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Sample records for inverse incidente relativiste

  1. Inverse Compton Scattering in Mildly Relativistic Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Birkinshaw, M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of inverse Compton scattering in mildly relativistic static and moving plasmas with low optical depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and calculated the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the cosmic background radiation. Our semi-analytic method is based on a separation of photon diffusion in frequency and real space. We use Monte Carlo simulation to derive the intensity and frequency of the scattered photons for a monochromatic incoming radiation. The outgoing spectrum is determined by integrating over the spectrum of the incoming radiation using the intensity to determine the correct weight. This method makes it possible to study the emerging radiation as a function of frequency and direction. As a first application we have studied the effects of finite optical depth and gas infall on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (not possible with the extended Kompaneets equation) and discuss the parameter range in which the Boltzmann equation and its expansions can be used. For high temperature clusters (k(sub B)T(sub e) greater than or approximately equal to 15 keV) relativistic corrections based on a fifth order expansion of the extended Kompaneets equation seriously underestimate the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect at high frequencies. The contribution from plasma infall is less important for reasonable velocities. We give a convenient analytical expression for the dependence of the cross-over frequency on temperature, optical depth, and gas infall speed. Optical depth effects are often more important than relativistic corrections, and should be taken into account for high-precision work, but are smaller than the typical kinematic effect from cluster radial velocities.

  2. The relativistic inverse stellar structure problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, Lee

    2014-01-14

    The observable macroscopic properties of relativistic stars (whose equations of state are known) can be predicted by solving the stellar structure equations that follow from Einstein’s equation. For neutron stars, however, our knowledge of the equation of state is poor, so the direct stellar structure problem can not be solved without modeling the highest density part of the equation of state in some way. This talk will describe recent work on developing a model independent approach to determining the high-density neutron-star equation of state by solving an inverse stellar structure problem. This method uses the fact that Einstein’s equation provides a deterministic relationship between the equation of state and the macroscopic observables of the stars which are composed of that material. This talk illustrates how this method will be able to determine the high-density part of the neutron-star equation of state with few percent accuracy when high quality measurements of the masses and radii of just two or three neutron stars become available. This talk will also show that this method can be used with measurements of other macroscopic observables, like the masses and tidal deformabilities, which can (in principle) be measured by gravitational wave observations of binary neutron-star mergers.

  3. Design of a Paraxial Inverse Compton Scattering Diagnostic for an Intense Relativistic Electron Beam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    DESIGN OF A PARAXIAL INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING DIAGNOSTIC FOR AN INTENSE RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAM ∗ J.E. Colemanξ, J.A. Oertel, C.A. Ekdahl...supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under ξ email: jecoleman@lanl.gov Abstract An inverse Compton ...ray range by the relativistic electrons. The diverging, scattered photons are diffracted onto an X-ray framing camera by an X-ray crystal

  4. INVERSE CASCADE OF NONHELICAL MAGNETIC TURBULENCE IN A RELATIVISTIC FLUID

    SciTech Connect

    Zrake, Jonathan

    2014-10-20

    The free decay of nonhelical relativistic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is studied numerically, and found to exhibit cascading of magnetic energy toward large scales. Evolution of the magnetic energy spectrum P{sub M} (k, t) is self-similar in time and well modeled by a broken power law with subinertial and inertial range indices very close to 7/2 and –2, respectively. The magnetic coherence scale is found to grow in time as t {sup 2/5}, much too slow to account for optical polarization of gamma-ray burst afterglow emission if magnetic energy is to be supplied only at microphysical length scales. No bursty or explosive energy loss is observed in relativistic MHD turbulence having modest magnetization, which constrains magnetic reconnection models for rapid time variability of GRB prompt emission, blazars, and the Crab nebula.

  5. Inversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…

  6. Incidental vertebral lesions.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Walcott, Brian P

    2011-12-01

    Incidental vertebral lesions on imaging of the spine are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Contributing factors include the aging population, the increasing prevalence of back pain, and increased usage of MR imaging. Additionally, refinements in CT and MR imaging have increased the number of demonstrable lesions. The management of incidental findings varies among practitioners and commonly depends more on practice style than on data or guidelines. In this article we review incidental findings within the vertebral column and review management of these lesions, based on available Class III data.

  7. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  8. Crane. Incidental Classroom Instruction 20295

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Richard Jennings

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this course is to introduce safe hoisting and rigging practices to personnel who are attempting to become LANL incidental crane operators and to review and refresh safe hoisting and rigging practices with existing incidental crane operators.

  9. Incidental and non-incidental thyroid microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    KALISZEWSKI, KRZYSZTOF; WOJTCZAK, BEATA; STRUTYŃSKA-KARPIŃSKA, MARTA; ŁUKIEŃCZUK, TADEUSZ; FORKASIEWICZ, ZDZISŁAW; DOMOSŁAWSKI, PAWEŁ

    2016-01-01

    There is no clear therapeutic approach for thyroid microcarcinoma (TMC). This may be as a consequence of recent observations that have reported biologically different types of TMC, which should be treated differently. The objective of the present study was to compare incidental TMC (ITMC) and non-incidental TMC (NITMC) in order to assess the differences in the incidence, diagnostic results, clinicopathological characteristics and surgical treatment. The study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 3,218 patients consecutively admitted and surgically treated in a single institution due to thyroid pathology. A total of 246 (7.64%) patients presented with a thyroid malignancy, and 97 (39.43%) of these individuals were diagnosed with TMC; 37 (38.14%) patients exhibited ITMC and 60 (61.86%) exhibited NITMC. All 37 (100.00%) patients with ITMC exhibited a papillary type of cancer. In the NITMC group, 1 (1.67%) patient presented with follicular microcarcinoma, 1 (1.67%) individual with papillary- and follicular-type microcarcinoma, 1 (1.67%) individual with medullary microcarcinoma, and the remaining 57 (95.00%) patients presented with papillary microcarcinoma. The number of younger patients (<45 years old) was higher in the NITMC group, but this difference was not significant (P=0.205). In all patients with ITMC, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy did not reveal malignant processes. In the NITMC group, the number of larger tumors (>5 mm) was significantly higher compared with that in the ITMC group (P<0.001). ITMC was significantly associated with multinodular goiter (MNG) (P<0.001). Amongst the NITMC group, 18.33% of patients presented with cervical lymph node involvement (P<0.001). Overall, the incidence of TMC is high, and consists of ITMC and NITMC, although the prevalence of NITMC is higher than that of ITMC. The majority of ITMCs and NITMCs are composed of a papillary type of cancer. The majority of ITMCs have dimensions ≤5 mm in diameter and

  10. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-04-15

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  11. Solution uniquity of an inverse VLF problem: A case-study of the polar, ground-based, VLF radio signal disturbances caused by the ultra-energetic relativistic electron precipitations and of their southern boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remenets, G. F.; Astafiev, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Here we present the results of a case study of the rare, abnormal, qualitatively specific behavior of Aldra (northern Norway) and GBR (UK) VLF transmitter signals (10-16 kHz) received at Kola Peninsula. The abnormal amplitude and the phase disturbances of signals were used as a proxy for ultra-energetic relativistic (solar?) electron precipitation (URE, ∼100 MeV) into the middle polar atmosphere. The disturbances have been observed under quiet or moderately disturbed geomagnetic activity. Based on bearing results, it was established that the abnormal variations of the electric conductivity of ionized middle atmosphere (of a sporadic Ds layer under the regular ionosphere D layer) were characterized by the following: (i) the time function of height h(t) of an effective spherical waveguide between the Earth surface and the sporadic Ds layer shows a minimum value equal to ∼30 km and (ii) the reflection coefficient R(t) of radio wave with a grazing angle of incidence from a virtual boundary with height h(t) has a minimum value equal to ∼0.4. The southern boundaries of the ultra-energetic relativistic electron precipitations have been found as well. They turned out to be not southerly than 61 degree of magnetic latitude and similar to the ones obtained in our previous study of the events for other dates under the similar geophysical conditions although we do not know anything definite about the rigidity and density of the electron fluxes. A used calculation method of analysis is based on a necessary condition that a number n of input data should be greater than a number m of output parameter-functions. We have stated by numerical testing that a decrease of n from 6 to 4 generates a lack of uniqueness of an inverse VLF problem solution for m = 2. It is important for future VLF ground-based monitoring of the URE precipitation events.

  12. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C

    2016-01-01

    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy.

  13. Relativistic klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.

    1989-03-01

    Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Relativistic geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, J.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum metrology enables new applications in geodesy, including relativistic geodesy. The recent progress in optical atomic clocks and in long-distance frequency transfer by optical fiber together pave the way for using measurements of the gravitational frequency redshift for geodesy. The remote comparison of frequencies generated by calibrated clocks will allow for a purely relativistic determination of differences in gravitational potential and height between stations on Earth surface (chronometric leveling). The long-term perspective is to tie potential and height differences to atomic standards in order to overcome the weaknesses and inhomogeneity of height systems determined by classical spirit leveling. Complementarily, gravity measurements with atom interferometric setups, and satellite gravimetry with space borne laser interferometers allow for new sensitivities in the measurement of the Earth's gravity field.

  15. Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; Markovic, Dragoljub

    1997-06-01

    Preface; Prologue: Conference overview Bernard Carr; Part I. The Universe At Large and Very Large Redshifts: 2. The size and age of the Universe Gustav A. Tammann; 3. Active galaxies at large redshifts Malcolm S. Longair; 4. Observational cosmology with the cosmic microwave background George F. Smoot; 5. Future prospects in measuring the CMB power spectrum Philip M. Lubin; 6. Inflationary cosmology Michael S. Turner; 7. The signature of the Universe Bernard J. T. Jones; 8. Theory of large-scale structure Sergei F. Shandarin; 9. The origin of matter in the universe Lev A. Kofman; 10. New guises for cold-dark matter suspects Edward W. Kolb; Part II. Physics and Astrophysics Of Relativistic Compact Objects: 11. On the unification of gravitational and inertial forces Donald Lynden-Bell; 12. Internal structure of astrophysical black holes Werner Israel; 13. Black hole entropy: external facade and internal reality Valery Frolov; 14. Accretion disks around black holes Marek A. Abramowicz; 15. Black hole X-ray transients J. Craig Wheeler; 16. X-rays and gamma rays from active galactic nuclei Roland Svensson; 17. Gamma-ray bursts: a challenge to relativistic astrophysics Martin Rees; 18. Probing black holes and other exotic objects with gravitational waves Kip Thorne; Epilogue: the past and future of relativistic astrophysics Igor D. Novikov; I. D. Novikov's scientific papers and books.

  16. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenitani, S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to study energetic plasma phenomena by using particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations, we need to deal with relativistic velocity distributions in these simulations. However, numerical algorithms to deal with relativistic distributions are not well known. In this contribution, we overview basic algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in PIC and Monte-Carlo simulations. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are newly proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are 􏰅50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  17. Incidental discovery of acoustic neuromas.

    PubMed

    Selesnick, S H; Deora, M; Drotman, M B; Heier, L A

    1999-06-01

    Our objective is to report 4 cases of incidentally discovered acoustic neuromas (ANs) and to determine the incidence of asymptomatic ANs. A prospective study of 161 consecutive patients undergoing gadolinium-enhanced MRI (Gd-MRI) at a tertiary-care university-affiliated medical center was carried out from September 1994 to April 1995. The Gd-MRI scans were performed for tentative diagnoses other than AN or sensorineural hearing loss. In 161 consecutive patients examined, no ANs were found incidentally on Gd-MRI scans. Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of occult ANs is as high as 1%. On the basis of our results, we suggest that the actual incidence may be lower. However, our study is limited by its small size and the low incidence of ANs in the general population. Also reported are the clinical and MRI characteristics of 4 patients with incidentally diagnosed ANs.

  18. Relativistic causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Giovanni; Owen Weatherall, James

    2014-11-01

    Relativity theory is often taken to include, or to imply, a prohibition on superluminal propagation of causal processes. Yet, what exactly the prohibition on superluminal propagation amounts to and how one should deal with its possible violation have remained open philosophical problems, both in the context of the metaphysics of causation and the foundations of physics. In particular, recent work in philosophy of physics has focused on the causal structure of spacetime in relativity theory and on how this causal structure manifests itself in our most fundamental theories of matter. These topics were the subject of a workshop on "Relativistic Causality in Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity" that we organized (along with John Earman) at the Center for Philosophy of Science in Pittsburgh on April 5-7, 2013. The present Special Issue comprises contributions by speakers in that workshop as well as several other experts exploring different aspects of relativistic causality. We are grateful to the journal for hosting this Special Issue, to the journal's managing editor, Femke Kuiling, for her help and support in putting the issue together, and to the authors and the referees for their excellent work.

  19. Incidental carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Pezzolla, Angela; Marzaioli, Rinaldo; Lattarulo, Serafina; Docimo, Giovanni; Conzo, Giovanni; Ciampolillo, Anna; Barile, Graziana; Anelli, Ferdinando Massimiliano; Madaro, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of incidental thyroid carcinoma in patients submitted to thyroidectomy for a benign disease is quite frequent. A retrospective analysis was performed on 455 patients submitted to surgical intervention in order to establish the incidence of this kind of carcinoma. Two hundred fifty-six patients (56%) were affected by benign disease (176 multinodular goiter, 12 uninodular goiter, 1 Plummer disease and 67 Basedow disease) and 202 (44%) by carcinoma. In 28 of 256 patients (11%), affected by benign disease, occurred a histological diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma, (10 papillary carcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, 29 papillary carcinoma follicular variant). In this study it's considered incidental thyroid carcinoma the one occurred in patients who never underwent Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) and there were no suspicious features in all exams that may suggest the presence of carcinoma. Twenty-three of the 40 incidental carcinoma (57.5%) were microcarcinomas. Ten patients had a sincronous carcinoma. Actually, these patients are still in a follow up program and no recurrency of disease is occasionally observed. This study shows that the only way to put doubts on the real benignity of the disease is the fine needle aspiration; there are no other instruments that could identify the occurrence of the carcinoma. Moreover in the majority of cases the incidental carcinoma is a microcarcinoma, it doesn't reach significant volume, may be not centered by a FNA, but in most cases it's not really biologically aggressive.

  20. Processes in relativistic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of a Boltzmann distribution in particle kinetic energies is investigated for a plasma with theta = KTe/mc-squared much greater than unity, where m is the electron mass. It is shown that thermalization of the electron gas by binary collisions is not sufficiently effective to maintain the equilibrium distribution when other processes that perturb the equilibrium are taken into account. Electron-positron pair production in electron-electron and electron-ion collisions, and perturbations of a Boltzmann distribution by nonthermal processes are evaluated. Thermalization by means of other mechanisms, such as interaction with plasma waves is discussed, and the opacity of a relativistic plasma is computed for Compton scattering, pair production in the fields of electrons and ions, inverse bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron self-absorption.

  1. Time parameters and Lorentz transformations of relativistic stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter; Weber, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rules for the transformation of time parameters in relativistic Langevin equations are derived and discussed. In particular, it is shown that, if a coordinate-time-parametrized process approaches the relativistic Jüttner-Maxwell distribution, the associated proper-time-parametrized process converges to a modified momentum distribution, differing by a factor proportional to the inverse energy.

  2. The relativistic blackbody spectrum in inertial and non-inertial reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeffrey S.; Cleaver, Gerald B.

    2017-04-01

    By invoking inverse temperature as a van Kampen-Israel future-directed timelike 4-vector, this paper derives the Relativistic Blackbody Spectrum, the Relativistic Wien's Displacement Law, and the Relativistic Stefan-Boltzmann Law in inertial and non-inertial reference frames.

  3. Factors influencing incidental representation of previously unknown conservation features in marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Tom C L; Grech, Alana M; Pressey, Robert L

    2016-02-01

    Spatially explicit information on species distributions for conservation planning is invariably incomplete; therefore, the use of surrogates is required to represent broad-scale patterns of biodiversity. Despite significant interest in the effectiveness of surrogates for predicting spatial distributions of biodiversity, few researchers have explored questions involving the ability of surrogates to incidentally represent unknown features of conservation interest. We used the Great Barrier Reef marine reserve network to examine factors affecting incidental representation of conservation features that were unknown at the time the reserve network was established. We used spatially explicit information on the distribution of 39 seabed habitats and biological assemblages and the conservation planning software Marxan to examine how incidental representation was affected by the spatial characteristics of the features; the conservation objectives (the minimum proportion of each feature included in no-take areas); the spatial configuration of no-take areas; and the opportunity cost of conservation. Cost was closely and inversely correlated to incidental representation. However, incidental representation was achieved, even in a region with only coarse-scale environmental data, by adopting a precautionary approach that explicitly considered the potential for unknown features. Our results indicate that incidental representation is enhanced by partitioning selection units along biophysical gradients to account for unknown within-feature variability and ensuring that no-take areas are well distributed throughout the region; by setting high conservation objectives that (in this case >33%) maximize the chances of capturing unknown features incidentally; and by carefully considering the designation of cost to planning units when using decision-support tools for reserve design. The lessons learned from incidental representation in the Great Barrier Reef have implications for

  4. Incidental findings: a common law approach.

    PubMed

    Tovino, Stacey A

    2008-01-01

    Federal regulations governing human subjects research do not address key questions raised by incidental neuroimaging findings, including the scope of a researcher's disclosure with respect to the possibility of incidental findings and the question whether a researcher has an affirmative legal cuty to seek, detect, and report incidental findings. The scope of researcher duties may, however, be mapped with reference to common law doctrine, including fiduciary, tort, contract, and bailment theories of liability.

  5. 78 FR 18965 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea... harassment, incidental to conducting offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in... small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting offshore exploration...

  6. 76 FR 13130 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Polar Bear Captures AGENCY: National Marine..., incidental to a capture-recapture program of polar bears in the U.S. Chukchi Sea. DATES: Effective March 14... taking, by harassment, of marine mammals incidental to a capture-recapture program of polar bears in...

  7. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  8. Incidental context information increases recollection

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Liam J.; Eacott, Madeline J.; Easton, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The current study describes a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) task for human participants based on the spontaneous recognition memory paradigms typically used with rodents. Recollection was significantly higher when an object was in the same location and background as at encoding, a combination used to assess episodic-like memory in animals, but not when only one of these task-irrelevant cues was present. The results show that incidentally encoded cue information can determine the degree of recollection, and opens up the possibility of assessing recollection across species in a single experimental paradigm, allowing better understanding of the cognitive and biological mechanisms at play. PMID:28202718

  9. Incidental context information increases recollection.

    PubMed

    Ameen-Ali, Kamar E; Norman, Liam J; Eacott, Madeline J; Easton, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    The current study describes a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) task for human participants based on the spontaneous recognition memory paradigms typically used with rodents. Recollection was significantly higher when an object was in the same location and background as at encoding, a combination used to assess episodic-like memory in animals, but not when only one of these task-irrelevant cues was present. The results show that incidentally encoded cue information can determine the degree of recollection, and opens up the possibility of assessing recollection across species in a single experimental paradigm, allowing better understanding of the cognitive and biological mechanisms at play.

  10. Incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kısaoğlu, Abdullah; Özoğul, Bünyami; Atamanalp, Sabri Selçuk; Pirimoğlu, Berhan; Aydınlı, Bülent; Korkut, Ercan

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pancreatic hydatid cysts are a rare parasitic disease even in endemic areas. It is difficult to discriminate primary pancreatic hydatid cysts from other cystic and solid lesions of the pancreas. This is a case report of an incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst. A heterogeneous cystic lesion in the body of the pancreas was identified on magnetic resonance imaging of a patient previously diagnosed patient with cholelithiasis, and because of the malignant possibility of the lesion, splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported as a hydatid cyst. Pancreatic hydatid cysts should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic malignancies.

  11. 12 CFR 975.4 - Incidental powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incidental powers. 975.4 Section 975.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD MISCELLANEOUS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK OPERATIONS AND AUTHORITIES COLLECTION, SETTLEMENT, AND PROCESSING OF PAYMENT INSTRUMENTS § 975.4 Incidental powers....

  12. 12 CFR 975.4 - Incidental powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Incidental powers. 975.4 Section 975.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD MISCELLANEOUS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK OPERATIONS AND AUTHORITIES COLLECTION, SETTLEMENT, AND PROCESSING OF PAYMENT INSTRUMENTS § 975.4 Incidental powers....

  13. 12 CFR 975.4 - Incidental powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incidental powers. 975.4 Section 975.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD MISCELLANEOUS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK OPERATIONS AND AUTHORITIES COLLECTION, SETTLEMENT, AND PROCESSING OF PAYMENT INSTRUMENTS § 975.4 Incidental powers....

  14. 12 CFR 975.4 - Incidental powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Incidental powers. 975.4 Section 975.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD MISCELLANEOUS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK OPERATIONS AND AUTHORITIES COLLECTION, SETTLEMENT, AND PROCESSING OF PAYMENT INSTRUMENTS § 975.4 Incidental powers....

  15. 12 CFR 1271.4 - Incidental powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incidental powers. 1271.4 Section 1271.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MISCELLANEOUS FEDERAL HOME LOAN... Incidental powers. In connection with the collection, processing, and settlement of items and...

  16. Incidental fleurodeoxyglucose uptake in the prostate.

    PubMed

    Wong, W L; Moule, R N; Nunan, T

    2010-11-01

    This commentary confirms the rarity of prostatic cancer associated with incidental prostatic fleurodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. The study adds to the literature by showing that even if a prostate lesion is FDG avid it is unlikely to be due to cancer. The commentary considers the management of incidental prostate FDG uptake on the basis of the available evidence.

  17. Incidental fleurodeoxyglucose uptake in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Wong, W L; Moule, R N; Nunan, T

    2010-01-01

    This commentary confirms the rarity of prostatic cancer associated with incidental prostatic fleurodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. The study adds to the literature by showing that even if a prostate lesion is FDG avid it is unlikely to be due to cancer. The commentary considers the management of incidental prostate FDG uptake on the basis of the available evidence. PMID:20965899

  18. 47 CFR 15.13 - Incidental radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incidental radiators. 15.13 Section 15.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.13 Incidental radiators. Manufacturers of these devices shall employ good engineering practices to minimize the risk...

  19. 47 CFR 15.13 - Incidental radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidental radiators. 15.13 Section 15.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.13 Incidental radiators. Manufacturers of these devices shall employ good engineering practices to minimize the risk...

  20. 47 CFR 15.13 - Incidental radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incidental radiators. 15.13 Section 15.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.13 Incidental radiators. Manufacturers of these devices shall employ good engineering practices to minimize the risk...

  1. 47 CFR 15.13 - Incidental radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incidental radiators. 15.13 Section 15.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.13 Incidental radiators. Manufacturers of these devices shall employ good engineering practices to minimize the risk...

  2. 47 CFR 15.13 - Incidental radiators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incidental radiators. 15.13 Section 15.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.13 Incidental radiators. Manufacturers of these devices shall employ good engineering practices to minimize the risk...

  3. Incidental Learning and Recall in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert A.; And Others

    Incidental learning research with mentally retarded children has produced findings inconsistent with those reported for the intellectually normal population. This study was designed to further investigate the efficacy of incidental semantic classification instructions relative to taxonomic classification instructions or superficial color…

  4. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

  5. Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows is numerically examined under the fully special relativistic treatment. We first derive relativistic formal solutions for the relativistic radiative transfer equation in relativistic spherical flows. We then iteratively solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation, using an impact parameter method/tangent ray method, and obtain specific intensities in the inertial and comoving frames, as well as moment quantities, and the Eddington factor. We consider several cases; a scattering wind with a luminous central core, an isothermal wind without a core, a scattering accretion on to a luminous core, and an adiabatic accretion on to a dark core. In the typical wind case with a luminous core, the emergent intensity is enhanced at the center due to the Doppler boost, while it reduces at the outskirts due to the transverse Doppler effect. In contrast to the plane-parallel case, the behavior of the Eddington factor is rather complicated in each case, since the Eddington factor depends on the optical depth, the flow velocity, and other parameters.

  6. [Incidental appendectomy: standard or unjustified risk?].

    PubMed

    Kaderli, Reto

    2014-12-01

    Incidental appendectomy is the surgical removal of a macroscopically non-diseased appendix during another primary surgical procedure. The benefits and risks of this surgery give rise to controversy. Incidental appendectomy is contraindicated in patients whose conditions are unstable, with previous diagnosis of Crohn's disease, inaccessible appendix, planned radiation treatment, immunosuppression, vascular grafts or other intraabdominal foreign material. It should be conditional on primary disease, surgical technique (open vs. laparoscopic) and age of the patient. Independently from the surgical technique used, incidental appendectomy should be evaluated in healthy patients younger than 25 years old. In any case, preoperative informed consent is necessary.

  7. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  8. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gobbin, M.

    2014-10-01

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  9. Trans-Relativistic Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter A.; Subramanian, P.

    2014-01-01

    Trans-relativistic particle acceleration due to Fermi interactions between charged particles and MHD waves helps to power the observed high-energy emission in AGN transients and solar flares. The trans-relativistic acceleration process is challenging to treat analytically due to the complicated momentum dependence of the momentum diffusion coefficient. For this reason, most existing analytical treatments of particle acceleration assume that the injected seed particles are already relativistic, and therefore they are not suited to study trans-relativistic acceleration. The lack of an analytical model has forced workers to rely on numerical simulations to obtain particle spectra describing the trans-relativistic case. In this work we present the first analytical solution to the global, trans-relativistic problem describing the acceleration of seed particles due to hard-sphere collisions with MHD waves. The new results include the exact solution for the steady-state Green's function resulting from the continual injection of monoenergetic seed particles with an arbitrary energy. We also introduce an approximate treatment of the trans-relativistic acceleration process based on a hybrid form for the momentum diffusion coefficient, given by the sum of the two asymptotic forms. We refer to this process as "quasi hard-sphere scattering." The main advantage of the hybrid approximation is that it allows the extension of the physical model to include (i) the effects of synchrotron and inverse-Compton losses and (ii) time dependence. The new analytical results can be used to model the trans-relativistic acceleration of particles in AGN and solar environments, and can also be used to compute the spectra of the associated synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission. Applications of both types are discussed. We highlight (i) relativistic ion acceleration in black hole accretion coronae, and (ii) the production of gyrosynchrotron microwave emission due to relativistic electron

  10. Incidental finding of esophageal pneumatosis

    PubMed Central

    Chelimilla, Haritha; Makker, Jasbir S; Dev, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatosis of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare condition characterized by the presence of air filled cavities in the gastrointestinal tract wall. Its occurrence has been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the rectum, however it is most commonly reported in the small intestine. Despite multiple case reports in literature, its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Pneumatosis may be idiopathic or associated with a variety of disorders namely peptic ulcer disease, jejunoileal bypass, intestinal obstruction and non-gastrointestinal disorders like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, infectious enteritis, etc. We here present a rare case of pneumatosis of the esophagus diagnosed incidentally at an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman underwent EGD and colonoscopy at our hospital for evaluation of anemia. Few months prior to EGD, she had undergone excision of laryngocele at our hospital. EGD revealed extensive submucosal blebs distributed throughout the esophagus, otherwise unremarkable stomach and duodenum. Colonoscopy showed a tubular adenomatous polyp. Since our patient was asymptomatic she did not require any surgical intervention. Management of pneumatosis depends on the underlying cause. PMID:23422740

  11. Incidental finding of esophageal pneumatosis.

    PubMed

    Chelimilla, Haritha; Makker, Jasbir S; Dev, Anil

    2013-02-16

    Pneumatosis of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare condition characterized by the presence of air filled cavities in the gastrointestinal tract wall. Its occurrence has been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the rectum, however it is most commonly reported in the small intestine. Despite multiple case reports in literature, its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Pneumatosis may be idiopathic or associated with a variety of disorders namely peptic ulcer disease, jejunoileal bypass, intestinal obstruction and non-gastrointestinal disorders like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, infectious enteritis, etc. We here present a rare case of pneumatosis of the esophagus diagnosed incidentally at an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman underwent EGD and colonoscopy at our hospital for evaluation of anemia. Few months prior to EGD, she had undergone excision of laryngocele at our hospital. EGD revealed extensive submucosal blebs distributed throughout the esophagus, otherwise unremarkable stomach and duodenum. Colonoscopy showed a tubular adenomatous polyp. Since our patient was asymptomatic she did not require any surgical intervention. Management of pneumatosis depends on the underlying cause.

  12. Level 1: Incidental crane operator`s and incidental rigger`s manual. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, P.

    1992-11-01

    This document is a safety manual for incidental crane operators and incidental riggers. The information contained in this manual includes: Terminology and definitions, safety orientation, general operating procedures, high-consequence/high value lifts, sling safety, basic rules of hitching and rigging, and common errors in hitching.

  13. 78 FR 37209 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC564 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea,...

  14. 75 FR 49709 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 8 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine survey program, which includes site clearance and shallow hazards, ice gouge, and strudel scour surveys,......

  15. 75 FR 49759 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Statoil USA E&P Inc. (Statoil) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 12 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine seismic survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2010 Arctic open water...

  16. 76 FR 4093 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Exploration Drilling Programs in the Chukchi and.... (Shell) incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the... IHAs were not issued, and Shell did not conduct the proposed exploration drilling programs in...

  17. 76 FR 330 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Polar Bear Captures AGENCY: National Marine...) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to a capture- recapture program of polar bears in...-recapture program of polar bears in the U.S. Chukchi Sea. NMFS reviewed the USFWS' application...

  18. 76 FR 68974 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  19. 78 FR 12541 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...NMFS received an application from ConocoPhillips Company (COP) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to COP to take, by......

  20. 77 FR 40007 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BP) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 10 species of marine mammals incidental to ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic surveys in the Simpson Lagoon area of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, during the......

  1. 76 FR 46729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Statoil USA E&P Inc. (Statoil) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 13 species of marine mammals incidental to shallow hazards and geotechnical surveys in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2011 Arctic open-water...

  2. 77 FR 65059 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to ION Geophysical (ION) to take, by harassment, small numbers of nine species of marine mammals incidental to in-ice marine seismic surveys in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, Alaska, during the fall and winter of...

  3. 77 FR 27321 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Gulf of Mexico Inc. (Shell) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea,...

  4. 77 FR 27283 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea,...

  5. Non-relativistic leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Wörmann, Mirco E-mail: mwoermann@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2014-02-01

    In many phenomenologically interesting models of thermal leptogenesis the heavy neutrinos are non-relativistic when they decay and produce the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We propose a non-relativistic approximation for the corresponding rate equations in the non-resonant case, and a systematic way for computing relativistic corrections. We determine the leading order coefficients in these equations, and the first relativistic corrections. The non-relativistic approximation works remarkably well. It appears to be consistent with results obtained using a Boltzmann equation taking into account the momentum distribution of the heavy neutrinos, while being much simpler. We also compute radiative corrections to some of the coefficients in the rate equations. Their effect is of order 1% in the regime favored by neutrino oscillation data. We obtain the correct leading order lepton number washout rate in this regime, which leads to large ( ∼ 20%) effects compared to previous computations.

  6. Relativistic Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Over the past one hundred years, Brownian motion theory has contributed substantially to our understanding of various microscopic phenomena. Originally proposed as a phenomenological paradigm for atomistic matter interactions, the theory has since evolved into a broad and vivid research area, with an ever increasing number of applications in biology, chemistry, finance, and physics. The mathematical description of stochastic processes has led to new approaches in other fields, culminating in the path integral formulation of modern quantum theory. Stimulated by experimental progress in high energy physics and astrophysics, the unification of relativistic and stochastic concepts has re-attracted considerable interest during the past decade. Focusing on the framework of special relativity, we review, here, recent progress in the phenomenological description of relativistic diffusion processes. After a brief historical overview, we will summarize basic concepts from the Langevin theory of nonrelativistic Brownian motions and discuss relevant aspects of relativistic equilibrium thermostatistics. The introductory parts are followed by a detailed discussion of relativistic Langevin equations in phase space. We address the choice of time parameters, discretization rules, relativistic fluctuation-dissipation theorems, and Lorentz transformations of stochastic differential equations. The general theory is illustrated through analytical and numerical results for the diffusion of free relativistic Brownian particles. Subsequently, we discuss how Langevin-type equations can be obtained as approximations to microscopic models. The final part of the article is dedicated to relativistic diffusion processes in Minkowski spacetime. Since the velocities of relativistic particles are bounded by the speed of light, nontrivial relativistic Markov processes in spacetime do not exist; i.e., relativistic generalizations of the nonrelativistic diffusion equation and its Gaussian solutions

  7. Are relativistic jets monoparametric engines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georganopoulos, M.; Meyer, E. T.; Fossati, G.; Lister, M. L.

    We adopt as a working hypothesis that relativistic jets are essentially mono-parametric entities, and that their physical properties are a function of a single physical parameter, the same way the physical properties of main sequence stars are mainly a function of the star mass. We propose that the physical parameter is the jet kinetic power, and we use as a proxy for this quantity the low frequency extended radio luminosity (LFERL), an orientation insensitive quantity. We discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for the collective properties of relativistic jets and we show that a blazar sequence should spontaneously emerge on the peak frequency vs luminosity plot as the locus of those sources that are well aligned to the observer's line of sight. We also show that the sources of the same LFERL should form tracks that start from a location on the blazar sequence and move to lower luminosities and peak frequencies in a way that encodes information about the emitting plasma energetics and kinematics and velocity gradients, as well as about the inverse Compton (IC) emission seed photons. We are currently working on collecting the observations that will allow us to put this idea to the test.

  8. GRIM: General Relativistic Implicit Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Mani; Foucart, Francois; Gammie, Charles F.

    2017-02-01

    GRIM (General Relativistic Implicit Magnetohydrodynamics) evolves a covariant extended magnetohydrodynamics model derived by treating non-ideal effects as a perturbation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Non-ideal effects are modeled through heat conduction along magnetic field lines and a difference between the pressure parallel and perpendicular to the field lines. The model relies on an effective collisionality in the disc from wave-particle scattering and velocity-space (mirror and firehose) instabilities. GRIM, which runs on CPUs as well as on GPUs, combines time evolution and primitive variable inversion needed for conservative schemes into a single step using only the residuals of the governing equations as inputs. This enables the code to be physics agnostic as well as flexible regarding time-stepping schemes.

  9. [Uterine inversion].

    PubMed

    Dirken, J J; Vlaanderen, W

    1994-01-01

    Inversion of the uterus is a rare complication of childbirth. A primigravida aged 21 and a multigravida aged 32, hospitalized as emergency cases because of inversion of the uterus with major blood loss, were treated with infusion of liquids (to combat shock), repositioning of the uterus under anaesthesia and prevention of reinversion by uterine tonics. Inversion of the uterus should be part of the differential diagnosis in every case of fluxus post partum.

  10. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-04-22

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals' subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation.

  11. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals’ subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation. PMID:27101931

  12. Incidental Learning in a Paired-Associate Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Dennis; Newhouse, Robert C.

