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Sample records for inverse piezoelectric effect

  1. A theory of the inverse magnetoelectric effect in layered magnetostrictive-piezoelectric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, D. A.; Radchenko, G. S.; Firsova, T. O.; Galkina, T. A.

    2017-05-01

    A theory of the inverse magnetoelectric effect in layered structures has been presented. The theory is based on solving the equations of elastodynamics and electrostatics separately for the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases, taking into account the conditions at the interface between the phases. Expressions for the coefficient of inverse magnetoelectric conversion through the parameters characterizing the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases have been obtained. Theoretical dependences of the inverse magnetoelectric conversion coefficient on the frequency of the alternating-current electric field for the three-layer PZT-Ni-PZT structure and the two-layer terfenol- D-PZT structure have been calculated. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Contributed Review: Experimental characterization of inverse piezoelectric strain in GaN HEMTs via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnall, Kevin R.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-06-01

    Micro-Raman thermography is one of the most popular techniques for measuring local temperature rise in gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, accurate temperature measurements based on changes in the Stokes peak positions of the GaN epitaxial layers require properly accounting for the stress and/or strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. It is common practice to use the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference for temperature measurements because the vertical electric field in the GaN buffer that induces inverse piezoelectric stress/strain is relatively independent of the gate bias. Although this approach has yielded temperature measurements that agree with those derived from the Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio and thermal models, there has been significant difficulty in quantifying the mechanical state of the GaN buffer in the pinched OFF state from changes in the Raman spectra. In this paper, we review the experimental technique of micro-Raman thermography and derive expressions for the detailed dependence of the Raman peak positions on strain, stress, and electric field components in wurtzite GaN. We also use a combination of semiconductor device modeling and electro-mechanical modeling to predict the stress and strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. Based on the insights gained from our electro-mechanical model and the best values of material properties in the literature, we analyze changes in the E2 high and A1 (LO) Raman peaks and demonstrate that there are major quantitative discrepancies between measured and modeled values of inverse piezoelectric stress and strain. We examine many of the hypotheses offered in the literature for these discrepancies but conclude that none of them satisfactorily resolves these discrepancies. Further research is needed to determine whether the electric field components could be affecting the phonon frequencies apart from the inverse

  3. Contributed Review: Experimental characterization of inverse piezoelectric strain in GaN HEMTs via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnall, Kevin R.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-06-15

    Micro-Raman thermography is one of the most popular techniques for measuring local temperature rise in gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, accurate temperature measurements based on changes in the Stokes peak positions of the GaN epitaxial layers require properly accounting for the stress and/or strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. It is common practice to use the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference for temperature measurements because the vertical electric field in the GaN buffer that induces inverse piezoelectric stress/strain is relatively independent of the gate bias. Although this approachmore » has yielded temperature measurements that agree with those derived from the Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio and thermal models, there has been significant difficulty in quantifying the mechanical state of the GaN buffer in the pinched OFF state from changes in the Raman spectra. In this paper, we review the experimental technique of micro-Raman thermography and derive expressions for the detailed dependence of the Raman peak positions on strain, stress, and electric field components in wurtzite GaN. We also use a combination of semiconductor device modeling and electro-mechanical modeling to predict the stress and strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. Based on the insights gained from our electro-mechanical model and the best values of material properties in the literature, we analyze changes in the E{sub 2} high and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman peaks and demonstrate that there are major quantitative discrepancies between measured and modeled values of inverse piezoelectric stress and strain. We examine many of the hypotheses offered in the literature for these discrepancies but conclude that none of them satisfactorily resolves these discrepancies. Further research is needed to determine whether the electric field components could be affecting the phonon frequencies apart

  4. Investigation of the inverse piezoelectric effect of trabecular bone on a micrometer length scale using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Wieland, D C F; Krywka, C; Mick, E; Willumeit-Römer, R; Bader, R; Kluess, D

    2015-10-01

    In the present paper we have investigated the impact of electro stimulation on microstructural parameters of the major constituents of bone, hydroxyapatite and collagen. Therapeutic approaches exhibit an improved healing rate under electric fields. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood so far. In this context one possible effect which could be responsible is the inverse piezo electric effect at bone structures. Therefore, we have carried out scanning X-ray microdiffraction experiments, i.e. we recorded X-ray diffraction data with micrometer resolution using synchrotron radiation from trabecular bone samples in order to investigate how the bone matrix reacts to an applied electric field. Different samples were investigated, where the orientation of the collagen matrix differed with respect to the applied electric field. Our experiments aimed to determine whether the inverse piezo electric effect could have a significant impact on the improved bone regeneration owing to electrostimulative therapy. Our data suggest that strain is in fact induced in bone by the collagen matrix via the inverse piezo electric effect which occurs in the presence of an adequately oriented electric field. The magnitude of the underlying strain is in a range where bone cells are able to detect it. In our study we report on the piezoelectric effect in bone which was already discovered and explored on a macro scale in the 1950. Clinical approaches utilize successfully electro stimulation to enhance bone healing but the exact mechanisms taking place are still a matter of debate. We have measured the stress distribution with micron resolution in trabecular bone to determine the piezo electric induced stress. Our results show that the magnitude of the induced stress is big enough to be sensed by cells and therefore, could be a trigger for bone remodeling and growth. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of a Piezoelectric Buzzer Using a Michelson Interferometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, S.; Paetkau, M.

    2010-01-01

    A piezoelectric material generates an electric potential across its surface when subjected to mechanical stress; conversely, the inverse piezoelectric effect describes the expansion or contraction of the material when subjected to some applied voltage. Piezoelectric materials are used in devices such as doorbell buzzers, barbeque igniters, and…

  6. Piezoelectric effect on the thermal conductivity of monolayer gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations, in this work, we find that the heat transport property of the monolayer gallium nitride (GaN) can be efficiently tailored by external electric field due to its unique piezoelectric characteristic. As the monolayer GaN possesses different piezoelectric properties in armchair and zigzag directions, different effects of the external electric field on thermal conductivity are observed when it is applied in the armchair and zigzag directions. Our further study reveals that due to the elastoelectric effect in the monolayer GaN, the external electric field changes the Young's modulus and therefore changes the phonon group velocity. Also, due to the inverse piezoelectric effect, the applied electric field induces in-plane stress in the monolayer GaN subject to a length constraint, which results in the change in the lattice anharmonicity and therefore affects the phonon mean free path. Furthermore, for relatively long GaN monolayers, the in-plane stress may trigger the buckling instability, which can significantly reduce the phonon mean free path.

  7. Experiments to demonstrate piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhart, Jiří

    2013-07-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature change. The direct piezoelectric effect is demonstrated by the electric charge generated from the bending of the piezoelectric ceramic membrane or from the gas igniter. The converse piezoelectric effect is presented in the experiments by the deflection of the bending piezoelectric element (piezoelectric bimorph).

  8. Electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) fibrous mat showing piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobeshima, Taiki; Ishii, Yuya; Sakai, Heisuke; Uemura, Sei; Yoshida, Manabu

    2018-05-01

    A piezoelectric effect, such as actuation behavior with voltage application, could be observed from a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibrous mat fabricated by electrospinning. This fibrous mat increased or decreased its thickness in accordance with the polarity of the applied voltage, which appears to be an inverse piezoelectric effect. The appearance d T constant was as large as 8.5 nm/V owing to the softness of the fibrous structure, and the coupling constant K T = 0.31 indicated its efficient piezoelectric property. This piezoelectric behavior was repeatedly observed to be stable at room temperature. In addition, the polarization components of the fibrous mat, which are considered to be the origin of its piezoelectric effect, and its relaxation behavior were confirmed from the results of thermally stimulated current measurements.

  9. Identification of material constants for piezoelectric transformers by three-dimensional, finite-element method and a design-sensitivity method.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, Jong-Seok; Jung, Hyun-Kyo

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, an inversion scheme for piezoelectric constants of piezoelectric transformers is proposed. The impedance of piezoelectric transducers is calculated using a three-dimensional finite element method. The validity of this is confirmed experimentally. The effects of material coefficients on piezoelectric transformers are investigated numerically. Six material coefficient variables for piezoelectric transformers were selected, and a design sensitivity method was adopted as an inversion scheme. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by step-up ratio calculations. The proposed method is applied to the analysis of a sample piezoelectric transformer, and its resonance characteristics are obtained by numerically combined equivalent circuit method.

  10. A new simple asymmetric hysteresis operator and its application to inverse control of piezoelectric actuators.

    PubMed

    Badel, A; Qiu, J; Nakano, T

    2008-05-01

    Piezoelectric actuators (PEAs) are commonly used as micropositioning devices due to their high resolution, high stiffness, and fast frequency response. Because piezoceramic materials are ferroelectric, they fundamentally exhibit hysteresis behavior in their response to an applied electric field. The positioning precision can be significantly reduced due to nonlinear hysteresis effects when PEAs are used in relatively long range applications. This paper describes a new, precise, and simple asymmetric hysteresis operator dedicated to PEAs. The complex hysteretic transfer characteristic has been considered in a purely phenomenological way, without taking into account the underlying physics. This operator is based on two curves. The first curve corresponds to the main ascending branch and is modeled by the function f1. The second curve corresponds to the main reversal branch and is modeled by the function g2. The functions f(1) and g(2) are two very simple hyperbola functions with only three parameters. Particular ascending and reversal branches are deduced from appropriate translations of f(1) and g(2). The efficiency and precision of the proposed approach is demonstrated, in practice, by a real-time inverse feed-forward controller for piezoelectric actuators. Advantages and drawbacks of the proposed approach compared with classical hysteresis operators are discussed.

  11. Piezoelectric polymer multilayer on flexible substrate for energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Oh, Sharon Roslyn; Wong, Ting Chong; Tan, Chin Yaw; Yao, Kui

    2013-09-01

    A piezoelectric polymer multilayer structure formed on a flexible substrate is investigated for mechanical energy harvesting under bending mode. Analytical and numerical models are developed to clarify the effect of material parameters critical to the energy harvesting performance of the bending multilayer structure. It is shown that the maximum power is proportional to the square of the piezoelectric stress coefficient and the inverse of dielectric permittivity of the piezoelectric polymer. It is further found that a piezoelectric multilayer with thinner electrodes can generate more electric energy in bending mode. The effect of improved impedance matching in the multilayer polymer on energy output is remarkable. Comparisons between piezoelectric ceramic multilayers and polymer multilayers on flexible substrate are discussed. The fabrication of a P(VDF-TrFE) multilayer structure with a thin Al electrode layer is experimentally demonstrated by a scalable dip-coating process on a flexible aluminum substrate. The results indicate that it is feasible to produce a piezoelectric polymer multilayer structure on flexible substrate for harvesting mechanical energy applicable for many low-power electronics.

  12. Energy harvesting from mouse click of robot finger using piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; Hong, Jin; Lee, Jaemin; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Keehoon

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of energy harvesting from the mouse click motion using a piezoelectric energy transducer. Specifically, we use a robotic finger to realize repeatable mouse click motion. The robotic finger wears a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material as an energy transducer. We propose a model for the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in the finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. Experiments are performed to elucidate the effect of the load resistance and the mouse click motion on energy harvesting.

  13. Feedforward hysteresis compensation in trajectory control of piezoelectrically-driven nanostagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashash, Saeid; Jalili, Nader

    2006-03-01

    Complex structural nonlinearities of piezoelectric materials drastically degrade their performance in variety of micro- and nano-positioning applications. From the precision positioning and control perspective, the multi-path time-history dependent hysteresis phenomenon is the most concerned nonlinearity in piezoelectric actuators to be analyzed. To realize the underlying physics of this phenomenon and to develop an efficient compensation strategy, the intelligent properties of hysteresis with the effects of non-local memories are discussed. Through performing a set of experiments on a piezoelectrically-driven nanostager with high resolution capacitive position sensor, it is shown that for the precise prediction of hysteresis path, certain memory units are required to store the previous hysteresis trajectory data. Based on the experimental observations, a constitutive memory-based mathematical modeling framework is developed and trained for the precise prediction of hysteresis path for arbitrarily assigned input profiles. Using the inverse hysteresis model, a feedforward control strategy is then developed and implemented on the nanostager to compensate for the system everpresent nonlinearity. Experimental results demonstrate that the controller remarkably eliminates the nonlinear effect if memory units are sufficiently chosen for the inverse model.

  14. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  15. Comparison of effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients e31,f of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films between direct and converse piezoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiura, Yuichi; Kawabe, Saneyuki; Kurokawa, Fumiya; Hida, Hirotaka; Kanno, Isaku

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients (e31,f) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films from both the direct and converse piezoelectric effects of unimorph cantilevers. (001) preferentially oriented polycrystalline PZT thin films and (001)/(100) epitaxial PZT thin films were deposited on (111)Pt/Ti/Si and (001)Pt/MgO substrates, respectively, by rf-magnetron sputtering, and their piezoelectric responses owing to intrinsic and extrinsic effects were examined. The direct and converse |e31,f| values of the polycrystalline PZT thin films were calculated as 6.4 and 11.5-15.0 C/m2, respectively, whereas those of the epitaxial PZT thin films were calculated as 3.4 and 4.6-4.8 C/m2, respectively. The large |e31,f| of the converse piezoelectric property of the polycrystalline PZT thin films is attributed to extrinsic piezoelectric effects. Furthermore, the polycrystalline PZT thin films show a clear nonlinear piezoelectric contribution, which is the same as the Rayleigh-like behavior reported in bulk PZT. In contrast, the epitaxial PZT thin films on the MgO substrate show a piezoelectric response owing to the intrinsic and linear extrinsic effects, and no nonlinear contribution was observed.

  16. Structural damage identification using piezoelectric impedance measurement with sparse inverse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Pei; Qi, Shuai; Tang, J.

    2018-03-01

    The impedance/admittance measurements of a piezoelectric transducer bonded to or embedded in a host structure can be used as damage indicator. When a credible model of the healthy structure, such as the finite element model, is available, using the impedance/admittance change information as input, it is possible to identify both the location and severity of damage. The inverse analysis, however, may be under-determined as the number of unknowns in high-frequency analysis is usually large while available input information is limited. The fundamental challenge thus is how to find a small set of solutions that cover the true damage scenario. In this research we cast the damage identification problem into a multi-objective optimization framework to tackle this challenge. With damage locations and severities as unknown variables, one of the objective functions is the difference between impedance-based model prediction in the parametric space and the actual measurements. Considering that damage occurrence generally affects only a small number of elements, we choose the sparsity of the unknown variables as another objective function, deliberately, the l 0 norm. Subsequently, a multi-objective Dividing RECTangles (DIRECT) algorithm is developed to facilitate the inverse analysis where the sparsity is further emphasized by sigmoid transformation. As a deterministic technique, this approach yields results that are repeatable and conclusive. In addition, only one algorithmic parameter, the number of function evaluations, is needed. Numerical and experimental case studies demonstrate that the proposed framework is capable of obtaining high-quality damage identification solutions with limited measurement information.

  17. Postbuckling Investigations of Piezoelectric Microdevices Considering Damage Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhigang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric material has been emerging as a popular building block in MEMS devices owing to its unique mechanical and electrical material properties. However, the reliability of MEMS devices under buckling deformation environments remains elusive and needs to be further explored. Based on the Talreja's tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric material, a constitutive model of piezoelectric materials with damage is presented. The Kachanvo damage evolution law under in-plane compressive loads is employed. The model is applied to the specific case of the postbuckling analysis of the piezoelectric plate with damage. Then, adopting von Karman's plate theory, the nonlinear governing equations of the piezoelectric plates with initial geometric deflection including damage effects under in-plane compressive loads are established. By using the finite difference method and the Newmark scheme, the damage evolution for damage accumulation is developed and the finite difference procedure for postbuckling equilibrium path is simultaneously employed. Numerical results show the postbuckling behaviors of initial flat and deflected piezoelectric plates with damage or no damage under different sets of electrical loading conditions. The effects of applied voltage, aspect ratio of plate, thick-span ratio of plate, damage as well as initial geometric deflections on the postbuckling behaviors of the piezoelectric plate are discussed. PMID:24618774

  18. Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Jirí

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

  19. Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.

  20. Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Mouse Click Motions

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Youngsu; Hong, Jin; Lee, Jaemin; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Keehoon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study energy harvesting from the mouse click motions of a robot finger and a human index finger using a piezoelectric material. The feasibility of energy harvesting from mouse click motions is experimentally and theoretically assessed. The fingers wear a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material. We model the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in a finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The model is validated through energy harvesting experiments in the robot and human fingers with the systematically varying load resistance. We find that energy harvesting is maximized at the matched load resistance to the impedance of the piezoelectric material, and the harvested energy level is tens of nJ. PMID:27399705

  1. [Piezoelectric property of novel biological piezoelectric ceramic HALNK and its effect on the functional expression of rat osteoblast cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jin-Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; Liu, Zhi-Qin; Chen, Que-Ting; Sun, Jing; Chen, Zhi-Qing

    2009-09-01

    To test the Piezoelectric property of novel biological piezoelectric ceramic HALNK and its effect on the proliferation and differentiation of rat osteoblast cells. The biological piezoelectric ceramic HALNK1/9 and HALNK5/5 were prepared by mixing Hydroxyapatite (HA) with lithium sodium potassium niobate (LNK) piezoelectric ceramic at a ratio of 1/9 and 5/5 (wt/wt), respectively. After poling treatment, the piezoelectric constants were measured. The osteoblast cells were then seeded on the surfaces of HALNK. The proliferation and differentiation activities of the osteoblast cells were evaluated by MTT assays, ALP activities and scanning electron microscopy examinations. Cells grown on the surfaces of HALNK showed normal morphology, and had better proliferation and differentiation activities than the control. The growth of osteoblastic cells on the surface of HALNK1/9 was significantly better than others. The surface of HALNK 1/9 possesses better piezoelectric property and osteogenesis potential than HALNK5/5.

  2. Hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric deformable mirror based on Prandtl-Ishlinskii model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianqiang; Tian, Lei; Li, Yan; Yang, Zongfeng; Cui, Yuguo; Chu, Jiaru

    2018-06-01

    Hysteresis of piezoelectric deformable mirror (DM) reduces the closed-loop bandwidth and the open-loop correction accuracy of adaptive optics (AO) systems. In this work, a classical Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) model is employed to model the hysteresis behavior of a unimorph DM with 20 actuators. A modified control algorithm combined with the inverse PI model is developed for piezoelectric DMs. With the help of PI model, the hysteresis of the DM was reduced effectively from about 9% to 1%. Furthermore, open-loop regenerations of low-order aberrations with or without hysteresis compensation were carried out. The experimental results demonstrate that the regeneration accuracy with PI model compensation is significantly improved.

  3. Compact piezoelectric micromotor with a single bulk lead zirconate titanate stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Lan, Hua; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The advance of micro/nanotechnology promotes the development of micromotors in recent years. In this article, a compact piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotor with a single bulk lead zirconate titanate stator is proposed. A traveling wave is generated by superposition of bending modes with 90° phase difference excited by d15 inverse piezoelectric effects. The operating principle simplifies the system structure significantly, and provides a miniaturization solution. A research prototype with the size of 0.75× 0.75×1.55 mm is developed. It can produce start-up torque of 0.27μNmand maximum speed of 2760 r/min at 14RMS.

  4. A piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Won, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

  5. Intelligence rules of hysteresis in the feedforward trajectory control of piezoelectrically-driven nanostagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashash, Saeid; Jalili, Nader

    2007-02-01

    Piezoelectrically-driven nanostagers have limited performance in a variety of feedforward and feedback positioning applications because of their nonlinear hysteretic response to input voltage. The hysteresis phenomenon is well known for its complex and multi-path behavior. To realize the underlying physics of this phenomenon and to develop an efficient compensation strategy, the intelligence properties of hysteresis with the effects of non-local memories are discussed here. Through performing a set of experiments on a piezoelectrically-driven nanostager with a high resolution capacitive position sensor, it is shown that for the precise prediction of the hysteresis path, certain memory units are required to store the previous hysteresis trajectory data. Based on the experimental observations, a constitutive memory-based mathematical modeling framework is developed and trained for the precise prediction of the hysteresis path for arbitrarily assigned input profiles. Using the inverse hysteresis model, a feedforward control strategy is then developed and implemented on the nanostager to compensate for the ever-present nonlinearity. Experimental results demonstrate that the controller remarkably eliminates the nonlinear effect, if memory units are sufficiently chosen for the inverse model.

  6. Micromechanical Prediction of the Effective Coefficients of Thermo-Piezoelectric Multiphase Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob

    1998-01-01

    The micromechanical generalized method of cells model is employed for the prediction of the effective elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric, pyroelectric and thermal-expansion constants of multiphase composites with embedded piezoelectric materials. The predicted effective constants are compared with other micromechanical methods available in the literature and good agreements are obtained.

  7. Effects of Proof Mass Geometry on Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters.

    PubMed

    Alameh, Abdul Hafiz; Gratuze, Mathieu; Elsayed, Mohannad Y; Nabki, Frederic

    2018-05-16

    Piezoelectric energy harvesters have proven to have the potential to be a power source in a wide range of applications. As the harvester dimensions scale down, the resonance frequencies of these devices increase drastically. Proof masses are essential in micro-scale devices in order to decrease the resonance frequency and increase the strain along the beam to increase the output power. In this work, the effects of proof mass geometry on piezoelectric energy harvesters are studied. Different geometrical dimension ratios have significant impact on the resonance frequency, e.g., beam to mass lengths, and beam to mass widths. A piezoelectric energy harvester has been fabricated and tested operating at a frequency of about 4 kHz within the audible range. The responses of various prototypes were studied, and an optimized T-shaped piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design is presented for improved performance.

  8. Piezoelectric effect in non-uniform strained carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilina, M. V.; Blinov, Yu F.; Ilin, O. I.; Rudyk, N. N.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    The piezoelectric effect in non-uniform strained carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been studied. It is shown that the magnitude of strained CNTs surface potential depends on a strain value. It is established that the resistance of CNT also depends on the strain and internal electric field, which leads to the hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics. Analysis of experimental studies of the non-uniform strained CNT with a diameter of 92 nm and a height of 2.1 μm allowed us to estimate the piezoelectric coefficient 0.107 ± 0.032 C/m2.

  9. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming

    2010-09-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed.

  10. Effects of Proof Mass Geometry on Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters

    PubMed Central

    Gratuze, Mathieu; Elsayed, Mohannad Y.

    2018-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesters have proven to have the potential to be a power source in a wide range of applications. As the harvester dimensions scale down, the resonance frequencies of these devices increase drastically. Proof masses are essential in micro-scale devices in order to decrease the resonance frequency and increase the strain along the beam to increase the output power. In this work, the effects of proof mass geometry on piezoelectric energy harvesters are studied. Different geometrical dimension ratios have significant impact on the resonance frequency, e.g., beam to mass lengths, and beam to mass widths. A piezoelectric energy harvester has been fabricated and tested operating at a frequency of about 4 kHz within the audible range. The responses of various prototypes were studied, and an optimized T-shaped piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design is presented for improved performance. PMID:29772706

  11. Analysis of the axisymmetric indentation of a semi-infinite piezoelectric material: The evaluation of the contact stiffness and the effective piezoelectric constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuqian

    2008-04-01

    A general solution of the axisymmetric indentation is obtained in the closed form for a semi-infinite, transverse isotropic piezoelectric material by a rigid-conducting indenter of arbitrary-axisymmetric profile. Explicit relationships are derived for dependences of the indentation depth and the indentation-induced charge on indentation force and applied electrical potential. Simple formulas are obtained for contact stiffness and effective piezoelectric constant, which can be used in indentation test and piezoresponse force microscopy to analyze the elastic and piezoelectric responses of piezoelectric materials. Depending on the direction of electric field (the potential difference), the electric field can either increase or suppress indentation deformation. The corresponding results are given for cylindrical, conical, and paraboloidal indenters.

  12. Effect of the Matching Circuit on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Transducers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuyu; Xu, Jie

    2017-02-10

    The input electrical impedance behaves as a capacitive when a piezoelectric transducer is excited near its resonance frequency. In order to increase the energy transmission efficiency, a series or parallel inductor should be used to compensate the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In this paper, the effect of the series matching inductor on the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer is analyzed. The dependency of the resonance/anti-resonance frequency, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, the electrical quality factor and the electro-acoustical efficiency on the matching inductor is obtained. It is shown that apart from compensating the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer, the series matching inductor can also change the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer. When series matching inductor is increased, the resonance frequency is decreased and the anti-resonance unchanged; the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is increased. For the electrical quality factor and the electroacoustic efficiency, the dependency on the matching inductor is different when the transducer is operated at the resonance and the anti-resonance frequency. The electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer with series matching inductor are measured. It is shown that the theoretically predicted relationship between the electromechanical characteristics and the series matching inductor is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Effect of the Matching Circuit on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuyu; Xu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The input electrical impedance behaves as a capacitive when a piezoelectric transducer is excited near its resonance frequency. In order to increase the energy transmission efficiency, a series or parallel inductor should be used to compensate the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In this paper, the effect of the series matching inductor on the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer is analyzed. The dependency of the resonance/anti-resonance frequency, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, the electrical quality factor and the electro-acoustical efficiency on the matching inductor is obtained. It is shown that apart from compensating the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer, the series matching inductor can also change the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer. When series matching inductor is increased, the resonance frequency is decreased and the anti-resonance unchanged; the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is increased. For the electrical quality factor and the electroacoustic efficiency, the dependency on the matching inductor is different when the transducer is operated at the resonance and the anti-resonance frequency. The electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer with series matching inductor are measured. It is shown that the theoretically predicted relationship between the electromechanical characteristics and the series matching inductor is in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:28208583

  14. The Effect of Temperature Dependent Material Nonlinearities on the Response of Piezoelectric Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1997-01-01

    Previously developed analytical formulations for piezoelectric composite plates are extended to account for the nonlinear effects of temperature on material properties. The temperature dependence of the composite and piezoelectric properties are represented at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. In addition to capturing thermal effects from temperature dependent material properties, this formulation also accounts for thermal effects arising from: (1) coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the various composite and piezoelectric plies and (2) pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric material. The constitutive equations are incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory to provide a unified representation of the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal behavior of smart structures. Corresponding finite element equations are derived and implemented for a bilinear plate element with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of piezoelectric composite laminates. Numerical studies are conducted on a simply supported composite plate with attached piezoceramic patches under thermal gradients to investigate the nonlinear effects of material property temperature dependence on the displacements, sensory voltages, active voltages required to minimize thermal deflections, and the resultant stress states.

  15. Piezoelectric substrate effect on electron-acoustic phonon scattering in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz; Ashraf, SSZ

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the effect of piezoelectric scattering as a function of electron temperature and distance between the sample and the substrate on electron-acoustic phonon scattering rate in Bilayer Graphene sitting on a piezoelectric substrate. We obtain approximate analytical result by neglecting the chiral nature of carriers and then proceed to obtain unapproximated numerical results for the scattering rate incorporating chirality of charge carriers. We find that on the incorporation of full numerical computation the magnitude as well as the power exponent both is affected with the power exponent changed from T3 to T3.31 in the low temperature range and to T6.98 dependence in the temperature range (>5K). We also find that the distance between the sample and substrate begins to strongly affect the scattering rate at temperatures above 10K. These calculation not only suggest the influencing effect of piezoelectric substrate on the transport properties of Dirac Fermions at very low temperatures but also open a channel to study low dimension structures by probing piezoelectric acoustical phonons.

  16. Effects of a new piezoelectric device on periosteal microcirculation after subperiosteal preparation.

    PubMed

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Felgenträger, Dörthe; Kampmann, Andreas; Schumann, Paul; Rücker, Martin; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-07-01

    Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local periosteal microcirculation. Soft-tissue damage can usually be considerably reduced using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, we investigated the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on local periosteal microcirculation and compared this approach with the conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator. A total of 20 Lewis rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Subperiosteal preparation was performed using either a piezoelectric device or a periosteal elevator. Intravital microscopy was performed immediately after the procedure as well as three and eight days postoperatively. Statistical analysis of microcirculatory parameters was performed offline using analysis of variance (ANOVA) on ranks (p<0.05). At all time points investigated, intravital microscopy demonstrated significantly higher levels of periosteal perfusion in the group of rats that underwent piezosurgery than in the group of rats that underwent treatment with a periosteal elevator. The use of a piezoelectric device for subperiosteal preparation is associated with better periosteal microcirculation than the use of a conventional periosteal elevator. As a result, piezoelectric devices can be expected to have a positive effect on bone metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Active control of nano dimers response using piezoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekkawy, Ahmed A.; Ali, Tamer A.; Badawi, Ashraf H.

    2016-09-01

    Nano devices can be used as building blocks for Internet of Nano-Things network devices, such as sensors/actuators, transceivers, and routers. Although nano particles response can be engineered to fit in different regimes, for such a nano particle to be used as an active nano device, its properties should be dynamically controlled. This controllability is a challenge, and there are many proposed techniques to tune nanoparticle response on the spot through a sort of control signal, wither that signal is optical (for all-optical systems) or electronic (for opto-electronic systems). This will allow the use of nano particles as nano-switches or as dynamic sensors that can pick different frequencies depending on surrounding conditions or depending on a smart decisions. In this work, we propose a piezoelectric substrate as an active control mediator to control plasmonic gaps in nano dimers. This method allows for integrating nano devices with regular electronics while communicating control signals to nano devices through applying electric signals to a piezoelectric material, in order to control the gaps between nano particles in a nano cluster. We do a full numerical study to the system, analyzing the piezoelectric control resolution (minimum gap change step) and its effect on a nanodimer response as a nanoantenna. This analysis considers the dielectric functions of materials within the visible frequencies range. The effects of different parameters, such as the piezoelectric geometrical structure and materials, on the gap control resolution and the operating frequency are studied.

  18. Development of a Piezoelectric Vacuum Sensing Component for a Wide Pressure Range

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing-Yu; Hsieh, Fan-Chun; Lin, Che-Yu; Chen, Shao-En; Chen, Fong-Zhi; Wu, Chia-Che

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we develop a clamped–clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped–clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10−6 to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage. PMID:25421736

  19. A nanoscale piezoelectric transformer for low-voltage transistors.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sapan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2014-11-12

    A novel piezoelectric voltage transformer for low-voltage transistors is proposed. Placing a piezoelectric transformer on the gate of a field-effect transistor results in the piezoelectric transformer field-effect transistor that can switch at significantly lower voltages than a conventional transistor. The piezoelectric transformer operates by using one piezoelectric to squeeze another piezoelectric to generate a higher output voltage than the input voltage. Multiple piezoelectrics can be used to squeeze a single piezoelectric layer to generate an even higher voltage amplification. Coupled electrical and mechanical modeling in COMSOL predicts a 12.5× voltage amplification for a six-layer piezoelectric transformer. This would lead to more than a 150× reduction in the power needed for communications.

  20. A novel traveling wave piezoelectric actuated tracked mobile robot utilizing friction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Shu, Chengyou; Jin, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhui

    2017-03-01

    A novel traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot with potential application to robotic rovers was proposed and investigated in this study. The proposed tracked mobile robot is composed of a parallelogram-frame-structure piezoelectric transducer with four rings and a metal track. Utilizing the converse piezoelectric and friction effects, traveling waves were propagated in the rings and then the metal track was actuated by the piezoelectric transducer. Compared with traditional tracked mechanisms, the proposed tracked mobile robot has a simpler and more compact structure without lubricant, which eliminates the problem of lubricant volatilization and deflation, thus, it could be operated in the vacuum environment. Dynamic characteristics were simulated and measured to reveal the mechanism of actuating track of the piezoelectric transducer. Experimental investigations of the traveling wave piezoelectric-actuated tracked mobile robot were then carried out, and the results indicated that the robot prototype with a pair of exciting voltages of 460 Vpp is able to achieve a maximum velocity of 57 mm s-1 moving on the foam plate and possesses the obstacle crossing capability with a maximum height of 27 mm. The proposed tracked mobile robot exhibits potential to be the driving system of robotic rovers.

  1. Enhanced converse magnetoelectric effect in cylindrical piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gaojian; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced converse magnetoelectric (ME) effect has been experimentally observed in cylindrical PZT-Terfenol-D piezoelectric-magnetostrictive bilayered composites, where the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive components are coupled through normal stresses instead of shear stresses that act in most of previous multiferroic composites. A theoretical model based on elastodynamics analysis has been proposed to describe the frequency response of converse ME effect for axial and radial modes in the bilayered cylindrical composites. The theory shows good agreement with the experimental results. The different variation tendency of resonant converse ME coefficient, as well as different variation rate of resonance frequency with bias magnetic field for axial and radial modes is interpreted in terms of demagnetizing effect. This work is of theoretical and technological significance for the application of converse ME effect as magnetic sensor, transducers, coil-free flux switch, etc.

  2. Low-cost capacitor voltage inverter for outstanding performance in piezoelectric energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Lallart, Mickaël; Garbuio, Lauric; Richard, Claude; Guyomar, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new scheme for piezoelectric energy harvesting optimization. The proposed enhancement relies on a new topology for inverting the voltage across a single capacitor with reduced losses. The increase of the inversion quality allows a much more effective energy harvesting process using the so-called synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) nonlinear technique. It is shown that the proposed architecture, based on a 2-step inversion, increases the harvested power by a theoretical factor up to square root of 2 (i.e., 40% gain) compared with classical SSHI, allowing an increase of the harvested power by a factor greater than 1000% compared with the standard energy harvesting technique for realistic values of inversion components. The proposed circuit, using only 4 digital switches and an intermediate capacitor, is also ultra-low power, because the inversion circuit does not require any external energy and the command signals are very simple.

  3. Piezoelectric Ceramics and Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, I.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the piezoelectric effect in ceramics and presents a quantitative representation of this effect. Explains the processes involved in the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramics, the materials used, and the situations in which they are applied. (GS)

  4. Giant piezoelectric size effects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride nanowires. A first principles investigation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ravi; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2011-02-09

    Nanowires made of materials with noncentrosymmetric crystal structure are under investigation for their piezoelectric properties and suitability as building blocks for next-generation self-powered nanodevices. In this work, we investigate the size dependence of piezoelectric coefficients in nanowires of two such materials - zinc oxide and gallium nitride. Nanowires, oriented along their polar axis, ranging from 0.6 to 2.4 nm in diameter were modeled quantum mechanically. A giant piezoelectric size effect is identified for both GaN and ZnO nanowires. However, GaN exhibits a larger and more extended size dependence than ZnO. The observed size effect is discussed in the context of charge redistribution near the free surfaces leading to changes in local polarization. The study reveals that local changes in polarization and reduction of unit cell volume with respect to bulk values lead to the observed size effect. These results have strong implication in the field of energy harvesting, as piezoelectric voltage output scales with the piezoelectric coefficient.

  5. A fully dynamic model of a multi-layer piezoelectric actuator incorporating the power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Yang, Fufeng; Rui, Xiaoting

    2017-12-01

    The dynamic input-output characteristics of the multi-layer piezoelectric actuator (PA) are intrinsically rate-dependent and hysteresis. Meanwhile, aiming at the strong capacitive impedance of multi-layer PA, the power amplifier of the actuator can greatly affect the dynamic performances of the actuator. In this paper, a novel dynamic model that includes a model of the electric circuit providing voltage to the actuator, an inverse piezoelectric effect model describing the hysteresis and creep behavior of the actuator, and a mechanical model, in which the vibration characteristics of the multi-layer PA is described, is put forward. Validation experimental tests are conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed dynamic model can accurately predict the fully dynamic behavior of the multi-layer PA with different driving power.

  6. A Novel Fractional Order Model for the Dynamic Hysteresis of Piezoelectrically Actuated Fast Tool Servo

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiaoqin

    2012-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is the development of a linearized model for describing the dynamic hysteresis behaviors of piezoelectrically actuated fast tool servo (FTS). A linearized hysteresis force model is proposed and mathematically described by a fractional order differential equation. Combining the dynamic modeling of the FTS mechanism, a linearized fractional order dynamic hysteresis (LFDH) model for the piezoelectrically actuated FTS is established. The unique features of the LFDH model could be summarized as follows: (a) It could well describe the rate-dependent hysteresis due to its intrinsic characteristics of frequency-dependent nonlinear phase shifts and amplitude modulations; (b) The linearization scheme of the LFDH model would make it easier to implement the inverse dynamic control on piezoelectrically actuated micro-systems. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed model, a series of experiments are conducted. The toolpaths of the FTS for creating two typical micro-functional surfaces involving various harmonic components with different frequencies and amplitudes are scaled and employed as command signals for the piezoelectric actuator. The modeling errors in the steady state are less than ±2.5% within the full span range which is much smaller than certain state-of-the-art modeling methods, demonstrating the efficiency and superiority of the proposed model for modeling dynamic hysteresis effects. Moreover, it indicates that the piezoelectrically actuated micro systems would be more suitably described as a fractional order dynamic system.

  7. Scanning electron microscope fine tuning using four-bar piezoelectric actuated mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatamleh, Khaled S.; Khasawneh, Qais A.; Al-Ghasem, Adnan; Jaradat, Mohammad A.; Sawaqed, Laith; Al-Shabi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopes are extensively used for accurate micro/nano images exploring. Several strategies have been proposed to fine tune those microscopes in the past few years. This work presents a new fine tuning strategy of a scanning electron microscope sample table using four bar piezoelectric actuated mechanisms. The introduced paper presents an algorithm to find all possible inverse kinematics solutions of the proposed mechanism. In addition, another algorithm is presented to search for the optimal inverse kinematic solution. Both algorithms are used simultaneously by means of a simulation study to fine tune a scanning electron microscope sample table through a pre-specified circular or linear path of motion. Results of the study shows that, proposed algorithms were able to minimize the power required to drive the piezoelectric actuated mechanism by a ratio of 97.5% for all simulated paths of motion when compared to general non-optimized solution.

  8. Flexoelectricity and piezoelectricity in nanostructures and consequences for energy harvesting and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdoub, Mohamed Sabri

    In response to mechanical stimuli, certain crystalline dielectrics (piezoelectrics) electrically polarize. Symmetry considerations restrict it to be non-zero only for dielectrics belonging to crystallographic point groups that admit non-centrosymmetry. A non-uniform strain field or the presence of strain gradients can, however, locally break inversion symmetry and induce polarization even in centrosymmetric crystals. This phenomenon is termed flexoelectrictiy. Recently, flexoelectricity has caught the attention of several researchers and indeed some have proposed tantalizing notions related to this phenomenon such as "piezoelectric materials without using piezoelectric materials," "renormalization of Curie temperature in ferroelectric thin films" and "electro-mechanical nano-indentation size-effect," among others. In this dissertation, we investigate (using theoretical and atomistic methods) the role of flexoelectricity in nanostructures that are already piezoelectric and the emergent consequences for electromechanical behavior, energy harvesting and storage. We show that flexoelectricity can result in a significant enhancement of the effective piezoelectric response of nanostructures, e.g., as much as 300% in tetragonal (piezoelectric) BaTiO3 nanobeams. In a certain optimum size range, piezoelectric nanostructures also exhibit enhanced energy harvesting. Energy storage is a major bottleneck in the emerging "energy crisis." Next generation advances in energy storage and nanoelectronics require capacitors fabricated at the nanoscale. High dielectric constant materials such as ferroelectrics are important candidates for those. Recent work has shown that, despite popular belief, electrostatic nanocapacitor arrays can be used for high energy storage density as well and not just high power density (i.e., paving the way for large scale application such as the automobile). Consider the following: the expected capacitance of a 2.7 nm SrTiO3 thin film is 1600 fFmicrom -2

  9. Effects of equivalent series resistance on the noise mitigation performance of piezoelectric shunt damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Szu Cheng; Sharifzadeh Mirshekarloo, Meysam; Yao, Kui

    2017-05-01

    Piezoelectric shunt damping (PSD) utilizes an electrically-shunted piezoelectric damper attached on a panel structure to suppress the transmission of acoustic noise. The paper develops an understanding on the effects of equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the piezoelectric damper in a PSD system on noise mitigation performance, and demonstrates that an increased ESR leads to a significant rise in the noise transmissibility due to reduction in the system’s mechanical damping. It is further demonstrated with experimental results that ESR effects can be compensated in the shunt circuit to significantly improve the noise mitigation performance. A theoretical electrical equivalent model of the PSD incorporating the ESR is established for quantitative analysis of ESR effects on noise mitigation.

  10. Enhanced piezoelectric effect in Janus group-III chalcogenide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yu; Zhou, Si; Bai, Yizhen; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-04-01

    Piezoelectricity is a unique material property that converts mechanical energy into electricity or vice versa. Starting from the group-III monochalcogenide monolayers, we design a series of derivative Janus structures for piezoelectric materials, including Ga2SSe, Ga2STe, Ga2SeTe, In2SSe, In2STe, In2SeTe, GaInS2, GaInSe2, and GaInTe2. Our first-principles calculations show that these Janus structures are thermodynamically and dynamically stable. They have a bandgap in the range of 0.89-2.03 eV, lower than those of the perfect monolayers, and Ga2STe, Ga2SeTe, In2STe, and In2SeTe monolayers are direct gap semiconductors. They possess piezoelectric coefficients up to 8.47 pm/V, over four times the maximum value obtained in perfect group-III monochalcogenide monolayers. Moreover, the broken mirror symmetry of these Janus structures induces out-of-plane dipolar polarization, yielding additional out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficients of 0.07-0.46 pm/V. The enhanced piezoelectric properties enable the development of these novel two-dimensional materials for piezoelectric sensors and nanogenerators.

  11. Wave propagation through a flexoelectric piezoelectric slab sandwiched by two piezoelectric half-spaces.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Fengyu; Wei, Peijun; Li, Yueqiu

    2018-01-01

    Reflection and transmission of plane waves through a flexoelectric piezoelectric slab sandwiched by two piezoelectric half-spaces are studied in this paper. The secular equations in the flexoelectric piezoelectric material are first derived from the general governing equation. Different from the classical piezoelectric medium, there are five kinds of coupled elastic waves in the piezoelectric material with the microstructure effects taken into consideration. The state vectors are obtained by the summation of contributions from all possible partial waves. The state transfer equation of flexoelectric piezoelectric slab is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order, and the transfer matrix of flexoelectric piezoelectric slab is obtained by solving the state transfer equation. By using the continuous conditions at the interface and the approach of partition matrix, we get the resultant algebraic equations in term of the transfer matrix from which the reflection and transmission coefficients can be calculated. The amplitude ratios and further the energy flux ratios of various waves are evaluated numerically. The numerical results are shown graphically and are validated by the energy conservation law. Based on these numerical results, the influences of two characteristic lengths of microstructure and the flexoelectric coefficients on the wave propagation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of mechanical deformation on energy conversion efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jinho; Cho, Seunghyeon; Kim, Wook; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hojoong; Kim, Seunghyun; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Chang-Wan; Choi, Dukhyun

    2015-07-10

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) are capable of converting energy from various mechanical sources into electric energy and have many attractive features such as continuous operation, replenishment and low cost. However, many researchers still have studied novel material synthesis and interfacial controls to improve the power production from PNGs. In this study, we report the energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of PNGs dependent on mechanical deformations such as bending and twisting. Since the output power of PNGs is caused by the mechanical strain of the piezoelectric material, the power production and their ECE is critically dependent on the types of external mechanical deformations. Thus, we examine the output power from PNGs according to bending and twisting. In order to clearly understand the ECE of PNGs in the presence of those external mechanical deformations, we determine the ECE of PNGs by the ratio of output electrical energy and input mechanical energy, where we suggest that the input energy is based only on the strain energy of the piezoelectric layer. We calculate the strain energy of the piezoelectric layer using numerical simulation of bending and twisting of the PNG. Finally, we demonstrate that the ECE of the PNG caused by twisting is much higher than that caused by bending due to the multiple effects of normal and lateral piezoelectric coefficients. Our results thus provide a design direction for PNG systems as high-performance power generators.

  13. Nanoconfinement: an effective way to enhance PVDF piezoelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Cauda, Valentina; Stassi, Stefano; Bejtka, Katarzyna; Canavese, Giancarlo

    2013-07-10

    The dimensional confinement and oriented crystallization are both key factors in determining the piezoelectric properties of a polymeric nanostructured material. Here we prepare arrays of one-dimensional polymeric nanowires showing piezoelectric features by template-wetting two distinct polymers into anodic porous alumina (APA) membranes. In particular, poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, and its copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), PVTF, are obtained in commercially available APA, showing a final diameter of about 200 nm and several micrometers in length, reflecting the templating matrix features. We show that the crystallization of both polymers into a ferroelectric phase is directed by the nanotemplate confinement. Interestingly, the PVDF nanowires mainly crystallize into the β-phase in the nanoporous matrix, whereas the reference thin film of PVDF crystallizes in the α nonpolar phase. In the case of the PVTF nanowires, needle-like crystals oriented perpendicularly to the APA channel walls are observed, giving insight on the molecular orientation of the polymer within the nanowire structure. A remarkable piezoelectric behavior of both 1-D polymeric nanowires is observed, upon recording ferroelectric polarization, hysteresis, and displacement loops. In particular, an outstanding piezoelectric effect is observed for the PVDF nanowires with respect to the polymeric thin film, considering that no poling was carried out. Current versus voltage (I-V) characteristics showed a consistent switching behavior of the ferroelectric polar domains, thus revealing the importance of the confined and oriented crystallization of the polymer in monodimensional nanoarchitectures.

  14. Topology optimization of embedded piezoelectric actuators considering control spillover effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Juliano F.; De Leon, Daniel M.; Perondi, Eduardo A.

    2017-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of active structural vibration control by means of embedded piezoelectric actuators. The topology optimization method using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) approach is employed in this work to find the optimum design of actuators taken into account the control spillover effects. A coupled finite element model of the structure is derived assuming a two-phase material and this structural model is written into the state-space representation. The proposed optimization formulation aims to determine the distribution of piezoelectric material which maximizes the controllability for a given vibration mode. The undesirable effects of the feedback control on the residual modes are limited by including a spillover constraint term containing the residual controllability Gramian eigenvalues. The optimization of the shape and placement of the conventionally embedded piezoelectric actuators are performed using a Sequential Linear Programming (SLP) algorithm. Numerical examples are presented considering the control of the bending vibration modes for a cantilever and a fixed beam. A Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is synthesized for each case of controlled structure in order to compare the influence of the additional constraint.

  15. Piezoelectric particle accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jongewaard, Erik N.; Haase, Andrew A.

    2017-08-29

    A particle accelerator is provided that includes a piezoelectric accelerator element, where the piezoelectric accelerator element includes a hollow cylindrical shape, and an input transducer, where the input transducer is disposed to provide an input signal to the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the input signal induces a mechanical excitation of the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the mechanical excitation is capable of generating a piezoelectric electric field proximal to an axis of the cylindrical shape, where the piezoelectric accelerator is configured to accelerate a charged particle longitudinally along the axis of the cylindrical shape according to the piezoelectric electric field.

  16. Improvement of Piezoelectricity in Piezoelectric Paper Made With Cellulose

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-25

    Cellulose microfibril has ordered crystalline regions and disordered regions. b. EAPap is made from cellulose paper on which gold electrodes are...Final Report: AOARD-084035 Improvement of Piezoelectricity in Piezoelectric Paper made with Cellulose •Prof. Jaehwan Kim Center for EAPap...webpage: www.EAPap.com ABSTRACT This report deals with the improvement of piezoelectricity in the piezoelectric paper made with cellulose

  17. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  18. Piezoelectric textured ceramics: Effective properties and application to ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Levassort, Franck; Pham Thi, Mai; Hemery, Henry; Marechal, Pierre; Tran-Huu-Hue, Louis-Pascal; Lethiecq, Marc

    2006-12-22

    Piezoelectric textured ceramics obtained by homo-template grain growth (HTGG) were recently demonstrated. A simple model with several assumptions has been used to calculate effective parameters of these new materials. Different connectivities have been simulated to show that spatial arrangements between the considered phases have little influence on the effective parameters, even through the 3-0 connectivity delivers the highest electromechanical thickness factor. A transducer based on a textured ceramic sample has been fabricated and characterised to show the efficiency of these piezoelectric materials. Finally, in a single element transducer configuration, simulation shows an improvement of 2 dB sensitivity for a transducer made with textured ceramic in comparison with a similar transducer design based on standard soft PZT (at equivalent bandwidths).

  19. Effect of aging on the piezoelectric properties of sol-gel derived lead-free BCZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrakala, E.; Hazra, Binoy Krishna; Praveen, J. Paul; Das, Dibakar

    2018-04-01

    Aging is well observed in piezoelectric materials and plays a major role in determining the sustainabilityand performance issues of the piezoelectric based devices. Aging behavior is usually defined as the spontaneous decay of the piezoelectric properties with time. In this present study, the effect of aging on the piezoelectric properties of sol-gel derived lead-free BCZT ceramics has been investigated. During the aging process, the ferroelectric hysteresis loop was shifted along the field axis. The results revealed that the piezoelectric and dielectric properties were rapidly decreased linearly with increasing aging time and become stable with further increase in aging time. Piezoelectric (d33, g33 &kp) and dielectric properties (ɛr) were decreased approximately by 18% after 70 days. This could be due to the gradual stabilization of the ferroelectric domain structurewhich originates from the reorientation of the local defect dipoles and the migration of free oxygen vacancies towards the grain boundaries.

  20. Fabrication and characteristics of thin disc piezoelectric transformers based on piezoelectric buzzers with gap circles.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuo-Tsai; Lee, Chun-Wei

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates design, fabrication and test of thin disc piezoelectric transformers (PTs) based on piezoelectric buzzers with gap circles at different diameters of the gap circles. The performance test is focused on characteristics of voltage gains, including maximum voltage gains and maximum-gain frequencies, for each piezoelectric transformer under different load conditions. Both a piezoelectric buzzer and a gap circle on a silver electrode of the buzzer are needed to build any type of the PTs. Here, the gap circle is used to form a ring-shaped input electrode and a circle-shaped output electrode for each piezoelectric transformer. To do so, both structure and connection of a PT are first expressed. Then, operating principle of a PT and its related vibration mode observed by a carbon-power imaging technique are described. Moreover, an experimental setup for characterizing each piezoelectric transformer is constructed. Finally, effects of diameters of the gap circles on characteristics of voltage gains at different load resistances are discussed.

  1. Top electrode size effects in the piezoresponse force microscopy of piezoelectric thin films attached to a rigid substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. H.

    2017-10-01

    In order to avoid the highly concentrated electric field induced beneath the sharp tip, the technique using a top coating electrode in the piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been developed to detect the piezoelectric coefficients. Reliable theory should be erected to explain the broadly reported top electrode size effects and relate the responses with material constants. In this paper, the surface displacement, electric potential inside the film, electric charge and effective piezoelectric coefficient are expressed as a set of integral equations. Analytical solutions are obtained for two limiting cases, i.e., half space (HS) and infinitely thin film (IT). The effective piezoelectric coefficient of the HS case is proved to be the same as that from the PFM of a piezoelectric half plane without a top coating. For the IT case, it is identical to the well-known piezoelectric coefficient result of piezoelectric thin film clamped between flat rigid electrodes subject to homogeneous external electric field. For PZT4 thin layer, numerical results reveal that the surface displacement obviously decreases and the electric potential distributions inside the film become more and more homogeneous as the electrode radius to film thickness ratio (a/t) enlarges. The electric charge dramatically increases while the effective piezoelectric coefficient evidently decreases and they both transfer from the HS solutions to the IT results when a/t varies from 0.001 to 20. The transition occurs at about a/t = 1 in agreement with the experimental observations. A critical top electrode size, i.e., a/t > 10, is obtained and applicable to other piezoelectric materials. Under such circumstances, one can readily gain the piezoelectric coefficients e 33, d 33 and the dielectric coefficient {\\in }33 if other mechanical coefficients and one piezoelectric constant are known a prior.

