtonian principles. Analogus derivations of the hyperbolic and parabolic orbits of nonreturning comets and the hyperbolic orbit for a particle in a repulsive inverse-square field are also presented. (HM)

  19. Multifrequency inversion in magnetic resonance elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazoglou, Sebastian; Hirsch, Sebastian; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2012-04-01

    Time-harmonic shear wave elastography is capable of measuring viscoelastic parameters in living tissue. However, finite tissue boundaries and waveguide effects give rise to wave interferences which are not accounted for by standard elasticity reconstruction methods. Furthermore, the viscoelasticity of tissue causes dispersion of the complex shear modulus, rendering the recovered moduli frequency dependent. Therefore, we here propose the use of multifrequency wave data from magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for solving the inverse problem of viscoelasticity reconstruction by an algebraic least-squares solution based on the springpot model. Advantages of the method are twofold: (i) amplitude nulls appearing in single-frequency standing wave patterns are mitigated and (ii) the dispersion of storage and loss modulus with drive frequency is taken into account by the inversion procedure, thereby avoiding subsequent model fitting. As a result, multifrequency inversion produces fewer artifacts in the viscoelastic parameter map than standard single-frequency parameter recovery and may thus support image-based viscoelasticity measurement. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by simulated wave data and MRE experiments on a phantom and in vivo human brain. Implemented as a clinical method, multifrequency inversion may improve the diagnostic value of time-harmonic MRE in a large variety of applications.

  20. Real-Time Model-Based Inversion in Cross-Sectional Optoacoustic Tomography.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lu; Dean-Ben, Xose Luis; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Analytical (closed-form) inversion schemes have been the standard approach for image reconstruction in optoacoustic tomography due to their fast reconstruction abilities and low memory requirements. Yet, the need for quantitative imaging and artifact reduction has led to the development of more accurate inversion approaches, which rely on accurate forward modeling of the optoacoustic wave generation and propagation. In this way, multiple experimental factors can be incorporated, such as the exact detection geometry, spatio-temporal response of the transducers, and acoustic heterogeneities. The model-based inversion commonly results in very large sparse matrix formulations that require computationally extensive and memory demanding regularization schemes for image reconstruction, hindering their effective implementation in real-time imaging applications. Herein, we introduce a new discretization procedure for efficient model-based reconstructions in two-dimensional optoacoustic tomography that allows for parallel implementation on a graphics processing unit (GPU) with a relatively low numerical complexity. By on-the-fly calculation of the model matrix in each iteration of the inversion procedure, the new approach results in imaging frame rates exceeding 10 Hz, thus enabling real-time image rendering using the model-based approach.

  1. Inverse Calibration Free fs-LIBS of Copper-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaldone, Antonella; De Bonis, Angela; Galasso, Agostino; Guarnaccio, Ambra; Santagata, Antonio; Teghil, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    In this work the analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique of copper-based alloys having different composition and performed with fs laser pulses is presented. A Nd:Glass laser (Twinkle Light Conversion, λ = 527 nm at 250 fs) and a set of bronze and brass certified standards were used. The inverse Calibration-Free method (inverse CF-LIBS) was applied for estimating the temperature of the fs laser induced plasma in order to achieve quantitative elemental analysis of such materials. This approach strengthens the hypothesis that, through the assessment of the plasma temperature occurring in fs-LIBS, straightforward and reliable analytical data can be provided. With this aim the capability of the here adopted inverse CF-LIBS method, which is based on the fulfilment of the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition, for an indirect determination of the species excitation temperature, is shown. It is reported that the estimated temperatures occurring during the process provide a good figure of merit between the certified and the experimentally determined composition of the bronze and brass materials, here employed, although further correction procedure, like the use of calibration curves, can be demanded. The reported results demonstrate that the inverse CF-LIBS method can be applied when fs laser pulses are used even though the plasma properties could be affected by the matrix effects restricting its full employment to unknown samples provided that a certified standard having similar composition is available.

  2. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  3. Agricultural Irrigation Demand Response Estimation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    This program is used to model the energy demand of agricultural irrigation pumps, used to maintain soil moisture levels in irrigated fields. This modeling is accomplished using historical data from evapotranspirationmeasuring weather stations (from the California Irrigation Management Information System) as well as irrigation system characteristics for the field(s) to be modeled. The modelled energy demand is used to estimate the achievable demand response (DR) potential of the field(s), for use in assessing the value of the DR for the utility company. The program can accept input data with varying degrees of rigor, and estimate the uncertainty of the output accordingly.