    1981-01-01

    Differences in recall and number of trials to criterion between incidental learning groups and control groups of undergraduate students when memorizing CVC trigrams of high or low intralist similarity were investigated in this study. Results indicate that incidental learning did occur and suggest that incidental learning facilitates intentional…

  13. Relativistic Jets and Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Woosley, S. E.

    2001-05-01

    In order to study the relativistic jets from collapsars, we have developed a special relativistic multiple-dimensional hydrodynamics code similar to the GENESIS code (Aloy et al., ApJS, 122, 151). The code is based on the PPM interpolation algorithm and Marquina's Riemann solver. Using this code, we have simulated the propagation of axisymmetric jets along the rotational axis of collapsed rotating stars (collapsars). Using the progenitors of MacFadyen, Woosley, and Heger, a relativistic jet is injected at a given inner boundary radius. This radius, the opening angle of the jet, its Lorentz factor, and its total energy are parameters of the problem. A highly collimated, relativistic outflow is observed at the surface of the star several seconds later. We will discuss the hydrodynamical focusing of the jet, it's break out properties, time evolution, and sensitivity to the adopted parameters.

  14. Relativistic Length Agony Continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redzic, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redzic 2008b), we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the 'pole in a barn' paradox.

  15. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  16. Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, Franklin S.

    2006-01-01

    The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.

  17. Numerical Relativistic Quantum Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-08

    Introduction 1 II. Relativistic Wave Equations 2 III. Stationary States 4 A. Analytical Solutions for Coulomb Potentials 4 B. Numerical Solutions...C. Relativistic Ionization Example 15 V. Computational Performance 18 VI. Conclusions 21 VII. Acknowledgements 22 References 23 1 I. INTRODUCTION ...peculiar result that B0 = 1 TG is a weak field. At present, such fields are observed only in connection with astrophysical phenomena [14]. The highest

  18. Relativistic effects in chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsimirskii, K.B.

    1995-11-01

    Relativistic effects become apparent when the velocity of the electron is arbitrarily close to the speed of light (137 au) without actually attaining it (in heavy atoms of elements at the end of Mendeleev`s Periodic Table). At the orbital level, the relativistic effect is apparent in the radial contraction of penetrating s and p shells, expansion of nonpenetrating d and f shells, and the spin-orbit splitting of p-,d-, and f-shells. The appearance of a relativistic effect is indicated in the variation in the electronic configurations of the atoms in the Periodic Table, the appearance of new types of closed electron shells (6s{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, 6p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, 7s{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, 5d{sub 3/2}{sup 4}), the stabilization of unstable oxidation states of heavy elements, the characteristic variation in the ionization enthalpies of heavy atoms, their electron affinity, hydration energies, redox potentials, and optical electronegativities. In the spectra of coordination compounds, a relativistic effect is observed when comparing the position of the charge transfer bands in analogous compounds, the parameters characterizing the ligand field strength (10Dq), the interatomic distances and angles in compounds of heavy elements. A relativistic effect is also apparent in the ability of heavy metals to form clusters and superclusters. Relativistic corrections also affect other properties of heavy metal compounds (force constants, dipole moments, biological activity, etc.).

  19. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  20. Incidental Learning in a Complex Clinical Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harner, Michael Dean

    2013-01-01

    Workplace learning is complex as employees engage in activities to meet organizational objectives. This study investigates incidental learning in a complex clinical environment. The systems created to collect information and perform patient-visit functions involve several people who have distinct roles that can impact how subsequent people in the…

  1. Incidental Foreign Language Acquisition from Media Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, An H.

    2010-01-01

    A number of experimental studies have demonstrated the incidental acquisition of a foreign language by children and adolescents when watching foreign language television. While such experiments can only establish short-term effects, this article investigates the extent to which children's foreign language skills benefit from their long-term…

  2. Incidental Education (for Women) in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Valmai

    The Country Women's Association (CWA) is a nationwide Australian group that started in the 1920s in response to isolated women's need to socialize. The group's activities have expanded greatly over time. It distributes essential food and clothing to needy rural families, and its extensive involvement in incidental education for women includes…

  3. Incidental Learning, Intelligence, and Verbal Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necka, Edward; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The effects of incidental learning were assessed in 2 experiments involving 201 seventh graders in Poland through an experimental paradigm based on the levels of processing theory. Data suggest that an important aspect of intelligence is "opportunistic" learning (learning in advance). Intelligent people take cognitive advantage of…

  4. Incidental renocolic fistula with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, R.L.; Dowling, C.M.; Alsinnawi, M.; Grainger, R.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We report the case of a 66-year-old female undergoing elective nephrectomy for a non-functioning kidney in whom an incidental renocolic fistula was detected. PRESENTATION OF CASE She presented with recurrent urinary tract infections and left flank pain. Investigations revealed a nonfunctioning left kidney with a large staghorn calculus and features suggestive of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPG). At nephrectomy, an incidental renocolic fistula was found and excised. DISCUSSION XGP is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder of the kidney characterized by a destructive mass invading the renal parenchyma. Renocolic fistulae complicating XGP are uncommon and not widely reported in the literature. CONCLUSION Herein, we describe a case of XGP with renocolic fistula formation, its management and a review of the literature. PMID:23291328

  5. Incidental pleural-based pulmonary lymphangioma.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Michael G; Todd, William U; Bascom, Rebecca

    2008-09-01

    Adult benign thoracic lymphangiomas typically present as incidental mediastinal lesions, or, more rarely, as solitary pulmonary nodules. Symptomatic compression of vital structures may require lesion resection or sclerotherapy. In the present report, we describe the incidental finding of a solitary pleural-based pulmonary lymphangioma in a 38-year-old woman with chronic arm and shoulder pain. Positron emission tomography revealed that the lesion was highly fluorodeoxyglucose-avid. Biopsy exposed benign tissue consistent with lymphangioma. After continued radiographic tests, the lesion was determined to be an unlikely source of the patient's chronic pain. The present report is, to our knowledge, the first published case of solitary pleural-based pulmonary lymphangioma in the medical literature.

  6. The persistent impact of incidental experience.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Matthew H; Jones, Matt; Ahmed, Alaa A; Curran, Tim; Mozer, Michael C

    2013-12-01

    As we perform daily activities--driving to work, unlocking the office door, or grabbing a coffee cup--our actions seem automatic and preprogrammed. Nonetheless, routine, well-practiced behavior is continually modulated by incidental experience: In repetitive experimental tasks, recent (~4) trials reliably influence performance and action choice. Psychological theories downplay the significance of sequential effects, explaining them as rapidly decaying perturbations of behavior, with no long-term consequences. We challenged this traditional perspective in two experiments designed to probe the impact of more distant experience, finding evidence for effects spanning up to a thousand intermediate trials. We present a normative theory in which these persistent effects reflect optimal adaptation to a dynamic environment exhibiting varying rates of change. The theory predicts a heavy-tailed decaying influence of past experience, consistent with our data, and suggests that individual incidental experiences are catalogued in a temporally extended memory utilized in order to optimize subsequent behavior.

  7. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding. PMID:27200163

  8. Incidental finding of lymphoma after septoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tajudeen, Bobby A.; Bhuta, Sunita M.; Palma Diaz, Miguel Fernando; Kedeshian, Paul A.; Suh, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Septoplasty, or surgical correction of the deviated septum, is an elective, routinely performed rhinologic procedure to address nasal airway obstruction. In many cases, resected septal cartilage and bone fragments are sent for pathologic review, although there is no consensus on this practice. We reported two cases of incidentally diagnosed lymphoma after elective septoplasty and discussed clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management. Methods: Retrospective chart review of two patients who underwent septoplasty at a tertiary academic medical center and found to have incidental lymphoma based on histopathology. Results: Two patients who underwent septoplasty had an incidental diagnosis of lymphoma on pathologic analysis. One patient was noted to have an S-shaped septal deviation that produced bilateral nasal obstruction. She underwent a difficult septoplasty, in which the mucoperichondrial flap was firmly adherent to the underlying septum and bone. Final pathology demonstrated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. She was treated with chemoradiation and remained free of disease at 59 months. The other patient had a history of nasal trauma, which produced left septal deviation. He underwent an uncomplicated septoplasty, with pathology that demonstrated low-grade B-cell lymphoma. Because there was no evidence of active disease, the decision was made to not treat and to observe the patient clinically. Conclusions: This is the first reported series of septal lymphoma incidentally diagnosed on routine septoplasty. Although histopathologic review of specimens from routine nasal and sinus surgery is not routinely performed, this report highlighted the importance of this process, on a case-by-case basis, in detecting unexpected malignancies that otherwise were clinically silent. PMID:27470206

  9. 257 Incidental Appendectomies During Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Deidre T.; O'Holleran, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective observational report analyzes the demographics, blood loss, length of surgical duration, number of days in the hospital, and complications for 821 consecutive patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy over a 11-year period stratified by incidental appendectomy. Methods: A retrospective chart abstraction was performed. ANOVA and chi-square tests were performed with significance preset at P<0.05. Results: Of 821 consecutive patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy, 257 underwent elective appendectomy with the ultrasonic scalpel, either as part of their staging, treatment for pelvic pain, or prophylaxis against appendicitis. Comparing the 2 groups, no difference existed in mean age of 50±10 years or mean BMI of 27.6±6.7. Both groups had a similar mean blood loss of 130 mL. Surgery took less time (137 vs 118 minutes, P<0.0012) and the hospital stay was shorter in the appendectomy group (1.5 vs 1.2, P<0.0001) possibly because it was performed incidentally in most cases. No complications were attributable to the appendectomy, and complication types and rates in both groups were similar. Though all appendicies appeared normal, pathology was documented in 9%, including 3 carcinoid tumors. Conclusions: Incidental appendectomy during total laparoscopic hysterectomy is not associated with significant risk and can be routinely offered to patients planning elective gynecologic laparoscopic procedures, as is standard for open procedures. PMID:18237505

  10. Relativistic impulse dynamics.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Stanley M

    2011-08-01

    Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.

  11. The Relativistic Rocket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  12. Radiation from Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Sol, H.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Fishman, G. J.; Preece, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electron-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the presence of relativistic jets, instabilities such as the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability create collisionless shocks, which are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons in small-scale magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation, a case of diffusive synchrotron radiation, may be important to understand the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  13. Relativistic effects on plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad

    2014-07-15

    The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.

  14. Mycobacterium Xenopi Found Incidentally on MRI of the Cervical Spine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium Xenopi Found Incidentally on MRI of the Cervical Spine Military Medicine Radiology Corner, Vol. 175. January, 2010 Radiology Corner...Mycobacterium Xenopi Found Incidentally on MRI of the Cervical Spine Guarantor: Chris Walker1 Contributors: Chris Walker; 1 Col Les Folio...Mycobacterium xenopi in her lung. A mass was incidentally noted in the right upper apex on an MRI ordered to evaluate a subluxation seen in her cervical

  15. Properties of Doubly Heavy Baryons in the Relativistic Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, D.; Faustov, R.N.; Galkin, V.O.; Martynenko, A.P.

    2005-05-01

    Mass spectra and semileptonic decay rates of baryons consisting of two heavy (b or c) and one light quark are calculated in the framework of the relativistic quark model. The doubly heavy baryons are treated in the quark-diquark approximation. The ground and excited states of both the diquark and quark-diquark bound systems are considered. The quark-diquark potential is constructed. The light quark is treated completely relativistically, while the expansion in the inverse heavy-quark mass is used. The weak transition amplitudes of heavy diquarks bb and bc going, respectively, to bc and cc are explicitly expressed through the overlap integrals of the diquark wave functions in the whole accessible kinematic range. The relativistic baryon wave functions of the quark-diquark bound system are used for the calculation of the decay matrix elements, the Isgur-Wise function, and decay rates in the heavy-quark limit.

  16. Relativistic Pseudospin Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ginocchio, Joseph N.

    2011-05-06

    We show that the pseudospin symmetry that Akito Arima discovered many years ago (with collaborators) is a symmetry of the the Dirac Hamiltonian for which the sum of the scalar and vector potentials are a constant. In this paper we discuss some of the implications of this relativistic symmetry and the experimental data that support these predictions. In his original paper Akito also discussed pseudo-U(3) symmetry. We show that pseudo-U(3) symmetry is a symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian for which the sum of harmonic oscillator vector and scalar potentials are equal to a constant, and we give the generators of pseudo-U(3) symmetry. Going beyond the mean field we summarize new results on non relativistic shell model Hamiltonians that have pseudospin symmetry and pseudo-orbital angular momentum symmetry as a dynamical symmetries.

  17. Relativistic electrons in space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simnett, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning relativistic electrons, above 0.3 MeV, in interplanetary space, as measured by detectors on board satellites operating beyond the influence of the magnetosphere. The electrons have a galactic component, which at the lower energies is subject both to solar modulation and to spasmodic 'quiet time' increases and a direct solar component correlated with flare activity. The recent measurements have established the form of the differential energy spectrum of solar flare electrons. Electrons have been detected from flares behind the visible solar disk. Relativistic electrons do not appear to leave the sun at the time of the flash phase of the flare, although there are several signatures of electron acceleration at this time. The delay is interpreted as taking place during the transport of the electrons through the lower corona.

  18. Indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Since Doug MacAyeal's pioneering studies of the ice-stream basal traction optimizations by control methods, inversions for unknown parameters (e.g., basal traction, accumulation patterns, etc) have become a hallmark of the present-day ice-sheet modeling. The common feature of such inversion exercises is a direct relationship between optimized parameters and observations used in the optimization procedure. For instance, in the standard optimization for basal traction by the control method, ice-stream surface velocities constitute the control data. The optimized basal traction parameters explicitly appear in the momentum equations for the ice-stream velocities (compared to the control data). The inversion for basal traction is carried out by minimization of the cost (or objective, misfit) function that includes the momentum equations facilitated by the Lagrange multipliers. Here, we build upon this idea, and demonstrate how to optimize for parameters indirectly related to observed data using a suite of nested constraints (like Russian dolls) with additional sets of Lagrange multipliers in the cost function. This method opens the opportunity to use data from a variety of sources and types (e.g., velocities, radar layers, surface elevation changes, etc.) in the same optimization process.

  19. 76 FR 74805 - Draft Environmental Assessment, Incidental Take Plan, and Application for an Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Program; Correction AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; announcement of public meeting. SUMMARY: On November 9, 2011, we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Assessment, Incidental Take Plan, and Application for...

  20. 78 FR 24731 - Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea... drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2014 open-water... exploration drilling in the Chukchi Sea during the 2014 open- ] water season. NMFS published a Notice...

  1. 75 FR 53672 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in the Massachusetts Bay for a period of 1 year. DATES: This... Incidental to Operations of a Liquified Natural Gas Port Facility in Massachusetts Bay AGENCY: National...-cm) outside diameter natural gas pipeline lateral (Pipeline Lateral) owned and operated by...

  2. 76 FR 43639 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Liquefied Natural Gas Port Facility in Massachusetts Bay AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to operating a liquefied natural gas (LNG) port facility... diameter natural gas pipeline which interconnects the Port to an offshore natural gas pipeline known as...

  3. 77 FR 51773 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... retinal injury. Biosonics Up to three Bird-Guard broadcasting units (bird distress calls) could be used to... distress and predator calls could be used. The bird calls are naturally occurring sounds and are not... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Bird Mitigation Research in the Farallon...

  4. Relativistic Quantum Information Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-20

    In S. Kalara and D.V. Nanopou- los, editors, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Black Holes , Membranes, Wormholes and Superstrings, pages...within the gravitational field of a black hole . We outline the general theory of how the entanglement of polarized photons changes under...relativistic Lorentz transformations, and have studied quantum information transmission in the presence of a black hole . A description of the accretion of

  5. Relativistic statistical arbitrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.

    2010-11-01

    Recent advances in high-frequency financial trading have made light propagation delays between geographically separated exchanges relevant. Here we show that there exist optimal locations from which to coordinate the statistical arbitrage of pairs of spacelike separated securities, and calculate a representative map of such locations on Earth. Furthermore, trading local securities along chains of such intermediate locations results in a novel econophysical effect, in which the relativistic propagation of tradable information is effectively slowed or stopped by arbitrage.

  6. Relativistic gravity gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-12-01

    In general relativity, relativistic gravity gradiometry involves the measurement of the relativistic tidal matrix, which is theoretically obtained from the projection of the Riemann curvature tensor onto the orthonormal tetrad frame of an observer. The observer's 4-velocity vector defines its local temporal axis and its local spatial frame is defined by a set of three orthonormal nonrotating gyro directions. The general tidal matrix for the timelike geodesics of Kerr spacetime has been calculated by Marck [Proc. R. Soc. A 385, 431 (1983)]. We are interested in the measured components of the curvature tensor along the inclined "circular" geodesic orbit of a test mass about a slowly rotating astronomical object of mass M and angular momentum J . Therefore, we specialize Marck's results to such a "circular" orbit that is tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the Kerr source. To linear order in J , we recover the gravitomagnetic beating phenomenon [B. Mashhoon and D. S. Theiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1542 (1982)], where the beat frequency is the frequency of geodetic precession. The beat effect shows up as a special long-period gravitomagnetic part of the relativistic tidal matrix; moreover, the effect's short-term manifestations are contained in certain post-Newtonian secular terms. The physical interpretation of this effect is briefly discussed.

  7. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like) galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s-1 at peak), rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds) and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ˜ 2 - 5), created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  8. 75 FR 34700 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Sanctuary (MBNMS) to incidentally take, by Level B harassment only, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) incidental to professional fireworks displays...

  9. 77 FR 43270 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Sanctuary (MBNMS) to incidentally take, by Level B harassment only, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) incidental to professional fireworks displays within the...

  10. Self-magnetized effects in relativistic cold plasmas due to ponderomotive forces: application to relativistic magnetic guiding of light.

    PubMed

    Lehner, T; di Menza, L

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear equations are derived relevant to describe the propagation of powerful electromagnetic fields launched within a plasma. The nonlinear generation of self-induced collective electromagnetic perturbations are obtained with matter lying in the relativistic regime. Our main result is the self-consistent treatment of the coupled equations between the pump and its self-induced fields. In particular, a mechanism is pointed out for self-generation of quasistatic magnetic field that is due to the relativistic ponderomotive force. This process is found to be more efficient to produce quasistatic magnetic fields, as confirmed by recent experiments, as compared to known effects such as the inverse Faraday effect. As an application, we investigate conditions for relativistic magnetic guiding of light to occur under the combined action of the self-induced density and magnetic field.

  11. Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klink, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.

  12. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Hadden, Samuel

    2012-02-01

    We derive a number of solutions for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: A system of highly nonlinear, relativistic, time-dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.

  13. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Hadden, Samuel

    2012-02-01

    We derive a number of solutions for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: A system of highly nonlinear, relativistic, time-dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.

  14. Incidental Focus on Form in University Spanish Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyzik, Eve; Polio, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    Incidental focus on form is one of several ways to direct language learners' attention to formal aspects of language within meaningful communicative contexts. Learners can benefit from focus on form, but the extent to which incidental focus on form, or any other type, is available to learners in advanced foreign language literature classes has not…

  15. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  16. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  17. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  18. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  19. 20 CFR 202.14 - Service incidental to railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service incidental to railroad transportation. 202.14 Section 202.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.14 Service incidental to railroad transportation....

  20. Incidental Exposure and L3 Learning of Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Sarah; Williams, John N.; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of learning following incidental exposure has been found for aspects of nonnative syntax in adults (Rebuschat & Williams, 2006, 2012; Williams & Kuribara, 2008). However, little research has tested delayed effects of learning under an incidental condition or moved beyond word order. This study investigated learning of third…

  1. The Effectiveness of Incidental Teaching of Grammar to Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghabanchi, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study and a pilot study. The "study" considers the effectiveness of incidental teaching of grammar in a learning class of English As A Second Language by Persian speaking students. The "pilot study" examines the students' attitudes toward the incidental learning of grammar from the…

  2. The Effects of Training on Caregiver Implementation of Incidental Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hsing-Hsiu; Wilder, David A.; Abellon, O. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A brief training package consisting of modeling, rehearsal, and feedback was evaluated to train caregivers to use incidental teaching to teach 3 children with autism to request an item or activity. The training package improved correct implementation of the incidental teaching procedure by caregivers. In addition, probes indicated that caregivers…

  3. Colon in the Chest: An Incidental Dextrocardia

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek; Shehab, Abdullah; Elnour, Asim A.; Al Nuaimi, Saif K.; Baghdady, Shazly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diaphragmatic injury is an uncommon traumatic injury (<1%). Although most diaphragmatic injuries can be obvious (eg, herniation of abdominal contents on chest radiograph), some injuries may be subtle and imaging studies can be nondiagnostic in many situations. Patients with diaphragmatic hernia either traumatic or nontraumatic may initially have no symptoms or signs to suggest an injury to the diaphragm. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old woman diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome –associated dominant constipation, presented with shortness of breath, cough, expectoration, tachycardia, and chest pain. Dextrocardia was an incidental finding, diagnosed by electrocardiography, chest radiograph, and CT chest. Parts of the colon, small intestine, and stomach were within the thorax in the left side due to left diaphragmatic hernia of a nontraumatic cause. Acquired incidental dextrocardia was the main problem due to displacement of the heart to contralateral side by the GI (gastrointestinal) viscera (left diaphragmatic hernia). The patient was prepared for the laparoscopic surgical repair, using a polyethylene mesh 20 cm to close the defect, and the patient recovered with accepted general condition. However, 5 days postoperative, the patient passed away suddenly due to unexplained cardiac arrest. Intrathoracic herniation of abdominal viscera should be considered in patients presented with sudden chest pain concomitant with a history of increased intra-abdominal pressure. PMID:25674744

  4. Incidental Finding and Management of Mesenteric Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Gregory; Kfoury, Tony; Shimlati, Rasha; Tohme, Maroon; Wakim, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 45 Final Diagnosis: Mesenteric fibromatosis Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Surgical removal of the mesenteric fibromatosis Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Mesenteric fibromatosis, also known as mesenteric desmoids, is part of the clinical-pathologic spectrum of deep fibromatosis, which encompasses a group of benign fibro-proliferative processes that are locally aggressive and have the capacity to infiltrate or recur without metastasis. Case Report: Case of a 45-year-old man, with a history of hypertension and lung fibrosis, presenting for a left abdominal mass, which was found incidentally during his lung fibrosis imaging. He complained of constipation due to pressure upon his bowel leading to difficulty in defecation. Conclusions: Although there are many overlapping criteria between gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mesenteric fibromatosis, making it difficult to discriminate between the two, there are differences that are unique to mesenteric fibromatosis that should be noticed during the diagnosis. In this case, mesenteric fibromatosis was unusual as it is not associated with Gardner’s syndrome, desmoid tumors, nor familial adenomatous polyposis, but was an incidental finding. PMID:27279600

  5. Laparoscopic Repair of Incidentally Found Spigelian Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Nickloes, Todd; Mancini, Greg; Solla, Julio A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A Spigelian hernia is a rare type of hernia that occurs through a defect in the anterior abdominal wall adjacent to the linea semilunaris. Estimation of its incidence has been reported as 0.12% of all abdominal wall hernias. Traditionally, the method of repair has been an open approach. Herein, we discuss a series of laparoscopic repairs. Methods: Case series and review of the literature. Cases: Three patients are presented. All were evaluated and taken to surgery initially for a different disease process, and all were incidentally found to have a spigelian hernia. These patients underwent laparoscopic repair of their hernias; 2 were repaired intraperitoneally and one was repaired totally extraperitoneally. Two patients initially underwent a mesh repair, while the third had an attempted primary repair. Conclusions: There is evidence that supports the use of laparoscopy for both diagnosis and repair of spigelian hernias. There are also reports of successful repairs both primarily and with mesh. In our experience with the preceding 3 patients, we found that laparoscopic repair of incidentally discovered spigelian hernias is a viable option, and we also found that implantation of mesh, when possible, resulted in satisfactory results and no recurrence. PMID:21902949

  6. 78 FR 56659 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...NMFS has received a request from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for authorization to take marine mammals incidental to construction activities as part of a pier maintenance project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting public comment on its proposal to issue an incidental harassment authorization (IHA) to the Navy to take, by harassment only, two species of marine......

  7. Self-Consistent Synchrotron Spectra from Trans-Relativistic Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Most existing analytical models describing the second-order Fermi acceleration of relativistic electrons due to collisions with MHD waves assume that the injected seed particles are already highly relativistic, despite the fact that the most prevalent source of particles is usually the non-relativistic thermal background gas. This presents a problem because the momentum dependence of the momentum diffusion coefficient describing the interaction between the electrons and the MHD waves is qualitatively different in the non-relativistic and highly relativistic limits. The lack of an analytical model has forced workers to rely on numerical simulations to obtain particle spectra describing the trans-relativistic case. In this work, we present the first analytical solution to the global, trans-relativistic problem of electron acceleration, obtained by using a hybrid form for the momentum diffusion coefficient, given by the sum of the two asymptotic forms. We refer to this process as "quasi hard-sphere scattering." The model also incorporates the appropriate momentum dependence for the particle escape timescale, and the effect of synchrotron and inverse-Compton losses, which are critical for establishing the location of the high-energy cutoff in the particle spectrum. Since synchrotron and inverse-Compton losses are included in the transport equation, the resulting radiation spectra are computed self-consistently. The results can be used to model the acceleration of radiating electrons in AGN and solar environments, applications of both types are discussed.

  8. Relativistic quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, R. B.; Ralph, T. C.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past few years, a new field of high research intensity has emerged that blends together concepts from gravitational physics and quantum computing. Known as relativistic quantum information, or RQI, the field aims to understand the relationship between special and general relativity and quantum information. Since the original discoveries of Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect, it has been known that incorporating the concepts of quantum theory into relativistic settings can produce new and surprising effects. However it is only in recent years that it has become appreciated that the basic concepts involved in quantum information science undergo significant revision in relativistic settings, and that new phenomena arise when quantum entanglement is combined with relativity. A number of examples illustrate that point. Quantum teleportation fidelity is affected between observers in uniform relative acceleration. Entanglement is an observer-dependent property that is degraded from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Entanglement can also be extracted from the vacuum of relativistic quantum field theories, and used to distinguish peculiar motion from cosmological expansion. The new quantum information-theoretic framework of quantum channels in terms of completely positive maps and operator algebras now provides powerful tools for studying matters of causality and information flow in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. This focus issue provides a sample of the state of the art in research in RQI. Some of the articles in this issue review the subject while others provide interesting new results that will stimulate further research. What makes the subject all the more exciting is that it is beginning to enter the stage at which actual experiments can be contemplated, and some of the articles appearing in this issue discuss some of these exciting new developments. The subject of RQI pulls together concepts and ideas from

  9. Newtonian and relativistic cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

    2012-03-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is well known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the same equations as arise in relativistic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robinson-Walker cosmology, and it also is known that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies continues to hold in linearized perturbation theory in the marginally bound/spatially flat case. Nevertheless, it is far from obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. We investigate this issue in the light of a perturbative framework that we have recently developed [S. R. Green and R. M. Wald, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 83, 084020 (2011).10.1103/PhysRevD.83.084020], which allows for such nonlinearity at small scales. We propose a relatively straightforward dictionary—which is exact at the linearized level—that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into general relativistic dust cosmologies, and we use our “ordering scheme” to determine the degree to which the resulting metric and matter distribution solve Einstein’s equation. We find that, within our ordering scheme, Einstein’s equation fails to hold at “order 1” at small scales and at “order ɛ” at large scales. We then find the additional corrections to the metric and matter distribution needed to satisfy Einstein’s equation to these orders. While these corrections are of some interest in their own right, our main purpose in calculating them is that their smallness should provide a criterion for the validity of the original dictionary (as well as simplified versions of this dictionary). We expect that, in realistic Newtonian cosmologies, these additional corrections will be very small; if so, this should provide strong justification for the use of Newtonian simulations

  10. Ultrabaric relativistic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, G.; Weiss, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ultrabaric superfluid solutions are obtained for Einstein's equations to examine the possibility of the existence of superluminal sound speeds. The discussion is restricted only by requiring the energy-momentum tensor and the equation of state of matter to be represented by full relativistic equations. Only a few universes are known to satisfy the conditions, and those exhibit tension and are inflationary. Superluminal sound velocities are shown, therefore, to be possible for the interior Schwarzchild metric, which has been used to explain the red shift of quasars, and the Stephiani solution (1967). The latter indicates repeated transitions between superluminal and subliminal sound velocities in the hyperbaric superfluid of the early universe.

  11. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  12. A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Andreas F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…

  13. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauser, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  14. Robust relativistic bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.

  15. Relativistic Continuum Shell Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grineviciute, Janina; Halderson, Dean

    2011-04-01

    The R-matrix formalism of Lane and Thomas has been extended to the relativistic case so that the many-coupled channels problem may be solved for systems in which binary breakup channels satisfy a relative Dirac equation. The formalism was previously applied to the relativistic impulse approximation RIA and now we applied it to Quantum Hadrodynamics QHD in the continuum Tamm-Dancoff approximation TDA with the classical meson fields replaced by one-meson exchange potentials. None of the published QHD parameters provide a decent fit to the 15 N + p elastic cross section. The deficiency is also evident in inability of the QHD parameters with the one meson exchange potentials to reproduce the QHD single particle energies. Results with alternate parameters sets are presented. A. M. Lane and R. G. Thomas, R-Matrix Theory of Nuclear Reactions, Reviews of Modern Physics, 30 (1958) 257

  16. Relativistic harmonic oscillator revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bars, Itzhak

    2009-02-15

    The familiar Fock space commonly used to describe the relativistic harmonic oscillator, for example, as part of string theory, is insufficient to describe all the states of the relativistic oscillator. We find that there are three different vacua leading to three disconnected Fock sectors, all constructed with the same creation-annihilation operators. These have different spacetime geometric properties as well as different algebraic symmetry properties or different quantum numbers. Two of these Fock spaces include negative norm ghosts (as in string theory), while the third one is completely free of ghosts. We discuss a gauge symmetry in a worldline theory approach that supplies appropriate constraints to remove all the ghosts from all Fock sectors of the single oscillator. The resulting ghost-free quantum spectrum in d+1 dimensions is then classified in unitary representations of the Lorentz group SO(d,1). Moreover, all states of the single oscillator put together make up a single infinite dimensional unitary representation of a hidden global symmetry SU(d,1), whose Casimir eigenvalues are computed. Possible applications of these new results in string theory and other areas of physics and mathematics are briefly mentioned.

  17. Incidental Reflector Comparison of Containerized Dry Fire Extinguishing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Bryan Scott; Wysong, Andrew Russell

    2016-12-14

    This document addresses the incidental reflector reactivity worth of containerized fire extinguishing agents authorized for use in PF-4 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of the document is to analyze dry fire extinguishing agent that remains in a container and is not actively being used in a fire emergency. The incidental reflector reactivity worth is determined by comparison to various thicknesses of close fitting water reflection which is commonly used to bound incidental reflectors in criticality safety evaluations. The conclusion is that even in unlimited quantities, when containerized the authorized dry fire extinguishing agents are bound by 0.4 inches of close fitting water.

  18. The relation between relativistic and non-relativistic continuum thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellstede, G. O.; von Borzeszkowski, H.-H.; Chrobok, T.; Muschik, W.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the relativistic theory of irreversible processes with the aim to answer the following questions: (1) Under which conditions is this theory a relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic theory of irreversible processes (in particular, this implies to ask for the conditions under which the first law of thermodynamics can be recovered from the relativistic conservation law of total energy), and (2) how do the relativistic corrections look like? To this end, we perform a low-energy approximation for the balance equations underlying the theory, i.e., for the balances of the particle number, the energy-momentum and the entropy. It is shown that, going up to the 3rd order in the expansion series of the balances, the non-relativistic theory can be derived when one assumes that the 4-current of the particle flow is purely convective and the product of the 3-dimensional acceleration and velocity is equal to zero. Afterwards, the higher-order terms are discussed. Since our discussion mainly makes use of those balance equations that lie on the basis of most versions of continuum thermodynamics, the results do not only refer to early TIP presented by Eckart (Phys Rev 58:919, 1940) and Landau and Lifshitz (Fluid mechanics. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1940), but also to its extended and/or general-relativistic versions.

  19. Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp

    2009-05-15

    We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}

  20. Inverse Floatation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Anish; Chatterjee, Souvick; Ganguly, Ranjan; Sen, Swarnendu; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    We have observed that capillarity forces may cause floatation in a few non-intuitive configurations. These may be divided into 2 categories: i) floatation of heavier liquid droplets on lighter immiscible ones and ii) fully submerged floatation of lighter liquid droplets in a heavier immiscible medium. We call these counter-intuitive because of the inverse floatation configuration. For case (i) we have identified and studied in detail the several factors affecting the shape and maximum volume of the floating drop. We used water and vegetable oil combinations as test fluids and established the relation between Bond Number and maximum volume contained in a floating drop (in the order of μL). For case (ii), we injected vegetable oil drop-wise into a pool of water. The fully submerged configuration of the drop is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number establishes the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also shows the temporal variation of the gap thickness. Jadavpur University, Jagadis Bose Centre of Excellence, Virginia Tech.

  1. Hydrodynamics of Relativistic Fireballs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piran, Tsvi; Shemi, Amotz; Narayan, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Many models of gamma-ray bursts involve a fireball, which is an optically thick concentration of radiation energy with a high ratio of energy density to rest mass. We examine analytically and numerically the evolution of a relativistic fireball. We show that, after an early rearrangement phase, most of the matter and energy in the fireball is concentrated within a narrow shell. The shell propagates at nearly the speed of light, with a frozen radial profile, and according to a simple set of scaling laws. The spectrum of the escaping radiation is harder at early times and softer later on. Depending on the initial energy-to-mass ratio, the final outcome of a fireball is either photons with roughly the initial temperature or ultrarelativistic baryons. In the latter case, the energy could be converted back to gamma-rays via interaction with surrounding material.

  2. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumberg, Victor A.

    2010-08-01

    Relativistic celestial mechanics (RCM) refers to a science to study the motion of celestial bodies within the framework of general relativity theory (GRT) by Einstein. Being a straightforward successor of Newtonian celestial mechanics RCM embraces all aspects of motion of celestial bodies including (1) physics of motion, i.e. investigation of the physical nature of all effects influencing the motion of celestial bodies and formulation of a physical model for a specific problem; (2) mathematics of motion, i.e. investigation of the mathematical characteristics of the solutions of the differential equations of motion of celestial bodies; (3) computation of motion, i.e. the actual determination of the quantitative characteristics of motion; (4) astronomy of motion, i.e. application of mathematical solution of a problem to a specific celestial body, comparison with the results of observations, determination of initial values and parameters of motion, and checking the physical and mathematical models employed for a given problem.