  2. Elastic and piezoelectric fields around a quantum wire of zincblende heterostructures with interface elasticity effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Wei; Liu, Yifei

    2018-04-01

    This work formulates the solutions to the elastic and piezoelectric fields around a quantum wire (QWR) with interface elasticity effect. Closed-form solutions to the piezoelectric potential field of zincblende QWR/matrix heterostructures grown along [111] crystallographic orientation are found and numerical results of InAs/InP heterostructures are provided as an example. The piezoelectric potential in the matrix depends on the interface elasticity, the radius and stiffness of the QWR. Our results indicate that interface elasticity can significantly alter the elastic and piezoelectric fields near the interface. Additionally, when the elastic property of the QWR is considered to be anisotropic in contrary to the common isotropic assumption, piezoelectric potentials are found to be distinct near the interface, but the deviations are negligible at positions far away from the interface.

  3. An optical fiber Bragg grating and piezoelectric ceramic voltage sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing; He, Yanxiao; Sun, Shangpeng; Luo, Mandan; Han, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Voltage measurement is essential in many fields like power grids, telecommunications, metallurgy, railways, and oil production. A voltage-sensing unit, consisting of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and piezoelectric ceramics, based on which an optical over-voltage sensor was proposed and fabricated in this paper. No demodulation devices like spectrometer or Fabry-Perot filter were needed to gain the voltage signal, and a relatively large sensing frequency range was acquired in this paper; thus, the cost of the sensing system is more acceptable in engineering application. The voltage to be measured was directly applied to the piezoelectric ceramic, and deformation of the ceramics and the grating would be caused because of the inverse piezoelectric effect. With a reference grating, the output light intensity change will be caused by the FBG center wavelength change; thus, the relationship between the applied voltage and the output light intensity was established. Validation of the sensor was accomplished in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 20 kHz and switching impulse waves with a test platform; good linearity of the input-output characteristic was achieved. A temperature validation test was completed, showing that the sensor maintains good temperature stability. Experimental results show that the optical over-voltage sensor can be used for voltage monitoring, and if applied with a voltage divider, the sensor can be used to measure high voltage.

  4. An optical fiber Bragg grating and piezoelectric ceramic voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; He, Yanxiao; Sun, Shangpeng; Luo, Mandan; Han, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Voltage measurement is essential in many fields like power grids, telecommunications, metallurgy, railways, and oil production. A voltage-sensing unit, consisting of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and piezoelectric ceramics, based on which an optical over-voltage sensor was proposed and fabricated in this paper. No demodulation devices like spectrometer or Fabry-Perot filter were needed to gain the voltage signal, and a relatively large sensing frequency range was acquired in this paper; thus, the cost of the sensing system is more acceptable in engineering application. The voltage to be measured was directly applied to the piezoelectric ceramic, and deformation of the ceramics and the grating would be caused because of the inverse piezoelectric effect. With a reference grating, the output light intensity change will be caused by the FBG center wavelength change; thus, the relationship between the applied voltage and the output light intensity was established. Validation of the sensor was accomplished in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 20 kHz and switching impulse waves with a test platform; good linearity of the input-output characteristic was achieved. A temperature validation test was completed, showing that the sensor maintains good temperature stability. Experimental results show that the optical over-voltage sensor can be used for voltage monitoring, and if applied with a voltage divider, the sensor can be used to measure high voltage.

  5. Hysteresis compensation of the Prandtl-Ishlinskii model for piezoelectric actuators using modified particle swarm optimization with chaotic map.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhili; Wang, Rui; Fang, Jiwen; Dai, Xufei; Li, Zuohua

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric actuators invariably exhibit hysteresis nonlinearities that tend to become significant under the open-loop condition and could cause oscillations and errors in nanometer-positioning tasks. Chaotic map modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) is proposed and implemented to identify the Prandtl-Ishlinskii model for piezoelectric actuators. Hysteresis compensation is attained through application of an inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii model, in which the parameters are formulated based on the original model with chaotic map MPSO. To strengthen the diversity and improve the searching ergodicity of the swarm, an initial method of adaptive inertia weight based on a chaotic map is proposed. To compare and prove that the swarm's convergence occurs before stochastic initialization and to attain an optimal particle swarm optimization algorithm, the parameters of a proportional-integral-derivative controller are searched using self-tuning, and the simulated results are used to verify the search effectiveness of chaotic map MPSO. The results show that chaotic map MPSO is superior to its competitors for identifying the Prandtl-Ishlinskii model and that the inverse Prandtl-Ishlinskii model can provide hysteresis compensation under different conditions in a simple and effective manner.

  6. Piezoelectric transformer structural modeling--a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiashi

    2007-06-01

    A review on piezoelectric transformer structural modeling is presented. The operating principle and the basic behavior of piezoelectric transformers as governed by the linear theory of piezoelectricity are shown by a simple, theoretical analysis on a Rosen transformer based on extensional modes of a nonhomogeneous ceramic rod. Various transformers are classified according to their structural shapes, operating modes, and voltage transforming capability. Theoretical and numerical modeling results from the theory of piezoelectricity are reviewed. More advances modeling on thermal and nonlinear effects also are discussed. The article contains 167 references.

  7. Piezoelectric valve

    DOEpatents

    Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

    2013-01-15

    A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

  8. Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Ounaies, Z.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to detail the current theoretical understanding of the origin of piezoelectric and ferroelectric phenomena in polymers; to present the state-of-the-art in piezoelectric polymers and emerging material systems that exhibit promising properties; and to discuss key characterization methods, fundamental modeling approaches, and applications of piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than forty years, but in recent years they have gained notoriety as a valuable class of smart materials.

  9. Voltage generation of piezoelectric cantilevers by laser heating

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Liu, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yang-Fang; Shih, Wan Y.; Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2012-01-01

    Converting ambient thermal energy into electricity is of great interest in harvesting energy from the environment. Piezoelectric cantilevers have previously been shown to be an effective biosensor and a tool for elasticity mapping. Here we show that a single piezoelectric (lead-zirconate titanate (PZT)) layer cantilever can be used to convert heat to electricity through pyroelectric effect. Furthermore, piezoelectric-metal (PZT-Ti) bi-layer cantilever showed an enhanced induced voltage over the single PZT layer alone due to the additional piezoelectric effect. This type of device can be a way for converting heat energy into electricity. PMID:23258941

  10. Ferroelectric domain inversion and its stability in lithium niobate thin film on insulator with different thicknesses

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guang-hao; Bai, Yu-hang; Cui, Guo-xin

    2016-07-15

    Ferroelectric domain inversion and its effect on the stability of lithium niobate thin films on insulator (LNOI) are experimentally characterized. Two sets of specimens with different thicknesses varying from submicron to microns are selected. For micron thick samples (∼28 μm), domain structures are achieved by pulsed electric field poling with electrodes patterned via photolithography. No domain structure deterioration has been observed for a month as inspected using polarizing optical microscopy and etching. As for submicron (540 nm) films, large-area domain inversion is realized by scanning a biased conductive tip in a piezoelectric force microscope. A graphic processing method is takenmore » to evaluate the domain retention. A domain life time of 25.0 h is obtained and possible mechanisms are discussed. Our study gives a direct reference for domain structure-related applications of LNOI, including guiding wave nonlinear frequency conversion, nonlinear wavefront tailoring, electro-optic modulation, and piezoelectric devices.« less

  11. Frequency Rectification Applied to Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting and Improving Available Power of Piezoelectric Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Kazuaki; LCGT Collaboration

    material utilized in the motor compared to the theoretical maximum Energy Density under the motor operating conditions (i.e., frequency, applied electric field). The result of this work is a more descriptive metric to evaluate piezoelectric motors that provides information on the effectiveness of the motor drive train; that is, how effectively the motion of the piezoelectric is transferred to the outside world.

  12. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  13. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-11-01

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other.

  14. Surface oxidation: an effective way to induce piezoelectricity in 2D black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiabin; Zhao, Ting; He, Chaoyu; Zhang, Kaiwang

    2018-03-01

    In this letter, first-principles methods are employed to investigate the elastic stiffness and piezoelectric tensors of surface-oxidized black phosphorene. Our results show that the piezoelectric coefficients d 11 and d 12 for surface-oxidized black phosphorene are 88.54 pm V-1 and  -1.94 pm V-1, respectively, which are comparable to those of group-IV monochalcogenides and more remarkable than those of the experimentally viable h-BN and MoS2. These results indicate that surface-oxidization is an effective way to make black phosphorene into an excellent piezoelectric material for potential applications in sensors, actuators, electric field generators and any other applications requiring electrical and mechanical energy conversion. We expect further experimental exploration on this interesting result to confirm our predictions.

  15. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  16. Nonlinear Constitutive Modeling of Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Li, Chao; Wang, Haibo; Zhu, Zhiwen

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear constitutive modeling of piezoelectric ceramics is discussed in this paper. Van der Pol item is introduced to explain the simple hysteretic curve. Improved nonlinear difference items are used to interpret the hysteresis phenomena of piezoelectric ceramics. The fitting effect of the model on experimental data is proved by the partial least-square regression method. The results show that this method can describe the real curve well. The results of this paper are helpful to piezoelectric ceramics constitutive modeling.

  17. Piezoelectric potential gated field-effect transistor based on a free-standing ZnO wire.

    PubMed

    Fei, Peng; Yeh, Ping-Hung; Zhou, Jun; Xu, Sheng; Gao, Yifan; Song, Jinhui; Gu, Yudong; Huang, Yanyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-10-01

    We report an external force triggered field-effect transistor based on a free-standing piezoelectric fine wire (PFW). The device consists of an Ag source electrode and an Au drain electrode at two ends of a ZnO PFW, which were separated by an insulating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The working principle of the sensor is proposed based on the piezoelectric potential gating effect. Once subjected to a mechanical impact, the bent ZnO PFW cantilever creates a piezoelectric potential distribution across it width at its root and simultaneously produces a local reverse depletion layer with much higher donor concentration than normal, which can dramatically change the current flowing from the source electrode to drain electrode when the device is under a fixed voltage bias. Due to the free-standing structure of the sensor device, it has a prompt response time less than 20 ms and quite high and stable sensitivity of 2%/microN. The effect from contact resistance has been ruled out.

  18. Piezoelectric cantilever sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Wan Y. (Inventor); Shih, Wei-Heng (Inventor); Shen, Zuyan (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A piezoelectric cantilever with a non-piezoelectric, or piezoelectric tip useful as mass and viscosity sensors. The change in the cantilever mass can be accurately quantified by monitoring a resonance frequency shift of the cantilever. For bio-detection, antibodies or other specific receptors of target antigens may be immobilized on the cantilever surface, preferably on the non-piezoelectric tip. For chemical detection, high surface-area selective absorbent materials are coated on the cantilever tip. Binding of the target antigens or analytes to the cantilever surface increases the cantilever mass. Detection of target antigens or analytes is achieved by monitoring the cantilever's resonance frequency and determining the resonance frequency shift that is due to the mass of the adsorbed target antigens on the cantilever surface. The use of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever allows both electrical actuation and electrical sensing. Incorporating a non-piezoelectric tip (14) enhances the sensitivity of the sensor. In addition, the piezoelectric cantilever can withstand damping in highly viscous liquids and can be used as a viscosity sensor in wide viscosity range.

  19. Nanogenerators consisting of direct-grown piezoelectrics on multi-walled carbon nanotubes using flexoelectric effects

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin Kyu; Jeon, Do Hyun; Cho, Sam Yeon; Kang, Sin Wook; Yang, Sun A.; Bu, Sang Don; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; Choi, Moonkang; Lee, Minbaek; Lee, Min Ku

    2016-01-01

    We report the first attempt to prepare a flexoelectric nanogenerator consisting of direct-grown piezoelectrics on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mwCNT). Direct-grown piezoelectrics on mwCNTs are formed by a stirring and heating method using a Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT)-mwCNT precursor solution. We studied the unit cell mismatch and strain distribution of epitaxial PZT nanoparticles, and found that lattice strain is relaxed along the growth direction. A PZT-mwCNT nanogenerator was found to produce a peak output voltage of 8.6 V and an output current of 47 nA when a force of 20 N is applied. Direct-grown piezoelectric nanogenerators generate a higher voltage and current than simple mixtures of PZT and CNTs resulting from the stronger connection between PZT crystals and mwCNTs and an enhanced flexoelectric effect caused by the strain gradient. These experiments represent a significant step toward the application of nanogenerators using piezoelectric nanocomposite materials. PMID:27406631

  20. The effect of surface wettability on the performance of a piezoelectric membrane pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiantao; Yang, Zhigang; Liu, Yong; Shen, Yanhu; Chen, Song; Yu, Jianqun

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we studied the effect of surface wettability on the bubble tolerance of a piezoelectric membrane pump, by applying the super-hydrophilic or super-hydrophobic surface to the key elements on the pump. Wettability for the flow passage surface has a direct influence on the air bubbles flowing in the fluid. Based on the existing research results, we first analyzed the relationship between the flow passage surface of the piezoelectric pump and the bubbles in the fluid. Then we made three prototypes where pump chamber walls and valve plate surfaces were given different wettability treatments. After the output performance test, results demonstrate that giving super-hydrophilic treatment on the surface of key elements can improve the bubble tolerance of piezoelectric pump; in contrast, giving super-hydrophobic treatment will reduce the bubble tolerance.

  1. Vibration properties of a rotating piezoelectric energy harvesting device that experiences gyroscopic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haohui; Chai, Tan; Cooley, Christopher G.

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the vibration of a rotating piezoelectric device that consists of a proof mass that is supported by elastic structures with piezoelectric layers. Vibration of the proof mass causes deformation in the piezoelectric structures and voltages to power the electrical loads. The coupled electromechanical equations of motion are derived using Newtonian mechanics and Kirchhoff's circuit laws. The free vibration behavior is investigated for devices with identical (tuned) and nonidentical (mistuned) piezoelectric support structures and electrical loads. These devices have complex-valued, speed-dependent eigenvalues and eigenvectors as a result of gyroscopic effects caused by their constant rotation. The characteristics of the complex-valued eigensolutions are related to physical behavior of the device's vibration. The free vibration behaviors differ significantly for tuned and mistuned devices. Due to gyroscopic effects, the proof mass in the tuned device vibrates in either forward or backward decaying circular orbits in single-mode free response. This is proven analytically for all tuned devices, regardless of the device's specific parameters or operating speed. For mistuned devices, the proof mass has decaying elliptical forward and backward orbits. The eigenvalues are shown to be sensitive to changes in the electrical load resistances. Closed-form solutions for the eigenvalues are derived for open and close circuits. At high rotation speeds these devices experience critical speeds and instability.

  2. Piezoelectricity in two dimensions: Graphene vs. molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoxue; Hui, Fei; Knobloch, Theresia; Wang, Bingru; Fan, Zhongchao; Grasser, Tibor; Jing, Xu; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario

    2017-08-01

    The synthesis of piezoelectric two-dimensional (2D) materials is very attractive for implementing advanced energy harvesters and transducers, as these materials provide enormously large areas for the exploitation of the piezoelectric effect. Among all 2D materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has shown the largest piezoelectric activity. However, all research papers in this field studied just a single material, and this may raise concerns because different setups could provide different values depending on experimental parameters (e.g., probes used and areas analyzed). By using conductive atomic force microscopy, here we in situ demonstrate that the piezoelectric currents generated in MoS2 are gigantic (65 mA/cm2), while the same experiments in graphene just showed noise currents. These results provide the most reliable comparison yet reported on the piezoelectric effect in graphene and MoS2.

  3. Investigation of the strain-sensitive superconducting transition of BaFe1.8Co0.2As2 thin films utilizing piezoelectric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trommler, S.; Hänisch, J.; Iida, K.; Kurth, F.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.; Hühne, R.

    2014-05-01

    The preparation of biaxially textured BaFe1.8Co0.2As2 thin films has been optimized on MgO single crystals and transfered to piezoelectric (001) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.72Ti0.28O3 substrates. By utilizing the inverse piezoelectric effect the lattice parameter of these substrates can be controlled applying an electric field, leading to a induction of biaxial strain into the superconducting layer. High electric fields were used to achieve a total strain of up to 0.05% at low temperatures. A sharpening of the resistive transition and a shift of about 0.6 K to higher temperatures was found at a compressive strain of 0.035%.

  4. Electrostatic potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire with consideration of size-dependent piezoelectricity and semiconducting characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, K F; Wang, B L

    2018-06-22

    Determining the electric potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire (NW) is a fundamental issue of nanogenerators and nanopiezotronics. The combined influence of the flexoelectric effect, the semiconducting performance and the angle of atomic force microscope (AFM) tip has never been studied previously and will be investigated in this paper. The exact solution for the electric potential of a bent piezoelectric semiconductor NW is derived. The electric potential of the present model with consideration of flexoelectric effect varies along the length of the NW and is different from that of the classical piezoelectric model. Flexoelectric effect enhances but the semiconducting performance reduces the electric potential of the NW. In addition, it is found that if the angle of the AFM tip reaches 30°, the error of the electric potential obtained from the model ignored the effect of the angle of the AFM tip is almost 16%, which is unacceptable.

  5. Electrostatic potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire with consideration of size-dependent piezoelectricity and semiconducting characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. F.; Wang, B. L.

    2018-06-01

    Determining the electric potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire (NW) is a fundamental issue of nanogenerators and nanopiezotronics. The combined influence of the flexoelectric effect, the semiconducting performance and the angle of atomic force microscope (AFM) tip has never been studied previously and will be investigated in this paper. The exact solution for the electric potential of a bent piezoelectric semiconductor NW is derived. The electric potential of the present model with consideration of flexoelectric effect varies along the length of the NW and is different from that of the classical piezoelectric model. Flexoelectric effect enhances but the semiconducting performance reduces the electric potential of the NW. In addition, it is found that if the angle of the AFM tip reaches 30°, the error of the electric potential obtained from the model ignored the effect of the angle of the AFM tip is almost 16%, which is unacceptable.

  6. A very promising piezoelectric property of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films. II: Birefringence and piezoelectricity

    SciTech Connect

    Audier, M., E-mail: Marc.Audier@grenoble-inp.fr; Chenevier, B.; Roussel, H.

    2011-08-15

    Birefringent and piezoelectric properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramic thin films of monoclinic and trigonal structures were analyzed. The birefringence, observed by reflected polarized light microscopy, yields information on thin film microstructures, crystal shapes and sizes and on crystallographic orientations of grains of trigonal structure. Such an information was considered for investigating piezoelectric properties by laser Doppler vibrometry and by piezoresponse force microscopy. The vibration velocity was measured by applying an oscillating electric field between electrodes on both sides of a Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film deposited on a Si substrate which was pasted on an isolating mica sheet. In thismore » case, it is shown that the vibration velocity results were not only from a converse piezoelectric effect, proportional to the voltage, but also from the Coulomb force, proportional to the square of the voltage. A huge piezoelectric strain effect, up to 7.6%, is found in the case of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} of trigonal structure. From an estimation of the electrical field through the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin film, this strain likely corresponds to a very high longitudinal coefficient d{sub 33} of several thousand picometers. Results obtained by piezoresponse force microscopy show that trigonal grains exhibit a polarization at zero field, which is probably due to stress caused expansion in the transition monoclinic-trigonal, presented in a previous article (part I). - Graphical abstract: Image of cross-polarized optical microscopy showing grains of trigonal structure embedded in the monoclinic phase (on the left); (a) mounting of the sample for Laser Doppler Vibrometry, sample constituted of several layers and its equivalent electrical circuit; (b) longitudinal displacements due to converse piezoelectric and Coulomb effects and corresponding piezoelectric strain-U{sub app.}. hystereses. Highlights: > A new Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} trigonal phase is shown to be birefringent

  7. Polarization Stability of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.; Ounaies, Z.; Su, J.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Harrison, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous polyimides containing polar functional groups have been synthesized and investigated for potential use as high temperature piezoelectric sensors. The thermal stability of the piezoelectric effect of one polyimide was evaluated as a function of various curing and poling conditions under dynamic and static thermal stimuli. First, the polymer samples were thermally cycled under strain by systematically increasing the maximum temperature from 50 C to 200 C while the piezoelectric strain coefficient was being measured. Second, the samples were isothermally aged at an elevated temperature in air, and the isothermal decay of the remanent polarization was measured at room temperature as a function of time. Both conventional and corona poling methods were evaluated. This material exhibited good thermal stability of the piezoelectric properties up to 100 C.

  8. Piezoelectric Power Requirements for Active Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Matthew C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the power consumption of piezoelectric actuators utilized for active vibration control. Analytical developments and experimental tests show that the maximum power required to control a structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is independent of the dynamics between the piezoelectric actuator and the host structure. The results demonstrate that for a perfectly-controlled system, the power consumption is a function of the quantity and type of piezoelectric actuators and the voltage and frequency of the control law output signal. Furthermore, as control effectiveness decreases, the power consumption of the piezoelectric actuators decreases. In addition, experimental results revealed a non-linear behavior in the material properties of piezoelectric actuators. The material non- linearity displayed a significant increase in capacitance with an increase in excitation voltage. Tests show that if the non-linearity of the capacitance was accounted for, a conservative estimate of the power can easily be determined.

  9. Fabrication and in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yufei; Wu, Cong; Wu, Zixiang; Hu, Long; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Kang

    2017-01-01

    The piezoelectric effect of biological piezoelectric materials promotes bone growth. However, the material should be subjected to stress before it can produce an electric charge that promotes bone repair and reconstruction conducive to fracture healing. A novel method for in vitro experimentation of biological piezoelectric materials with physiological load is presented. A dynamic loading device that can simulate the force of human motion and provide periodic load to piezoelectric materials when co-cultured with cells was designed to obtain a realistic expression of piezoelectric effect on bone repair. Hydroxyapatite (HA)/barium titanate (BaTiO3) composite materials were fabricated by slip casting, and their piezoelectric properties were obtained by polarization. The d33 of HA/BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics after polarization was 1.3 pC/N to 6.8 pC/N with BaTiO3 content ranging from 80% to 100%. The in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics with and without cycle loading were investigated. When HA/BaTiO3 piezoelectric bioceramics were affected by cycle loading, the piezoelectric effect of BaTiO3 promoted the growth of osteoblasts and interaction with HA, which was better than the effect of HA alone. The best biocompatibility and bone-inducing activity were demonstrated by the 10%HA/90%BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics. PMID:28240268

  10. Fabrication and in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yufei; Wu, Cong; Wu, Zixiang; Hu, Long; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Kang

    2017-02-27

    The piezoelectric effect of biological piezoelectric materials promotes bone growth. However, the material should be subjected to stress before it can produce an electric charge that promotes bone repair and reconstruction conducive to fracture healing. A novel method for in vitro experimentation of biological piezoelectric materials with physiological load is presented. A dynamic loading device that can simulate the force of human motion and provide periodic load to piezoelectric materials when co-cultured with cells was designed to obtain a realistic expression of piezoelectric effect on bone repair. Hydroxyapatite (HA)/barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) composite materials were fabricated by slip casting, and their piezoelectric properties were obtained by polarization. The d 33 of HA/BaTiO 3 piezoelectric ceramics after polarization was 1.3 pC/N to 6.8 pC/N with BaTiO 3 content ranging from 80% to 100%. The in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics with and without cycle loading were investigated. When HA/BaTiO 3 piezoelectric bioceramics were affected by cycle loading, the piezoelectric effect of BaTiO 3 promoted the growth of osteoblasts and interaction with HA, which was better than the effect of HA alone. The best biocompatibility and bone-inducing activity were demonstrated by the 10%HA/90%BaTiO 3 piezoelectric ceramics.

  11. Fabrication and in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics for bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yufei; Wu, Cong; Wu, Zixiang; Hu, Long; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Kang

    2017-02-01

    The piezoelectric effect of biological piezoelectric materials promotes bone growth. However, the material should be subjected to stress before it can produce an electric charge that promotes bone repair and reconstruction conducive to fracture healing. A novel method for in vitro experimentation of biological piezoelectric materials with physiological load is presented. A dynamic loading device that can simulate the force of human motion and provide periodic load to piezoelectric materials when co-cultured with cells was designed to obtain a realistic expression of piezoelectric effect on bone repair. Hydroxyapatite (HA)/barium titanate (BaTiO3) composite materials were fabricated by slip casting, and their piezoelectric properties were obtained by polarization. The d33 of HA/BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics after polarization was 1.3 pC/N to 6.8 pC/N with BaTiO3 content ranging from 80% to 100%. The in vitro biological properties of piezoelectric bioceramics with and without cycle loading were investigated. When HA/BaTiO3 piezoelectric bioceramics were affected by cycle loading, the piezoelectric effect of BaTiO3 promoted the growth of osteoblasts and interaction with HA, which was better than the effect of HA alone. The best biocompatibility and bone-inducing activity were demonstrated by the 10%HA/90%BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics.

  12. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  13. Piezoelectric actuation of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieven, Nicholas A. J.

    2001-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the application of embedded piezo-electric actuators in model helicopter rotor blades. The paper outlines techniques to define the optimal location of actuators to excite particular modes of vibration whilst the blade is rotating. Using composite blades the distribution of strain energy is defined using a Finite Element model with imposed rotor-dynamic and aerodynamics loads. The loads are specified through strip theory to determine the position of maximum bending moment and thus the optimal location of the embedded actuators. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on a 1/4 scale fixed cyclic pitch rotor head. Measurement of the blade displacement is achieved by using strain gauges. In addition a redundant piezo-electric actuator is used to measure the blades' response characteristics. The addition of piezo-electric devices in this application has been shown to exhibit adverse aeroelastic effects, such as counter mass balancing and increased drag. Methods to minimise these effects are suggested. The outcome of the paper is a method for defining the location and orientation of piezo-electric devices in rotor-dynamic applications.

  14. Modeling NDT piezoelectric ultrasonic transmitters.

    PubMed

    San Emeterio, J L; Ramos, A; Sanz, P T; Ruíz, A; Azbaid, A

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonic NDT applications are frequently based on the spike excitation of piezoelectric transducers by means of efficient pulsers which usually include a power switching device (e.g. SCR or MOS-FET) and some rectifier components. In this paper we present an approximate frequency domain electro-acoustic model for pulsed piezoelectric ultrasonic transmitters which, by integrating partial models of the different stages (driving electronics, tuning/matching networks and broadband piezoelectric transducer), allows the computation of the emission transfer function and output force temporal waveform. An approximate frequency domain model is used for the evaluation of the electrical driving pulse from the spike generator. Tuning circuits, interconnecting cable and mechanical impedance matching layers are modeled by means of transmission lines and the classical quadripole approach. The KLM model is used for the piezoelectric transducer. In addition, a PSPICE scheme is used for an alternative simulation of the broadband driving spike, including the accurate evaluation of non-linear driving effects. Several examples illustrate the capabilities of the specifically developed software.

  15. On-Line Corrosion Monitoring of Plate Structures Based on Guided Wave Tomography Using Piezoelectric Sensors.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jing; Ratassepp, Madis; Lisevych, Danylo; Hamzah Caffoor, Mahadhir; Fan, Zheng

    2017-12-12

    Corrosion is a major safety and economic concern to various industries. In this paper, a novel ultrasonic guided wave tomography (GWT) system based on self-designed piezoelectric sensors is presented for on-line corrosion monitoring of large plate-like structures. Accurate thickness reconstruction of corrosion damages is achieved by using the dispersive regimes of selected guided waves and a reconstruction algorithm based on full waveform inversion (FWI). The system makes use of an array of miniaturised piezoelectric transducers that are capable of exciting and receiving highly dispersive A0 Lamb wave mode at low frequencies. The scattering from transducer array has been found to have a small effect on the thickness reconstruction. The efficiency and the accuracy of the new system have been demonstrated through continuous forced corrosion experiments. The FWI reconstructed thicknesses show good agreement with analytical predictions obtained by Faraday's law and laser measurements, and more importantly, the thickness images closely resemble the actual corrosion sites.

  16. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  17. Bone-Inspired Spatially Specific Piezoelectricity Induces Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peng; Ning, Chengyun; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Guoxin; Lin, Zefeng; Liu, Shaoxiang; Wang, Xiaolan; Yang, Haoqi; Li, Kang; Yi, Xin; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of bone can be pictured as a material made of parallel interspersed domains of fibrous piezoelectric collagenous materials and non-piezoelectric non-collagenous materials. To mimic this feature for enhanced bone regeneration, a material made of two parallel interspersed domains, with higher and lower piezoelectricity, respectively, is constructed to form microscale piezoelectric zones (MPZs). The MPZs are produced using a versatile and effective laser-irradiation technique in which K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramics are selectively irradiated to achieve microzone phase transitions. The phase structure of the laser-irradiated microzones is changed from a mixture of orthorhombic and tetragonal phases (with higher piezoelectricity) to a tetragonal dominant phase (with lower piezoelectricity). The microzoned piezoelectricity distribution results in spatially specific surface charge distribution, enabling the MPZs to bear bone-like microscale electric cues. Hence, the MPZs induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo even without being seeded with stem cells. The concept of mimicking the spatially specific piezoelectricity in bone will facilitate future research on the rational design of tissue regenerative materials. PMID:28900517

  18. Modulation of strain, resistance, and capacitance of tantalum oxide film by converse piezoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yanmin; Tian, Xiangling; Si, Jianxiao; Huang, Shihua; Wu, Zheng; Zhu, Chenchen

    2011-07-01

    We deposited tantalum oxide film on a laminate structure composed of a Si substrate and a piezoelectric 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 single crystal and achieved in situ modulation of the resistance and capacitance of the Ta2O5 film. The modulation arises from the induced lattice strain in the Ta2O5 film, which is induced by the electric-field-induced strain in the piezoelectric crystal. Under an external electric field of ˜2 kV/cm, the longitudinal gauge factor of the Ta2O5 film is ˜3300. The control of the strain using the converse piezoelectric effect may be further extended to tune the intrinsic strain of other oxide thin films.

  19. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  20. New design for inertial piezoelectric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lige; Ge, Weifeng; Meng, Wenjie; Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Qingyou

    2018-03-01

    We have designed, implemented, and tested a novel inertial piezoelectric motor (IPM) that is the first IPM to have controllable total friction force, which means that it sticks with large total friction forces and slips with severely reduced total friction forces. This allows the IPM to work with greater robustness and produce a larger output force at a lower threshold voltage while also providing higher rigidity. This is a new IPM design that means that the total friction force can be dramatically reduced or even canceled where necessary by pushing the clamping points at the ends of a piezoelectric tube that contains the sliding shaft inside it in the opposite directions during piezoelectric deformation. Therefore, when the shaft is propelled forward by another exterior piezoelectric tube, the inner piezoelectric tube can deform to reduce the total friction force acting on the shaft instantly and cause more effective stepping movement of the shaft. While our new IPM requires the addition of another piezoelectric tube, which leads to an increase in volume of 120% when compared with traditional IPMs, the average step size has increased by more than 400% and the threshold voltage has decreased by more than 50 V. The improvement in performance is far more significant than the increase in volume. This enhanced performance will allow the proposed IPM to work under large load conditions where a simple and powerful piezoelectric motor is needed.

  1. Thermal energy conversion by coupled shape memory and piezoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Dmitry; Lebedev, Gor; Cugat, Orphee; Delamare, Jerome; Viala, Bernard; Lafont, Thomas; Gimeno, Leticia; Shelyakov, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    This work gives experimental evidence of a promising method of thermal-to-electric energy conversion by coupling shape memory effect (SME) and direct piezoelectric effect (DPE) for harvesting quasi-static ambient temperature variations. Two original prototypes of thermal energy harvesters have been fabricated and tested experimentally. The first is a hybrid laminated composite consisting of TiNiCu shape memory alloy (SMA) and macro fiber composite piezoelectric. This composite comprises 0.1 cm3 of active materials and harvests 75 µJ of energy for each temperature variation of 60 °C. The second prototype is a SME/DPE ‘machine’ which uses the thermally induced linear strains of the SMA to bend a bulk PZT ceramic plate through a specially designed mechanical structure. The SME/DPE ‘machine’ with 0.2 cm3 of active material harvests 90 µJ over a temperature increase of 35 °C (60 µJ when cooling). In contrast to pyroelectric materials, such harvesters are also compatible with both small and slow temperature variations.

  2. Aggregate linear properties of ferroelectric ceramics and polycrystalline thin films: Calculation by the method of effective piezoelectric medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertsev, N. A.; Zembilgotov, A. G.; Waser, R.

    1998-08-01

    The effective dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants of polycrystalline ferroelectric materials are calculated from single-crystal data by an advanced method of effective medium, which takes into account the piezoelectric interactions between grains in full measure. For bulk BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 polarized ceramics, the dependences of material constants on the remanent polarization are reported. Dielectric and elastic constants are computed also for unpolarized c- and a-textured ferroelectric thin films deposited on cubic or amorphous substrates. It is found that the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 polycrystalline thin films strongly depend on the type of crystal texture. The influence of two-dimensional clamping by the substrate on the dielectric and piezoelectric responses of polarized films is described quantitatively and shown to be especially important for the piezoelectric charge coefficient of BaTiO3 films.

  3. Complete passive vibration suppression using multi-layered piezoelectric element, inductor, and resistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes passive technique for suppressing vibration in flexible structures using a multi-layered piezoelectric element, an inductor, and a resistor. The objective of using a multi-layered piezoelectric element is to increase its capacitance. A piezoelectric element with a large capacitance value does not require an active electrical circuit to simulate an inductor with a large inductance value. The effect of multi-layering of piezoelectric elements was theoretically analyzed through an equivalent transformation of a multi-layered piezoelectric element into a single-layered piezoelectric element. The governing equations were derived using this equivalent transformation. The effect of the resistances of the inductor and piezoelectric elements were considered because the sum of these resistances may exceed the optimum resistance. The performance of the passive vibration suppression using an LR circuit was compared to that of the method where a resistive circuit is used assuming that the sum of the resistances of the inductor and piezoelectric elements exceeds the optimum resistance. The effectiveness of the proposed method and theoretical analysis was verified through simulations and experiments.

  4. Computational and Experimental Insight Into Single-Molecule Piezoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, Christopher Wayne

    Piezoelectric materials allow for the harvesting of ambient waste energy from the environment. Producing lightweight, highly responsive materials is a challenge for this type of material, requiring polymer, foam, or bio-inspired materials. In this dissertation, I explore the origin of the piezoelectric effect in single molecules through density functional theory (DFT), analyze the piezoresponse of bio-inspired peptidic materials through the use of atomic and piezoresponse force microscopy (AFM and PFM), and develop a novel class of materials combining flexible polyurethane foams and non-piezoelectric, polar dopants. For the DFT calculations, functional group, regiochemical, and heteroatom derivatives of [6]helicene were examined for their influence on the piezoelectric response. An aza[6]helicene derivative was found to have a piezoelectric response (108 pm/V) comparable to ceramics such as lead zirconium titanate (200+ pm/V). These computed materials have the possibility to compete with current field-leading piezomaterials such as lead zirconium titanate (PZT), zinc oxide (ZnO), and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and its derivatives. The use of AFM/PFM allows for the demonstration of the piezoelectric effect of the selfassembled monolayer (SAM) peptidic systems. Through PFM, the influence that the helicity and sequence of the peptide has on the overall response of the molecule can be analyzed. Finally, development of a novel class of piezoelectrics, the foam-based materials, expands the current understanding of the qualities required for a piezoelectric material from ceramic and rigid materials to more flexible, organic materials. Through the exploration of these novel types of piezoelectric materials, new design rules and figures of merit have been developed.

  5. Effect of poling process on piezoelectric properties of BCZT - 0.08 wt.% CeO{sub 2} lead-free ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrakala, E.; Praveen, J. Paul; Das, Dibakar, E-mail: ddse@uohyd.ernet.in

    2016-05-06

    The properties of lead free piezoelectric materials can be tuned by suitable doping in the A and B sites of the perovskite structure. In the present study, cerium has been identified as a dopant to investigate the piezoelectric properties of lead-free BCZT system. BCZT – 0.08 wt.%CeO{sub 2} lead-free ceramics have been synthesized using sol-gel technique and the effects of CeO{sub 2} dopant on their phase structure and piezoelectric properties were investigated systematically. Poling conditions, such as temperature, electric field, and poling time have been optimized to get enhanced piezoelectric response. The optimized poling conditions (50°C, 3Ec and 30min) resultedmore » in high piezoelectric charge coefficient d{sub 33} ~ 670pC/N, high electromechanical coupling coefficient k{sub p} ~ 60% and piezoelectric voltage coefficient g{sub 33} ~ 14 mV.m/N for BCZT – 0.08wt.% CeO{sub 2} ceramics.« less

  6. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  7. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V-1. We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  8. Vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2010-01-01

    We have examined a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever (PUC) with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths for vibration energy harvesting theoretically by extending the analysis of a PUC with equal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths. The theoretical approach was validated by experiments. A case study showed that for a fixed vibration frequency, the maximum open-circuit induced voltage which was important for charge storage for later use occurred with a PUC that had a nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio greater than unity, whereas the maximum power when the PUC was connected to a resistor for immediate power consumption occurred at a unity nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio. PMID:21200444

  9. Vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2010-12-06

    We have examined a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever (PUC) with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths for vibration energy harvesting theoretically by extending the analysis of a PUC with equal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths. The theoretical approach was validated by experiments. A case study showed that for a fixed vibration frequency, the maximum open-circuit induced voltage which was important for charge storage for later use occurred with a PUC that had a nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio greater than unity, whereas the maximum power when the PUC was connected to a resistor for immediate power consumption occurred at a unity nonpiezoelectric-to-piezoelectric length ratio.

  10. Tubular fluoropolymer arrays with high piezoelectric response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Eder-Goy, Dagmar; Biethan, Corinna; Fedosov, Sergey; Xu, Bai-Xiang; von Seggern, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Polymers with electrically charged internal air cavities called ferroelectrets exhibit a pronounced piezoelectric effect and are regarded as soft functional materials suitable for sensor and actuator applications. In this work, a simple method for fabricating piezoelectret arrays with open-tubular channels is introduced. A set of individual fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) tubes is compressed between two heated metal plates. The squeezed FEP tubes are melted together at +270 °C. The resulting structure is a uniform, multi-tubular, flat array that reveals a strong piezoelectric response after a poling step. The fabricated arrays have a high ratio between piezoelectrically active and non-active areas. The optimal charging voltage and stability of the piezoelectric coefficients with pressures and frequency were experimentally investigated for two specific array structures with wall thickness of 50 and 120 μm. The array fabricated from 50 μm thick FEP tubes reveals a stable and high piezoelectric coefficient of {d}33 = 120-160 pC N-1 with a flat frequency response between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz for pressures between 1 and 100 kPa. An increase of wall thickness to 120 μm is accompanied by a more than twofold decrease in the piezoelectric coefficient as a result of a simultaneously higher effective array stiffness and lower remanent polarization. The obtained experimental results can be used to optimize the array design with regard to the electromechanical performance.

  11. A temperature compensation methodology for piezoelectric based sensor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong F.; Lou, Xueqiao; Bao, Aijian; Yang, Xu; Zhao, Ji

    2017-08-01

    A temperature compensation methodology comprising a negative temperature coefficient thermistor with the temperature characteristics of a piezoelectric material is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy of piezoelectric sensing based devices. The piezoelectric disk is characterized by using a disk-shaped structure and is also used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed compensation method. The measured output voltage shows a nearly linear relationship with respect to the applied pressure by introducing the proposed temperature compensation method in a temperature range of 25-65 °C. As a result, the maximum measurement accuracy is observed to be improved by 40%, and the higher the temperature, the more effective the method. The effective temperature range of the proposed method is theoretically analyzed by introducing the constant coefficient of the thermistor (B), the resistance of initial temperature (R0), and the paralleled resistance (Rx). The proposed methodology can not only eliminate the influence of piezoelectric temperature dependent characteristics on the sensing accuracy but also decrease the power consumption of piezoelectric sensing based devices by the simplified sensing structure.

  12. Computational Modeling of Piezoelectric Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challagulla, K. S.; Venkatesh, T. A.

    2013-02-01

    Piezoelectric materials, by virtue of their unique electromechanical characteristics, have been recognized for their potential utility in many applications as sensors and actuators. However, the sensing or actuating functionality of monolithic piezoelectric materials is generally limited. The composite approach to piezoelectric materials provides a unique opportunity to access a new design space with optimal mechanical and coupled characteristics. The properties of monolithic piezoelectric materials can be enhanced via the additive approach by adding two or more constituents to create several types of piezoelectric composites or via the subtractive approach by introducing controlled porosity in the matrix materials to create porous piezoelectric materials. Such porous piezoelectrics can be tailored to demonstrate improved signal-to-noise ratio, impedance matching, and sensitivity, and thus, they can be optimized for applications such as hydrophone devices. This article captures key results from the recent developments in the field of computational modeling of novel piezoelectric foam structures. It is demonstrated that the fundamental elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric foam are strongly dependent on the internal structure of the foams and the material volume fraction. The highest piezoelectric coupling constants and the highest acoustic impedance are obtained in the [3-3] interconnect-free piezoelectric foam structures, while the corresponding figures of merit for the [3-1] type long-porous structure are marginally higher. Among the [3-3] type foam structures, the sparsely-packed foam structures (with longer and thicker interconnects) display higher coupling constants and acoustic impedance as compared to closepacked foam structures (with shorter and thinner interconnects). The piezoelectric charge coefficients ( d h), the hydrostatic voltage coefficients ( g h), and the hydrostatic figures of merit ( d hgh) are observed to be

  13. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

  14. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of percolative three-phase piezoelectric polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Udhay

    Three-phase piezoelectric bulk composites were fabricated using a mix and cast method. The composites were comprised of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), aluminum (Al) and an epoxy matrix. The volume fraction of the PZT and Al were varied from 0.1 to 0.3 and 0.0 to 0.17, respectively. The influences of three entities on piezoelectric and dielectric properties: inclusion of an electrically conductive filler (Al), poling process (contact and Corona) and Al surface treatment, were observed. The piezoelectric strain coefficient, d33, effective dielectric constant, epsilon r, capacitance, C, and resistivity were measured and compared according to poling process, volume fraction of constituent phases and Al surface treatment. The maximum values of d33 were 3.475 and 1.0 pC/N for Corona and contact poled samples respectively, for samples with volume fractions of 0.40 and 0.13 of PZT and Al (surface treated) respectively. Also, the maximum dielectric constant for the surface treated Al samples was 411 for volume fractions of 0.40 and 0.13 for PZT and Al respectively. The percolation threshold was observed to occur at an Al volume fraction of 0.13. The composites achieved a percolated state for Al volume fractions >0.13 for both contact and corona poled samples. In addition, a comparative time study was conducted to examine the influence of surface treatment processing time of Al particles. The effectiveness of the surface treatment, sample morphology and composition was observed with the aid of SEM and EDS images. These images were correlated with piezoelectric and dielectric properties. PZT-epoxy-aluminum thick films (200 mum) were also fabricated using a two-step spin coat deposition and annealing method. The PZT volume fraction were varied from 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4, wherein the Aluminum volume fraction was varied from 0.1 to 0.17 for each PZT volume fraction, respectively. The two-step process included spin coating the first layer at 500 RPM for 30 seconds, and the second

  15. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-05-13

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V(-1). We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  16. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana,; Charles, P [Leawood, KS

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  17. Analysis and Testing of Plates with Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Piezoelectric material inherently possesses coupling between electrostatics and structural dynamics. Utilizing linear piezoelectric theory results in an intrinsically coupled pair of piezoelectric constitutive equations. One equation describes the direct piezoelectric effect where strains produce an electric field and the other describes the converse effect where an applied electrical field produces strain. The purpose of this study is to compare finite element analysis and experiments of a thin plate with bonded piezoelectric material. Since an isotropic plate in combination with a thin piezoelectric layer constitutes a special case of a laminated composite, the classical laminated plate theory is used in the formulation to accommodated generic laminated composite panels with multiple bonded and embedded piezoelectric layers. Additionally, the von Karman large deflection plate theory is incorporated. The formulation results in laminate constitutive equations that are amiable to the inclusion of the piezoelectric constitutive equations yielding in a fully electro-mechanically coupled composite laminate. Using the finite element formulation, the governing differential equations of motion of a composite laminate with embedded piezoelectric layers are derived. The finite element model not only considers structural degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) but an additional electrical d.o.f. for each piezoelectric layer. Comparison between experiment and numerical prediction is performed by first treating the piezoelectric as a sensor and then again treating it as an actuator. To assess the piezoelectric layer as a sensor, various uniformly distributed pressure loads were simulated in the analysis and the corresponding generated voltages were calculated using both linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. Experiments were carried out by applying the same uniformly distributed loads and measuring the resulting generated voltages and corresponding maximum plate deflections. It is

  18. Simulation analysis and experimental verification of spiral-tube-type valveless piezoelectric pump with gyroscopic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Xuefei; Zhang, Jianhui; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Shouyin; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2014-07-01

    The current research of the valveless piezoelectric pump focuses on increasing the flow rate and pressure differential. Compared with the valve piezoelectric pump, the valveless one has excellent performances in simple structure, low cost, and easy miniaturization. So, their important development trend is the mitigation of their weakness, and the multi-function integration. The flow in a spiral tube element is sensitive to the element attitude caused by the Coriolis force, and that a valveless piezoelectric pump is designed by applying this phenomenon. The pump has gyroscopic effect, and has both the actuator function of fluid transfer and the sensor function, which can obtain the angular velocity when its attitude changes. First, the present paper analyzes the flow characteristics in the tube, obtains the calculation formula for the pump flow, and identifies the relationship between pump attitude and flow, which clarifies the impact of flow and driving voltage, frequency, spiral line type and element attitude, and verifies the gyroscopic effect of the pump. Then, the finite element simulation is used to verify the theory. Finally, a pump is fabricated for experimental testing of the relationship between pump attitude and pressure differential. Experimental results show that when Archimedes spiral θ=4π is selected for the tube design, and the rotation speed of the plate is 70 r/min, the pressure differential is 88.2 Pa, which is 1.5 times that of 0 r/min rotation speed. The spiral-tube-type valveless piezoelectric pump proposed can turn the element attitude into a form of pressure output, which is important for the multi-function integration of the valveless piezoelectric pump and for the development of civil gyroscope in the future.

  19. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  20. Polarization and Piezoelectric Properties of a Nitrile Substituted Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycelyn; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Fay, Catharine

    1997-01-01

    This research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of a piezoelectric (beta-CN)- APB/ODPA polyimide. The remanent polarization and piezoelectric d(sub 31) and g(sub 33) coefficients are reported to assess the effect of synthesis variations. Each of the materials exhibits a level of piezoelectricity which increases with temperature. The remanent polarization is retained at temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of the polyimide.

  1. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dongyu, Xu; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208; Xin, Cheng

    2014-12-28

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction ofmore » piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.« less

  2. Low-Temperature Solution Processable Electrodes for Piezoelectric Sensors Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuukkanen, Sampo; Julin, Tuomas; Rantanen, Ville; Zakrzewski, Mari; Moilanen, Pasi; Lupo, Donald

    2013-05-01

    Piezoelectric thin-film sensors are suitable for a wide range of applications from physiological measurements to industrial monitoring systems. The use of flexible materials in combination with high-throughput printing technologies enables cost-effective manufacturing of custom-designed, highly integratable piezoelectric sensors. This type of sensor can, for instance, improve industrial process control or enable the embedding of ubiquitous sensors in our living environment to improve quality of life. Here, we discuss the benefits, challenges and potential applications of piezoelectric thin-film sensors. The piezoelectric sensor elements are fabricated by printing electrodes on both sides of unmetallized poly(vinylidene fluoride) film. We show that materials which are solution processable in low temperatures, biocompatible and environmental friendly are suitable for use as electrode materials in piezoelectric sensors.

  3. 1D Piezoelectric Material Based Nanogenerators: Methods, Materials and Property Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing; Sun, Mei; Wei, Xianlong; Shan, Chongxin

    2018-01-01

    Due to the enhanced piezoelectric properties, excellent mechanical properties and tunable electric properties, one-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric materials have shown their promising applications in nanogenerators (NG), sensors, actuators, electronic devices etc. To present a clear view about 1D piezoelectric materials, this review mainly focuses on the characterization and optimization of the piezoelectric properties of 1D nanomaterials, including semiconducting nanowires (NWs) with wurtzite and/or zinc blend phases, perovskite NWs and 1D polymers. Specifically, the piezoelectric coefficients, performance of single NW-based NG and structure-dependent electromechanical properties of 1D nanostructured materials can be respectively investigated through piezoresponse force microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the in-situ scanning/transmission electron microcopy. Along with the introduction of the mechanism and piezoelectric properties of 1D semiconductor, perovskite materials and polymers, their performance improvement strategies are summarized from the view of microstructures, including size-effect, crystal structure, orientation and defects. Finally, the extension of 1D piezoelectric materials in field effect transistors and optoelectronic devices are simply introduced. PMID:29570639

  4. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  5. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, Antonio

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  6. Multilayer modal actuator-based piezoelectric transformers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Tien; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2007-02-01

    An innovative, multilayer piezoelectric transformer equipped with a full modal filtering input electrode is reported herein. This modal-shaped electrode, based on the orthogonal property of structural vibration modes, is characterized by full modal filtering to ensure that only the desired vibration mode is excited during operation. The newly developed piezoelectric transformer is comprised of three layers: a multilayered input layer, an insulation layer, and a single output layer. The electrode shape of the input layer is derived from its structural vibration modal shape, which takes advantage of the orthogonal property of the vibration modes to achieve a full modal filtering effect. The insulation layer possesses two functions: first, to couple the mechanical vibration energy between the input and output, and second, to provide electrical insulation between the two layers. To meet the two functions, a low temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) was used to provide the high mechanical rigidity and high electrical insulation. It can be shown that this newly developed piezoelectric transformer has the advantage of possessing a more efficient energy transfer and a wider optimal working frequency range when compared to traditional piezoelectric transformers. A multilayer piezoelectric, transformer-based inverter applicable for use in LCD monitors or portable displays is presented as well.

  7. Nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in a composite ferromagnetic-piezoelectric structure under harmonic and noise magnetic pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdin, D. A.; Chashin, D. V.; Ekonomov, N. A.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Stashkevich, A.

    2018-03-01

    Low-frequency nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in a composite structure comprised of a piezoelectric langatate slab sandwiched between two Metglas amorphous alloy magnetostrictive layers under simultaneous harmonic and noise magnetic pumping have been investigated. It is shown that the frequency fp of harmonic pumping is linearly reproduced in the piezoelectric voltage spectrum accompanied by its higher harmonics. Similarly, narrow-band magnetic noise with a central frequency fN is present in the output piezoelectric voltage along with two noise peaks in the vicinity of a double 2fN and zero frequency. Simultaneous application of harmonic and noise magnetic fields produces a noticeably more complex output voltage spectrum containing additional noise satellite lines at frequencies fp ±fN , 2fp ±fN etc. as well as a noise "pedestal". Amplitudes of voltage spectral components depend on the applied constant bias magnetic field, scaling as magnetostriction derivatives with respect to this field. The effects observed are well described by the theory of magnetic field mixing in magnetoelectric composites with nonlinear dependence of magnetostriction on applied fields.