  4. Ultrafast Population Inversion without the Strong Field Catch: The Parallel Transfer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin; Sola, Ignacio R

    2015-05-01

    Quantum systems with sublevel structures, like molecules, prevent full population inversion from one manifold of sublevels to the other using ultrafast resonant pulses. We explain the mechanism by which this population transfer is blocked. We then develop a novel concept of geometric control, assuming full or partial coherent manipulation within the manifolds, and show that by preparing specific coherent superpositions in the initial manifold, full population inversion or full population blockade, that is, laser transparency, can be achieved. By properly choosing the relative phases of the initial state, one can interfere in the stimulated emission process, changing the pattern of Rabi oscillations so that full population inversion to the excited electronic state can be achieved almost regardless of the pulse intensity after a minimal threshold value. This is the basis of a novel control mechanism, termed parallel transfer.

  5. X-band inverse class-F GaN internally-matched power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo-Chao; Lu, Yang; Han, Wen-Zhe; Zheng, Jia-Xin; Zhang, Heng-Shuang; Ma, Pei-jun; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hao, Yue

    2016-09-01

    An X-band inverse class-F power amplifier is realized by a 1-mm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). The intrinsic and parasitic components inside the transistor, especially output capacitor Cds, influence the harmonic impedance heavily at the X-band, so compensation design is used for meeting the harmonic condition of inverse class-F on the current source plane. Experiment results show that, in the continuous-wave mode, the power amplifier achieves 61.7% power added efficiency (PAE), which is 16.3% higher than the class-AB power amplifier realized by the same kind of HEMT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first inverse class-F GaN internally-matched power amplifier, and the PAE is quite high at the X-band. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA016801).

  6. Estimating uncertainties in complex joint inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Sources of uncertainty affecting geophysical inversions can be classified either as reflective (i.e. the practitioner is aware of her/his ignorance) or non-reflective (i.e. the practitioner does not know that she/he does not know!). Although we should be always conscious of the latter, the former are the ones that, in principle, can be estimated either empirically (by making measurements or collecting data) or subjectively (based on the experience of the researchers). For complex parameter estimation problems in geophysics, subjective estimation of uncertainty is the most common type. In this context, probabilistic (aka Bayesian) methods are commonly claimed to offer a natural and realistic platform from which to estimate model uncertainties. This is because in the Bayesian approach, errors (whatever their nature) can be naturally included as part of the global statistical model, the solution of which represents the actual solution to the inverse problem. However, although we agree that probabilistic inversion methods are the most powerful tool for uncertainty estimation, the common claim that they produce "realistic" or "representative" uncertainties is not always justified. Typically, ALL UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES ARE MODEL DEPENDENT, and therefore, besides a thorough characterization of experimental uncertainties, particular care must be paid to the uncertainty arising from model errors and input uncertainties. We recall here two quotes by G. Box and M. Gunzburger, respectively, of special significance for inversion practitioners and for this session: "…all models are wrong, but some are useful" and "computational results are believed by no one, except the person who wrote the code". In this presentation I will discuss and present examples of some problems associated with the estimation and quantification of uncertainties in complex multi-observable probabilistic inversions, and how to address them. Although the emphasis will be on sources of uncertainty related

  7. Inverse Problems in Classical and Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasy, Andrea A.

    2009-12-01

    The subject of this thesis is in the area of Applied Mathematics known as Inverse Problems. Inverse problems are those where a set of measured data is analysed in order to get as much information as possible on a model which is assumed to represent a system in the real world. We study two inverse problems in the fields of classical and quantum physics: QCD condensates from tau-decay data and the inverse conductivity problem. We use a functional method which allows us to extract within rather general assumptions phenomenological parameters of QCD (the condensates) from a comparison of the time-like experimental data with asymptotic space-like results from theory. The price to be paid for the generality of assumptions is relatively large errors in the values of the extracted parameters. Although we do not claim that our method is superior to other approaches, we hope that our results lend additional confidence to the numerical results obtained with the help of methods based on QCD sum rules. In this thesis, also two approaches of EIT image reconstruction are proposed. The first is based on reformulating the inverse problem in terms of integral equations. This method uses only a single set of measurements for the reconstruction. The second approach is an algorithm based on linearisation which uses more then one set of measurements. A promising result is that one can qualitatively reconstruct the conductivity inside the cross-section of a human chest. Even though the human volunteer is neither two-dimensional nor circular, such reconstructions can be useful in medical applications: monitoring for lung problems such as accumulating fluid or a collapsed lung and noninvasive monitoring of heart function and blood flow.