  3. Photodetachment of relativistic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, J.B.; Gram, P.A.M.; Hamm, M.E.; Hamm, R.W.; Bryant, H.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Clark, D.A.; Frost, C.A.; Smith, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    A series of fundamental laser ion beam experiments has been made feasible by the high-quality, relativistic (..beta.. = 0.842) H/sup -/ ion beam available at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The relatavistic Doppler shift of the light from an ordinary ultraviolet laser provides what is, in effect, a continuously tunable vacuum-ultraviolet laser in the rest frame of the moving ions. The Lorentz transformation of a modest laboratory magnetic field provides an electric field of several megavolts/centimeter. The latest results of photo-detachment work with H/sup -/ beams and our spectroscopic work with H/sup 0/ beams are presented. Plans for future work are discussed.

  4. The Radiological Prevalence of Incidental Kienböck Disease

    PubMed Central

    Golay, Saroj K.; Rust, Philippa; Ring, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence of incidental Kienböck disease. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 150,912 radiological reports or images obtained over a five year period was performed of 76,174 patients who underwent a radiograph or computed tomography scan which included the wrist, in Edinburgh and Lothian, UK. Results: There were 5 cases of incidental Kienböck disease and 13 cases of symptomatic Kienböck disease. There were no significant differences in age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, smoking status, excess alcohol use or Lichtman stage between the incidental and symptomatic Kienböck groups. Conclusion: The radiological prevalence of incidental Kienböck disease was 0.0066% or 7 in 100,000 patients. PMID:27517065

  5. Some problems in relativistic thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Veitsman, E. V.

    2007-11-15

    The relativistic equations of state for ideal and real gases, as well as for various interface regions, have been derived. These dependences help to eliminate some controversies in the relativistic thermodynamics based on the special theory of relativity. It is shown, in particular, that the temperature of system whose velocity tends to the velocity of light in vacuum varies in accordance with the Ott law T = T{sub 0}/{radical}1 - v{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. Relativistic dependences for heat and mass transfer, for Ohm's law, and for a viscous flow of a liquid have also been derived.

  6. Is incidental gestational thrombocytopaenia really always safe for the neonate?

    PubMed

    Pourrat, O; Valère, G; Pierre, F

    2014-08-01

    It is widely admitted that neonates' platelet counts (PCs) are always normal in babies born to mothers with incidental gestational thrombocytopaenia. However, results of PC determinations at delivery have led us to wonder whether incidental gestational thrombocytopaenia is actually safe for the neonate under all circumstances, and to recommend that for every baby born to a mother with a pregnancy-associated thrombocytopaenia, even in the case of confirmed IGT, platelet counts on umbilical cord blood be closely monitored.

  7. Critical social theory approach to disclosure of genomic incidental findings.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Jeffrey L; Senn-Reeves, Julia N; Inventor, Ben R; Greiner, Shawna M; Mayer, Karen M; Rivard, Mary T; Hamilton, Rebekah J

    2012-11-01

    Technology has expanded genomic research and the complexity of extracted gene-related information. Health-related genomic incidental findings pose new dilemmas for nurse researchers regarding the ethical application of disclosure to participants. Consequently, informed consent specific to incidental findings is recommended. Critical Social Theory is used as a guide in recognition of the changing meaning of informed consent and to serve as a framework to inform nursing of the ethical application of disclosure consent in genomic nursing research practices.

  8. Mixing of relativistic ideal gases with relative relativistic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Narvaez, R. E.; Ares de Parga, A. M.; Ares de Parga, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Redefined Relativistic Thermodynamics is tested by means of mixing two ideal gases at different temperatures and distinct velocities. The conservation of the 4-vector energy-momentum leads to a tremendous increment of the temperature. This phenomenon can be used in order to describe the heating of a cold clump with shocked jets material. A prediction for improving the ignition of a Tokamak is proposed. The compatibility of the Redefined Relativistic Thermodynamics with the Thermodynamical Field Theory is analyzed.

  9. 77 FR 39485 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    .... Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of annual LOAs,...

  10. 77 FR 45341 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... issued. Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of...

  11. 78 FR 13865 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... issued. Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of...

  12. 77 FR 10481 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... regulations are issued. Under the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in...

  13. 78 FR 22517 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... the MMPA, the term ``take'' means to harass, hunt, capture, or kill or to attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal. Authorization for incidental taking, in the form of annual LOAs,...

  14. The mechanics of relativistic space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirov, U. N.

    The relativistic mechanics of an artificial space body with a variable rest mass is presented in a systematic manner. In particular, attention is given to the principles of Lobachevskii geometry, Riemann geometry, and relativity; general Lorentz transformations and relativistic kinematics; the principal theorems of the relativistic mechanics of a space vehicle in spherically symmetric gravitational fields; and the relativistic motion of a space vehicle with jet propulsion. Possible applications of relativistic mechanics are examined.

  15. 78 FR 30273 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a barge mooring project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the Navy to take, by Level B Harassment only, four species......

  16. Relativistic Transformation of Solid Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Rederives the relativistic transformations of light intensity from compact sources (stars) to show where and how the transformation of a solid angle contributes. Discusses astrophysical and other applications of the transformations. (Author/CS)

  17. Relativistic Electron Beams Above Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, Martin; Roussel-Dupre, Robert; Symbalisty, Eugene; Chanrion, Olivier; van der Velde, Oscar; Soula, Serge; Odzimek, Anna; Bennett, Alec; Whitley, Toby; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    It has recently been discovered that lightning discharges generate upward-directed relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. This extends the phenomenon of relativistic runaway breakdown believed to occur inside thunderclouds to the atmosphere above thunderclouds. This marks a profound advance in our understanding of the atmosphere because we now know it acts as a giant, natural, particle accelerator. The accelerated electrons can reach significant relativistic energies of some MeV during their passage from the troposphere, through the middle atmosphere, into near-Earth space. These relativistic electron beams constitute a current above thunderclouds and effectively transfer energy from the troposphere to the middle atmosphere. This coupling process thereby forms a novel element of the global atmospheric electric circuit which links tropospheric thunderclouds to the atmosphere above. This contribution describes the radio remote sensing of upward electron beams to determine their occurrence frequency and to characterise their physical properites.

  18. Relativistic effects in atom gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2017-01-01

    Atom interferometry is currently developing rapidly, which is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. Thus, it is extremely significant to develop a general relativistic model for atom interferometers. In this paper, we mainly present an analytical derivation process and first give a complete vectorial expression for the relativistic interferometric phase shift in an atom interferometer. The dynamics of the interferometer are studied, where both the atoms and the light are treated relativistically. Then, an appropriate coordinate transformation for the light is performed crucially to simplify the calculation. In addition, the Bordé A B C D matrix combined with quantum mechanics and the "perturbation" approach are applied to make a methodical calculation for the total phase shift. Finally, we derive the relativistic phase shift kept up to a sensitivity of the acceleration ˜1 0-14 m/s 2 for a 10 -m -long atom interferometer.

  19. Incidental finding of carcinoid tumor on Meckel's diverticulum: case report and literature review, should prophylactic resection be recommended?

    PubMed

    Caracappa, Daniela; Gullà, Nino; Lombardo, Francesco; Burini, Gloria; Castellani, Elisa; Boselli, Carlo; Gemini, Alessandro; Burattini, Maria Federica; Covarelli, Piero; Noya, Giuseppe

    2014-05-08

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract and is caused by incomplete obliteration of the vitelline duct during intrauterine life. MD affects less than 2% of the population. In most cases, MD is asymptomatic and the estimated average complication risk of MD carriers, which is inversely proportional to age, ranges between 2% and 4%. The most common MD-related complications are gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal obstruction and acute phlogosis. Excision is mandatory in the case of symptomatic diverticula regardless of age, while surgical treatment for asymptomatic diverticula remains controversial. According to the majority of studies, the incidental finding of MD in children is an indication for surgical resection, while the management of adults is not yet unanimous. In this case report, we describe the prophylactic resection of an incidentally detected MD, which led to the removal of an occult mucosal carcinoid tumor. In literature, the association of MD and carcinoid tumor is reported as a rare finding. Even though the strategy for adult patients of an incidental finding of MD during surgery performed for other reasons divides the experts, we recommend prophylactic excision in order to avoid any further risk.

  20. Incidental sounds of locomotion in animal cognition.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Matz

    2012-01-01

    The highly synchronized formations that characterize schooling in fish and the flight of certain bird groups have frequently been explained as reducing energy expenditure. I present an alternative, or complimentary, hypothesis that synchronization of group movements may improve hearing perception. Although incidental sounds produced as a by-product of locomotion (ISOL) will be an almost constant presence to most animals, the impact on perception and cognition has been little discussed. A consequence of ISOL may be masking of critical sound signals in the surroundings. Birds in flight may generate significant noise; some produce wing beats that are readily heard on the ground at some distance from the source. Synchronization of group movements might reduce auditory masking through periods of relative silence and facilitate auditory grouping processes. Respiratory locomotor coupling and intermittent flight may be other means of reducing masking and improving hearing perception. A distinct border between ISOL and communicative signals is difficult to delineate. ISOL seems to be used by schooling fish as an aid to staying in formation and avoiding collisions. Bird and bat flocks may use ISOL in an analogous way. ISOL and interaction with animal perception, cognition, and synchronized behavior provide an interesting area for future study.

  1. Clinical approach to incidental pancreatic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Austin L; Lee, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    The approach to incidentally noted pancreatic cysts is constantly evolving. While surgical resection is indicated for malignant or higher risk cysts, correctly identifying these highest risk pancreatic cystic lesions remains difficult. Using parameters including cyst size, presence of solid components, and pancreatic duct involvement, the 2012 International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) and the 2015 American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) guidelines have sought to identify the higher risk patients who would benefit from further evaluation using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Not only can EUS help further assess the presence of solid component and nodules, but also fine needle aspiration of cyst fluid aids in diagnosis by obtaining cellular, molecular, and genetic data. The impact of new endoscopic innovations with novel methods of direct visualization including confocal endomicroscopy require further validation. This review also highlights the differences between the 2012 IAP and 2015 AGA guidelines, which include the thresholds for sending patients for EUS and surgery and methods, interval, and duration of surveillance for unresected cysts. PMID:26811661

  2. Relativistic Jets from Collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloy, M. A.; Müller, E.; Ibáñez, J. M.; Martí, J. M.; MacFadyen, A.

    2000-03-01

    Using a collapsar progenitor model of MacFadyen & Woosley, we have simulated the propagation of an axisymmetric jet through a collapsing rotating massive star with the GENESIS multidimensional relativistic hydrodynamic code. The jet forms as a consequence of an assumed (constant or variable) energy deposition in the range of 1050-1051 ergs s-1 within a 30 deg cone around the rotation axis. The jet flow is strongly beamed (approximately less than a few degrees), spatially inhomogeneous, and time dependent. The jet reaches the surface of the stellar progenitor (R*=2.98x1010 cm) intact. At breakout, the maximum Lorentz factor of the jet flow is 33. After breakout, the jet accelerates into the circumstellar medium, whose density is assumed to decrease exponentially and then become constant, ρext=10-5 g cm-3. Outside the star, the flow begins to expand laterally also (v~c), but the beam remains very well collimated. At a distance of 2.54 R*, where the simulation ends, the Lorentz factor has increased to 44.

  3. Relativistic Electron Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-03-01

    The desire to push recent experiments on electron vortices to higher energies leads to some theoretical difficulties. In particular the simple and very successful picture of phase vortices of vortex charge ℓ associated with ℓℏ units of orbital angular momentum per electron is challenged by the facts that (i) the spin and orbital angular momentum are not separately conserved for a Dirac electron, which suggests that the existence of a spin-orbit coupling will complicate matters, and (ii) that the velocity of a Dirac electron is not simply the gradient of a phase as it is in the Schrödinger theory suggesting that, perhaps, electron vortices might not exist at a fundamental level. We resolve these difficulties by showing that electron vortices do indeed exist in the relativistic theory and show that the charge of such a vortex is simply related to a conserved orbital part of the total angular momentum, closely related to the familiar situation for the orbital angular momentum of a photon.

  4. Newtonian and Relativistic Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen; Wald, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations are now being performed using Newtonian gravity on scales larger than the Hubble radius. It is known that a uniformly expanding, homogeneous ball of dust in Newtonian gravity satisfies the Friedmann equations, and also that a correspondence between Newtonian and relativistic dust cosmologies holds in linearized perturbation theory. Nevertheless, it is not obvious that Newtonian gravity can provide a good global description of an inhomogeneous cosmology with significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. We investigate this issue in light of a perturbative framework that we have recently developed. We propose a straightforward dictionary---exact at the linearized level---that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into GR dust cosmologies, and we use our ordering scheme to determine the degree to which the resulting metric and matter distribution solve Einstein's equation. We then find additional corrections needed to satisfy Einstein's equation to ``order 1'' at small scales and to ``order ɛ'' at large scales. We expect that, in realistic Newtonian cosmologies, these additional corrections will be very small; if so, this should provide strong justification for the use of Newtonian simulations to describe GR cosmologies.

  5. Incidental Findings on Knee Radiographs in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang Gyo; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Choi, Young; Kim, Tae Gyun; Baek, Jeong Kook; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kwon, Dae Gyu; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, Moon Seok

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the wide use of knee radiography in children and adolescent patients visiting the outpatient clinic, there has been no analysis about the prevalence and type of incidental findings yet. This study was performed to investigate the incidental findings on knee radiographs in children and adolescents according to age. Methods A total of 1,562 consecutive patients younger than 18 years of age were included. They who visited Seoul National University Bundang Hospital's outpatient clinic with a chief complaint of knee pain or malalignment between 2010 and 2011. We reviewed the knee radiographs and analyzed the prevalence and type of incidental findings, such as metaphyseal lucent area, epiphyseal cortical irregularity, osteochondroma and Harris growth arrest line. Results The mean age of the patients was 10.2 years (range, 1 month to 18 years). We identified 355 incidental findings in 335 patients (21.4%) and 98 abnormal findings (6.3%). The most common incidental finding was metaphyseal lucent area (131, 8.4%), followed by epiphyseal cortical irregularity (105, 6.7%), Harris growth arrest line (75, 4.8%), and osteochondroma (44, 2.8%). An epiphyseal cortical irregularity tended to have a higher prevalence at younger age (p < 0.001) and the prevalences of metaphyseal lucent area and Harris growth arrest line were also higher at a younger age (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, the osteochondroma tended to have a higher prevalence at an older age (p = 0.004). Conclusions This study describes the incidental findings on knee radiographs in children and adolescents and provides effective information from a viewpoint of an orthopedic doctor. The authors recommend considering those incidental findings if unfamiliar findings appear on a knee radiograph in the pediatric outpatient clinic. PMID:25177456

  6. Refining a relativistic, hydrodynamic solver: Admitting ultra-relativistic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, J. P.; Hughes, P. A.

    2009-09-01

    We have undertaken the simulation of hydrodynamic flows with bulk Lorentz factors in the range 102-106. We discuss the application of an existing relativistic, hydrodynamic primitive variable recovery algorithm to a study of pulsar winds, and, in particular, the refinement made to admit such ultra-relativistic flows. We show that an iterative quartic root finder breaks down for Lorentz factors above 102 and employ an analytic root finder as a solution. We find that the former, which is known to be robust for Lorentz factors up to at least 50, offers a 24% speed advantage. We demonstrate the existence of a simple diagnostic allowing for a hybrid primitives recovery algorithm that includes an automatic, real-time toggle between the iterative and analytical methods. We further determine the accuracy of the iterative and hybrid algorithms for a comprehensive selection of input parameters and demonstrate the latter’s capability to elucidate the internal structure of ultra-relativistic plasmas. In particular, we discuss simulations showing that the interaction of a light, ultra-relativistic pulsar wind with a slow, dense ambient medium can give rise to asymmetry reminiscent of the Guitar nebula leading to the formation of a relativistic backflow harboring a series of internal shockwaves. The shockwaves provide thermalized energy that is available for the continued inflation of the PWN bubble. In turn, the bubble enhances the asymmetry, thereby providing positive feedback to the backflow.

  7. Primitive Variable Solvers for Conservative General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Scott C.; Gammie, Charles F.; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Del Zanna, Luca

    2006-04-01

    Conservative numerical schemes for general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) require a method for transforming between ``conserved'' variables such as momentum and energy density and ``primitive'' variables such as rest-mass density, internal energy, and components of the four-velocity. The forward transformation (primitive to conserved) has a closed-form solution, but the inverse transformation (conserved to primitive) requires the solution of a set of five nonlinear equations. Here we discuss the mathematical properties of the inverse transformation and present six numerical methods for performing the inversion. The first method solves the full set of five nonlinear equations directly using a Newton-Raphson scheme and a guess from the previous time step. The other methods reduce the five nonlinear equations to either one or two nonlinear equations that are solved numerically. Comparisons between the methods are made using a survey over phase space, a two-dimensional explosion problem, and a general relativistic MHD accretion disk simulation. The run time of the methods is also examined. Code implementing the schemes is available with the electronic edition of the article.

  8. Parkinson disease and incidental Lewy body disease

    PubMed Central

    Geraci-Erck, Maria; Rabin, Marcie L.; Adler, Charles H.; Serrano, Geidy; Beach, Thomas G.; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the loss of pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of autopsy-confirmed Parkinson disease (PD) and incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD) vs age-matched controls (C). Methods: Unbiased stereology methods were used to rigorously count number and measure volumes of nigral pigmented neurons in PD, ILBD, and C brains. The obtained stereologic results were correlated with Lewy body (LB), amyloid plaque (AP), neurofibrillary tangle (NFT), and vascular pathology loads assessed in nigral and extranigral regions of each PD, ILBD, and C brain. The stereologic measurements were also correlated to predeath motor and cognitive scores as available for each participant. Results: A marked nigral neuronal loss (NNL) in PD (−82%) and ILBD (−40%) compared to C (p < 0.0001) was found. While there was significant correlation between NNL and LB in some cortical areas of PD (i.e., olfactory bulb), there were no correlations between NNL and LB, AP, or NFT loads or cerebral infarct volumes in any other examined regions for PD and ILBD brains. Conclusions: Using unbiased stereology methods, we show that there is a significant loss and absence of hypertrophic changes in nigral pigmented neurons of ILBD in comparison to C brains. Intriguingly, no significant correlations were found between NNL and LB loads in the SN of both PD and ILBD brains. These autopsy-verified stereologically based findings are novel and support ILBD as a pathologic condition. These results suggest possible new and alternative pathophysiologic hypotheses on the actual relationship between NNL and LB pathology. PMID:26468408

  9. A Structured approach to incidental take decision making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.

    2013-01-01

    Decision making related to incidental take of endangered species under U.S. law lends itself well to a structured decision making approach. Incidental take is the permitted killing, harming, or harassing of a protected species under the law as long as that harm is incidental to an otherwise lawful activity and does not “reduce appreciably the probability of survival and recovery in the wild.” There has been inconsistency in the process used for determining incidental take allowances across species and across time for the same species, and structured decision making has been proposed to improve decision making. I use an example decision analysis to demonstrate the process and its applicability to incidental take decisions, even under significant demographic uncertainty and multiple, competing objectives. I define the example problem, present an objectives statement and a value function, use a simulation model to assess the consequences of a set of management actions, and evaluate the tradeoffs among the different actions. The approach results in transparent and repeatable decisions.

  10. Relativistic breakdown in planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, J. R.

    2007-04-15

    In 2003, a new electrical breakdown mechanism involving the production of runaway avalanches by positive feedback from runaway positrons and energetic photons was introduced. This mechanism, which shall be referred to as 'relativistic feedback', allows runaway discharges in gases to become self-sustaining, dramatically increasing the flux of runaway electrons, the accompanying high-energy radiation, and resulting ionization. Using detailed Monte Carlo calculations, properties of relativistic feedback are investigated. It is found that once relativistic feedback fully commences, electrical breakdown will occur and the ambient electric field, extending over cubic kilometers, will be discharged in as little as 2x10{sup -5} s. Furthermore, it is found that the flux of energetic electrons and x rays generated by this mechanism can exceed the flux generated by the standard relativistic runaway electron model by a factor of 10{sup 13}, making relativistic feedback a good candidate for explaining terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and other high-energy phenomena observed in the Earth's atmosphere.

  11. Particle Acceleration at Relativistic and Ultra-Relativistic Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, A.

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using diffusive shock acceleration at relativistic and ultra-relativistic shock waves. High upstream flow gamma factors are used, Γ=(1-uup2/c2)-0.5, which are relevant to models of ultra-relativistic particle shock acceleration in the central engines and relativistic jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) fireballs. Numerical investigations are carried out on acceleration properties in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic flow regime (Γ ˜ 10-1000) concerning angular distributions, acceleration time scales, particle energy gain versus number of crossings and spectral shapes. We perform calculations for both parallel and oblique sub-luminal and super-luminal shocks. For parallel and oblique sub-luminal shocks, the spectra depend on whether or not the scattering is represented by pitch angle diffusion or by large angle scattering. The large angle case exhibits a distinctive structure in the basic power-law spectrum not nearly so obvious for small angle scattering. However, both cases yield a significant 'speed-up' of acceleration rate when compared with the conventional, non-relativistic expression, tacc=[c/(uup-udown)] (λup/uup+λdown/udown). An energization by a factor Γ2 for the first crossing cycle and a large energy gains for subsequent crossings as well as the high 'speed-up' factors found, are important in supporting past works, especially the models developed by Vietri and Waxman on ultra-high energy cosmic ray, neutrino and gamma-ray production in GRB. For oblique super-luminal shocks, we calculate the energy gain and spectral shape for a number of different inclinations. For this case the acceleration of particles is 'pictured' by a shock drift mechanism. We use high gamma flows with Lorentz factors in the range 10-40 which are relevant to ultra-relativistic shocks in AGN accretion disks and jets. In all investigations we closely follow the particle's trajectory along the magnetic field

  12. 76 FR 11205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of a Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port in the... marine mammal species incidental to construction and operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG)...

  13. 77 FR 23547 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Part 217 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River... Incidental to Columbia River Crossing Project, Washington and Oregon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Transit Authority (FTA) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), on behalf of the Columbia...

  14. Large amplitude relativistic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Timothy

    2010-05-15

    Relativistic, longitudinal plasma oscillations are studied for the case of a simple water bag distribution of electrons having cylindrical symmetry in momentum space with the axis of the cylinder parallel to the velocity of wave propagation. The plasma is required to obey the relativistic Vlasov-Poisson equations, and solutions are sought in the wave frame. An exact solution for the plasma density as a function of the electrostatic field is derived. The maximum electric field is presented in terms of an integral over the known density. It is shown that when the perpendicular momentum is neglected, the maximum electric field approaches infinity as the wave phase velocity approaches the speed of light. It is also shown that for any nonzero perpendicular momentum, the maximum electric field will remain finite as the wave phase velocity approaches the speed of light. The relationship to previously published solutions is discussed as is some recent controversy regarding the proper modeling of large amplitude relativistic plasma waves.

  15. Non-Relativistic Superstring Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2007-12-14

    We construct a supersymmetric version of the 'critical' non-relativistic bosonic string theory [1] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc CFT which is the super partner of the {beta}{gamma} CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of Type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are non-chiral. We further consider 'noncritical' generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical non-relativistic string theory and the lightlike Linear Dilaton theory.

  16. Polyanalytic relativistic second Bargmann transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Mouayn, Zouhaïr

    2015-05-15

    We construct coherent states through special superpositions of eigenstates of the relativistic isotonic oscillator. In each superposition, the coefficients are chosen to be L{sup 2}-eigenfunctions of a σ-weight Maass Laplacian on the Poincaré disk, which are associated with the eigenvalue 4m(σ−1−m), m∈Z{sub +}∩[0,(σ−1)/2]. For each nonzero m, the associated coherent states transform constitutes the m-true-polyanalytic extension of a relativistic version of the second Bargmann transform, whose integral kernel is expressed in terms of a special Appel-Kampé de Fériet’s hypergeometric function. The obtained results could be used to extend the known semi-classical analysis of quantum dynamics of the relativistic isotonic oscillator.

  17. Incidental findings on brain and spine imaging in children.

    PubMed

    Maher, Cormac O; Piatt, Joseph H

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the utilization of diagnostic imaging of the brain and spine in children has increased dramatically, leading to a corresponding increase in the detection of incidental findings of the central nervous system. Patients with unexpected findings on imaging are often referred for subspecialty evaluation. Even with rational use of diagnostic imaging and subspecialty consultation, the diagnostic process will always generate unexpected findings that must be explained and managed. Familiarity with the most common findings that are discovered incidentally on diagnostic imaging of the brain and spine will assist the pediatrician in providing counseling to families and in making recommendations in conjunction with a neurosurgeon, when needed, regarding additional treatments and prognosis.

  18. Special Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2016-12-01

    Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.

  19. Relativistic solutions to directed energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip M.; Zhang, Qicheng

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyses the nature and feasibility of using directed energy to propel probes through space at relativistic speeds. Possible mission scenarios are considered by varying the spacecraft mass, thickness of the sail and power of the directed energy array. We calculate that gram-scaled probes are capable of achieving relativistic speeds and reaching Alpha Centauri well within a human lifetime. A major drawback is the diffraction of the beam which reduces the incident power on the sail resulting in a terminal velocity for the probes. Various notions of efficiency are discussed and we conclude that directed energy propulsion provides a viable direction for future space exploration.

  20. Phenomenological Relativistic Energy Density Functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Kartzikos, S.; Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    The framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals is applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of beta-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure is explored using the fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Recent applications of energy density functionals with explicit density dependence of the meson-nucleon couplings are presented.

  1. Quantum Tunneling Time: Relativistic Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dai-Yu; Wang, Towe; Xue, Xun

    2013-11-01

    Several years ago, in quantum mechanics, Davies proposed a method to calculate particle's traveling time with the phase difference of wave function. The method is convenient for calculating the sojourn time inside a potential step and the tunneling time through a potential hill. We extend Davies' non-relativistic calculation to relativistic quantum mechanics, with and without particle-antiparticle creation, using Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac Equation, for different forms of energy-momentum relation. The extension is successful only when the particle and antiparticle creation/annihilation effect is negligible.

  2. A Review of Effect of Different Tasks on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of incidental vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have got more and more attention both at home and abroad. By first introducing the definition and theoretical foundations of incidental vocabulary acquisition, this paper reviews empirical studies of effect of different tasks on incidental vocabulary acquisition and points…

  3. 78 FR 54437 - Interagency Cooperation-Endangered Species Act of 1973, as Amended; Incidental Take Statements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... address the use of surrogates to express the amount or extent of anticipated incidental take, and... Services to consider clarifying two aspects of incidental take statements: (1) The use of surrogates such... anticipated incidental take, including circumstances where project impacts to the surrogate are...

  4. 50 CFR 18.24 - Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.24 Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations. Persons may take marine mammals incidental to commercial fishing operations... regulations issued by the Secretary of Commerce. However, any marine mammal taken as an incidental catch...

  5. 77 FR 23463 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... two species of pinnipeds incidental to space vehicle and missile launch operations at the Kodiak... vitulina) (adults by harassment and pups by injury or mortality), incidental to space vehicle and...

  6. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  7. The Probable Connection Between Relativistic Shock Acceleration and Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieu, R.

    1998-01-01

    The recent detection of delayed Gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglows at longer wavelengths (van Paradijs et al 1997, Piro et al 1997, Bond 1997, Frail and Kulkarni 1997, Halpern et al 1997) supports strongly the notion that GRBs are produced at relativistic cosmological shocks (Pacynski 1986, Goodman 1986, Rees and Meszaros 1992). The current understanding is that these shocks are ultra-relativistic, with an upstream Lorentz factor Gamma ~300, and radiate the gamma rays as the shock accelerated electrons emit by the synchrotron or inverse-Compton process (Waxman 1997).

  8. Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykov, Andrei; Gehrels, Neil; Krawczynski, Henric; Lemoine, Martin; Pelletier, Guy; Pohl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this review we confront the current theoretical understanding of particle acceleration at relativistic outflows with recent observational results on various source classes thought to involve such outflows, e.g. gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and pulsar wind nebulae. We highlight the possible contributions of these sources to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  9. Relativistic Optimized Link by KLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, C.

    The KLT is a way of optimizing the signal processing of a given noisy signal by projecting the noisy signal itself onto the set of orthonormal basis functions spanned by the eigenfunctions of the autocorrelation of the noisy signal. Thus, the key problem in computing the KLT of a noisy signal is the computation of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the autocorrelation of the noisy signal. For the special case of the Brownian motion (i.e. the basic Gaussian noisy signal) it can be proved that the KLT eigenfunctions are just sines, i.e. the KLT is the same as the FT. Let us now bring relativity into the KLT picture (this paper is confined to special relativity; general relativity can be KLT-studied also, but the calculations are, of course, even more difficult). Also, only rectilinear motions will be considered here. So, if one considers a source in relativistic motion, then the noisy signal undergoes a time-rescaling that depends on the type of relativistic motion. In past work this author has demostrated that the eigenfunctions of the time-rescaled, relativistic Brownian motion are Bessel functions of the first kind, and their eigenvalues are the zeros of such Bessel functions. In addition, it is stated (without proofs) that explicit formulae for the KLT signal processing can be found for the particularly important cases of the noisy signals received on Earth from a relativistic spacecraft whose motion is either: 1) uniform; or 2) uniformly accelerated.

  10. Proper-time relativistic dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tepper L.; Zachary, W. W.; Lindesay, James

    1993-01-01

    Proper-time relativistic single-particle classical Hamiltonian mechanics is formulated using a transformation from observer time to system proper time which is a canonical contact transformation on extended phase space. It is shown that interaction induces a change in the symmetry structure of the system which can be analyzed in terms of a Lie-isotopic deformation of the algebra of observables.

  11. Relativistic resonance and decay phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Hai V.

    2015-04-01

    The exact relation τ = ℏ/Γ between the width Γ of a resonance and the lifetime τ for the decay of this resonance could not be obtained in standard quantum theory based on the Hilbert space or Schwartz space axiom in non-relativistic physics as well as in the relativistic regime. In order to obtain the exact relation, one has to modify the Hilbert space axiom or the Schwartz space axiom and choose new boundary conditions based on the Hardy space axioms in which the space of the states and the space of the observables are described by two different Hardy spaces. As consequences of the new Hardy space axioms, one obtains, instead of the symmetric time evolution for the states and the observables, asymmetrical time evolutions for the states and observables which are described by two semi-groups. A relativistic resonance obeying the exponential time evolution can be described by a relativistic Gamow vector, which is defined as superposition of the exact out-plane wave states with a Breit-Wigner energy distribution of the width Γ.

  12. Manipulating relativistic electrons with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, Victor

    2016-09-01

    The motion control of relativistic electrons with lasers allows for an efficient and elegant way to map the space with ultra-intense electric-field components, which, in turn, permits a unique improvement of the electron beam parameters. This perspective addresses the recent laser plasma accelerator experiments related to the phase space engineering of electron beams in a plasma medium performed at LOA.

  13. Action Principle for Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avignon, Eric; Morrison, Philip; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    A covariant action principle for ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in terms of natural Eulerian field variables is given. This is done by generalizing the covariant Poisson bracket theory of Marsden et al., which uses a noncanonical bracket to implement constrained variations of an action functional. Various implications and extensions of this action principle are also discussed.

  14. Microscopic Processes in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Fredricksen, J.; Sol, H.; Niemiec, J.; Lyubarsky, Y.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the collisionless relativistic shock particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  15. 78 FR 35363 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA), and its implementing regulations, we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we), are finalizing regulations that authorize the nonlethal, incidental, unintentional take of small numbers of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during oil and gas Industry......

  16. Representations of an Incidental Learning Framework to Support Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Eileen; Gaved, Mark; Jones, Ann; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Paletta, Lucas; Dunwell, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses how the particular features of mobile learning can be harnessed to provide new informal learning opportunities in relation to context aware and location based learning. The MASELTOV project is developing representations of an incidental learning framework to enable software developers and researchers to both design and analyse…

  17. 21 CFR 178.3570 - Lubricants with incidental food contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lubricants with incidental food contact. 178.3570 Section 178.3570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  18. Playground Exploration: An Opportunity for Incidental Learning of Mechanical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Play involves unstructured activity that is freely entered into and intrinsically rewarding. When children engage in play there is little intentional learning. There are no lesson plans. There are no daily objectives or specific learning outcomes. Incidental learning can cause relatively permanent changes in the way one thinks; accidental learning…

  19. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition from Reading an Authentic Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daskalovska, Nina

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that second/foreign language learners can acquire vocabulary from reading. This study was designed to examine whether advanced EFL learners can acquire vocabulary incidentally from reading an authentic text. Eighteen first year English major students read and listened to the first eight chapters of Pride and…

  20. An Analysis of Adult Interaction Styles and Children's Incidental Imitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkey, Robert W.; Morris, Edward K.

    This paper describes two experiments designed to determine whether traditional effects of adult nurturance on children's incidental imitation could be obtained using a within-subject design and a functional (rather than operational) definition of nurturance. Four preschool children served as subjects, with four others serving as cross-sex…

  1. Gallium accumulation in the stomach. A frequent incidental finding

    SciTech Connect

    MacMahon, H.; Vyborny, C.; Sephardari, S.; Kirchner, P.; Ryan, J.

    1985-10-01

    Accumulation of tracer by the stomach is a frequent incidental occurrence on gallium scans. Gastric concentration of Ga-67 equal to or greater than that seen in the liver was observed in approximately 10% of patients in a large series. Although a few of these patients had known or subsequently demonstrated gastric pathologic conditions, most had no clinically or radiographically identifiable gastric disease.

  2. 75 FR 42121 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... applicant to incidentally take, by harassment, small numbers of southern sea otters for a period of 6 months... does not apply to southern sea otters. Section 101(a)(5)(D) of the MMPA established an expedited... Region (Applicant) for MMPA authorization to take by harassment southern sea otters (Enhydra...

  3. 76 FR 18232 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... harassment, small numbers of northern sea otters for a period of 1 year, beginning July 1, 2011. We... by harassment of northern sea otters (Enhydralutriskenyoni) incidental to the Akutan Airport, Alaska... authorizing Level B harassment of northern sea otters for a period of 1 year. The term of the IHAs...

  4. Effects of Captioning on Video Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Maribel Montero; Peters, Elke; Clarebout, Geraldine; Desmet, Piet

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how three captioning types (i.e., on-screen text in the same language as the video) can assist L2 learners in the incidental acquisition of target vocabulary words and in the comprehension of L2 video. A sample of 133 Flemish undergraduate students watched three French clips twice. The control group (n = 32) watched the clips…

  5. Incidental Language Learning in Foreign Language Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Daryl M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which 40 students enrolled in upper level foreign language literary/cultural studies content courses showed evidence of incidental language learning over the course of a semester. Students completed a cloze passage and provided both writing and speaking samples at the beginning and end of the semester. In…

  6. Word Frequency Effects on Memory and Incidental/Intentional Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinke, Dean L.; And Others

    Four separate experiments were completed using the same stimulus materials but different groups of subjects to determine if orienting tasks created problems of control in incidental/intentional learning studies. Subjects were all Caucasians and heterogeneous in age (from 24 to 64 years), educational experiences, and career choices. Those in the…

  7. Guidance of Spatial Attention by Incidental Learning and Endogenous Cuing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.; Rosenbaum, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    Our visual system is highly sensitive to regularities in the environment. Locations that were important in one's previous experience are often prioritized during search, even though observers may not be aware of the learning. In this study we characterized the guidance of spatial attention by incidental learning of a target's spatial probability,…

  8. 76 FR 13453 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) proposes regulations that would authorize the nonlethal, incidental, unintentional take of small numbers of polar bears and Pacific walruses during year-round oil and gas industry (Industry) exploration, development, and production operations in the Beaufort Sea and adjacent northern coast of Alaska. Industry operations for the covered period are similar......