  8. Hydroelectromechanical modelling of a piezoelectric wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzi, E.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the hydroelectromechanical-coupled dynamics of a piezoelectric wave energy converter. The converter is made of a flexible bimorph plate, clamped at its ends and forced to motion by incident ocean surface waves. The piezoceramic layers are connected in series and transform the elastic motion of the plate into useful electricity by means of the piezoelectric effect. By using a distributed-parameter analytical approach, we couple the linear piezoelectric constitutive equations for the plate with the potential-flow equations for the surface water waves. The resulting system of governing partial differential equations yields a new hydroelectromechanical dispersion relation, whose complex roots are determined with a numerical approach. The effect of the piezoelectric coupling in the hydroelastic domain generates a system of short- and long-crested weakly damped progressive waves travelling along the plate. We show that the short-crested flexural wave component gives a dominant contribution to the generated power. We determine the hydroelectromechanical resonant periods of the device, at which the power output is significant.

  9. High-frequency performance for a spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fang Sheng; Feng, Zhi Hua; Ma, Yu Ting; Pan, Qiao Sheng; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Liu, Yong Bin; He, Liang Guo

    2018-04-01

    Piezoelectric cantilever is suitable as an actuator for micro-flapping-wing aircraft. Higher resonant frequency brings about stronger flight energy, and the flight amplitude can be compensated by displacement-amplification mechanism, such as lever. To obtain a higher resonant frequency, straight piezoelectric bimorph was rolled into spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph with identical effective length in this study, which is verified in COMSOL simulations. Simulation results show that compared with the straight piezoelectric bimorph, the spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph with two turns has higher inherent frequencies (from 204.79 Hz to 504.84 Hz in terms of axial oscillation mode, and from 319.77 Hz to 704.48 Hz in terms of tangential torsional mode). The spiral-shaped piezoelectric bimorph is fabricated by a precise laser cutting process and consists of two turns with effective length of 60 mm, width of 2.5 mm, and thickness of 1.6 mm, respectively. With the excitation voltage of 100 Vpp applying an electric field across the thickness of the bimorph, the tip displacement of the actuator in the axial oscillation and tangential torsional modes are 85 μm and 15 μm, respectively.

  10. Inverse target- and cue-priming effects of masked stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mattler, Uwe

    2007-02-01

    The processing of a visual target that follows a briefly presented prime stimulus can be facilitated if prime and target stimuli are similar. In contrast to these positive priming effects, inverse priming effects (or negative compatibility effects) have been found when a mask follows prime stimuli before the target stimulus is presented: Responses are facilitated after dissimilar primes. Previous studies on inverse priming effects examined target-priming effects, which arise when the prime and the target stimuli share features that are critical for the response decision. In contrast, 3 experiments of the present study demonstrate inverse priming effects in a nonmotor cue-priming paradigm. Inverse cue-priming effects exhibited time courses comparable to inverse target-priming effects. Results suggest that inverse priming effects do not arise from specific processes of the response system but follow from operations that are more general.

  11. Deflection of cross-ply composite laminates induced by piezoelectric actuators.

    PubMed

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    The coupling effects between the mechanical and electric properties of piezoelectric materials have drawn significant attention for their potential applications as sensors and actuators. In this investigation, two piezoelectric actuators are symmetrically surface bonded on a cross-ply composite laminate. Electric voltages with the same amplitude and opposite sign are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators, resulting in the bending effect on the laminated plate. The bending moment is derived by using the classical laminate theory and piezoelectricity. The analytical solution of the flexural displacement of the simply supported composite plate subjected to the bending moment is solved by using the plate theory. The analytical solution is compared with the finite element solution to show the validation of present approach. The effects of the size and location of the piezoelectric actuators on the response of the composite laminate are presented through a parametric study. A simple model incorporating the classical laminate theory and plate theory is presented to predict the deformed shape of the simply supported laminate plate.

  12. Green piezoelectric for autonomous smart textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, E.; Borsa, C. J.; Briand, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the fabrication of Rochelle salt based piezoelectric textiles are shown. Structures composed of fibers and Rochelle salt are easily produced using green processes. Both manufacturing and the material itself are really efficient in terms of environmental impact, considering the fabrication processes and the material resources involved. Additionally Rochelle salt is biocompatible. In this green paradigm, active sensing or actuating textiles are developed. Thus processing method and piezoelectric properties have been studied: (1) pure crystals are used as acoustic actuator, (2) fabrication of the textile-based composite is detailed, (3) converse effective d33 is evaluated and compared to lead zirconate titanate ceramic. The utility of textile-based piezoelectric merits its use in a wide array of applications.

  13. Electromechanical displacement of piezoelectric-electrostrictive monolithic bilayer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngernchuklin, P.; Akdoǧan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Jadidian, B.

    2009-02-01

    We examine the electromechanical displacement of piezoelectric-electrostrictive monolithic bilayer composites with various piezoelectric volume percentage obtained by cosintering piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 and electrostrictive 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/.3)O3-0.1PbTiO3 under unipolar and bipolar electric field excitation up to 10 kV/cm experimentally. It is shown that the effective d33 of the composites is limited by the electrostrictive layer, which acts as a capacitor in series to the piezoelectric layer, causing incomplete poling. We show that by controlling the volume content of the piezoelectric layer and constraining it with an electrostrictor, substantial strain amplification (15 μm for bipolar excitation) can be achieved while inducing asymmetry to the displacement with respect to the polarity of the applied field, which we discuss in the context of symmetry superposition.

  14. Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

  15. Stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2016-06-01

    Piezoelectric energy conversion that generate electric energy from ambient mechanical and vibrational movements is promising energy harvesting technology because it can use more accessible energy resources than other renewable natural energy. In particular, flexible and stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesters which can harvest the tiny biomechanical motions inside human body into electricity properly facilitate not only the self-powered energy system for flexible and wearable electronics but also sensitive piezoelectric sensors for motion detectors and in vivo diagnosis kits. Since the piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs)-based energy harvesters (nanogenerators) were proposed in 2006, many researchers have attempted the nanogenerator by using the various fabrication process such as nanowire growth, electrospinning, and transfer techniques with piezoelectric materials including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and perovskite ceramics. In 2012, the composite-based nanogenerators were developed using simple, low-cost, and scalable methods to overcome the significant issues with previously-reported energy harvester, such as insufficient output performance and size limitation. This review paper provides a brief overview of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator for realizing the self-powered energy system with development history, power performance, and applications.

  16. Effects of dwell time of excitation waveform on meniscus movements for a tubular piezoelectric print-head: experiments and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jiaqing; Liu, Yaxin; Huang, Bo

    2017-07-01

    In inkjet applications, it is normal to search for an optimal drive waveform when dispensing a fresh fluid or adjusting a newly fabricated print-head. To test trial waveforms with different dwell times, a camera and a strobe light were used to image the protruding or retracting liquid tongues without ejecting any droplets. An edge detection method was used to calculate the lengths of the liquid tongues to draw the meniscus movement curves. The meniscus movement is determined by the time-domain response of the acoustic pressure at the nozzle of the print-head. Starting at the inverse piezoelectric effect, a mathematical model which considers the liquid viscosity in acoustic propagation is constructed to study the acoustic pressure response at the nozzle of the print-head. The liquid viscosity retards the propagation speed and dampens the harmonic amplitude. The pressure response, which is the combined effect of the acoustic pressures generated during the rising time and the falling time and after their propagations and reflections, explains the meniscus movements well. Finally, the optimal dwell time for droplet ejections is discussed.

  17. Electromechanical coupling and temperature-dependent polarization reversal in piezoelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Paul M; Cain, Markys G; Correia, Tatiana M; Stewart, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Electrostriction plays a central role in describing the electromechanical properties of ferroelectric materials, including widely used piezoelectric ceramics. The piezoelectric properties are closely related to the underlying electrostriction. Small-field piezoelectric properties can be described as electrostriction offset by the remanent polarization which characterizes the ferroelectric state. Indeed, even large-field piezoelectric effects are accurately accounted for by quadratic electrostriction. However, the electromechanical properties deviate from this simple electrostrictive description at electric fields near the coercive field. This is particularly important for actuator applications, for which very high electromechanical coupling can be obtained in this region. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric ceramics at electric field strengths close to the coercive field, and the effects of temperature on electromechanical processes during polarization reversal. The roles of intrinsic ferroelectric strain coupling and extrinsic domain processes and their temperature dependence in determining the electromechanical response are discussed.

  18. Design Requirements for Amorphous Piezoelectric Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Z.; Young, J. A.; Harrison, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the piezoelectric activity in amorphous piezoelectric polymers is presented. The criteria required to render a polymer piezoelectric are discussed. Although piezoelectricity is a coupling between mechanical and electrical properties, most research has concentrated on the electrical properties of potentially piezoelectric polymers. In this work, we present comparative mechanical data as a function of temperature and offer a summary of polarization and electromechanical properties for each of the polymers considered.

  19. Ultrasonic resonant piezoelectric actuator with intrinsic torque measurement.

    PubMed

    Pott, Peter P; Matich, Sebastian; Schlaak, Helmut F

    2012-11-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic actuators are widely used in small-scale actuation systems, in which a closed-loop position control is usually utilized. To save an additional torque sensor, the intrinsic measurement capabilities of the piezoelectric material can be employed. To prove feasibility, a motor setup with clearly separated actuation for the friction and driving forces is chosen. The motor concept is based on resonant ultrasonic vibrations. To assess the effects of the direct piezoelectric effect, a capacitance bridge-type circuit has been selected. Signal processing is done by a measurement card with an integrated field-programmable gate array. The motor is used to drive a winch, and different torques are applied by means of weights to be lifted. Assessing the bridge voltage, a good proportionality to the applied torque of 1.47 mV/mN·m is shown. A hysteresis of 1% has been determined. The chosen motor concept is useful for intrinsic torque measurement. However, it provides drawbacks in terms of limited mechanical performance, wear, and thermal losses because of the soft piezoelectric material. Future work will comprise the application of the method to commercially available piezoelectric actuators as well as the implementation of the measurement circuit in an embedded system.

  20. Piezoelectric antibacterial fabric comprised of poly(l-lactic acid) yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masamichi; Takeshima, Satoshi; Ishiura, Yutaka; Ando, Kanako; Onishi, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    A lactic acid monomer has an asymmetric carbon in the molecule, so there are optical isomer l- and d-type. The most widely used poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for commercial applications is poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA). PLLA is the polymerization product of l-lactide. Certain treatments of PLLA can yield a film that exhibits shear piezoelectricity. Thus, piezoelectric PLLA fiber can be generated by micro slitting piezoelectric PLLA films or by a melt spinning method. We prepared left-handed helical multi fiber yarn (S-yarn) and right-handed helical yarn (Z-yarn) using piezoelectric PLLA fiber. PLLA exhibited shear mode piezoelectricity, causing the electric polarity of the yarn surface to be reversed on the S-yarn and Z-yarn when tension was applied. An SZ-yarn was produced by combining the S-yarn and Z-yarn, and fabric was prepared using the SZ-yarn. This study demonstrated that the fabric has a strong antibacterial effect, which is thought to be due to the strong electric field between the yarns. The field is generated by a piezoelectric effect when the fabric was extended and contracted.

  1. Piezoelectric and Triboelectric Dual Effects in Mechanical-Energy Harvesting Using BaTiO3/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Film.

    PubMed

    Suo, Guoquan; Yu, Yanhao; Zhang, Zhiyi; Wang, Shifa; Zhao, Ping; Li, Jianye; Wang, Xudong

    2016-12-21

    Piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators have been developed as rising energy-harvesting devices in the past few years to effectively convert mechanical energy into electricity. Here, a novel hybrid piezo/triboelectric nanogenerator based on BaTiO 3 NP/PDMS composite film was developed in a simple and low-cost way. The effects of the BTO content and polarization degree on the output performance were systematically studied. The device with 20 wt % BTO in PDMS and a 100-μm-thick film showed the highest output power. We also designed three measurement modes to record hybrid, triboelectric, and piezoelectric outputs separately with a simple structure that has only two electrodes. The hybrid output performance is higher than the tribo- and piezoelectric performances. This work will provide not only a new way to enhance the output power of nanogenerators, but also new opportunities for developing built-in power sources in self-powered electronics.

  2. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe. PMID:27578317

  3. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  4. Modeling and Application of Piezoelectric Materials in Repair of Engineering Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan

    The shear horizontal wave propagation and vibration of piezoelectric coupled structures under an open circuit electrical boundary condition are studied. Following the studies on the dynamic response of piezoelectric coupled structures, the repair of both crack/notch and delaminated structures using piezoelectric materials are conducted. The main contribution was the proposed the active structural repair design using piezoelectric materials for different structures. An accurate model for the piezoelectric effect on the shear wave propagation is first proposed to guide the application of piezoelectric materials as sensors and actuators in the repair of engineering structures. A vibration analysis of a circular steel substrate surface bonded by a piezoelectric layer with open circuit is presented. The mechanical models and solutions for the wave propagation and vibration analysis of piezoelectric coupled structures are established based on the Kirchhoff plate model and Maxwell equation. Following the studies of the dynamic response of piezoelectric coupled structures, a close-loop feedback control repair methodology is proposed for a vibrating delaminated beam structure by using piezoelectric patches. The electromechanical characteristic of the piezoelectric material is employed to induce a local shear force above the delamination area via an external actuation voltage, which is designed as a feedback of the deflection of a vibrating beam and a delaminated plate, to reduce the stress singularity around the delamination tips. Furthermore, an experimental realization of an effective repair of a notched cantilever beam structure subjected to a dynamic loading by use of piezoelectric patches is reported. A small piezoelectric patch used as a sensor is placed on the notch position to monitor the severity of the stress singularity around the notch area by measuring the charge output on the sensor, and a patch used as an actuator is located around the notch area to generate

  5. Ultra-precise tracking control of piezoelectric actuators via a fuzzy hysteresis model.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengzhi; Yan, Feng; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Mingchao

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a novel Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy system based model is proposed for hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. The antecedent and consequent structures of the fuzzy hysteresis model (FHM) can be, respectively, identified on-line through uniform partition approach and recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. With respect to controller design, the inverse of FHM is used to develop a feedforward controller to cancel out the hysteresis effect. Then a hybrid controller is designed for high-performance tracking. It combines the feedforward controller with a proportional integral differential (PID) controller favourable for stabilization and disturbance compensation. To achieve nanometer-scale tracking precision, the enhanced adaptive hybrid controller is further developed. It uses real-time input and output data to update FHM, thus changing the feedforward controller to suit the on-site hysteresis character of the piezoelectric actuator. Finally, as to 3 cases of 50 Hz sinusoidal, multiple frequency sinusoidal and 50 Hz triangular trajectories tracking, experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controllers. Especially, being only 0.35% of the maximum desired displacement, the maximum error of 50 Hz sinusoidal tracking is greatly reduced to 5.8 nm, which clearly shows the ultra-precise nanometer-scale tracking performance of the developed adaptive hybrid controller.

  6. Passively Damped Laminated Piezoelectric Shell Structures with Integrated Electric Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1999-01-01

    Multi-field mechanics are presented for curvilinear piezoelectric laminates interfaced with distributed passive electric components. The equations of motion for laminated piezoelectric shell structures with embedded passive electric networks are directly formulated and solved using a finite element methodology. The modal damping and frequencies of the piezoelectric shell are calculated from the poles of the system. Experimental and numerical results are presented for the modal damping and frequency of composite beams with a resistively shunted piezoceramic patch. The modal damping and frequency of plates, cylindrical shells and cylindrical composite blades with piezoelectric-resistor layers are predicted. Both analytical and experimental studies illustrate a unique dependence of modal damping and frequencies on the shunting resistance and show the effect of structural shape and curvature on piezoelectric damping.

  7. General Theory and Algorithms for the Non-Casual Inversion, Slewing and Control of Space-Based Articulated Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Structures: Simultaneous Trajectory Tracking and Vibration Reduction ... 10 3 . Buckling Control of a Flexible Beam Using Piezoelectric Actuators...bounded solution for the inverse dynamic torque has to be non-causal. Bayo, et. al. [ 3 ], extended the inverse dynamics to planar, multiple-link systems...presented by &ayo and Moulin [4] for the single link system, with provisions for 3 extension to multiple link systems. An equivalent time domain approach for

  8. The effect of crystal structure on the electromechanical properties of piezoelectric Nylon-11 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeon Sik; Kim, Sung Kyun; Williams, Findlay; Calahorra, Yonatan; Elliott, James A; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2018-06-19

    Crystal structure is crucial in determining the properties of piezoelectric polymers, particularly at the nanoscale where precise control of the crystalline phase is possible. Here, we investigate the electromechanical properties of three distinct crystalline phases of Nylon-11 nanowires using advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques. Stiff α-phase nanowires exhibited a low piezoelectric response, while relatively soft δ'-phase nanowires displayed an enhanced piezoelectric response.

  9. Adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor); Vipperman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cole, Daniel G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm implemented in digital or analog form is used in conjunction with a voltage controlled amplifier to compensate for the feedthrough capacitance of piezoelectric sensoriactuator. The mechanical response of the piezoelectric sensoriactuator is resolved from the electrical response by adaptively altering the gain imposed on the electrical circuit used for compensation. For wideband, stochastic input disturbances, the feedthrough capacitance of the sensoriactuator can be identified on-line, providing a means of implementing direct-rate-feedback control in analog hardware. The device is capable of on-line system health monitoring since a quasi-stable dynamic capacitance is indicative of sustained health of the piezoelectric element.

  10. Vibration Analysis of Composite Laminate Plate Excited by Piezoelectric Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used as actuators for the active vibration control of smart structural systems. In this work, piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. A static analysis based on the piezoelectricity and elasticity is conducted to evaluate the loads induced by the piezoelectric actuators to the host structure. The loads are then employed to develop the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate excited by piezoelectric patches subjected to time harmonic voltages. An analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and compared with finite element results to validate the present approach. The effects of location and exciting frequency of piezoelectric actuators on the vibration response of the laminate plate are investigated through a parametric study. Numerical results show that modes can be selectively excited, leading to structural vibration control. PMID:23529121

  11. Torsion sensing based on patterned piezoelectric beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; You, Hangil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the sensing characteristics of piezoelectric beams under torsional loads. We used partially patterned piezoelectric beams to sense torsion. In particular, the piezoelectric patches are located symmetrically with respect to the line of the shear center of the beam. The patterned piezoelectric beam is modeled as a slender beam, and its electrical responses are obtained by piezoelectric electromechanical equations. To validate the modeling framework, experiments are performed using a setup that forces pure torsional deformation. Three different geometric configurations of the patterned piezoelectric layer are used for the experiments. The frequency and amplitude of the forced torsional load are systematically varied in order to study the behavior of the piezoelectric sensor. Experimental results demonstrate that two voltage outputs of the piezoelectric beam are approximately out of phase with identical amplitude. Moreover, the length of the piezoelectric layers has a significant influence on the sensing properties. Our theoretical predictions using the model support the experimental findings.

  12. Piezoelectric energy harvester having planform-tapered interdigitated beams

    DOEpatents

    Kellogg, Rick A [Tijeras, NM; Sumali, Hartono [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-05-24

    Embodiments of energy harvesters have a plurality of piezoelectric planform-tapered, interdigitated cantilevered beams anchored to a common frame. The plurality of beams can be arranged as two or more sets of beams with each set sharing a common sense mass affixed to their free ends. Each set thus defined being capable of motion independent of any other set of beams. Each beam can comprise a unimorph or bimorph piezoelectric configuration bonded to a conductive or non-conductive supporting layer and provided with electrical contacts to the active piezoelectric elements for collecting strain induced charge (i.e. energy). The beams are planform tapered along the entirety or a portion of their length thereby increasing the effective stress level and power output of each piezoelectric element, and are interdigitated by sets to increase the power output per unit volume of a harvester thus produced.

  13. Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Study for Rotating Composite Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Resonant vibrations of aircraft engine blades cause blade fatigue problems in engines, which can lead to thicker and aerodynamically lower performing blade designs, increasing engine weight, fuel burn, and maintenance costs. In order to mitigate undesirable blade vibration levels, active piezoelectric vibration control has been investigated, potentially enabling thinner blade designs for higher performing blades and minimizing blade fatigue problems. While the piezoelectric damping idea has been investigated by other researchers over the years, very little study has been done including rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. The particular objectives of this study were: (a) to develop and analyze a multiphysics piezoelectric finite element composite blade model for harmonic forced vibration response analysis coupled with a tuned RLC circuit for rotating engine blade conditions, (b) to validate a numerical model with experimental test data, and (c) to achieve a cost-effective numerical modeling capability which enables simulation of rotating blades within the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. A numerical and experimental study for rotating piezoelectric composite subscale fan blades was performed. It was also proved that the proposed numerical method is feasible and effective when applied to the rotating blade base excitation model. The experimental test and multiphysics finite element modeling technique described in this paper show that piezoelectric vibration damping can significantly reduce vibrations of aircraft engine composite fan blades.

  14. A Piezoelectric PZT Ceramic Mulitlayer Stack for Energy Harvesting Under Dynamic Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kang, Jin Ho; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Tang, Xiudong; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting transducers (PEHTs) are commonly used in motion/vibration energy scavenging devices. To date, most researchers have focused on energy harvesting at narrow bandwidths around the mechanical resonance frequency, and most piezoelectric harvesting devices reported in the literature have very low effective piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub eff)) (< 10(exp 4) pC/N). For instance, more than 80% of PEHT related papers are on transverse "31" mode cantilever beam type PEHTs (CBPEHTs) having piezoelectric coefficients of about 100 pC/N. The level of harvested electrical power for CBPEHTs is on the order of microW even at resonance mode. In order to harvest more electrical energy across broader bandwidth, high effective piezoelectric coefficient structures are needed. In this study, we investigate a "33" longitudinal mode, piezoelectric PZT ceramic multilayer stack (PZT-Stack) with high effective piezoelectric coefficient for high-performance PEHTs. The PZT-Stack is composed of 300 layers of 0.1 mm thick PZT plates, with overall dimensions of 32.4 mm X 7.0 mm X 7.0 mm. Experiments were carried out with dynamic forces in a broad bandwidth ranging from 0.5 Hz to 25 kHz. The measured results show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient of the PZT-stack is about 1 X 10(exp 5) pC/N at off-resonance frequencies and 1.39 X 10(exp 6) pC/N at resonance, which is order of magnitude larger than that of traditional PEHTs. The effective piezoelectric coefficients (d(sub eff)) do not change significantly with applied dynamic forces having root mean square (RMS) values ranging from 1 N to 40 N. In resonance mode, 231 mW of electrical power was harvested at 2479 Hz with a dynamic force of 11.6 N(sub rms), and 7.6 mW of electrical power was generated at a frequency of 2114 Hz with 1 N(sub rms) dynamic force. In off-resonance mode, an electrical power of 18.7 mW was obtained at 680 Hz with a 40 N(sub rms) dynamic force. A theoretical model of energy harvesting

  15. Electrical and mechanical fully coupled theory and experimental verification of Rosen-type piezoelectric transformers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung; Hsiao, Wen-Hsin

    2005-10-01

    A piezoelectric transformer is a power transfer device that converts its input and output voltage as well as current by effectively using electrical and mechanical coupling effects of piezoelectric materials. Equivalent-circuit models, which are traditionally used to analyze piezoelectric transformers, merge each mechanical resonance effect into a series of ordinary differential equations. Because of using ordinary differential equations, equivalent circuit models are insufficient to reflect the mechanical behavior of piezoelectric plates. Electromechanically, fully coupled governing equations of Rosen-type piezoelectric transformers, which are partial differential equations in nature, can be derived to address the deficiencies of the equivalent circuit models. It can be shown that the modal actuator concept can be adopted to optimize the electromechanical coupling effect of the driving section once the added spatial domain design parameters are taken into account, which are three-dimensional spatial dependencies of electromechanical properties. The maximum power transfer condition for a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer is detailed. Experimental results, which lead us to a series of new design rules, also are presented to prove the validity and effectiveness of the theoretical predictions.

  16. Passively Shunted Piezoelectric Damping of Centrifugally-Loaded Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Min, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center have been investigating shunted piezoelectric circuits as potential damping treatments for turbomachinery rotor blades. This effort seeks to determine the effects of centrifugal loading on passively-shunted piezoelectric - damped plates. Passive shunt circuit parameters are optimized for the plate's third bending mode. Tests are performed both non-spinning and in the Dynamic Spin Facility to verify the analysis, and to determine the effectiveness of the damping under centrifugal loading. Results show that a resistive shunt circuit will reduce resonant vibration for this configuration. However, a tuned shunt circuit will be required to achieve the desired damping level. The analysis and testing address several issues with passive shunt circuit implementation in a rotating system, including piezoelectric material integrity under centrifugal loading, shunt circuit implementation, and tip mode damping.

  17. A piezoelectric shock-loading response simulator for piezoelectric-based device developers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Feng, Z.

    2017-04-01

    Pulsed loading of piezoelectric transducers occurs in many applications, such as those in munitions firing, or when a mechanical system is subjected to impact type loading. In this paper, an electronic simulator that can be programmed to generate electrical charges that a piezoelectric transducer generates as it is subjected to various shock loading profiles is presented. The piezoelectric output simulator can provide close to realistic outputs so that the circuit designer can use it to test the developed system under close to realistic conditions without the need for the costly and time consuming process of performing actual tests. The design of the electronic simulator and results of its testing are presented.

  18. Characterization of Hard Piezoelectric Lead-Free Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Lim, Jong Bong; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    K4CuNb8O23 doped K0.45Na0.55NbO3 (KNN-KCN) ferroelectric ceramics were found to exhibit asymmetrical polarization hysteresis loops, related to the development of an internal bias field. The internal bias field is believed to be the result of defect dipoles of acceptor ions and oxygen vacancies, which lead to piezoelectric “hardening” effect, by stabilizing and pinning of the domain wall motion. The dielectric loss for the hard lead-free piezoelectric ceramic was found to be 0.6%, with mechanical quality factors Q on the order of >1500. Furthermore, the piezoelectric properties were found to decrease and the coercive field increased, when compared with the undoped material, exhibiting a typical characteristic of “hard” behavior. The temperature usage range was limited by the polymorphic phase transition temperature, being 188°C. The full set of material constants was determined for the KNN-KCN materials. Compared with conventional hard PZT ceramics, the lead-free possessed lower dielectric and piezoelectric properties; however, comparable values of mechanical Q, dielectric loss, and coercive fields were obtained, making acceptor modified KNN based lead-free piezoelectric material promising for high-power applications, where lead-free materials are desirable. PMID:19686966

  19. Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Kascak, A. F.; Lin, R. R.; Montague, J.; Alexander, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers was discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Analyses are contained which extend quadratic regulator, pole placement and derivative feedback control methods to the prescribed displacement character of piezoelectric pushers. The structural stiffness of the pusher is also included in the theory. Tests are currently being conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results performed on the NASA test rig as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

  20. Modelling of piezoelectric actuator dynamics for active structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Chung, Walter H.; Von Flotow, Andreas

    1990-01-01

    The paper models the effects of dynamic coupling between a structure and an electrical network through the piezoelectric effect. The coupled equations of motion of an arbitrary elastic structure with piezoelectric elements and passive electronics are derived. State space models are developed for three important cases: direct voltage driven electrodes, direct charge driven electrodes, and an indirect drive case where the piezoelectric electrodes are connected to an arbitrary electrical circuit with embedded voltage and current sources. The equations are applied to the case of a cantilevered beam with surface mounted piezoceramics and indirect voltage and current drive. The theoretical derivations are validated experimentally on an actively controlled cantilevered beam test article with indirect voltage drive.

  1. Flutter and divergence instability of supported piezoelectric nanotubes conveying fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaadini, Reza; Hosseini, Mohammad; Jamali, Behnam

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, divergence and flutter instabilities of supported piezoelectric nanotubes containing flowing fluid are investigated. To take the size effects into account, the nonlocal elasticity theory is implemented in conjunction with the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory incorporating surface stress effects. The Knudsen number is applied to investigate the slip boundary conditions between the flow and wall of nanotube. The nonlocal governing equations of nanotube are obtained using Newtonian method, including the influence of piezoelectric voltage, surface effects, Knudsen number and nonlocal parameter. Applying Galerkin approach to transform resulting equations into a set of eigenvalue equations under the simple-simple (S-S) and clamped-clamped (C-C) boundary conditions. The effects of the piezoelectric voltage, surface effects, Knudsen number, nonlocal parameter and boundary conditions on the divergence and flutter boundaries of nanotubes are discussed. It is observed that the fluid-conveying nanotubes with both ends supported lose their stability by divergence first and then by flutter with increase in fluid velocity. Results indicate the importance of using piezoelectric voltage, nonlocal parameter and Knudsen number in decrease of critical flow velocities of system. Moreover, the surface effects have a significant role on the eigenfrequencies and critical fluid velocity.

  2. Validation of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuator Finite Element Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B. K.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Regitered Trademark) finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness are important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Registered Trademark) used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN(Registered Trademark), a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS(Registered Trademark) processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.

  3. Piezoelectric MEMS: Ferroelectric thin films for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have attracted attention as next-generation functional microdevices. Typical applications of piezoelectric MEMS are micropumps for inkjet heads or micro-gyrosensors, which are composed of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films and have already been commercialized. In addition, piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs), which are regarded as one of the key devices for Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies, are promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. Significant features of piezoelectric MEMS are their simple structure and high energy conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical domains even on the microscale. The device performance strongly depends on the function of the piezoelectric thin films, especially on their transverse piezoelectric properties, indicating that the deposition of high-quality piezoelectric thin films is a crucial technology for piezoelectric MEMS. On the other hand, although the difficulty in measuring the precise piezoelectric coefficients of thin films is a serious obstacle in the research and development of piezoelectric thin films, a simple unimorph cantilever measurement method has been proposed to obtain precise values of the direct or converse transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films, and recently this method has become to be the standardized testing method. In this article, I will introduce fundamental technologies of piezoelectric thin films and related microdevices, especially focusing on the deposition of PZT thin films and evaluation methods for their transverse piezoelectric properties.

  4. Piezoelectric characterization of Sc0.26Al0.74N layers on Si (001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinusía Lozano, M.; Pérez-Campos, A.; Reusch, M.; Kirste, L.; Fuchs, Th; Žukauskaitė, A.; Chen, Z.; Iriarte, G. F.

    2018-03-01

    Scandium aluminum nitride (ScAlN) films have been synthesized by pulsed-DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The degree of c-axis orientation as well as piezoelectric characteristics of the Sc0.26Al0.74N thin films grown on Si (001) at various discharge powers and processing pressures values have been investigated. According to x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the texture of the as-grown Sc0.26Al0.74N thin films becomes more prominent in the [0001]-direction at the highest target power (700 W) and at the lowest processing pressure (4 mTorr). The piezoelectric response, as determined by measuring the d33 piezoelectric constant, shows a maximum value of -12 pC/N also at 4 mTorr and 700 W, confirming a direct correlation between the d33 piezoelectric constant and the degree of orientation in the [0001]-direction. The atomic concentration of Sc and Al in the synthesized ScAlN thin film, determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), reveals a Sc concentration lower than in the ScAl alloy target. The piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) shows homogeneous polarity distribution with no inversion domains. The piezoelectric layers have been used to fabricate and measure surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators on a Sc0.26Al0.74N/Si (001) bilayer system with resonance frequency of 1.4 GHz and coupling coefficient of 0.567. Such characteristic in the frequency response reveals the potential of these materials for advanced SAW devices in applications such as next generation (5 G) wireless communication systems.

  5. Piezoelectric Composites by Solid Freeform Fabrication: A Nature-Inspired Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, A.; Akdoğan, E. K.

    Piezoelectrics and electrostrictors are indispensable materials for use in transducer technology, as they inherently possess both direct (sensing) and converse (actuation) effects. A piezoelectric/electrostrictive sensor converts a mechanical input (displacement or force) into a measurable electrical output through piezoelectric/electrostrictive energy conversion. In the case of a piezoelectric, an applied mechanical force (stress) induces a voltage across the terminals of the transducer. On the other hand, an applied mechanical force induces a change in the capacitance of an electrostrictive transducer that could be electrically detected. Hence, the mechanical to electrical energy conversion is accomplished directly when a piezoelectric is used, while the same is obtained indirectly if the electroactive material of choice is an electrostrictor. Conversely, both piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials develop an elastic strain under an applied electric field. The said elastic strain is linearly proportional to the applied field in a piezoelectric, whereas electrostrictive coupling involves the second-order (quadratic) coupling of electric field with elastic strain. While piezoelectricity is possible only in noncentrosymetric point groups, electrostriction is observed in all solids, which make it a much more general solid-state phenomenon. Sensing and actuation functions can coexist in a given transducer by the intelligent use of such materials. Piezoelectrics and electrostrictors, therefore, constitute the backbone of modern transducer technology, as mechanical to electric energy (and vice versa) conversion can be accomplished with great efficiency in a way that is second to none among all phenomena known to date [1,2].

  6. Clamping effect on the piezoelectric responses of screen-printed low temperature PZT/Polymer films on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almusallam, A.; Yang, K.; Zhu, D.; Torah, R. N.; Komolafe, A.; Tudor, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a new flexible lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/polymer composite material that can be screen-printed onto fabrics and flexible substrates, and investigates the clamping effect of these substrates on the characterization of the piezoelectric material. Experimental results showed that the optimum blend of PZT/polymer binder with a weight ratio of 12:1 provides a dielectric constant of 146. The measured value of the piezoelectric coefficient d33 was found to depend on the substrate used. Measured d33clp values of 70, 40, 36 pC N-1 were obtained from the optimum formulation printed on Polyester-cotton with an interface layer, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. The variation in the measured d33clp values occurs because of the effect of the mechanical boundary conditions of the substrate. The piezoelectric film is mechanically bonded to the surface of the substrate and this constrains the film in the plane of the substrate (the 1-direction). This constraint means that the perpendicular forces (applied in the 3-direction) used to measure d33 introduce a strain in the 1-direction that produces a charge of the opposite polarity to that induced by the d33 effect. This is due to the negative sign of the d31 coefficient and has the effect of reducing the measured d33 value. Theoretical and experimental investigations confirm a reduction of 13%, 50% and 55% in the estimated freestanding d33fs values (80 pC N-1) on Polyester-cotton, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. These results demonstrate the effect of the boundary conditions of the substrate/PZT interface on the piezoelectric response of the PZT/polymer film and in particular the reduced effect of fabric substrates due to their lowered stiffness.

  7. The Inhomogeneous Waves in a Rotating Piezoelectric Body

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and numerical results of rotation, propagation angle, and attenuation angle upon the waves propagating in the piezoelectric body. Via considering the centripetal and Coriolis accelerations in the piezoelectric equations with respect to a rotating frame of reference, wave velocities and attenuations are derived and plotted graphically. It is demonstrated that rotation speed vector can affect wave velocities and make the piezoelectric body behaves as if it was damping. Besides, the effects of propagation angle and attenuation angle are presented. Critical point is found when rotation speed is equal to wave frequency, around which wave characteristics change drastically. PMID:24298219

  8. Giant piezoelectricity of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Ruixiang; Li, Wenbin; Li, Ju; Yang, Li

    We predict enormous, anisotropic piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M =Sn or Ge, X =Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe, and GeS. Using first-principle simulations based on the modern theory of polarization, we find that their piezoelectric coefficients are about one to two orders of magnitude larger than those of other 2D materials, such as MoS2 and GaSe, and bulk quartz and AlN which are widely used in industry. This enhancement is a result of the unique ``puckered'' C2v symmetry and electronic structure of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides. Given the achieved experimental advances in the fabrication of monolayers, their flexible character, and ability to withstand enormous strain, these 2D structures with giant piezoelectric effects may be promising for a broad range of applications such as nano-sized sensors, piezotronics, and energy harvesting in portable electronic devices.

  9. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  10. Electromechanical modeling and power performance analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvester having an attached mass and a segmented piezoelectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sinwoo; Cho, Jae Yong; Sung, Tae Hyun; Yoo, Hong Hee

    2017-03-01

    Conventional vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) have advantages including the ubiquity of their energy source and their ease of manufacturing. However, they have a critical disadvantage as well: they can produce a reasonable amount of power only if the excitation frequency is concentrated near a natural frequency of the PEH. Because the excitation frequency is often spread and/or variable, it is very difficult to successfully design a conventional PEH. In this paper, we propose a new cantilevered PEH whose design includes an attached mass and a segmented piezoelectric layer. By choosing a proper size and location for the attached mass, the gap between the first and second natural frequencies of the PEH can be decreased in order to broaden the effective excitation frequency range and thus to allow reasonable power generation. Especially, the output power performance improves significantly around the second natural frequency of the PEH since the voltage cancellation effect can be made very weak by segmenting the piezoelectric layer at an appropriate location. To investigate the power performance of the new PEH, herein a reduced-order electromechanical analysis model is proposed and the accuracy of this model is validated experimentally. The effects of variable load resistance and piezoelectric layer segmentation location upon the power performance of the new PEH are investigated by means of the reduced-order analysis model.

  11. High-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators using an ellipse-based hysteresis model.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guoying; Zhu, Limin

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, an ellipse-based mathematic model is developed to characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. Based on the proposed model, an expanded input space is constructed to describe the multivalued hysteresis function H[u](t) by a multiple input single output (MISO) mapping Gamma:R(2)-->R. Subsequently, the inverse MISO mapping Gamma(-1)(H[u](t),H[u](t);u(t)) is proposed for real-time hysteresis compensation. In controller design, a hybrid control strategy combining a model-based feedforward controller and a proportional integral differential (PID) feedback loop is used for high-accuracy and high-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators. The real-time feedforward controller is developed to cancel the rate-dependent hysteresis based on the inverse hysteresis model, while the PID controller is used to compensate for the creep, modeling errors, and parameter uncertainties. Finally, experiments with and without hysteresis compensation are conducted and the experimental results are compared. The experimental results show that the hysteresis compensation in the feedforward path can reduce the hysteresis-caused error by up to 88% and the tracking performance of the hybrid controller is greatly improved in high-speed tracking control applications, e.g., the root-mean-square tracking error is reduced to only 0.34% of the displacement range under the input frequency of 100 Hz.

  12. Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkemeyer, Phillip E. (Inventor); Tosi, Phillipe (Inventor); Corbett, Thomas Gary (Inventor); Hall, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Arrazola, Alvaro Jose (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Colonius, Tim (Inventor); Kim, Namhyo (Inventor); Sun, Kai (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A flow energy harvesting device having a harvester pipe includes a flow inlet that receives flow from a primary pipe, a flow outlet that returns the flow into the primary pipe, and a flow diverter within the harvester pipe having an inlet section coupled to the flow inlet, a flow constriction section coupled to the inlet section and positioned at a midpoint of the harvester pipe and having a spline shape with a substantially reduced flow opening size at a constriction point along the spline shape, and an outlet section coupled to the constriction section. The harvester pipe may further include a piezoelectric structure extending from the inlet section through the constriction section and point such that the fluid flow past the constriction point results in oscillatory pressure amplitude inducing vibrations in the piezoelectric structure sufficient to cause a direct piezoelectric effect and to generate electrical power for harvesting.

  13. Three-dimensional piezoelectric boundary elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Lisa Renee

    The strong coupling between mechanical and electrical fields in piezoelectric ceramics makes them appropriate for use as actuation devices; as a result, they are an important part of the emerging technologies of smart materials and structures. These piezoceramics are very brittle and susceptible to fracture, especially under the severe loading conditions which may occur in service. A significant portion of the applications under investigation involve dynamic loading conditions. Once a crack is initiated in the piezoelectric medium, the mechanical and electrical fields can act to drive the crack growth. Failure of the actuator can result from a catastrophic fracture event or from the cumulative effects of cyclic fatigue. The presence of these cracks, or other types of material defects, alter the mechanical and electrical fields inside the body. Specifically, concentrations of stress and electric field are present near a flaw and can lead to material yielding or localized depoling, which in turn can affect the sensor/actuator performance or cause failure. Understanding these effects is critical to the success of these smart structures. The complex coupling behavior and the anisotropy of the material makes the use of numerical methods necessary for all but the simplest problems. To this end, a three-dimensional boundary element method program is developed to evaluate the effect of flaws on these piezoelectric materials. The program is based on the linear governing equations of piezoelectricity and relies on a numerically evaluated Green's function for solution. The boundary element method was selected as the evaluation tool due to its ability to model the interior domain exactly. Thus, for piezoelectric materials the coupling between mechanical and electrical fields is not approximated inside the body. Holes in infinite and finite piezoceramics are investigated, with the localized stresses and electric fields clearly developed. The accuracy of the piezoelectric

  14. Piezoelectric materials as stimulatory biomedical materials and scaffolds for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Biranche; Blaker, Jonny J; Cartmell, Sarah H

    2018-04-16

    The process of bone repair and regeneration requires multiple physiological cues including biochemical, electrical and mechanical - that act together to ensure functional recovery. Myriad materials have been explored as bioactive scaffolds to deliver these cues locally to the damage site, amongst these piezoelectric materials have demonstrated significant potential for tissue engineering and regeneration, especially for bone repair. Piezoelectric materials have been widely explored for power generation and harvesting, structural health monitoring, and use in biomedical devices. They have the ability to deform with physiological movements and consequently deliver electrical stimulation to cells or damaged tissue without the need of an external power source. Bone itself is piezoelectric and the charges/potentials it generates in response to mechanical activity are capable of enhancing bone growth. Piezoelectric materials are capable of stimulating the physiological electrical microenvironment, and can play a vital role to stimulate regeneration and repair. This review gives an overview of the association of piezoelectric effect with bone repair, and focuses on state-of-the-art piezoelectric materials (polymers, ceramics and their composites), the fabrication routes to produce piezoelectric scaffolds, and their application in bone repair. Important characteristics of these materials from the perspective of bone tissue engineering are highlighted. Promising upcoming strategies and new piezoelectric materials for this application are presented. Electrical stimulation/electrical microenvironment are known effect the process of bone regeneration by altering the cellular response and are crucial in maintaining tissue functionality. Piezoelectric materials, owing to their capability of generating charges/potentials in response to mechanical deformations, have displayed great potential for fabricating smart stimulatory scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The growing

  15. Development, Characterization and Piezoelectric Fatigue Behavior of Lead-Free Perovskite Piezoelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Eric Andrew

    Much recent research has focused on the development lead-free perovskite piezoelectrics as environmentally compatible alternatives to lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Two main categories of lead free perovskite piezoelectric ceramic systems were investigated as potential replacements to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for actuator devices. First, solid solutions based on Li, Ta, and Sb modified (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) lead-free perovskite systems were created using standard solid state methods. Secondly, Bi-based materials a variety of compositions were explored for (1-x)(Bi 0.5Na0.5)TiO3-xBi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O 3 (BNT-BZT) and Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-(Bi 0.5K0.5)TiO3-(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO 3 (BZT-BKT-BNT). It was shown that when BNT-BKT is combined with increasing concentrations of Bi(Zn1/2i1/2)O3 (BZT), a transition from normal ferroelectric behavior to a material with large electric field induced strains was observed. The higher BZT containing compositions are characterized by large hysteretic strains(> 0.3%) with no negative strains that might indicate domain switching. This work summarizes and analyzes the fatigue behavior of the new generation of Pb-free piezoelectric materials. In piezoelectric materials, fatigue is observed as a degradation in the electromechanical properties under the application of a bipolar or unipolar cyclic electrical load. In Pb-based materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), fatigue has been studied in great depth for both bulk and thin film applications. In PZT, fatigue can result from microcracking or electrode effects (especially in thin films). Ultimately, however, it is electronic and ionic point defects that are the most influential mechanism. Therefore, this work also analyzes the fatigue characteristics of bulk polycrystalline ceramics of the modified-KNN and BNT-BKT-BZT compositions developed. The defect chemistry that underpins the fatigue behavior will be examined and the results will be compared to the existing body of work on PZT. It will

  16. Cryogenic motion performances of a piezoelectric single crystal micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaotian; Wu, Yuting; Chen, Zhijiang; Wei, Xiaoyong; Luo, Haosu; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the cryogenic performances of a millimeter-size piezoelectric ultrasonic linear micromotor. The piezoelectric vibrator of the micromotor is made of Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 -Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbTiO3 single crystal and operated in first-bending wobbling mode. Experiments show that the piezoelectric single crystal micromotor works effectively even at extremely low temperature of -175 °C, although its resonance peaks vary with temperature significantly. This work confirms the feasibility of cryogenic operation of the piezo-micromotor, which is meaningful for aerospace or superconducting microwave application.

  17. Mechanical and Vibration Testing of Carbon Fiber Composite Material with Embedded Piezoelectric Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Kray, Nicholas; Gemeinhardt, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials have been proposed as a means of decreasing turbomachinery blade vibration either through a passive damping scheme, or as part of an active vibration control system. For polymer matrix fiber composite (PMFC) blades, the piezoelectric elements could be embedded within the blade material, protecting the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris. Before implementation of a piezoelectric element within a PMFC blade, the effect on PMFC mechanical properties needs to be understood. This study attempts to determine how the inclusion of a packaged piezoelectric patch affects the material properties of the PMFC. Composite specimens with embedded piezoelectric patches were tested in four-point bending, short beam shear, and flatwise tension configurations. Results show that the embedded piezoelectric material does decrease the strength of the composite material, especially in flatwise tension, attributable to failure at the interface or within the piezoelectric element itself. In addition, the sensing properties of the post-cured embedded piezoelectric materials were tested, and performed as expected. The piezoelectric materials include a non-flexible patch incorporating solid piezoceramic material, and two flexible patch types incorporating piezoelectric fibers. The piezoceramic material used in these patches was Navy Type-II PZT.

  18. Proposition for sensorless self-excitation by a piezoelectric device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Kokubun, Y.; Yabuno, H.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to realize self-excitation in an oscillator actuated by a piezoelectric device without a sensor. In general, the positive feedback associated with the oscillator velocity causes the self-excitation. Instead of measuring the velocity with a sensor, we utilize the electro-mechanical coupling effect in the oscillator and piezoelectric device. We drive the piezoelectric device with a current proportional to the linear combination of the voltage across the terminals of the piezoelectric device and its differential voltage signal. Then, the oscillator with the piezoelectric device behaves like a third-order system, which has three eigenvalues. The self-excitation can be realized because appropriate feedback gains can set two of the eigenvalues to be conjugate complex roots with a positive real part and the other eigenvalue to be a negative real root. To confirm the validity of the proposed method, we experimentally demonstrated the sensorless self-excitation and, as an application example, carried out mass sensing in a sensorless self-excited macrocantilever.

  19. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  20. Touching force response of the piezoelectric Braille cell.

    PubMed

    Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn; Kanjantoe, Jinda; Tandayya, Pichaya

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate dynamic responses of the piezoelectric Braille cell when it is subjected to both electrical signal and touching force. Physical behavior of the piezoelectric actuator inside the piezoelectric Braille cell is analyzed. The mathematical model of the piezoelectric Braille system is presented. Then, data of visually impaired people using a Braille Note is studied as design information and a reference input for calculation of the piezoelectric Braille response under the touching force. The results show dynamic responses of the piezoelectric Braille cell. The designed piezoelectric bimorph has a settling time of 0.15 second. The relationship between the Braille dot height and applied voltage is linear. The behavior of the piezoelectric Braille dot when it is touched during operation shows that the dot height is decreased as the force increases. The result provides understanding of the piezoelectric Braille cell behavior under both touching force and electrical excitation simultaneously. This is the important issue for the design and development of piezoelectric Braille cells in senses of controlling Braille dot displacement or force-feedback in the future.

  1. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  2. Enhancement of piezoelectric constants induced by cation-substitution and two-dimensional strain effects on ZnO predicted by density functional perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Kaoru, E-mail: n-kaoru@criepi.denken.or.jp; Higuchi, Sadao; Ohnuma, Toshiharu

    2016-03-21

    Using density functional perturbation theory, we investigated the effect of various substitutional dopant elements and in-plane strain on the piezoelectric properties of ZnO. The piezoelectric stress constant e{sub 33} of doped ZnO was found to depend on the formal charge of the substitutional dopant. By decomposing the piezoelectric stress constant e{sub 33} into the individual atomic contributions, the change in the piezoelectric properties was found to originate from a change in the coupling between the atomic displacement and the strain. Furthermore, we found that in-plane tensile strain along the a axis, which is specific to the thin film, can enhancemore » the piezoelectric constant of ZnO. A phase transition from wurtzite to h-BN-type structure was found to occur with increasing in-plane tensile. The piezoelectric strain constant d{sub 33} was predicted to reach ∼200 pC/N for 2.78 at. % V-substituted ZnO at 5.5% in-plane strain, just before the phase transition. These theoretical results suggest that the piezoelectric constant of ZnO can be enhanced by controlling the in-plane strain via selection of the substrate material and dopant element.« less

  3. An experimental study on the effect of temperature on piezoelectric sensors for impedance-based structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Fabricio G; Budoya, Danilo E; de Almeida, Vinicius A D; Ulson, Jose Alfredo C

    2014-01-10

    The electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique is considered to be one of the most promising methods for developing structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. This technique is simple to implement and uses small and inexpensive piezoelectric sensors. However, practical problems have hindered its application to real-world structures, and temperature effects have been cited in the literature as critical problems. In this paper, we present an experimental study of the effect of temperature on the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric sensors used in the EMI technique. We used 5H PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic sensors, which are commonly used in the EMI technique. The experimental results showed that the temperature effects were strongly frequency-dependent, which may motivate future research in the SHM field.

  4. Distributed structural control using multilayered piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudney, Harley H.; Inman, Daniel J.; Oshman, Yaakov

    1990-01-01

    A method of segmenting piezoelectric sensors and actuators is proposed which can preclude the currently experienced cancelation of sensor signals, or the reduction of actuator effectiveness, due to the integration of the property undergoing measurement or control. The segmentation method is demonstrated by a model developed for beam structures, to which multiple layers of piezoelectric materials are attached. A numerical study is undertaken of increasing active and passive damping of a beam using the segmented sensors and actuators over unsegmented sensors and actuators.

  5. Method of Fabricating a Piezoelectric Composite Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, W. Keats (Inventor); Bryant, Robert (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); High, James W. (Inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Little, Bruce D. (Inventor); Mirick, Paul H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method for fabricating a piezoelectric macro-fiber composite actuator comprises providing a piezoelectric material that has two sides and attaching one side upon an adhesive backing sheet. The method further comprises slicing the piezoelectric material to provide a plurality of piezoelectric fibers in juxtaposition. A conductive film is then adhesively bonded to the other side of the piezoelectric material, and the adhesive backing sheet is removed. The conductive film has first and second conductive patterns formed thereon which are electrically isolated from one another and in electrical contact with the piezoelectric material. The first and second conductive patterns of the conductive film each have a plurality of electrodes to form a pattern of interdigitated electrodes. A second film is then bonded to the other side of the piezoelectric material. The second film may have a pair of conductive patterns similar to the conductive patterns of the first film.