  8. Strain-driven band inversion and topological aspects in Antimonene

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingwen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Searching for the two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) with large bulk band gaps is the key to achieve room-temperature quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE). Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrated that the recently-proposed antimonene [Zhang et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 3112–3115 (2015)] can be tuned to a 2D TI by reducing the buckling height of the lattice which can be realized under tensile strain. The strain-driven band inversion in the vicinity of the Fermi level is responsible for the quantum phase transition. The buckled configuration of antimonene enables it to endure large tensile strain up to 18% and the resulted bulk band gap can be as large as 270 meV. The tunable bulk band gap makes antimonene a promising candidate material for achieving quantum spin Hall effect (QSH) at high temperatures which meets the requirement of future electronic devices with low power consumption. PMID:26537994

  9. Laser-induced topological transitions in phosphorene with inversion symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutreix, C.; Stepanov, E. A.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    Recent ab initio calculations and experiments reported insulating-semimetallic phase transitions in multilayer phosphorene under a perpendicular dc field, pressure, or doping, as a possible route to realize topological phases. In this work, we show that even a monolayer phosphorene may undergo Lifshitz transitions toward semimetallic and topological insulating phases, provided it is rapidly driven by in-plane time-periodic laser fields. Based on a four-orbital tight-binding description, we give an inversion-symmetry-based prescription in order to apprehend the topology of the photon-renormalized band structure, up to the second order in the high-frequency limit. Apart from the initial band insulating behavior, two additional phases are thus identified. A semimetallic phase with massless Dirac electrons may be induced by linear polarized fields, whereas elliptic polarized fields are likely to drive the material into an anomalous quantum Hall phase.

  10. Synthesis of core-shell composites using an inverse surfmer.

    PubMed

    Armando Zaragoza-Contreras, E; Stockton-Leal, Margarita; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia A; Hoshina, Yusuke; Guzmán-Lozano, Josué F; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2012-07-01

    Anilinium dodecylsulfate was prepared from aniline and sodium dodecylsulfate. The critical micellar concentration of the salt was determined using electrical conductimetry, which revealed that the change of countercation, sodium by anilinium, reduced the critical micellar concentration with respect to the conventional counterpart, sodium dodecylsulfate. The anilinium dodecylsulfate was used as the surfmer in the synthesis of polystyrene/polyaniline core-shell composites, first performing as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsion polymerization of styrene, and later as the monomer to synthesize polyaniline via oxidative polymerization. Here, the surfmer function was directed toward the external phase instead of to the internal phase, as with conventional surfmers with carbon-carbon double bonds. Consequently, the term inverse surfmer is proposed. Analyses of its composite microstructure using electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the core-shell arrangement.

  11. Rapid Evaluation of Particle Properties using Inverse SEM Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bekar, Kursat B.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the final deliverable of a 3 year project whose purpose was to investigate the possibility of using simulations of X-ray spectra generated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a means to perform quantitative analysis of the sample imaged in the SEM via an inverse analysis methodology. Using the nine point Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) typically used by the US Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this concept is now at a TRL of 3. In other words, this work has proven the feasibility of this concept and is ready to be further investigated to address some of the issues highlighted by this initial proof of concept.

  12. Strain-driven band inversion and topological aspects in Antimonene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingwen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Searching for the two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) with large bulk band gaps is the key to achieve room-temperature quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE). Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrated that the recently-proposed antimonene [Zhang et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 3112-3115 (2015)] can be tuned to a 2D TI by reducing the buckling height of the lattice which can be realized under tensile strain. The strain-driven band inversion in the vicinity of the Fermi level is responsible for the quantum phase transition. The buckled configuration of antimonene enables it to endure large tensile strain up to 18% and the resulted bulk band gap can be as large as 270 meV. The tunable bulk band gap makes antimonene a promising candidate material for achieving quantum spin Hall effect (QSH) at high temperatures which meets the requirement of future electronic devices with low power consumption.

  13. Inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate for dense plasmas in laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, R.; Roy, A. C.

    2013-07-01

    We report a theoretical analysis of inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate in the eikonal approximation. The present analysis is performed for a dense plasma using the screened electron-ion interaction potential for the ion charge state Zi = 1 and for both the weak and strong plasma screening cases. We have also compared the eikonal results with the first Born approximation (FBA) [M. Moll et al., New J. Phys. 14, 065010 (2012)] calculation. We find that the magnitudes of inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate within the eikonal approximation (EA) are larger than the FBA values in the weak screening case (κ = 0.03 a.u.) in a wide range of field strength for three different initial electron momenta (2, 3, and 4 a.u.). But for strong screening case (κ = 0.3 a.u.), the heating rates predicted by the two approximations do not differ much after reaching their maximum values. Furthermore, the individual contribution of photoemission and photoabsorption processes to heating rate is analysed for both the weak and strong screening cases. We find that the single photoemission and photoabsorption rates are the same throughout the field strength while the multiphoton absorption process dominates over the multiphoton emission process beyond the field strength ≈ 4×108 V/cm. The present study of the dependence of heating rate on the screening parameter ranging from 0.01 to 20 shows that whereas the heating rate predicted by the EA is greater than the FBA up to the screening parameter κ = 0.3 a.u., the two approximation methods yield results which are nearly identical beyond the above value.