  9. Concurrent Movement Impairs Incidental but Not Intentional Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, David J.; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of concurrent movement on incidental versus intentional statistical learning was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants learned the statistical regularities embedded within familiarization stimuli implicitly, whereas in Experiment 2 they were made aware of the embedded regularities and were instructed explicitly to…

  10. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  11. Fast Lattice Boltzmann Solver for Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Boghosian, B. M.; Succi, S.

    2010-07-02

    A lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically validated through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic fluids. In order to illustrate its capability to handle complex geometries, the scheme is also applied to the case of a three-dimensional relativistic shock wave, generated by a supernova explosion, impacting on a massive interstellar cloud. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the proven advantages of lattice Boltzmann methods, namely, computational efficiency and easy handling of complex geometries, to the context of (mildly) relativistic fluid dynamics at large, from quark-gluon plasmas up to supernovae with relativistic outflows.

  12. Locative Inversion in Cantonese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Sui-Sang

    This study investigates the phenomenon of "Locative Inversion" in Cantonese. The term "Locative Inversion" indicates that the locative phrase (LP) syntactic process in Cantonese and the appears at the sentence-initial position and its logical subject occurs postverbally. It is demonstrated that this Locative Inversion is a…

  13. 76 FR 35856 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... the explosive removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: The... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  14. 75 FR 31423 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  15. 77 FR 16539 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are effective from March... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  16. 75 FR 28566 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  17. 75 FR 38078 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  18. 75 FR 54851 - Incidental Taking of Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to the Explosive Removal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... removal of offshore oil and gas structures (EROS) in the Gulf of Mexico. DATES: These authorizations are... taking. Regulations governing the taking of marine mammals incidental to EROS were published on June 19... during EROS activities are bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphins...

  19. 76 FR 41463 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    .... Instructions: All comments received are a part of the public record and will generally be posted to http://www....noaa.gov/pr/permits/incidental.htm . The National Science Foundation (NSF), which is providing funding... on- board processing system. In addition, at least 72 sonobuoys will be deployed in order to...

  20. Relativistic rocket: Dream and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semyonov, Oleg G.

    2014-06-01

    The dream of interstellar flights persists since the first pioneers in astronautics and has never died. Many concepts of thruster capable to propel a rocket to the stars have been proposed and the most suitable among them are thought to be photon propulsion and propulsion by the products of proton-antiproton annihilation in magnetic nozzle. This article addresses both concepts allowing for cross-section of annihilation among other issues in order to show their vulnerability and to indicate the problems. The concept of relativistic matter propulsion is substantiated and discussed. The latter is argued to be the most straightforward way to build-up a relativistic rocket firstly because it is based on the existing technology of ion generators and accelerators and secondly because it can be stepped up in efflux power starting from interplanetary spacecrafts powered by nuclear reactors to interstellar starships powered by annihilation reactors. The problems imposed by thermodynamics and heat disposal are accentuated.

  1. Relativistic optics of nondispersive media

    SciTech Connect

    Miron, R.; Zet, G.

    1995-09-01

    The relativistic optics of the nondispersive media endowed with the metric g{sub ij}(x) and with a nonlinear connection is studied. The d-connection relates the conformal and projective properties of the space-time. A post-Newtonian estimation for the metric g{sub ij} is also given. It is shown that the solar system tests impose a constraint on a combination of the post-Newtonian parameters describing the model.

  2. Thermodynamic and relativistic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonov, A. A.; Plotnikov, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamic uncertainty relation (UR) was verified experimentally. The experiments have shown the validity of the quantum analogue of the zeroth law of stochastic thermodynamics in the form of the saturated Schrödinger UR. We have also proposed a new type of UR for the relativistic mechanics. These relations allow us to consider macroscopic phenomena within the limits of the ratio of the uncertainty relations for different physical quantities.

  3. Relativistic opacities for astrophysical applications

    DOE PAGES

    Fontes, Christopher John; Fryer, Christopher Lee; Hungerford, Aimee L.; ...

    2015-06-29

    Here, we report on the use of the Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes to generate radiative opacities for the modeling of astrophysically relevant plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. The atomic structure calculations are carried out in fine-structure detail, including full configuration interaction. Three example applications are considered: iron opacities at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, nickel opacities for the modeling of stellar envelopes, and samarium opacities for the modeling of light curves produced by neutron star mergers. In the first two examples, comparisons are made between opacities that are generatedmore » with the fully and semi-relativistic capabilities in the Los Alamos suite of codes. As expected for these highly charged, iron-peak ions, the two methods produce reasonably similar results, providing confidence that the numerical methods have been correctly implemented. However, discrepancies greater than 10% are observed for nickel and investigated in detail. In the final application, the relativistic capability is used in a preliminary investigation of the complicated absorption spectrum associated with cold lanthanide elements.« less

  4. Relativistic opacities for astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, C. J.; Fryer, C. L.; Hungerford, A. L.; Hakel, P.; Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the use of the Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes to generate radiative opacities for the modeling of astrophysically relevant plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. The atomic structure calculations are carried out in fine-structure detail, including full configuration interaction. Three example applications are considered: iron opacities at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, nickel opacities for the modeling of stellar envelopes, and samarium opacities for the modeling of light curves produced by neutron star mergers. In the first two examples, comparisons are made between opacities that are generated with the fully and semi-relativistic capabilities in the Los Alamos suite of codes. As expected for these highly charged, iron-peak ions, the two methods produce reasonably similar results, providing confidence that the numerical methods have been correctly implemented. However, discrepancies greater than 10% are observed for nickel and investigated in detail. In the final application, the relativistic capability is used in a preliminary investigation of the complicated absorption spectrum associated with cold lanthanide elements.

  5. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters.

    PubMed

    Benacquista, Matthew J; Downing, Jonathan M B

    2013-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10(4)-10(6) stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  6. Relativistic covariance of Ohm's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, R.; Schober, G. A. H.

    2016-04-01

    The derivation of Lorentz-covariant generalizations of Ohm's law has been a long-term issue in theoretical physics with deep implications for the study of relativistic effects in optical and atomic physics. In this article, we propose an alternative route to this problem, which is motivated by the tremendous progress in first-principles materials physics in general and ab initio electronic structure theory in particular. We start from the most general, Lorentz-covariant first-order response law, which is written in terms of the fundamental response tensor χμ ν relating induced four-currents to external four-potentials. By showing the equivalence of this description to Ohm's law, we prove the validity of Ohm's law in every inertial frame. We further use the universal relation between χμ ν and the microscopic conductivity tensor σkℓ to derive a fully relativistic transformation law for the latter, which includes all effects of anisotropy and relativistic retardation. In the special case of a constant, scalar conductivity, this transformation law can be used to rederive a standard textbook generalization of Ohm's law.

  7. Relativistic opacities for astrophysical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fontes, Christopher John; Fryer, Christopher Lee; Hungerford, Aimee L.; Hakel, Peter; Colgan, James Patrick; Kilcrease, David Parker; Sherrill, Manalo Edgar

    2015-06-29

    Here, we report on the use of the Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes to generate radiative opacities for the modeling of astrophysically relevant plasmas under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. The atomic structure calculations are carried out in fine-structure detail, including full configuration interaction. Three example applications are considered: iron opacities at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, nickel opacities for the modeling of stellar envelopes, and samarium opacities for the modeling of light curves produced by neutron star mergers. In the first two examples, comparisons are made between opacities that are generated with the fully and semi-relativistic capabilities in the Los Alamos suite of codes. As expected for these highly charged, iron-peak ions, the two methods produce reasonably similar results, providing confidence that the numerical methods have been correctly implemented. However, discrepancies greater than 10% are observed for nickel and investigated in detail. In the final application, the relativistic capability is used in a preliminary investigation of the complicated absorption spectrum associated with cold lanthanide elements.

  8. New relativistic Hamiltonian: the angular magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Charles; Mondal, Ritwik; Berritta, Marco; Dkhil, Brahim; Singh, Surendra; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Bellaiche, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Hamiltonian. As an illustration of the AME coupling, we straightforwardly derived a relativistic correction to the so-called Inverse Faraday Effect (IFE), which is the emergence of an effective magnetic field under illumination by a circularly polarized light.

  9. MHD Equation of State with Relativistic Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhigang; Däppen, Werner; Zejda, Ladislav

    2001-01-01

    The Mihalas-Däppen-Hummer (MHD) equation of state does not include the effect of relativistic partially degenerate electrons, although nonrelativistic partial degeneracy is taken into account. The discovery of a relativistic correction in helioseismology forces us to perform an appropriate upgrade of the MHD equation of state. We have adopted the method of J. M. Aparicio to evaluate the relativistic Fermi-Dirac functions. Our calculations confirm the validity of the approximation used, which works well for the weakly relativistic electrons under solar-center conditions. However, our results will also provide reliable thermodynamic quantities in the stronger relativistic regime as found in more massive stars. Since a particular feature of the original MHD papers was an explicit list of the adopted free energy and its first- and second-order analytical derivatives, we give the corresponding relativistic quantities in the Appendix.

  10. Concurrent movement impairs incidental but not intentional statistical learning.

    PubMed

    Stevens, David J; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I

    2015-07-01

    The effect of concurrent movement on incidental versus intentional statistical learning was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants learned the statistical regularities embedded within familiarization stimuli implicitly, whereas in Experiment 2 they were made aware of the embedded regularities and were instructed explicitly to learn these regularities. Experiment 1 demonstrated that while the control group were able to learn the statistical regularities, the resistance-free cycling group and the exercise group did not demonstrate learning. This is in contrast with the findings of Experiment 2, where all three groups demonstrated significant levels of learning. The results suggest that the movement demands, rather than the physiological stress, interfered with statistical learning. We suggest movement activates the striatum, which is not only responsible for motor control but also plays a role in incidental learning.

  11. Relativistic Navigation: A Theoretical Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    1996-01-01

    We present a theoretical foundation for relativistic astronomical measurements in curved space-time. In particular, we discuss a new iterative approach for describing the dynamics of an isolated astronomical N-body system in metric theories of gravity. To do this, we generalize the Fock-Chandrasekhar method of the weak-field and slow-motion approximation (WFSMA) and develop a theory of relativistic reference frames (RF's) for a gravitationally bounded many-extended-body problem. In any proper RF constructed in the immediate vicinity of an arbitrary body, the N-body solutions of the gravitational field equations are formally presented as a sum of the Riemann-flat inertial space-time, the gravitational field generated by the body itself, the unperturbed solutions for each body in the system transformed to the coordinates of this proper RF, and the gravitational interaction term. We develop the basic concept of a general WFSMA theory of the celestial RF's applicable to a wide class of metric theories of gravity and an arbitrary model of matter distribution. We apply the proposed method to general relativity. Celestial bodies are described using a perfect fluid model; as such, they possess any number of internal mass and current multipole moments that explicitly characterize their internal structures. The obtained relativistic corrections to the geodetic equations of motion arise because of a coupling of the bodies' multiple moments to the surrounding gravitational field. The resulting relativistic transformations between the different RF's extend the Poincare group to the motion of deformable self-gravitating bodies. Within the present accuracy of astronomical measurements we discuss the properties of the Fermi-normal-like proper RF that is defined in the immediate vicinity of the extended compact bodies. We further generalize the proposed approximation method and include two Eddington parameters (gamma, Beta). This generalized approach was used to derive the

  12. INVERSE STABLE SUBORDINATORS

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; STRAKA, PETER

    2013-01-01

    The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled. PMID:25045216

  13. Relativistic radiation transport in dispersive media

    SciTech Connect

    Kichenassamy, S.; Krikorian, R.A.

    1985-10-15

    A general-relativistic radiative transfer equation in an isotropic, weakly absorbing, nonmagnetized dispersive medium is derived using the kinetic-theoretical approach and the relativistic Hamiltonian theory of geometrical optics in those media. It yields the generally accepted classical equation in the special-relativistic approximation and in stationary conditions. The influence of the gravitational field and of space-time variations of the refractive index n on the radiation distribution is made explicit in the case of spherical symmetry.

  14. Mesoscopic Superposition States in Relativistic Landau Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.

    2007-09-21

    We show that a linear superposition of mesoscopic states in relativistic Landau levels can be built when an external magnetic field couples to a relativistic spin 1/2 charged particle. Under suitable initial conditions, the associated Dirac equation produces unitarily superpositions of coherent states involving the particle orbital quanta in a well-defined mesoscopic regime. We demonstrate that these mesoscopic superpositions have a purely relativistic origin and disappear in the nonrelativistic limit.

  15. A relativistic correction to semiclassical charmonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J.

    1995-09-01

    It is shown that the relativistic linear potentials, introduced by the author within the particle à la Wheeler-Feynman direct-interaction (AAD) theory, applied to the semiclassically quantized charmonium, yield energy spectrum comparable to that of some known models. Using the expansion of the relativistic linear AAD potentials in powers ofc -1, the charmonium spectrum, given as a rule by Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization of circular orbits, is extended up to the second order of relativistic corrections.

  16. Relativistic Electron Wave Packets Carrying Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2017-03-01

    There are important differences between the nonrelativistic and relativistic description of electron beams. In the relativistic case the orbital angular momentum quantum number cannot be used to specify the wave functions and the structure of vortex lines in these two descriptions is completely different. We introduce analytic solutions of the Dirac equation in the form of exponential wave packets and we argue that they properly describe relativistic electron beams carrying angular momentum.

  17. Effect of Chaos on Relativistic Quantum Tunneling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Effect of chaos on relativistic quantum tunneling This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article...of chaos on relativistic quantum tunneling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...tunneling dynamics even in the relativistic quantum regime. Similar phenomena have been observed in graphene. A physical theory is developed to

  18. Incidental finding of a microsporidian parasite from an AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, R J; Tandy, M W; Boreham, R E; Stenzel, D J; O'Donoghue, P J

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic examination of feces from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with chronic diarrhea, anorexia, and lethargy revealed the presence of numerous refractile bodies resembling microsporidian spores. They were subsequently identified as belonging to the genus Nosema on the basis of their ultrastructural characteristics. However, the microsporidia were enclosed within striated muscle cells, suggesting that they were probably ingested in food; thus, this represented an incidental finding rather than a true infection. Images PMID:8432833

  19. Incidental gallbladder cancer diagnosed during and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tetsuya; Arima, Yasuo; Yokomuro, Shigeki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Nomura, Tsutomu; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Aimoto, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Uchida, Eiji; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi

    2006-06-01

    With the increasingly widespread acceptance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), the number of cases of incidental gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) has increased; however, management of incidental GBC is a difficult issue in the absence of established guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the treatment of patients with incidental GBC diagnosed with LC. We performed a 14-year review of 10 patients with GBC discovered with LC. From April 1991 through March 2004, we performed LC for 1,195 patients at Nippon Medical School Main Hospital. Of these patients, 10 (0.83%) were found to have GBC. Seven patients were women and 3 were men, with a mean age of 61.4 years. Four patients had mucosal tumors (pT1a), 5 had subserosal tumors (pT2), and 1 had a serosal lesion (pT3). Eight of the 10 patients underwent radical surgery. Two patients with pT1a tumors underwent no additional surgery. All 4 patients with pT1a tumors are alive without recurrence. One patient with a pT2 tumor with metastases to the liver and pericholedochal lymph nodes found with additional resection died of recurrence of metastasis to the liver and lung 70 months after LC. One patient with a pT2 tumor died of primary lung cancer 35 months after LC. The remaining 3 patients with pT2 tumors are alive without recurrence 51 to 128 months after surgery. One patient with a pT3 tumor is alive with no recurrence for 9 months. For stage Tis or T1a tumors, LC is sufficient. Patients with T1b tumors should undergo liver-bed resection and lymphadenectomy, and patients with >pT2 tumors should undergo systematic liver resection with lymphadenectomy. Even when incidental GBC diagnosed with LC is advanced, adequate additional surgery may improve the prognosis.

  20. Primary Sarcoid of the Breast with Incidental Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Isley, Laura M.; Cluver, Abbie R.; Leddy, Rebecca J.; Baker, Megan K.

    2012-01-01

    Breast sarcoidosis is rare and usually presents in patients with known sarcoid involving other organ systems. In the breast, sarcoidosis may mimic malignancy which must be excluded by core biopsy. We report a very unusual case of primary breast sarcoidosis with incidentally discovered breast carcinoma. The roles of mammography, ultrasound, and MRI in the diagnosis as well as other potential differential diagnosis are discussed. PMID:22919560

  1. Incidentally Detected Blue Nevus of Endocervix: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Shaila Talengala; Shivamurthy, Archana; Kini Rao, Anuradha Calicut

    2015-01-01

    Blue nevi are uncommon, asymptomatic lesions of the uterine cervix. These lesions are not often detected clinically or on colposcopy. Careful histopathological examination is required. The nevus cells are said to originate from the immature melanoblasts of the neural crest. These lesions need to be differentiated from malignant melanoma and melanosis of the cervix. We present here a case report of incidentally detected cervical blue nevus in a 52 year old lady. PMID:26351493

  2. Contributory and incidental blood concentrations in deaths involving citalopram.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Torok, Michelle; Duflou, Johan

    2013-03-01

    All cases presenting to the New South Wales Department of Forensic Medicine between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2010 in which citalopram was detected were retrieved. A total of 348 cases were identified. Citalopram contributed to death in 21.0%, and was incidental in 79.0%. Cases in which citalopram was contributory to death had significantly higher blood citalopram concentrations than incidental cases (0.50 mg/L vs. 0.30 mg/L). Citalopram concentrations varied significantly by contributory status: sole citalopram toxicity (median = 1.30 mg/L), citalopram/other drug toxicity (0.50 mg/L), and incidental cases (0.30 mg/L). Citalopram concentrations also varied by suicide status, with the highest concentration found in suicides where citalopram contributed to death (0.70 mg/L) compared with 0.50 mg/L for nonsuicide cases where citalopram contributed to death. In almost all contributory cases (69/73), other psychoactive substances were also detected, most commonly benzodiazepines (47.9%), alcohol (45.2%), and opioids (40.1%).

  3. Incidental pheochromocytoma in a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baldane, S; Ipekci, S H; Celik, E; Gedik, G K; Ozaslan, E; Guler, I; Kebapcilar, L

    2015-10-01

    Because the adrenal glands are common locations for metastases, pheochromocytoma is frequently misdiagnosed as adrenal metastasis in patients with a history of cancer. An incidental adrenal mass was detected during an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan performed to stage the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a 35-year-old male patient. The features of an adrenal mass on the CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) were thought to show adrenal metastasis. However, the patient did not complain about flushing, palpitation, headache or excessive sweating. His blood pressure was 132/74 mmHg, and his pulse rate was 82 bpm. A pheochromocytoma was found during a biochemical diagnosis that evaluated the catecholamine in urine collected over a 24-hour period. The urine had elevated urinary adrenaline, metanephrine, and vanillylmandelic. An I123 MIBG scan showed avid tracer uptake in the right adrenal mass with no evidence of abnormal uptake elsewhere. A right adrenalectomy operation was performed and a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed histopathologically. Incidental adrenal masses detected in the presence history of cancer should always be subjected to hormonal evaluation. Although patients may be asymptomatic, the probability of incidental pheochromocytoma should not be ignored.

  4. Incidental Learning of Melodic Structure of North Indian Music.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Widdess, Richard

    2016-11-17

    Musical knowledge is largely implicit. It is acquired without awareness of its complex rules, through interaction with a large number of samples during musical enculturation. Whereas several studies explored implicit learning of mostly abstract and less ecologically valid features of Western music, very little work has been done with respect to ecologically valid stimuli as well as non-Western music. The present study investigated implicit learning of modal melodic features in North Indian classical music in a realistic and ecologically valid way. It employed a cross-grammar design, using melodic materials from two modes (rāgas) that use the same scale. Findings indicated that Western participants unfamiliar with Indian music incidentally learned to identify distinctive features of each mode. Confidence ratings suggest that participants' performance was consistently correlated with confidence, indicating that they became aware of whether they were right in their responses; that is, they possessed explicit judgment knowledge. Altogether our findings show incidental learning in a realistic ecologically valid context during only a very short exposure, they provide evidence that incidental learning constitutes a powerful mechanism that plays a fundamental role in musical acquisition.

  5. The effects of ordinal load on incidental temporal learning.

    PubMed

    Silva, Susana; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Castro, São Luís

    2017-04-01

    How can we grasp the temporal structure of events? A few studies have indicated that representations of temporal structure are acquired when there is an intention to learn, but not when learning is incidental. Response-to-stimulus intervals, uncorrelated temporal structures, unpredictable ordinal information, and lack of metrical organization have been pointed out as key obstacles to incidental temporal learning, but the literature includes piecemeal demonstrations of learning under all these circumstances. We suggest that the unacknowledged effects of ordinal load may help reconcile these conflicting findings, ordinal load referring to the cost of identifying the sequence of events (e.g., tones, locations) where a temporal pattern is embedded. In a first experiment, we manipulated ordinal load into simple and complex levels. Participants learned ordinal-simple sequences, despite their uncorrelated temporal structure and lack of metrical organization. They did not learn ordinal-complex sequences, even though there were no response-to-stimulus intervals nor unpredictable ordinal information. In a second experiment, we probed learning of ordinal-complex sequences with strong metrical organization, and again there was no learning. We conclude that ordinal load is a key obstacle to incidental temporal learning. Further analyses showed that the effect of ordinal load is to mask the expression of temporal knowledge, rather than to prevent learning.

  6. Incidental Breast Lesions Detected on Computed Thorax Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Poyraz, Necdet; Emlik, Ganime Dilek; Keskin, Suat; Kalkan, Havva

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although mammography is the primary imaging method of the breast, incidental benign and malignant breast lesions are increasingly being detected on computed tomographies (CTs) performed to detect different pathologies. Therefore, the detection and accurate identification of these lesions is important. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency, morphological features, and results of incidental breast lesions on CTs performed for the detection of extramammarian pathologies. Materials and Methods Incidental breast lesions on CTs performed in our department between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated. Patients who had previously diagnosed breast lesions were excluded from the study. The inclusion criteria were histopathologic diagnose and being followed-up for at least 2 years. Results The study population consisted of 33 women whose mean age was 55±1.38 (37–78) years. Of the 33 women, 12 (36%) had malignant and 21 (64%) had benign or normal findings. The most common malignant lesion was invasive ductal carcinoma, and the most common benign lesion was fibroadenoma. Ill-defined contour and lymphadenopathy in malignant lesions and well-defined contour in benign lesions were the most important CT findings. Conclusion Breast must be carefully evaluated if it is included in the scans. An accurate report of breast lesions gives an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Incidental Parathyroidectomy during Total Thyroidectomy: Risk Factors and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Balalis, Dimitrios; Soulou, Vasiliki N.; Korkolis, Dimitrios P.; Plataniotis, Georgios; Gontikakis, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the incidence of accidental parathyroidectomy in our series of total thyroidectomies, to investigate its clinical and biochemical consequences, and to identify potential risk factors. Methods. Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy between January 2006 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Pathology reports were reviewed to identify those cases who had an incidental parathyroidectomy and these were compared to patients with no parathyroidectomy, in terms of clinical (age, sex, and symptoms of hypocalcemia), pathological (thyroid specimen weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy), and biochemical (serum calcium and phosphate levels) factors. Results. 281 patients underwent total thyroidectomy during the study period. Incidental parathyroidectomy was noticed in 24.9% of cases, with 44.3% of parathyroid glands found in an intrathyroidal location. Evidence of postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia was noticed in 28.6% of patients with parathyroidectomy, compared with 13.3% in the no-parathyroidectomy group (p = 0.003). Symptomatic hypocalcemia was observed in 5.7% and 3.8%, respectively (p = 0.49). Age, sex, thyroid specimen weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions. Our study found an association of incidental parathyroidectomy with transient postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia, but not with clinically symptomatic disease. Age, sex, thyroid gland weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy were not identified as risk factors. PMID:27635137

  8. Relabeling symmetry in relativistic fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazura, Yohei; Yoshida, Zensho; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2014-10-01

    The conservation of the recently formulated relativistic canonical helicity is derived from Noether's theorem with the fluid elements' relabeling symmetry. Upon Eulerianizing the Noether current, the purely spatial volume integral on the Lagrangian coordinates is mapped to a space-time mixed three-dimensional integral on the four-dimensional Eulerian coordinates. The relativistic conservation law in the Eulerian coordinates is no longer represented by any divergence-free current. We have also formulated a relativistic action principle of MHD on the Lagrangian coordinates, and have derived the relativistic MHD cross helicity. Work supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows 241010.

  9. Dissipation in Relativistic Pair-Plasma Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    We present an investigation of the relativistic dissipation in magnetic reconnection. The investigated system consists of an electron-positron plasma. A relativistic generalization of Ohm's law is derived. We analyze a set of numerical simulations, composed of runs with and without guide magnetic field, and of runs with different species temperatures. The calculations indicate that the thermal inertia-based dissipation process survives in relativistic plasmas. For anti-parallel reconnection, it is found that the pressure tensor divergence remains the sole contributor to the reconnection electric field, whereas relativistic guide field reconnection exhibits a similarly important role of the bulk inertia terms.

  10. Dissipation in relativistic pair-plasma reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji

    2007-11-15

    An investigation into the relativistic dissipation in magnetic reconnection is presented. The investigated system consists of an electron-positron plasma. A relativistic generalization of Ohm's law is derived. A set of numerical simulations is analyzed, composed of runs with and without guide magnetic field, and of runs with different species temperatures. The calculations indicate that the thermal inertia-based dissipation process survives in relativistic plasmas. For antiparallel reconnection, it is found that the pressure tensor divergence remains the sole contributor to the reconnection electric field, whereas relativistic guide field reconnection exhibits a similarly important role of the bulk inertia terms.

  11. Relativistic and non-relativistic solitons in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Satyendra Nath

    This thesis entitled as "Relativistic and Non-relativistic Solitons in Plasmas" is the embodiment of a number of investigations related to the formation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas under various physical situations. The whole work of the thesis is devoted to the studies of solitary waves in cold and warm collisionless magnetized or unmagnetized plasmas with or without relativistic effect. To analyze the formation of solitary waves in all our models of plasmas, we have employed two established methods namely - reductive perturbation method to deduce the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the solutions of which represent the important but near exact characteristic concepts of soliton-physics. Next, the pseudopotential method to deduce the energy integral with total nonlinearity in the coupling process for exact characteristic results of solitons has been incorporated. In Chapter 1, a brief description of plasma in nature and laboratory and its generation are outlined elegantly. The nonlinear differential equations to characterize solitary waves and the relevant but important methods of solutions have been mentioned in this chapter. The formation of solitary waves in unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas, and in relativistic plasmas has been described through mathematical entity. Applications of plasmas in different fields are also put forwarded briefly showing its importance. The study of plasmas as they naturally occur in the universe encompasses number of topics including sun's corona, solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, ionospheres, auroras, cosmic rays and radiation. The study of space weather to understand the universe, communications and the activities of weather satellites are some useful areas of space plasma physics. The surface cleaning, sterilization of food and medical appliances, killing of bacteria on various surfaces, destroying of viruses, fungi, spores and plasma coating in industrial instruments ( like computers) are some of the fields

  12. Relativistic Plasma Polarizer: Impact of Temperature Anisotropy on Relativistic Transparency.

    PubMed

    Stark, David J; Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy; Arefiev, Alexey V; Toncian, Toma; Hazeltine, R D; Mahajan, S M

    2015-07-10

    3D particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that the enhanced transparency of a relativistically hot plasma is sensitive to how the energy is partitioned between different degrees of freedom. For an anisotropic electron distribution, propagation characteristics, like the critical density, will depend on the polarization of the electromagnetic wave. Despite the onset of the Weibel instability in such plasmas, the anisotropy can persist long enough to affect laser propagation. This plasma can then function as a polarizer or a wave plate to dramatically alter the pulse polarization.

  13. Particle Acceleration and Nonthermal Emission in Relativistic Astrophysical Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    The common observational feature of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and AGN jets is a broad nonthermal spectrum of synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation. It is usually assumed that the emitting electrons are accelerated to a power-law distribution at relativistic shocks, via the so-called Fermi mechanism. Despite decades of research, the Fermi acceleration process is still not understood from first principles. An assessment of the micro-physics of particle acceleration in relativistic shocks is of paramount importance to unveil the properties of astrophysical nonthermal sources, and it is the subject of this dissertation. In the first part of this thesis, I explore by means of fully-kinetic first-principle particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations the properties of relativistic shocks that propagate in electron-positron and electron-proton plasmas carrying uniform magnetic fields. I find that nonthermal particle acceleration only occurs if the upstream magnetization is weak (sigma<0.001), or if the pre-shock field is nearly aligned with the shock direction of propagation (quasi-parallel shocks). Relativistic shocks in PWNe, GRBs and AGN jets are usually thought to be appreciably magnetized (sigma>0.01) and quasi-perpendicular, yet they need to be efficient particle accelerators, in order to explain the prominent nonthermal signatures of these sources. Motivated by this discrepancy, I then relax the assumption of uniform pre-shock fields, and investigate the acceleration efficiency of perpendicular shocks that propagate in high-sigma flows with alternating magnetic fields. This is the geometry expected at the termination shock of pulsar winds, but it could also be relevant for Poynting-dominated jets in GRBs and AGNs. I show by means of PIC simulations that compression of the flow at the shock will force annihilation of nearby field lines, a process known as shock-driven reconnection. Magnetic reconnection can efficiently transfer the energy of

  14. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  15. Teaching about Inverse Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esty, Warren

    2005-01-01

    In their sections on inverses most precalculus texts emphasize an algorithm for finding f [superscript -1] given f. However, inspection of precalculus and calculus texts shows that students will never again use the algorithm, which suggests the textbook emphasis may be misplaced. Inverses appear primarily when equations need to be solved, which…

  16. Dewpoint temperature inversions analyzed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, W. C.; Bogner, M. A.; Moses, H.

    1969-01-01

    Dewpoint temperature inversion, with regard to other simultaneous meteorological conditions, was examined to establish the influence of meteorological variables on the variation of dewpoint temperature with height. This report covers instrumentation and available data, all the climatological features of dewpoint inversions, and specific special cases.

  17. Paracentric inversions in humans: A review of 446 paracentric inversions with presentation of 120 new cases

    SciTech Connect

    Pettenati, M.J.; Rao, P.N.; Grss, F.

    1995-01-16

    We present a large review of 446 cases of paracentric inversions (PAI), including 120 new cases, to assess their incidence, distribution, inheritance, modes of ascertainment, interchromosomal effects, viable recombinant offspring, and clinical relevance. All 23 autosomes and sex chromosomes had inversions. However, none were identified in chromosome arms 18p, 19q, 20q, and Yp. PAI were most commonly reported in chromosomes 4, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and Y. Inversions were most common in chromosome arms 6p, 7q, 11q, and 14q and observed least in chromosome arms 2p, 2q, 3q, 4q, and 6q. Frequently encountered breakpoints included 3(p13p25), 6(p12p23), 6(p12p25), 7(q11q22), and 11(q21q23). Ascertainment was primarily incidental (54.5%), mental retardation and/or congenital anomalies (22.2%), spontaneous abortions (11.4%), associations with syndromes (3.0%), and infertility (2.0%) accounted for the remainder. Ascertainment was neither related to the length of the inverted segment nor to specific inversions except for PAI of Xq which often presented with manifestations of Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Sixty-six percent of PAI were inherited while 8.5% were de novo. Recombination was observed in 17 cases, 15 of which resulted in a monocentric chromosomal deletion or duplication. No common factors were identified that suggested a tendency toward recombination. The incidence of viable recombinants was estimated to be 3.8%. This review documents that PAI are perhaps more commonly identified than suggested in previous reviews. Despite the possible bias of ascertainment in some cases, there may be associated risks with PAI that require further examination. Our data suggest that PAI carriers do not appear to be free of risks of abnormalities or abnormal progeny and caution is recommended when counseling. 162 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Relativistic Plasma Polarizer: Impact of Temperature Anisotropy on Relativistic Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Stark, David J.; Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Toncian, Toma; Mahajan, S. M.

    2015-11-01

    3D particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that the enhanced transparency of a relativistically hot plasma is sensitive to how the energy is partitioned between different degrees of freedom. We consider here the simplest problem: the propagation of a low amplitude pulse through a preformed relativistically hot anisotropic electron plasma to explore its intrinsic dielectric properties. We find that: 1) the critical density for propagation depends strongly on the pulse polarization, 2) two plasmas with the same density and average energy per electron can exhibit profoundly different responses to electromagnetic pulses, 3) the anisotropy-driven Weibel instability develops as expected; the timescales of the growth and back reaction (on anisotropy), however, are long enough that sufficient anisotropy persists for the entire duration of the simulation. This plasma can then function as a polarizer or a wave plate to dramatically alter the pulse polarization. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-FG02-04ER54742 and DE-AC05-06OR23100 (D. J. S.) and NNSA Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512.

  19. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  20. On the relativistic anisotropic configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojai, F.; Kohandel, M.; Stepanian, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study anisotropic spherical polytropes within the framework of general relativity. Using the anisotropic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations, we explore the relativistic anisotropic Lane-Emden equations. We find how the anisotropic pressure affects the boundary conditions of these equations. Also we argue that the behavior of physical quantities near the center of star changes in the presence of anisotropy. For constant density, a class of exact solution is derived with the aid of a new ansatz and its physical properties are discussed.

  1. Einstein Toolkit for Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    The Einstein Toolkit is a collection of software components and tools for simulating and analyzing general relativistic astrophysical systems. Such systems include gravitational wave space-times, collisions of compact objects such as black holes or neutron stars, accretion onto compact objects, core collapse supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts. The Einstein Toolkit builds on numerous software efforts in the numerical relativity community including CactusEinstein, Whisky, and Carpet. The Einstein Toolkit currently uses the Cactus Framework as the underlying computational infrastructure that provides large-scale parallelization, general computational components, and a model for collaborative, portable code development.