  6. Tunable acoustic metamaterial based on piezoelectric ceramic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Jing; Zhang, Guangyu; Zhou, Qiang; Wu, Yingdan; Li, Longqiu

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a tunable metamaterial consisting of periodic layers of steel, polyurea and piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) was presented. The PZT layer in this structure was connected to an inductor L. Transfer matrix method was used to calculate the band structure of the sample. It was observed that an extremely narrow stop band was induced by the PZT layer with inductor L. This narrow stop band was attributed to the resonance circuit constituted by the piezoelectric layer, for the piezoelectric layer with electrodes could be seen as a capacitor. Further, homogenization was used to calculate the effective elastic constants of the sample. Results showed that the effective parameters of this structure behaved negative in the narrow stop band. The location of the narrow stop band was in the charge of inductor L, which could be used to design acoustic filters or noise insulators by changing the parameters of structure.

  7. Hydrothermal crystal growth, piezoelectricity, and triboluminescence of KNaNbOF{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Kelvin B.; Edwards, Bryce W.; Frazer, Laszlo

    Single crystals of the noncentrosymmetric KNaNbOF{sub 5} polymorph were grown for piezoelectric and triboluminescent measurements. Piezoelectric measurements yielded a d{sub 33} value of ±6.3 pCN{sup −1} and an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 0.1565 in the frequency range 1960–2080 kHz. Crystals of KNaNbOF{sub 5} were found to exhibit a strong triboluminscence effect visible to the naked eye as blue sparks when crystals are crushed. This triboluminescence effect is uncommon in that it is likely independent from both the piezoelectric effect and atmospheric electrical discharge. Instead, triboluminescence may originate from crystal defects or be related to an electroluminescence effect.more » - Graphical abstract: An optical emission visible to the naked eye as blue sparks is observed when KNaNbOF{sub 5} single crystals are fractured. - Highlights: • Single crystals of KNaNbOF{sub 5} were grown under hydrothermal conditions. • Piezoelectric and triboluminescent properties were characterized. • Piezoelectric measurements yielded a d{sub 33} value of ±pCN{sup −1}. • KNaNbOF{sub 5} exhibits strong triboluminscence visible to the naked eye as blue sparks.« less

  8. Piezoelectric domains in the AlGaN hexagonal microrods: Effect of crystal orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Sivadasan, A. K., E-mail: sivankondazhy@gmail.com, E-mail: gm@igcar.gov.in, E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Dhara, Sandip, E-mail: sivankondazhy@gmail.com, E-mail: gm@igcar.gov.in, E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Mangamma, G., E-mail: sivankondazhy@gmail.com, E-mail: gm@igcar.gov.in, E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in

    2016-05-07

    Presently, the piezoelectric materials are finding tremendous applications in the micro-mechanical actuators, sensors, and self-powered devices. In this context, the studies pertaining to piezoelectric properties of materials in the different size ranges are very important for the scientific community. The III-nitrides are exceptionally important, not only for optoelectronic but also for their piezoelectric applications. In the present study, we synthesized AlGaN via self-catalytic vapor-solid mechanism by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique on AlN base layer over intrinsic Si(100) substrate. The growth process is substantiated using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Raman and photoluminescence studies reveal the formationmore » of AlGaN microrods in the wurtzite phase and ensure the high optical quality of the crystalline material. The single crystalline, direct wide band gap and hexagonally shaped AlGaN microrods are studied for understanding the behavior of the crystallites under the application of constant external electric field using the piezoresponse force microscopy. The present study is mainly focused on understanding the behavior of induced polarization for the determination of piezoelectric coefficient of AlGaN microrod along the c-axis and imaging of piezoelectric domains in the sample originating because of the angular inclination of AlGaN microrods with respect to its AlN base layers.« less

  9. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  10. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  11. Active Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Effinger, Robert T., IV; Aranda, Isaiah, Jr.; Copeland, Ben M.; Covington, Ed W., III

    2002-01-01

    Several active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated by placing unelectroded piezoelectric disks between copper clad films patterned with Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezo-ceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field), rather than the expected in-plane (XY-axis) direction. Unlike other out of plane piezoelectric actuators, which are benders, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements while maintaining a constant circumference. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of these diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic diameter and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage ranging from DC to 10 Hz.

  12. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films and their applications for integrated capacitors, piezoelectric ultrasound transducers and piezoelectric switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, M.; Boots, H.; Kumar, B.; van Heesch, C.; Mauczok, R.; Keur, W.; de Wild, M.; van Esch, H.; Roest, A. L.; Reimann, K.; van Leuken, L.; Wunnicke, O.; Zhao, J.; Schmitz, G.; Mienkina, M.; Mleczko, M.; Tiggelman, M.

    2010-02-01

    Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films are gaining more and more importance for the integration of high performance devices in small modules. High-K 'Integrated Discretes' devices have been developed, which are based on thin film ferroelectric capacitors integrated together with resistors and ESD protection diodes in a small Si-based chip-scale package. Making use of ferroelectric thin films with relative permittivity of 950-1600 and stacking processes of capacitors, extremely high capacitance densities of 20-520 nF/mm2, high breakdown voltages up to 140 V and lifetimes of more than 10 years at operating voltages of 5 V and 85°C are achieved. Thin film high-density capacitors play also an important role as tunable capacitors for applications such as tuneable matching circuits for RF sections of mobile phones. The performance of thin film tuneable capacitors at frequencies between 1 MHz and 1 GHz is investigated. Finally thin film piezoelectric ultrasound transducers, processed in Si- related processes, are attractive for medical imaging, since they enable large bandwidth (>100%), high frequency operation and have the potential to integrate electronics. With these piezoelectric thin film ultrasound transducers real time ultrasound images have been realized. Finally, piezoelectric thin films are used to manufacture galvanic MEMS switches. A model for the quasi-static mechanical behaviour is presented and compared with measurements.

  13. Fundamental understanding of wave generation and reception using d(36) type piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wensong; Li, Hui; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2015-03-01

    A new piezoelectric wafer made from a PMN-PT single crystal with dominant piezoelectric coefficient d36 is proposed to generate and detect guided waves on isotropic plates. The in-plane shear coupled with electric field arising from the piezoelectric coefficient is not usually present for conventional piezoelectric wafers, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The direct piezoelectric effect of coefficient d36 indicates that under external in-plane shear stress the charge is induced on a face perpendicular to the poled z-direction. On thin plates, this type of piezoelectric wafer will generate shear horizontal (SH) waves in two orthogonal wave propagation directions as well as two Lamb wave modes in other wave propagation directions. Finite element analyses are employed to explore the wave disturbance in terms of time-varying displacements excited by the d36 wafer in different directions of wave propagation to understand all the guided wave modes accurately. Experiments are conducted to examine the voltage responses received by this type of wafer, and also investigate results of tuning frequency and effects of d31 piezoelectric coefficient, which is intentionally ignored in the finite element analysis. All results demonstrate the main features and utility of proposed d36 piezoelectric wafer for guided wave generation and detection in structural health monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct and ultrasonic measurements of macroscopic piezoelectricity in sintered hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofail, S. A. M.; Haverty, D.; Cox, F.; Erhart, J.; Hána, P.; Ryzhenko, V.

    2009-03-01

    Macroscopic piezoelectricity in hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic was measured by a direct quasistatic method and an ultrasonic interference technique. The effective symmetry of polycrystalline aggregate was established and a detailed theoretical analysis was carried out to determine by these two methods the shear piezoelectric coefficient, d14, of HA. Piezoelectric nature of HA was proved qualitatively although a specific quantitative value for the d14 coefficient could not be established. Ultrasound method was also employed to anisotropic elastic constants, which agreed well with those measured from the first principles.

  15. Piezoelectric coupling in a field-effect transistor with a nanohybrid channel of ZnO nanorods grown vertically on graphene.

    PubMed

    Quang Dang, Vinh; Kim, Do-Il; Thai Duy, Le; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Jang, Mi; Shin, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-12-21

    Piezoelectric coupling phenomena in a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) with a nano-hybrid channel of chemical-vapor-deposited Gr (CVD Gr) and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) under mechanical pressurization were investigated. Transfer characteristics of the hybrid channel GFET clearly indicated that the piezoelectric effect of ZnO NRs under static or dynamic pressure modulated the channel conductivity (σ) and caused a positive shift of 0.25% per kPa in the Dirac point. However, the GFET without ZnO NRs showed no change in either σ or the Dirac point. Analysis of the Dirac point shifts indicated transfer of electrons from the CVD Gr to ZnO NRs due to modulation of their interfacial barrier height under pressure. High responsiveness of the hybrid channel device with fast response and recovery times was evident in the time-dependent behavior at a small gate bias. In addition, the hybrid channel FET could be gated by mechanical pressurization only. Therefore, a piezoelectric-coupled hybrid channel GFET can be used as a pressure-sensing device with low power consumption and a fast response time. Hybridization of piezoelectric 1D nanomaterials with a 2D semiconducting channel in FETs enables a new design for future nanodevices.

  16. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  17. Study on the electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Zhang, Yinhong; Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    The electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices is investigated by the transfer matrix method. Research results show the high electromechanical coupling coefficient can be obtained in these systems. The optimization design of it is also discussed fully. It is significantly influenced by electrical boundary conditions on interfaces, thickness ratios of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers, and material parameters (such as velocities of pure longitudinal and transversal bulk waves in non-piezoelectric layers). In order to obtain higher electromechanical coupling coefficient, shorted interfaces, non-piezoelectric materials with large velocities of longitudinal and transversal bulk waves, and proper thickness ratios should be chosen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Subperiosteal preparation using a new piezoelectric device: a histological examination.

    PubMed

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Magel, Anja; Kampmann, Andreas; Lemound, Juliana; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology due to a microtrauma. Usually soft-tissue damage can be considerably reduced by using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology were examined and compared to conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator. Lewis rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n=50). Subperiosteal preparation was performed using either a piezoelectric device or a periosteal elevator. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed immediately after preparation as well as three and eight days postoperatively. A statistical analysis of the histological colouring was performed offline using analysis of variance (ANOVA) on ranks (p<0.05). At all times, immunohistochemical and histological analysis demonstrated a significantly more homogenous tissue structure in the group of rats that underwent piezosurgery than in the group of rats that underwent treatment with a periosteal elevator. The use of a piezoelectric device for subperiosteal preparation is associated with more harmonious immunohistochemical and histological results for the periosteum than the use of a conventional periosteal elevator. As a result, piezoelectric devices can be expected to have a positive effect primarily on soft tissue, in particular of the periosteal as well as on surrounding tissues.

  19. Effect of boundary (support) conditions on piezoelectric damping in the case of SSDI vibration control technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyomar, D.; Mohammadi, S.; Richard, C.

    2009-02-01

    Piezoelectric transducers in conjunction with appropriate electric networks can be used as a mechanical energy dissipation device. If a piezoelectric element is attached to a structure, it is strained as the structure deforms and converts a portion of the vibration energy into electrical energy that can be dissipated through a shunt network in the form of heating. These vibration control devices experienced a great development in recent years, due to their performances and advantages compared with active techniques. One of them is the synchronized switch damping (SSD) and derived techniques, which were developed in the field of piezoelectric damping, and which lead to a very good trade-off between the simplicity, the required power supply and their performances. This technique consists in a non-linear processing of the piezoelectric voltage, which induces an increase in electromechanical energy conversion. The control law consists in triggering the inverting switch on each extremum of voltage (or displacement). In this study, the proposed method for the switching sequence is based on the statistical evaluation of structural deflection. The purpose of this paper is to present an experimental study of the synchronized switch damping on inductance (SSDI) control technique sensitivity to the system boundary conditions. It is observed that the fundamental natural frequency greatly depends on these conditions. The effect of these constraints is distributed all over the system and significantly affects the results.

  20. A piezoelectric brace for passive suppression of structural vibration and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuang-Sheng Walter; Lai, Yong-An; Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2017-08-01

    Power outage after an earthquake would cause an additional chaos to the existing aftermath, greatly aggravating the situation if the outage lasts for an extended period. This research aims at developing an innovative piezoelectric brace, which provides both passive energy-dissipating and energy-harvesting capabilities—a passive suppression of structural vibrations and conversion of vibration energy into reusable electricity. The piezoelectric brace has compression modules that exert compressive loads on the piezoelectric material regardless if the brace is in compression or in tension. The compression module consists of a piezoelectric stack and rubber pads. The rubber pads are used to limit the maximum strain in the piezoelectric material below the allowable operational strain. The electro-mechanical equations of motion are derived for a 1-story and a 3-story frame model with the piezoelectric braces. To evaluate the structural behavior and the energy harvesting performance, numerical simulations are executed for the two model buildings (in downtown Los Angeles) that are equipped with the piezoelectric braces. The effects of design parameters including the geometry of the piezoelectric stack and rubber pads and the electric resistance in the electro-mechanical conversion circuit on the performance are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the piezoelectric braces passively dissipate energy through inclined oval-shaped hysteretic loops. The harvested energy is up to approximately 40% of the input energy. The structural displacements are significantly reduced, as compared to the original frames without the piezoelectric braces. Finally, a design procedure for a frame with the proposed passive piezoelectric braces is also presented.

  1. Using Diffusion Bonding in Making Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Frank E.

    2003-01-01

    A technique for the fabrication of piezoelectric actuators that generate acceptably large forces and deflections at relatively low applied voltages involves the stacking and diffusion bonding of multiple thin piezoelectric layers coated with film electrodes. The present technique stands in contrast to an older technique in which the layers are bonded chemically, by use of urethane or epoxy agents. The older chemical-bonding technique entails several disadvantages, including the following: It is difficult to apply the bonding agents to the piezoelectric layers. It is difficult to position the layers accurately and without making mistakes. There is a problem of disposal of hazardous urethane and epoxy wastes. The urethane and epoxy agents are nonpiezoelectric materials. As such, they contribute to the thickness of a piezoelectric laminate without contributing to its performance; conversely, for a given total thickness, the performance of the laminate is below that of a unitary piezoelectric plate of the same thickness. The figure depicts some aspects of the fabrication of a laminated piezoelectric actuator by the present diffusion- bonding technique. First, stock sheets of the piezoelectric material are inspected and tested. Next, the hole pattern shown in the figure is punched into the sheets. Alternatively, if the piezoelectric material is not a polymer, then the holes are punched in thermoplastic films. Then both faces of each punched piezoelectric sheet or thermoplastic film are coated with a silver-ink electrode material by use of a silkscreen printer. The electrode and hole patterns are designed for minimal complexity and minimal waste of material. After a final electrical test, all the coated piezoelectric layers (or piezoelectric layers and coated thermoplastic films) are stacked in an alignment jig, which, in turn, is placed in a curved press for the diffusion-bonding process. In this process, the stack is pressed and heated at a specified curing temperature

  2. The effect of microscopic attractive interactions on piezoelectric coefficients of nanoscale DNA films and its resultant mirocantilever-based biosensor signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun-Zheng; Zhou, Mei-Hong; Zhang, Neng-Hui

    2017-10-01

    The adsorption of charged biomolecules on a substrate will trigger a self-induced electric potential field that could deflect microcantilever biosensors in the nanometer regime. The paper is devoted to a multiscale characterization of the piezoelectric coefficient of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) films with microscopic attractive interactions in multivalence salt solutions, which has a close relationship with biosensor signals. First, two different analytical models of cantilever deflections based on macroscopic piezoelectric theories or mesoscopic liquid crystal theories were combined in the sense of equivalent deformation in order to bridge the relation between the macroscopic piezoelectric coefficient of an adsorbate film and the sensitivity of its microstructure to surrounding conditions. Second, two interaction potentials of the free energy for repulsion-dominated DNA films in NaCl solution or attraction-repulsion-coexisted DNA films in multivalent salt solutions were used to compare the piezoelectric effect and the resultant cantilever deformation at various packing conditions, such as different packing density, various nucleotide numbers and two packing technologies, i.e. nano-grafting or self-assembling technology. The variational tendency of microcantilever deflections predicted by the present multiscale analytical model agrees well with the related DNA-mirocantilever experiments. Negative piezoelectric coefficient of dsDNA film exists in multivalent salt solutions, and its distinctive size effect with different packing densities and nucleotide numbers provides us with an opportunity to obtain a more sensitive microcantilever sensor by careful control of packing conditions.

  3. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Joana; Frias, Clara; Canto e Castro, Carlos; Botelho, Maria Luísa; Marques, António Torres; Simões, José António Oliveira; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Potes, José

    2012-01-01

    This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth. PMID:22701304

  4. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  5. Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.

    1988-01-01

    The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers have been discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Tests are currently being conducted with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results from tests performed on NASA test rigs as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

  6. Piezoelectric pushers for active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

    1989-01-01

    The active control of rotordynamic vibrations and stability by magnetic bearings and electromagnetic shakers have been discussed extensively in the literature. These devices, though effective, are usually large in volume and add significant weight to the stator. The use of piezoelectric pushers may provide similar degrees of effectiveness in light, compact packages. Tests are currently being conducted with piezoelectric pusher-based active vibration control. Results from tests performed on NASA test rigs as preliminary verification of the related theory are presented.

  7. Piezoelectric Response of Aligned Electrospun Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Carbon Nanotube Nanofibrous Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Mou; Chou, Min-Hui; Zeng, Wun-Yuan

    2018-06-10

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) shows piezoelectricity related to its β-phase content and mechanical and electrical properties influenced by its morphology and crystallinity. Electrospinning (ES) can produce ultrafine and well-aligned PVDF nanofibers. In this study, the effects of the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and optimized ES parameters on the crystal structures and piezoelectric properties of aligned PVDF/CNT nanofibrous membranes were examined. The optimal β content and piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) of the aligned electrospun PVDF reached 88% and 27.4 pC/N; CNT addition increased the β-phase content to 89% and d 33 to 31.3 pC/N. The output voltages of piezoelectric units with aligned electrospun PVDF/CNT membranes increased linearly with applied loading and showed good stability during cyclic dynamic compression and tension. The sensitivities of the piezoelectric units with the membranes under dynamic compression and tension were 2.26 mV/N and 4.29 mV/%, respectively. In bending tests, the output voltage increased nonlinearly with bending angle because complicated forces were involved. The output of the aligned membrane-based piezoelectric unit with CNT was 1.89 V at the bending angle of 100°. The high electric outputs indicate that the aligned electrospun PVDF/CNT membranes are potentially effective for flexible wearable sensor application with high sensitivity.

  8. Advances in Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials for Sensors and Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Aksel, Elena; Jones, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectrics have widespread use in today’s sensor and actuator technologies. However, most commercially available piezoelectric materials, e.g., Pb [ZrxTi1−x] O3 (PZT), are comprised of more than 60 weight percent lead (Pb). Due to its harmful effects, there is a strong impetus to identify new lead-free replacement materials with comparable properties to those of PZT. This review highlights recent developments in several lead-free piezoelectric materials including BaTiO3, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, K0.5Bi0.5TiO3, Na0.5K0.5NbO3, and their solid solutions. The factors that contribute to strong piezoelectric behavior are described and a summary of the properties for the various systems is provided. PMID:22294907

  9. Multidirection Piezoelectricity in Mono- and Multilayered Hexagonal α-In2Se3.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fei; Zhang, Junwei; Hu, Weijin; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Han, Ali; Leung, Siu-Fung; Huang, Jing-Kai; Wan, Yi; Liu, Shuhai; Zhang, Junli; He, Jr-Hau; Chang, Wen-Hao; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-05-22

    Piezoelectric materials have been widely used for sensors, actuators, electronics, and energy conversion. Two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin semiconductors, such as monolayer h-BN and MoS 2 with their atom-level geometry, are currently emerging as new and attractive members of the piezoelectric family. However, their piezoelectric polarization is commonly limited to the in-plane direction of odd-number ultrathin layers, largely restricting their application in integrated nanoelectromechanical systems. Recently, theoretical calculations have predicted the existence of out-of-plane and in-plane piezoelectricity in monolayer α-In 2 Se 3 . Here, we experimentally report the coexistence of out-of-plane and in-plane piezoelectricity in monolayer to bulk α-In 2 Se 3 , attributed to their noncentrosymmetry originating from the hexagonal stacking. Specifically, the corresponding d 33 piezoelectric coefficient of α-In 2 Se 3 increases from 0.34 pm/V (monolayer) to 5.6 pm/V (bulk) without any odd-even effect. In addition, we also demonstrate a type of α-In 2 Se 3 -based flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator as an energy-harvesting cell and electronic skin. The out-of-plane and in-plane piezoelectricity in α-In 2 Se 3 flakes offers an opportunity to enable both directional and nondirectional piezoelectric devices to be applicable for self-powered systems and adaptive and strain-tunable electronics/optoelectronics.

  10. Polariton resonances in multilayered piezoelectric superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliposyan, D.

    2018-04-01

    Coupled electro-elastic SH waves propagating in a periodic piezoelectric finite-length superlattice with identical piezoelectric materials in a unit cell are considered in the framework of the full system of Maxwell’s electrodynamic equations. In the long wavelength region, coupling between electro-magnetic and elastic waves creates frequency band gaps. It is shown that for piezoelectric superlattice at acoustic frequencies, acousto-optic coupling gives rise to polariton behavior at wavelengths much larger than the length of the unit cell. The results of the paper may be useful in design of narrow band filters or multi-channel piezoelectric filters.

  11. Finite element modelling to assess the effect of surface mounted piezoelectric patch size on vibration response of a hybrid beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, N.; Alam, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Vibration response analysis of a hybrid beam with surface mounted patch piezoelectric layer is presented in this work. A one dimensional finite element (1D-FE) model based on efficient layerwise (zigzag) theory is used for the analysis. The beam element has eight mechanical and a variable number of electrical degrees of freedom. The beams are also modelled in 2D-FE (ABAQUS) using a plane stress piezoelectric quadrilateral element for piezo layers and a plane stress quadrilateral element for the elastic layers of hybrid beams. Results are presented to assess the effect of size of piezoelectric patch layer on the free and forced vibration responses of thin and moderately thick beams under clamped-free and clamped-clamped configurations. The beams are subjected to unit step loading and harmonic loading to obtain the forced vibration responses. The vibration control using in phase actuation potential on piezoelectric patches is also studied. The 1D-FE results are compared with the 2D-FE results.

  12. Inverse Faraday Effect Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Ali, S.; Davies, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The inverse Faraday effect is usually associated with circularly polarized laser beams. However, it was recently shown that it can also occur for linearly polarized radiation [1]. The quasi-static axial magnetic field by a laser beam propagating in plasma can be calculated by considering both the spin and the orbital angular momenta of the laser pulse. A net spin is present when the radiation is circularly polarized and a net orbital angular momentum is present if there is any deviation from perfect rotational symmetry. This orbital angular momentum has recently been discussed in the plasma context [2], and can give an additional contribution to the axial magnetic field, thus enhancing or reducing the inverse Faraday effect. As a result, this effect that is usually attributed to circular polarization can also be excited by linearly polarized radiation, if the incident laser propagates in a Laguerre-Gauss mode carrying a finite amount of orbital angular momentum.[4pt] [1] S. ALi, J.R. Davies and J.T. Mendonca, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 035001 (2010).[0pt] [2] J. T. Mendonca, B. Thidé, and H. Then, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185005 (2009).

  13. Piezoelectric wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank

    2013-03-01

    In past few years, there has been significant focus towards developing small scale renewable energy based power sources for powering wireless sensor nodes in remote locations such as highways and bridges to conduct continuous health monitoring. These prior efforts have led to the development of micro-scale solar modules, hydrogen fuel cells and various vibration based energy harvesters. However, the cost effectiveness, reliability, and practicality of these solutions remain a concern. Harvesting the wind energy using micro-to-small scale wind turbines can be an excellent solution in variety of outdoor scenarios provided they can operate at few miles per hour of wind speed. The conventional electromagnetic generator used in the wind mills always has some cogging torque which restricts their operation above certain cut-in wind speed. This study aims to develop a novel piezoelectric wind turbine that utilizes bimorph actuators for electro-mechanical energy conversion. This device utilizes a Savonius rotor that is connected to a disk having magnets at the periphery. The piezoelectric actuators arranged circumferentially around the disk also have magnets at the tip which interacts with the magnetic field of the rotating disk and produces cyclical deflection. The wind tunnel experiments were conducted between 2-12 mph of wind speeds to characterize and optimize the power output of the wind turbine. Further, testing was conducted in the open environment to quantify the response to random wind gusts. An attempt was made towards integration of the piezoelectric wind turbine with the wireless sensor node.

  14. Bending-induced electromechanical coupling and large piezoelectric response in a micromachined diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihong; Yao, Yingbang; Wang, Xianbin; Yue, Weisheng; Chen, Longqing; Zhang, Xi Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the dependence of electromechanical coupling and the piezoelectric response of a micromachined Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) diaphragm on its curvature by observing the impedance spectrum and central deflection responses to a small AC voltage. The curvature of the diaphragm was controlled by applying air pressure to its back. We found that a depolarized flat diaphragm does not initially exhibit electromechanical coupling or the piezoelectric response. However, upon the application of static air pressure to the diaphragm, both electromechanical coupling and the piezoelectric response can be induced in the originally depolarized diaphragm. The piezoelectric response increases as the curvature increases and a giant piezoelectric response can be obtained from a bent diaphragm. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that a high strain gradient in a diaphragm can polarize a PZT film through a flexoelectric effect, and that the induced piezoelectric response of the diaphragm can be controlled by adjusting its curvature. PMID:24185198

  15. Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) Ring Shaped Contour-Mode MEMS Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasambe, P. V.; Asgaonkar, V. V.; Bangera, A. D.; Lokre, A. S.; Rathod, S. S.; Bhoir, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Flexibility in setting fundamental frequency of resonator independent of its motional resistance is one of the desired criteria in micro-electromechanical (MEMS) resonator design. It is observed that ring-shaped piezoelectric contour-mode MEMS resonators satisfy this design criterion than in case of rectangular plate MEMS resonators. Also ring-shaped contour-mode piezoelectric MEMS resonator has an advantage that its fundamental frequency is defined by in-plane dimensions, but they show variation of fundamental frequency with different Platinum (Pt) thickness referred as change in ratio of fNEW /fO . This paper presents the effects of variation in geometrical parameters and change in piezoelectric material on the resonant frequencies of Platinum piezoelectric-Aluminium ring-shaped contour-mode MEMS resonators and its electrical parameters. The proposed structure with Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) as the piezoelectric material was observed to be a piezoelectric material with minimal change in fundamental resonant frequency due to Platinum thickness variation. This structure was also found to exhibit extremely low motional resistance of 0.03 Ω as compared to the 31-35 Ω range obtained when using AlN as the piezoelectric material. CoventorWare 10 is used for the design, simulation and corresponding analysis of resonators which is Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis and design tool for MEMS devices.

  16. High precision tracking of a piezoelectric nano-manipulator with parameterized hysteresis compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Zhang, Yangming

    2018-06-01

    High performance scanning of nano-manipulators is widely deployed in various precision engineering applications such as SPM (scanning probe microscope), where trajectory tracking of sophisticated reference signals is an challenging control problem. The situation is further complicated when rate dependent hysteresis of the piezoelectric actuators and the stress-stiffening induced nonlinear stiffness of the flexure mechanism are considered. In this paper, a novel control framework is proposed to achieve high precision tracking of a piezoelectric nano-manipulator subjected to hysteresis and stiffness nonlinearities. An adaptive parameterized rate-dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is constructed and the corresponding adaptive inverse model based online compensation is derived. Meanwhile a robust adaptive control architecture is further introduced to improve the tracking accuracy and robustness of the compensated system, where the parametric uncertainties of the nonlinear dynamics can be well eliminated by on-line estimations. Comparative experimental studies of the proposed control algorithm are conducted on a PZT actuated nano-manipulating stage, where hysteresis modeling accuracy and excellent tracking performance are demonstrated in real-time implementations, with significant improvement over existing results.

  17. Heating of carriers as controlled by the combined interactions with acoustic and piezoelectric phonons in degenerate III-V semiconductors at low lattice temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, D. P.; Das, J.; Basu, A.; Das, B.

    2017-09-01

    In compound semiconductors which lack inversion symmetry, the combined interaction of the electrons with both acoustic and piezoelectric phonons is dominant at low lattice temperatures ( 20 K). The field dependence of the effective electron temperature under these conditions, has been calculated by solving the modified energy balance equation that takes due account of the degeneracy. The traditionally used heated Fermi-Dirac (F.D.) function for the non-equilibrium distribution function is approximated by some well tested model distribution. This makes it possible to carry out the integrations quite easily and, thus to obtain some more realistic results in a closed form, without taking recourse to any oversimplified approximations. The numerical results that follow for InSb, InAs and GaN, from the present analysis, are then compared with the available theoretical and experimental data. The degeneracy and the piezoelectric interaction, both are seen to bring about significant changes in the electron temperature characteristics. The scope for further refinement is discussed.

  18. Analysis of the transfer function for layered piezoelectric ultrasonic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrrez-Reyes, E.; García-Segundo, C.; García-Valenzuela, A.; Reyes-Ramírez, B.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Guadarrama-Santana, A.

    2017-06-01

    We model theoretically the voltage response to an acoustic pulse of a multilayer system forming a low noise capacitive sensor including a Polyvinylidene Fluoride piezoelectric film. First we model a generic piezoelectric detector consisting of a piezoelectric film between two metallic electrodes that are the responsible to convert the acoustic signal into a voltage signal. Then we calculate the pressure-to-voltage transfer function for a N-layer piezo-electric capacitor detector, allowing to study the effects of the electrode and protective layers thickness in typical layered piezoelectric sensors. The derived transfer function, when multiplied by the Fourier transform of the incident acoustic pulse, gives the voltage electric response in the frequency domain. An important concern regarding the transfer function is that it may have zeros at specific frequencies, and thus inverting the voltage Fourier transform of the pulse to recover the pressure signal in the time domain is not always, in principle, possible. Our formulas can be used to predict the existence and locations of such zeroes. We illustrate the use of the transfer function by predicting the electric signal generated at a multilayer piezoelectric sensor to an ultrasonic pulse generated photoacoustically by a laser pulse at a three media system with impedance mismatch. This theoretical calculations are compared with our own experimental measurements.

  19. Influence of the piezoelectric parameters on the dynamics of an active rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawryluk, Jarosław; Mitura, Andrzej; Teter, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is an experimental and numerical analysis of the dynamic behavior of an active rotor with three composite blades. The study focuses on developing an effective FE modeling technique of a macro fiber composite element (denoted as MFC or active element) for the dynamic tests of active structures. The active rotor under consideration consists of a hub with a drive shaft, three grips and three glass-epoxy laminate blades with embedded active elements. A simplified FE model of the macro fiber composite element exhibiting the d33 piezoelectric effect is developed using the Abaqus software package. The discussed transducer is modeled as quasi-homogeneous piezoelectric material, and voltage is applied to the opposite faces of the element. In this case, the effective (equivalent) piezoelectric constant d33* is specified. Both static and dynamic tests are performed to verify the proposed model. First, static deflections of the active blade caused by the voltage signal are determined by numerical and experimental analyses. Next, a numerical modal analysis of the active rotor is performed. The eigenmodes and corresponding eigenfrequencies are determined by the Lanczos method. The influence of the model parameters (i.e., the effective piezoelectric constant d33 *, voltage signal, angular velocity) on the dynamics of the active rotor is examined. Finally, selected numerical results are validated in experimental tests. The experimental findings demonstrate that the structural stiffening effect caused by the active element strongly depends on the value of the effective piezoelectric constant.

  20. Monitoring of bone healing by piezoelectric-EMI method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlina, M. H.; Sarpinah, Bibi; Tawie, Rudy; Daho, Claira Dalislone; Annuar, Ishak

    2016-02-01

    Smart Piezoelectric devices which have excellent piezoelectric properties have been employed for various sensor and actuators applications. The work presented here is an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of bone healing monitoring by using piezoelectric-electromechanical impedance (EMI) method that have several advantages such as low cost, portable, light weight and simplicity in measurement. A Piezoelectric sensor (PZT) has been widely used in damage detection of various structures including concrete, pipes and bones due to their unique sensing and actuating properties. The EMI technique has emerged as a universal Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) tool suitable for almost all engineering materials and structures. The method used for this proposed study consists of put healing agent in the host structure in particular cracks bone to be monitored by PZT-needle sensor which is embedded to the host structure. The measurements were taken in the frequency range between 0.04 to 100 kHz at 1 kHz interval using AD5933 evaluation board. The signals retrieved from the AD5933 evaluation board, were quantify and analyse to obtain Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) percentage value. Measurements were taken every hour for 12 hours. The result from the study shows the feasibility of the piezoelectric-EMI method to effectively detect changes during bone-cracks healing process until the cracks bone is fully recovered.

  1. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  2. A Novel Hybrid Error Criterion-Based Active Control Method for on-Line Milling Vibration Suppression with Piezoelectric Actuators and Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingwu; Wang, Chenxi; Gao, Robert X.; Yan, Ruqiang; Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Shibin

    2016-01-01

    Milling vibration is one of the most serious factors affecting machining quality and precision. In this paper a novel hybrid error criterion-based frequency-domain LMS active control method is constructed and used for vibration suppression of milling processes by piezoelectric actuators and sensors, in which only one Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used and no Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) is involved. The correction formulas are derived by a steepest descent procedure and the control parameters are analyzed and optimized. Then, a novel hybrid error criterion is constructed to improve the adaptability, reliability and anti-interference ability of the constructed control algorithm. Finally, based on piezoelectric actuators and acceleration sensors, a simulation of a spindle and a milling process experiment are presented to verify the proposed method. Besides, a protection program is added in the control flow to enhance the reliability of the control method in applications. The simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is an effective and reliable way for on-line vibration suppression, and the machining quality can be obviously improved. PMID:26751448

  3. Electromechanical Simulation of Actively Controlled Rotordynamic Systems with Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Reng Rong; Palazzolo, A. B.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, G.

    1991-01-01

    Theories and tests for incorporating piezoelectric pushers as actuator devices for active vibration control are discussed. It started from a simple model with the assumption of ideal pusher characteristics and progressed to electromechanical models with nonideal pushers. Effects on system stability due to the nonideal characteristics of piezoelectric pushers and other elements in the control loop were investigated.

  4. Piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanowires: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Korir, K K; Cicero, G; Catellani, A

    2013-11-29

    Nanowires made of materials with non-centrosymmetric crystal structures are expected to be ideal building blocks for self-powered nanodevices due to their piezoelectric properties, yet a controversial explanation of the effective operational mechanisms and size effects still delays their real exploitation. To solve this controversy, we propose a methodology based on DFT calculations of the response of nanostructures to external deformations that allows us to distinguish between the different (bulk and surface) contributions: we apply this scheme to evaluate the piezoelectric properties of ZnO [0001] nanowires, with a diameter up to 2.3 nm. Our results reveal that, while surface and confinement effects are negligible, effective strain energies, and thus the nanowire mechanical response, are dependent on size. Our unified approach allows for a proper definition of piezoelectric coefficients for nanostructures, and explains in a rigorous way the reason why nanowires are found to be more sensitive to mechanical deformation than the corresponding bulk material.

  5. Dielectric Properties of Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Z.; Young, J. A.; Simpson, J. O.; Farmer, B. L.

    1997-01-01

    Molecular modeling and dielectric measurements are being used to identify mechanisms governing piezoelectric behavior in polyimides such as dipole orientation during poling, as well as degree of piezoelectricity achievable. Molecular modeling on polyimides containing pendant, polar nitrile (CN) groups has been completed to determine their remanent polarization. Experimental investigation of their dielectric properties evaluated as a function of temperature and frequency has substantiated numerical predictions. With this information in hand, we are then able to suggest changes in the molecular structures, which will then improve upon the piezoelectric response.

  6. Piezoelectric bimorph optical-fiber sensor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengguo; Xiao, Gaozhi; Zhang, Zhiyi; Grover, Chander P

    2004-03-20

    We propose and demonstrate a novel high-voltage optical-fiber sensor. This sensor consists of an emitting fiber, a receiving fiber, and a piezoelectric bimorph transducer. The emitting fiber is fixed in a base, whereas the receiving fiber is mounted on the free end of the piezoelectric bimorph transducer. When a voltage is applied to the piezoelectric bimorph transducer, its free end is displaced over a distance delta. The displacement induces a loss in the optical coupling between the emitting and the receiving fiber. The voltage can be measured by monitoring the coupling loss.

  7. Analytical and experimental investigation of flutter suppression by piezoelectric actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analytically and experimentally study the capabilities of piezoelectric plate actuators for suppressing flutter. Piezoelectric materials are characterized by their ability to produce voltage when subjected to a mechanical strain. The converse piezoelectric effect can be utilized to actuate a structure by applying a voltage. For this investigation, a two-degree-of-freedom wind tunnel model was designed, analyzed, and tested. The model consisted of a rigid wing and a flexible mount system that permitted a translational and a rotational degree of freedom. The model was designed such that flutter was encountered within the testing envelope of the wind tunnel. Actuators made of piezoelectric material were affixed to leaf springs of the mount system. Command signals, applied to the piezoelectric actuators, exerted control over the damping and stiffness properties. A mathematical aeroservoelastic model was constructed by using finite element methods, laminated plate theory, and aeroelastic analysis tools. Plant characteristics were determined from this model and verified by open loop experimental tests. A flutter suppression control law was designed and implemented on a digital control computer. Closed loop flutter testing was conducted. The experimental results represent the first time that adaptive materials have been used to actively suppress flutter. They demonstrate that small, carefully placed actuating plates can be used effectively to control aeroelastic response.

  8. Use of piezoelectric actuators in active vibration control of rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Reng Rong; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Kascak, Albert F.; Montague, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical and test results for the development of piezoelectric-actuator-based active vibration control (AVC) are presented. The evolution of this technology starts with an ideal model of the actuator and progresses to a more sophisticated model where the pushers force the squirrel cage ball bearing supports of a rotating shaft. The piezoelectric pushers consist of a stack of piezoelectric ceramic disks that are arranged on top of one another and connected in parallel electrically. This model consists of a prescribed displacement that is proportional to the input voltage and a spring that represents the stiffness of the stack of piezoelectric disks. System tests were carried out to stabilize the AVC system, verify its effectiveness in controlling vibration, and confirm the theory presented.

  9. Time-varying nonlinear dynamics of a deploying piezoelectric laminated composite plate under aerodynamic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. F.; Zhang, W.; Song, X. J.

    2017-09-01

    Using Reddy's high-order shear theory for laminated plates and Hamilton's principle, a nonlinear partial differential equation for the dynamics of a deploying cantilevered piezoelectric laminated composite plate, under the combined action of aerodynamic load and piezoelectric excitation, is introduced. Two-degree of freedom (DOF) nonlinear dynamic models for the time-varying coefficients describing the transverse vibration of the deploying laminate under the combined actions of a first-order aerodynamic force and piezoelectric excitation were obtained by selecting a suitable time-dependent modal function satisfying the displacement boundary conditions and applying second-order discretization using the Galerkin method. Using a numerical method, the time history curves of the deploying laminate were obtained, and its nonlinear dynamic characteristics, including extension speed and different piezoelectric excitations, were studied. The results suggest that the piezoelectric excitation has a clear effect on the change of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of such piezoelectric laminated composite plates. The nonlinear vibration of the deploying cantilevered laminate can be effectively suppressed by choosing a suitable voltage and polarity.

  10. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  11. ZnO thin film piezoelectric MEMS vibration energy harvesters with two piezoelectric elements for higher output performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peihong; Du, Hejun

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based vibration energy harvesters with two different designs are presented. These harvesters consist of a silicon cantilever, a silicon proof mass, and a ZnO piezoelectric layer. Design I has a large ZnO piezoelectric element and Design II has two smaller and equally sized ZnO piezoelectric elements; however, the total area of ZnO thin film in two designs is equal. The ZnO thin film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method and is characterized by means of XRD and SEM techniques. These ZnO energy harvesters are fabricated by using MEMS micromachining. The natural frequencies of the fabricated ZnO energy harvesters are simulated and tested. The test results show that these two energy harvesters with different designs have almost the same natural frequency. Then, the output performance of different ZnO energy harvesters is tested in detail. The effects of series connection and parallel connection of two ZnO elements on the load voltage and power are also analyzed. The experimental results show that the energy harvester with two ZnO piezoelectric elements in parallel connection in Design II has higher load voltage and higher load power than the fabricated energy harvesters with other designs. Its load voltage is 2.06 V under load resistance of 1 MΩ and its maximal load power is 1.25 μW under load resistance of 0.6 MΩ, when it is excited by an external vibration with frequency of 1300.1 Hz and acceleration of 10 m/s(2). By contrast, the load voltage of the energy harvester of Design I is 1.77 V under 1 MΩ resistance and its maximal load power is 0.98 μW under 0.38 MΩ load resistance when it is excited by the same vibration.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Aligned Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Nanofibers for Wearable Device Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Sang Hyun; Yun, Ji Sun

    2018-01-01

    Flexible lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers, based on BNT-ST (0.78Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.22SrTiO3) ceramic and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) copolymers, were fabricated by an electrospinning method and the effects of the degree of alignment in the nanofibers on the piezoelectric characteristics were investigated. The microstructure of the lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers was observed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and the orientation was analyzed by fast Fourier transform (FFT) images. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the phase was not changed by the electrospinning process and maintained a perovskite phase. Polarization-electric field (P-E) loops and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) were used to investigate the piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric nanofibers, according to the degree of alignment—the well aligned piezoelectric nanofibers had higher piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, the output voltage of the aligned lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers was measured according to the vibration frequency and the bending motion and the aligned piezoelectric nanofibers with a collector rotation speed of 1500 rpm performed the best. PMID:29596372

  13. Piezoelectric diaphragm for vibration energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Minazara, E; Vasic, D; Costa, F; Poulin, G

    2006-12-22

    This paper presents a technique of electric energy generation using a mechanically excited unimorph piezoelectric membrane transducer. The electrical characteristics of the piezoelectric power generator are investigated under dynamic conditions. The electromechanical model of the generator is presented and used to predict its electrical performances. The experiments was performed with a piezoelectric actuator (shaker) moving a macroscopic 25 mm diameter piezoelectric membrane. A power of 0.65 mW was generated at the resonance frequency (1.71 kHz) across a 5.6 kOmega optimal resistor and for a 80 N force. A special electronic circuit has been conceived in order to increase the power harvested by the piezoelectric transducer. This electrical converter applies the SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) technique, and leads to remarkable results: under the same actuation conditions the generated power reaches 1.7 mW, which is sufficient to supply a large range of low consumption sensors.

  14. Incredible negative values of effective electromechanical coupling coefficient for surface acoustic waves in piezoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Mozhaev, V G; Weihnacht, M

    2000-07-01

    The extraordinary case of increase in velocity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) caused by electrical shorting of the surface of the superstrong piezoelectric crystal potassium niobate, KNbO3, is numerically found. The explanation of this effect is based on considering SAWs as coupled Rayleigh and Bleustein-Gulyaev modes. A general procedure of approximate decoupling of the modes is suggested for piezoelectric crystals of arbitrary anisotropy. The effect under study takes place when the phase velocity of uncoupled sagittally polarized Rayleigh waves is intermediate between the phase velocities of uncoupled shear-horizontal Bleustein Gulyaev waves at the free and metallized surfaces. In this case, the metallization of the surface by an infinitely thin layer may cause a crossover of the velocity curves of the uncoupled waves. The presence of the mode coupling results in splitting of the curves with transition from one uncoupled branch to the other. This transition is responsible for the increase in SAW velocity, which appears to be greater than its common decrease produced by electrical shorting of the substrate surface.

  15. Analysis of Sensory/Active Piezoelectric Composite Structures in Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1996-01-01

    Although there has been extensive development of analytical methods for modeling the behavior of piezoelectric structures, only a limited amount of research has been performed concerning the implications of thermal effects on both the active and sensory response of smart structures. Thermal effects become important when the piezoelectric structure has to operate in either extremely hot or cold temperature environments. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to extend the previously developed discrete layer formulation of Saravanos and Heyliger to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response in modern smart composite beams. The mechanics accounts for thermal effects which may arise in the elastic and piezoelectric media at the material level through the constitutive equations. The displacements, electric potentials, and temperatures are introduced as state variables, allowing them to be modeled as variable fields through the laminate thickness. This unified representation leads to an inherent capability to model both the active compensation of thermal distortions in smart structures and the resultant sensory voltage when thermal loads are applied. The corresponding finite element formulation is developed and numerical results demonstrate the ability to model both the active and sensory modes of composite beams with heterogeneous plies with attached piezoelectric layers under thermal loadings.

  16. Nonlinear magnetoelectric effect and magnetostriction in piezoelectric CsCuCl{sub 3} in paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic states

    SciTech Connect

    Kharkovskiy, A. I., E-mail: akharkovskiy@inbox.ru; L.F. Vereshchagin Institute for High Pressure Physics RAS, 142190 Troitsk, Moscow; Shaldin, Yu. V.

    2016-01-07

    The direct nonlinear magnetoelectric (ME) effect and the magnetostriction of piezoelectric CsCuCl{sub 3} single crystals were comprehensively studied over a wide temperature range in stationary magnetic fields of up to 14 T. The direct nonlinear ME effect measurements were also performed in pulsed magnetic fields up to 31 T, at liquid helium temperature in the antiferromagnetic (AF) state for the crystallographic direction in which effect has the maximum value. The nonlinear ME effect was quadratic in the paramagnetic state for the whole range of magnetic fields. In the AF state the phase transition between different configurations of spins manifested itself as plateau-likemore » peculiarity on the nonlinear ME effect. The nonlinear ME effect was saturated by the phase transition to the spin-saturated paramagnetic state. Two contributions to the nonlinear ME effects in CsCuCl{sub 3} were extracted from the experimental data: the intrinsic ME effect originated from the magnetoelectric interactions, and the extrinsic one, which resulted from a magnetostriction-induced piezoelectric effect.« less

  17. Piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite foams.

    PubMed

    McCall, William R; Kim, Kanguk; Heath, Cory; La Pierre, Gina; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-11-26

    Piezoelectric polymer composite foams are synthesized using different sugar-templating strategies. By incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane mixtures containing barium titanate nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing, highly compliant materials with excellent piezoelectric properties can be fabricated. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio which gave an upper bound on the porosity of 73% and a lower bound on the elastic coefficient of 32 kPa. The electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs, giving piezoelectric coefficient values of ∼112 pC/N and a power output of ∼18 mW/cm3 under a load of 10 N for the highest porosity samples. These novel materials should find exciting use in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, biosensors, and acoustic actuators.

  18. The Effects of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes on the Shear Piezoelectricity of Biopolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, Conrad; Fitz-Gerald, James M.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Park, Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Shear piezoelectricity was investigated in a series of composites consisting of increased loadings of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in poly (gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate), or PBLG. The effects of the SWCNTs on this material property in PBLG will be discussed. Their influence on the morphology of the polymer (degree of orientation and crystallinity), and electrical and dielectric properties of the composite will be reported

  19. On the performance of piezoelectric harvesters loaded by finite width impulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doria, A.; Medè, C.; Desideri, D.; Maschio, A.; Codecasa, L.; Moro, F.

    2018-02-01

    The response of cantilevered piezoelectric harvesters loaded by finite width impulses of base acceleration is studied analytically in the frequency domain in order to identify the parameters that influence the generated voltage. Experimental tests are then performed on harvesters loaded by hammer impacts. The latter are used to confirm analytical results and to validate a linear finite element (FE) model of a unimorph harvester. The FE model is, in turn, used to extend analytical results to more general harvesters (tapered, inverse tapered, triangular) and to more general impulses (heel strike in human gait). From analytical and numerical results design criteria for improving harvester performance are obtained.

  20. Energy harvesting performance of piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Sam; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2015-08-28

    Energy harvesting from ubiquitous ambient vibrations is attractive for autonomous small-power applications and thus considerable research is focused on piezoelectric materials as they permit direct inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy. Nanogenerators (NGs) based on piezoelectric nanowires are particularly attractive due to their sensitivity to small-scale vibrations and may possess superior mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency when compared to bulk or thin-film devices of the same material. However, candidate piezoelectric nanowires have hitherto been predominantly analyzed in terms of NG output (i.e. output voltage, output current and output power density). Surprisingly, the corresponding dynamical properties of the NG, including details of how the nanowires are mechanically driven and its impact on performance, have been largely neglected. Here we investigate all realizable NG driving contexts separately involving inertial displacement, applied stress T and applied strain S, highlighting the effect of driving mechanism and frequency on NG performance in each case. We argue that, in the majority of cases, the intrinsic high resonance frequencies of piezoelectric nanowires (∼tens of MHz) present no barrier to high levels of NG performance even at frequencies far below resonance (<1 kHz) typically characteristic of ambient vibrations. In this context, we introduce vibrational energy harvesting (VEH) coefficients ηS and ηT, based on intrinsic materials properties, for comparing piezoelectric NG performance under strain-driven and stress-driven conditions respectively. These figures of merit permit, for the first time, a general comparison of piezoelectric nanowires for NG applications that takes into account the nature of the mechanical excitation. We thus investigate the energy harvesting performance of prototypical piezoelectric ceramic and polymer nanowires. We find that even though ceramic and polymer nanowires have been found, in

  1. Identifiable piezoelectric security system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-10-01

    Directing at the disadvantages of low environmental suitability, inferior anti-interference ability and being easy to be found and destroyed in existing security product, a kind of identifiable piezoelectric security system based on piezoelectric cable is designed. The present system gathers vibration signals of different moving bodies, such as human, vehicles, animals and so on, with piezoelectric cable buried under -ground and distinguishes the different moving bodies through recognition algorithm and thus giving an alarm. As is shown in experiments, the present system has the features of good concealment and high accuracy in distinguishing moving bodies.

  2. L-shaped piezoelectric motor--part II: analytical modeling.

    PubMed

    Avirovik, Dragan; Karami, M Amin; Inman, Daniel; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops an analytical model for an L-shaped piezoelectric motor. The motor structure has been described in detail in Part I of this study. The coupling of the bending vibration mode of the bimorphs results in an elliptical motion at the tip. The emphasis of this paper is on the development of a precise analytical model which can predict the dynamic behavior of the motor based on its geometry. The motor was first modeled mechanically to identify the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. Next, an electromechanical model of the motor was developed to take into account the piezoelectric effect, and dynamics of L-shaped piezoelectric motor were obtained as a function of voltage and frequency. Finally, the analytical model was validated by comparing it to experiment results and the finite element method (FEM). © 2012 IEEE

  3. Piezoelectric Characteristics of Chiral Polymer Composite Films Obtained under Strong Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakiri, Takuo; Okuno, Masaki; Maki, Nobuyuki; Kanasaki, Masayoshi; Morimoto, Yu; Okamoto, Satoshi; Ishizuka, Masayuki; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Takaki, Toshihiko; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2005-09-01

    It is difficult to obtain a drawn chiral polymer/inorganic material composite membrane with shear piezoelectricity by the conventional method because the chiral polymer/inorganic material composite membrane breaks during the drawing process by which shear piezoelectricity is realized. Using a strong magnetic field, we propose to manufacture a drawn composite membrane of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), a chiral polymer, and hydroxyapatite (Hap), an inoroganic material (PLLA/Hap composite membrane). The manufacturing method used here is effective for obtaining a drawn PLLA/Hap composite membrane with a large uniform area. Also, the shear piezoelectric constant of the drawn PLLA/Hap composite membrane is about 20 pC/N. This value is large for piezoelectric polymers.

  4. Energy harvesting from torsions of patterned piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; You, Hangil

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of energy harvesting from the torsions using a piezoelectric beam. The piezoelectric beam is partially patterned and is tested in an experimental setup to force pure torsional deformation. In particular, the beam consists of two identical piezoelectric parts attached on one side of a supporting substrate. We propose a model for the energy harvesting system through the equations for a slender composite beam with the physical properties and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The theoretical predictions are validated by the comparison with the experimental results.