  14. Inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate for dense plasmas in laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, R.; Roy, A. C.

    2013-07-15

    We report a theoretical analysis of inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate in the eikonal approximation. The present analysis is performed for a dense plasma using the screened electron-ion interaction potential for the ion charge state Z{sub i} = 1 and for both the weak and strong plasma screening cases. We have also compared the eikonal results with the first Born approximation (FBA) [M. Moll et al., New J. Phys. 14, 065010 (2012)] calculation. We find that the magnitudes of inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate within the eikonal approximation (EA) are larger than the FBA values in the weak screening case (κ = 0.03 a.u.) in a wide range of field strength for three different initial electron momenta (2, 3, and 4 a.u.). But for strong screening case (κ = 0.3 a.u.), the heating rates predicted by the two approximations do not differ much after reaching their maximum values. Furthermore, the individual contribution of photoemission and photoabsorption processes to heating rate is analysed for both the weak and strong screening cases. We find that the single photoemission and photoabsorption rates are the same throughout the field strength while the multiphoton absorption process dominates over the multiphoton emission process beyond the field strength ≈ 4×10{sup 8} V/cm. The present study of the dependence of heating rate on the screening parameter ranging from 0.01 to 20 shows that whereas the heating rate predicted by the EA is greater than the FBA up to the screening parameter κ = 0.3 a.u., the two approximation methods yield results which are nearly identical beyond the above value.

  15. Ionization and pulse lethargy effects in inverse Cherenkov accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Hubbard, R.F.,; Hafizi, B.,

    1997-05-01

    Ionization processes limit the accelerating gradient and place an upper limit on the pulse duration of the electromagnetic driver in the inverse Cherenkov accelerator (ICA). Group velocity slippage, i.e., pulse lethargy, on the other hand, imposes a lower limit on the pulse duration. These limits are obtained for two ICA configurations in which the electromagnetic driver (e.g., laser or millimeter wave source) is propagated in a waveguide that is (i) lined with a dielectric material or (ii) filled with a neutral gas. In either configuration the electromagnetic driving field is guided and has an axial electric field with phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum, c. The intensity of the driver in the ICA, and therefore the acceleration gradient, is limited by tunneling and collisional ionization effects. Partial ionization of the dielectric liner or gas can lead to significant modification of the dispersive properties of the waveguide, altering the phase velocity of the accelerating field and causing particle slippage, thus disrupting the acceleration process. An additional limitation on the pulse duration is imposed since the group velocity of the driving pulse is less than c and the pulse slips behind the accelerated electrons. Hence for sufficiently short pulses the electrons outrun the pulse, terminating the acceleration. Limitations on the driver pulse duration and accelerating gradient, due to ionization and pulse lethargy, are estimated for the two ICA configurations. Maximum accelerating gradients and pulse durations are presented for a 10 {mu}m, 1 mm, and 1 cm wavelength electromagnetic driver. The combination of ionization and pulse lethargy effects impose severe limitations on the maximum energy gain in inverse Cherenkov accelerators. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. A historical analysis of natural gas demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbec, Nathan Richard

    This thesis analyzes demand in the US energy market for natural gas, oil, and coal over the period of 1918-2013 and examines their price relationship over the period of 2007-2013. Diagnostic tests for time series were used; Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, Johansen cointegration, Granger Causality and weak exogeneity tests. Directed acyclic graphs were used as a complimentary test for endogeneity. Due to the varied results in determining endogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression model was used which assumes all right hand side variables in the three demand equations were exogenous. A number of factors were significant in determining demand for natural gas including its own price, lagged demand, a number of structural break dummies, and trend, while oil indicate some substitutability with natural gas. An error correction model was used to examine the price relationships. Natural gas price was found not to have a significant cointegrating vector.

  17. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand & Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.

    2006-05-18

    Presentation given at the 2006 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Merit Review in Washington, D.C., May 16-19, 2006, discusses potential future hydrogen demand and the infrastructure needed to support hydrogen vehicles.

  18. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-08-14

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  19. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2016-07-12

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  20. Feasibility study for mega-electron-volt electron beam tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, U.; Baertling, Y.; Hoppe, D.; Kuksanov, N.; Fadeev, S.; Salimov, R.

    2012-09-15

    Electron beam tomography is a promising imaging modality for the study of fast technical processes. But for many technical objects of interest x rays of several hundreds of keV energy are required to achieve sufficient material penetration. In this article we report on a feasibility study for fast electron beam computed tomography with a 1 MeV electron beam. The experimental setup comprises an electrostatic accelerator with beam optics, transmission target, and a single x-ray detector. We employed an inverse fan-beam tomography approach with radiographic projections being generated from the linearly moving x-ray source. Angular projections were obtained by rotating the object.