  2. Relativistic shock spectra: A prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1994-01-01

    I argue that particles heated by relativistic shocks should assume an equilibrium energy distribution. This leads to a synchrotron spectrum F(sub nu) varies as nu(sup 1/3) up to approximately the critical frequency nu(sub 0) of an electron with the mean electron energy. Application to gamma ray bursts (GRB's) implies that a burst with 10(exp -5) erg/(sq cm s) of soft gamma-rays and h(nu(sub 0)) = 300 KeV should be about 18th magnitude in visible light and a few micro-Jy at 1 GHz (less if self-absorbed).

  3. Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-31

    The negative ion of H is one of the simplest 3-body atomic systems. The techniques we have developed for experimental study of atoms moving near speed of light have been productive. This proposal request continuing support for experimental studies of the H{sup -} system, principally at the 800 MeV linear accelerator (LAMPF) at Los Alamos. Four experiments are currently planned: photodetachment of H{sup -} near threshold in electric field, interaction of relativistic H{sup -} ions with matter, high excitations and double charge escape in H{sup -}, and multiphoton detachment of electrons from H{sup -}.

  4. Arbitrarily Long Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    We consider the recent relativistic bit commitment protocol introduced by Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015)] and present a new security analysis against classical attacks. In particular, while the initial complexity of the protocol scales double exponentially with the commitment time, our analysis shows that the correct dependence is only linear. This has dramatic implications in terms of implementation: in particular, the commitment time can easily be made arbitrarily long, by only requiring both parties to communicate classically and perform efficient classical computation.

  5. Action principle for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avignon, Eric; Morrison, P. J.; Pegoraro, F.

    2015-04-01

    A covariant action principle for ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in terms of natural Eulerian field variables is given. This is done by generalizing the covariant Poisson bracket theory of Marsden et al. [Ann. Phys. 169, 29 (1986)], which uses a noncanonical bracket to effect constrained variations of an action functional. Various implications and extensions of this action principle are also discussed. Two significant byproducts of this formalism are the introduction of a new divergence-free 4-vector variable for the magnetic field, and a new Lie-dragged form for the theory.

  6. Relativistic Sommerfeld Low Temperature Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenço, O.; Dutra, M.; Delfino, A.; Sá Martins, J. S.

    We derive a relativistic Sommerfeld expansion for thermodynamic quantities in many-body fermionic systems. The expansion is used to generate the equation of state of the Walecka model and its isotherms. We find that these results are in good agreement with numerical calculations, even when the expansion is truncated at its lowest order, in the low temperature regime, defined by T/xf ≪ 1. Although the interesting region near the liquid-gas phase transition is excluded by this criterion, the expansion may still find usefulness in the study of very cold nuclear matter systems, such as neutron stars.

  7. Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.

  8. Acquisition of incidental information during instruction for a response-chain skill.

    PubMed

    Wall, M E; Gast, D L

    1999-01-01

    We examined the acquisition of incidental information and observational learning of incidental information by adolescents with moderate intellectual disabilities during school-directed systematic instruction. Effectiveness of constant time-delay instruction for vocational-skill acquisition was evaluated within a multiple-probe design across six dyads. Dyadic instructional arrangements allowed the assessment of incidental information acquired through observation. The constant time-delay procedure was effective in teaching the target vocational skill. In addition, participants acquired and retained approximately 50% of the incidental information to which they were exposed during the consequent events of constant time-delay instruction either through direct verbal presentation or through observation of their peers' instruction.

  9. 76 FR 35995 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility of Massachusetts; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

  10. Apparatus to measure relativistic mass increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetzelschwab, John W.

    2003-09-01

    An apparatus that uses readily available material to measure the relativistic mass increase of beta particles from a radioactive 204Tl source is described. Although the most accurate analysis uses curve fitting or a Kurie plot, students may just use the raw data and a simple calculation to verify the relativistic mass increase.

  11. Compton Effect with Non-Relativistic Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    In deducing the change of wavelength of x-rays scattered by atomic electrons, one normally makes use of relativistic kinematics for electrons. However, recoiling energies of the electrons are of the order of a few keV which is less than 0.2% of their rest energies. Hence the authors may ask whether relativistic formulae are really necessary. In…

  12. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's…

  13. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  14. Single electron relativistic clock interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushev, P. A.; Cole, J. H.; Sholokhov, D.; Kukharchyk, N.; Zych, M.

    2016-09-01

    Although time is one of the fundamental notions in physics, it does not have a unique description. In quantum theory time is a parameter ordering the succession of the probability amplitudes of a quantum system, while according to relativity theory each system experiences in general a different proper time, depending on the system's world line, due to time dilation. It is therefore of fundamental interest to test the notion of time in the regime where both quantum and relativistic effects play a role, for example, when different amplitudes of a single quantum clock experience different magnitudes of time dilation. Here we propose a realization of such an experiment with a single electron in a Penning trap. The clock can be implemented in the electronic spin precession and its time dilation then depends on the radial (cyclotron) state of the electron. We show that coherent manipulation and detection of the electron can be achieved already with present day technology. A single electron in a Penning trap is a technologically ready platform where the notion of time can be probed in a hitherto untested regime, where it requires a relativistic as well as quantum description.

  15. Electron Correlation in 4-Component Relativistic Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, Luuk; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The full 4-component Dirac-Coulomb equation can nowadays be used in molecular calculations, The first step in solving this relativistic many-electron equation usually consists of solving the closed or open-shell Diarc-Fock equations. Like in non-relativistic calculations the outcome does not account for the effects of electron correlation. This can in principle be remedied by developing relativistic variants of electron correlation methods like Configuration Interaction or Coupled Cluster. In this talk the differences and similarities of such relativistic approaches as compared to non-relativistic methods will be reviewed. Results of Configuration Interaction calculations on the PtH molecule and on the MeF(sub 6, sup 2-) (Me= Co, Rh, Ir) complexes will be presented to give an impression of the kind of results that currently can be obtained.

  16. grim: A Flexible, Conservative Scheme for Relativistic Fluid Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Mani; Foucart, Francois; Gammie, Charles F.

    2017-03-01

    Hot, diffuse, relativistic plasmas such as sub-Eddington black-hole accretion flows are expected to be collisionless, yet are commonly modeled as a fluid using ideal general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). Dissipative effects such as heat conduction and viscosity can be important in a collisionless plasma and will potentially alter the dynamics and radiative properties of the flow from that in ideal fluid models; we refer to models that include these processes as Extended GRMHD. Here we describe a new conservative code, grim, that enables all of the above and additional physics to be efficiently incorporated. grim combines time evolution and primitive variable inversion needed for conservative schemes into a single step using an algorithm that only requires the residuals of the governing equations as inputs. This algorithm enables the code to be physics agnostic as well as flexibility regarding time-stepping schemes. grim runs on CPUs, as well as on GPUs, using the same code. We formulate a performance model and use it to show that our implementation runs optimally on both architectures. grim correctly captures classical GRMHD test problems as well as a new suite of linear and nonlinear test problems with anisotropic conduction and viscosity in special and general relativity. As tests and example applications, we resolve the shock substructure due to the presence of dissipation, and report on relativistic versions of the magneto-thermal instability and heat flux driven buoyancy instability, which arise due to anisotropic heat conduction, and of the firehose instability, which occurs due to anisotropic pressure (i.e., viscosity). Finally, we show an example integration of an accretion flow around a Kerr black hole, using Extended GRMHD.

  17. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes in relativistic laser fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belghit, Slimen; Sid, Abdelaziz

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the Weibel instability (WI) due to inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption in a laser fusion plasma has been investigated. The stabilization effect due to the coupling of the self-generated magnetic field by WI with the laser wave field is explicitly shown. In this study, the relativistic effects are taken into account. Here, the basic equation is the relativistic Fokker-Planck (F-P) equation. The main obtained result is that the coupling of self-generated magnetic field with the laser wave causes a stabilizing effect of excited Weibel modes. We found a decrease in the spectral range of Weibel unstable modes. This decreasing is accompanied by a reduction of two orders in the growth rate of instable Weibel modes or even stabilization of these modes. It has been shown that the previous analysis of the Weibel instability due to IB has overestimated the values of the generated magnetic fields. Therefore, the generation of magnetic fields by the WI due to IB should not affect the experiences of an inertial confinement fusion.

  18. Minimally implicit Runge-Kutta methods for Resistive Relativistic MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloy, Miguel-Á.; Cordero-Carrión, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    The Relativistic Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) equations are a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations used to describe the dynamics of relativistic magnetized fluids with a finite conductivity. Close to the ideal magnetohydrodynamic regime, the source term proportional to the conductivity becomes potentially stiff and cannot be handled with standard explicit time integration methods. We propose a new class of methods to deal with the stiffness fo the system, which we name Minimally Implicit Runge-Kutta methods. These methods avoid the development of numerical instabilities without increasing the computational costs in comparison with explicit methods, need no iterative extra loop in order to recover the primitive (physical) variables, the analytical inversion of the implicit operator is trivial and the several stages can actually be viewed as stages of explicit Runge-Kutta methods with an effective time-step. We test these methods with two different one-dimensional test beds in varied conductivity regimes, and show that our second-order schemes satisfy the theoretical expectations.

  19. Incidental adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing surgery for stricturing Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kristo, Ivan; Riss, Stefan; Argeny, Stanislaus; Maschke, Svenja; Chitsabesan, Praminthra; Stift, Anton

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate frequency and clinical course of incidental adenocarcinoma in patients with stricturing Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS In this study, consecutive patients, who were operated on for stricturing CD between 1997-2012, were included at an academic tertiary referral center. Demographic data and clinical course were obtained by an institutional database and individual chart review. Besides baseline characteristics, intraoperative findings and CD related history were also recorded. Colorectal cancer was classified and staged according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). RESULTS During the study period 484 patients underwent resections due to stricturing CD. Incidental adenocarcinoma was histologically confirmed in 6 (1.2%) patients (4 males, 2 females). Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer had a median age of 43 (27-66) years and a median history of CD of 16 (7-36) years. Malignant lesions were found in the rectum (n = 4, 66.7%), descending colon (n = 1, 16.7%) and ileocolon (n = 1, 16.7%). According to the UICC classification two patients were stages as I (33.3%), whereas the other patients were classified as stage IIA (16.7%), stage IIIB (16.7%), stage IIIC (16.7%) and stage IV (16.7%), respectively. After a median follow-up of 2 (0.03-8) years only 1 patient is still alive. CONCLUSION The frequency of incidental colorectal cancer in patients, who undergo surgery for stenotic CD, is low but associated with poor prognosis. However, surgeons need to be aware about the possibility of malignancy in stricturing CD, especially if localized in the rectum. PMID:28210083

  20. Incidental Intravascular Lipoleiomyomatosis in A Hysterectomy Specimen: How To Manage?

    PubMed Central

    Aslanova, Rakhshanda; Can, Nuray; Okten, Sabri Berkem; Aslan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Leiomyomas are common benign tumors in female gynaecologic surgery. They are originated from smooth muscle cells of the uterus and/or sometimes of the uterine vessels. Intravascular lipoleiomyomatosis is a very rare form of leiomyomas which grow within veins and can extend up to vena cava inferior and right heart chamber with cardiac symptoms and is diagnosed by cardiovascular surgeons. We report a case of incidental intravascular lipoleiomyomatosis which was confined to the uterus being diagnosed after a total abdominal hysterectomy by pathology and its management strategy. PMID:25738043

  1. Incidentally detected clear cell renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh; Gowda, Kiran Krishne; Rao, Raman Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation (RCC-R) has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis. A recent consensus statement of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) proposed a nucleolar grading system (ISUP grade) for RCC to replace Fuhrman system and recommended reporting the presence of rhabdoid differentiation and considering tumors with rhabdoid differentiation to be ISUP Grade 4. We report a case of incidentally detected clear cell RCC-R in a 52-year-old man. This is one of the earliest cases of RCC-R (pT1b) detected and first such case from Indian subcontinent.

  2. Incidental finding of meningioma on C11-PIB PET.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Jaeseung; Lee, Jae-Hong

    2012-02-01

    As a healthy volunteer for amyloid imaging study, a 83-year-old woman with no history of neurologic or psychiatric illness underwent carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) PET, which showed focal increased PIB binding in the right anterior temporal region. This focal PIB uptake turned out to be a mass lesion on MRI, which was consistent with a benign meningioma. This is the first case report on the incidentally found intracranial meningioma by PIB PET scan, highlighting the excellent sensitivity of PIB radiotracer in detecting brain amyloid deposition.

  3. Incidental finding of a giant asymptomatic right atrial tumor

    PubMed Central

    Strecker, Thomas; Agaimy, Abbas; Zelzer, Peter; Weyand, Michael; Wachter, David Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are very rare, atrial myxoma being the most common benign tumor of the heart. They may present with a great variety of incidental asymptomatic masses to severe life-threatening cardiovascular complications necessitating emergency surgery. Here we report the diagnostic evaluation and successful surgical resection of such a giant cardiac tumor which was found on a routine medical check-up in a 62-year-old patient. Histology confirmed diagnosis of unusually huge myxoma. This article demonstrates it’s necessary to include cardiac tumors in the differential diagnosis of subtle and non-specific cardiothoracic symptoms. PMID:25120848

  4. Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging: Ethical and Medicolegal Considerations.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advances in neurosciences in the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the use of neuroimaging both in basic sciences and clinical research involving human subjects. During routine neuroimaging, incidental findings that are not part of the protocol or scope of research agenda can occur and they often pose a challenge as to how they should be handled to abide by the medicolegal principles of research ethics. This paper reviews the issue from various ethical (do no harm, general duty to rescue, and mutual benefits and owing) and medicolegal perspectives (legal liability, fiduciary duties, Law of Tort, and Law of Contract) with a suggested protocol of approach.

  5. Simulations of Dynamic Relativistic Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfrey, Kyle Patrick

    Neutron stars and black holes are generally surrounded by magnetospheres of highly conducting plasma in which the magnetic flux density is so high that hydrodynamic forces are irrelevant. In this vanishing-inertia—or ultra-relativistic—limit, magnetohydrodynamics becomes force-free electrodynamics, a system of equations comprising only the magnetic and electric fields, and in which the plasma response is effected by a nonlinear current density term. In this dissertation I describe a new pseudospectral simulation code, designed for studying the dynamic magnetospheres of compact objects. A detailed description of the code and several numerical test problems are given. I first apply the code to the aligned rotator problem, in which a star with a dipole magnetic field is set rotating about its magnetic axis. The solution evolves to a steady state, which is nearly ideal and dissipationless everywhere except in a current sheet, or magnetic field discontinuity, at the equator, into which electromagnetic energy flows and is dissipated. Magnetars are believed to have twisted magnetospheres, due to internal magnetic evolution which deforms the crust, dragging the footpoints of external magnetic field lines. This twisting may be able to explain both magnetars' persistent hard X-ray emission and their energetic bursts and flares. Using the new code, I simulate the evolution of relativistic magnetospheres subjected to slow twisting through large angles. The field lines expand outward, forming a strong current layer; eventually the configuration loses equilibrium and a dynamic rearrangement occurs, involving large-scale rapid magnetic reconnection and dissipation of the free energy of the twisted magnetic field. When the star is rotating, the magnetospheric twisting leads to a large increase in the stellar spin-down rate, which may take place on the long twisting timescale or in brief explosive events, depending on where the twisting is applied and the history of the system

  6. 77 FR 61017 - Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and Application for an Incidental Take Permit, Yamhill County, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...'' of the endangered Fender's blue butterfly incidental to otherwise lawful activities associated with... and mitigate the impacts of incidental take of the Fender's blue butterfly caused by covered... regulatory assurances for potential impacts on the Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides...

  7. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  8. Generalized Ohm's law for relativistic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandus, A.; Tsagas, C. G.

    2008-04-01

    We generalize the relativistic expression of Ohm's law by studying a multifluid system of charged species using the 1 + 3 covariant formulation of general relativistic electrodynamics. This is done by providing a fully relativistic, fully non-linear propagation equation for the spatial component of the electric 4-current. Our analysis proceeds along the lines of the non-relativistic studies and extends previous relativistic work on cold plasmas. Exploiting the compactness and transparency of the covariant formalism, we provide a direct comparison with the standard Newtonian versions of Ohm's law and identify the relativistic corrections in an unambiguous way. The generalized expression of Ohm's law is initially given relative to an arbitrary observer and for a multicomponent relativistic charged medium. Then, the law is written with respect to the Eckart frame and for a hot two-fluid plasma with zero total charge. Finally, we apply our analysis to a cold proton-electron plasma and recover the well-known magnetohydrodynamic expressions. In every step, we discuss the approximations made and identify familiar effects, like the Biermann battery and the Hall effect.

  9. Relativistic effects in Lyman-α forest

    SciTech Connect

    Iršič, Vid; Dio, Enea Di; Viel, Matteo E-mail: enea.didio@oats.inaf.it

    2016-02-01

    We present the calculation of the Lyman-alpha (Lyman-α) transmitted flux fluctuations with full relativistic corrections to the first order. Even though several studies exist on relativistic effects in galaxy clustering, this is the first study to extend the formalism to a different tracer of underlying matter at unique redshift range (z=2−5). Furthermore, we show a comprehensive application of our calculations to the Quasar-Lyman-α cross-correlation function. Our results indicate that the signal of relativistic effects are sizeable at Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale mainly due to the large differences in density bias factors of our tracers. We construct an observable, the anti-symmetric part of the cross-correlation function, that is dominated by the relativistic signal and offers a new way to measure the relativistic terms at relatively small scales. The analysis shows that relativistic effects are important when considering cross-correlations between tracers with very different biases, and should be included in the data analysis of the current and future surveys. Moreover, the idea presented in this paper is highly complementary to other techniques and observables trying to isolate the effect of the relativistic corrections and thus test the validity of the theory of gravity beyond the Newtonian regime.

  10. Diagnosing particle acceleration in relativistic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.; Liang, Edison P.; Summerlin, Errol J.; Fu, Wen; Smith, Ian A.; Roustazadeh, Parisa

    2015-03-01

    The high-energy emission from blazars and other relativistic jet sources indicates that electrons are accelerated to ultra-relativistic (GeV - TeV) energies in these systems. This paper summarizes recent results from numerical studies of two fundamentally different particle acceleration mechanisms potentially at work in relativistic jets: Magnetic-field generation and relativistic particle acceleration in relativistic shear layers, which are likely to be present in relativistic jets, is studied via Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations. Diffusive shock acceleration at relativistic shocks is investigated using Monte-Carlo simulations. The resulting magnetic-field configurations and thermal + non-thermal particle distributions are then used to predict multi-wavelength radiative (synchrotron + Compton) signatures of both acceleration scenarios. In particular, we address how anisotropic shear-layer acceleration may be able to circumvent the well-known Lorentz-factor crisis, and how the self-consistent evaluation of thermal + non-thermal particle populations in diffusive shock acceleration simulations provides tests of the bulk Comptonization model for the Big Blue Bump observed in the SEDs of several blazars.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic production of relativistic jets.

    PubMed

    Meier, D L; Koide, S; Uchida, Y

    2001-01-05

    A number of astronomical systems have been discovered that generate collimated flows of plasma with velocities close to the speed of light. In all cases, the central object is probably a neutron star or black hole and is either accreting material from other stars or is in the initial violent stages of formation. Supercomputer simulations of the production of relativistic jets have been based on a magnetohydrodynamic model, in which differential rotation in the system creates a magnetic coil that simultaneously expels and pinches some of the infalling material. The model may explain the basic features of observed jets, including their speed and amount of collimation, and some of the details in the behavior and statistics of different jet-producing sources.

  12. Relativistic entanglement and Bell's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Doyeol; Moon, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Hwang, Sung Woo

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Lorentz transformation of entangled Bell states seen by a moving observer is studied. The calculated Bell observable for four joint measurements turns out to give a universal value, ++-=(2/{radical}(2-{beta}{sup 2}))(1+{radical}(1-{beta}{sup 2})), where a,b are the relativistic spin observables derived from the Pauli-Lubanski pseudovector and {beta}=(v/c). We found that the degree of violation of the Bell's inequality is decreasing with increasing velocity of the observer and Bell's inequality is satisfied in the ultrarelativistic limit where the boost speed reaches the speed of light.

  13. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review (Aprendizaje incidental de vocabulario en la adquisición de una segunda lengua: una revisión de literatura)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restrepo Ramos, Falcon Dario

    2015-01-01

    This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies…

  14. The Relationship between Experience, Education and Teachers' Use of Incidental Focus-on-Form Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison; Polio, Charlene; McDonough, Kim

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of an empirical study that explored whether ESL teachers' use of incidental focus-on-form techniques was influenced by their level of experience. The results showed that experienced ESL teachers used more incidental focus-on-form techniques than inexperienced teachers. A follow-up study investigated whether…

  15. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  16. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  17. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  18. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  19. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  20. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  1. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  2. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  3. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  4. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  5. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  6. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  7. The Effects of Distance Education and Student Involvement on Incidental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konetes, George D.

    2011-01-01

    Incidental learning is an occurrence that is not generally accounted for using the traditional methods of instructional objectives and outcomes assessment. This type of learning occurs in part as a product of social interaction and active involvement in both online and onsite courses. This study examines various incidental learning outcomes and…

  8. 77 FR 31062 - Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant to Public Law 101-162 SUMMARY: On April... nations have adopted programs to reduce the incidental capture of sea turtles in their shrimp fisheries... environments in 26 other countries and one economy do not pose a threat of the incidental taking of sea...

  9. 19 CFR 148.17 - Declaration on arrival incidental to further foreign travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign travel. 148.17 Section 148.17 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 148.17 Declaration on arrival incidental to further foreign travel. (a) Declaration on incidental arrival. A resident who enters the United States merely as an incident of foreign travel and who...

  10. 50 CFR 18.24 - Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations. 18.24 Section 18.24 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.24 Taking incidental...

  11. 78 FR 15374 - Notice of Availability of Draft Habitat Conservation Plan; Receipt of Application for Incidental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... would authorize incidental take of the federally endangered Hine's Emerald Dragonfly (hereafter ``HED... the Hine's Emerald Dragonfly (hereafter ``HED''; Somatochlora hineana). Under the ESA, we announce... conducted for Hine's Emerald Dragonfly at the project site. An Incidental Take Permit is being...

  12. Spectrum of intracranial incidental findings on pediatric brain magnetic resonance imaging: What clinician should know?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Surya N; Gupta, Vikash S; White, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain continue to generate interest in healthy control, research, and clinical subjects. However, in clinical practice, the discovery of incidental findings acts as a “distractor”. This review is based on existing heterogeneous reports, their clinical implications, and how the results of incidental findings influence clinical management. This draws attention to the followings: (1) the prevalence of clinically significant incidental findings is low; (2) there is a lack of a systematic approach to classification; and discusses (3) how to deal with the detected incidental findings based a proposed common clinical profile. Individualized neurological care requires an active discussion regarding the need for neuroimaging. Clinical significance of incidental findings should be decided based on lesion’s neuroradiologic characteristics in the given clinical context. Available evidence suggests that the outcome of an incidentally found “serious lesion in children” is excellent. Future studies of intracranial incidental findings on pediatric brain MRI should be focused on a homogeneous population. The study should address this clinical knowledge based review powered by the statistical analyses. PMID:27610341

  13. 75 FR 39335 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Seismic Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine seismic survey in the Arctic Ocean during August to September, 2010. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS requests comments on its proposal to authorize USGS to......

  14. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  15. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  17. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  18. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  19. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  20. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  1. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  2. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  3. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  4. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  5. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  6. Imagery Based Elaboration as an Index of EMR Children's Creativity and Incidental Associative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Larry E.; Vane, Raymond J.

    1986-01-01

    Educable mentally retarded (EMR) 13- to 15-year-olds (N=19) and matched mental-age comparison subjects (N=22) participated in an imagery-based, associative learning pictorial elaboration task, followed by a delayed test of incidental learning. Both groups were able to generate original elaborations, although fluency and incidental learning scores…

  7. The Effect of Incidental Focus on Form on EFL Learners' Grammatical Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahzadeh, Somaieh

    2015-01-01

    Focus on form instruction is a kind of instruction that draws students, attention to linguistic elements as they arise incidentally in meaning based instruction. There are different types of focus on form instruction. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of incidental focus on form on grammatical accuracy among Iranian L2…

  8. 77 FR 12010 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Research, Development, Test and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division (NSWC PCD). Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its......

  9. 31 CFR 597.508 - Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. 597.508 Section 597.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Licensing Policy § 597.508 Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. (a)...

  10. 31 CFR 597.508 - Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. 597.508 Section 597.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Licensing Policy § 597.508 Payment of taxes and incidental fees to the Palestinian Authority. (a)...

  11. 50 CFR 222.307 - Permits for incidental taking of species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Assistant Administrator may issue permits to take endangered and threatened species incidentally to an... individual or a single entity, such as a corporation, the Assistant Administrator will issue an individual... permit is required, the Assistant Administrator will issue a general incidental take permit. To...

  12. An "Adventure" of MBA Students in Europe: How Volcanic Ash Produced an Incidental Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Ana Claudia Souza; Ruas, Roberto Lima; Cervo, Clarissa S.; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2013-01-01

    Because the volcanic ash that affected air travel in Western Europe in 2010 was considered as one of the most meaningful learning experiences by a group of MBA students, this article aims to outline the main aspects of an incidental learning situation, rarely described on management education literature. Incidental learning is an unsystematic…

  13. Involvement in Traditional Cultural Practices and American Indian Children's Incidental Recall of a Folktale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsethlikai, Monica; Rogoff, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined incidental recall of a folktale told to 91 Tohono O'odham American Indian children (average age 9 years) who either were directly addressed or had the opportunity to overhear the telling of the folktale. Learning from surrounding incidental events contrasts with learning through direct instruction common in Western schooling,…

  14. Approach to the management of incidental venous thromboembolic events in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Casey L; Liebman, Howard A

    2014-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent clinical complication of cancer and its treatment. Although much of the epidemiologic data regarding this complication have been based on symptomatic events, the use of multidetector row CT scanner technology has led to increased identification of VTE on scans ordered primarily for staging or restaging of malignancy. These incidentally discovered VTEs are variously referred to in the literature as incidental, asymptomatic, unexpected, or unsuspected VTE. A recent guidance paper by the Hemostasis and Malignancy Subcommittee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis provided recommendations regarding this terminology (now termed incidental) and reporting of incidental VTE for clinical trials. A growing number of retrospective and case-controlled reports have described the prevalence, prognostic implications, and treatment options for these incidentally discovered VTE events, and have reported similar clinical outcomes for patients with incidental and symptomatic VTE. Because most reported patients with incidental VTE have been treated in a manner similar to those with symptomatic events, the present recommendations, except in rare circumstances, support the use of standard anticoagulation in the management of incidental deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

  15. 78 FR 43861 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...-range ballistic target missiles, and other smaller missile systems at the KLC. The AAC has complied with... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... two species of pinnipeds incidental to space vehicle and missile launch operations at the...

  16. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  17. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  18. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  19. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  20. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  1. Localization scheme for relativistic spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupka, J.; Hanrath, M.; Dolg, M.

    2011-12-01

    A new method to determine localized complex-valued one-electron functions in the occupied space is presented. The approach allows the calculation of localized orbitals regardless of their structure and of the entries in the spinor coefficient matrix, i.e., one-, two-, and four-component Kramers-restricted or unrestricted one-electron functions with real or complex expansion coefficients. The method is applicable to localization schemes that maximize (or minimize) a functional of the occupied spinors and that use a localization operator for which a matrix representation is available. The approach relies on the approximate joint diagonalization (AJD) of several Hermitian (symmetric) matrices which is utilized in electronic signal processing. The use of AJD in this approach has the advantage that it allows a reformulation of the localization criterion on an iterative 2 × 2 pair rotating basis in an analytical closed form which has not yet been described in the literature for multi-component (complex-valued) spinors. For the one-component case, the approach delivers the same Foster-Boys or Pipek-Mezey localized orbitals that one obtains from standard quantum chemical software, whereas in the multi-component case complex-valued spinors satisfying the selected localization criterion are obtained. These localized spinors allow the formulation of local correlation methods in a multi-component relativistic framework, which was not yet available. As an example, several heavy and super-heavy element systems are calculated using a Kramers-restricted self-consistent field and relativistic two-component pseudopotentials in order to investigate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on localization.

  2. Baryon Loaded Relativistic Blast Waves in Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak

    2011-03-01

    We provide a new analytic blast wave solution which generalizes the Blandford-McKee solution to arbitrary ejecta masses and Lorentz factors. Until recently relativistic supernovae have been discovered only through their association with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The blast waves of such explosions are well described by the Blandford-McKee (in the ultra-relativistic regime) and Sedov-Taylor (in the non-relativistic regime) solutions during their afterglows, as the ejecta mass is negligible in comparison to the swept-up mass. The recent discovery of the relativistic supernova SN 2009bb, without a detected GRB, opens up the possibility of highly baryon loaded, mildly relativistic outflows which remains in nearly free-expansion phase during the radio afterglow. In this work, we consider a massive, relativistic shell, launched by a Central Engine Driven EXplosion (CEDEX), decelerating adiabatically due to its collision with the pre-explosion circumstellar wind profile of the progenitor. We compute the synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons in the shock amplified magnetic field. This models the radio emission from the circumstellar interaction of a CEDEX. We show that this model explains the observed radio evolution of the prototypical SN 2009bb and demonstrate that SN 2009bb had a highly baryon loaded, mildly relativistic outflow. We discuss the effect of baryon loading on the dynamics and observational manifestations of a CEDEX. In particular, our predicted angular size of SN 2009bb is consistent with very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) upper limits on day 85, but is presently resolvable on VLBI angular scales, since the relativistic ejecta is still in the nearly free-expansion phase.

  3. Thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem in relativistic Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Koide, T; Kodama, T

    2011-06-01

    We extend the stochastic energetics to a relativistic system. The thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem are discussed for a relativistic Brownian particle and the first and the second law of thermodynamics in this formalism are derived. The relation between the relativistic equipartition relation and the rate of heat transfer is discussed in the relativistic case together with the nature of the noise term.

  4. Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.

    1988-09-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Analytic models of relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    We present not a literature review but a description, as detailed and consistent as possible, of two analytic models of disk accretion onto a rotating black hole: a standard relativistic disk and a twisted relativistic disk. Although one of these models is older than the other, both are of topical interest for black hole studies. The treatment is such that the reader with only a limited knowledge of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics, with little or no use of additional sources, can gain insight into many technical details lacking in the original papers.

  6. Relativistic corrections to a generalized sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinky, H.; Leung, P. T.

    2006-09-01

    Relativistic corrections to a previously established generalized sum rule are obtained using the Foldy-Wouthysen transformation. This sum rule derived previously by Wang [Phys. Rev. A 60, 262 (1999)] for a nonrelativistic system contains both the well-known Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn and Bethe sum rules, for which relativistic corrections have been obtained in the literature. Our results for the generalized formula will be applied to recover several results obtained previously in the literature, as well as to another sum rule whose relativistic corrections will be obtained.

  7. Relativistic rotation curve for cosmological structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Mansouri, Reza

    2014-08-01

    Using a general relativistic exact model for spherical structures in a cosmological background, we have put forward an algorithm to calculate the test particle geodesics within such cosmological structures in order to obtain the velocity profile of stars or galaxies. The rotation curve thus obtained is based on a density profile and is independent of any mass definition which is not unique in general relativity. It is then shown that this general relativistic rotation curves for a toy model and a NFW density profile are almost identical to the corresponding Newtonian one, although the general relativistic masses may be quite different.

  8. The relativistic Black-Scholes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzetrzelewski, Maciej

    2017-02-01

    The Black-Scholes equation, after a certain coordinate transformation, is equivalent to the heat equation. On the other hand the relativistic extension of the latter, the telegraphers equation, can be derived from the Euclidean version of the Dirac equation. Therefore, the relativistic extension of the Black-Scholes model follows from relativistic quantum mechanics quite naturally. We investigate this particular model for the case of European vanilla options. Due to the notion of locality incorporated in this way, one finds that the volatility frown-like effect appears when comparing to the original Black-Scholes model.

  9. Relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic entanglement in the rest-frame instant form of dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Alba, David; Crater, Horace W.; Lusanna, Luca

    2011-06-15

    A new formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics is proposed in the framework of the rest-frame instant form of dynamics, where the world-lines of the particles are parametrized in terms of the Fokker-Pryce center of inertia and of Wigner-covariant relative 3-coordinates inside the instantaneous Wigner 3-spaces, and where there is a decoupled (non-covariant and non-local) canonical relativistic center of mass. This approach: (a) allows us to make a consistent quantization in every inertial frame; (b) leads to a description of both bound and scattering states; (c) offers new insights on the relativistic localization problem; (d) leads to a non-relativistic limit with a Hamilton-Jacobi treatment of the Newton center of mass; (e) clarifies non-local aspects (spatial non-separability) of relativistic entanglement connected with Lorentz signature and not present in its non-relativistic treatment.

  10. Computed Tomography Features of Incidentally Detected Diffuse Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Myung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the CT features of incidentally detected DTD in the patients who underwent thyroidectomy and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CT diagnosis. Methods. We enrolled 209 consecutive patients who received preoperative neck CT and subsequent thyroid surgery. Neck CT in each case was retrospectively investigated by a single radiologist. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of individual CT features and the cut-off CT criteria for detecting DTD by comparing the CT features with histopathological results. Results. Histopathological examination of the 209 cases revealed normal thyroid (n = 157), Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 17), non-Hashimoto lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 34), and diffuse hyperplasia (n = 1). The CT features suggestive of DTD included low attenuation, inhomogeneous attenuation, increased glandular size, lobulated margin, and inhomogeneous enhancement. ROC curve analysis revealed that CT diagnosis of DTD based on the CT classification of “3 or more” abnormal CT features was superior. When the “3 or more” CT classification was selected, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of CT diagnosis for DTD were 55.8%, 95.5%, 80.6%, 86.7%, and 85.6%, respectively. Conclusion. Neck CT may be helpful for the detection of incidental DTD. PMID:25548565

  11. A diagnostic dilemma in diagnosing and managing an incidental phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Tahrani, A A; Macleod, A F

    2006-04-01

    Incidental adrenal tumours are a common radiological finding. Phaeochromocytomas, though rare, are very important not to be missed, as the consequences could be fatal. Urinary catecholamines and metanephrines measurement is a commonly used method of screening for phaeochromocytomas. We report a patient who had a phaeochromocytoma presented as an incidental adrenal mass on abdominal CT during investigations for recurrent chest infections. The patient had symptoms suggestive of catecholamines excess and hypertension. Repeated urinary catecholamines measurements, plasma catecholamines, 24-hour urinary catecholamines and 24-hour urinary metanephrines all were normal. MIBG scan showed increased uptake in the adrenal mass. Histological examination of the adrenal mass was consistent with phaeochromocytoma. Removal of the adrenal mass resulted in normalisation of blood pressure and abolishing of the patient's symptoms. This case highlights the difficulty in deciding on further management of patients presenting with an adrenal incidentaloma. This case also highlights the difficulty in diagnosing phaeochromocytoma and represents a reminder that plasma and urine catecholamines measurements could be normal in patients with symptomatic phaeochromocytoma. This case also highlights that MIBG scan could reveal a phaeochromocytoma despite absence of biochemical markers.