  5. Theoretical analysis of a ceramic plate thickness-shear mode piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Limei; Zhang, Ying; Fan, Hui; Hu, Junhui; Yang, Jiashi

    2009-03-01

    We perform a theoretical analysis on a ceramic plate piezoelectric transformer operating with thickness-shear modes. Mindlin's first-order theory of piezoelectric plates is employed, and a forced vibration solution is obtained. Transforming ratio, resonant frequencies, and vibration mode shapes are calculated, and the effects of plate thickness and electrode dimension are examined.

  6. Energy harvesting from low frequency applications using piezoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Z. Daniel, E-mail: zhiqun.deng@pnnl.gov

    2014-12-15

    In an effort to eliminate the replacement of the batteries of electronic devices that are difficult or impractical to service once deployed, harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations or impacts using piezoelectric materials has been researched over the last several decades. However, a majority of these applications have very low input frequencies. This presents a challenge for the researchers to optimize the energy output of piezoelectric energy harvesters, due to the relatively high elastic moduli of piezoelectric materials used to date. This paper reviews the current state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for low frequency (0–100 Hz) applications and themore » methods that have been developed to improve the power outputs of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various key aspects that contribute to the overall performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester are discussed, including geometries of the piezoelectric element, types of piezoelectric material used, techniques employed to match the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric element to input frequency of the host structure, and electronic circuits specifically designed for energy harvesters.« less

  7. Energy harvesting “3-D knitted spacer” based piezoelectric textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, S.; Soin, N.; Shah, T. H.; Siores, E.

    2016-07-01

    The piezoelectric effect in Poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, was discovered over four decades ago and since then, significant work has been carried out aiming at the production of high p-phase fibres and their integration into fabric structures for energy harvesting. However, little work has been done in the area of production of “true piezoelectric fabric structures” based on flexible polymeric materials such as PVDF. In this work, we demonstrate “3-D knitted spacer” technology based all-fibre piezoelectric fabrics as power generators and energy harvesters. The knitted single-structure piezoelectric generator consists of high p-phase (~80%) piezoelectric PVDF monofilaments as the spacer yarn interconnected between silver (Ag) coated polyamide multifilament yarn layers acting as the top and bottom electrodes. The novel and unique textile structure provides an output power density in the range of 1.105.10 gWcm-2 at applied impact pressures in the range of 0.02-0.10 MPa, thus providing significantly higher power outputs and efficiencies over the existing 2-D woven and nonwoven piezoelectric structures. The high energy efficiency, mechanical durability and comfort of the soft, flexible and all-fibre based power generator is highly attractive for a variety of potential applications such as wearable electronic systems and energy harvesters charged from ambient environment or by human movement.

  8. Piezoelectric Active Humidity Sensors Based on Lead-Free NaNbO₃ Piezoelectric Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Li; Zhou, Di; Cao, Jun Cheng

    2016-06-07

    The development of micro-/nano-scaled energy harvesters and the self-powered sensor system has attracted great attention due to the miniaturization and integration of the micro-device. In this work, lead-free NaNbO₃ piezoelectric nanofibers with a monoclinic perovskite structure were synthesized by the far-field electrospinning method. The flexible active humidity sensors were fabricated by transferring the nanofibers from silicon to a soft polymer substrate. The sensors exhibited outstanding piezoelectric energy-harvesting performance with output voltage up to 2 V during the vibration process. The output voltage generated by the NaNbO₃ sensors exhibited a negative correlation with the environmental humidity varying from 5% to 80%, where the peak-to-peak value of the output voltage generated by the sensors decreased from 0.40 to 0.07 V. The sensor also exhibited a short response time, good selectively against ethanol steam, and great temperature stability. The piezoelectric active humidity sensing property could be attributed to the increased leakage current in the NaNbO₃ nanofibers, which was generated due to proton hopping among the H₃O⁺ groups in the absorbed H₂O layers under the driving force of the piezoelectric potential.

  9. Piezoelectricity of green carp scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, H. Y.; Yen, F.; Huang, C. W.; Mei, R. B.; Chen, L.

    2017-04-01

    Piezoelectricity takes part in multiple important functions and processes in biomaterials often vital to the survival of organisms. Here, we investigate the piezoelectric properties of fish scales of green carp by directly examining their morphology at nanometer levels. Two types of regions are found to comprise the scales, a smooth one and a rough one. The smooth region is comprised of a ridge and trough pattern and the rough region characterized by a flat base with an elevated mosaic of crescents. Piezoelectricity is found on the ridges and base regions of the scales. From clear distinctions between the composition of the inner and outer surfaces of the scales, we identify the piezoelectricity to originate from the presence of hydroxyapatite which only exists on the surface of the fish scales. Our findings reveal a different mechanism of how green carp are sensitive to their surroundings and should be helpful to studies related to the electromechanical properties of marine life and the development of bio-inspired materials.

  10. Large piezoelectricity in electric-field modified single crystals of SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanbabaee, B.; Mehner, E.; Richter, C.; Hanzig, J.; Zschornak, M.; Pietsch, U.; Stöcker, H.; Leisegang, T.; Meyer, D. C.; Gorfman, S.

    2016-11-01

    Defect engineering is an effective and powerful tool to control the existing material properties and produce completely new ones, which are symmetry-forbidden in a defect-free crystal. For example, the application of a static electric field to a single crystal of SrTiO3 forms a strained near-surface layer through the migration of oxygen vacancies out of the area beneath the positively charged electrode. While it was previously shown that this near-surface phase holds pyroelectric properties, which are symmetry-forbidden in centrosymmetric bulk SrTiO3, this paper reports that the same phase is strongly piezoelectric. We demonstrate the piezoelectricity of this phase through stroboscopic time-resolved X-ray diffraction under alternating electric field and show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient d33 ranges between 60 and 100 pC/N. The possible atomistic origins of the piezoelectric activity are discussed as a coupling between the electrostrictive effect and spontaneous polarization of this near-surface phase.

  11. Piezoelectric devices for generating low power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilibon, Irinela

    2016-12-01

    This paper reviews concepts and applications in low-power electronics and energy harvesting technologies. Various piezoelectric materials and devices for small power generators useful in renewable electricity are presented. The vibrating piezoelectric device differs from the typical electrical power source in that it has capacitive rather than inductive source impedance, and may be driven by mechanical vibrations of varying amplitude. In general, vibration energy could be converted into electrical energy using one of three techniques: electrostatic charge, magnetic fields and piezoelectric. A low power piezoelectric generator, having a PZT element was realised in order to supply small electronic elements, such as optoelectronic small devices, LEDs, electronic watches, small sensors, interferometry with lasers or Micro-electro-mechanical System (MEMS) array with multi-cantilevers.

  12. Heartbeat detection system using piezoelectric transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamonangan, Yosua; Purnamaningsih, Wigajatri

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a simple piezoelectric based heartbeat detection system. The signal produced by the piezoelectric will undergo signal conditioning and then converted into digital data by Arduino Nano. Using serial communication, the data will be sent to a computer for display and further analysis. The detection of heartbeat is carried out on three locations; wrist, chest, and diaphragm. From the measurement results, it is shown that the system work best when the piezoelectric is placed on wrist.

  13. Capacitance-Based Frequency Adjustment of Micro Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinhua; He, Qing; Li, Hong; Chu, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method. PMID:25133237

  14. Integrated Analysis of Piezoelectric Resonators as Components of Electronic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-07

    Transient thickness-shear vibration of apiezoelectric plate of monoclinic crystals, International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics 38...52, 1461-1467 (2005)., (04 2012): 811. doi: N Liu, J S Yang, F Jin. Transient thickness-shear vibration of a piezoelectric plate of monoclinic...2012) 27–37, (02 2012): 27. doi: Zhi Wang, Minghao Zhao, Jiashi Yang. Amplitude evolution equation and transient effects in piezoelectric crystal

  15. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, S.; Mase, Y.; Shimizu, S.; Maeda, K.; Fujii, I.; Nakashima, K.; Pulpan, P.; Miyajima, N.

    2011-10-01

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  16. Concomitant sensing and actuation for piezoelectric microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Jafferis, Noah T.; Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Ben; Wood, Robert J.

    2018-06-01

    Sensor fabrication for microrobots is challenging due to their small size and low mass. As a potential solution, we present a technique for estimating the velocity of piezoelectric bending bimorph actuators, a popular choice for driving such microscale devices, that requires simple electronics and no additional mechanical components. Our approach relies on the insight that motion of the actuators causes varying strains on the surface on the piezoelectric material, which via the direct piezoelectric effect, results in a current proportional to the actuator velocity. We propose that the actuator be electrically approximated as a parallel combination of a frequency and voltage dependent resistor and capacitor, and a velocity proportional current source. We develop an experimental procedure to measure these quantities, and are able to experimentally determine the actuator tip velocity to within 10% accuracy over a range of voltages (25–200 V) and frequencies (1–2000 Hz, well beyond actuator resonance). We successfully apply this sensing methodology to two microrobots, the RoboBee and the Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR), to estimate the wing and limb motion respectively. We further use sensor feedback to close the loop on HAMR’s leg phase and obtain desired leg trajectories near transmission resonance. The proposed sensor methodology is generic and can be applied to piezoelectric actuators of different geometries and configurations for uses in microrobotic applications.

  17. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  18. Piezoelectric Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  19. Eddy-current effect on resonant magnetoelectric coupling in magnetostrictive-piezoelectric laminated composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoxi; Zhang, Chunli; Chen, Weiqiu; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-07-01

    An analytical model of resonant magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in magnetostrictive (MS)-piezoelectric (PE) laminated composites in consideration of eddy-current effect in MS layer using equivalent circuit method is presented. Numerical calculations show that: (1) the eddy-current has a strong effect on ME coupling in MS-PE laminated composites at resonant frequency; and (2) the resonant ME coupling is then significantly dependent on the sizes of ME laminated composites, which were neglected in most previous theoretical analyses. The achieved results provide a theoretical guidance for the practice engineering design, manufacture, and application of ME laminated composites and devices.

  20. A nondisturbing electric-field sensor using piezoelectric and converse piezoelectric resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yongkwan; Kim, Ilryong; Lee, Soonchil

    1997-12-01

    An electric-field sensor was developed using both piezoelectric and converse piezoelectric resonances. Composed of no metallic parts, this probe minimizes field disturbance. The most distinguishing feature of this probe is that a signal is transmitted neither electrically nor optically, but mechanically. To demonstrate the field sensing capability of this probe, we measured both the capacitive and inductive fields inside empty and plasma-filled solenoidal coils. The result shows that the capacitive field is dominant in an empty solenoid, although it is almost completely shielded by inductively excited plasma.

  1. AlN based piezoelectric micromirror.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jian; Li, Qi; Feng, Chuhuan; Li, Wei; Yu, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Aiming to pursue a micromirror possessing many desired characteristics, such as linear control, low power consumption, fast response, and easy fabrication, a new piezoelectric actuation strategy is presented. Different from conventional piezoelectric actuation cases, we first propose using AlN film as the active layer for actuating the micromirror. Owing to its good CMOS compatible deposition and patterning techniques, the AlN based piezoelectric micromirror has been successfully fabricated with a modified silicon-on-insulator-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) process. At the same time, various mirror movement modes operating at high frequencies and excellent linear relationship between the movement and the control signal both have been experimentally demonstrated.

  2. The multimodal magnetoelectric effect in the ring-shaped magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bulk composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, G. S.; Filippov, D. A.; Laletin, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigation of the direct magnetoelectric effect in the ring-type structures made of the bulk magnetostrictive-piezoelectric composites has been presented. The analytical expression for the magnetoelectric voltage coefficient has been obtained using the effective parameters method. The frequency dependence of this parameter is also analyzed. The dependence of the resonant frequency and the amplitude of this effect of the geometrical parameters of the ring for the first and second oscillation modes are presented. The experimental investigation of the direct magnetoelectric effect for the ring-type composite specimens consisting of the nickel ferrite spinel-PZT bulk composite is done. The obtained experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  3. Optimum vibration control of flexible beams by piezo-electric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Studer, P.

    1988-01-01

    The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the structural vibrations of flexible beams is examined. A Modified Independent Modal Space Control (MIMSC) method is devised to enable the selection of the optimal location, control gains and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the amplitudes of vibrations of beams to which these actuators are bonded, as well as the input control energy necessary to suppress these vibrations. The developed method accounts for the effects that the piezoelectric actuators have on changing the elastic and inertial properties of the flexible beams. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the developed MIMSC method in minimizing the structural vibrations of beams of different materials when subjected to different loading and end conditions using ceramic or polymeric piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised method in designing more realistic active control systems for flexible beams, in particular, and large flexible structures in general.

  4. Optimum vibration control of flexible beams by piezo-electric actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the structural vibrations of flexible beams is examined. A Modified Independent Modal Space Control (MIMSC) method is devised to enable the selection of the optimal location, control gains and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the amplitudes of vibrations of beams to which these actuators are bonded, as well as the input control energy necessary to suppress these vibrations. The developed method accounts for the effects that the piezoelectric actuators have on changing the elastic and inertial properties of the flexible beams. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the developed MIMSC method in minimizing the structural vibrations of beams of different materials when subjected to different loading and end conditions using ceramic or polymeric piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised method in designing more realistic active control systems for flexible beams, in particular, and large flexible structures in general.

  5. Improved Multiple-DOF SAW Piezoelectric Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Hull, Anthony; Wright, John

    2003-01-01

    Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) piezoelectric motors of a proposed type would be capable of operating in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) simultaneously and would be amenable to integration into diverse structures and mechanisms. These motors would be compact and structurally simple and would not contain bearings or lead screws. One example of a particularly useful motor of this type would be a two-dimensional- translation stage. Another such example would be a self-actuated spherical joint that could be made to undergo controlled, simultaneous rotations about two orthogonal axes: Such a motor could serve as a mechanism for aiming an "eyeball" camera or as a compact transducer in, and an integral part of, a joint in a robot arm. The multiple-DOF SAW piezoelectric motors as now proposed would be successors to the ones reported in "Multiple-DOF Surface-Acoustic-Wave Piezoelectric Motors" (NPO-20735), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 5b. The basic principle of operation of a multiple-DOF SAW piezoelectric motor is a straightforward extension of that of single-DOF SAW piezoelectric motors, which have been reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles: For example, in the case of a linear SAW piezoelectric motor, piezoelectric transducers at opposite ends of a stator excite surface acoustic waves that travel along the surface of the stator. An object (denoted the slider) is pressed against the stator with sufficient pressure (in practice .300 MPa) that it remains in frictional contact with the stator at all times. The slider rides the crests of the waves and is thereby made to move along the surface of the stator. The direction of motion (forward or backward) is controlled by selecting the relative phase of waves generated by the two piezoelectric transducers. The speed increases with the amplitude of the waves and thus with the magnitude of the voltage applied to the transducers.

  6. Measurement of the internal stress and electric field in a resonating piezoelectric transformer for high-voltage applications using the electro-optic and photoelastic effects

    SciTech Connect

    VanGordon, James A.; Kovaleski, Scott D., E-mail: kovaleskis@missouri.edu; Norgard, Peter

    The high output voltages from piezoelectric transformers are currently being used to accelerate charged particle beams for x-ray and neutron production. Traditional methods of characterizing piezoelectric transformers (PTs) using electrical probes can decrease the voltage transformation ratio of the device due to the introduction of load impedances on the order of hundreds of kiloohms to hundreds of megaohms. Consequently, an optical diagnostic was developed that used the photoelastic and electro-optic effects present in piezoelectric materials that are transparent to a given optical wavelength to determine the internal stress and electric field. The combined effects of the piezoelectric, photoelastic, and electro-opticmore » effects result in a time-dependent change the refractive indices of the material and produce an artificially induced, time-dependent birefringence in the piezoelectric material. This induced time-dependent birefringence results in a change in the relative phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary wave components of a helium-neon laser beam. The change in phase difference between the wave components was measured using a set of linear polarizers. The measured change in phase difference was used to calculate the stress and electric field based on the nonlinear optical properties, the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and the boundary conditions of the PT. Maximum stresses of approximately 10 MPa and electric fields of as high as 6 kV/cm were measured with the optical diagnostic. Measured results were compared to results from both a simple one-dimensional (1D) model of the piezoelectric transformer and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. Measured stresses and electric fields along the length of an operating length-extensional PT for two different electrical loads were within at least 50 % of 3D finite element simulated results. Additionally, the 3D finite element results were more accurate than the results from the 1

  7. Measurement of the internal stress and electric field in a resonating piezoelectric transformer for high-voltage applications using the electro-optic and photoelastic effects.

    PubMed

    VanGordon, James A; Kovaleski, Scott D; Norgard, Peter; Gall, Brady B; Dale, Gregory E

    2014-02-01

    The high output voltages from piezoelectric transformers are currently being used to accelerate charged particle beams for x-ray and neutron production. Traditional methods of characterizing piezoelectric transformers (PTs) using electrical probes can decrease the voltage transformation ratio of the device due to the introduction of load impedances on the order of hundreds of kiloohms to hundreds of megaohms. Consequently, an optical diagnostic was developed that used the photoelastic and electro-optic effects present in piezoelectric materials that are transparent to a given optical wavelength to determine the internal stress and electric field. The combined effects of the piezoelectric, photoelastic, and electro-optic effects result in a time-dependent change the refractive indices of the material and produce an artificially induced, time-dependent birefringence in the piezoelectric material. This induced time-dependent birefringence results in a change in the relative phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary wave components of a helium-neon laser beam. The change in phase difference between the wave components was measured using a set of linear polarizers. The measured change in phase difference was used to calculate the stress and electric field based on the nonlinear optical properties, the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and the boundary conditions of the PT. Maximum stresses of approximately 10 MPa and electric fields of as high as 6 kV/cm were measured with the optical diagnostic. Measured results were compared to results from both a simple one-dimensional (1D) model of the piezoelectric transformer and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. Measured stresses and electric fields along the length of an operating length-extensional PT for two different electrical loads were within at least 50 % of 3D finite element simulated results. Additionally, the 3D finite element results were more accurate than the results from the 1D model

  8. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of fatigue resistant, self-healing PZT-ionomer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, N. K.; Lafont, U.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W. A.

    2014-05-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with 0-3 connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate (PZT) powder dispersed in an ionomer (Zn ionomer) and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer (EMAA) polymer matrix. The PZT-Zn ionomer and PZT-EMAA composites were prepared by melt extrusion followed by hot pressing. The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The results show that PZT-Zn ionomer composites have better piezoelectric properties compared to PZT-EMAA composites. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. The PZT-Zn ionomer composites were found to have excellent fatigue resistance even at strain levels of 4%. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing.

  9. Improving atomic force microscopy imaging by a direct inverse asymmetric PI hysteresis model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Yu, Peng; Wang, Feifei; Chan, Ho-Yin; Zhou, Lei; Dong, Zaili; Liu, Lianqing; Li, Wen Jung

    2015-02-03

    A modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) model, referred to as a direct inverse asymmetric PI (DIAPI) model in this paper, was implemented to reduce the displacement error between a predicted model and the actual trajectory of a piezoelectric actuator which is commonly found in AFM systems. Due to the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator, the standard symmetric PI model cannot precisely describe the asymmetric motion of the actuator. In order to improve the accuracy of AFM scans, two series of slope parameters were introduced in the PI model to describe both the voltage-increase-loop (trace) and voltage-decrease-loop (retrace). A feedforward controller based on the DIAPI model was implemented to compensate hysteresis. Performance of the DIAPI model and the feedforward controller were validated by scanning micro-lenses and standard silicon grating using a custom-built AFM.

  10. Improving Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging by a Direct Inverse Asymmetric PI Hysteresis Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Yu, Peng; Wang, Feifei; Chan, Ho-Yin; Zhou, Lei; Dong, Zaili; Liu, Lianqing; Li, Wen Jung

    2015-01-01

    A modified Prandtl–Ishlinskii (PI) model, referred to as a direct inverse asymmetric PI (DIAPI) model in this paper, was implemented to reduce the displacement error between a predicted model and the actual trajectory of a piezoelectric actuator which is commonly found in AFM systems. Due to the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator, the standard symmetric PI model cannot precisely describe the asymmetric motion of the actuator. In order to improve the accuracy of AFM scans, two series of slope parameters were introduced in the PI model to describe both the voltage-increase-loop (trace) and voltage-decrease-loop (retrace). A feedforward controller based on the DIAPI model was implemented to compensate hysteresis. Performance of the DIAPI model and the feedforward controller were validated by scanning micro-lenses and standard silicon grating using a custom-built AFM. PMID:25654719

  11. Effect of Polymer Matrix on the Structure and Electric Properties of Piezoelectric Lead Zirconatetitanate/Polymer Composites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Zhou, Jun; Liu, Hujun; Pei, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelectric lead zirconatetitanate (PZT)/polymer composites were prepared by two typical polymer matrixes using the hot-press method. The micromorphology, microstructure, dielectric properties, and piezoelectric properties of the PZT/polymer composites were characterized and investigated. The results showed that when the condition of frequency is 103 Hz, the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of PZT/poly(vinylidene fluoride) were both better than that of PZT/polyvinyl chloride (PVC). When the volume fraction of PZT was 50%, PZT/PVDF prepared by the hot-press method had better comprehensive electric property. PMID:28805730

  12. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  13. Novel composite piezoelectric material for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Guobiene, Asta; Palevicius, Arvydas; Prosycevas, Igoris; Ponelyte, Sigita; Baltrusaitis, Valentinas; Sakalys, Rokas

    2015-04-01

    Past few decades were concentrated on researches related to effective energy harvesting applied in modern technologies, MEMS or MOEMS systems. There are many methods for harvesting energy as, for example, usage of electromagnetic devices, but most dramatic changes were noticed in the usage of piezoelectric materials in small scale devices. Major limitation faced was too small generated power by piezoelectric materials or high resonant frequencies of such smallscale harvesters. In this research, novel composite piezoelectric material was created by mixing PZT powder with 20% solution of polyvinyl butyral in benzyl alcohol. Obtained paste was screen printed on copper foil using 325 mesh stainless steel screen and dried for 30 min at 100 °C. Polyvinyl butyral ensures good adhesion and flexibility of a new material at the conditions that requires strong binding. Five types of a composite piezoelectric material with different concentrations of PZT (40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80 %) were produced. As the results showed, these harvesters were able to transform mechanical strain energy into electric potential and, v.v. In experimental setup, electromagnetic shaker was used to excite energy harvester that is fixed in the custom-built clamp, while generated electric potential were registered with USB oscilloscope PICO 3424. The designed devices generate up to 80 μV at 50 Hz excitation. This property can be applied to power microsystem devices or to use them in portable electronics and wireless sensors. However, the main advantage of the created composite piezoelectric material is possibility to apply it on any uniform or nonuniform vibrating surface and to transform low frequency vibrations into electricity.

  14. Ultrafast magnetic vortex core switching driven by the topological inverse Faraday effect.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Tatara, Gen

    2012-09-21

    We present a theoretical discovery of an unconventional mechanism of inverse Faraday effect which acts selectively on topological magnetic structures. The effect, topological inverse Faraday effect, is induced by the spin Berry's phase of the magnetic structure when a circularly polarized light is applied. Thus a spin-orbit interaction is not necessary unlike that in the conventional inverse Faraday effect. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that topological inverse Faraday effect realizes ultrafast switching of a magnetic vortex within a switching time of 150 ps without magnetic field.

  15. Analysis of a disk-type piezoelectric ultrasonic motor using impedance matrices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young H; Ha, Sung K

    2003-12-01

    The dynamic behavior and the performance characteristics of the disk-type traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motors (USM) are analyzed using impedance matrices. The stator is divided into three coupled subsystems: an inner metal disk, a piezoelectric annular actuator with segmented electrodes, and an outer metal disk with teeth. The effects of both shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in deriving an impedance matrix for the piezoelectric actuator. The impedance matrices for each subsystem then are combined into a global impedance matrix using continuity conditions at the interfaces. A comparison is made between the impedance matrix model and the three-dimensional finite element model of the piezoelectric stator, obtaining the resonance and antiresonance frequencies and the effective electromechanical coupling factors versus circumferential mode numbers. Using the calculated resonance frequency and the vibration modes for the stator and a brush model with the Coulomb friction for the stator and rotor contact, stall torque, and no-load speed versus excitation frequencies are calculated at different preloads. Performance characteristics such as speed-torque curve and the output efficiency of the USM also are estimated using the current impedance matrix and the contact model. The present impedance model can be shown to be very effective in the design of the USM.

  16. Piezoelectric biosensor with a ladder polymer substrate coating

    DOEpatents

    Renschler, Clifford L.; White, Christine A.; Carter, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    A piezoelectric biosensor substrate useful for immobilizing biomolecules in an oriented manner on the surface of a piezoelectric sensor has a ladder polymer of polyacrylonitrile. To make the substrate, a solution of an organic polymer, preferably polyacrylonitrile, is applied to the surface of a piezoelectric sensor. The organic polymer is modifying by heating the polymer in a controlled fashion in air such that a ladder polymer is produced which, in turn, forms the attachment point for the biomolecules comprising the piezoelectric biosensor.

  17. Peculiar Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevik, Cem; Cakir, Deniz; Gulseren, Oguz; Peeters, Francois M.

    Recently, two dimensional materials with noncentrosymmetric structure have received significant interest due to their potential usage in piezoelectric applications. It has been reported by first principles calculations that relaxed-ion piezoelectric strain (d11) and stress (e11) coefficients of some transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers are comparable or even better than that of conventional bulk piezoelectric materials. Furthermore, e11 coefficient of MoS2 has been measured as 2.9 .10-10 C/m, which agrees well with the theoretical calculations. In order to deeply investigate this potential, we have performed first-principles calculations and systematically investigated the piezoelectric properties of various single layer structures: TMDCs, transition metal oxides, and hexagonal group II-VI compounds. The results clearly show that not only the Mo- and W-based TMDCs but also the other materials with Cr, Ti, Zr and Sn exhibit highly promising piezoelectric properties. Moreover, d11coefficient of some II-VI compounds have been predicted as quite larger than that of TMDCs and the bulk materials, α-quartz, w-GaN, and w-AlN which are widely used in applications.

  18. Development of piezoelectric composites for transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, A.

    1994-07-01

    For the past decade and a half, many different types of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites have been developed intended for transducer applications. These diphasic composites are prepared from non-active polymer, such as epoxy, and piezoelectric ceramic, such as PZT, in the form of filler powders, elongated fibers, multilayer and more complex three-dimensional structures. For the last four years, most of the efforts have been given to producing large area and fine scale PZT fiber composites. In this paper, processing of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with various connectivity patterns are reviewed. Development of fine scale piezoelectric composites by lost mold, injection molding and the relic method are described. Research activities of different groups for preparing large area piezocomposites for hydrophone and actuator applications are briefly reviewed. Initial development of electrostrictive ceramics and composites are also

  19. Torsion analysis of cracked circular bars actuated by a piezoelectric coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, A. R.; Faal, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a formulation for a bar with circular cross-section, coated by a piezoelectric layer and subjected to Saint-Venant torsion loading. The bar is weakened by a Volterra-type screw dislocation. First, with aid of the finite Fourier transform, the stress fields in the circular bar and the piezoelectric layer are obtained. The problem is then reduced to a set of singular integral equations with a Cauchy-type singularity. Unknown dislocation density is achieved by numerical solution of these integral equations. Numerical results are discussed, to reveal the effect of the piezoelectric layer on the reduction of the mechanical stress intensity factor in the bar.

  20. Unexpectedly high piezoelectricity of Sm-doped lead zirconate titanate in the Curie point region.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Shruti B; Nolan, Michelle M; Tutuncu, Goknur; Forrester, Jennifer S; Sapper, Eva; Esteves, Giovanni; Granzow, Torsten; Thomas, Pam A; Nino, Juan C; Rojac, Tadej; Jones, Jacob L

    2018-03-07

    Large piezoelectric coefficients in polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are traditionally achieved through compositional design using a combination of chemical substitution with a donor dopant and adjustment of the zirconium to titanium compositional ratio to meet the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). In this work, a different route to large piezoelectricity is demonstrated. Results reveal unexpectedly high piezoelectric coefficients at elevated temperatures and compositions far from the MPB. At temperatures near the Curie point, doping with 2 at% Sm results in exceptionally large piezoelectric coefficients of up to 915 pm/V. This value is approximately twice those of other donor dopants (e.g., 477 pm/V for Nb and 435 pm/V for La). Structural changes during the phase transitions of Sm-doped PZT show a pseudo-cubic phase forming ≈50 °C below the Curie temperature. Possible origins of these effects are discussed and the high piezoelectricity is posited to be due to extrinsic effects. The enhancement of the mechanism at elevated temperatures is attributed to the coexistence of tetragonal and pseudo-cubic phases, which enables strain accommodation during electromechanical deformation and interphase boundary motion. This work provides insight into possible routes for designing high performance piezoelectrics which are alternatives to traditional methods relying on MPB compositions.

  1. Piezoelectric Motion of Multilayer Film with Alternate Rows of Optical Isomers of Chiral Polymer Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tetsuo; Imoto, Kenji; Nakai, Takaaki; Uwami, Ryouta; Kataoka, Takuya; Inoue, Masataka; Fukumoto, Takahiro; Kamimura, Yuuki; Kato, Atsuko; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2011-09-01

    We realized a multilayer film laminated alternately with poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) films in order to improve the piezoelectric performance of the PLLA film. In the fabrication processes, the thicknesses of PLLA and PDLA films were reduced to improve the effective electric field, and a multilayer composed of more than 100 layers (PDLA/PLLA multilayer film) was realized to improve the piezoelectric performance. In general, a single PLLA film has a piezoelectric constant of about 5 pC/N, and it is difficult to observe the piezoelectric resonance in this film of centimeter-order size using a commercial impedance analyzer because of its small Q-value. In contrast, the PDLA/PLLA multilayer film of centimeter-order size has a piezoelectric performance equivalent to that of the piezoelectric material with a piezoelectric constant of 100 pC/N, and also, the piezoelectric resonance can be observed in this film. On the basis of these results, we confirmed that even an object of 259 g mass is made to vibrate under the piezoelectric resonance vibration of this PDLA/PLLA multilayer film. In other words, necessary quantities for actual work as an actuator could be obtained in the PDLA/PLLA multilayer film.

  2. Applications of piezoelectric materials in oilfield services.

    PubMed

    Goujon, Nicolas; Hori, Hiroshi; Liang, Kenneth K; Sinha, Bikash K

    2012-09-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used in many applications in the oilfield services industry. Four illustrative examples are given in this paper: marine seismic survey, precision pressure measurement, sonic logging-while-drilling, and ultrasonic bore-hole imaging. In marine seismics, piezoelectric hydrophones are deployed on a massive scale in a relatively benign environment. Hence, unit cost and device reliability are major considerations. The remaining three applications take place downhole in a characteristically harsh environment with high temperature and high pressure among other factors. The number of piezoelectric devices involved is generally small but otherwise highly valued. The selection of piezoelectric materials is limited, and the devices have to be engineered to withstand the operating conditions. With the global demand for energy increasing in the foreseeable future, the search for hydrocarbon resources is reaching into deeper and hotter wells. There is, therefore, a continuing and pressing need for high-temperature and high-coupling piezoelectric materials.

  3. Piezoelectric biosensor with a ladder polymer substrate coating

    DOEpatents

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.; Carter, R.M.

    1998-09-29

    A piezoelectric biosensor substrate useful for immobilizing biomolecules in an oriented manner on the surface of a piezoelectric sensor has a ladder polymer of polyacrylonitrile. To make the substrate, a solution of an organic polymer, preferably polyacrylonitrile, is applied to the surface of a piezoelectric sensor. The organic polymer is modifying by heating the polymer in a controlled fashion in air such that a ladder polymer is produced which, in turn, forms the attachment point for the biomolecules comprising the piezoelectric biosensor. 3 figs.

  4. High-response piezoelectricity modeled quantitatively near a phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newns, Dennis M.; Kuroda, Marcelo A.; Cipcigan, Flaviu S.; Crain, Jason; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2017-01-01

    Interconversion of mechanical and electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect is fundamental to a wide range of technologies. The discovery in the 1990s of giant piezoelectric responses in certain materials has therefore opened new application spaces, but the origin of these properties remains a challenge to our understanding. A key role is played by the presence of a structural instability in these materials at compositions near the "morphotropic phase boundary" (MPB) where the crystal structure changes abruptly and the electromechanical responses are maximal. Here we formulate a simple, unified theoretical description which accounts for extreme piezoelectric response, its observation at compositions near the MPB, accompanied by ultrahigh dielectric constant and mechanical compliances with rather large anisotropies. The resulting model, based upon a Landau free energy expression, is capable of treating the important domain engineered materials and is found to be predictive while maintaining simplicity. It therefore offers a general and powerful means of accounting for the full set of signature characteristics in these functional materials including volume conserving sum rules and strong substrate clamping effects.

  5. Rotor damage detection by using piezoelectric impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Tao, Y.; Mao, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Rotor is a core component of rotary machinery. Once the rotor has the damage, it may lead to a major accident. Thus the quantitative rotor damage detection method based on piezoelectric impedance is studied in this paper. With the governing equation of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in a cylindrical coordinate, the displacement along the radius direction is derived. The charge of PZT is calculated by the electric displacement. Then, by the use of the obtained displacement and charge, an analytic piezoelectric impedance model of the rotor is built. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used to set up the damage detection model. The Electro-Mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is deduced with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection method is proposed. This method can directly calculate the change of bending stiffness of the structural elements, it follows that the rotor damage can be effectively detected. Finally, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation. The result shows that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.

  6. Piezoelectric Templates - New Views on Biomineralization and Biomimetics.

    PubMed

    Stitz, Nina; Eiben, Sabine; Atanasova, Petia; Domingo, Neus; Leineweber, Andreas; Burghard, Zaklina; Bill, Joachim

    2016-05-23

    Biomineralization in general is based on electrostatic interactions and molecular recognition of organic and inorganic phases. These principles of biomineralization have also been utilized and transferred to bio-inspired synthesis of functional materials during the past decades. Proteins involved in both, biomineralization and bio-inspired processes, are often piezoelectric due to their dipolar character hinting to the impact of a template's piezoelectricity on mineralization processes. However, the piezoelectric contribution on the mineralization process and especially the interaction of organic and inorganic phases is hardly considered so far. We herein report the successful use of the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to synthesize piezoelectric ZnO. Such films show a two-fold increase of the piezoelectric coefficient up to 7.2 pm V(-1) compared to films synthesized on non-piezoelectric templates. By utilizing the intrinsic piezoelectricity of a biotemplate, we thus established a novel synthesis pathway towards functional materials, which sheds light on the whole field of biomimetics. The obtained results are of even broader and general interest since they are providing a new, more comprehensive insight into the mechanisms involved into biomineralization in living nature.

  7. Piezoelectric Templates - New Views on Biomineralization and Biomimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stitz, Nina; Eiben, Sabine; Atanasova, Petia; Domingo, Neus; Leineweber, Andreas; Burghard, Zaklina; Bill, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Biomineralization in general is based on electrostatic interactions and molecular recognition of organic and inorganic phases. These principles of biomineralization have also been utilized and transferred to bio-inspired synthesis of functional materials during the past decades. Proteins involved in both, biomineralization and bio-inspired processes, are often piezoelectric due to their dipolar character hinting to the impact of a template’s piezoelectricity on mineralization processes. However, the piezoelectric contribution on the mineralization process and especially the interaction of organic and inorganic phases is hardly considered so far. We herein report the successful use of the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to synthesize piezoelectric ZnO. Such films show a two-fold increase of the piezoelectric coefficient up to 7.2 pm V-1 compared to films synthesized on non-piezoelectric templates. By utilizing the intrinsic piezoelectricity of a biotemplate, we thus established a novel synthesis pathway towards functional materials, which sheds light on the whole field of biomimetics. The obtained results are of even broader and general interest since they are providing a new, more comprehensive insight into the mechanisms involved into biomineralization in living nature.

  8. Developmental origins of the face inversion effect.

    PubMed

    Cashon, Cara H; Holt, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of adults' expertise for faces is that they are better at recognizing, discriminating, and processing upright faces compared to inverted faces. We investigate the developmental origins of "the face inversion effect" by reviewing research on infants' perception of upright and inverted faces during the first year of life. We review the effects of inversion on infants' face preference, recognition, processing (holistic and second-order configural), and scanning as well as face-related neural responses. Particular attention is paid to the developmental patterns that emerge within and across these areas of face perception. We conclude that the developmental origins of the inversion effect begin in the first few months of life and grow stronger over the first year, culminating in effects that are commonly thought to indicate adult-like expertise. We posit that by the end of the first year, infants' face-processing system has become specialized to upright faces and a foundation for adults' upright-face expertise has been established. Developmental mechanisms that may facilitate the emergence of this upright-face specialization are discussed, including the roles that physical and social development may play in upright faces' becoming more meaningful to infants during the first year. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation tolerance of piezoelectric bulk single-crystal aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Parks; Bernhard R. Tittmann

    2014-07-01

    For practical use in harsh radiation environments, we pose selection criteria for piezoelectric materials for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and material characterization. Using these criteria, piezoelectric aluminum nitride is shown to be an excellent candidate. The results of tests on an aluminumnitride-based transducer operating in a nuclear reactor are also presented. We demonstrate the tolerance of single-crystal piezoelectric aluminum nitride after fast and thermal neutron fluences of 1.85 × 1018 neutron/cm2 and 5.8 × 1018 neutron/cm2, respectively, and a gamma dose of 26.8 MGy. The radiation hardness of AlN is most evident from the unaltered piezoelectric coefficient d33, which measured 5.5more » pC/N after a fast and thermal neutron exposure in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWh, in agreement with the published literature value. The results offer potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects on materials by enabling structural health monitoring and NDE in spite of the high levels of radiation and high temperatures, which are known to destroy typical commercial ultrasonic transducers.« less

  10. A Skin-attachable Flexible Piezoelectric Pulse Wave Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-11-01

    We present a flexible piezoelectric generator, capable to harvest energy from human arterial pulse wave on the human wrist. Special features and advantages of the flexible piezoelectric generator include the multi-layer device design with contact windows and the simple fabrication process for the higher flexibility with the better energy harvesting efficiency. We have demonstrated the design effectiveness and the process simplicity of our skin- attachable flexible piezoelectric pulse wave energy harvester, composed of the sensitive P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer on the flexible polyimide support layer with windows. We experimentally characterize and demonstrate the energy harvesting capability of 0.2~1.0μW in the Human heart rate range on the skin contact area of 3.71cm2. Additional physiological and/or vital signal monitoring devices can be fabricated and integrated on the skin attachable flexible generator, covered by an insulation layer; thus demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the present device for such applications to the flexible multi-functional selfpowered artificial skins, capable to detect physiological and/or vital signals on Human skin using the energy harvested from arterial pulse waves.

  11. Periodical Microstructures Based on Novel Piezoelectric Material for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Janusas, Giedrius; Ponelyte, Sigita; Brunius, Alfredas; Guobiene, Asta; Prosycevas, Igoris; Vilkauskas, Andrius; Palevicius, Arvydas

    2015-12-15

    A novel cantilever type piezoelectric sensing element was developed. Cost-effective and simple fabrication design allows the use of this element for various applications in the areas of biomedicine, pharmacy, environmental analysis and biosensing. This paper proposes a novel piezoelectric composite material whose basic element is PZT and a sensing platform where this material was integrated. Results showed that a designed novel cantilever-type element is able to generate a voltage of up to 80 µV at 50 Hz frequency. To use this element for sensing purposes, a four micron periodical microstructure was imprinted. Silver nanoparticles were precipitated on the grating to increase the sensitivity of the designed element, i.e., Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) effect appears in the element. To tackle some issues (a lack of sensitivity, signal delays) the element must have certain electronic and optical properties. One possible solution, proposed in this paper, is a combination of piezoelectricity and SPR in a single element.

  12. Piezoelectric coefficients of bulk 3R transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konabe, Satoru; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2017-09-01

    The piezoelectric properties of bulk transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with a 3R structure were investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory combined with the Berry phase treatment. Values for the elastic constant Cijkl , the piezoelectric coefficient eijk , and the piezoelectric coefficient dijk are given for bulk 3R-TMDCs (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2). The piezoelectric coefficients of bulk 3R-TMDCs are shown to be sufficiently large or comparable to those of conventional bulk piezoelectric materials such as α-quartz, wurtzite GaN, and wurtzite AlN.

  13. Survey of the present state of the art of piezoelectric linear motors

    PubMed

    Hemsel; Wallaschek

    2000-03-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors have been investigated for several years and have already found their first practical applications. Their key feature is that they are able to produce a high thrust force related to their volume. Beside rotary drives like the travelling wave motor, linear drives have also been developed, but only a few are presently commercially available. In the present paper, we first describe the state of the art of linear piezoelectric motors. The motors are characterized with respect to their no-load velocity, maximum thrust force, efficiency and other technical properties. In the second part, we present a new motor, which is judged to be capable of surpassing the characteristics of other piezoelectric motors because of its unique design which allows the piezoelectric drive elements to be pre-stressed in the direction of their polarization. The piezoelectric elements convert energy using the longitudinal d33 effect which allows an improved reliability, large vibration amplitudes and excellent piezoelectric coupling. Energy loss by vibration damping is minimized, and the efficiency can be improved significantly. Experimental results show that the motor characteristics can be optimized for a particular task by choosing the appropriate operating parameters such as exciting voltage, exciting frequency and normal force.

  14. Development of High Performance Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycelyn O.; St.Clair, Terry L.; Welch, Sharon S.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a series of polyimides are investigated which exhibit a strong piezoelectric response and polarization stability at temperatures in excess of 100 C. This work was motivated by the need to develop piezoelectric sensors suitable for use in high temperature aerospace applications.

  15. Piezoelectric Motors and Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, K.

    Piezoelectric ceramics forms a new field between electronic and structural ceramics [1-4]. Application fields are classified into three categories: positioners, motors, and vibration suppressors. From the market research result for 80 Japanese component industries in 1992, tiny motors in the range of 5-8 mm are required in large numbers for office and portable equipment; the conventional electromagnetic (EM) motors are rather difficult to produce in this size with sufficient energy efficiency, while Silicon MEMS actuators are too small to be used in practice. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors whose efficiency is insensitive to size are superior in the millimeter motor area. The manufacturing precision of optical instruments such as lasers and cameras, and the positioning accuracy for fabricating semiconductor chips are of the order of 0.1μm which is much smaller than the backlash of the EM motors. Vibration suppression in space structures and military vehicles also require compact but mighty piezoelectric actuators.

  16. Resonance analysis of a high temperature piezoelectric disc for sensitivity characterization.

    PubMed

    Bilgunde, Prathamesh N; Bond, Leonard J

    2018-07-01

    Ultrasonic transducers for high temperature (200 °C+) applications are a key enabling technology for advanced nuclear power systems and in a range of chemical and petro-chemical industries. Design, fabrication and optimization of such transducers using piezoelectric materials remains a challenge. In this work, experimental data-based analysis is performed to investigate the fundamental causal factors for the resonance characteristics of a piezoelectric disc at elevated temperatures. The effect of all ten temperature-dependent piezoelectric constants (ε 33 , ε 11 , d 33 , d 31 , d 15 , s 11 , s 12 , s 13 , s 33 , s 44 ) is studied numerically on both the radial and thickness mode resonances of a piezoelectric disc. A sensitivity index is defined to quantify the effect of each of the temperature-dependent coefficients on the resonance modes of the modified lead zirconium titanate disc. The temperature dependence of s 33 showed highest sensitivity towards the thickness resonance mode followed by ε 33 , s 11 , s 13 , s 12 , d 31 , d 33 , s 44 , ε 11 , and d 15 in the decreasing order of the sensitivity index. For radial resonance modes, the temperature dependence of ε 33 showed highest sensitivity index followed by s 11 , s 12 and d 31 coefficient. This numerical study demonstrates that the magnitude of d 33 is not the sole factor that affects the resonance characteristics of the piezoelectric disc at high temperatures. It appears that there exists a complex interplay between various temperature dependent piezoelectric coefficients that causes reduction in the thickness mode resonance frequencies which is found to be agreement in with the experimental data at an elevated temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Piezoelectric Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, William Ray

    Herein we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be synthesized and fabricated into complex microstructures using sugar-templating methods or optical printing techniques. Stretchable foams with excellent tunable piezoelectric properties are created by incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixtures containing barium titanate (BaTiO3 -- BTO) nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio and the electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs. User defined 2D and 3D optically printed piezoelectric microstructures are also fabricated by incorporating BTO nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and exposing to digital optical masks that can be dynamically altered. Mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the optically printed composite is enhanced by chemically altering the surface of the BTO nanoparticles with acrylate groups which form direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. Both of these novel materials should find exciting uses in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS), sensors, and acoustic actuators.

  18. Adaptive Highly Flexible Multifunctional Wings for Active and Passive Control and Energy Harvesting with Piezoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsushima, Natsuki

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop an analytical framework to analyze highly flexible multifunctional wings with integral active and passive control and energy harvesting using piezoelectric transduction. Such multifunctional wings can be designed to enhance aircraft flight performance, especially to support long-endurance flights and to be adaptive to various flight conditions. This work also demonstrates the feasibility of the concept of piezoelectric multifunctional wings for the concurrent active control and energy harvesting to improve the aeroelastic performance of high-altitude long-endurance unmanned air vehicles. Functions of flutter suppression, gust alleviation, energy generation, and energy storage are realized for the performance improvement. The multifunctional wings utilize active and passive piezoelectric effects for the efficient adaptive control and energy harvesting. An energy storage with thin-film lithium-ion battery cells is designed for harvested energy accumulation. Piezoelectric effects are included in a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation for the numerical studies. The resulting structural dynamic equations are coupled with a finite-state unsteady aerodynamic formulation, allowing for piezoelectric energy harvesting and active actuation with the nonlinear aeroelastic system. This development helps to provide an integral electro-aeroelastic solution of concurrent active piezoelectric control and energy harvesting for wing vibrations, with the consideration of the geometrical nonlinear effects of slender multifunctional wings. A multifunctional structure for active actuation is designed by introducing anisotropic piezoelectric laminates. Linear quadratic regulator and linear quadratic Gaussian controllers are implemented for the active control of wing vibrations including post-flutter limit-cycle oscillations and gust perturbation. An adaptive control algorithm for gust perturbation is then developed. In this

  19. Piezoelectric films for high frequency ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Lau, Sienting; Wu, Dawei; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric films have recently attracted considerable attention in the development of various sensor and actuator devices such as nonvolatile memories, tunable microwave circuits and ultrasound transducers. In this paper, an overview of the state of art in piezoelectric films for high frequency transducer applications is presented. Firstly, the basic principles of piezoelectric materials and design considerations for ultrasound transducers will be introduced. Following the review, the current status of the piezoelectric films and recent progress in the development of high frequency ultrasonic transducers will be discussed. Then details for preparation and structure of the materials derived from piezoelectric thick film technologies will be described. Both chemical and physical methods are included in the discussion, namely, the sol–gel approach, aerosol technology and hydrothermal method. The electric and piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric films, which are very important for transducer applications, such as permittivity and electromechanical coupling factor, are also addressed. Finally, the recent developments in the high frequency transducers and arrays with piezoelectric ZnO and PZT thick film using MEMS technology are presented. In addition, current problems and further direction of the piezoelectric films for very high frequency ultrasound application (up to GHz) are also discussed. PMID:21720451

  20. Piezoelectric films for high frequency ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Lau, Sienting; Wu, Dawei; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-02-01

    Piezoelectric films have recently attracted considerable attention in the development of various sensor and actuator devices such as nonvolatile memories, tunable microwave circuits and ultrasound transducers. In this paper, an overview of the state of art in piezoelectric films for high frequency transducer applications is presented. Firstly, the basic principles of piezoelectric materials and design considerations for ultrasound transducers will be introduced. Following the review, the current status of the piezoelectric films and recent progress in the development of high frequency ultrasonic transducers will be discussed. Then details for preparation and structure of the materials derived from piezoelectric thick film technologies will be described. Both chemical and physical methods are included in the discussion, namely, the sol-gel approach, aerosol technology and hydrothermal method. The electric and piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric films, which are very important for transducer applications, such as permittivity and electromechanical coupling factor, are also addressed. Finally, the recent developments in the high frequency transducers and arrays with piezoelectric ZnO and PZT thick film using MEMS technology are presented. In addition, current problems and further direction of the piezoelectric films for very high frequency ultrasound application (up to GHz) are also discussed.

  1. One-Step Solvent Evaporation-Assisted 3D Printing of Piezoelectric PVDF Nanocomposite Structures.

    PubMed

    Bodkhe, Sampada; Turcot, Gabrielle; Gosselin, Frederick P; Therriault, Daniel

    2017-06-21

    Development of a 3D printable material system possessing inherent piezoelectric properties to fabricate integrable sensors in a single-step printing process without poling is of importance to the creation of a wide variety of smart structures. Here, we study the effect of addition of barium titanate nanoparticles in nucleating piezoelectric β-polymorph in 3D printable polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and fabrication of the layer-by-layer and self-supporting piezoelectric structures on a micro- to millimeter scale by solvent evaporation-assisted 3D printing at room temperature. The nanocomposite formulation obtained after a comprehensive investigation of composition and processing techniques possesses a piezoelectric coefficient, d 31 , of 18 pC N -1 , which is comparable to that of typical poled and stretched commercial PVDF film sensors. A 3D contact sensor that generates up to 4 V upon gentle finger taps demonstrates the efficacy of the fabrication technique. Our one-step 3D printing of piezoelectric nanocomposites can form ready-to-use, complex-shaped, flexible, and lightweight piezoelectric devices. When combined with other 3D printable materials, they could serve as stand-alone or embedded sensors in aerospace, biomedicine, and robotic applications.

  2. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of hydroxyapatite-BaTiO3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, C. R.; Gittings, J.; Turner, I. G.; Baxter, F.; Chaudhuri, J. B.

    2006-09-01

    This letter describes the relationships between the composition and the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of hydroxyapatite-barium titanate composites for polarized bone substitutes. The ac conductivity and permittivity were characterized from 0.1Hzto1MHz, along with measurements of the d33 piezoelectric charge coefficient. The addition of BaTiO3 led to an increase in permittivity and ac conductivity of the material. The increase in both properties was attributed to the presence of the high permittivity ferroelectric phase. The d33 and g33 coefficients decreased rapidly as hydroxyapatite was introduced into BaTiO3 material. Composites below 80% by volume of BaTiO3 exhibited no net piezoelectric effect.

  3. Topology optimized design of functionally graded piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Wilfredo Montealegre; Buiochi, Flávio; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Silva, Emílio C. N.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a new approach to systematically design piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers based on Topology Optimization Method (TOM) and Functionally Graded Material (FGM) concepts. The main goal is to find the optimal material distribution of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers, to achieve the following requirements: (i) the transducer must be designed to have a multi-modal or uni-modal frequency response, which defines the kind of generated acoustic wave, either short pulse or continuous wave, respectively; (ii) the transducer is required to oscillate in a thickness extensional mode or piston-like mode, aiming at acoustic wave generation applications. Two kinds of piezoelectric materials are mixed for producing the FGM transducer. Material type 1 represents a PZT-5A piezoelectric ceramic and material type 2 represents a PZT-5H piezoelectric ceramic. To illustrate the proposed method, two Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers are designed. The TOM has shown to be a useful tool for designing Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers with uni-modal or multi-modal dynamic behavior.