  12. Incidental discovery of a patent ductus arteriosus in adults.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Harvey D; Cassidy, Lynsey A; Blackshear, Joseph L

    2009-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an uncommon clinical finding in adult primary care patients. However, with improved survival of premature infants at risk for PDA and an increase in cases discovered incidentally on echocardiograms performed for other purposes, the incidence of PDA is rising. Thus, primary care physicians need to be alert to the clinical situations suggesting a previously undiagnosed PDA. It is estimated that the incidence of PDA is approximately 0.02% to 0.04% in term infants and slightly higher in premature infants. PDA accounts for 6% to 11% of all congenital heart defects. Although most cases of PDA would seem to occur sporadically, multifactorial inheritance is believed to underlie many cases. These people are thought to possess a genetic predisposition acted on by an environmental trigger that occurs at an unknown but vulnerable time during the pregnancy. The clinical spectrum of presentation of a PDA may range from a "silent" PDA, one with no clinical manifestations but which is incidentally discovered on echocardiogram for other purposes, to patients who present with congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, signs of volume overload, endocarditis, atrial fibrillation, or "recurrent pneumonia." We describe 2 cases that illustrate the discovery of an asymptomatic PDA during routine physical examination of adult patients.

  13. Incidental Medical Information in Whole-Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, Donald W.; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Kamat, Aparna; Teer, Jamie K.; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Hansen, Nancy F.; Cruz, Pedro; Young, Alice C.; Berkman, Benjamin E.; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Mullikin, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic technologies, such as whole-exome sequencing, are a powerful tool in genetic research. Such testing yields a great deal of incidental medical information, or medical information not related to the primary research target. We describe the management of incidental medical information derived from whole-exome sequencing in the research context. We performed whole-exome sequencing on a monozygotic twin pair in which only 1 child was affected with congenital anomalies and applied an institutional review board–approved algorithm to determine what genetic information would be returned. Whole-exome sequencing identified 79 525 genetic variants in the twins. Here, we focus on novel variants. After filtering artifacts and excluding known single nucleotide polymorphisms and variants not predicted to be pathogenic, the twins had 32 novel variants in 32 genes that were felt to be likely to be associated with human disease. Eighteen of these novel variants were associated with recessive disease and 18 were associated with dominantly manifesting conditions (variants in some genes were potentially associated with both recessive and dominant conditions), but only 1 variant ultimately met our institutional review board–approved criteria for return of information to the research participants. PMID:22585771

  14. The management of incidental findings of reduction mammoplasty specimens.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Jessica T; Decroff, Chantelle; Dauway, Emilia; Sybenga, Amelia; Mahabir, Raman C

    2013-01-01

    Reduction mammoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures in plastic surgery. Occasionally, there are findings reported by pathologists that are unfamiliar to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present study was to determine the types of pathologies encountered in reduction mammoplasty specimens. From this list of diagnoses, a best practice guideline for management will be organized to better assist plastic surgeons in the management of patients with incidental findings on pathology reports. A total of 441 pathology reports from patients who underwent bilateral or unilateral reduction mammoplasty in the past three years were identified. A list of 21 different pathologies was generated from the pathology reports, along with supplemental data from recent texts and articles. Occult carcinomas were encountered in two cases (0.45%) and high-risk lesions were found in three cases (0.68%) at the authors' institution. An algorithm was then constructed to organize the pathologies according to risk of malignancy and assign them to a management guideline. There are many different lesions encountered incidentally in reduction mammoplasty specimens that may or may not confer some cancer risk. It is important for plastic surgeons to know which lesions need closer follow-up to provide the best care for their patients.

  15. Work up of incidental adrenal mass: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Bada, Maida; Castellan, Pietro; Tamburro, Fabiola R; Berardinelli, Francesco; Neri, Fabio; Cindolo, Luca; Schips, Luigi

    2016-11-18

    Due to the increasing use of radiological investigations, the detection of incidental adrenal masses has become even more frequent. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the nature of the adrenal mass in order to decide the type of treatment that should be undertaken. Toward this goal, biochemical tests are useful in order to assess catecholamines levels for the presence of a pheochromocytoma or cortisol excess in case of Cushing's syndrome. Furthermore, the dexamethasone suppression test and late-night salivary cortisol may be useful in measuring plasma cortisol, respectively, in the blood and urine. Hyperaldosteronism could be suspected in the presence of arterial hypertension. With regard to imaging modalities, the contrast washout and Hounsfield units estimation might play a role as indicators on computed tomography. In terms of treatment, a surgical approach is most suitable for a hyperfunctioning adrenal mass irrespective of size, and for nonfunctioning masses >4 cm. For indeterminate smaller lesions, with washout >50%, <10 Hounsfield Unit, nonfunctioning, benign-appearing, undergoing a follow-up in regular intervals is more appropriate in order to estimate mass growth. This paper summarizes recent findings on the management of incidental adrenal masses, with a special focus on the use of imaging, surgical management and follow-up modalities in improving patient outcomes.

  16. Cardiac Sarcoidosis Diagnosed by Incidental Lymph Node Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Jun; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Roh, Solji; Tajima, Miyu; Maki, Hisataka; Kojima, Toshiya; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Nawata, Kan; Takeda, Norihiko; Watanabe, Masafumi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2017-02-07

    Cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis sometimes provokes life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Steroid administration is one of the fundamental anti-arrhythmia therapies. For an indication of steroid therapy, a definitive diagnosis of sarcoidosis is required.(1)) However, cases that are clearly suspected of cardiac sarcoidosis based on their clinical courses sometimes do not meet the current diagnostic criteria and result in the loss of an appropriate opportunity to perform steroid therapy.Here we report a case that was diagnosed as sarcoidosis by incidental biopsy of an inguinal lymph node during cardiac resuscitation for cardiac tamponade.(2)) While the inguinal lymph node was not swollen on computed tomography, a specimen obtained from an incidental biopsy during the exposure of a femoral vessel for the establishment of extracorporeal cardio-pulmonary resuscitation showed a non-caseating granuloma.This findings suggest a non-swelling lymph node biopsy might be an alternative strategy for the diagnosis for sarcoidosis if other standard strategies do not result in a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  17. 12 CFR 1501.2 - What activities has the Secretary determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity? 1501.2 Section 1501.2 Banks and Banking... Secretary determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity? (a) Activities... of activities are financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity when conducted...

  18. 12 CFR 1501.2 - What activities has the Secretary determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity? 1501.2 Section 1501.2 Banks and Banking... Secretary determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity? (a) Activities... of activities are financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity when conducted...

  19. 12 CFR 1501.2 - What activities has the Secretary determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity? 1501.2 Section 1501.2 Banks and Banking... Secretary determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity? (a) Activities... of activities are financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity when conducted...

  20. 12 CFR 1501.2 - What activities has the Secretary determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity? 1501.2 Section 1501.2 Banks and Banking... Secretary determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity? (a) Activities... of activities are financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity when conducted...

  1. 12 CFR 1501.2 - What activities has the Secretary determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity? 1501.2 Section 1501.2 Banks and... the Secretary determined to be financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity? (a... following types of activities are financial in nature or incidental to a financial activity when...

  2. 76 FR 6448 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test Flight Activities From Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA... harassment, incidental to space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Summary of Activity and... incidental to space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Issuance of this LOA is based on...

  3. Incidental Non-Inguinals Hernias in Totally Extra-Peritoneal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Old, OJ; Kulkarni, SR; Hardy, TJ; Slim, FJ; Emerson, LG; Bulbulia, RA; Whyman, MR

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Totally extra-peritoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair allows identification and repair of incidental non-inguinal groin hernias. We assessed the prevalence of incidental hernias during TEP inguinal hernia repair and identified the risk factors for incidental hernias. Materials and Methods Consecutive patients undergoing TEP repair from May 2005 to November 2012 were the study cohort. Inspection for ipsilateral femoral, obturator and rarer varieties of hernia was undertaken during TEP repair. Patient characteristics and operative findings were recorded on a prospectively collected database. Results A total of 1,532 TEP repairs were undertaken in 1,196 patients. Ninety-three patients were excluded due to incomplete data, leaving 1,103 patients and 1,404 hernias for analyses (1,380 male; 802 unilateral and 301 bilateral repairs; median age, 59 years). Among the 37 incidental hernias identified (2.6% of cases), the most common type of incidental hernia was femoral (n=32, 2.3%) followed by obturator (n=2, 0.1%). Increasing age was associated with an increased risk of incidental hernia, with a significant linear trend (p<0.01). The risk for patients >60 years of age was 4.0% vs 1.4% for those aged <60 years (p<0.01). Incidental hernias were found in 29.2% of females vs 2.2% of males, (p<0.0001). Risk of incidental hernia in those with a recurrent inguinal hernia was 3.0% vs 2.6% for primary repair (p=0.79). Conclusions Incidental hernias during TEP inguinal hernia repair were found in 2.6% of cases and, though infrequent, could cause complications if left untreated. The risk of incidental hernia increased with age and was significantly higher in patients aged >60 years and in females. PMID:25723688

  4. External inverse-Compton emission from jetted tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-05-01

    The recent discoveries of Sw J1644+57 and Sw J2058+05 show that tidal disruption events (TDEs) can launch relativistic jets. Super-Eddington accretion produces a strong radiation field of order Eddington luminosity. In a jetted TDE, electrons in the jet will inverse-Compton scatter the photons from the accretion disc and wind (external radiation field). Motivated by observations of thermal optical-UV spectra in Sw J2058+05 and several other TDEs, we assume the spectrum of the external radiation field intercepted by the relativistic jet to be blackbody. Hot electrons in the jet scatter this thermal radiation and produce luminosities 1045-1048 erg s- 1 in the X/γ-ray band. This model of thermal plus inverse-Compton radiation is applied to Sw J2058+05. First, we show that the blackbody component in the optical-UV spectrum most likely has its origin in the super-Eddington wind from the disc. Then, using the observed blackbody component as the external radiation field, we show that the X-ray luminosity and spectrum are consistent with the inverse-Compton emission, under the following conditions: (1) the jet Lorentz factor is Γ ≃ 5-10; (2) electrons in the jet have a power-law distribution dN_e/dγ _e ∝ γ _e^{-p} with γmin ˜ 1 and p = 2.4; (3) the wind is mildly relativistic (Lorentz factor ≳ 1.5) and has isotropic-equivalent mass-loss rate ˜ 5 M⊙ yr- 1. We describe the implications for jet composition and the radius where jet energy is converted to radiation.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    losing material, and the black hole transition, where rotating fluids are seen to approach black holes for suitable limits of their parameters. As the authors themselves mention, one of the emphasis of this book is placed 'on the rigorous treatment of simple models instead of trying to describe real objects with their many complex facets...'. After discussing constant density models both in Newtonian theory (the Maclaurin spheroids) and in the non-rotating relativistic case (the Schwarzschild interior model), the book concentrates on the so-called rigidly rotating disc of dust. Chapter two is mainly devoted to deriving this model and presenting its physical properties. The derivation is based in the so-called inverse scattering method of integrable systems and on a thorough knowledge of the theory of integration on Riemann surfaces. The details, which take up about one fifth of the whole length, are difficult to follow for any reader without a previous mastering of the techniques involved. For the expert, however, this part of the book is very useful because it brings together all the steps required for the complete determination of the solution. After the derivation of the disc of dust, the physical properties of the resulting one-parameter family of solutions are described, including its multipole moment structure, the existence of ergospheres, the Newtonian limit or the motion of test particles. Of particular interest is the transition from the disc of dust to the extreme black hole configuration corresponding to the limit when the parameter describing the fluid approaches its upper end. After this chapter devoted to exact models, the book looks at the problem from a completely different point of view, namely by using numerical methods. This tool has proven to be fundamental for a proper study of this physical problem. This book concentrates on the so-called pseudo-spectral methods and the use of multidomains adapted to the different regions of the spacetime with

  6. Nonthermal Particle Acceleration in 3D Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Pair Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri; Werner, Gregory; Zhdankin, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process that converts magnetic energy into particle kinetic energy. ``Relativistic'' reconnection is of interest in astrophysical contexts because it can accelerate particles to relativistic energies high enough for synchrotron (or inverse Compton) emission to explain observed high-energy radiation. After several 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of reconnection in pair plasmas demonstrated power-law electron-energy spectra extending to high energies, a few 3D simulations surprisingly confirmed the robustness of nonthermal particle acceleration, despite fundamental differences, such as the development of the relativistic drift-kink instability (RDKI) in 3D. We present a comprehensive PIC study of 3D relativistic pair-plasma reconnection characterizing the effect of the third dimension. We investigate how reconnection dynamics and particle acceleration depend on guide magnetic field Bz and on the simulation box length Lz in the third dimension. We find that, while the RDKI does indeed grow in 3D reconnection, it does not inhibit particle acceleration, even in the absence of guide field. This work was funded by NSF, DOE, and NASA.

  7. Relativistic projection and boost of solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Wilets, L.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics on the relativistic projection and boost of solitons: The center of mass problem; momentum eigenstates; variation after projection; and the nucleon as a composite. (LSP).

  8. Relativistic projection and boost of solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Wilets, L.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the relativistic projection and boost of solitons: The center of mass problem; momentum eigenstates; variation after projection; and the nucleon as a composite. (LSP).

  9. Pseudospectral approach to relativistic molecular theory.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2004-08-22

    The efficient relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) and Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) methods are proposed by an application of the pseudospectral (PS) approach. The present PS-DHF/DKS method is a relativistic extension of the PS-HF/KS method of Friesner, though we aim at higher numerical accuracy by elimination of superfluous arbitrariness. The relativistic PS-DHF/DKS method is implemented into our REL4D programs. Several PS applications to molecular systems show that the relativistic PS-DHF/DKS approach is more efficient than the traditional approach without a loss of accuracy. The present PS-DKS method successfully assigns and predicts the photoelectron spectra of hexacarbonyl complexes of tungsten and seaborgium theoretically.

  10. Coherent states for the relativistic harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldaya, Victor; Guerrero, J.

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have obtained, on the basis of a group approach to quantization, a Bargmann-Fock-like realization of the Relativistic Harmonic Oscillator as well as a generalized Bargmann transform relating fock wave functions and a set of relativistic Hermite polynomials. Nevertheless, the relativistic creation and annihilation operators satisfy typical relativistic commutation relations of the Lie product (vector-z, vector-z(sup dagger)) approximately equals Energy (an SL(2,R) algebra). Here we find higher-order polarization operators on the SL(2,R) group, providing canonical creation and annihilation operators satisfying the Lie product (vector-a, vector-a(sup dagger)) = identity vector 1, the eigenstates of which are 'true' coherent states.

  11. Thermal Properties of Degenerate Relativistic Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homorodean, Laurean

    We present the concentration-temperature phase diagram, characteristic functions, thermal equation of state and heat capacity at constant volume for degenerate ideal gases of relativistic fermions and bosons. The nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits of these laws are also discussed.

  12. ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC NUCLEI: A NEW FRONTIER

    SciTech Connect

    MCLERRAN,L.

    1999-10-29

    The collisions of ultra-relativistic nuclei provide a window on the behavior of strong interactions at asymptotically high energies. They also will allow the authors to study the bulk properties of hadronic matter at very high densities.

  13. Entropic formulation of relativistic continuum mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    An entropic formulation of relativistic continuum mechanics is developed in the Landau-Lifshitz frame. We introduce two spatial scales, one being the small scale representing the linear size of each material particle and the other the large scale representing the linear size of a large system which consists of material particles and is to linearly regress to the equilibrium. We propose a local functional which is expected to represent the total entropy of the larger system and require the entropy functional to be maximized in the process of linear regression. We show that Onsager's original idea on linear regression can then be realized explicitly as current conservations with dissipative currents in the desired form. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this formulation by showing that one can treat a wide class of relativistic continuum materials, including standard relativistic viscous fluids and relativistic viscoelastic materials.

  14. Relativistic Langevin equation for runaway electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mier, J. A.; Martin-Solis, J. R.; Sanchez, R.

    2016-10-01

    The Langevin approach to the kinetics of a collisional plasma is developed for relativistic electrons such as runaway electrons in tokamak plasmas. In this work, we consider Coulomb collisions between very fast, relativistic electrons and a relatively cool, thermal background plasma. The model is developed using the stochastic equivalence of the Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations. The resulting Langevin model equation for relativistic electrons is an stochastic differential equation, amenable to numerical simulations by means of Monte-Carlo type codes. Results of the simulations will be presented and compared with the non-relativistic Langevin equation for RE electrons used in the past. Supported by MINECO (Spain), Projects ENE2012-31753, ENE2015-66444-R.

  15. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2009-09-01

    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's speed-independent. This paper explores the history of "relativistic mass," emphasizing Einstein's public role and private thoughts. We show how the concept of speed-dependent mass mistakenly evolved out of a tangle of ideas despite Einstein's prescient reluctance. Along the way there will be previously unrevealed surprises (e.g., Einstein never derived the expression for "relativistic mass," and privately disapproved of it).

  16. Relativistic klystron research at SLAC and LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Schwarz, H.D.; Takeuchi, Y.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Barletta, W.A.; Birx, D.L.; Boyd, J.K.; Houck, T.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We are developing relativistic klystrons as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications such as large linear electron-positron colliders and compact accelerators. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here briefly on our experiments so far. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Recording of relativistic particles in thin scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstukhin, I A.; Somov, Alexander S.; Somov, S. V.; Bolozdynya, A. I.

    2014-11-01

    Results of investigating an assembly of thin scintillators and silicon photomultipliers for registering relativistic particles with the minimum ionization are presented. A high efficiency of registering relativistic particles using an Ej-212 plastic scintillator, BSF-91A wavelength-shifting fiber (Saint-Gobain), and a silicon photomultiplier (Hamamtsu) is shown. The measurement results are used for creating a scintillation hodoscope of the magnetic spectrometer for registering γ quanta in the GlueX experiment.

  18. Mass versus relativistic and rest masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okun, L. B.

    2009-05-01

    The concept of relativistic mass, which increases with velocity, is not compatible with the standard language of relativity theory and impedes the understanding and learning of the theory by beginners. The same difficulty occurs with the term rest mass. To get rid of relativistic mass and rest mass it is appropriate to replace the equation E =mc2 by the true Einstein's equation E0=mc2, where E0 is the rest energy and m is the mass.

  19. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2017-03-01

    Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The "relativistic" filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  20. BL Lac objects and relativistic beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M.

    1986-01-01

    General arguments for relativistic beaming in BL Lac objects are reviewed. These include overproduction of X-rays and fast time variability. Comments are made about the relationship of the X-ray continuum to that at lower frequencies, and observational evidence for and against continuum radiation being relativistically beamed is discussed. Finally, there is discussion of the influence of geometrical effects on predictions for time variability as a function of frequency in the context of inhomogeneous synchrotron self-Compton jet models.

  1. Relativistic uranium beams - the Bevalac experience

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.

    1983-03-01

    This paper will address areas where relativistic heavy ion accelerators differ from proton facilities. Salient areas are: (1) the specialized injectors for heavy ions; ion sources, structures for very low charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) ions, and stripper optimization; (2) special requirements for the synchrotron ring; ultrahigh vacuum, flexible controls and instrumentation. These areas are discussed in the context of the Bevalac, as well as our idea for a next-generation relativistic heavy ion accelerator.

  2. Relativistically modulational instability by strong Langmuir waves

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Li, X. Q.

    2012-09-15

    Based on the set of nonlinear coupling equations, which has considered the relativistic effects of electrons, modulational instability by strong Langmuir waves has been investigated in this paper. Both the characteristic scale and maximum growth rate of the Langmuir field will enhance with the increase in the electron relativistic effect. The numerical results indicate that longitudinal perturbations induce greater instability than transverse perturbations do, which will lead to collapse and formation of the pancake-like structure.

  3. Convexity and symmetrization in relativistic theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, T.

    1990-09-01

    There is a strong motivation for the desire to have symmetric hyperbolic field equations in thermodynamics, because they guarantee well-posedness of Cauchy problems. A generic quasi-linear first order system of balance laws — in the non-relativistic case — can be shown to be symmetric hyperbolic, if the entropy density is concave with respect to the variables. In relativistic thermodynamics this is not so. This paper shows that there exists a scalar quantity in relativistic thermodynamics whose concavity guarantees a symmetric hyperbolic system. But that quantity — we call it —bar h — is not the entropy, although it is closely related to it. It is formed by contracting the entropy flux vector — ha with a privileged time-like congruencebar ξ _α . It is also shown that the convexity of h plus the requirement that all speeds be smaller than the speed of light c provide symmetric hyperbolic field equations for all choices of the direction of time. At this level of generality the physical meaning of —h is unknown. However, in many circumstances it is equal to the entropy. This is so, of course, in the non-relativistic limit but also in the non-dissipative relativistic fluid and even in relativistic extended thermodynamics for a non-degenerate gas.

  4. Relabeling symmetry in relativistic fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazura, Yohei; Yoshida, Zensho; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2014-11-01

    The conservation of the recently formulated relativistic canonical helicity (Yoshida et al 2014 J. Math. Phys. 55 043101) is derived from Noether's theorem by constructing an action principle on the relativistic Lagrangian coordinates (we obtain general cross helicities that include the helicity of the canonical vorticity). The conservation law is, then, explained by the relabeling symmetry pertinent to the Lagrangian label of fluid elements. Upon Eulerianizing the Noether current, the purely spatial volume integral on the Lagrangian coordinates is mapped to a space-time mixed three-dimensional integral on the four-dimensional Eulerian coordinates. The relativistic conservation law in the Eulerian coordinates is no longer represented by any divergence-free current; hence, it is not adequate to regard the relativistic helicity (represented by the Eulerian variables) as a Noether charge, and this stands the reason why the ‘conventional helicity’ is no longer a constant of motion. We have also formulated a relativistic action principle of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on the Lagrangian coordinates, and have derived the relativistic MHD cross helicity.

  5. Dissociable neural mechanisms for goal-directed versus incidental memory reactivation.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Brice A; Johnson, Marcia K; Chun, Marvin M

    2013-10-09

    Remembering a past event involves reactivation of distributed patterns of neural activity that represent the features of that event-a process that depends on associative mechanisms supported by medial temporal lobe structures. Although efficient use of memory requires prioritizing those features of a memory that are relevant to current behavioral goals (target features) over features that may be goal-irrelevant (incidental features), there remains ambiguity concerning how this is achieved. We tested the hypothesis that although medial temporal lobe structures may support reactivation of both target and incidental event features, frontoparietal cortex preferentially reactivates those features that match current goals. Here, human participants were cued to remember either the category (face/scene) to which a picture belonged (category trials) or the location (left/right) in which a picture appeared (location trials). Multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data were used to measure reactivation of category information as a function of its behavioral relevance (target vs incidental reactivation). In ventral/medial temporal lobe (VMTL) structures, incidental reactivation was as robust as target reactivation. In contrast, frontoparietal cortex exhibited stronger target than incidental reactivation; that is, goal-modulated reactivation. Reactivation was also associated with later memory. Frontoparietal biases toward target reactivation predicted subsequent memory for target features, whereas incidental reactivation in VMTL predicted subsequent memory for nontested features. These findings reveal a striking dissociation between goal-modulated reactivation in frontoparietal cortex and incidental reactivation in VMTL.

  6. Detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cissoko, M. )

    1992-02-15

    This paper is concerned with an algebraic study of the equations of detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics taking into account the pressure and the energy of thermal radiation. A new approach to shock and detonation wavefronts is outlined. The fluid under consideration is assumed to be perfect (nonviscous and nonconducting) and to obey the following equation of state: {ital p}=({gamma}{minus}1){rho} where {ital p}, {rho}, and {gamma} are the pressure, the total energy density, and the adiabatic index, respectively. The solutions of the equations of detonation waves are reduced to the problem of finding physically acceptable roots of a quadratic polynomial {Pi}({ital X}) where {ital X} is the ratio {tau}/{tau}{sub 0} of dynamical volumes behind and ahead of the detonation wave. The existence and the locations of zeros of this polynomial allow it to be shown that if the equation of state of the burnt fluid is known then the variables characterizing the unburnt fluid obey well-defined physical relations.

  7. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  8. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  9. Relativistic Dipole Matrix Element Zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    There is a special class of relativistic high energy dipole matrix element zeros (RZ), whose positions with respect to photon energy ω , only depend on the bound state l quantum number according to ω^0=mc^2/(l_b+1) (independent of primary quantum number n, nuclear charge Z, central potential V and dipole retardation). These RZ only occur in (n,l_b,j_b)arrow (ɛ , l_b+1,j_b) transitions such as ns_1/2arrow ɛ p_1/2; np_3/2arrow ɛ d_3/2: nd_5/2arrow ɛ f_5/2 etc. The nonrelativistic limit of these matrix elements can be established explicitly in the Coulomb case. Within the general matrix element formalism (such as that in [1]); when |κ | is substituted for γ in analytic expressions for matrix elements, the zeros remain, but ω^0 now becomes dependent on n and Z. When the reduction to nonrelativistic form is completed by application of the low energy approximation ω mc^2 mc^2, the zeros disappear. This nonzero behavior was noted in nonrelativistic dipole Coulomb matrix elements by Fano and Cooper [2] and later proven by Oh and Pratt[3]. (J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 40), 3054 (1989 (U. Fano and J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40), 441 (1968). (D. Oh and R. H. Pratt, Phys. Rev. A 34), 2486 (1986); 37, 1524 (1988); 45, 1583 (1992).

  10. Causal Categories: Relativistically Interacting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coecke, Bob; Lal, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a causal category. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study the consequences of these methods for the general framework of categorical quantum mechanics.

  11. Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Blanford, Glenn DelFosse

    1998-01-01

    An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 < p < 9 GeV/c) antiprotons and a jet of molecular hydrogen gas. Since the neutral antihydrogen does not bend in the antiproton source magnets, the detectors could be located far from the interaction point on a beamline tangent to the storage ring. The detection of the antihydrogen is accomplished by ionizing the atoms far from the interaction point. The positron is deflected by a magnetic spectrometer and detected, as are the back to back photons resulting from its annihilation. The antiproton travels a distance long enough for its momentum and time of flight to be measured accurately. A statistically significant sample of 101 antihydrogen atoms has been observed. A measurement of the cross section for {bar H}{sup 0} production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e{sup +} e{sup -} pair creation near a nucleus with the e{sup +} being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure.

  12. Laser-driven generation of collimated ultra-relativistic positron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarri, G.; Schumaker, W.; Di Piazza, A.; Poder, K.; Cole, J. M.; Vargas, M.; Doria, D.; Kushel, S.; Dromey, B.; Grittani, G.; Gizzi, L.; Dieckmann, M. E.; Green, A.; Chvykov, V.; Maksimchuk, A.; Yanovsky, V.; He, Z. H.; Hou, B. X.; Nees, J. A.; Kar, S.; Najmudin, Z.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Keitel, C. H.; Krushelnick, K.; Zepf, M.

    2013-12-01

    We report on recent experimental results concerning the generation of collimated (divergence of the order of a few mrad) ultra-relativistic positron beams using a fully optical system. The positron beams are generated exploiting a quantum-electrodynamic cascade initiated by the propagation of a laser-accelerated, ultra-relativistic electron beam through high-Z solid targets. As long as the target thickness is comparable to or smaller than the radiation length of the material, the divergence of the escaping positron beam is of the order of the inverse of its Lorentz factor. For thicker solid targets the divergence is seen to gradually increase, due to the increased number of fundamental steps in the cascade, but it is still kept of the order of few tens of mrad, depending on the spectral components in the beam. This high degree of collimation will be fundamental for further injection into plasma-wakefield afterburners.

  13. Relativistic stars in f(R) and scalar-tensor theories

    SciTech Connect

    Babichev, Eugeny; Langlois, David

    2010-06-15

    We study relativistic stars in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity that try to account for the observed cosmic acceleration and satisfy the local gravity constraints via the chameleon mechanism. More specifically, we consider two types of models: scalar-tensor theories with an inverse power law potential and f(R) theories. Using a relaxation algorithm, we construct numerically static relativistic stars, both for constant energy density configurations and for a polytropic equation of state. We can reach a gravitational potential up to {Phi}{approx}0.3 at the surface of the star, even in f(R) theories with an 'unprotected' curvature singularity. However, we find static configurations only if the pressure does not exceed one third of the energy density, except possibly in a limited region of the star (otherwise, one expects tachyonic instabilities to develop). This constraint is satisfied by realistic equations of state for neutron stars.

  14. Ultrashort-Pulse Child-Langmuir Law in the Quantum and Relativistic Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, L. K.; Zhang, P.

    2007-04-20

    This Letter presents a consistent quantum and relativistic model of short-pulse Child-Langmuir (CL) law, of which the pulse length {tau} is less than the electron transit time in a gap of spacing D and voltage V. The classical value of the short-pulse CL law is enhanced by a large factor due to quantum effects when the pulse length and the size of the beam are, respectively, in femtosecond duration and nanometer scale. At high voltage larger than the electron rest mass, relativistic effects will suppress the enhancement of short-pulse CL law, which is confirmed by particle-in-cell simulation. When the pulse length is much shorter than the gap transit time, the current density is proportional to V, and to the inverse power of D and {tau}.

  15. Incidental experiences of affective coherence and incoherence influence persuasion.

    PubMed

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R

    2013-06-01

    When affective experiences are inconsistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience what is called affective incoherence; when affective experiences are consistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience affective coherence. The present research asked whether incidental feelings of affective coherence and incoherence would regulate persuasion. Experiences of affective coherence and incoherence were predicted and found to influence the processing of persuasive messages when evoked prior to receipt of such messages (Experiments 1 and 3), and to influence the confidence with which thoughts generated by persuasive messages were held when evoked after presentation of such messages (Experiments 2 and 3). These results extend research on affective coherence and incoherence by showing that they exert a broader impact on cognitive activity than originally assumed.

  16. Self-corrected elaboration and spacing effects in incidental memory.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2006-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of self-corrected elaboration on incidental memory as a function of types of presentation (massed vs spaced) and sentence frames (image vs nonimage). The subjects were presented a target word and an incongruous sentence frame and asked to correct the target to make a common sentence in the self-corrected elaboration condition, whereas in the experimenter-corrected elaboration condition they were asked to rate the appropriateness of the congruous word presented, followed by free recall test. The superiority of the self-corrected elaboration to the experimenter-corrected elaboration was observed only in some situations of combinations by the types of presentation and sentence frames. These results were discussed in terms of the effectiveness of the self-corrected elaboration.

  17. Memory for incidentally perceived social cues: Effects on person judgment.

    PubMed

    Pawling, Ralph; Kirkham, Alexander J; Tipper, Steven P; Over, Harriet

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic face cues can be very salient, as when observing sudden shifts of gaze to a new location, or a change of expression from happy to angry. These highly salient social cues influence judgments of another person during the course of an interaction. However, other dynamic cues, such as pupil dilation, are much more subtle, affecting judgments of another person even without awareness. We asked whether such subtle, incidentally perceived, dynamic cues could be encoded in to memory and retrieved at a later time. The current study demonstrates that in some circumstances changes in pupil size in another person are indeed encoded into memory and influence judgments of that individual at a later time. Furthermore, these judgments interact with the perceived trustworthiness of the individual and the nature of the social context. The effect is somewhat variable, however, possibly reflecting individual differences and the inherent ambiguity of pupil dilation/constriction.

  18. Case Report: Incidental Finding of a Giant Cardiac Mass

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a rare anomalous connection between a coronary artery and another coronary artery, major vessel, or cardiac chamber. Prevalence of CAF is reportedly 1% to 2% in patients who undergo coronary angiography.1 One of the most common complications of CAF is formation of a coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). A study conducted by Said and colleagues in 1995 found that CAA formation was present in 26% of patients who had proven CAF by way of angiography.2 Although a precise definition of the term “giant” CAA is still lacking, it generally refers to a dilatation that exceeds the reference vessel diameter by four times.3 We report an interesting case of a 38-year-old patient who was incidentally found to have a presumed large right ventricular aneurysm, which after an open-heart surgery was identified as a CAF with formation of an unruptured giant CAA. PMID:25114764

  19. Incidental catch of marine birds in high seas driftnets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, P.J.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, T.L.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1992-01-01

    The incidental take of marine birds was estimated for the following North Pacific driftnet fisheries in 1990: Japanese squid, Japanese large-mesh, Korean squid, and Taiwanese squid and large-mesh combined. The take was estimated by assuming that the data represented a random sample from an unstratified population of all driftnet fisheries in the North Pacific. Estimates for 13 species or species groups are presented, along with some discussion of inadequacies of the design. About 416,000 marine birds were estimated to be taken incidentally during the 1990 season; 80 % of these were in the Japanese squid fishery. Sooty Shearwaters, Short-tailed Shearwaters, and Laysan Albatrosses were the most common species in the bycatch. Regression models were also developed to explore the relations between bycatch rate of three groups Black-footed Albatross, Laysan Albatross, and dark shearwaters and various explanatory variables, such as latitude, longitude, month, vessel, sea surface temperature, and net soak time (length of time nets were in the water). This was done for only the Japanese squid fishery, for which the most complete information was available. For modelling purposes, fishing operations for each vessel were grouped into 5-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Results of model building indicated that vessel had a significant influence on bycatch rates of all three groups. This finding emphasizes the importance of the sample of vessels being representative of the entire fleet. In addition, bycatch rates of all three groups varied spatially and temporally. Bycatch rates for Laysan Albatrosses tended to decline during the fishing season, whereas those for Black-footed Albatrosses and dark shearwaters tended to increase as the season progressed. Bycatch rates were positively related to net soak time for Laysan Albatrosses and dark shearwaters. Bycatch rates of dark shearwaters were lower for higher sea surface temperatures.

  20. External inverse-Compton Emission from Blazar Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, Jennifer E.; Chiang, James; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    According to leptonic models for the high-energy emission from blazars, relativistic electrons in the inner jets inverse-Compton scatter photons from a variety of sources. Seed photons are certainly introduced via the synchrotron process from the electrons themselves, but external sources of seed photons may also be present. In this paper, we present detailed derivations of the equations describing external inverse-Compton scattering from two sources of seed photons: direct emission from the accretion disk, and accretion disk photons that have scattered off the broad line region. For each source, we derive the seed photon spectrum incident on the jet, the single electron energy loss rate, and the emitted photon spectrum.

  1. Incidental experiences of regulatory fit and the processing of persuasive appeals.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Anne M; Cesario, Joseph; Molden, Daniel C; Kosloff, Spee; Higgins, E Tory

    2009-10-01

    This article examines how the subjective experiences of "feeling right" from regulatory fit and of "feeling wrong" from regulatory non-fit influence the way people process persuasive messages. Across three studies, incidental experiences of regulatory fit increased reliance on source expertise and decreased resistance to counterpersuasion, whereas incidental experiences of regulatory non-fit increased reliance on argument strength and increased resistance to counterpersuasion. These results suggest that incidental fit and non-fit experiences can produce, respectively, more superficial or more thorough processing of persuasive messages. The mechanisms underlying these effects, and the conditions under which they should and should not be expected, are discussed.