  4. Nanogenerator comprising piezoelectric semiconducting nanostructures and Schottky conductive contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhong L. (Inventor); Zhou, Jun (Inventor); Wang, Xudong (Inventor); He, Jr-Hau (Inventor); Song, Jinhui (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A semiconducting device includes a substrate, a piezoelectric wire, a structure, a first electrode and a second electrode. The piezoelectric wire has a first end and an opposite second end and is disposed on the substrate. The structure causes the piezoelectric wire to bend in a predetermined manner between the first end and the second end so that the piezoelectric wire enters a first semiconducting state. The first electrode is coupled to the first end and the second electrode is coupled to the second end so that when the piezoelectric wire is in the first semiconducting state, an electrical characteristic will be exhibited between the first electrode and the second electrode.

  5. Cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites for sensor applications in civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Biqin

    The objectives of this thesis are to develop and apply a new smart composite for the sensing and actuation application of civil engineering. Piezoelectric ceramic powder is incorporated into cement-based composite to achieve the sensing and actuation capability. The research investigates microstructure, polarization and aging, material properties and performance of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites both theoretically and experimentally. A hydrogen bonding is found at the interface of piezoelectric ceramic powder and cement phase by IR (Infrared Ray), XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy). It largely affects the material properties of composites. A simple first order model is introduced to explain the poling mechanism of composites and the dependency of polarization is discussed using electromechanical coupling coefficient kt. The mechanisms acting on the aging effect is explored in detail. Dielectrical, piezoelectric and mechanical properties of the cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composites are studied by experiment and theoretical calculation based on modified cube model (n=1) with chemical bonding . A complex circuit model is proposed to explain the unique feature of impedance spectra and the instinct of high-loss of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composite. The sensing ability of cement-based piezoelectric ceramic composite has been evaluated by using step wave, sine wave, and random wave. It shows that the output of the composite can reflects the nature and characteristics of mechanical input. The work in this thesis opens a new direction for the current actuation/sensing technology in civil engineering. The materials and techniques, developed in this work, have a great potential in application of health monitoring of buildings and infrastructures.

  6. Direct Piezoelectricity of Soft Composite Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Michael; Morvan, Jason; Diorio, Nick; Buyuktanir, Ebru; Harden, John; West, John; Jakli, Antal

    2013-03-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and poly lactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 1nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at various BT concentrations. A testing apparatus was designed and constructed solely for these measurements involving AC stresses provided by a speaker in 10Hz-10kHz frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ~1nC/N was found to be in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric measurements. The largest signals were obtained with 6% BT/PLA composites, probably because the BT particles at higher concentrations could not be dispersed homogeneously. Importantly the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simply pressing a 0.2mm thick 2 cm2 area mat by a finger. We expect to use these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  7. The effects of substrate layer thickness on piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting with a bimorph type cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palosaari, Jaakko; Leinonen, Mikko; Juuti, Jari; Jantunen, Heli

    2018-06-01

    In this research four piezoelectric bimorph type cantilevers for energy harvesting were manufactured, measured and analyzed to study the effects of substrate layer thickness on energy harvesting efficiency and durability under different accelerations. The cantilevers had the same dimensions of the piezoelectric ceramic components, but had different thicknesses of the steel substrate (no steel, 30 μm, 50 μm and 75 μm). The cantilevers were tuned to the same resonance frequency with different sizes of tip mass (2.13 g, 3.84 g, 4.17 g and 5.08 g). The energy harvester voltage outputs were then measured across an electrical load near to the resonance frequency (∼40 Hz) with sinusoidal vibrations under different accelerations. The stress exhibited by the four cantilevers was compared and analyzed and their durability was tested with accelerations up to 2.5 g-forces.

  8. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  9. Aligned porous barium titanate/hydroxyapatite composites with high piezoelectric coefficients for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Liangjian; Zeng, Jing; Zhou, Kechao; Zhang, Dou

    2014-06-01

    It was proposed that the piezoelectric effect played an important physiological role in bone growth, remodelling and fracture healing. An aligned porous piezoelectric composite scaffold was fabricated by freeze casting hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (HA/BT) suspensions. The highest compressive strength and lowest porosity of 14.5MPa and 57.4% with the best parallelism of the pore channels were achieved in the HA10/BT90 composite. HA30/BT70 and HA10/BT90 composites exhibited piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 1.2 and 2.8pC/N, respectively, both of which were higher than the piezoelectric coefficient of natural bone. Increase of the solid loading of the suspension and solidification velocity led to the improvement of piezoelectric coefficient d33. Meanwhile, double-templates resulted in the coexistence of lamellar pores and aligned macro-pores, exhibiting the ability to produce an oriented long-range ordered architecture. The manipulation flexibility of this method indicated the potential for customized needs in the application of bone substitute. An MTT assay indicated that the obtained scaffolds had no cytotoxic effects on L929 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Revisiting the Characterization of the Losses in Piezoelectric Materials from Impedance Spectroscopy at Resonance.

    PubMed

    González, Amador M; García, Álvaro; Benavente-Peces, César; Pardo, Lorena

    2016-01-26

    Electronic devices using the piezoelectric effect contain piezoelectric materials: often crystals, but in many cases poled ferroelectric ceramics (piezoceramics), polymers or composites. On the one hand, these materials exhibit non-negligible losses, not only dielectric, but also mechanical and piezoelectric. In this work, we made simulations of the effect of the three types of losses in piezoelectric materials on the impedance spectrum at the resonance. We analyze independently each type of loss and show the differences among them. On the other hand, electrical and electronic engineers include piezoelectric sensors in electrical circuits to build devices and need electrical models of the sensor element. Frequently, material scientists and engineers use different languages, and the characteristic material coefficients do not have a straightforward translation to those specific electrical circuit components. To connect both fields of study, we propose the use of accurate methods of characterization from impedance measurements at electromechanical resonance that lead to determination of all types of losses, as an alternative to current standards. We introduce a simplified equivalent circuit model with electrical parameters that account for piezoceramic losses needed for the modeling and design of industrial applications.

  11. Revisiting the Characterization of the Losses in Piezoelectric Materials from Impedance Spectroscopy at Resonance

    PubMed Central

    González, Amador M.; García, Álvaro; Benavente-Peces, César; Pardo, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Electronic devices using the piezoelectric effect contain piezoelectric materials: often crystals, but in many cases poled ferroelectric ceramics (piezoceramics), polymers or composites. On the one hand, these materials exhibit non-negligible losses, not only dielectric, but also mechanical and piezoelectric. In this work, we made simulations of the effect of the three types of losses in piezoelectric materials on the impedance spectrum at the resonance. We analyze independently each type of loss and show the differences among them. On the other hand, electrical and electronic engineers include piezoelectric sensors in electrical circuits to build devices and need electrical models of the sensor element. Frequently, material scientists and engineers use different languages, and the characteristic material coefficients do not have a straightforward translation to those specific electrical circuit components. To connect both fields of study, we propose the use of accurate methods of characterization from impedance measurements at electromechanical resonance that lead to determination of all types of losses, as an alternative to current standards. We introduce a simplified equivalent circuit model with electrical parameters that account for piezoceramic losses needed for the modeling and design of industrial applications. PMID:28787872

  12. Piezoelectric transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conragan, J.; Muller, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Transducer consists of a hybrid thin film and a piezoelectric transistor that acts as a stress-sensitive device with built-in gain. It provides a stress/strain transducer that incorporates a signal amplification stage and sensor in a single package.

  13. High Performance Piezoelectric Thin Films for Shape Control in Large Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neurgaonkar, R. R.; Nelson, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research and development program was to develop PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 (PZT) and Pb(1-x)Ba(x)Nb2O6 (PBN) materials with large piezoelectric response which are suitable for shape control in large inflatable structures. Two approaches were to be considered: (1) direct deposition of PZT and PBN films on flexible plastic or thin metal foil substrates, and (2) deposition on Si followed by fabrication of hybrid structures on mylar or kapton. Testing in shape control concepts was carried out at JPL and based on their results, the required modifications were made in the final film compositions and deposition techniques. The program objective was to identify and then optimize piezoelectric materials for NASA shape control applications. This involved the bulk piezoelectric and photovoltaic responses and the compatibility of the thin films with appropriate substrate structures. Within the PZT system, Rockwell has achieved the highest reported piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub 33) greater than 100 pC/N) of any ceramic composition. We used this experience in piezoelectric technology to establish compositions that can effectively address the issues of this program. The performance of piezoelectric thin films depends directly on d(sub ij) and Epsilon. The challenge was to find PZT compositions that maintained high d(sub ij) and Epsilon, while also exhibiting a large photovoltaic effect and integrate thin films of this composition into the system structure necessary to meet shape control applications. During the course of this program, several PZT and PLZT compositions were identified that meet these requirements. Two such compositions were successfully used in electrical and optical actuation studies of thin film structures.

  14. High Performance Piezoelectric Thin Films for Shape Control in Large Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neurgaonkar, R. R.; Nelson, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research and development program was to develop PbZr(1-x)Ti(x)O3 (PZT) and Pb(1-x)Ba(x)Nb2O6 (PBN) materials with large piezoelectric response which are suitable for shape control in large inflatable structures. Two approaches were to be considered: (1) direct deposition of PZT and PBN films on flexible plastic or thin metal foil substrates, and (2) deposition on Si followed by fabrication of hybrid structures on mylar or kapton. Testing in shape control concepts was carried out at JPL and based on their results, the required modifications were made in the final film compositions and deposition techniques. The program objective was to identify and then optimize piezoelectric materials for NASA shape control applications. This involved the bulk piezoelectric and photovoltaic responses and the compatibility of the thin films with appropriate substrate structures. Within the PZT system, Rockwell has achieved the highest reported piezoelectric coefficient (d(sub 33) greater than 100 pC/N) of any ceramic composition. We used this experience in piezoelectric technology to establish compositions that can effectively address the issues of this program. The performance of piezoelectric thin films depends directly on d(sub ij) and epsilin. The challenge was to find PZT compositions that maintained high d(sub ij) and epsilon, while also exhibiting a large photovoltaic effect and integrate thin films of this composition into the system structure necessary to meet shape control applications. During the course of this program, several PZT and PLZT compositions were identified that meet these requirements. Two such compositions were successfully used in electrical and optical actuation studies of thin film structures.

  15. Power enhancement of piezoelectric transformers by adding heat transfer equipment.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Hao; Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Wu, Wen-Jong; Costa, François; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2012-10-01

    It is known that piezoelectric transformers have several inherent advantages compared with conventional electromagnetic transformers. However, the maximum power capacity of piezoelectric transformers is not as large as electromagnetic transformers in practice, especially in the case of high output current. The theoretical power density of piezoelectric transformers calculated by stress boundary can reach 330 W/cm(3), but no piezoelectric transformer has ever reached such a high power density in practice. The power density of piezoelectric transformers is limited to 33 W/cm(3) in practical applications. The underlying reason is that the maximum passing current of the piezoelectric material (mechanical current) is limited by the temperature rise caused by heat generation. To increase this current and the power capacity, we proposed to add a thermal pad to the piezoelectric transformer to dissipate heat. The experimental results showed that the proposed techniques can increase by 3 times the output current of the piezoelectric transformer. A theoretical-phenomenological model which explains the relationship between vibration velocity and generated heat is also established to verify the experimental results.

  16. Additional Drive Circuitry for Piezoelectric Screw Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert; Palmer, Dean; Gursel, Yekta; Reder, Leonard; Savedra, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Modules of additional drive circuitry have been developed to enhance the functionality of a family of commercially available positioning motors (Picomotor . or equivalent) that provide linear motion controllable, in principle, to within increments .30 nm. A motor of this type includes a piezoelectric actuator that turns a screw. Unlike traditional piezoelectrically actuated mechanisms, a motor of this type does not rely on the piezoelectric transducer to hold position: the screw does not turn except when the drive signal is applied to the actuator.

  17. Broadband electrical impedance matching for piezoelectric ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiying; Paramo, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a systematic method for designing broadband electrical impedance matching networks for piezoelectric ultrasound transducers. The design process involves three steps: 1) determine the equivalent circuit of the unmatched piezoelectric transducer based on its measured admittance; 2) design a set of impedance matching networks using a computerized Smith chart; and 3) establish the simulation model of the matched transducer to evaluate the gain and bandwidth of the impedance matching networks. The effectiveness of the presented approach is demonstrated through the design, implementation, and characterization of impedance matching networks for a broadband acoustic emission sensor. The impedance matching network improved the power of the acquired signal by 9 times.

  18. Laser-machined piezoelectric cantilevers for mechanical energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, HyunUk; Bedekar, Vishwas; Islam, Rashed Adnan; Lee, Woo-Ho; Leo, Don; Priya, Shashank

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we report results on a piezoelectric- material-based mechanical energy-harvesting device that was fabricated by combining laser machining with microelectronics packaging technology. It was found that the laser-machining process did not have significant effect on the electrical properties of piezoelectric material. The fabricated device was tested in the low-frequency regime of 50 to 1000 Hz at constant force of 8 g (where g = 9.8 m/s(2)). The device was found to generate continuous power of 1.13 microW at 870 Hz across a 288.5 kOmega load with a power density of 301.3 microW/cm(3).

  19. Piezoelectric osteotomy for intraoral harvesting of bone blocks.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Dong-Seok; Ahn, Mi-Ra; Lee, Won-Hyuk; Yeo, Duk-Sung; Lim, So-Young

    2007-04-01

    Grafting with intraoral bone blocks is a good way to reconstruct severe horizontal and vertical bone resorption in future implant sites. The Piezosurgery System (Mectron) creates an effective osteotomy with minimal or no trauma to soft tissue, in contrast to conventional surgical burs or saws. In addition, piezoelectric surgery produces less vibration and noise because it uses microvibration, in contrast to the macrovibration and extreme noise that occur with a surgical saw or bur. Microvibration and reduced noise minimize a patient's psychologic stress and fear during osteotomy under local anesthesia. The purpose of this article is to describe the harvesting of intraoral bone blocks using the piezoelectric surgery device.

  20. Piezoelectric parametric effects on wave vibration and contact mechanics of traveling wave ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Wang, Shiyu; Xiu, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Elastic wave quality determines the operating performance of traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUM). The time-variant circumferential force from the shrink of piezoelectric ceramic is one of the factors that distort the elastic wave. The distorted waveshape deviates from the ideal standard sinusoidal fashion and affects the contact mechanics and driving performance. An analytical dynamic model of ring ultrasonic motor is developed. Based on this model, the piezoelectric parametric effects on the wave distortion and contact mechanics are examined. Multi-scale method is employed to obtain unstable regions and distorted wave response. The unstable region is verified by Floquét theory. Since the waveshape affects the contact mechanism, a contact model involving the distorted waveshape and normal stiffness of the contact layer is established. The contact model is solved by numerical calculation. The results verify that the deformation of the contact layer deviates from sinusoidal waveshape and the pressure distribution is changed, which influences the output characteristics directly. The surface speed within the contact region is averaged such that the rotor speed decreases for lower torque and increases for larger torque. The effects from different parametric strengths, excitation frequencies and pre-pressures on pressure distribution and torque-speed relation are compared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and characterization of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yener, Serra

    This thesis presents modeling and prototype fabrication and characterization of new types of piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotors. Our approach in designing these piezoelectric motors was: (i) to simplify the structure including the poling configuration of piezoelectric elements used in the stator and (ii) to reduce the number of components in order to decrease the cost and enhance the driving reliability. There are two different types of piezoelectric motors designed throughout this research. The first of these designs consists of a metal tube, on which two piezoelectric ceramic plates poled in thickness direction, were bonded. Two orthogonal bending modes of the hollow cylinder were superimposed resulting in a rotational vibration. Since the structure and poling configuration of the active piezoelectric elements used in the stator are simple, this motor structure is very suitable for miniaturization. Moreover, a single driving source can excite two bending modes at the same time, thus generate a wobble motion. Three types of prototypes are included in this design. The piezoelectric stator structure is the same for all. However, the dimensions of the motors are reduced by almost 50 percent. Starting with a 10 mm long stator, we reached to 4 mm in the last prototype. The initial diameter was 2.4 mm, which was reduced to 1.6 mm. In the final design, the rotor part of the motor was changed resulting in the reduction in the number of components. In terms of driving circuit, a single driving source was enough to run the motors and a conventional switching power supply type resonant L-C circuit was used. A simple motor structure with a simple driving circuit were combined successfully and fabricated inexpensively. The second design is a shear type piezoelectric linear motor. The behavior of a single rectangular piezoelectric shear plate was analyzed and after optimizing the dimensions and the mode characteristics, a prototype was fabricated. The prototype consists of

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Piezoelectric and Seismoelectric Anomalies in Subsurface Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2017-04-01

    , apatite-nepheline, essentially sphalerite, and ore-quartz deposits of gold, tin, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, crystal, and other raw materials. This method also enables differentiation of rocks such as bauxites, kimberlites, etc., from the host rocks, by their electrokinetic properties. Classification of some rocks, ores, and minerals by their piezoactivity is given in Table 1. These objects (targets) transform wave elastic oscillations into electromagnetic ones. It should be taken into account that anomalous bodies may be detected not only by positive, but also by negative anomalies, if low-piezoactive body occurs in the higher piezoactive medium. The piezoelectric method is an example of successful application of piezoelectric and seismo-electrokinetic phenomena in exploration and environmental geophysics and designed for delineation of targets differing from the host media by piezoelectric properties (Neishtadt et al., 2006, Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012). This method is employed in surface, downhole, and underground modes. Recent testing of piezeoelectric effects of archaeological samples composed from fired clay have shown values of 2.0 - 3.0 ṡ 10-14 C/N. However, absence of reliable procedures for solving the direct and inverse problems of piezoelectric anomalies (PEA), drastically hampers further progression of the method. Therefore, it was suggested to adapt the tomography procedure, widely used in the seismic prospecting, to the PEA modeling. Diffraction of seismic waves has been computed for models of circular cylinder, thin inclined bed and thick bed (Alperovich et al., 1997). As a result, spatial-time distribution of the electromagnetic field caused by the seismic wave has been found. The computations have shown that effectiveness and reliability of PEA analysis may be critically enhanced by considering total electro- and magnetograms as differentiated from the conventional approaches. Distribution of the electromagnetic field obtained by solving the direct

  3. High piezoelectric performance of poly(lactic acid) film manufactured by solid-state extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mitsunobu; Onogi, Takayuki; Onishi, Katsuki; Inagaki, Takuma; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the application of uniaxially stretched poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) films to speakers, actuators, and pressure sensors has been attempted, taking advantage of their piezoelectric performance. However, the shear piezoelectric constant d14 of uniaxially stretched PLLA film is conventionally 6-10 pC N-1. To realize a high sensitivity of pressure sensors, compact speakers, and actuators, and a low driving voltage, further improvement of the piezoelectric performance is desired. In this study, we carried out solid-state extrusion (SSE) to stretch and orient poly(d-lactic acid) (PDLA) and verified its effects on piezoelectric performance. By SSE, we were able to improve the mechanical strength and elastic modulus of PDLA samples. Furthermore, the d14 of the samples was significantly increased to approximately 20 pC N-1.

  4. Stable and High Piezoelectric Output of GaN Nanowire-Based Lead-Free Piezoelectric Nanogenerator by Suppression of Internal Screening.

    PubMed

    Johar, Muhammad Ali; Hassan, Mostafa Afifi; Waseem, Aadil; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, June Key; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2018-06-14

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) that is based on c-axis GaN nanowires is fabricated on flexible substrate. In this regard, c-axis GaN nanowires were grown on GaN substrate using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Further, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was coated on nanowire-arrays then PDMS matrix embedded with GaN nanowire-arrays was transferred on Si-rubber substrate. The piezoelectric performance of nanowire-based flexible PNG was measured, while the device was actuated using a cyclic stretching-releasing agitation mechanism that was driven by a linear motor. The piezoelectric output was measured as a function of actuation frequency ranging from 1 Hz to 10 Hz and a linear tendency was observed for piezoelectric output current, while the output voltages remained constant. A maximum of piezoelectric open circuit voltages and short circuit current were measured 15.4 V and 85.6 nA, respectively. In order to evaluate the feasibility of our flexible PNG for real application, a long term stability test was performed for 20,000 cycles and the device performance was degraded by less than 18%. The underlying reason for the high piezoelectric output was attributed to the reduced free carriers inside nanowires due to surface Fermi-level pinning and insulating metal-dielectric-semiconductor interface, respectively; the former reduced the free carrier screening radially while latter reduced longitudinally. The flexibility and the high aspect ratio of GaN nanowire were the responsible factors for higher stability. Such higher piezoelectric output and the novel design make our device more promising for the diverse range of real applications.

  5. An analytical and experimental investigation of flutter suppression via piezoelectric actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analytically and experimentally study the capabilities of adaptive material plate actuators for suppressing flutter. Piezoelectrics are materials which are characterized by their ability to produce voltage when subjected to a mechanical strain. The converse piezoelectric effect can be utilized to actuate a structure by applying a voltage. For this investigation, a two degree of freedom wind-tunnel model was designed, analyzed, and tested. The model consisted of a rigid wing and a flexible mount system which permitted translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Actuators, made of piezoelectric material were affixed to leaf springs on the mount system. Command signals, applied to the piezoelectric actuators, exerted control over the closed-loop damping and stiffness properties. A mathematical aeroservoelastic model was constructed using finite element and stiffness properties. A mathematical aeroservoelastic model was constructed using finite element methods, laminated plate theory, and aeroelastic analysis tools. A flutter suppression control law was designed, implemented on a digital control computer, and tested to conditions 20 percent above the passive flutter speed of the model. The experimental results represent the first time that adaptive materials have been used to actively suppress flutter. It demonstrates that small, carefully-placed actuating plates can be used effectively to control aeroelastic response.

  6. Piezoelectric, Solar and Thermal Energy Harvesting for Hybrid Low-Power Generator Systems With Thin-Film Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    research has investigated simultaneous harvesting of vibration energy using the direct piezoelectric effect and harvesting of magnetic energy (alternating... Piezoelectric , solar and thermal energy harvesting for hybrid low-power generator systems with thin-film batteries This article has been downloaded...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Piezoelectric , solar and thermal energy harvesting for hybrid low-power

  7. Low-Frequency and Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Base-Mounted Piezoelectric Transducers.

    PubMed

    Koven, Robert; Mills, Matthew; Gale, Richard; Aksak, Burak

    2017-11-01

    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters often consist of a cantilevered beam composed of a support layer and one or two piezoelectric layers with a tip mass. While this configuration is advantageous for maximizing electromechanical coupling, the mechanical properties of the piezoelectric material can place limitations on harvester size and resonant frequency. Here, we present numerical and experimental results from a new type of piezoelectric energy harvester in which the mechanical properties and the resonant frequency of the cantilever beam resonator are effectively decoupled from the piezoelectric component. Referred to as a base-mounted piezoelectric (BMP) harvester in this paper, this new design features a piezoelectric transducer mounted beneath the base of the cantilevered beam resonator. The flexibility in the material choice for the cantilever beam resonator means that the resonant frequency and the beam dimensions are essentially free parameters. A prototype made with a 1.6 mm mm mm polyurethane beam, a PZT-5H piezoelectric transducer, and an 8.36-g tip mass is shown to produce an average power of 8.75 and at 45 Hz across a 13.0- load under harmonic base excitations of constant peak acceleration at 0.25 and 1.0-g, respectively. We also show an increase in full-width half-maximum bandwidth approximately from 1.5 to 5.6 Hz using an array of four individual BMP harvesters of similar dimensions with peak power generation of at 37.6 Hz across a 1.934- load at 0.25-g peak base excitation. Finite elements-based numerical simulations are shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results, indicating that the harvester behaves like a damped mass-spring system as proposed in this paper. Fabricated using casting and laser machining techniques, this harvester shows potential as a low-cost option for powering small, low-power wireless sensor nodes and other low-power devices.

  8. Human-computer interface glove using flexible piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; Seo, Jeonggyu; Kim, Jun-Sik; Park, Jung-Min

    2017-05-01

    In this note, we propose a human-computer interface glove based on flexible piezoelectric sensors. We select polyvinylidene fluoride as the piezoelectric material for the sensors because of advantages such as a steady piezoelectric characteristic and good flexibility. The sensors are installed in a fabric glove by means of pockets and Velcro bands. We detect changes in the angles of the finger joints from the outputs of the sensors, and use them for controlling a virtual hand that is utilized in virtual object manipulation. To assess the sensing ability of the piezoelectric sensors, we compare the processed angles from the sensor outputs with the real angles from a camera recoding. With good agreement between the processed and real angles, we successfully demonstrate the user interaction system with the virtual hand and interface glove based on the flexible piezoelectric sensors, for four hand motions: fist clenching, pinching, touching, and grasping.

  9. Energy harvesting from low frequency applications using piezoelectric materials

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Z. Daniel

    2014-11-06

    This paper reviewed the state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various types of harvester configurations, piezoelectric materials, and techniques used to improve the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency were discussed. Most of the piezoelectric energy harvesters studied today have focused on scavenging mechanical energy from vibration sources due to their abundance in both natural and industrial environments. Cantilever beams have been the most studied structure for piezoelectric energy harvester to date because of the high responsiveness to small vibrations.

  10. Quantitative measurement of piezoelectric coefficient of thin film using a scanning evanescent microwave microscope.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenli; Luo, Zhenlin; Liu, Chihui; Wu, Wenbin; Gao, Chen; Lu, Yalin

    2008-06-01

    This article describes a new approach to quantitatively measure the piezoelectric coefficients of thin films at the microscopic level using a scanning evanescent microwave microscope. This technique can resolve 10 pm deformation caused by the piezoelectric effect and has the advantages of high scanning speed, large scanning area, submicron spatial resolution, and a simultaneous accessibility to many other related properties. Results from the test measurements on the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient of PZT thin film agree well with those from other techniques listed in literatures.

  11. Investigation of free vibration analysis of functionally graded annular piezoelectric plate using COMSOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Trivendra Kumar; Parashar, Sandeep Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In the present age functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPM) are increasingly being used as actuators and sensors. In spite of the fact that the piezoelectric coupling coefficient for shear d15 has much higher value in comparison to d31 or d33, it is far less utilized for the applications due to complex nature of the shear induced vibrations. In this work three dimensional free vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric material annular plates with free-free boundary conditions is presented. The annular FGPM plate is polarized along the radial direction while the electric field is applied along the thickness direction inducing flexural vibrations of the plate due to d15 effect of functionally graded piezoelectric materials. The material properties are assumed to have a power law variation along the thickness. COMSOL Multiphysics is used to obtain the natural frequencies and modeshapes. Detailed numerical study is performed to ascertain the effect of variation in power law index and various geometrical parameters. The results presented shall be helpful in optimizing the existing applications and developing the new ones utilizing the FGPM annular plates.

  12. Active Vibration Control of a Railway Vehicle Carbody Using Piezoelectric Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molatefi, Habibollah; Ayoubi, Pejman; Mozafari, Hozhabr

    2017-07-01

    In recent years and according to modern transportation development, rail vehicles are manufactured lighter to achieve higher speed and lower transportation costs. On the other hand, weight reduction of rail vehicles leads to increase the structural vibration. In this study, Active Vibration Control of a rail vehicle using piezoelectric elements is investigated. The optimal control employed as the control approach regard to the first two modes of vibration. A simplified Car body structure is modeled in Matlab using the finite element theory by considering six DOF beam element and then the Eigen functions and mode shapes are derived. The surface roughness of different classes of rail tracks have been obtained using random vibration theory and applied to the secondary suspension as the excitation of the structure; Then piezoelectric mounted where the greatest moments were captured. The effectiveness of Piezoelectric in structural vibrations attenuation of car body is demonstrated through the state space equations and its effect on modal coefficient.

  13. The inverse skin effect in the Z-pinch and plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Usenko, P. L., E-mail: otd4@expd.vniief.ru; Gaganov, V. V.

    The inverse skin effect and its influence on the dynamics of high-current Z-pinch and plasma focus discharges in deuterium are analyzed. It is shown that the second compression responsible for the major fraction of the neutron yield can be interpreted as a result of the inverse skin effect resulting in the axial concentration of the longitudinal current density and the appearance of a reversed current in the outer layers of plasma pinches. Possible conditions leading to the enhancement of the inverse skin effect and accessible for experimental verification by modern diagnostics are formulated.

  14. Analysis of Piezoelectric Actuator for Vibration Control of Composite plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Ahmed R.; Hai, Huang

    2017-07-01

    Vibration analysis is studied numerically in this paper for a simply supported composite plate subjected to external loadings. Vibrations are controlled by using piezoelectric patches. Finite element method (ANSYS) is used for obtaining finite element model of the smart plate structure, a layered composite plate is manufactured experimentally and tested to obtain the structure mechanical properties. Different piezoelectric patch areas and different applied gain voltage effects on vibration attenuation is studied. The numerical solution is compared with the experimental work, a good agreement achieved.

  15. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhi; Zaman, Mostafa; Jiang, Liying

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment. PMID:28824130

  16. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi; Zaman, Mostafa; Jiang, Liying

    2011-12-12

    In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g 31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  17. Direct piezoelectric responses of soft composite fiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, M.; Morvan, J.; Diorio, N.; Buyuktanir, E.; Harden, J.; West, J. L.; Jákli, A.

    2013-04-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and polylactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 ˜ 1 nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here, we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at several BT concentrations. A homemade testing apparatus provided AC stresses in the 50 Hz-1.5 kHz-frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ˜ 0.5 nC/N and the compression modulus Y ˜ 104-105 Pa found are in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric and compressibility measurements. Importantly, the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simple finger tapping of a 0.15 mm thick 2-cm2 area mat. We propose using these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  18. Modelling of cantilever based on piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, N. F.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Recent technology allows devices to become smaller and with more functions. However, the battery size remained the same and for some devices, the battery must be larger in order to accommodate the greater power demands by the portable device. Piezoelectric energy harvester has been suggested as a substitute for the batteries in coming future. In this paper, a cantilever based piezoelectric energy harvester was modelled and simulated using COMSOL software. The analysis focused on the mechanical part of the harvesting system such as output power, output voltage and vibration frequency. Results of the simulations proved that flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters using nano-materials had remarkable strength under the large strain. However, although the large strain was induced on the flexible energy harvesters, the output power was still lower than the bulk and MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters that operated at the resonance frequency. The off-resonance operation and very lower packing density of the active piezoelectric materials of the flexible energy harvesters resulted in a low output power.

  19. Flexible Piezoelectric-Induced Pressure Sensors for Static Measurements Based on Nanowires/Graphene Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zefeng; Wang, Zhao; Li, Xinming; Lin, Yuxuan; Luo, Ningqi; Long, Mingzhu; Zhao, Ni; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2017-05-23

    The piezoelectric effect is widely applied in pressure sensors for the detection of dynamic signals. However, these piezoelectric-induced pressure sensors have challenges in measuring static signals that are based on the transient flow of electrons in an external load as driven by the piezopotential arisen from dynamic stress. Here, we present a pressure sensor with nanowires/graphene heterostructures for static measurements based on the synergistic mechanisms between strain-induced polarization charges in piezoelectric nanowires and the caused change of carrier scattering in graphene. Compared to the conventional piezoelectric nanowire or graphene pressure sensors, this sensor is capable of measuring static pressures with a sensitivity of up to 9.4 × 10 -3 kPa -1 and a fast response time down to 5-7 ms. This demonstration of pressure sensors shows great potential in the applications of electronic skin and wearable devices.

  20. Chatter reduction in boring process by using piezoelectric shunt damping with experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, Ufuk; Cigeroglu, Ender; Budak, Erhan

    2017-09-01

    Chatter is a self-excited type of vibration that develops during machining due to process-structure dynamic interactions resulting in modulated chip thickness. Chatter is an important problem as it results in poor surface quality, reduced productivity and tool life. The stability of a cutting process is strongly influenced by the frequency response function (FRF) at the cutting point. In this study, the effect of piezoelectric shunt damping on chatter vibrations in a boring process is studied. In piezoelectric shunt damping method, an electrical impedance is connected to a piezoelectric transducer which is bonded on cutting tool. Electrical impedance of the circuit consisting of piezoceramic transducer and passive shunt is tuned to the desired natural frequency of the cutting tool in order to maximize damping. The optimum damping is achieved in analytical and finite element models (FEM) by using a genetic algorithm focusing on the real part of the tool point FRF rather than the amplitude. Later, a practical boring bar is considered where the optimum circuit parameters are obtained by the FEM. Afterwards, the effect of the optimized piezoelectric shunt damping on the dynamic rigidity and absolute stability limit of the cutting process are investigated experimentally by modal analysis and cutting tests. It is both theoretically and experimentally shown that application of piezoelectric shunt damping results in a significant increase in the absolute stability limit in boring operations.

  1. The clash of mechanical and electrical size-effects in ZnO nanowires and a double power law approach to elastic strain engineering of piezoelectric and piezotronic devices.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Antonio; Araneo, Rodolfo; Celozzi, Salvatore; Pea, Marialilia; Notargiacomo, Andrea

    2014-09-10

    The piezoelectric performance of ultra-strength ZnO nanowires (NWs) depends on the subtle interplay between electrical and mechanical size-effects. "Size-dependent" modeling of compressed NWs illustrates why experimentally observed mechanical stiffening can indeed collide with electrical size-effects when the size shrinks, thereby lowering the actual piezoelectric function from bulk estimates. "Smaller" is not necessarily "better" in nanotechnology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Igniter for Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant flow actuated piezoelectric igniter device using one or more hammer balls retained by one or more magnets, or other retaining method, until sufficient fluid pressure is achieved to release and accelerate the hammer ball, such that it impacts a piezoelectric crystal to produce an ignition spark. Certain preferred embodiments provide a means for repetitively capturing and releasing the hammer ball after it impacts one or more piezoelectric crystals, thereby oscillating and producing multiple, repetitive ignition sparks. Furthermore, an embodiment is presented for which oscillation of the hammer ball and repetitive impact to the piezoelectric crystal is maintained without the need for a magnet or other retaining mechanism to achieve this oscillating impact process.

  3. Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of nanoporous polyvinylidence fluoride (PVDF) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Wang, Shifa; Kadlec, Alec

    2016-04-01

    A nanoporous polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) thin film was developed for applications in energy harvesting, medical surgeries, and industrial robotics. This sponge-like nanoporous PVDF structure dramatically enhanced the piezoelectric effect because it yielded considerably large deformation under a small force. A casting-etching method was adopted to make films, which is effective to control the porosity, flexibility, and thickness of the film. The films with various Zinc Oxide (ZnO) mass fractions ranging from 10 to 50% were fabricated to investigate the porosity effect. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 as well as dielectric constant and loss of the films were characterized. The results were analyzed and the optimal design of the film with the right amount of ZnO nanoparticles was determined.

  4. Advances in Valveless Piezoelectric Pump with Cone-shaped Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Hui; Wang, Ying; Huang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of valveless piezoelectric pump with cone-shaped tube chronologically, which have widely potential application in biomedicine and micro-electro-mechanical systems because of its novel principles and deduces the research direction in the future. Firstly, the history of valveless piezoelectric pumps with cone-shaped tubes is reviewed and these pumps are classified into the following types: single pump with solid structure or plane structure, and combined pump with parallel structure or series structure. Furthermore, the function of each type of cone-shaped tubes and pump structures are analyzed, and new directions of potential expansion of valveless piezoelectric pumps with cone-shaped tubes are summarized and deduced. The historical argument, which is provided by the literatures, that for a valveless piezoelectric pump with cone-shaped tubes, cone angle determines the flow resistance and the flow resistance determines the flow direction. The argument is discussed in the reviewed pumps one by one, and proved to be convincing. Finally, it is deduced that bionics is pivotal in the development of valveless piezoelectric pump with cone-shaped tubes from the perspective of evolution of biological structure. This paper summarizes the current valveless piezoelectric pumps with cone-shaped tubes and points out the future development, which may provide guidance for the research of piezoelectric actuators.

  5. Experimental verification of distributed piezoelectric actuators for use in precision space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, E. F.; De Luis, J.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic model for structures with distributed piezoelectric actuators is experimentally verified for the cases of both surface-bonded and embedded actuators. A technique for the selection of such piezoelectric actuators' location has been developed, and is noted to indicate that segmented actuators are always more effective than continuous ones, since the output of each can be individually controlled. Manufacturing techniques for the bonding or embedding of segmented piezoelectric actuators are also developed which allow independent electrical contact to be made with each actuator. Static tests have been conducted to determine how the elastic properties of the composite are affected by the presence of an embedded actuator, for the case of glass/epoxy laminates.

  6. Anisotropy effects on 3D waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stekl, I.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

    2010-12-01

    misinterpretation of results. However if correct physics is used results agree with correct model. Our algorithm is relatively affordable and runs on standard pc clusters in acceptable time. Refferences: H. Ben Hadj Ali, S. Operto and J. Virieux. Velocity model building by 3D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-aperture seismic data, Geophysics (Special issue: Velocity Model Building), 73(6), P. VE101-VE117 (2008). L. Sirgue, O.I. Barkved, J. Dellinger, J. Etgen, U. Albertin, J.H. Kommedal, Full waveform inversion: the next leap forward in imaging at Valhall, First Brake April 2010 - Issue 4 - Volume 28 M. Warner, I. Stekl, A. Umpleby, Efficient and Effective 3D Wavefield Tomography, 70th EAGE Conference & Exhibition (2008)

  7. High-performance piezoelectric nanogenerators for self-powered nanosystems: quantitative standards and figures of merit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenzhuo

    2016-03-01

    Harvesting energies from the atmosphere cost-effectively is critical for both addressing worldwide long-term energy needs at the macro-scale, and achieving the sustainable maintenance-free operation of nanodevices at the micro-scale (Wang and Wu 2012 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51 11700-21). Piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) technology has demonstrated its great application potential in harvesting the ubiquitous and abundant mechanical energy. Despite of the progress made in this rapidly-advancing field, a fundamental understanding and common standard for consistently quantifying and evaluating the performance of the various types of piezoelectric NGs is still lacking. In their recent study Crossley and Kar-Narayan (2015 Nanotechnology 26 344001), systematically investigated dynamical properties of piezoelectric NGs by taking into account the effect of driving mechanism and load frequency on NG performance. They further defined the NGs’ figures of merit as energy harvested normalized by applied strain or stress for NGs under strain-driven or stress-driven conditions, which are commonly seen in the vibrational energy harvesting. This work provides new insight and a feasible approach for consistently evaluating piezoelectric nanomaterials and NG devices, which is important for designing and optimizing nanoscale piezoelectric energy harvesters, as well as promoting their applications in emerging areas e.g. the internet of things, wearable devices, and self-powered nanosystems.

  8. High-performance piezoelectric nanogenerators for self-powered nanosystems: quantitative standards and figures of merit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenzhuo

    2016-03-18

    Harvesting energies from the atmosphere cost-effectively is critical for both addressing worldwide long-term energy needs at the macro-scale, and achieving the sustainable maintenance-free operation of nanodevices at the micro-scale (Wang and Wu 2012 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51 11700-21). Piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) technology has demonstrated its great application potential in harvesting the ubiquitous and abundant mechanical energy. Despite of the progress made in this rapidly-advancing field, a fundamental understanding and common standard for consistently quantifying and evaluating the performance of the various types of piezoelectric NGs is still lacking. In their recent study Crossley and Kar-Narayan (2015 Nanotechnology 26 344001), systematically investigated dynamical properties of piezoelectric NGs by taking into account the effect of driving mechanism and load frequency on NG performance. They further defined the NGs' figures of merit as energy harvested normalized by applied strain or stress for NGs under strain-driven or stress-driven conditions, which are commonly seen in the vibrational energy harvesting. This work provides new insight and a feasible approach for consistently evaluating piezoelectric nanomaterials and NG devices, which is important for designing and optimizing nanoscale piezoelectric energy harvesters, as well as promoting their applications in emerging areas e.g. the internet of things, wearable devices, and self-powered nanosystems.

  9. Piezoelectric loudspeaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Curtis Randall (Inventor); Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A piezoelectric loudspeaker suitable for midrange frequencies uses a dome shaped piezoelectric actuator to drive a speaker membrane directly. The dome shaped actuator is made from a reduced and internally biased oxygen wafer, and generates excursion of the apex of the dome in the order of 0.02 - 0.05 inches when a rated drive voltage of 350 V rms is applied between the convex and the concave surfaces of the dome shaped actuator. The load capacity exceeds 10 lbs. The edge of the rim of the dome shaped actuator must be free to rock when the dome height varies to ensure low distortion in the loudspeaker. This is achieved by mounting the rim of the dome shaped actuator on a support surface by prestress only. An exceptionally simple design uses a planar speaker membrane with the center part of one side pressed against the rim of a dome shaped actuator by prestress from a stretched latex surround member.

  10. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state–of–art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN–PT and PIN–PMN–PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single–element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed. PMID:25386032

  11. Adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuators for active structural acoustic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart

    1997-09-01

    A new transducer technology with application to active control systems, modal analysis, and autonomous system health monitoring, is brought to fruition in this work. It has the advantages of being lightweight, potentially cost-effective, self-tuning, has negligible dynamics, and most importantly (from a robustness perspective), it provides a colocated sensor/actuator pair. The transducer consists of a piezoceramic element which serves as both an actuator and a sensor and will be referred to in this work as a sensoriactuator. Simple, adaptive signal processing in conjunction with a voltage controlled amplifier, reference capacitor, and a common-mode rejection circuit extract the mechanical response from the total response of the piezoelectric sensoriactuator for sensing. The digital portion of the adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator merely serves to tune the circuit, avoiding the potentially destabilizing effects of introducing a digital delay in the signal path, when used for feedback control applications. Adaptive compensation of the sensoriactuator is necessary since the signal to noise ratio is typically greater than 40 dB, making it prohibitive to tune the circuit manually. In addition, the constitutive properties of piezoceramics vary with time and environment, necessitating that the circuit be periodically re-tuned. The analog portion of the hardware is based upon op-amp circuits and an AD632 analog multiplier chip, which serves as both a voltage controlled amplifier (VCA) and a common mode rejection (CMR) circuit. A single coefficient least-mean square (LMS) adaptive filter continuously adjusts the gain of the VCA circuit as necessary. Nonideal behavior of piezoceramics is discussed along with methods to counter the consequential deterioration in circuit performance. A multiple input multiple output (MIMO) implementation of the adaptive piezoelectric sensoriactuator is developed using orthogonal white noise training signals for each sensoriactuator. Two

  12. The study of micro-inextensible piezoelectric cantilever plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. H.; Xu, J. W.; Zhang, W.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a micro-inextensible piezoelectric cantilever plate is analyzed and its nonlinear dynamic behaviour is studied. The nonlinear oscillation differential equation is established by using Hamilton’s principle with the application of strain gradient theory to consider the size effect, and inextensible theory to consider the large deformation and rotation effect of cantilever plate. Based on MATLAB software, using the Runge-Kuta method, we can obtain the response of the nonlinear oscillation differential equation. The influences of the strain gradient length scale parameter and voltage on the dynamic response of micro piezoelectric cantilever plate are investigated separately. The results confirmed an increase of the stiffness of the system by using the strain gradient theory and the amplitude of the vibration is reduced. The vibration of the system can be controlled by applying an active voltage. The effect of external excitation frequency on nonlinear dynamic behaviour is considered by using Poincare surface of section and diagrams of waveforms, phase and bifurcation.

  13. The Inversion Effect for Chinese Characters is Modulated by Radical Organization.

    PubMed

    Luo, Canhuang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Ye

    2017-06-01

    In studies of visual object recognition, strong inversion effects accompany the acquisition of expertise and imply the involvement of configural processing. Chinese literacy results in sensitivity to the orthography of Chinese characters. While there is some evidence that this orthographic sensitivity results in an inversion effect, and thus involves configural processing, that processing might depend on exact orthographic properties. Chinese character recognition is believed to involve a hierarchical process, involving at least two lower levels of representation: strokes and radicals. Radicals are grouped into characters according to certain types of structure, i.e. left-right structure, top-bottom structure, or simple characters with only one radical by itself. These types of radical structures vary in both familiarity, and in hierarchical level (compound versus simple characters). In this study, we investigate whether the hierarchical-level or familiarity of radical-structure has an impact on the magnitude of the inversion effect. Participants were asked to do a matching task on pairs of either upright or inverted characters with all the types of structure. Inversion effects were measured based on both reaction time and response sensitivity. While an inversion effect was observed in all 3 conditions, the magnitude of the inversion effect varied with radical structure, being significantly larger for the most familiar type of structure: characters consisting of 2 radicals organized from left to right. These findings indicate that character recognition involves extraction of configural structure as well as radical processing which play different roles in the processing of compound characters and simple characters.

  14. Underwater thrust and power generation using flexible piezoelectric composites: an experimental investigation toward self-powered swimmer-sensor platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erturk, Alper; Delporte, Ghislain

    2011-12-01

    Fiber-based flexible piezoelectric composites offer several advantages to use in energy harvesting and biomimetic locomotion. These advantages include ease of application, high power density, effective bending actuation, silent operation over a range of frequencies, and light weight. Piezoelectric materials exhibit the well-known direct and converse piezoelectric effects. The direct piezoelectric effect has received growing attention for low-power generation to use in wireless electronic applications while the converse piezoelectric effect constitutes an alternative to replace the conventional actuators used in biomimetic locomotion. In this paper, underwater thrust and electricity generation are investigated experimentally by focusing on biomimetic structures with macro-fiber composite piezoelectrics. Fish-like bimorph configurations with and without a passive caudal fin (tail) are fabricated and compared. The favorable effect of having a passive caudal fin on the frequency bandwidth is reported. The presence of a passive caudal fin is observed to bring the second bending mode close to the first one, yielding a wideband behavior in thrust generation. The same smart fish configuration is tested for underwater piezoelectric power generation in response to harmonic excitation from its head. Resonant piezohydroelastic actuation is reported to generate milli-newton level hydrodynamic thrust using milli-watt level actuation power input. The average actuation power requirement for generating a mean thrust of 19 mN at 6 Hz using a 10 g piezoelastic fish with a caudal fin is measured as 120 mW. This work also discusses the feasibility of thrust generation using the harvested energy toward enabling self-powered swimmer-sensor platforms with comparisons based on the capacity levels of structural thin-film battery layers as well as harvested solar and vibrational energy.

  15. Theoretical Study of the Vibration Suppression on a Mistuned Bladed Disk Using a Bi-periodic Piezoelectric Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Deng, Pengcheng; Liu, Jiuzhou; Li, Chao

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with the vibration suppression of a bladed disk with a piezoelectric network. The piezoelectric network has a different period (so called bi-period) from that of the bladed disk and there is no inductor in it. The system is simulated by an electromechanical lumped parameter model with two DOFs per sector. The research focuses on suppressing the amplitude magnification or reducing the vibration localization of the mistuned bladed disk. The dynamic equations of the system are derived. Both mechanical mistuning and electrical mistuning have been taken into account. The Modified Modal Assurance Criterion (MMAC) is used to evaluate the vibration suppression ability of the bi-periodic piezoelectric network. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the MMAC of the system with the random mistuning. As a reference, the forced responses of the bladed disk with and without the piezoelectric network are given. The results show that the piezoelectric network would effectively suppress amplitude magnification induced by mistuning. The vibration amplitude is even smaller than that of the tuned system. The robustness analysis shows that the bi-periodic piezoelectric network can provide a reliable assurance for avoiding the forced response amplification of the mistuned bladed disk. The amplified response induced by the mechanical mistuning with standard deviation 0.2 can be effectively suppressed through the bi-periodic piezoelectric network.

  16. On the Piezoelectric Detection of Guided Ultrasonic Waves

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In order to quantify the wave motion of guided ultrasonic waves, the characteristics of piezoelectric detectors, or ultrasonic transducers and acoustic emission sensors, have been evaluated systematically. Such guided waves are widely used in structural health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation, but methods of calibrating piezoelectric detectors have been inadequate. This study relied on laser interferometry for the base displacement measurement of bar waves, from which eight different guided wave test set-ups are developed with known wave motion using piezoelectric transmitters. Both plates and bars of 12.7 and 6.4 mm thickness were used as wave propagation media. The upper frequency limit was 2 MHz. Output of guided wave detectors were obtained on the test set-ups and their receiving sensitivities were characterized and averaged. While each sensitivity spectrum was noisy for a detector, the averaged spectrum showed a good convergence to a unique receiving sensitivity. Twelve detectors were evaluated and their sensitivity spectra determined in absolute units. Generally, these showed rapidly dropping sensitivity with increasing frequency due to waveform cancellation on their sensing areas. This effect contributed to vastly different sensitivities to guided wave and to normally incident wave for each one of the 12 detectors tested. Various other effects are discussed and recommendations on methods of implementing the approach developed are provided. PMID:29156579

  17. In vitro deposition of hydroxyapatite on cortical bone collagen stimulated by deformation-induced piezoelectricity.

    PubMed

    Noris-Suárez, Karem; Lira-Olivares, Joaquin; Ferreira, Ana Marina; Feijoo, José Luis; Suárez, Nery; Hernández, Maria C; Barrios, Esteban

    2007-03-01

    In the present work, we have studied the effect of the piezoelectricity of elastically deformed cortical bone collagen on surface using a biomimetic approach. The mineralization process induced as a consequence of the piezoelectricity effect was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). SEM micrographs showed that mineralization occurred predominantly over the compressed side of bone collagen, due to the effect of piezoelectricity, when the sample was immersed in the simulated body fluid (SBF) in a cell-free system. The TSDC method was used to examine the complex collagen dielectric response. The dielectric spectra of deformed and undeformed collagen samples with different hydration levels were compared and correlated with the mineralization process followed by SEM. The dielectric measurements showed that the mineralization induced significant changes in the dielectric spectra of the deformed sample. DSC and TSDC results demonstrated a reduction of the collagen glass transition as the mineralization process advanced. The combined use of SEM, TSDC, and DSC showed that, even without osteoblasts present, the piezoelectric dipoles produced by deformed collagen can produce the precipitation of hydroxyapatite by electrochemical means, without a catalytic converter as occurs in classical biomimetic deposition.

  18. Digital Refractometry of Piezoelectric Crystalline Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Research and Development Technical Report SLCET-TR-87-0727-1 III DIGITAL REFRACTOMETRY OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALLINE MEDIA CD Dr. Edward Collett...1L 1 DA313485 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) DIGITAL REFRACTOMETRY OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALLINE MEDIA (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dr...GROUP SUB-GROUP Lasers; quartz; dielectrics; permittivity; refractometry 9 U-1optics; millimeter waves; microwaves; crystals. ,𔄃. ABSTRACT (Continue on

  19. Enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties in La-modified PZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kour, P.; Pradhan, S. K.; Kumar, Pawan; Sinha, S. K.; Kar, Manoranjan

    2016-06-01

    The effect of lanthanum (La) doping on ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sample has been investigated. Pb1- x La x Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 ceramics with x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.10 were prepared by the sol-gel technique. Raman and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy have been employed to understand the structural modification due to ionic size mismatch. Raman spectra show the existence of both rhombohedral and tetragonal crystal symmetries. It also shows the dielectric relaxation with increase in La concentration in the sample. The increase in lattice strain due to La doping increases the remnant polarization and coercive field. The linear piezoelectric coefficient increases with the increase in La concentration. It reveals that La-substituted PZT is a better candidate for piezoelectric sensor applications as compared to that of PZT.