  2. Relativistic Particle-In-Cell Simulations of Particle Accleration in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Highly accelerated particles are observed in astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic electron-ion and electron-positron jets injected into a stationary medium show that efficient acceleration occurs downstream in the jet. In collisionless relativistic shocks particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities, e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-stream instabilities, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly non-uniform, small-scale magnetic fields. The instability depends on strength and direction of the magnetic field. Particles in relativistic jets may be accelerated in a complicated dynamics of relativistic jets with magnetic field. We present results of our recent PIC simulations.

  3. Diskoseismology: Probing relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Michael Allen

    1992-08-01

    Helioseismology has provided a wealth of information about the structure of the solar atmosphere. Little is known, however, about the structure of accretion disks that are thought to exist around black holes and neutron stars. In this thesis we present calculations of modes that are trapped in thin Keplerian accretion disks. We hope to use observations of thes modes to elucidate the structure of the inner relativistic regions of accretion disks. Our calculations assume that the thin disk is terminated by an innermost stable orbit, as would occur around a slowly rotating black hole or weakly magnetized compact neutron star. The dominant relativistic effects, which allow modes to be trapped within the inner region of the disk, are approximated via a modified Newtonian potential. Using the Lagrangian formulation of Friedman and Schutz, we develop a general formalism for investigating the adiabatic oscillations of arbitrary unperturbed disk models. First we consider the special case of acoustic waves in disks with isothermal atmospheres. Next we describe the Lagrangian perturbation vectors in terms of the derivatives of a scalar potential, as has been done by Ipser and Lindblom. Using this potential, we derive a single partial differential equation governing the oscillations of a disk. The eigenfunctions and eigenfrequencies of a variety of disk models are found to fall into two main classes which are analogous to the p-modes and g-modes in the sun. Specifically we use the potential formalism to compute the g-modes for disks with isothermal atmospheres. Physical arguments show that both the p-modes and g-modes belong to the same family of modes as the p-modes and g-modes in the sun, just viewed in a different parameter regime. With the aid of the Lagrangian formalism we consider possible growth or damping mechanisms and compute the (assumed) relatively small rates of growth or damping of the modes. Specifically, we consider gravitational radiation reaction and

  4. Inverse heat conduction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlande, Helcio Rangel Barreto

    We present the solution of the following inverse problems: (1) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance Between Periodically Contacting Surfaces; (2) Inverse Problem of Estimating Interface Conductance During Solidification via Conjugate Gradient Method; (3) Determination of the Reaction Function in a Reaction-Diffusion Parabolic Problem; and (4) Simultaneous Estimation of Thermal Diffusivity and Relaxation Time with Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Model. Also, we present the solution of a direct problem entitled: Transient Thermal Constriction Resistance in a Finite Heat Flux Tube. The Conjugate Gradient Method with Adjoint Equation was used in chapters 1-3. The more general function estimation approach was treated in these chapters. In chapter 1, we solve the inverse problem of estimating the timewise variation of the interface conductance between periodically contacting solids, under quasi-steady-state conditions. The present method is found to be more accurate than the B-Spline approach for situations involving small periods, which are the most difficult on which to perform the inverse analysis. In chapter 2, we estimate the timewise variation of the interface conductance between casting and mold during the solidification of aluminum. The experimental apparatus used in this study is described. In chapter 3, we present the estimation of the reaction function in a one dimensional parabolic problem. A comparison of the present function estimation approach with the parameter estimation technique, wing B-Splines to approximate the reaction function, revealed that the use of function estimation reduces the computer time requirements. In chapter 4 we present a finite difference solution for the transient constriction resistance in a cylinder of finite length with a circular contact surface. A numerical grid generation scheme was used to concentrate grid points in the regions of high temperature gradients in order to reduce discretization errors. In chapter 6, we

  5. Imbalanced relativistic force-free magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jungyeon; Lazarian, A.

    2014-01-01

    When magnetic energy density is much larger than that of matter, as in pulsar/black hole magnetospheres, the medium becomes force-free and we need relativity to describe it. As in non-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Alfvénic MHD turbulence in the relativistic limit can be described by interactions of counter-traveling wave packets. In this paper, we numerically study strong imbalanced MHD turbulence in such environments. Here, imbalanced turbulence means the waves traveling in one direction (dominant waves) have higher amplitudes than the opposite-traveling waves (sub-dominant waves). We find that (1) spectrum of the dominant waves is steeper than that of sub-dominant waves, (2) the anisotropy of the dominant waves is weaker than that of sub-dominant waves, and (3) the dependence of the ratio of magnetic energy densities of dominant and sub-dominant waves on the ratio of energy injection rates is steeper than quadratic (i.e., b{sub +}{sup 2}/b{sub −}{sup 2}∝(ϵ{sub +}/ϵ{sub −}){sup n} with n > 2). These results are consistent with those obtained for imbalanced non-relativistic Alfvénic turbulence. This corresponds well to the earlier reported similarity of the relativistic and non-relativistic balanced magnetic turbulence.

  6. Relativistic generation of vortex and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S. M.; Yoshida, Z.

    2011-05-15

    The implications of the recently demonstrated relativistic mechanism for generating generalized vorticity in purely ideal dynamics [Mahajan and Yoshida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 095005 (2010)] are worked out. The said mechanism has its origin in the space-time distortion caused by the demands of special relativity; these distortions break the topological constraint (conservation of generalized helicity) forbidding the emergence of magnetic field (a generalized vorticity) in an ideal nonrelativistic dynamics. After delineating the steps in the ''evolution'' of vortex dynamics, as the physical system goes from a nonrelativistic to a relativistically fast and hot plasma, a simple theory is developed to disentangle the two distinct components comprising the generalized vorticity--the magnetic field and the thermal-kinetic vorticity. The ''strength'' of the new universal mechanism is, then, estimated for a few representative cases; in particular, the level of seed fields, created in the cosmic setting of the early hot universe filled with relativistic particle-antiparticle pairs (up to the end of the electron-positron era), are computed. Possible applications of the mechanism in intense laser produced plasmas are also explored. It is suggested that highly relativistic laser plasma could provide a laboratory for testing the essence of the relativistic drive.

  7. Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2014-01-14

    Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad’s moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick’s law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad’s distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.

  8. Relativistic Beaming and the Intrinsic Properties of Extragalactic Radio Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Lister, M. L.; Homan, D. C.; Kadler, M.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Vermeulen, R. C.

    2007-03-01

    Relations between the observed quantities for a beamed radio jet, which are the apparent transverse speed and the apparent luminosity (βapp, L), and the intrinsic quantities, which are the Lorentz factor and the intrinsic luminosity (γ, L0), are investigated. The inversion from measured to intrinsic values is not unique, but approximate limits to γ and L0 can be found using probability arguments. Roughly half the sources in a flux density-limited, beamed sample have a value of γ close to the measured value of βapp. The methods are applied to observations of 119 AGN jets made with the VLBA at 15 GHz during 1994-2002. The results strongly support the common relativistic beam model for an extragalactic radio jet. The (βapp, L) data are closely bounded by a theoretical envelope, an ``aspect'' curve for γ=32 and L0=1025 W Hz-1. This gives limits to the maximum values of γ and L0 in the sample: γmax~32, and L0,max~1026 W Hz-1. No sources with both high values of βapp and low values of L are observed. This is not the result of selection effects due to the observing limits, which are a flux density of S>0.5 Jy and an angular velocity of μ<4 mas yr-1. Many of the fastest quasars have a pattern Lorentz factor, γp, that is close to that of the beam, γb, but some of the slow quasars must have γp<<γb. Three of the 10 galaxies in the sample have a superluminal feature, with speeds up to βapp~6. The others are at most mildly relativistic. The galaxies are not off-axis versions of the powerful quasars, but Cygnus A might be an exception.

  9. Probing acceleration and turbulence at relativistic shocks in blazar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Böttcher, Markus; Summerlin, Errol J.

    2017-02-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is widely thought to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud active galactic nuclei such as blazars. Such acceleration can produce the non-thermal particles that emit the broad-band continuum radiation that is detected from extragalactic jets. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-Large Area Telescope spectroscopy to pin down the shape of the distribution of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This paper highlights how multiwavelength spectra spanning optical to X-ray to gamma-ray bands can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in blazar jets. Diagnostics on the MHD turbulence near such shocks are obtained using thermal and non-thermal particle distributions resulting from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of DSA. These probes are afforded by the characteristic property that the synchrotron νFν peak energy does not appear in the gamma-ray band above 100 MeV. We investigate self-consistently the radiative synchrotron and inverse Compton signatures of the simulated particle distributions. Important constraints on the diffusive mean free paths of electrons, and the level of electromagnetic field turbulence are identified for three different case study blazars, Mrk 501, BL Lacertae and AO 0235+164. The X-ray excess of AO 0235+164 in a flare state can be modelled as the signature of bulk Compton scattering of external radiation fields, thereby tightly constraining the energy-dependence of the diffusion coefficient for electrons. The concomitant interpretations that turbulence levels decline with remoteness from jet shocks, and the probable significant role for non-gyroresonant diffusion, are posited.

  10. 77 FR 21946 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan AGENCY: National Marine... Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan (BDTRP) and implementing regulations by permanently continuing medium... April 30. Members of the Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Team (BDTRT) recommended these regulations...

  11. 76 FR 14884 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Modification of the Retention of Incidentally-Caught Highly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... sustainability of HMS stocks, and to provide the data necessary for assessing HMS fish stocks and managing HMS... mortality, both directed and incidental, so as to ensure the long-term sustainability of HMS stocks, and...

  12. 76 FR 14924 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... incidental to Russian River estuary management activities. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA... Channel Adaptive Management Plan. NMFS' Environmental Assessment (2010) and associated Finding of...

  13. Effect of Color and Monochrome Versions of a Film on Incidental and Task Relevant Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.

    1980-01-01

    This study found that color in a film helped fourth- and fifth-grade students of all ability levels learn incidental information, but affected learning of task-relevant information differently depending on ability level. (Author/JEG)

  14. Increasing requests by adults with developmental disabilities using incidental teaching by peers.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer-Dougan, V

    1994-01-01

    A peer-delivered incidental-teaching procedure was used to instruct appropriate requesting in adults with moderate to severe mental retardation or autism. Three pairs of group-home residents participated in an incidental-teaching procedure to increase appropriate requesting, prompting, and responding of residents during lunch-preparation sessions. An increase in the number of incidental-teaching episodes during dinner was obtained, and remained high when lunch-making training sessions were withdrawn. In addition, during the incidental-teaching phase, an increase in appropriate requests and overall verbalizations occurred for the peer learners. Changes in appropriate requesting and overall verbalizations also remained higher than baseline when training was withdrawn. PMID:7928794

  15. Incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary through brief multi-modal exposure.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here we tested the impact of exposure to foreign language words presented with pictures in an incidental learning phase on subsequent explicit foreign language learning. In the explicit learning phase, we asked adults to learn translation equivalents of foreign language words, some of which had appeared in the incidental learning phase. Results revealed rapid learning of the foreign language words in the incidental learning phase showing that informal exposure to multi-modal foreign language leads to foreign language vocabulary acquisition. The creation of form-meaning links during the incidental learning phase is discussed.

  16. Pharmacogenomic incidental findings in 308 families: The NIH Undiagnosed Disease Program experience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elizabeth M.J.; Xu, Karen; Mosbrook, Emma; Links, Amanda; Guzman, Jessica; Adams, David R.; Flynn, Elise; Valkanas, Elise; Toro, Camillo; Tifft, Cynthia J.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Gahl, William A.; Sincan, Murat

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Using SNP chip and exome sequence data from individuals participating in the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP), we evaluated the number and therapeutic informativeness of incidental pharmacogenetic variants. METHODS Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) annotated sequence variants were identified in 1,101 individuals. Medication records of participants were used to identify individuals prescribed medications for which a genetic variant might alter efficacy. RESULTS 395 sequence variants, including 19 PharmGKB 1A and 1B variants, were identified in SNP chip sequence data and 388 variants, including 21 PharmGKB 1A and 1B variants, were identified in the exome sequence data. Nine participants had incidental pharmacogenetic variants associated with altered efficacy of a prescribed medication. CONCLUSIONS Despite the small size of the NIH UDP patient cohort, we identified pharmacogenetic incidental findings potentially useful for guiding therapy. Consequently, groups conducting clinical genomic studies might consider reporting of pharmacogenetic incidental findings. PMID:27253732

  17. 76 FR 56172 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Piling and Structure Removal in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... seals' coat is gray and mottled but highly variable, from dark with light color rings or spots to light... relation to haul-outs was calculated using satellite imagery. All incidental harassment takes related...

  18. 76 FR 12751 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Applications for Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... incidental to land preparation for the extension and paving of a road, the construction of a fellowship hall... to land preparation for the extension and paving of a road, the construction of a fellowship hall...

  19. Do researchers have an obligation to actively look for genetic incidental findings?

    PubMed

    Gliwa, Catherine; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of next-generation genetic sequencing has prompted debate about the responsibilities of researchers toward genetic incidental findings. Assuming there is a duty to disclose significant incidental findings, might there be an obligation for researchers to actively look for these findings? We present an ethical framework for analyzing whether there is a positive duty to look for genetic incidental findings. Using the ancillary care framework as a guide, we identify three main criteria that must be present to give rise to an obligation to look: high benefit to participants, lack of alternative access for participants, and reasonable burden on researchers. Our analysis indicates that there is no obligation to look for incidental findings today, but during the ongoing translation of genomic analysis from research to clinical care, this obligation may arise.

  20. 76 FR 75525 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (L-DEO), a part... array to image the structure of the oceanic lithosphere (i.e., the Earth's crust and the...

  1. 50 CFR 229.7 - Monitoring of incidental mortalities and serious injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Identify changes in fishing methods or technology that may increase or decrease incidental mortality and... the notification by providing information requested within the specified time on scheduled or... to conduct observer duties; (iv) Allowing the observer access to communications equipment...

  2. 76 FR 41486 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility off...

  3. 75 FR 16754 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air... testing and training during Precision Strike Weapons (PSW) tests in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), a...

  4. 76 FR 7548 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air... testing and training during Precision Strike Weapons (PSW) testing and training in the Gulf of Mexico...

  5. Comparative study of ultrasound and computed tomography for incidentally detecting diffuse thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Soo Jin; Ha, Tae Kwun; Park, Ha Kyoung; Kang, Taewoo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of thyroid ultrasound (US) and neck computed tomography (CT) in incidentally detecting diffuse thyroid disease (DTD). A single radiologist made US and CT diagnoses of incidentally detected DTD in 130 consecutive patients before thyroidectomy for various malignancies. Histopathologic examinations confirmed normal thyroid (n = 80), Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 20), non-Hashimoto lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 28) and diffuse hyperplasia (n = 2). Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the best diagnostic indices of both imaging methods were achieved on the basis of two or more abnormal imaging findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of US and CT in incidentally detecting DTD by this classification were 72% and 72%, 87.5% and 91.3% and 81.5% and 83.8%, respectively. Thyroid US and neck CT have similar diagnostic values for differentiating incidental DTD from normal thyroid.

  6. 76 FR 37142 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Proposed Low...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... about 0.23 acre of Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) (scrub-jay) breeding, feeding, and... breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat incidental to land preparation for construction of a...

  7. Incidentally detected right pulmonary artery agenesis with right coronary artery collateralization.

    PubMed

    Mikaberidze, Nino; Goldberg, Ythan; Khosraviani, Khashayar; Taub, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis (UPAA) with pulmonary hypoplasia is a rare congenital anomaly. We describe a 71-year old male who was incidentally diagnosed with the right UPAA and a hypoplastic right lung supplied by collateralized right coronary.

  8. Inverse Functions and their Derivatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapper, Ernst

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a method of interchanging the x-axis and y-axis for viewing the graph of the inverse function. Discussed are the inverse function and the usual proofs that are used for the function. (KR)

  9. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.

  10. Generation of high-energy neutron beam by fragmentation of relativistic heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurevich, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    The phenomenon of multiple production of neutrons in reactions with heavy nuclei induced by high-energy protons and light nuclei is analyzed using a Moving Source Model. The Lorentz transformation of the obtained neutron distributions is used to study the neutron characteristics in the inverse kinematics where relativistic heavy nuclei bombard a light-mass target. The neutron beam generated at 0∘has a Gaussian shape with a maximum at the energy of the projectile nucleons and an energy resolution σE/E < 4% above 6 GeV.

  11. Recent experimental results from a long-pulse J-band relativistic klystron amplifier developmental effort

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, K.G.; Crouch, D.D.; Sar, D.R.; Speciale, R.A.; Carlsten, B.E.; Fazio, M.V.; Haynes, W.B.; Stringfield, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    Recent experimental results, supporting simulations, and design modeling are presented from a developmental effort to a produce a long pulse ({approximately}1{mu}s) J-band (5.85-8.2 GHz) relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) of the high current NRL genealogy. This RKA is designed to operate at approximately 6.6 GHz, with a desired RF output {approximately}700 MW. Conversion of electron beam energy to microwave energy is obtained by a mock magnetically insulated coaxial converter which, in various incarnations, can be made to be either a cavity gap extractor or an inverse cathode.

  12. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    PubMed

    Schartel, Tyler E; Schauber, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty) feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference.

  13. Incidental findings on computed tomography scans for acute appendicitis: prevalence, costs, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Ozao-Choy, Junko; Kim, Unsup; Vieux, Ulrich; Menes, Tehillah S

    2011-11-01

    CT scan is increasingly being used to diagnose appendicitis due to its specificity and literature suggesting its cost-effectiveness. CT scans are associated with incidental findings. We sought to investigate the rates of incidental findings identified on CT scans, the follow-up of these findings, and the added cost associated with this follow-up. A retrospective review of patients who underwent appendectomies for acute appendicitis between 2003 and 2005 was completed at Elmhurst Hospital Center (Elmhurst, NY). Incidental findings were grouped into low and high significance, based on workup or follow-up needed. The diagnostic workup and cost of each incidental finding was ascertained. For patients who did not receive a workup due to lack of follow-up, an estimate of the minimum workup was calculated. Of 1142 patients with acute appendicitis, 876 (77%) had a CT scan. This rate increased over time (from 66% in 2003 to 85% in 2005, P < 0.01) and with age (70% in patients under 20 and 98% in patients over 50, P < 0.001). Incidental findings were common and increased with age (23% in the youngest group vs 78% in patients older than 50, P < 0.001). The cost associated with workup of these incidental findings increased with age as well. The increased use of CT scans is associated with a high rate of incidental findings. These findings are usually of low clinical significance but may require further workup and follow-up. Physicians need to be aware of the high rate of incidental findings, the need for further workup, and the associated costs.

  14. Incidentally detected breast lesions on chest CT with US correlation: a pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jung Hee; Jung, Hyun Kyung; Song, Jong Woon; Baek, Hye Jin; Doo, Kyung Won; Kim, Woogyeong; Kim, Yeon Mee; Kim, Woon Won; Lee, Jung Sun; Cho, Een Young

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing use of computed tomography (CT), incidental breast lesions are detected more frequently. When interpreting chest CT findings, it is important for radiologists to carefully review the breast to recognize any abnormal findings that could affect patient management. The purpose of this study is to discuss incidental breast lesions on chest CT with ultrasonography correlation that may be encountered in routine clinical practice. PMID:27707680

  15. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey

    PubMed Central

    Schartel, Tyler E.; Schauber, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty) feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference. PMID:26978659

  16. Relativistic mirrors in laser plasmas (analytical methods)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh; Kando, M.; Koga, J.

    2016-10-01

    Relativistic flying mirrors in plasmas are realized as thin dense electron (or electron-ion) layers accelerated by high-intensity electromagnetic waves to velocities close to the speed of light in vacuum. The reflection of an electromagnetic wave from the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency changing. In a counter-propagation configuration, the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the Lorentz factor squared. This scientific area promises the development of sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses in the attosecond range. The expected intensity will reach the level at which the effects predicted by nonlinear quantum electrodynamics start to play a key role. We present an overview of theoretical methods used to describe relativistic flying, accelerating, oscillating mirrors emerging in intense laser-plasma interactions.

  17. Relativistic neutrons in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Rudak, Bronislaw

    1989-01-01

    The acceleration of protons to relativistic energies in active galactic nuclei leads to the creation of relativistic neutrons which escape from the central engine. The neutrons decay at distances of up to 1-100 pc, depositing their energies and momenta in situ. Energy deposition by decaying neutrons may inhibit spherical accretion and drive a wind, which could be responsible for the velocity fields in emission-line regions and the outflow of broad absorption line systems. Enhanced pressure in the neutron decay region may also help to confine emission line clouds. A fraction of the relativistic proton energy is radiated in gamma-rays with energies which may be as large as about 100,000 GeV.

  18. Nonlinear relativistic plasma resonance: Renormalization group approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelskii, I. I.; Kovalev, V. F.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2017-02-01

    An analytical solution to the nonlinear set of equations describing the electron dynamics and electric field structure in the vicinity of the critical density in a nonuniform plasma is constructed using the renormalization group approach with allowance for relativistic effects of electron motion. It is demonstrated that the obtained solution describes two regimes of plasma oscillations in the vicinity of the plasma resonance— stationary and nonstationary. For the stationary regime, the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of the resonantly enhanced electric field are investigated in detail and the effect of the relativistic nonlinearity on the spatial localization of the energy of the plasma relativistic field is considered. The applicability limits of the obtained solution, which are determined by the conditions of plasma wave breaking in the vicinity of the resonance, are established and analyzed in detail for typical laser and plasma parameters. The applicability limits of the earlier developed nonrelativistic theories are refined.

  19. Anomalous magnetic viscosity in relativistic accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fujun; Liu, Sanqiu; Li, Xiaoqing

    2013-07-01

    It has been proved that the self-generated magnetic fields by transverse plasmons in the relativistic regime are modulationally unstable, leading to a self-similar collapse of the magnetic flux tubes and resulting in local magnetic structures; highly spatially intermittent flux is responsible for generating the anomalous viscosity. We derive the anomalous magnetic viscosity coefficient, in accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes, pulsars and quasars, where the plasmas are relativistic, in order to help clarify the nature of viscosity in the theory of accretion disks. The results indicate that, the magnetic viscosity is modified by the relativistic effects of plasmas, and its' strength would be 1015 stronger than the molecular viscosity, which may be helpful in explaining the observations.

  20. RESISTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF RELATIVISTIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex

    2010-06-20

    Resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations are applied to investigate the system evolution of relativistic magnetic reconnection. A time-split Harten-Lan-van Leer method is employed. Under a localized resistivity, the system exhibits a fast reconnection jet with an Alfvenic Lorentz factor inside a narrow Petschek-type exhaust. Various shock structures are resolved in and around the plasmoid such as the post-plasmoid vertical shocks and the 'diamond-chain' structure due to multiple shock reflections. Under a uniform resistivity, Sweet-Parker-type reconnection slowly evolves. Under a current-dependent resistivity, plasmoids are repeatedly formed in an elongated current sheet. It is concluded that the resistivity model is of critical importance for RRMHD modeling of relativistic magnetic reconnection.

  1. Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations are applied to investigate the system evolution of relativistic magnetic reconnection. A time-split Harten-Lan-van Leer method is employed. Under a localized resistivity, the system exhibits a fast reconnection jet with an Alfv enic Lorentz factor inside a narrow Petschek-type exhaust. Various shock structures are resolved in and around the plasmoid such as the post-plasmoid vertical shocks and the "diamond-chain" structure due to multiple shock reflections. Under a uniform resistivity, Sweet-Parker-type reconnection slowly evolves. Under a current-dependent resistivity, plasmoids are repeatedly formed in an elongated current sheet. It is concluded that the resistivity model is of critical importance for RRMHD modeling of relativistic magnetic reconnection.

  2. Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations are applied to investigate the system evolution of relativistic magnetic reconnection. A time-split Harten-Lan-van Leer method is employed. Under a localized resistivity, the system exhibits a fast reconnection jet with an Alfvénic Lorentz factor inside a narrow Petschek-type exhaust. Various shock structures are resolved in and around the plasmoid such as the post-plasmoid vertical shocks and the "diamond-chain" structure due to multiple shock reflections. Under a uniform resistivity, Sweet-Parker-type reconnection slowly evolves. Under a current-dependent resistivity, plasmoids are repeatedly formed in an elongated current sheet. It is concluded that the resistivity model is of critical importance for RRMHD modeling of relativistic magnetic reconnection.

  3. Relativistic quantum information and time machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, Timothy C.; Downes, Tony G.

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic quantum information combines the informational approach to understanding and using quantum mechanical systems - quantum information - with the relativistic view of the Universe. In this introductory review we examine key results to emerge from this new field of research in physics and discuss future directions. A particularly active area recently has been the question of what happens when quantum systems interact with general relativistic closed timelike curves - effectively time machines. We discuss two different approaches that have been suggested for modelling such situations. It is argued that the approach based on matching the density operator of the quantum state between the future and past most consistently avoids the paradoxes usually associated with time travel.

  4. Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar.

    PubMed

    Breton, Rene P; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lyutikov, Maxim; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ferdman, Robert D; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea

    2008-07-04

    The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B consists of two neutron stars in a highly relativistic orbit that displays a roughly 30-second eclipse when pulsar A passes behind pulsar B. Describing this eclipse of pulsar A as due to absorption occurring in the magnetosphere of pulsar B, we successfully used a simple geometric model to characterize the observed changing eclipse morphology and to measure the relativistic precession of pulsar B's spin axis around the total orbital angular momentum. This provides a test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. Our measured relativistic spin precession rate of 4.77 degrees (-0 degrees .65)(+0 degrees .66) per year (68% confidence level) is consistent with that predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 13%.

  5. Relativistic dynamics, Green function and pseudodifferential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

    2016-06-01

    The central role played by pseudodifferential operators in relativistic dynamics is known very well. In this work, operators like the Schrodinger one (e.g., square root) are treated from the point of view of the non-local pseudodifferential Green functions. Starting from the explicit construction of the Green (semigroup) theoretical kernel, a theorem linking the integrability conditions and their dependence on the spacetime dimensions is given. Relativistic wave equations with arbitrary spin and the causality problem are discussed with the algebraic interpretation of the radical operator and their relation with coherent and squeezed states. Also we perform by means of pure theoretical procedures (based in physical concepts and symmetry) the relativistic position operator which satisfies the conditions of integrability: it is a non-local, Lorentz invariant and does not have the same problems as the "local"position operator proposed by Newton and Wigner. Physical examples, as zitterbewegung and rogue waves, are presented and deeply analyzed in this theoretical framework.

  6. Exact quantisation of the relativistic Hopfield model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgiorno, F.; Cacciatori, S. L.; Dalla Piazza, F.; Doronzo, M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, which entails the interaction of the quantum electromagnetic field with the matter dipole fields, represented by a mesoscopic polarisation field. A full quantisation of the model is provided in a covariant gauge, with the aim of maintaining explicit relativistic covariance. Breaking of the Lorentz invariance due to the intrinsic presence in the model of a preferred reference frame is also taken into account. Relativistic covariance forces us to deal with the unphysical (scalar and longitudinal) components of the fields, furthermore it introduces, in a more tricky form, the well-known dipole ghost of standard QED in a covariant gauge. In order to correctly dispose of this contribution, we implement a generalised Lautrup trick. Furthermore, causality and the relation of the model with the Wightman axioms are also discussed.

  7. The relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    1977-01-01

    The general-relativistic equations of stellar structure and evolution are reformulated in a notation which makes easy contact with Newtonian theory. Also, a general-relativistic version of the mixing-length formalism for convection is presented.

  8. Inverse-collimated proton radiography for imaging thin materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Matthew S.; Allison, Jason; Andrews, Malcolm; Ferm, Eric; Goett, John J.; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lopez, Julian; Mariam, Fesseha; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Martinez, Michael; Medina, Jason; Medina, Patrick; Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Chris L.; Murray, Matthew M.; Nedrow, Paul; Neukirch, Levi P.; Prestridge, Katherine; Rigg, Paolo; Saunders, Alexander; Schurman, Tamsen; Tainter, Amy; Trouw, Frans; Tupa, Dale; Tybo, Josh; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy; Wilde, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Relativistic, magnetically focused proton radiography was invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the 800 MeV LANSCE beam and is inherently well-suited to imaging dense objects, at areal densities >20 g cm-2. However, if the unscattered portion of the transmitted beam is removed at the Fourier plane through inverse-collimation, this system becomes highly sensitive to very thin media, of areal densities <100 mg cm-2. Here, this inverse-collimation scheme is described in detail and demonstrated by imaging Xe gas with a shockwave generated by an aluminum plate compressing the gas at Mach 8.8. With a 5-mrad inverse collimator, an areal density change of just 49 mg cm-2 across the shock front is discernible with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 3. Geant4 modeling of idealized and realistic proton transports can guide the design of inverse-collimators optimized for specific experimental conditions and show that this technique performs better for thin targets with reduced incident proton beam emittance. This work increases the range of areal densities to which the system is sensitive to span from ˜25 mg cm-2 to 100 g cm-2, exceeding three orders of magnitude. This enables the simultaneous imaging of a dense system as well as thin jets and ejecta material that are otherwise difficult to characterize with high-energy proton radiography.

  9. Inverse-collimated proton radiography for imaging thin materials.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Matthew S; Allison, Jason; Andrews, Malcolm; Ferm, Eric; Goett, John J; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lopez, Julian; Mariam, Fesseha; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Martinez, Michael; Medina, Jason; Medina, Patrick; Merrill, Frank E; Morris, Chris L; Murray, Matthew M; Nedrow, Paul; Neukirch, Levi P; Prestridge, Katherine; Rigg, Paolo; Saunders, Alexander; Schurman, Tamsen; Tainter, Amy; Trouw, Frans; Tupa, Dale; Tybo, Josh; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy; Wilde, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Relativistic, magnetically focused proton radiography was invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the 800 MeV LANSCE beam and is inherently well-suited to imaging dense objects, at areal densities >20 g cm(-2). However, if the unscattered portion of the transmitted beam is removed at the Fourier plane through inverse-collimation, this system becomes highly sensitive to very thin media, of areal densities <100 mg cm(-2). Here, this inverse-collimation scheme is described in detail and demonstrated by imaging Xe gas with a shockwave generated by an aluminum plate compressing the gas at Mach 8.8. With a 5-mrad inverse collimator, an areal density change of just 49 mg cm(-2) across the shock front is discernible with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 3. Geant4 modeling of idealized and realistic proton transports can guide the design of inverse-collimators optimized for specific experimental conditions and show that this technique performs better for thin targets with reduced incident proton beam emittance. This work increases the range of areal densities to which the system is sensitive to span from ∼25 mg cm(-2) to 100 g cm(-2), exceeding three orders of magnitude. This enables the simultaneous imaging of a dense system as well as thin jets and ejecta material that are otherwise difficult to characterize with high-energy proton radiography.

  10. The role of verbal and pictorial information in multimodal incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to investigate the allocation of attention to multimodal stimuli during an incidental learning situation, as well as its impact on subsequent explicit learning. Participants were exposed to foreign language (FL) auditory words on their own, in conjunction with written native language (NL) translations, or with both written NL translations and pictures. Incidental acquisition of FL words was assessed the following day through an explicit learning task where participants learned to recognize translation equivalents, as well as one week later through recall and translation recognition tests. Results showed higher accuracy scores in the explicit learning task for FL words presented with meaning during incidental learning, whether written meaning or both written meaning and picture, than for FL words presented auditorily only. However, participants recalled significantly more FL words after a week delay if they had been presented with a picture during incidental learning. In addition, the time spent looking at the pictures during incidental learning significantly predicted recognition and recall scores one week later. Overall, results demonstrated the impact of exposure to multimodal stimuli on subsequent explicit learning, as well as the important role that pictorial information can play in incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  11. Incidental Findings on Cone Beam Computed Tomography Studies outside of the Maxillofacial Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To define the presence and prevalence of incidental findings in and around the base of skull from large field-of-view CBCT of the maxillofacial region and to determine their clinical importance. Methods. Four hundred consecutive large fields of view CBCT scans viewed from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2014, were retrospectively evaluated for incidental findings of the cervical vertebrae and surrounding structures. Findings were categorized into cervical vertebrae, intracranial, soft tissue, airway, carotid artery, lymph node, and skull base findings. Results. A total of 653 incidental findings were identified in 309 of the 400 CBCT scans. The most prevalent incidental findings were soft tissue calcifications (29.71%), followed by intracranial calcifications (27.11%), cervical vertebrae (20.06%), airway (11.49%), external carotid artery calcification (10.41%), lymph node calcification (0.77%), subcutaneous tissue calcification and calcified tendonitis of the longus colli muscle (0.3%), and skull base finding (0.15%). A significant portion of the incidental findings (31.24%) required referral, 17.76% required monitoring, and 51% did not require either. Conclusion. A comprehensive review of the CBCT images beyond the region of interest, especially incidental findings in the base of skull, cervical vertebrae, pharyngeal airway, and soft tissue, is necessary to avoid overlooking clinically significant lesions. PMID:27462350

  12. Incidental cranial CT findings in head injury patients in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ogbole, Godwin I.; Adeleye, Amos O.; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Olatunji, Richard B.; Yusuf, Bolutife P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incidental findings on computed tomography (CT) scans are occasionally noted in patients presenting with head injury. Since it can be assumed that head injured patients are of normal health status before the accident, these findings may be a representation of their frequency in the general population. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of such incidental findings among head injured patients in Nigeria's foremost center of clinical neurosciences. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of CT scan images of 591 consecutive eligible patients over a 5-year period (2006-2010) to identify incidental findings. The images were evaluated by consensus agreement of two radiologists. Associations with gender and age were explored using appropriate statistical tests with an alpha level of 0.05. Results: The mean patient age was 34.6 ± 21.2 years, and male to female ratio was 3.2: 1. Incidental findings were noted in 503/591 (85.1 %) of the scans. Intracranial calcification was the commonest finding occurring in 61.8% of patients. Over 90% of the findings were benign. Compared with older ones, patients under the age of 60 were less likely, (P < 0.001), to have incidental findings. Conclusion: Although the majority of incidental findings in this African cohort of head injury patients are benign some clinically significant lesions were detectable. It is therefore recommended that such findings be adequately described in the radiological reports for proper counseling and follow-up. PMID:25949036

  13. The SOFIA experiment: Measurement of 236U fission fragment yields in inverse kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grente, L.; Taïeb, J.; Chatillon, A.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, É.; Boutoux, G.; Gorbinet, T.; Bélier, G.; Laurent, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamaño, M.; Audouin, L.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Farget, F.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Heinz, A.; Jurado, B.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Lindberg, S.; Löher, B.; Nociforo, C.; Paradela, C.; Pietri, S.; Ramos, D.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Törnqvist, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Yan, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The SOFIA (Studies On FIssion with Aladin) experiment aims at measuring fission-fragments isotopic yields with high accuracy using inverse kinematics at relativistic energies. This experimental technique allows to fully identify the fission fragments in nuclear charge and mass number, thus providing very accurate isotopic yields for low energy fission of a large variety of fissioning systems. This report focuses on the latest results obtained with this set-up concerning electromagnetic-induced fission of 236U.

  14. Relativistic klystron research for high gradient accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.

    1988-06-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron--positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our first klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Recent progress in relativistic klystron research

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Aalberts, D.P.; Boyd, J.K.; Houck, T.; Ryne, R.D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US

    1989-08-01

    Experimental work is now under way by collaborators at LLNL, SLAC, and LBL to investigate relativistic klystrons as a possible rf power source for future high-gradient accelerators. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high-power rf pulse shortening and have achieved peak rf power levels of 290 MW. We have used the rf from a relativistic klystron to power a short, 11.4-GHz high-gradient accelerator. The measured momentum spectrum of the accelerated electron beam corresponds to an accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Electronic Broadening operator for relativistic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Meftah, M. T.; Naam, A.

    2008-10-22

    In this work we review some aspects of the semiclassical dipole impact approximation for isolated ion lines in relativistic plasma. Mainly we focuss our work on the collision operator for relativistic electrons. In this case, the electron trajectory around a positive charge in the plasma differs drastically from those known earlier as hyperbolic. The effect of this difference on the collision operator is discussed with respect the various plasma conditions. Some theoretical and practical aspects of lines -shape calculations are discussed. Detailed calculations are performed for the collision operator in the semiclassical (dipole) impact approximation.

  17. Relativistic Brownian motion on a graphene chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pototsky, A.; Marchesoni, F.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Hänggi, P.; Savel'ev, S. E.

    2012-10-01

    Relativistic Brownian motion can be inexpensively demonstrated on a graphene chip. The interplay of stochastic and relativistic dynamics, governing the transport of charge carrier in graphene, induces noise-controlled effects such as (i) a stochastic effective mass, detectable as a suppression of the particle mobility with increasing the temperature; (ii) transverse harmonic mixing, whereby electron transport can be controlled by two orthogonal, commensurate ac drives; (iii) a transverse ratchet effect, measurable as a net current orthogonal to an ac drive on an asymmetric substrate, and (iv) chaotic stochastic resonance. Such properties can be of practical applications in the emerging graphene technology.

  18. Nonaxisymmetric oscillations of differentially rotating relativistic stars

    SciTech Connect

    Passamonti, Andrea; Stavridis, Adamantios; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2008-01-15

    Nonaxisymmetric oscillations of differentially rotating stars are studied using both slow rotation and Cowling approximation. The equilibrium stellar models are relativistic polytropes where differential rotation is described by the relativistic j-constant rotation law. The oscillation spectrum is studied versus three main parameters: the stellar compactness M/R, the degree of differential rotation A, and the number of maximum couplings l{sub max}. It is shown that the rotational splitting of the nonaxisymmetric modes are strongly enhanced by increasing the compactness of the star and the degree of differential rotation. Finally, we investigate the relation between the fundamental quadrupole mode and the corotation band of differentially rotating stars.

  19. Towards universal quantum computation through relativistic motion

    PubMed Central

    Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Kok, Pieter; Johansson, Göran; Delsing, Per; Fuentes, Ivette

    2016-01-01

    We show how to use relativistic motion to generate continuous variable Gaussian cluster states within cavity modes. Our results can be demonstrated experimentally using superconducting circuits where tuneable boundary conditions correspond to mirrors moving with velocities close to the speed of light. In particular, we propose the generation of a quadripartite square cluster state as a first example that can be readily implemented in the laboratory. Since cluster states are universal resources for universal one-way quantum computation, our results pave the way for relativistic quantum computation schemes. PMID:26860584

  20. Can Bohmian mechanics be made relativistic?

    PubMed Central

    Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward; Zanghì, Nino

    2014-01-01

    In relativistic space–time, Bohmian theories can be formulated by introducing a privileged foliation of space–time. The introduction of such a foliation—as extra absolute space–time structure—would seem to imply a clear violation of Lorentz invariance, and thus a conflict with fundamental relativity. Here, we consider the possibility that, instead of positing it as extra structure, the required foliation could be covariantly determined by the wave function. We argue that this allows for the formulation of Bohmian theories that seem to qualify as fundamentally Lorentz invariant. We conclude with some discussion of whether or not they might also qualify as fundamentally relativistic. PMID:24511259

  1. Relativistic astrophysics with resonant multiple inspirals

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Naoki; Muto, Takayuki

    2010-05-15

    We show that a massive black hole binary might resonantly trap a small third body (e.g. a neutron star) down to a stage when the binary becomes relativistic due to its orbital decay by gravitational radiation. The final fate of the third body would be quite interesting for relativistic astrophysics. For example, the parent binary could expel the third body with a velocity more than 10% of the speed of light. We also discuss the implications of this three-body system for direct gravitational wave observation.

  2. Properties of compressible elastica from relativistic analogy.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Oz; Diamant, Haim

    2016-01-21

    Kirchhoff's kinetic analogy relates the deformation of an incompressible elastic rod to the classical dynamics of rigid body rotation. We extend the analogy to compressible filaments and find that the extension is similar to the introduction of relativistic effects into the dynamical system. The extended analogy reveals a surprising symmetry in the deformations of compressible elastica. In addition, we use known results for the buckling of compressible elastica to derive the explicit solution for the motion of a relativistic nonlinear pendulum. We discuss cases where the extended Kirchhoff analogy may be useful for the study of other soft matter systems.

  3. Weakly relativistic dispersion of Bernstein waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Weakly relativistic effects on the dispersion of Bernstein waves are investigated for waves propagating nearly perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Maxwellian plasma. Attention is focused on those large-wave-vector branches that are either weakly damped or join continuously onto weakly damped branches since these are the modes of most interest in applications. The transition between dispersion at perpendicular and oblique propagation is examined and major weakly relativistic effects can dominate even in low-temperature plasmas. A number of simple analytic criteria are obtained which delimit the ranges of harmonic number and propagation angle within which various types of weakly damped Bernstein modes can exist.

  4. GENERAL RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS ON NONLINEAR POWER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Donghui; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Noh, Hyerim; Hwang, Jai-chan E-mail: jgong@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: jchan@knu.ac.kr

    2011-01-20

    The nonlinear nature of Einstein's equation introduces genuine relativistic higher order corrections to the usual Newtonian fluid equations describing the evolution of cosmological perturbations. We study the effect of such novel nonlinearities on the next-to-leading order matter and velocity power spectra for the case of a pressureless, irrotational fluid in a flat Friedmann background. We find that pure general relativistic corrections are negligibly small over all scales. Our result guarantees that, in the current paradigm of standard cosmology, one can safely use Newtonian cosmology even in nonlinear regimes.

  5. Incidental gallbladder cancer after cholecystectomy: 1990 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Dorobisz, Karolina; Chabowski, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Wiktor; Janczak, Dawid; Patrzałek, Dariusz; Janczak, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer of the gallbladder is a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. According to the literature, 30% of cases are not confirmed before surgery. Other cases are detected incidentally by histopathology. Clinical trials and meta-analyses show that incidental gallbladder cancer (iGBC) occurs in 0.19%–2.8% of patients after cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and severity of iGBC in cholecystectomy procedures performed in the surgical department at the 4th Military Teaching Hospital in Wroclaw during the years 1990–2014. Patients and methods In the years 1990–2014, a total of 7,314 cholecystectomies were performed in the surgical department because of cholecystolithiasis: 6,145 were performed using the laparoscopic approach (84.02%), 867 were performed as open surgery (11.8%), and 302 cases required conversion (5.1%). In this group, 5,214 of the patients were females (71.3%) and 2,100 were males (28.7%), with an average age of 54.7 years. Results We found 64 iGBC cases which were confirmed by histopathology. This represented 0.87% of all cases. In this group, 50 patients were females (78.1%) and 14 were males (21.8%), with an average age of 67.1 years. Of this group, 40 patients underwent a classic cholecystectomy, while 24 underwent laparoscopic procedures, out of which 13 cases ultimately required traditional surgery. The histopathology showed 15 carcinomas that were classified as G1 (23.4%), 28 were G2 (43.75%), and 21 were G3 (32.8%). Conclusion iGBC detected after a cholecystectomy due to cholecystolithiasis is a rare disease. We found iGBC in 0.87% of cases, which is on a comparable scale to the world literature. In the case of cancer, we frequently found it necessary to convert to an open surgical procedure. This cancer is more common in females and in people over 60 years of age. PMID:27540304

  6. Classical Simulation of Relativistic Zitterbewegung in Photonic Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dreisow, Felix; Heinrich, Matthias; Keil, Robert; Tuennermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan; Longhi, Stefano; Szameit, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    We present the first experimental realization of an optical analog for relativistic quantum mechanics by simulating the Zitterbewegung (trembling motion) of a free Dirac electron in an optical superlattice. Our photonic setting enables a direct visualization of Zitterbewegung as a spatial oscillatory motion of an optical beam. Direct measurements of the wave packet expectation values in superlattices with tuned miniband gaps clearly show the transition from weak-relativistic to relativistic and far-relativistic regimes.

  7. Relativistic effects on the motion of asteroids and comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahid-Saless, Bahman; Yeomans, Donald K.

    1994-01-01

    We study the effects arising from relativistic perturbations on the motion of asteroids and comets and show that for a number of such objects, inclusion of relativistic contributions in the equations of motion gives rise to significant improvements in the orbital solutions. Furthermore we argue that ignoring relativistic corrections to the equations of motion, while using masses derived from relativistic ephemerides yields incorrect solutions corresponding to an inconsistent, non-Newtonian, nonrelativistic model.

  8. A two-fluid model for relativistic heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    López-Monsalvo, César S.

    2014-01-14

    Three years ago it was presented in these proceedings the relativistic dynamics of a multi-fluid system together with various applications to a set of topical problems [1]. In this talk, I will start from such dynamics and present a covariant formulation of relativistic thermodynamics which provides us with a causal constitutive equation for the propagation of heat in a relativistic setting.

  9. Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar.

    PubMed

    Henderson, E Elizabeth; Smith, Michael H; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Douglas, Annie B; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-10-01

    Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8 kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122 dB re: 1 μPa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well.

  10. Incidental, subsolid pulmonary nodules at CT: etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Seidelman, Jessica L; Myers, Jeffrey L; Quint, Leslie E

    2013-09-23

    Pulmonary nodules, both solid and subsolid, are common incidental findings on computed tomography (CT) studies. Subsolid nodules (SSNs) may be further classified as either pure ground-glass nodules or part-solid nodules. The differential diagnosis for an SSN is broad, including infection, organizing pneumonia, inflammation, hemorrhage, focal fibrosis, and neoplasm. Adenocarcinomas of the lung are currently the most common type of lung cancer, representing 30-35% of all primary lung tumors, and the subtype of bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma (BAC) commonly presents as an SSN. In 2011, a new classification system for lung adenocarcinomas was proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society. An important feature of the new system is the relinquishment of the term BAC in favor of more specific histologic subtypes. It has been reported that these subtypes are associated with characteristic CT findings. This article reviews the new classification system of lung adenocarcinomas, discusses and illustrates the associated CT findings, and outlines the current recommendations for further diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of SSNs based on computed tomography findings.

  11. Incidental Findings on Cone Beam Computed Tomography Images

    PubMed Central

    Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Vincent, Steven D.; Hellstein, John W.; Qian, Fang; Smoker, Wendy R. K.; Ruprecht, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has gained widespread acceptance in dentistry for a variety of applications. Most dentists who are not radiologists/trained in radiology are generally not familiar with interpretation of anatomical structures and/or pathosis outside their area of primary interest, as often this was not within the scope of their training. Objectives. To assess that the number of incidental findings on a CBCT scan is high both within and outside of the primary area of interest, thereby emphasizing the importance of interpretation of all areas visualized on the scan. Materials and Methods. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist reviewed 1000 CBCT scans (382 males and 618 females) for findings both in- and outside the area of interest. Results. Of the 1000 subjects that were reviewed, 943 scans showed findings in the primary regions of interest and/or outside the regions of interest, and 76 different conditions were visualized in these scans both in and outside the areas of interest. Conclusion. From the wide scope of findings noted on these scans, it can be concluded that it is essential that a person trained in advanced interpretation techniques in radiology interprets cone beam computed tomography scans. PMID:23304148

  12. Informed Consent for Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Waldman, Cameron R.; Fyer, Abby; Klitzman, Robert; Parens, Erik; Martinez, Josue; Price, W. Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Researchers face the dilemma of how to obtain consent for return of incidental findings (IFs) from genomic research. We surveyed and interviewed investigators and study participants, with the goal of providing suggestions for how to shape the consent process. Methods We performed an online survey of 254 US genetic researchers identified through the NIH RePORTER database and abstracts from the 2011 American Society of Human Genetics meeting; and qualitative semi-structured interviews with 28 genomic researchers and 20 research participants. Results Most researchers and participants endorsed disclosure of a wide range of information about return of IFs, including: risks, benefits, impact on family members, data security, and procedures for return of results in the event of death or incapacity and for recontact. However, most researchers were willing to devote 30 minutes or less to this process, and expressed concerns that disclosed information would overwhelm participants, a concern shared by many participants themselves. Conclusion There is a disjunction between the views of investigators and participants about the amount of information that should be disclosed and the practical realities of the research setting, including time available for consent discussions. This strongly suggests the need for innovative approaches to the informed consent process. PMID:24158054

  13. Fragmentary and incidental behaviour of columns, slabs and crystals

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Between the study of small finite frameworks and infinite incidentally periodic frameworks, we find the real materials which are large, but finite, fragments that fit into the infinite periodic frameworks. To understand these materials, we seek insights from both (i) their analysis as large frameworks with associated geometric and combinatorial properties (including the geometric repetitions) and (ii) embedding them into appropriate infinite periodic structures with motions that may break the periodic structure. A review of real materials identifies a number of examples with a local appearance of ‘unit cells’ which repeat under isometries but perhaps in unusual forms. These examples also refocus attention on several new classes of infinite ‘periodic’ frameworks: (i) columns—three-dimensional structures generated with one repeating isometry and (ii) slabs—three-dimensional structures with two independent repeating translations. With this larger vision of structures to be studied, we find some patterns and partial results that suggest new conjectures as well as many additional open questions. These invite a search for new examples and additional theorems. PMID:24379423

  14. Incidental diagnosis of pregnancy on bone and gallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Collica, C.J.; Richman, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    Bone and gallium scintigraphy were performed as part of the diagnostic workup of a 21-yr-old woman who presented at our institution with a history of progressively worsening low back pain over a 1-wk period of time. The angiographic phase of the bone scan demonstrated a well-defined radionuclide blush within the pelvis just cephalad to the urinary bladder with persistent hyperemia noted in the blood-pool image. We attribute these findings to a uterine blush secondary to the pronounced uterine muscular hyperplasia, hyperemia, and edema that accompany pregnancy. Gallium scintigraphy demonstrated intense bilateral breast accumulation of the imaging agent in a typical doughnut pattern which is commonly found in the prelactating and lactating breast. Also demonstrated was apparent gallium accumulation in the placenta. This case is presented to emphasize the radionuclide findings that occur during pregnancy, particularly the incidental finding of radionuclide blush during the angiographic phase of a radionuclide scintigraphy which should alert the nuclear physician to the possibility of pregnancy in a woman of childbearing age.

  15. Chandra Discovers Relativistic Pinball Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    across the shock front, like they're in a relativistic pinball machine," said team member Glenn Allen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge. "The magnetic fields are like the bumpers, and the shock is like a flipper." In their analysis of the huge data set, the team was able to separate the X-rays coming from the accelerating electrons from those coming from the heated stellar debris. The data imply that some of these electrons are accelerated at a rate close to the maximum predicted by theory. Cosmic rays are composed of electrons, protons, and ions, of which only glow from electrons is detectable in X-rays. Protons and ions, which constitute the bulk of cosmic rays, are expected to behave similarly to the electrons. "It's exciting to see regions where the glow produced by cosmic rays actually outshines the 10-million-degree gas heated by the supernova's shock waves," said John Houck, also of MIT. "This helps us understand not only how cosmic rays are accelerated, but also how supernova remnants evolve." As the total energy of the cosmic rays behind the shock wave increases, the magnetic field behind the shock is modified, along with the character of the shock wave itself. Researching the conditions in the shocks helps astronomers trace the changes of the supernova remnant with time, and ultimately better understand the original supernova explosion. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center, Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  16. Asymptotic theory of relativistic, magnetized jets

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2011-01-15

    The structure of a relativistically hot, strongly magnetized jet is investigated at large distances from the source. Asymptotic equations are derived describing collimation and acceleration of the externally confined jet. Conditions are found for the transformation of the thermal energy into the fluid kinetic energy or into the Poynting flux. Simple scalings are presented for the jet collimation angle and Lorentz factors.

  17. Stable discrete representation of relativistically drifting plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchen, M.; Lehe, R.; Godfrey, B. B.; Dornmair, I.; Jalas, S.; Peters, K.; Vay, J.-L.; Maier, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.

  18. Asymptotic theory of relativistic, magnetized jets.

    PubMed

    Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The structure of a relativistically hot, strongly magnetized jet is investigated at large distances from the source. Asymptotic equations are derived describing collimation and acceleration of the externally confined jet. Conditions are found for the transformation of the thermal energy into the fluid kinetic energy or into the Poynting flux. Simple scalings are presented for the jet collimation angle and Lorentz factors.

  19. Instabilities in a Relativistic Viscous Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona-Galindo, M. G.; Klapp, J.; Vazquez, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Las ecuaciones hidrodinamicas de un fluido imperfecto relativista son resueltas, y los modos hidrodinamicos son analizados con el prop6sito de estabiecer correlaciones con las estructuras cosmol6gicas. ABSTRACT The hydrodynamical equations of a relativistic imperfect fluid are solved, and the hydrodynamical modes are analysed with the aim to establish correlations with cosmological structures. Ke, words: COSMOLOGY - HYDRODYNAMICS - RELATIVITY

  20. Scaling Calculations for a Relativistic Gyrotron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    relativistic gyrotron is under development 46-N ,an ultra -high power source of millimeter wave radia- tion. The purpose of the present study is to estimate the...to and m0c Xmn ley ( Le. rw° E, . B ....r respecti 2 EB). Unnormalized ’wo’ m c2 xmn o Xmnn quantities are expressed in mks units unless otherwise

  1. Relativistic equations with fractional and pseudodifferential operators

    SciTech Connect

    Babusci, D.; Dattoli, G.; Quattromini, M.

    2011-06-15

    In this paper we use different techniques from the fractional and pseudo-operators calculus to solve partial differential equations involving operators with noninteger exponents. We apply the method to equations resembling generalizations of the heat equations and discuss the possibility of extending the procedure to the relativistic Schroedinger and Dirac equations.

  2. Relativistic atomic physics at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses the following proposed work for relativistic atomic physics at the Superconducting Super Collider: Beam diagnostics; atomic physics research; staffing; education; budget information; statement concerning matching funds; description and justification of major items of equipment; statement of current and pending support; and assurance of compliance.

  3. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-12-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics.

  4. Global existence proof for relativistic Boltzmann equation

    SciTech Connect

    Dudynski, M. ); Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L. )

    1992-02-01

    The existence and causality of solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation in L[sup 1] and in L[sub loc][sup 1] are proved. The solutions are shown to satisfy physically natural a priori bounds, time-independent in L[sup 1]. The results rely upon new techniques developed for the nonrelativistic Boltzmann equation by DiPerna and Lions.

  5. A Quantum Relativistic Prisoner's Dilemma Cellular Automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Carvalho, Márcio; Situ, Haozhen

    2016-10-01

    The effect of variable entangling on the dynamics of a spatial quantum relativistic formulation of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game is studied in this work. The game is played in the cellular automata manner, i.e., with local and synchronous interaction. The game is assessed in fair and unfair contests.

  6. Relativistic quantum corrections to laser wakefield acceleration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Ji, Peiyong

    2010-03-01

    The influence of quantum effects on the interaction of intense laser fields with plasmas is investigated by using a hydrodynamic model based on the framework of the relativistic quantum theory. Starting from the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, the hydrodynamic equations for relativistic quantum plasmas are derived. Based on the relativistic quantum hydrodynamic equations and Poisson equation, the perturbations of electron number densities and the electric field of the laser wakefield containing quantum effects are deduced. It is found that the corrections generated by the quantum effects to the perturbations of electron number densities and the accelerating field of the laser wakefield cannot be neglected. Quantum effects will suppress laser wakefields, which is a classical manifestation of quantum decoherence effects, however, the contribution of quantum effects for the laser wakefield correction will been partially counteracted by the relativistic effects. The analysis also reveals that quantum effects enlarge the effective frequencies of plasmas, and the quantum behavior appears a screening effect for plasma electrons.

  7. Relativistic quantum corrections to laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong

    2010-03-15

    The influence of quantum effects on the interaction of intense laser fields with plasmas is investigated by using a hydrodynamic model based on the framework of the relativistic quantum theory. Starting from the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, the hydrodynamic equations for relativistic quantum plasmas are derived. Based on the relativistic quantum hydrodynamic equations and Poisson equation, the perturbations of electron number densities and the electric field of the laser wakefield containing quantum effects are deduced. It is found that the corrections generated by the quantum effects to the perturbations of electron number densities and the accelerating field of the laser wakefield cannot be neglected. Quantum effects will suppress laser wakefields, which is a classical manifestation of quantum decoherence effects, however, the contribution of quantum effects for the laser wakefield correction will been partially counteracted by the relativistic effects. The analysis also reveals that quantum effects enlarge the effective frequencies of plasmas, and the quantum behavior appears a screening effect for plasma electrons.

  8. Equation of state in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics: variable versus constant adiabatic index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignone, A.; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2007-07-01

    The role of the equation of state (EoS) for a perfectly conducting, relativistic magnetized fluid is the main subject of this work. The ideal constant Γ-law EoS, commonly adopted in a wide range of astrophysical applications, is compared with a more realistic EoS that better approximates the single-specie relativistic gas. The paper focuses on three different topics. First, the influence of a more realistic EoS on the propagation of fast magnetosonic shocks is investigated. This calls into question the validity of the constant Γ-law EoS in problems where the temperature of the gas substantially changes across hydromagnetic waves. Secondly, we present a new inversion scheme to recover primitive variables (such as rest-mass density and pressure) from conservative ones that allows for a general EoS and avoids catastrophic numerical cancellations in the non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. Finally, selected numerical tests of astrophysical relevance (including magnetized accretion flows around Kerr black holes) are compared using different equations of state. Our main conclusion is that the choice of a realistic EoS can considerably bear upon the solution when transitions from cold to hot gas (or vice versa) are present. Under these circumstances, a polytropic EoS can significantly endanger the solution.

  9. The Relativistic Effects on the Carbon-Carbon Coupling Constants Mediated by a Heavy Atom.

    PubMed

    Wodyński, Artur; Malkina, Olga L; Pecul, Magdalena

    2016-07-21

    The (2)JCC, (3)JCC, and (4)JCC spin-spin coupling constants in the systems with a heavy atom (Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po) in the coupling path have been calculated by means of density functional theory. The main goal was to estimate the relativistic effects on spin-spin coupling constants and to explore the factors which may influence them, including the nature of the heavy atom and carbon hybridization. The methods applied range, in order of reduced complexity, from the Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) method (density functional theory with four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian), through DFT with two- and one-component zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonians, to scalar effective core potentials (ECPs) with the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. The use of DKS and ZORA methods leads to very similar results, and small-core ECPs of the MDF and MWB variety reproduce correctly the scalar relativistic effects. Scalar relativistic effects usually are larger than the spin-orbit coupling effects. The latter tend to influence the most the coupling constants of the sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms and in compounds of the p-block heavy atoms. Large spin-orbit coupling contributions for the Po compounds are probably connected with the inverse of the lowest triplet excitation energy.

  10. Fast reconnection in relativistic plasmas: the magnetohydrodynamics tearing instability revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, L.; Papini, E.; Landi, S.; Bugli, M.; Bucciantini, N.

    2016-08-01

    Fast reconnection operating in magnetically dominated plasmas is often invoked in models for magnetar giant flares, for magnetic dissipation in pulsar winds, or to explain the gamma-ray flares observed in the Crab nebula; hence, its investigation is of paramount importance in high-energy astrophysics. Here we study, by means of two-dimensional numerical simulations, the linear phase and the subsequent non-linear evolution of the tearing instability within the framework of relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), as appropriate in situations where the Alfvén velocity approaches the speed of light. It is found that the linear phase of the instability closely matches the analysis in classical MHD, where the growth rate scales with the Lundquist number S as S-1/2, with the only exception of an enhanced inertial term due to the thermal and magnetic energy contributions. In addition, when thin current sheets of inverse aspect ratio scaling as S-1/3 are considered, the so-called ideal tearing regime is retrieved, with modes growing independently of S and extremely fast, on only a few light crossing times of the sheet length. The overall growth of fluctuations is seen to solely depend on the value of the background Alfvén velocity. In the fully non-linear stage, we observe an inverse cascade towards the fundamental mode, with Petschek-type supersonic jets propagating at the external Alfvén speed from the X-point, and a fast reconnection rate at the predicted value {R}˜ (ln S)^{-1}.

  11. Study of quantum spin correlations of relativistic electron pairs - Testing nonlocality of relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, K.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J.; Caban, P.; Rembieliński, J.; Włodarczyk, M.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.

    2013-11-07

    The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass.

  12. Study of quantum spin correlations of relativistic electron pairs - Testing nonlocality of relativistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodek, K.; Caban, P.; Ciborowski, J.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.; Rembieliński, J.; Rozpedzik, D.; Włodarczyk, M.; Zejma, J.

    2013-11-01

    The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass.

  13. Relativistic decay widths of autoionization processes: The relativistic FanoADC-Stieltjes method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasshauer, Elke; Kolorenč, Přemysl; Pernpointner, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Electronic decay processes of ionized systems are, for example, the Auger decay or the Interatomic/ Intermolecular Coulombic Decay. In both processes, an energetically low lying vacancy is filled by an electron of an energetically higher lying orbital and a secondary electron is instantaneously emitted to the continuum. Whether or not such a process occurs depends both on the energetic accessibility and the corresponding lifetime compared to the lifetime of competing decay mechanisms. We present a realization of the non-relativistically established FanoADC-Stieltjes method for the description of autoionization decay widths including relativistic effects. This procedure, being based on the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC), was adapted to the relativistic framework and implemented into the relativistic quantum chemistry program package Dirac. It is, in contrast to other existing relativistic atomic codes, not limited to the description of autoionization lifetimes in spherically symmetric systems, but is instead also applicable to molecules and clusters. We employ this method to the Auger processes following the Kr3d-1, Xe4d-1, and Rn5d-1 ionization. Based on the results, we show a pronounced influence of mainly scalar-relativistic effects on the decay widths of autoionization processes.

  14. Relativistic decay widths of autoionization processes: the relativistic FanoADC-Stieltjes method.

    PubMed

    Fasshauer, Elke; Kolorenč, Přemysl; Pernpointner, Markus

    2015-04-14

    Electronic decay processes of ionized systems are, for example, the Auger decay or the Interatomic/ Intermolecular Coulombic Decay. In both processes, an energetically low lying vacancy is filled by an electron of an energetically higher lying orbital and a secondary electron is instantaneously emitted to the continuum. Whether or not such a process occurs depends both on the energetic accessibility and the corresponding lifetime compared to the lifetime of competing decay mechanisms. We present a realization of the non-relativistically established FanoADC-Stieltjes method for the description of autoionization decay widths including relativistic effects. This procedure, being based on the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC), was adapted to the relativistic framework and implemented into the relativistic quantum chemistry program package Dirac. It is, in contrast to other existing relativistic atomic codes, not limited to the description of autoionization lifetimes in spherically symmetric systems, but is instead also applicable to molecules and clusters. We employ this method to the Auger processes following the Kr3d(-1), Xe4d(-1), and Rn5d(-1) ionization. Based on the results, we show a pronounced influence of mainly scalar-relativistic effects on the decay widths of autoionization processes.

  15. Relativistic decay widths of autoionization processes: The relativistic FanoADC-Stieltjes method

    SciTech Connect

    Fasshauer, Elke; Kolorenč, Přemysl; Pernpointner, Markus

    2015-04-14

    Electronic decay processes of ionized systems are, for example, the Auger decay or the Interatomic/ Intermolecular Coulombic Decay. In both processes, an energetically low lying vacancy is filled by an electron of an energetically higher lying orbital and a secondary electron is instantaneously emitted to the continuum. Whether or not such a process occurs depends both on the energetic accessibility and the corresponding lifetime compared to the lifetime of competing decay mechanisms. We present a realization of the non-relativistically established FanoADC-Stieltjes method for the description of autoionization decay widths including relativistic effects. This procedure, being based on the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC), was adapted to the relativistic framework and implemented into the relativistic quantum chemistry program package Dirac. It is, in contrast to other existing relativistic atomic codes, not limited to the description of autoionization lifetimes in spherically symmetric systems, but is instead also applicable to molecules and clusters. We employ this method to the Auger processes following the Kr3d{sup −1}, Xe4d{sup −1}, and Rn5d{sup −1} ionization. Based on the results, we show a pronounced influence of mainly scalar-relativistic effects on the decay widths of autoionization processes.

  16. 75 FR 5056 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... vitulina richardsi), northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), by harassment, incidental to missile and...

  17. Relativistic rotation-vibrational energies for the Cs2 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chun-Sheng; Jia, Yue

    2017-01-01

    We present bound state solutions of the Dirac equation with the improved Rosen-Morse potential energy model. In the non-relativistic limit, the relativistic energy equation becomes the non-relativistic rotation-vibrational energy expression of the diatomic molecule. We find that the relativistic effect of the relative motion of the ions produces an obvious decrease in the vibrational energies for the 33Σg + state of the Cs2 molecule. It is observed that the behavior of the relativistic rotation-vibrational energies in larger rotational quantum numbers remains similar to that of the system with zero rotational quantum number.

  18. Crystallization and collapse in relativistically degenerate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, it is shown that a mass density limit exists beyond which the relativistically degenerate matter would crystallize. The mass density limit, found here, is quite analogous to the mass limit predicted by Chandrasekhar for a type of compact stars called white dwarfs (M{sub Ch} Asymptotically-Equal-To 1.43 Solar Mass). In this study, the old problem of white dwarf core collapse, which has been previously investigated by Chandrasekhar using hydrostatic stability criteria, is revisited in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamics model by inspection of the charge screening at atomic scales in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime taking into account the relativistic Fermi-Dirac statistics and electron interaction features such as the quantum statistical pressure, Coulomb attraction, electron exchange-correlation, and quantum recoil effects. It is revealed that the existence of ion correlation and crystallization of matter in the relativistically degenerate plasma puts a critical mass density limit on white dwarf core region. It is shown that a white dwarf star with a core mass density beyond this critical limit can undergo the spontaneous core collapse (SCC). The SCC phenomenon, which is dominantly caused by the electron quantum recoil effect (interference and localization of the electron wave function), leads to a new exotic state of matter. In such exotic state, the relativistic electron degeneracy can lead the white dwarf crystallized core to undergo the nuclear fusion and an ultimate supernova by means of the volume reduction (due to the enhanced compressibility) and huge energy release (due to the increase in cohesive energy), under the stars huge inward gravitational pressure. Moreover, it is found that the SCC phenomenon is significantly affected by the core composition (it is more probable for heavier plasmas). The critical mass density found here is consistent with the values calculated for core density of typical white dwarf stars.

  19. Advanced relativistic VLBI model for geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, Michael; Kopeikin, Sergei; Han, Wen-Biao

    2016-10-01

    Our present relativistic part of the geodetic VLBI model for Earthbound antennas is a consensus model which is considered as a standard for processing high-precision VLBI observations. It was created as a compromise between a variety of relativistic VLBI models proposed by different authors as documented in the IERS Conventions 2010. The accuracy of the consensus model is in the picosecond range for the group delay but this is not sufficient for current geodetic purposes. This paper provides a fully documented derivation of a new relativistic model having an accuracy substantially higher than one picosecond and based upon a well accepted formalism of relativistic celestial mechanics, astrometry and geodesy. Our new model fully confirms the consensus model at the picosecond level and in several respects goes to a great extent beyond it. More specifically, terms related to the acceleration of the geocenter are considered and kept in the model, the gravitational time-delay due to a massive body (planet, Sun, etc.) with arbitrary mass and spin-multipole moments is derived taking into account the motion of the body, and a new formalism for the time-delay problem of radio sources located at finite distance from VLBI stations is presented. Thus, the paper presents a substantially elaborated theoretical justification of the consensus model and its significant extension that allows researchers to make concrete estimates of the magnitude of residual terms of this model for any conceivable configuration of the source of light, massive bodies, and VLBI stations. The largest terms in the relativistic time delay which can affect the current VLBI observations are from the quadrupole and the angular momentum of the gravitating bodies that are known from the literature. These terms should be included in the new geodetic VLBI model for improving its consistency.

  20. Crystallization and collapse in relativistically degenerate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, it is shown that a mass density limit exists beyond which the relativistically degenerate matter would crystallize. The mass density limit, found here, is quite analogous to the mass limit predicted by Chandrasekhar for a type of compact stars called white dwarfs (MCh≃1.43 Solar Mass). In this study, the old problem of white dwarf core collapse, which has been previously investigated by Chandrasekhar using hydrostatic stability criteria, is revisited in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamics model by inspection of the charge screening at atomic scales in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime taking into account the relativistic Fermi-Dirac statistics and electron interaction features such as the quantum statistical pressure, Coulomb attraction, electron exchange-correlation, and quantum recoil effects. It is revealed that the existence of ion correlation and crystallization of matter in the relativistically degenerate plasma puts a critical mass density limit on white dwarf core region. It is shown that a white dwarf star with a core mass density beyond this critical limit can undergo the spontaneous core collapse (SCC). The SCC phenomenon, which is dominantly caused by the electron quantum recoil effect (interference and localization of the electron wave function), leads to a new exotic state of matter. In such exotic state, the relativistic electron degeneracy can lead the white dwarf crystallized core to undergo the nuclear fusion and an ultimate supernova by means of the volume reduction (due to the enhanced compressibility) and huge energy release (due to the increase in cohesive energy), under the stars huge inward gravitational pressure. Moreover, it is found that the SCC phenomenon is significantly affected by the core composition (it is more probable for heavier plasmas). The critical mass density found here is consistent with the values calculated for core density of typical white dwarf stars.