  20. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Igniter for Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A propellant flow actuated piezoelectric igniter device using one or more hammer balls retained by one or more magnets, or other retaining method, until sufficient fluid pressure is achieved in one or more charging chambers to release and accelerate the hammer ball, such that it impacts a piezoelectric crystal to produce an ignition spark. Certain preferred embodiments provide a means for repetitively capturing and releasing the hammer ball after it impacts one or more piezoelectric crystals, thereby oscillating and producing multiple, repetitive ignition sparks. Furthermore, an embodiment is presented for which oscillation of the hammer ball and repetitive impact to the piezoelectric crystal is maintained without the need for a magnet or other retaining mechanism to achieve this oscillating impact process.

  1. Tuning the piezoelectric and mechanical properties of the AlN system via alloying with YN and BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Sukriti; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Stevanović, Vladan; Ciobanu, Cristian V.

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in microelectromechanical systems often require multifunctional materials, which are designed so as to optimize more than one property. Using density functional theory calculations for alloyed nitride systems, we illustrate how co-alloying a piezoelectric material (AlN) with different nitrides helps tune both its piezoelectric and mechanical properties simultaneously. Wurtzite AlN-YN alloys display increased piezoelectric response with YN concentration, accompanied by mechanical softening along the crystallographic c direction. Both effects increase the electromechanical coupling coefficients relevant for transducers and actuators. Resonator applications, however, require superior stiffness, thus leading to the need to decouple the increased piezoelectric response from the softened lattice. We show that co-alloying of AlN with YN and BN results in improved elastic properties while retaining some of the piezoelectric enhancements from YN alloying. This finding may lead to new avenues for tuning the design properties of piezoelectrics through composition-property maps.

  2. Figure of merit comparison of PP-based electret and PVDF-based piezoelectric polymer energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrlík, M.; Leadenham, S.; AlMaadeed, M. A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    The harvesting of mechanical strain and kinetic energy has received great attention over the past two decades in order to power wireless electronic components such as those used in passive and active monitoring applications. Piezoelectric ceramics, such as PZT (lead zirconate titanate), constitute the most commonly used electromechanical interface in vibration energy harvesters. However, there are applications in which piezoelectric ceramics cannot be used due to their low allowable curvature and brittle nature. Soft polymer PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) is arguably the most popular non-ceramic soft piezoelectric energy harvester material for such scenarios. Another type of polymer that has received less attention is PP (polypropylene) for electret-based energy harvesting using the thickness mode (33- mode). This work presents figure of merit comparison of PP versus PVDF for off-resonant energy harvesting in thickness mode operation, revealing substantial advantage of PP over PVDF. For thickness mode energy harvesting scenarios (e.g. dynamic compression) at reasonable ambient vibration frequencies, the figure of merit for the maximum power output is proportional to the square of the effective piezoelectric strain constant divided by the effective permittivity constant. Under optimal conditions and for the same volume, it is shown that PP can generate more than two orders of magnitude larger electrical power as compared to PVDF due to the larger effective piezoelectric strain constant and lower permittivity of the former.

  3. Understanding the quasi-static thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganley, Jeffrey Mark

    2007-12-01

    Piezoelectricity describes the behavior of a class of materials which exhibit a relationship between mechanical strain and electrical field. Piezoelectric materials can be crystals (e.g. quartz), ceramic (e.g. lead-zirconate-titanate---PZT---the primary focus of the present research), or polymers (e.g. polyvinylidine-fluoride - PVDF). Piezopolymers and piezoceramics offer a significant improvement in piezoelectric properties over naturally occurring piezoelectrics like quartz. In the last five years, research in piezoelectrics has begun to change focus from the more traditional sensor/actuator applications to utilizing piezoelectric materials in energy harvesting applications. The present research will explore the very low frequency response of piezoelectrics, including several energy harvesting applications, as well as the interactions between thermal, mechanical and electrical energy in a thermally driven piezoelectric energy generation system. In Chapter 1, the history of piezoelectric research and development is given, along with an overview of piezoelectricity for those readers who are not familiar with the topic. In Chapter 2, current investigations in piezoelectric energy harvesting research are summarized. The present research, namely understanding the quasi-static thermo-electro-mechanical response of piezoelectric materials is also summarized. In addition, two applications: thermal management in a satellite and energy harvesting from a vibrating highway bridge are detailed as motivators for the present research. Chapter 3 gives a summary of the relevant piezoelectric theory. In addition, electrical circuit theory and thermodynamic heat capacity/heat energy considerations required to complete the present research are given. Chapter 4 provides a summary of the experimental testing completed during the course of the present research. Significant testing, including determination of the PZT/Aluminum substrate sample time constants, thermal calibration testing

  4. Specific features of the inverse magnetoelectric effect in two-layered Tb0.12Dy0.2Fe0.68-PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalgin, A. V.; Gridnev, S. A.; Gribe, Z. H.

    2014-07-01

    The two-layered Tb0.12Dy0.2Fe0.68-PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 magnetoelectric composites have been prepared by the deposition of ferromagnetic layers of different thicknesses from a thoroughly mixed Tb0.12Dy0.2Fe0.68 ferromagnetic powder and an epoxy glue on preliminarily polarized PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 piezoelectric layers. The dependences of the inverse magnetoelectric effect on the frequency and strength of an electric field, the strength of a constant magnetic field, the thickness of a ferromagnetic layer, the average size of Tb0.12Dy0.2Fe0.68 grains in the ferromagnetic layer, and the temperature have been determined. Conditions for the maximum magnetoelectric response have been established.

  5. High-fidelity simulations of a standing-wave thermoacoustic-piezoelectric engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jeffrey; Scalo, Carlo; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2014-11-01

    We have carried out time-domain three-dimensional and one-dimensional numerical simulations of a thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine (TASHE). The TASHE model adopted for our study is that of a standing-wave engine: a thermal gradient is imposed in a resonator tube and is capped with a piezoelectric diaphragm in a Helmholtz resonator cavity for acoustic energy extraction. The 0.51 m engine sustains 500 Pa pressure oscillations with atmospheric air and pressure. Such an engine is interesting in practice as an external heat engine with no mechanically-moving parts. Our numerical setup allows for both the evaluation of the nonlinear effects of scaling and the effect of a fully electromechanically-coupled impedance boundary condition, representative of a piezoelectric element. The thermoacoustic stack is fully resolved. Previous modeling efforts have focused on steady-state solvers with impedances or nonlinear effects without energy extraction. Optimization of scaling and the impedance for power output can now be simultaneously applied; engines of smaller sizes and higher frequencies suitable for piezoelectric energy extraction can be studied with three-dimensional solvers without restriction. Results at a low-amplitude regime were validated against results obtained from the steady-state solver DeltaEC and from experimental results in literature. Pressure and velocity amplitudes within the cavities match within 2% difference.

  6. Doped ZrO2 for future lead free piezoelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starschich, S.; Böttger, U.

    2018-01-01

    The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of doped ZrO2 prepared by chemical solution deposition (CSD) are investigated. Doping with different elements such as Mg, In, La, and Y leads to a stabilization of the constricted hysteresis. As shown in a previous work, for the constricted hysteresis of ZrO2, the piezoelectric response is significantly larger compared to ZrO2 with a normal hysteresis. The Mg doped ZrO2 shows a strong temperature and cycle stability. For the piezoelectric properties, a magnesium concentration of 7% shows the largest piezoelectric response with a piezoelectric coefficient of >10 pm/V, as well as the best cycle stability. Due to thicker films, which can be realized by the CSD technique, the shown doped ZrO2 films are a promising candidate for energy related applications such as piezoelectric energy harvesting as well as for microelectromechanical systems.

  7. A classical mechanics model for the interpretation of piezoelectric property data

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Andrew J., E-mail: a.j.bell@leeds.ac.uk

    2015-12-14

    In order to provide a means of understanding, the relationship between the primary electromechanical coefficients and simple crystal chemistry parameters for piezoelectric materials, a static analysis of a 3 atom, dipolar molecule has been undertaken to derive relationships for elastic compliance s{sup E}, dielectric permittivity ε{sup X}, and piezoelectric charge coefficient d in terms of an effective ionic charge and two inter-atomic force constants. The relationships demonstrate the mutual interdependence of the three coefficients, in keeping with experimental evidence from a large dataset of commercial piezoelectric materials. It is shown that the electromechanical coupling coefficient k is purely an expressionmore » of the asymmetry in the two force constants or bond compliances. The treatment is extended to show that the quadratic electrostriction relation between strain and polarization, in both centrosymmetric and non-centrosymmetric systems, is due to the presence of a non-zero 2nd order term in the bond compliance. Comparison with experimental data explains the counter-intuitive, positive correlation of k with s{sup E} and ε{sup X} and supports the proposition that high piezoelectric activity in single crystals is dominated by large compliance coupled with asymmetry in the sub-cell force constants. However, the analysis also shows that in polycrystalline materials, the dielectric anisotropy of the constituent crystals can be more important for attaining large charge coefficients. The model provides a completely new methodology for the interpretation of piezoelectric and electrostrictive property data and suggests methods for rapid screening for high activity in candidate piezoelectric materials, both experimentally and by novel interrogation of ab initio calculations.« less

  8. The Inversion Effect for Chinese Characters Is Modulated by Radical Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Canhuang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Ye

    2017-01-01

    In studies of visual object recognition, strong inversion effects accompany the acquisition of expertise and imply the involvement of configural processing. Chinese literacy results in sensitivity to the orthography of Chinese characters. While there is some evidence that this orthographic sensitivity results in an inversion effect, and thus…

  9. Novel method of optical image registration in wide wavelength range using matrix of piezoelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigarev, Aleksey V.; Bazarov, Timur O.; Fedorov, Vladimir V.; Ryabushkin, Oleg A.

    2018-02-01

    Most modern systems of the optical image registration are based on the matrices of photosensitive semiconductor heterostructures. However, measurement of radiation intensities up to several MW/cm2 -level using such detectors is a great challenge because semiconductor elements have low optical damage threshold. Reflecting or absorbing filters that can be used for attenuation of radiation intensity, as a rule, distort beam profile. Furthermore, semiconductor based devices have relatively narrow measurement wavelength bandwidth. We introduce a novel matrix method of optical image registration. This approach doesn't require any attenuation when measuring high radiation intensities. A sensitive element is the matrix made of thin transparent piezoelectric crystals that absorb just a small part of incident optical power. Each crystal element has its own set of intrinsic (acoustic) vibration modes. These modes can be exited due to the inverse piezoelectric effect when the external electric field is applied to the crystal sample providing that the field frequency corresponds to one of the vibration mode frequencies. Such piezoelectric resonances (PR) can be observed by measuring the radiofrequency response spectrum of the crystal placed between the capacitor plates. PR frequencies strongly depend on the crystal temperature. Temperature calibration of PR frequencies is conducted in the uniform heating conditions. In the case a crystal matrix is exposed to the laser radiation the incident power can be obtained separately for each crystal element by measuring its PR frequency kinetics providing that the optical absorption coefficient is known. The operating wavelength range of such sensor is restricted by the transmission bandwidth of the applied crystals. A plane matrix constituting of LiNbO3 crystals was assembled in order to demonstrate the possibility of application of the proposed approach. The crystal elements were placed between two electrodes forming a capacitor which

  10. Effects of Inversions on Within- and Between-Species Recombination and Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Stevison, Laurie S.; Hoehn, Kenneth B.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions disrupt recombination in heterozygotes by both reducing crossing-over within inverted regions and increasing it elsewhere in the genome. The reduction of recombination in inverted regions facilitates the maintenance of hybridizing species, as outlined by various models of chromosomal speciation. We present a comprehensive comparison of the effects of inversions on recombination rates and on nucleotide divergence. Within an inversion differentiating Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila persimilis, we detected one double recombinant among 9,739 progeny from F1 hybrids screened, consistent with published double-crossover frequencies observed within species. Despite similar rates of exchange within and between species, we found no sequence-based evidence of ongoing gene exchange between species within this inversion, but significant exchange was inferred within species. We also observed greater differentiation at regions near inversion breakpoints between species versus within species. Moreover, we observed strong “interchromosomal effect” (higher recombination in inversion heterozygotes between species) with up to 9-fold higher recombination rates along collinear segments of chromosome two in hybrids. Further, we observed that regions most susceptible to changes in recombination rates corresponded to regions with lower recombination rates in homokaryotypes. Finally, we showed that interspecies nucleotide divergence is lower in regions with greater increases in recombination rate, potentially resulting from greater interspecies exchange. Overall, we have identified several similarities and differences between inversions segregating within versus between species in their effects on recombination and divergence. We conclude that these differences are most likely due to lower frequency of heterokaryotypes and to fitness consequences from the accumulation of various incompatibilities between species. Additionally, we have identified possible

  11. Acceleration of osteogenesis by using barium titanate piezoelectric ceramic as an implant material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, K.; Morita, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Katayama, T.; Nakamachi, E.

    2011-04-01

    As bone has piezoelectric properties, it is expected that activity of bone cells and bone formation can be accelerated by applying piezoelectric ceramics to implants. Since lead ions, included in ordinary piezoelectric ceramics, are harmful, a barium titanate (BTO) ceramic, which is a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic, was used in this study. The purpose of this study was to investigate piezoelectric effects of surface charge of BTO on cell differentiation under dynamic loading in vitro. Rat bone marrow cells seeded on surfaces of BTO ceramics were cultured in culture medium supplemented with dexamethasone, β-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid while a dynamic load was applied to the BTO ceramics. After 10 days of cultivation, the cell layer and synthesized matrix on the BTO surfaces were scraped off, and then DNA content, alkaline phosphtase (ALP) activity and calcium content were measured, to evaluate osteogenic differentiation. ALP activity on the charged BTO surface was slightly higher than that on the non-charged BTO surface. The amount of calcium on the charged BTO surface was also higher than that on the non-charged BTO surface. These results showed that the electric charged BTO surface accelerated osteogenesis.

  12. Consideration of impedance matching techniques for efficient piezoelectric energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank; Stephanou, Harry; Uchino, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates multiple levels of impedance-matching methods for piezoelectric energy harvesting in order to enhance the conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. First, the transduction rate was improved by using a high piezoelectric voltage constant (g) ceramic material having a magnitude of g33 = 40 x 10(-3) V m/N. Second, a transducer structure, cymbal, was optimized and fabricated to match the mechanical impedance of vibration source to that of the piezoelectric transducer. The cymbal transducer was found to exhibit approximately 40 times higher effective strain coefficient than the piezoelectric ceramics. Third, the electrical impedance matching for the energy harvesting circuit was considered to allow the transfer of generated power to a storage media. It was found that, by using the 10-layer ceramics instead of the single layer, the output current can be increased by 10 times, and the output load can be reduced by 40 times. Furthermore, by using the multilayer ceramics the output power was found to increase by 100%. A direct current (DC)-DC buck converter was fabricated to transfer the accumulated electrical energy in a capacitor to a lower output load. The converter was optimized such that it required less than 5 mW for operation.

  13. The significance of temperature dependence on the piezoelectric energy harvesting by using a phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Nagaty, Ahmed; Khalifa, Zaki; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    In this study, an acoustic energy harvester based on a two-dimensional phononic crystal has been constructed. The present structure consists of silicon cylinders in the air background with a polyvinylidene fluoride cylinder as a defect to confine the acoustic energy. The presented energy harvester depends on the piezoelectric effect (using the piezoelectric material polyvinylidene fluoride) that converts the confined acoustic energy to electric energy. The maximum output voltage obtained equals 170 mV. Moreover, the results revealed that the output voltage can be increased with increasing temperature. In addition, the effects of the load resistance and the geometry of the piezoelectric material on the output voltage have been studied theoretically. Based on these results, all previous studies about energy harvesting in phononic structures must take temperature effects into account.

  14. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the <011> Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived

  15. Hysteresis compensation for piezoelectric actuators in single-point diamond turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Dejin; Wan, Daping; Liu, Hongbin

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, interests have been growing for fast tool servo (FTS) systems to increase the capability of existing single-point diamond turning machines. Although piezoelectric actuator is the most universal base of FTS system due to its high stiffness, accuracy and bandwidth, nonlinearity in piezoceramics limits both the static and dynamic performance of piezoelectric-actuated control systems evidently. To compensate the nonlinear hysteresis behavior of piezoelectric actuators, a hybrid model coupled with Preisach model and feedforward neural network (FNN) has been described. Since the training of FNN does not require a special calibration sequence, it is possible for on-line identification and real-time implementation with general operating data of a specific piezoelectric actuator. To describe the rate dependent behavior of piezoelectric actuators, a hybrid dynamic model was developed to predict the response of piezoelectric actuators in a wider range of input frequency. Experimental results show that a maximal error of less than 3% was accomplished by this dynamic model.

  16. Optimal design of piezoelectric transformers: a rational approach based on an analytical model and a deterministic global optimization.

    PubMed

    Pigache, Francois; Messine, Frédéric; Nogarede, Bertrand

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with a deterministic and rational way to design piezoelectric transformers in radial mode. The proposed approach is based on the study of the inverse problem of design and on its reformulation as a mixed constrained global optimization problem. The methodology relies on the association of the analytical models for describing the corresponding optimization problem and on an exact global optimization software, named IBBA and developed by the second author to solve it. Numerical experiments are presented and compared in order to validate the proposed approach.

  17. Novel Piezoelectric Paper‐Based Flexible Nanogenerators Composed of BaTiO3 Nanoparticles and Bacterial Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangjie; Liao, Qingliang; Zhang, Zheng; Liang, Qijie; Zhao, Yingli; Zheng, Xin

    2015-01-01

    A piezoelectric paper based on BaTiO3 (BTO) nanoparticles and bacterial cellulose (BC) with excellent output properties for application of nanogenerators (NGs) is reported. A facile and scalable vacuum filtration method is used to fabricate the piezoelectric paper. The BTO/BC piezoelectric paper based NG shows outstanding output performance with open‐circuit voltage of 14 V and short‐circuit current density of 190 nA cm−2. The maximum power density generated by this unique BTO/BC structure is more than ten times higher than BTO/polydimethylsiloxane structure. In bending conditions, the NG device can generate output voltage of 1.5 V, which is capable of driving a liquid crystal display screen. The improved performance can be ascribed to homogeneous distribution of piezoelectric BTO nanoparticles in the BC matrix as well as the enhanced stress on piezoelectric nanoparticles implemented by the unique percolated networks of BC nanofibers. The flexible BTO/BC piezoelectric paper based NG is lightweight, eco‐friendly, and cost‐effective, which holds great promises for achieving wearable or implantable energy harvesters and self‐powered electronics. PMID:27774389

  18. Zinc oxide piezoelectric nano-generators for low frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, E. S.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanogenerators (NGs) have been fabricated for low frequency (<100 Hz) energy harvesting applications. Different types of NGs based on ZnO nanostructures have been carefully developed, and studied for testing under different kinds of low frequency mechanical deformations. Well aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) possessing high piezoelectric coefficient were synthesized on flexible substrates using the low temperature hydrothermal route. These ZnO NWs were then used in different configurations to demonstrate different low frequency energy harvesting devices. Using piezoelectric ZnO NWs, we started with the fabrication of a sandwiched NG for a handwriting enabled energy harvesting device based on a thin silver layer coated paper substrate. Such device configurations can be used for the development of electronic programmable smart paper. Further, we developed this NG to work as a triggered sensor for a wireless system using footstep pressure. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using a ZnO NWs piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self- powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. After that, we investigated and fabricated a sensor on a PEDOT: PSS plastic substrate using a one-sided growth and double-sided growth technique. For the first growth technique, the fabricated NG has been used as a sensor for an acceleration system; while the fabricated NG by the second technique works as an anisotropic direction sensor. This fabricated configuration showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance, security, and auto-Mobil applications. In addition to that, we investigated the fabrication of a sandwiched NG on plastic substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that doping ZnO NWs with extrinsic elements (such as Ag) will lead to the reduction of the piezoelectric effect due to the loss of crystal symmetry. A brief summary into future opportunities and challenges is also presented.

  19. Acoustics of the piezo-electric pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutt, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Acoustical properties of a piezoelectric device are reported for measuring the pressure in the plasma flow from an MPD arc. A description and analysis of the acoustical behavior in a piezoelectric probe is presented for impedance matching and damping. The experimental results are presented in a set of oscillographic records.

  20. Large field-induced strains in a lead-free piezoelectric material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J X; Xiang, B; He, Q; Seidel, J; Zeches, R J; Yu, P; Yang, S Y; Wang, C H; Chu, Y-H; Martin, L W; Minor, A M; Ramesh, R

    2011-02-01

    Piezoelectric materials exhibit a mechanical response to electrical inputs, as well as an electrical response to mechanical inputs, which makes them useful in sensors and actuators. Lead-based piezoelectrics demonstrate a large mechanical response, but they also pose a health risk. The ferroelectric BiFeO(3) is an attractive alternative because it is lead-free, and because strain can stabilize BiFeO(3) phases with a structure that resembles a morphotropic phase boundary. Here we report a reversible electric-field-induced strain of over 5% in BiFeO(3) films, together with a characterization of the origins of this effect. In situ transmission electron microscopy coupled with nanoscale electrical and mechanical probing shows that large strains result from moving the boundaries between tetragonal- and rhombohedral-like phases, which changes the phase stability of the mixture. These results demonstrate the potential of BiFeO(3) as a substitute for lead-based materials in future piezoelectric applications.

  1. System and Method for Monitoring Piezoelectric Material Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W. (Inventor); Fox, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, Melanie L. (Inventor); Chattin, Richard L. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for monitoring performance capacity of a piezoelectric material that may form part of an actuator or sensor device. A switch is used to selectively electrically couple an inductor to the piezoelectric material to form an inductor-capacitor circuit. Resonance is induced in the inductor-capacitor circuit when the switch is operated to create the circuit. The resonance of the inductor-capacitor circuit is monitored with the frequency of the resonance being indicative of performance capacity of the device's piezoelectric material.

  2. Piezoelectrically tunable resonance frequency beam utilizing a stress-sensitive film

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Wachter, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting particular frequencies of acoustic vibration utilize a piezoelectrically-tunable beam element having a piezoelectric layer and a stress sensitive layer and means for providing an electrical potential across the piezoelectric layer to controllably change the beam's stiffness and thereby change its resonance frequency. It is then determined from the response of the piezoelectrically-tunable beam element to the acoustical vibration to which the beam element is exposed whether or not a particular frequency or frequencies of acoustic vibration are detected.

  3. Fabrication of Biocompatible Potassium Sodium Niobate Piezoelectric Ceramic as an Electroactive Implant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Yu, Zunxiong; Pang, Jinshan; Yu, Peng; Tan, Guoxin; Ning, Chengyun

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of piezoelectricity in natural bone has attracted extensive research in emulating biological electricity for various tissue regeneration. Here, we carried out experiments to build biocompatible potassium sodium niobate (KNN) ceramics. Then, influence substrate surface charges on bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein adsorption and cell proliferation on KNN ceramics surfaces was investigated. KNN ceramics with piezoelectric constant of ~93 pC/N and relative density of ~93% were fabricated. The adsorption of protein on the positive surfaces (Ps) and negative surfaces (Ns) of KNN ceramics with piezoelectric constant of ~93 pC/N showed greater protein adsorption capacity than that on non-polarized surfaces (NPs). Biocompatibility of KNN ceramics was verified through cell culturing and live/dead cell staining of MC3T3. The cells experiment showed enhanced cell growth on the positive surfaces (Ps) and negative surfaces (Ns) compared to non-polarized surfaces (NPs). These results revealed that KNN ceramics had great potential to be used to understand the effect of surface potential on cells processes and would benefit future research in designing piezoelectric materials for tissue regeneration. PMID:28772704

  4. Fabrication of Biocompatible Potassium Sodium Niobate Piezoelectric Ceramic as an Electroactive Implant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yu, Zunxiong; Pang, Jinshan; Yu, Peng; Tan, Guoxin; Ning, Chengyun

    2017-03-26

    The discovery of piezoelectricity in natural bone has attracted extensive research in emulating biological electricity for various tissue regeneration. Here, we carried out experiments to build biocompatible potassium sodium niobate (KNN) ceramics. Then, influence substrate surface charges on bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein adsorption and cell proliferation on KNN ceramics surfaces was investigated. KNN ceramics with piezoelectric constant of ~93 pC/N and relative density of ~93% were fabricated. The adsorption of protein on the positive surfaces (Ps) and negative surfaces (Ns) of KNN ceramics with piezoelectric constant of ~93 pC/N showed greater protein adsorption capacity than that on non-polarized surfaces (NPs). Biocompatibility of KNN ceramics was verified through cell culturing and live/dead cell staining of MC3T3. The cells experiment showed enhanced cell growth on the positive surfaces (Ps) and negative surfaces (Ns) compared to non-polarized surfaces (NPs). These results revealed that KNN ceramics had great potential to be used to understand the effect of surface potential on cells processes and would benefit future research in designing piezoelectric materials for tissue regeneration.

  5. Effect of material constants on power output in piezoelectric vibration-based generators.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hiroaki; Mihara, Kensuke; Yoshimura, Tomohiro; Hoshina, Takuya; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2011-09-01

    A possible power output estimation based on material constants in piezoelectric vibration-based generators is proposed. A modified equivalent circuit model of the generator was built and was validated by the measurement results in the generator fabricated using potassium sodium niobate-based and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics. Subsequently, generators with the same structure using other PZT-based and bismuth-layered structure ferroelectrics ceramics were fabricated and tested. The power outputs of these generators were expressed as a linear functions of the term composed of electromechanical coupling coefficients k(sys)(2) and mechanical quality factors Q*(m) of the generator. The relationship between device constants (k(sys)(2) and Q*(m)) and material constants (k(31)(2) and Q(m)) was clarified. Estimation of the power output using material constants is demonstrated and the appropriate piezoelectric material for the generator is suggested.

  6. LC Circuits for Diagnosing Embedded Piezoelectric Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, Richard L.; Fox, Robert Lee; Moses, Robert W.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2005-01-01

    A recently invented method of nonintrusively detecting faults in piezoelectric devices involves measurement of the resonance frequencies of inductor capacitor (LC) resonant circuits. The method is intended especially to enable diagnosis of piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and sensor/actuators that are embedded in structures and/or are components of multilayer composite material structures.

  7. Piezoelectric MEMS switch to activate event-driven wireless sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Okada, H.; Makimoto, N.; Maeda, R.; Itoh, T.

    2013-09-01

    We have developed piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches and applied them to ultra-low power wireless sensor nodes, to monitor the health condition of chickens. The piezoelectric switches have ‘S’-shaped piezoelectric cantilevers with a proof mass. Since the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric switches is around 24 Hz, we have utilized their superharmonic resonance to detect chicken movements as low as 5-15 Hz. When the vibration frequency is 4, 6 and 12 Hz, the piezoelectric switches vibrate at 0.5 m s-2 and generate 3-5 mV output voltages with superharmonic resonance. In order to detect such small piezoelectric output voltages, we employ comparator circuits that can be driven at low voltages, which can set the threshold voltage (Vth) from 1 to 31 mV with a 1 mV increment. When we set Vth at 4 mV, the output voltages of the piezoelectric MEMS switches vibrate below 15 Hz with amplitudes above 0.3 m s-2 and turn on the comparator circuits. Similarly, by setting Vth at 5 mV, the output voltages turn on the comparator circuits with vibrations above 0.4 m s-2. Furthermore, setting Vth at 10 mV causes vibrations above 0.5 m s-2 that turn on the comparator circuits. These results suggest that we can select small or fast chicken movements to utilize piezoelectric MEMS switches with comparator circuits.

  8. Fabrication and calibration of a piezoelectric nanocomposite paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osho, Samuel; Wu, Nan; Aramfard, Mohammad; Deng, Chuang; Ojo, Olanrewaju

    2018-03-01

    A new liquid form piezoelectric nanocomposite paint material is fabricated with possible applications as dynamic strain sensors and/or piezoelectric transducers. The applied coating is in the form of low-cost paint, which is flexible and bonds strongly on a metallic surface after drying out via the solvent-casting method. The nanocomposite is produced by an ultrasonic mixture of varying percentages of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle water dispersion, poly vinyl acetate glue (PVA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). ZnO nanoparticles are used as the piezoelectric sensing elements in a PVA matrix of the paint, while CNTs are introduced as robust bridge of ZnO particles enhancing the piezoelectricity and material properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the linkages of ZnO nanoparticles in the composite by CNTs. Through piezoelectricity calibration, the optimum mixing ratio with the highest piezoelectricity is 78.1 wt% ZnO, 19.5 wt% PVA glue and 2.4 wt% multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Through nanoindentation tests for the characterization of the mechanical properties of the nano-composite paint, it is found that Young’s modulus and hardness reached a threshold point in the increment in the addition of CNTs to the paint before showing signs of decline. Detailed analysis and explanation of the calibration results and physical phenomenon are provided. The stable paint material is ready to be applied on rough area of engineering structures as sensor and transducer.

  9. Electronics for Piezoelectric Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warkentin, D. J.; Tani, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly presents work addressing some of the basic considerations for the electronic components used in smart structures incorporating piezoelectric elements. After general remarks on the application of piezoelectric elements to the problem of structural vibration control, three main topics are described. Work to date on the development of techniques for embedding electronic components within structural parts is presented, followed by a description of the power flow and dissipation requirements of those components. Finally current work on the development of electronic circuits for use in an 'active wall' for acoustic noise is introduced.

  10. Control of piezoelectricity in amino acids by supramolecular packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, Sarah; Stapleton, Aimee; Chovan, Drahomir; Mouras, Rabah; Gleeson, Matthew; McKeown, Cian; Noor, Mohamed Radzi; Silien, Christophe; Rhen, Fernando M. F.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Liu, Ning; Soulimane, Tewfik; Tofail, Syed A. M.; Thompson, Damien

    2018-02-01

    Piezoelectricity, the linear relationship between stress and induced electrical charge, has attracted recent interest due to its manifestation in biological molecules such as synthetic polypeptides or amino acid crystals, including gamma (γ) glycine. It has also been demonstrated in bone, collagen, elastin and the synthetic bone mineral hydroxyapatite. Piezoelectric coefficients exhibited by these biological materials are generally low, typically in the range of 0.1-10 pm V-1, limiting technological applications. Guided by quantum mechanical calculations we have measured a high shear piezoelectricity (178 pm V-1) in the amino acid crystal beta (β) glycine, which is of similar magnitude to barium titanate or lead zirconate titanate. Our calculations show that the high piezoelectric coefficients originate from an efficient packing of the molecules along certain crystallographic planes and directions. The highest predicted piezoelectric voltage constant for β-glycine crystals is 8 V mN-1, which is an order of magnitude larger than the voltage generated by any currently used ceramic or polymer.

  11. Control of piezoelectricity in amino acids by supramolecular packing.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Sarah; Stapleton, Aimee; Chovan, Drahomir; Mouras, Rabah; Gleeson, Matthew; McKeown, Cian; Noor, Mohamed Radzi; Silien, Christophe; Rhen, Fernando M F; Kholkin, Andrei L; Liu, Ning; Soulimane, Tewfik; Tofail, Syed A M; Thompson, Damien

    2018-02-01

    Piezoelectricity, the linear relationship between stress and induced electrical charge, has attracted recent interest due to its manifestation in biological molecules such as synthetic polypeptides or amino acid crystals, including gamma (γ) glycine. It has also been demonstrated in bone, collagen, elastin and the synthetic bone mineral hydroxyapatite. Piezoelectric coefficients exhibited by these biological materials are generally low, typically in the range of 0.1-10 pm V -1 , limiting technological applications. Guided by quantum mechanical calculations we have measured a high shear piezoelectricity (178 pm V -1 ) in the amino acid crystal beta (β) glycine, which is of similar magnitude to barium titanate or lead zirconate titanate. Our calculations show that the high piezoelectric coefficients originate from an efficient packing of the molecules along certain crystallographic planes and directions. The highest predicted piezoelectric voltage constant for β-glycine crystals is 8 V mN -1 , which is an order of magnitude larger than the voltage generated by any currently used ceramic or polymer.

  12. Critical Role of Monoclinic Polarization Rotation in High-Performance Perovskite Piezoelectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Lalitha, K V; Rödel, Jürgen; Xing, Xianran

    2017-07-07

    High-performance piezoelectric materials constantly attract interest for both technological applications and fundamental research. The understanding of the origin of the high-performance piezoelectric property remains a challenge mainly due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. We perform in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology to reveal the underlying mechanism for the perovskite-type lead-based high-performance piezoelectric materials. The direct structural evidence reveals that the electric-field-driven continuous polarization rotation within the monoclinic plane plays a critical role to achieve the giant piezoelectric response. An intrinsic relationship between the crystal structure and piezoelectric performance in perovskite ferroelectrics has been established: A strong tendency of electric-field-driven polarization rotation generates peak piezoelectric performance and vice versa. Furthermore, the monoclinic M_{A} structure is the key feature to superior piezoelectric properties as compared to other structures such as monoclinic M_{B}, rhombohedral, and tetragonal. A high piezoelectric response originates from intrinsic lattice strain, but little from extrinsic domain switching. The present results will facilitate designing high-performance perovskite piezoelectric materials by enhancing the intrinsic lattice contribution with easy and continuous polarization rotation.

  13. Strongly Enhanced Piezoelectric Response in Lead Zirconate Titanate Films with Vertically Aligned Columnar Grains.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh D; Houwman, Evert P; Dekkers, Matthijn; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-03-22

    Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) films with (001) orientation were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the laser pulse rate during the deposition of the PZT films was found to play a key role in the control of the microstructure and to change strongly the piezoelectric response of the thin film. The film deposited at low pulse rate has a denser columnar microstructure, which improves the transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d 31f ) and ferroelectric remanent polarization (P r ), whereas the less densely packed columnar grains in the film deposited at high pulse rates give rise to a significantly higher longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33f ) value. The effect of film thickness on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the PZT films was also investigated. With increasing film thickness, the grain column diameter gradually increases, and also the average P r and d 33f values become larger. The largest piezoelectric coefficient of d 33f = 408 pm V -1 was found for a 4-μm film thickness. From a series of films in the thickness range 0.5-5 μm, the z-position dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient could be deduced. A local maximum value of 600 pm V -1 was deduced in the 3.5-4.5 μm section of the thickest films. The dependence of the film properties on film thickness is attributed to the decreasing effect of the clamping constraint imposed by the substrate and the increasing spatial separation between the grains with increasing film thickness.

  14. Strongly Enhanced Piezoelectric Response in Lead Zirconate Titanate Films with Vertically Aligned Columnar Grains

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films with (001) orientation were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the laser pulse rate during the deposition of the PZT films was found to play a key role in the control of the microstructure and to change strongly the piezoelectric response of the thin film. The film deposited at low pulse rate has a denser columnar microstructure, which improves the transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d31f) and ferroelectric remanent polarization (Pr), whereas the less densely packed columnar grains in the film deposited at high pulse rates give rise to a significantly higher longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33f) value. The effect of film thickness on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the PZT films was also investigated. With increasing film thickness, the grain column diameter gradually increases, and also the average Pr and d33f values become larger. The largest piezoelectric coefficient of d33f = 408 pm V–1 was found for a 4-μm film thickness. From a series of films in the thickness range 0.5–5 μm, the z-position dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient could be deduced. A local maximum value of 600 pm V–1 was deduced in the 3.5–4.5 μm section of the thickest films. The dependence of the film properties on film thickness is attributed to the decreasing effect of the clamping constraint imposed by the substrate and the increasing spatial separation between the grains with increasing film thickness. PMID:28247756

  15. Binary Oxide p-n Heterojunction Piezoelectric Nanogenerators with an Electrochemically Deposited High p-Type Cu2O Layer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung Ki; Kwak, Sung Soo; Kim, Joo Sung; Kim, Sang Woo; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-08-31

    The high performance of ZnO-based piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) has been limited due to the potential screening from intrinsic electron carriers in ZnO. We have demonstrated a novel approach to greatly improve piezoelectric power generation by electrodepositing a high-quality p-type Cu2O layer between the piezoelectric semiconducting film and the metal electrode. The p-n heterojunction using only oxides suppresses the screening effect by forming an intrinsic depletion region, and thus sufficiently enhances the piezoelectric potential, compared to the pristine ZnO piezoelectric NG. Interestingly, a Sb-doped Cu2O layer has high mobility and low surface trap states. Thus, this doped layer is an attractive p-type material to significantly improve piezoelectric performance. Our results revealed that p-n junction NGs consisting of Au/ZnO/Cu2O/indium tin oxide with a Cu2O:Sb (cuprous oxide with a small amount of antimony) layer of sufficient thickness (3 μm) exhibit an extraordinarily high piezoelectric potential of 0.9 V and a maximum output current density of 3.1 μA/cm(2).

  16. Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Kim, Namhyo; Sun, Kai; Corbett, Gary; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Hall, Jeffery L.; Colonius, Tim; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; hide

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for a long-life power generation scheme that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce 1 Watt average power. There are a variety of existing or proposed energy harvesting schemes that could be used in this environment but each of these has its own limitations. The vibrating piezoelectric structure is in principle capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades) thereby possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. In order to determine the feasibility of using piezoelectrics to produce suitable flow energy harvesting, we surveyed experimentally a variety of nozzle configurations that could be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to enable conversion of flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. These included reed structures, spring mass-structures, drag and lift bluff bodies and a variety of nozzles with varying flow profiles. Although not an exhaustive survey we identified a spline nozzle/piezoelectric bimorph system that experimentally produced up to 3.4 mW per bimorph. This paper will discuss these results and present our initial analyses of the device using dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical modeling. The analysis suggests that an order-of-magnitude improvement in power generation from the current design is possible.

  17. Flow energy piezoelectric bimorph nozzle harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Colonius, Tim; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Arrazola, Alvaro; Kim, Namhyo; Sun, Kai; Corbett, Gary

    2014-04-01

    There is a need for a long-life power generation scheme that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce 1 Watt average power. There are a variety of existing or proposed energy harvesting schemes that could be used in this environment but each of these has its own limitations. The vibrating piezoelectric structure is in principle capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades) thereby possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. In order to determine the feasibility of using piezoelectrics to produce suitable flow energy harvesting, we surveyed experimentally a variety of nozzle configurations that could be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to enable conversion of flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. These included reed structures, spring mass-structures, drag and lift bluff bodies and a variety of nozzles with varying flow profiles. Although not an exhaustive survey we identified a spline nozzle/piezoelectric bimorph system that experimentally produced up to 3.4 mW per bimorph. This paper will discuss these results and present our initial analyses of the device using dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical modeling. The analysis suggests that an order-of-magnitude improvement in power generation from the current design is possible.

  18. Piezoelectric power generation using friction-induced vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, Chiharu; Matsumoto, Aya; Nagamine, Takuo; Sasaki, Shinya

    2017-06-01

    In order to examine the feasibility of power generation by using friction-induced vibration with a piezoelectric element, we performed experiments and numerical analysis. In the experiments, the generated power in the piezoelectric element and the displacement of an oscillator were measured by a newly developed apparatus that embodied a single-degree-of-freedom (1-DOF) system with friction. In the numerical analysis, an analytical model of a 1-DOF system with friction and piezoelectric element was proposed to simulate the experiments. The experimental results demonstrated that the power of a few microwatts was generated by sliding between a steel ball and a steel plate lubricated with glycerol. In this study, a maximum power of approximately 10 μW was generated at a driving velocity of 40 mm s-1 and a normal load of 15 N. The numerical results demonstrated good qualitative agreement with the experimental results. This implies that this analytical model can be applied to optimize the oscillator design in piezoelectric power generation using friction-induced vibration.

  19. Effects of lattice parameters on piezoelectric constants in wurtzite materials: A theoretical study using first-principles and statistical-learning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momida, Hiroyoshi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2018-04-01

    Longitudinal piezoelectric constant (e 33) values of wurtzite materials, which are listed in a structure database, are calculated and analyzed by using first-principles and statistical learning methods. It is theoretically shown that wurtzite materials with high e 33 generally have small lattice constant ratios (c/a) almost independent of constituent elements, and approximately expressed as e 33 ∝ c/a - (c/a)0 with ideal lattice constant ratio (c/a)0. This relation also holds for highly-piezoelectric ternary materials such as Sc x Al1- x N. We conducted a search for high-piezoelectric wurtzite materials by identifying materials with smaller c/a values. It is proposed that the piezoelectricity of ZnO can be significantly enhanced by substitutions of Zn with Ca.

  20. Broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting devices using multiple bimorphs with different operating frequencies.

    PubMed

    Xue, Huan; Hu, Yuantai; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for designing broadband piezoelectric harvesters by integrating multiple piezoelectric bimorphs (PBs) with different aspect ratios into a system. The effect of 2 connecting patterns among PBs, in series and in parallel, on improving energy harvesting performance is discussed. It is found for multifrequency spectra ambient vibrations: 1) the operating frequency band (OFB) of a harvesting structure can be widened by connecting multiple PBs with different aspect ratios in series; 2) the OFB of a harvesting structure can be shifted to the dominant frequency domain of the ambient vibrations by increasing or decreasing the number of PBs in parallel. Numerical results show that the OFB of the piezoelectric energy harvesting devices can be tailored by the connection patterns (i.e., in series and in parallel) among PBs.

  1. Stacked mechanical nanogenerator comprising piezoelectric semiconducting nanostructures and Schottky conductive contacts

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L [Marietta, GA; Xu, Sheng [Atlanta, GA

    2011-08-23

    An electric power generator includes a first conductive layer, a plurality of semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures, a second conductive layer and a plurality of conductive nanostructures. The first conductive layer has a first surface from which the semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures extend. The second conductive layer has a second surface and is parallel to the first conductive layer so that the second surface faces the first surface of the first conductive layer. The conductive nanostructures depend downwardly therefrom. The second conductive layer is spaced apart from the first conductive layer at a distance so that when a force is applied, the semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures engage the conductive nanostructures so that the piezoelectric nanostructures bend, thereby generating a potential difference across the at semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures and also thereby forming a Schottky barrier between the semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures and the conductive nanostructures.

  2. Nanoscale piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foruzande, Hamid Reza; Hajnayeb, Ali; Yaghootian, Amin

    2017-09-01

    Development of new nanoscale devices has increased the demand for new types of small-scale energy resources such as ambient vibrations energy harvesters. Among the vibration energy harvesters, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) can be easily miniaturized and fabricated in micro and nano scales. This change in the dimensions of a PEH leads to a change in its governing equations of motion, and consequently, the predicted harvested energy comparing to a macroscale PEH. In this research, effects of small scale dimensions on the nonlinear vibration and harvested voltage of a nanoscale PEH is studied. The PEH is modeled as a cantilever piezoelectric bimorph nanobeam with a tip mass, using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with Hamilton's principle. A harmonic base excitation is applied as a model of the ambient vibrations. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to consider the size effects in the developed model. The derived equations of motion are discretized using the assumed-modes method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Sensitivity analysis for the effect of different parameters of the system in addition to size effects is conducted. The results show the significance of nonlocal elasticity theory in the prediction of system dynamic nonlinear behavior. It is also observed that neglecting the size effects results in lower estimates of the PEH vibration amplitudes. The results pave the way for designing new nanoscale sensors in addition to PEHs.

  3. Electrode Coverage Optimization for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Tip Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangzhu; Bai, Nan

    2018-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting using cantilever-type structures has been extensively investigated due to its potential application in providing power supplies for wireless sensor networks, but the low output power has been a bottleneck for its further commercialization. To improve the power conversion capability, a piezoelectric beam with different electrode coverage ratios is studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper. A distributed-parameter theoretical model is established for a bimorph piezoelectric beam with the consideration of the electrode coverage area. The impact of the electrode coverage on the capacitance, the output power and the optimal load resistance are analyzed, showing that the piezoelectric beam has the best performance with an electrode coverage of 66.1%. An experimental study was then carried out to validate the theoretical results using a piezoelectric beam fabricated with segmented electrodes. The experimental results fit well with the theoretical model. A 12% improvement on the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) output power was achieved with the optimized electrode converge ratio (66.1%). This work provides a simple approach to utilizing piezoelectric beams in a more efficient way. PMID:29518934

  4. Damage detection of civil infrastructures with piezoelectric oscillator sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y. R.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, S. H.; Yun, C. B.

    2006-03-01

    Many researches have been reported on the condition monitoring of civil infrastructures by means of piezoelectric sensors. Most of them made use of the impedance change of the piezoelectric device in relation to the creation of internal damages to the structure. The impedance measurement is a well accepted method in the piezoelectric sensor area, and has been proved by many authors to be useful for civil structure diagnosis. However, the impedance measurement normally requires sophisticated equipment and analysis technology. For more general and wide application of the piezoelectric diagnosis tool, a new methodology is desired to overcome the limitations of the impedance measurement. This paper presents the feasibility of a piezoelectric oscillator sensor to detect the damages in civil infrastructures. The oscillator sensor is composed of an electronic feedback oscillator circuit and a piezoelectric thickness mode vibrator to be attached to the structure of interest. Damage to the structure causes a change in the impedance spectrum of the structure, which results in a corresponding change of the resonant frequency of the structure. The oscillator sensors can instantly detect the frequency change in a very simple manner. Feasibility of the piezoelectric oscillator sensor was verified in this work with a sample aluminum plate where artificial cracks of different depth were imposed in sequence. Validity of the measurement was confirmed through comparison of the experimental data with the results of finite element analyses of the plate with cracks. Performance of the oscillator sensor was also compared with that of its conventional counterpart, i.e. impedance measurement, to manifest the superiority of the oscillator sensor.

  5. Equivalent circuit and optimum design of a multilayer laminated piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuxiang; Carazo, Alfredo Vazquez; Park, Seung Ho

    2011-12-01

    A multilayer laminated piezoelectric Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O(3) (PZT) ceramic transformer, operating in a half- wavelength longitudinal resonant mode (λ/2 mode), has been analyzed. This piezoelectric transformer is composed of one thickness-polarized section (T-section) for exciting the longitudinal mechanical vibrations, two longitudinally polarized sections (L-section) for generating high-voltage output, and two insulating layers laminated between the T-section and L-section layers to provide insulation between the input and output sections. Based on the piezoelectric constitutive and motion equations, an electro-elasto-electric (EEE) equivalent circuit has been developed, and correspondingly, an effective EEE coupling coefficient was proposed for optimum design of this multilayer transformer. Commercial finite element analysis software is used to determine the validity of the developed equivalent circuit. Finally, a prototype sample was manufactured and experimental data was collected to verify the model's validity.

  6. Scattering of ultrasonic waves from porous piezoelectric multilayered structures immersed in a fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashishth, Anil K.; Gupta, Vishakha

    2012-12-01

    The interest in porous piezoelectric materials is due to the demand for low-frequency hydrophone/actuator devices for use in underwater acoustic systems and other oceanographic applications. Porosity decreases the acoustic impedance, thus improving the transfer of acoustic energy to water or biological tissues. The impedance mismatching problem between the dense piezoelectric materials and the surrounding medium can be solved by inclusion of porosity in dense piezoceramics. The complete description of acoustic propagation in a multilayered system is of great interest in a variety of applications, such as non-destructive evaluation and acoustic design, and there is need for a flexible model that can describe the reflection and transmission of ultrasonic waves in these media. The present paper elaborates a theoretical model, based on the transfer matrix method, for describing reflection and transmission of plane elastic waves through a porous piezoelectric laminated plate, immersed in a fluid. The analytical expressions for the reflection coefficient, transmission coefficient and acoustic impedance are derived. The effects of frequency, angle of incidence, number of layers, layer thickness and porosity are observed numerically for different configurations. The results obtained are deduced for the piezoelectric laminated structure, piezoelectric layer and poro-elastic layer immersed in a fluid, which are in agreement with earlier established results and experimental studies.

  7. Analysis of the Impedance Resonance of Piezoelectric Multi-Fiber Composite Stacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, S.; Djrbashian, A.; Bradford, S C

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Fiber CompositesTM (MFC's) produced by Smart Materials Corp behave essentially like thin planar stacks where each piezoelectric layer is composed of a multitude of fibers. We investigate the suitability of using previously published inversion techniques for the impedance resonances of monolithic co-fired piezoelectric stacks to the MFCTM to determine the complex material constants from the impedance data. The impedance equations examined in this paper are those based on the derivation. The utility of resonance techniques to invert the impedance data to determine the small signal complex material constants are presented for a series of MFC's. The technique was applied to actuators with different geometries and the real coefficients were determined to be similar within changes of the boundary conditions due to change of geometry. The scatter in the imaginary coefficient was found to be larger. The technique was also applied to the same actuator type but manufactured in different batches with some design changes in the non active portion of the actuator and differences in the dielectric and the electromechanical coupling between the two batches were easily measureable. It is interesting to note that strain predicted by small signal impedance analysis is much lower than high field stains. Since the model is based on material properties rather than circuit constants, it could be used for the direct evaluation of specific aging or degradation mechanisms in the actuator as well as batch sorting and adjustment of manufacturing processes.

  8. Enhanced Piezoelectric Response of AlN via CrN Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Sukriti; Talley, Kevin R.; Gorai, Prashun; Mangum, John; Zakutayev, Andriy; Brennecka, Geoff L.; Stevanović, Vladan; Ciobanu, Cristian V.

    2018-03-01

    Since AlN has emerged as an important piezoelectric material for a wide variety of applications, efforts have been made to increase its piezoelectric response via alloying with transition metals that can substitute for Al in the wurtzite lattice. We report on density functional theory calculations of structure and properties of the Crx Al1 -x N system for Cr concentrations ranging from zero to beyond the wurtzite-rocksalt transition point. By studying the different contributions to the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient, we propose that the physical origin of the enhanced piezoelectricity in Crx Al1 -x N alloys is the increase of the internal parameter u of the wurtzite structure upon substitution of Al with the larger Cr ions. Among a set of wurtzite-structured materials, we find that Crx Al1 -x N has the most sensitive piezoelectric coefficient with respect to alloying concentration. Based on these results, we propose that Crx Al1 -x N is a viable piezoelectric material whose properties can be tuned via Cr composition. We support this proposal by combinatorial synthesis experiments, which show that Cr can be incorporated in the AlN lattice up to 30% before a detectable transition to rocksalt occurs. At this Cr content, the piezoelectric modulus d33 is approximately 4 times larger than that of pure AlN. This finding, combined with the relative ease of synthesis under nonequilibrium conditions, may position Crx Al1 -x N as a prime piezoelectric material for applications such as resonators and acoustic wave generators.

  9. Enhanced Piezoelectric Response of AlN via CrN Alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, Sukriti; Talley, Kevin R.; Gorai, Prashun

    2018-03-01

    Since AlN has emerged as an important piezoelectric material for a wide variety of applications, efforts have been made to increase its piezoelectric response via alloying with transition metals that can substitute for Al in the wurtzite lattice. We report on density functional theory calculations of structure and properties of the CrxAl1-xN system for Cr concentrations ranging from zero to beyond the wurtzite-rocksalt transition point. By studying the different contributions to the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient, we propose that the physical origin of the enhanced piezoelectricity in CrxAl1-xN alloys is the increase of the internal parameter u of the wurtzite structuremore » upon substitution of Al with the larger Cr ions. Among a set of wurtzite-structured materials, we find that CrxAl1-xN has the most sensitive piezoelectric coefficient with respect to alloying concentration. Based on these results, we propose that CrxAl1-xN is a viable piezoelectric material whose properties can be tuned via Cr composition. We support this proposal by combinatorial synthesis experiments, which show that Cr can be incorporated in the AlN lattice up to 30% before a detectable transition to rocksalt occurs. At this Cr content, the piezoelectric modulus d33 is approximately 4 times larger than that of pure AlN. This finding, combined with the relative ease of synthesis under nonequilibrium conditions, may position CrxAl1-xN as a prime piezoelectric material for applications such as resonators and acoustic wave generators.« less

  10. Growth of potassium niobate micro-hexagonal tablets with monoclinic phase and its excellent piezoelectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Huang, Jingyun; Wang, Ye; Yang, Yefeng; Wu, Yongjun; Ye, Zhizhen

    2012-09-01

    Potassium niobate micro-hexagonal tablets were synthesized through hydrothermal reaction with KOH, H2O and Nb2O5 as source materials by using a polycrystalline Al2O3 as substrate. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and selected area electron diffraction analysis results indicated that the tablets exhibit monoclinic phase structure and are highly crystallized. Meanwhile, piezoelectric property of the micro-hexagonal tablets was investigated. The as-synthesized tablets exhibit excellent piezoactivities in the experiments, and an effective piezoelectric coefficient of around 80 pm/V was obtained. The tablets have huge potential applications in micro/nano-integrated piezoelectric and optical devices.

  11. On the transient dynamics of piezoelectric-based, state-switched systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopp, Garrett K.; Kelley, Christopher R.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.

    2018-01-01

    This letter reports on the induced mechanical transients for piezoelectric-based, state-switching approaches utilizing both experimental tests and a numerical model that more accurately captures the dynamics associated with a switch between stiffness states. Currently, switching models instantaneously dissipate the stored piezoelectric voltage, resulting in a discrete change in effective stiffness states and a discontinuity in the system dynamics during the switching event. The proposed model allows for a rapid but continuous voltage dissipation and the corresponding variation between stiffness states, as one sees in physical implementations. This rapid variation in system stiffness when switching at a point of non-zero strain leads to high-frequency, large-amplitude transients in the system acceleration response. Utilizing a fundamental piezoelectric bimorph, a comparison between the numerical and experimental results reveals that these mechanical transients are much stronger than originally anticipated and masked by measurement hardware limitations, thus highlighting the significance of an appropriate system model governing the switch dynamics. Such a model enables designers to analyze systems that incorporate piezoelectric-based state switching with greater accuracy to ensure that these transients do not degrade the intended performance. Finally, if the switching does create unacceptable transients, controlling the duration of voltage dissipation enables control over the frequency content and peak amplitudes associated with the switch-induced acceleration transients.

  12. Finite element simulation of piezoelectric transformers.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Kagawa, Y; Wakatsuki, N; Okamura, H

    2001-07-01

    Piezoelectric transformers are nothing but ultrasonic resonators with two pairs of electrodes provided on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate in which electrical energy is carried in the mechanical form. The input and output electrodes are arranged to provide the impedance transformation, which results in the voltage transformation. As they are operated at a resonance, the electrical equivalent circuit approach has traditionally been developed in a rather empirical way and has been used for analysis and design. The present paper deals with the analysis of the piezoelectric transformers based on the three-dimensional finite element modelling. The PIEZO3D code that we have developed is modified to include the external loading conditions. The finite element approach is now available for a wide variety of the electrical boundary conditions. The equivalent circuit of lumped parameters can also be derived from the finite element method (FEM) solution if required. The simulation of the present transformers is made for the low intensity operation and compared with the experimental results. Demonstration is made for basic Rosen-type transformers in which the longitudinal mode of a plate plays an important role; in which the equivalent circuit of lumped constants has been used. However, there are many modes of vibration associated with the plate, the effect of which cannot always be ignored. In the experiment, the double resonances are sometimes observed in the vicinity of the operating frequency. The simulation demonstrates that this is due to the coupling of the longitudinal mode with the flexural mode. Thus, the simulation provides an invaluable guideline to the transformer design.

  13. Impact of Reflow on the Output Characteristics of Piezoelectric Microelectromechanical System Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Okada, Hironao; Masuda, Takashi; Maeda, Ryutaro; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2012-09-01

    An animal health monitoring system and a wireless sensor node aimed at preventing the spread of animal-transmitted diseases and improving pastoral efficiency which are especially suitable for chickens, were developed. The sensor node uses a piezoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device and an event-driven system that is activated by the movements of a chicken. The piezoelectric MEMS device has two functions: a) it measures the activity of a chicken and b) switches the micro-control unit (MCU) of the wireless sensor node from the sleep mode. The piezoelectric MEMS device is required to produce high output voltages when the chicken moves. However, after the piezoelectric MEMS device was reflowed to the wireless sensor node, the output voltages of the piezoelectric MEMS device decreased. The main reason for this might be the loss of residual polarization, which is affected by the thermal load during the reflow process. After the reflow process, we were not able to apply a voltage to the piezoelectric MEMS device; thus, the piezoelectric output voltage was not increased by repoling the piezoelectric MEMS device. To address the thermal load of the reflow process, we established a thermal poling treatment, which achieves a higher temperature than the reflow process. We found that on increasing the thermal poling temperature, the piezoelectric output voltages did not decreased low significantly. Thus, we considered that a thermal poling temperature higher than that of the reflow process prevents the piezoelectric output voltage reduction caused by the thermal load.

  14. Controlled carrier screening in p-n NiO/GaN piezoelectric generators by an Al2O3 insertion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johar, Muhammad Ali; Jeong, Dae Kyung; Afifi Hassan, Mostafa; Kang, Jin-Ho; Ha, Jun-Seok; Key Lee, June; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2017-12-01

    The performance of a piezoelectric generator (PG) depends significantly on the internal screening process inside the device. As piezoelectric charges appear on both ends of the piezoelectric crystal, internal screening starts to decrease the piezoelectric bias. Therefore, the piezoelectric energy generated by external stress is not fully utilized by external circuit, which is the most challenging aspect of high-efficiency PGs. In this work, the internal screening effect of a NiO/GaN p-n PG was analyzed and controlled with an Al2O3 insertion layer. Internal screening in the p-n diode PG was categorized into free-carrier screening in neutral regions and junction screening due to charge drift across the junction. It was observed that junction screening could be significantly suppressed by inserting an Al2O3 layer and that effect was dominant in a leaky diode PG. With this implementation, the piezoelectric bias of the NiO/GaN PG was improved by a factor of ~100 for high-leakage diodes and a factor of ~1.6 for low-leakage diodes. Consequently, NiO/Al2O3/GaN PGs under a stress of 5 MPa provided a piezoelectric bias of 12.1 V and a current density of 2.25 µA cm-2. The incorporation of a highly resistive Al2O3 layer between p-NiO and n-GaN layers in NiO/GaN heterojunctions provides an efficient means of improving the piezoelectric performance by controlling the internal screening of the piezoelectric field.

  15. Mutation particle swarm optimization of the BP-PID controller for piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huaqing; Jiang, Minlan

    2016-01-01

    PID control is the most common used method in industrial control because its structure is simple and it is easy to implement. PID controller has good control effect, now it has been widely used. However, PID method has a few limitations. The overshoot of the PID controller is very big. The adjustment time is long. When the parameters of controlled plant are changing over time, the parameters of controller could hardly change automatically to adjust to changing environment. Thus, it can't meet the demand of control quality in the process of controlling piezoelectric ceramic. In order to effectively control the piezoelectric ceramic and improve the control accuracy, this paper replaced the learning algorithm of the BP with the mutation particle swarm optimization algorithm(MPSO) on the process of the parameters setting of BP-PID. That designed a better self-adaptive controller which is combing the BP neural network based on mutation particle swarm optimization with the conventional PID control theory. This combination is called the MPSO-BP-PID. In the mechanism of the MPSO, the mutation operation is carried out with the fitness variance and the global best fitness value as the standard. That can overcome the precocious of the PSO and strengthen its global search ability. As a result, the MPSO-BP-PID can complete controlling the controlled plant with higher speed and accuracy. Therefore, the MPSO-BP-PID is applied to the piezoelectric ceramic. It can effectively overcome the hysteresis, nonlinearity of the piezoelectric ceramic. In the experiment, compared with BP-PID and PSO-BP-PID, it proved that MPSO is effective and the MPSO-BP-PID has stronger adaptability and robustness.

  16. Design of a piezoelectric shaker for centrifuge testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canclini, J. G.; Henderson, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The design of a prototype piezoelectric shaker and its development to date is described. Although certain design problems remain to be solved, the piezoelectric system shows promise for adaptation to a larger payload system, such as the proposed geotechnical centrifuge at the Ames Research Center.

  17. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  18. Validation of a hybrid electromagnetic-piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Bryn; Hu, Patrick A.; Aw, Kean C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a low frequency vibration energy harvester with contact based frequency up-conversion and hybrid electromagnetic-piezoelectric transduction. An electromagnetic generator is proposed as a power source for low power wearable electronic devices, while a second piezoelectric generator is investigated as a potential power source for a power conditioning circuit for the electromagnetic transducer output. Simulations and experiments are conducted in order to verify the behaviour of the device under harmonic as well as wide-band excitations across two key design parameters—the length of the piezoelectric beam and the excitation frequency. Experimental results demonstrated that the device achieved a power output between 25.5 and 34 μW at an root mean squared (rms) voltage level between 16 and 18.5 mV for the electromagnetic transducer in the excitation frequency range of 3-7 Hz, while the output power of the piezoelectric transducer ranged from 5 to 10.5 μW with a minimum peak-to-peak output voltage of 6 V. A multivariate model validation was performed between experimental and simulation results under wide-band excitation in terms of the rms voltage outputs of the electromagnetic and piezoelectric transducers, as well as the peak-to-peak voltage output of the piezoelectric transducer, and it is found that the experimental data fit the model predictions with a minimum probability of 63.4% across the parameter space.

  19. Propagation of Love waves with surface effects in an electrically-shorted piezoelectric nanofilm on a half-space elastic substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sijia; Gu, Bin; Zhang, Hongbin; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Pan, Rongying; Alamusi; Hu, Ning

    2016-03-01

    The propagation of Love waves in the structure consisting of a nanosized piezoelectric film and a semi-infinite elastic substrate is investigated in the present paper with the consideration of surface effects. In our analysis, surface effects are taken into account in terms of the surface elasticity theory and the electrically-shorted conditions are adopted on the free surface of the piezoelectric film and the interface between the film and the substrate. This work focuses on the new features in the dispersion relations of different modes due to surface effects. It is found that with the existence of surface effects, the frequency dispersion of Love waves shows the distinct dependence on the thickness and the surface constants when the film thickness reduces to nanometers. In general, phase velocities of all dispersion modes increase with the decrease of the film thickness and the increase of the surface constants. However, surface effects play different functions in the frequency dispersions of different modes, especially for the first mode dispersion. Moreover, different forms of Love waves are observed in the first mode dispersion, depending on the presence of the surface effects on the surface and the interface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonlinear optimization of acoustic energy harvesting using piezoelectric devices.

    PubMed

    Lallart, Mickaeël; Guyomar, Daniel; Richard, Claude; Petit, Lionel

    2010-11-01

    In the first part of the paper, a single degree-of-freedom model of a vibrating membrane with piezoelectric inserts is introduced and is initially applied to the case when a plane wave is incident with frequency close to one of the resonance frequencies. The model is a prototype of a device which converts ambient acoustical energy to electrical energy with the use of piezoelectric devices. The paper then proposes an enhancement of the energy harvesting process using a nonlinear processing of the output voltage of piezoelectric actuators, and suggests that this improves the energy conversion and reduces the sensitivity to frequency drifts. A theoretical discussion is given for the electrical power that can be expected making use of various models. This and supporting experimental results suggest that a nonlinear optimization approach allows a gain of up to 10 in harvested energy and a doubling of the bandwidth. A model is introduced in the latter part of the paper for predicting the behavior of the energy-harvesting device with changes in acoustic frequency, this model taking into account the damping effect and the frequency changes introduced by the nonlinear processes in the device.

  1. Theoretical modeling and equivalent electric circuit of a bimorph piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Sammoura, Firas; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2012-05-01

    An electric circuit model for a circular bimorph piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) was developed for the first time. The model was made up of an electric mesh, which was coupled to a mechanical mesh via a transformer element. The bimorph PMUT consisted of two piezoelectric layers of the same material, having equal thicknesses, and sandwiched between three thin electrodes. The piezoelectric layers, having the same poling axis, were biased with electric potentials of the same magnitude but opposite polarity. The strain mismatches between the two layers created by the converse piezoelectric effect caused the membrane to vibrate and, hence, transmit a pressure wave. Upon receiving the echo of the acoustic wave, the membrane deformation led to the generation of electric charges as a result of the direct piezoelectric phenomenon. The membrane angular velocity and electric current were related to the applied electric field, the impinging acoustic pressure, and the moment at the edge of the membrane using two canonical equations. The transduction coefficients from the electrical to the mechanical domain and vice-versa were shown to be bilateral and the system was shown to be reversible. The circuit parameters of the derived model were extracted, including the transformer ratio, the clamped electric impedance, the spring-softening impedance, and the open-circuit mechanical impedance. The theoretical model was fully examined by generating the electrical input impedance and average plate displacement curves versus frequency under both air and water loading conditions. A PMUT composed of piezoelectric material with a lossy dielectric was also investigated and the maximum possible electroacoustical conversion efficiency was calculated.

  2. Design of passive piezoelectric damping for space structures. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W., IV; Aldrich, Jack B.; Vonflotow, Andreas H.

    1994-01-01

    Passive damping of structural dynamics using piezoceramic electromechanical energy conversion and passive electrical networks is a relatively recent concept with little implementation experience base. This report describes an implementation case study, starting from conceptual design and technique selection, through detailed component design and testing to simulation on the structure to be damped. About 0.5kg. of piezoelectric material was employed to damp the ASTREX testbed, a 500kg structure. Emphasis was placed upon designing the damping to enable high bandwidth robust feedback control. Resistive piezoelectric shunting provided the necessary broadband damping. The piezoelectric element was incorporated into a mechanically-tuned vibration absorber in order to concentrate damping into the 30 to 40 Hz frequency modes at the rolloff region of the proposed compensator. A prototype of a steel flex-tensional motion amplification device was built and tested. The effective stiffness and damping of the flex-tensional device was experimentally verified. When six of these effective springs are placed in an orthogonal configuration, strain energy is absorbed from all six degrees of freedom of a 90kg. mass. A NASTRAN finite element model of the testbed was modified to include the six-spring damping system. An analytical model was developed for the spring in order to see how the flex-tensional device and piezoelectric dimensions effect the critical stress and strain energy distribution throughout the component. Simulation of the testbed demonstrated the damping levels achievable in the completed system.

  3. Power density of piezoelectric transformers improved using a contact heat transfer structure.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei Wei; Chen, Li Juan; Pan, Cheng Liang; Liu, Yong Bin; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2012-01-01

    Based on contact heat transfer, a novel method to increase power density of piezoelectric transformers is proposed. A heat transfer structure is realized by directly attaching a dissipater to the piezoelectric transformer plate. By maintaining the vibration mode of the transformer and limiting additional energy losses from the contact interface, an appropriate design can improve power density of the transformer on a large scale, resulting from effective suppression of its working temperature rise. A prototype device was fabricated from a rectangular piezoelectric transformer, a copper heat transfer sheet, a thermal grease insulation pad, and an aluminum heat radiator. The experimental results show the transformer maintains a maximum power density of 135 W/cm(3) and an efficiency of 90.8% with a temperature rise of less than 10 °C after more than 36 h, without notable changes in performance. © 2012 IEEE

  4. Multifunctional Device based on phosphor-piezoelectric PZT: lighting, speaking, and mechanical energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghoon; Kang, Taewook; Lee, Wunho; Afandi, Mohammad M; Ryu, Jongho; Kim, Jongsu

    2018-01-10

    We demonstrated the tri-functional device based on all powder-processing methods by using ZnS powder as phosphor layer and piezoelectric material as dielectric layer. The fabricated device generated the electroluminescent (EL) light from phosphor and the sound from piezoelectric sheet under a supply of external electric power, and additionally harvested the reverse-piezoelectric energy to be converted into EL light. Under sinusoidal applied voltage, EL luminances were exponentially increased with a maximum luminous efficiency of 1.3 lm/W at 40 V and 1,000 Hz, and sound pressure levels (SPLs) were linearly increased. The EL luminances were linearly dependent on applied frequency while the SPLs showed the parabolic increase behavior below 1,000 Hz and then the flat response. The temperature dependence on EL luminances and SPLs was demonstrated; the former was drastically increased and the latter was slightly decreased with the increase of temperature. Finally, as an energy harvesting application, the piezoelectric-induced electroluminescence effect was demonstrated by applying only mechanical pressure to the device without any external electric power.

  5. Integrating a piezoelectric actuator with mechanical and hydraulic devices to control camless engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercorelli, Paolo; Werner, Nils

    2016-10-01

    The paper deals with some interdisciplinary aspects and problems concerning the actuation control which occur in the integration of a piezoelectric structure in an aggregate actuator consisting of a piezoelectric, a stroke ratio displacement, a mechanical and a hydraulic part. Problems like compensation of the piezo hysteresis effect, scaling force-position to obtain an adequate displacement of the actuator and finally the control of such a complex aggregate system are considered and solved. Even though this work considers a particular application, the solutions proposed in the paper are quite general. In fact, the considered technical aspects occurring in systems which utilize piezoelectric technologies can be used in a variegated gamma of actuators integrating piezoelectric technologies. A cascade controller is proposed to combine a Feedforward action with an internal and an external PI-Controller. The Feedforward Controller is based on the model of the whole actuator, so particular attention is paid to the model structure. The resulting Feedforward action is an adaptive one to compensate hydraulic pressure faults. Real measurements are shown.

  6. Enhanced piezoelectricity and stretchability in energy harvesting devices fabricated from buckled PZT ribbons.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yi; Kim, Jihoon; Nguyen, Thanh D; Lisko, Bozhena; Purohit, Prashant K; McAlpine, Michael C

    2011-03-09

    The development of a method for integrating highly efficient energy conversion materials onto soft, biocompatible substrates could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable energy harvesting systems. Of particular interest are devices which can conform to irregular, curved surfaces, and operate in vital environments that may involve both flexing and stretching modes. Previous studies have shown significant advances in the integration of highly efficient piezoelectric nanocrystals on flexible and bendable substrates. Yet, such inorganic nanomaterials are mechanically incompatible with the extreme elasticity of elastomeric substrates. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these limitations, by generating wavy piezoelectric ribbons on silicone rubber. Our results show that the amplitudes in the waves accommodate order-of-magnitude increases in maximum tensile strain without fracture. Further, local probing of the buckled ribbons reveals an enhancement in the piezoelectric effect of up to 70%, thus representing the highest reported piezoelectric response on a stretchable medium. These results allow for the integration of energy conversion devices which operate in stretching mode via reversible deformations in the wavy/buckled ribbons.

  7. Ultrasound-mediated piezoelectric differentiation of neuron-like PC12 cells on PVDF membranes.

    PubMed

    Hoop, Marcus; Chen, Xiang-Zhong; Ferrari, Aldo; Mushtaq, Fajer; Ghazaryan, Gagik; Tervoort, Theo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Nelson, Bradley; Pané, Salvador

    2017-06-22

    Electrical and/or electromechanical stimulation has been shown to play a significant role in regenerating various functionalities in soft tissues, such as tendons, muscles, and nerves. In this work, we investigate the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a potential substrate for wireless neuronal differentiation. Piezoelectric PVDF enables generation of electrical charges on its surface upon acoustic stimulation, inducing neuritogenesis of PC12 cells. We demonstrate that the effect of pure piezoelectric stimulation on neurite generation in PC12 cells is comparable to the ones induced by neuronal growth factor (NGF). In inhibitor experiments, our results indicate that dynamic stimulation of PVDF by ultrasonic (US) waves activates calcium channels, thus inducing the generation of neurites via a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway. This mechanism is independent from the well-studied NGF induced mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (MAPK/ERK) pathway. The use of US, in combination with piezoelectric polymers, is advantageous since focused power transmission can occur deep into biological tissues, which holds great promise for the development of non-invasive neuroregenerative devices.

  8. Piezoelectrically and triboelectrically hybridized self-powered sensor with applications to smart window and human motion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Li, Shan-Chien; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid generator, derived from the concurrent adoption of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle, called a Hybridized Self-Powered sensor (HSPS). A new integration of print circuit board (PCB) technology-based piezoelectric generator (PG) concurrently adopted the direct-write, near-field electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nano/micro-fibers as piezoelectric source materials. On the other hand, triboelectric nanogenerators have the advantages of a high output performance with a simple structure which is also concurrently combined with the PG. The working mechanism of the HSPS includes the PCB-based substrate mounted with parallel aligned piezoelectric PVDF fibers in planar configuration which first bended and generated the electric potential via the effect of piezoelectricity. In what follows, the deformation of a cylindrical rolled-up piezoelectric structure is exercised, and finally, the triboelectric contact of Cu and PTFE layers is physically rubbed against each other with a separation to induce the triboelectric potential. This hybridized generator with a double domed shape design simultaneously combines piezoelectric output and triboelectric output and offers a built-in spacer with automatically spring back capability, which produces a peak output voltage of 100 V, a current of 4 μA, and a maximum power output of 450 nW. A self-powered smart window system was experimentally driven through finger-induced strain of HSPS, showing the optical properties with reversibly tunable transmittances. This research is a substantial advancement in the field of piezoelectric PVDF fibers integration toward the practical application of the whole self-powered system.

  9. Impact-based piezoelectric energy harvester for multidimensional, low-level, broadband, and low-frequency vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongjiang; Jiang, Senlin; He, Xuefeng

    2017-05-01

    This letter proposes an impact-based piezoelectric energy harvester that uses a rolling bead contained in a bracket that is supported by a spring. Under either translational or rotational base excitation, the bead moves within the bracket and collides with piezoelectric cantilevers that are located around the bracket; these collisions cause the piezoelectric beams to vibrate and thus produce electrical outputs. The low rolling friction and the motion amplification effect of the spring make the resulting device suitable for collection of low-level vibration energy. Experiments show that the proposed harvester is promising for use in scavenging of energy from the multidimensional, low-level, broadband, and low-frequency vibrations that occur in natural environments.

  10. Inverse Edelstein effect induced by magnon-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingran; Puebla, Jorge; Auvray, Florent; Rana, Bivas; Kondou, Kouta; Otani, Yoshichika

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate a spin to charge current conversion via magnon-phonon coupling and an inverse Edelstein effect on the hybrid device Ni/Cu (Ag )/Bi 2O3 . The generation of spin current (Js≈108A/m2 ) due to magnon-phonon coupling reveals the viability of acoustic spin pumping as a mechanism for the development of spintronic devices. A full in-plane magnetic field angle dependence of the power absorption and a combination of longitudinal and transverse voltage detection reveals the symmetric and asymmetric components of the inverse Edelstein effect voltage induced by Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves. While the symmetric components are well studied, asymmetric components still need to be explored. We assign the asymmetric contributions to the interference between longitudinal and shear waves and an anisotropic charge distribution in our hybrid device.

  11. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  12. Theory-Guided Synthesis of a Metastable Lead-Free Piezoelectric Polymorph

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, Lauren M; Ndione, Paul F; Beaton, Daniel A

    Many technologically critical materials are metastable under ambient conditions, yet the understanding of how to rationally design and guide the synthesis of these materials is limited. This work presents an integrated approach that targets a metastable lead-free piezoelectric polymorph of SrHfO3. First-principles calculations predict that the previous experimentally unrealized, metastable P4mm phase of SrHfO3 should exhibit a direct piezoelectric response (d33) of 36.9 pC N-1 (compared to d33 = 0 for the ground state). Combining computationally optimized substrate selection and synthesis conditions lead to the epitaxial stabilization of the polar P4mm phase of SrHfO3 on SrTiO3. The films are structurallymore » consistent with the theory predictions. A ferroelectric-induced large signal effective converse piezoelectric response of 5.2 pm V-1 for a 35 nm film is observed, indicating the ability to predict and target multifunctionality. This illustrates a coupled theory-experimental approach to the discovery and realization of new multifunctional polymorphs.« less

  13. Design and implementation of a versatile and variable-frequency piezoelectric coefficient measurement system.

    PubMed

    Wu, J S; Huang, Y K; Wu, F L; Lin, D Y

    2012-08-01

    We present a simple but versatile piezoelectric coefficient measurement system, which can measure the longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric coefficients in the pressing and bending modes, respectively, at different applied forces and a wide range of frequencies. The functionality of this measurement system has been demonstrated on three samples, including a PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic bulk, a ZnO thin film, and a laminated piezoelectric film sensor. The static longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients of the PZT bulk and the ZnO film are estimated to be around 210 and 8.1 pC/N, respectively. The static transverse piezoelectric coefficients of the ZnO film and the piezoelectric film sensor are determined to be, respectively, -0.284 and -0.031 C/m(2).

  14. Modeling and analysis of circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yihua; Huang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    We propose a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer and perform a theoretical analysis of the transformer. An equivalent circuit is derived from the equations of piezoelectricity and the Hamilton's principle. With this equivalent circuit, the voltage gain ratio, input impedance, and the efficiency of the circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer can be determined. The basic behavior of the transformer is shown by numerical results.

  15. Large piezoelectric properties in KNN-based lead-free single crystals grown by a seed-free solid-state crystal growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Faqiang; Yang, Qunbao; Liu, Zhifu; Li, Yongxiang; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Qiming

    2016-05-01

    We report lead-free single crystals with a nominal formula of (K0.45Na0.55)0.96Li0.04NbO3 grown using a simple low-cost seed-free solid-state crystal growth method (SFSSCG). The crystals thus prepared can reach maximum dimensions of 6 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm and exhibit a large piezoelectric coefficient d33 of 689 pC/N. Moreover, the effective piezoelectric coefficient d33 * , obtained under a unipolar electric field of 30 kV/cm, can reach 967 pm/V. The large piezoelectric response plus the high Curie temperature (TC) of 432 °C indicate that SFSSCG is an effective approach to synthesize high-performance lead-free piezoelectric single crystals.

  16. Quantum Effects in Inverse Opal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiweiss, Michael; Datta, Timir; Lungu, Anca; Yin, Ming; Iqbal, Zafar; Palm, Eric; Brandt, Bruce

    2002-03-01

    Properties of bismuth inverse opals and carbon opal replicas were studied. The bismuth nanostructures were fabricated by pressure infiltration into porous artificial opal, while the carbon opal replicas were created via CVD. These structures form a regular three-dimensional network in which the bismuth and carbon regions percolate in all directions between the close packed spheres of SiO_2. The sizes of the conducting regions are of the order of tens of nanometers. Static susceptibility of the bismuth inverse opal showed clear deHaas-vanAlphen oscillations. Transport measurements, including Hall, were done using standard ac four and six probe techniques in fields up to 17 T* and temperatures between 4.2 and 200 K. Observations of Shubnikov-deHaas oscillations in magnetoresistance, one-dimensional weak localization, quantum Hall and other effects will be discussed. *Performed at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) FSU, Tallahassee, FL. This work was partially supported by grants from DARPA-nanothermoelectrics, NASA-EPSCOR and the USC nanocenter.

  17. Comprehensive nonlocal analysis of piezoelectric nanobeams with surface effects in bending, buckling and vibrations under magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi-Nejad, Salman; Boreiry, Mahya

    2018-03-01

    The bending, buckling and vibrational behavior of size-dependent piezoelectric nanobeams under thermo-magneto-mechano-electrical environment are investigated by performing a parametric study, in the presence of surface effects. The Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity and Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theories are applied in the framework of Euler–Bernoulli beam theory to obtain a new non-classical size-dependent beam model for dynamic and static analyses of piezoelectric nanobeams. In order to satisfy the surface equilibrium equations, cubic variation of stress with beam thickness is assumed for the bulk stress component which is neglected in classical beam models. Results are obtained for clamped - simply-supported (C-S) and simply-supported - simply-supported (S-S) boundary conditions using a proposed analytical solution method. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effects of length, surface effects, nonlocal parameter and environmental changes (temperature, magnetic field and external voltage) on deflection, critical buckling load and natural frequency for each boundary condition. Results of this study can serve as benchmarks for the design and analysis of nanostructures of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic materials.

  18. Minimization of thickness of ultrasonic transducer by using piezoelectric backing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Jiyoung; Kim, Jungsoon; Ha, Kanglyeol; Kim, Moojoon

    2018-07-01

    To realize an insertion transducer with broadband characteristic, a transducer with a piezoelectric backing layer is proposed. The characteristic of the transducer was analyzed by using an equivalent circuit for a different electrical impedance connected to the piezoelectric backing layer. In the transducer designed to achieve optimization, the thickness of the transducer is less than 2.4 times that of the driving piezoelectric layer, and the frequency bandwidth is more than 110%. It is confirmed that the bandwidth of the fabricated transducer can be controlled by adjusting the electrical impedance in the piezoelectric backing layer.

  19. Fabrication of flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Caifeng; Hong, Daiwei; Wang, Andong; Ni, Chaoying

    2013-01-01

    Flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite material is pliable and tough in nature which is in a lack of traditional PZT patches. It has great application prospect in improving the sensitivity of sensor/actuator made by piezoelectric materials especially when they are used for curved surfaces or complicated conditions. In this paper, glass fiber cloth was adopted as carrier to grow PZT piezoelectric crystal particles by hydrothermal method, and the optimum conditions were studied. The results showed that the soft glass fiber cloth was an ideal kind of carrier. A large number of cubic-shaped PZT nanocrystallines grew firmly in the carrier with a dense and uniform distribution. The best hydrothermal condition was found to be pH 13, reaction time 24 h, and reaction temperature 200°C.

  20. Fabrication of Flexible Piezoelectric PZT/Fabric Composite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Caifeng; Hong, Daiwei; Wang, Andong; Ni, Chaoying

    2013-01-01

    Flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite material is pliable and tough in nature which is in a lack of traditional PZT patches. It has great application prospect in improving the sensitivity of sensor/actuator made by piezoelectric materials especially when they are used for curved surfaces or complicated conditions. In this paper, glass fiber cloth was adopted as carrier to grow PZT piezoelectric crystal particles by hydrothermal method, and the optimum conditions were studied. The results showed that the soft glass fiber cloth was an ideal kind of carrier. A large number of cubic-shaped PZT nanocrystallines grew firmly in the carrier with a dense and uniform distribution. The best hydrothermal condition was found to be pH 13, reaction time 24 h, and reaction temperature 200°C. PMID:24348194

  1. Characterization of Piezoelectric Actuators for Flow Control over a Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mossi, Karla M.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade, piezoelectric actuators as the active element in synthetic jets demonstrated that they could significantly enhance the overall lift on an airfoil. However, durability, system weight, size, and power have limited their use outside a laboratory. These problems are not trivial, since piezoelectric actuators are physically brittle and display limited displacement. The objective of this study is to characterize the relevant properties for the design of a synthetic jet utilizing three types of piezoelectric actuators as mechanical diaphragms, Radial Field Diaphragms, Thunders, and Bimorphs so that the shape cavity volume does not exceed 147.5 cubic centimeters on a 7centimeter x 7centimeter aerial coverage. These piezoelectric elements were selected because of their geometry, and overall free-displacement. Each actuator was affixed about its perimeter in a cavity, and relevant parameters such as clamped displacement variations with voltage and frequency, air velocities produced through an aperture, and sound pressure levels produced by the piezoelectric diaphragms were measured.

  2. Receiving sensitivity and transmitting voltage response of a fluid loaded spherical piezoelectric transducer with an elastic coating.

    PubMed

    George, Jineesh; Ebenezer, D D; Bhattacharyya, S K

    2010-10-01

    A method is presented to determine the response of a spherical acoustic transducer that consists of a fluid-filled piezoelectric sphere with an elastic coating embedded in infinite fluid to electrical and plane-wave acoustic excitations. The exact spherically symmetric, linear, differential, governing equations are used for the interior and exterior fluids, and elastic and piezoelectric materials. Under acoustic excitation and open circuit boundary condition, the equation governing the piezoelectric sphere is homogeneous and the solution is expressed in terms of Bessel functions. Under electrical excitation, the equation governing the piezoelectric sphere is inhomogeneous and the complementary solution is expressed in terms of Bessel functions and the particular integral is expressed in terms of a power series. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the effect of dimensions of the piezoelectric sphere, fluid loading, elastic coating and internal material losses on the open-circuit receiving sensitivity and transmitting voltage response of the transducer.

  3. Research on the parallel load sharing principle of a novel self-decoupled piezoelectric six-dimensional force sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Jun; Yang, Cong; Wang, Gui-Cong; Zhang, Hui; Cui, Huan-Yong; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a novel integrated piezoelectric six-dimensional force sensor which can realize dynamic measurement of multi-dimensional space load. Firstly, the composition of the sensor, the spatial layout of force-sensitive components, and measurement principle are analyzed and designed. There is no interference of piezoelectric six-dimensional force sensor in theoretical analysis. Based on the principle of actual work and deformation compatibility coherence, this paper deduces the parallel load sharing principle of the piezoelectric six-dimensional force sensor. The main effect factors which affect the load sharing ratio are obtained. The finite element model of the piezoelectric six-dimensional force sensor is established. In order to verify the load sharing principle of the sensor, a load sharing test device of piezoelectric force sensor is designed and fabricated. The load sharing experimental platform is set up. The experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical analysis and simulation results. The experiments show that the multi-dimensional and heavy force measurement can be realized by the parallel arrangement of the load sharing ring and the force sensitive element in the novel integrated piezoelectric six-dimensional force sensor. The ideal load sharing effect of the sensor can be achieved by appropriate size parameters. This paper has an important guide for the design of the force measuring device according to the load sharing mode. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vibration energy harvesting based on integrated piezoelectric components operating in different modes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junhui; Jong, Januar; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2010-01-01

    To increase the vibration energy-harvesting capability of the piezoelectric generator based on a cantilever beam, we have proposed a piezoelectric generator that not only uses the strain change of piezoelectric components bonded on a cantilever beam, but also employs the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam to hit piezoelectric components located on the 2 sides of weights. A prototype of the piezoelectric generator has been fabricated and its characteristics have been measured and analyzed. The experimental results show that the piezoelectric components operating in the hit mode can substantially enhance the energy harvesting of the piezoelectric generator on a cantilever beam. Two methods are used and compared in the management of rectified output voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components. In one of them, the DC voltages from rectifiers are connected in series, and then the total DC voltage is applied to a capacitor. In another connection, the DC voltage from each group is applied to different capacitors. It is found that 22.3% of the harvested energy is wasted due to the series connection. The total output electric energy of our piezoelectric generator at nonresonance could be up to 43 nJ for one vibration excitation applied by spring, with initial vibration amplitude (0-p) of 18 mm and frequency of 18.5 Hz, when the rectified voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components are connected to their individual capacitors. In addition, the motion and impact of the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam are theoretically analyzed, which well explains the experimental phenomena and suggests the measures to improve the generator.

  5. Modeling and experiment of three-degree-of-freedom actuators using piezoelectric buzzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. M.; Liu, T. S.

    2013-10-01

    This study presents innovative three-degree-of-freedom piezoelectric actuators. Under the piezoelectric force and dry friction, the piezoelectric actuators not only can move in the Z-axis direction, but also rotate around the Y-axis and Z-axis. The Z-axis displacement can reach 62 mm and the rotation angle around the Y-axis and Z-axis can reach 270° and 360°, respectively. Compared with the literature, this innovative actuator design achieves one-degree-of-freedom translation and two-degree-of-freedom rotation. Equations of motion are derived based on the piezoelectric properties and Newton’s law. Two types of actuators are created in this study. In the first type, the centers of four piezoelectric buzzers are attached to an arm while in the other type each rim of the four piezoelectric buzzers is attached to the arm. Experimental results are compared with theoretical results. According to the experimental results, the present actuator can accomplish a translational velocity of 11 mm s-1, a Y-axis angular velocity of 8.96 rad s-1, a Z-axis angular velocity of 2.63 rad s-1, and a force of 2.49 mN. By using four piezoelectric buzzers, this study creates piezoelectric actuators capable of both translational and rotational motions.

  6. Multifield analysis of a piezoelectric valveless micropump: effects of actuation frequency and electric potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayar, Ersin; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2012-07-01

    Coupled multifield analysis of a piezoelectrically actuated valveless micropump device is carried out for liquid (water) transport applications. The valveless micropump consists of two diffuser/nozzle elements; the pump chamber, a thin structural layer (silicon), and a piezoelectric layer, PZT-5A as the actuator. We consider two-way coupling of forces between solid and liquid domains in the systems where actuator deflection causes fluid flow and vice versa. Flow contraction and expansion (through the nozzle and the diffuser respectively) generate net fluid flow. Both structural and flow field analysis of the microfluidic device are considered. The effect of the driving power (voltage) and actuation frequency on silicon-PZT-5A bi-layer membrane deflection and flow rate is investigated. For the compressible flow formulation, an isothermal equation of state for the working fluid is employed. The governing equations for the flow fields and the silicon-PZT-5A bi-layer membrane motions are solved numerically. At frequencies below 5000 Hz, the predicted flow rate increases with actuation frequency. The fluid-solid system shows a resonance at 5000 Hz due to the combined effect of mechanical and fluidic capacitances, inductances, and damping. Time-averaged flow rate starts to drop with increase of actuation frequency above (5000 Hz). The velocity profile in the pump chamber becomes relatively flat or plug-like, if the frequency of pulsations is sufficiently large (high Womersley number). The pressure, velocity, and flow rate prediction models developed in the present study can be utilized to optimize the design of MEMS based micropumps.

  7. Using iridium films to compensate for piezo-electric materials processing stresses in adjustable x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, A.; Bruni, R.; Cotroneo, V.; Johnson-Wilke, R.; Kester, T.; Reid, P.; Romaine, S.; Tolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2015-09-01

    Adjustable X-ray optics represent a potential enabling technology for simultaneously achieving large effective area and high angular resolution for future X-ray Astronomy missions. The adjustable optics employ a bimorph mirror composed of a thin (1.5 μm) film of piezoelectric material deposited on the back of a 0.4 mm thick conical mirror segment. The application of localized electric fields in the piezoelectric material, normal to the mirror surface, result in localized deformations in mirror shape. Thus, mirror fabrication and mounting induced figure errors can be corrected, without the need for a massive reaction structure. With this approach, though, film stresses in the piezoelectric layer, resulting from deposition, crystallization, and differences in coefficient of thermal expansion, can distort the mirror. The large relative thickness of the piezoelectric material compared to the glass means that even 100MPa stresses can result in significant distortions. We have examined compensating for the piezoelectric processing related distortions by the deposition of controlled stress chromium/iridium films on the front surface of the mirror. We describe our experiments with tuning the product of the chromium/iridium film stress and film thickness to balance that resulting from the piezoelectric layer. We also evaluated the repeatability of this deposition process, and the robustness of the iridium coating.

  8. A Novel Strategy to Eliminate the Influence of Water Adsorption on Quartz Surfaces on Piezoelectric Dynamometers

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Jin, Lei; Liu, Wei; Ren, Zongjin

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric dynamometers are out of use in high humidity. Experimental results showed that piezoelectric coefficients measured by the force-induced charges method initially fluctuated in a small range and then was unstable, and they could not be measured at high relative humidity (RH). The traditional shielding method-insulation paste was not quiet convenient, and it even added the weight of piezoelectric dynamometers. In this paper, a novel strategy that eliminates the influence of water adsorption with quartz surfaces on piezoelectric dynamometers was proposed. First, a water-quartz model was developed to analyze the origin of the RH effect. In the model, water vapor, which was adsorbed by the quartz sheet side surface, was considered. Second, equivalent sheet resistor of the side surface was researched, while the relationship of the three R’s (Roughness, RH, and Resistor) was respectively discussed based on the adsorption mechanism. Finally, fluorination technology was skillfully adapted to each surface of quartz sheets to shield the water vapor. The experiment verified the fluorination strategy and made piezoelectric dynamometers work in high humidity up to 90%RH successfully. The results showed that the presented model above was reasonable. In addition, these observations also drew some useful insights to change the structure of piezoelectric dynamometers and improve the properties. PMID:27399719

  9. Flexible Piezoelectric Generators by Using the Bending Motion Method of Direct-Grown-PZT Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin Kyu; Jeon, Do Hyun; Cho, Sam Yeon; Kang, Sin Wook; Lim, Jongsun; Bu, Sang Don

    2017-10-07

    Recently, composite-type nanogenerators (NGs) formed from piezoelectric nanostructures and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have become one of the excellent candidates for future energy harvesting because of their ability to apply the excellent electrical and mechanical properties of CNTs. However, the synthesis of NG devices with a high proportion of piezoelectric materials and a low polymer content, such as of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), continues to be problematic. In this work, high-piezoelectric-material-content flexible films produced from Pb(Zr,Ti)O₃ (PZT)-atomically-interconnected CNTs and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are presented. Various physical and chemical characterization techniques are employed to examine the morphology and structure of the materials. The direct growth of the piezoelectric material on the CNTs, by stirring the PZT and CNT mixed solution, results in various positive effects, such as a high-quality dispersion in the polymer matrix and addition of flexoelectricity to piezoelectricity, resulting in the enhancement of the output voltage by an external mechanical force. The NGs repeatedly generate an output voltage of 0.15 V. These results present a significant step toward the application of NGs using piezoelectric nanocomposite materials.

  10. The role of experience-based perceptual learning in the face inversion effect.

    PubMed

    Civile, Ciro; Obhi, Sukhvinder S; McLaren, I P L

    2018-04-03

    Perceptual learning of the type we consider here is a consequence of experience with a class of stimuli. It amounts to an enhanced ability to discriminate between stimuli. We argue that it contributes to the ability to distinguish between faces and recognize individuals, and in particular contributes to the face inversion effect (better recognition performance for upright vs inverted faces). Previously, we have shown that experience with a prototype defined category of checkerboards leads to perceptual learning, that this produces an inversion effect, and that this effect can be disrupted by Anodal tDCS to Fp3 during pre-exposure. If we can demonstrate that the same tDCS manipulation also disrupts the inversion effect for faces, then this will strengthen the claim that perceptual learning contributes to that effect. The important question, then, is whether this tDCS procedure would significantly reduce the inversion effect for faces; stimuli that we have lifelong expertise with and for which perceptual learning has already occurred. Consequently, in the experiment reported here we investigated the effects of anodal tDCS at Fp3 during an old/new recognition task for upright and inverted faces. Our results show that stimulation significantly reduced the face inversion effect compared to controls. The effect was one of reducing recognition performance for upright faces. This result is the first to show that tDCS affects perceptual learning that has already occurred, disrupting individuals' ability to recognize upright faces. It provides further support for our account of perceptual learning and its role as a key factor in face recognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anisotropic piezoelectric twist actuation of helicopter rotor blades: Aeroelastic analysis and design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkie, William Keats

    1997-12-01

    An aeroelastic model suitable for control law and preliminary structural design of composite helicopter rotor blades incorporating embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuator laminae is developed. The aeroelasticity model consists of a linear, nonuniform beam representation of the blade structure, including linear piezoelectric actuation terms, coupled with a nonlinear, finite-state unsteady aerodynamics model. A Galerkin procedure and numerical integration in the time domain are used to obtain a soluti An aeroelastic model suitable for control law and preliminary structural design of composite helicopter rotor blades incorporating embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuator laminae is developed. The aeroelasticity model consists of a linear, nonuniform beam representation of the blade structure, including linear piezoelectric actuation terms, coupled with a nonlinear, finite-state unsteady aerodynamics model. A Galerkin procedure and numerical integration in the time domain are used to obtain amited additional piezoelectric material mass, it is shown that blade twist actuation approaches which exploit in-plane piezoelectric free-stain anisotropies are capable of producing amplitudes of oscillatory blade twisting sufficient for rotor vibration reduction applications. The second study examines the effectiveness of using embedded piezoelectric actuator laminae to alleviate vibratory loads due to retreating blade stall. A 10 to 15 percent improvement in dynamic stall limited forward flight speed, and a 5 percent improvement in stall limited rotor thrust were numerically demonstrated for the active twist rotor blade relative to a conventional blade design. The active twist blades are also demonstrated to be more susceptible than the conventional blades to dynamic stall induced vibratory loads when not operating with twist actuation. This is the result of designing the active twist blades with low torsional stiffness in order to maximize piezoelectric twist authority

  12. An exact analysis of a rectangular plate piezoelectric generator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiashi; Chen, Ziguang; Hu, Yuantai

    2007-01-01

    We study thickness-twist vibration of a finite, piezoelectric plate of polarized ceramics or 6-mm crystals driven by surface mechanical loads. An exact solution from the three-dimensional equations of piezoelectricity is obtained. The plate is properly electroded and connected to a circuit such that an electric output is generated. The structure analyzed represents a piezoelectric generator for converting mechanical energy to electrical energy. Analytical expressions for the output voltage, current, power, efficiency, and power density are given. The basic behaviors of the generator are shown by numerical results.

  13. Membrane Vibration Tests Using Surface-Bonded Piezoelectric Patch Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasper, James L.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the status of on-going work at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the dynamics of thin membranes. The test article is a one-meter square pre-tensioned Kapton membrane that incorporates small surface-bonded piezoelectric patches strategically positioned to excite many modes. It is shown that PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) and MFC (macro fiber composite) piezoelectric patch actuators provide adequate excitation energy to obtain modal frequencies and mode shapes. Results from modal tests performed on the membrane using piezoelectric patches of different sizes and positions are discussed.

  14. Effects of porosity distribution and porosity volume fraction on the electromechanical properties of 3-3 piezoelectric foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, B. V.; Challagulla, K. S.; Venkatesh, T. A.; Hadjiloizi, D. A.; Georgiades, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Unit-cell based finite element models are developed to completely characterize the role of porosity distribution and porosity volume fraction in determining the elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric properties as well as relevant figures of merit of 3-3 type piezoelectric foam structures. Eight classes of foam structures which represent structures with different types and degrees of uniformity of porosity distribution are identified; a Base structure (Class I), two H-type foam structures (Classes II, and III), a Cross-type foam structure (Class IV) and four Line-type foam structures (Classes V, VI, VII, and VIII). Three geometric factors that influence the electromechanical properties are identified: (i) the number of pores per face, pore size and the distance between the pores; (ii) pore orientation with respect to poling direction; (iii) the overall symmetry of the pore distribution with respect to the center of the face of the unit cell. To assess the suitability of these structures for such applications as hydrophones, bone implants, medical imaging and diagnostic devices, five figures of merit are determined via the developed finite element model; the piezoelectric coupling constant (K t ), the acoustic impedance (Z), the piezoelectric charge coefficient (d h ), the hydrostatic voltage coefficient (g h ), and the hydrostatic figure of merit (d h g h ). At high material volume fractions, foams with non-uniform Line-type porosity (Classes V and VII) where the pores are preferentially distributed perpendicular to poling direction, are found to exhibit the best combination of desirable piezoelectric figures of merit. For example, at about 50% volume fraction, the d h , g h , and d h g h figures of merit are 55%, 1600% and 2500% higher, respectively, for Classes V and VII of Line-like foam structures compared with the Base structure.

  15. Using Piezoelectric Devices to Transmit Power through Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2008-01-01

    A method denoted wireless acoustic-electric feed-through (WAEF) has been conceived for transmitting power and/or data signals through walls or other solid objects made of a variety of elastic materials that could be electrically conductive or nonconductive. WAEF would make it unnecessary to use wires, optical fibers, tubes, or other discrete wall-penetrating signal-transmitting components, thereby eliminating the potential for structural weakening or leakage at such penetrations. Avoidance of such penetrations could be essential in some applications in which maintenance of pressure, vacuum, or chemical or biological isolation is required. In a basic WAEF setup, a transmitting piezoelectric transducer on one side of a wall would be driven at resonance to excite ultrasonic vibrations in the wall. A receiving piezoelectric transducer on the opposite side of the wall would convert the vibrations back to an ultrasonic AC electric signal, which would then be detected and otherwise processed in a manner that would depend on the modulation (if any) applied to the signal and whether the signal was used to transmit power, data, or both. An electromechanical-network model has been derived as a computationally efficient means of analyzing and designing a WAEF system. This model is a variant of a prior model, known in the piezoelectric-transducer art as Mason's equivalent-circuit model, in which the electrical and mechanical dynamics, including electromechanical couplings, are expressed as electrical circuit elements that can include inductors, capacitors, and lumped-parameter complex impedances. The real parts of the complex impedances are used to account for dielectric, mechanical, and coupling losses in all components (including all piezoelectric-transducer, wall, and intermediate material layers). In an application to a three-layer piezoelectric structure, this model was shown to yield the same results as do solutions of the wave equations of piezoelectricity and acoustic

  16. Energy harvesting from controlled buckling of piezoelectric beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin

    2015-11-01

    A piezoelectric vibration energy harvester is presented that can generate electricity from the weight of passing cars or crowds. The energy harvester consists of a piezoelectric beam, which buckles when the device is stepped on. The energy harvester can have a horizontal or vertical configuration. In the vertical (direct) configuration, the piezoelectric beam is vertical and directly sustains the weight of the vehicles or people. In the horizontal (indirect) configuration, the vertical weight is transferred to a horizontal axial force through a scissor-like mechanism. Buckling of the beam results in significant stresses and, thus, large power production. However, if the beam’s buckling is not controlled, the beam will fracture. To prevent this, the axial deformation is constrained to limit the deformations of the beam. In this paper, the energy harvester is analytically modeled. The considered piezoelectric beam is a general non-uniform beam. The natural frequencies, mode shapes, and the critical buckling force corresponding to each mode shape are calculated. The electro-mechanical coupling and the geometric nonlinearities are included in the model. The design criteria for the device are discussed. It is demonstrated that a device, realized with commonly used piezoelectric patches, can generate tens of milliwatts of power from passing car traffic. The proposed device could also be implemented in the sidewalks or integrated in shoe soles for energy generation. One of the key features of the device is its frequency up-conversion characteristics. The piezoelectric beam undergoes free vibrations each time the weight is applied to or removed from the energy harvester. The frequency of the free vibrations is orders of magnitude larger than the frequency of the load. The device is, thus, both efficient and insensitive to the frequency of the force excitations.

  17. Diaphragm Pump With Resonant Piezoelectric Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Shimko, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    A diaphragm pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator is undergoing development. This pump is intended to be a prototype of lightweight, highly reliable pumps for circulating cooling liquids in protective garments and high-power electronic circuits, and perhaps for some medical applications. The pump would be highly reliable because it would contain no sliding seals or bearings that could wear, the only parts subject to wear would be two check valves, and the diaphragm and other flexing parts could be designed, by use of proven methods, for extremely long life. Because the pump would be capable of a large volumetric flow rate and would have only a small dead volume, its operation would not be disrupted by ingestion of gas, and it could be started reliably under all conditions. The prior art includes a number piezoelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps. Because of the smallness of the motions of piezoelectric actuators (typical maximum strains only about 0.001), the volumetric flow rates of those pumps are much too small for typical cooling applications. In the pump now undergoing development, mechanical resonance would be utilized to amplify the motion generated by the piezoelectric actuator and thereby multiply the volumetric flow rate. The prime mover in this pump would be a stack of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, one end of which would be connected to a spring that would be part of a spring-and-mass resonator structure. The mass part of the resonator structure would include the pump diaphragm (see Figure 1). Contraction of the spring would draw the diaphragm to the left, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to increase and thereby causing fluid to flow into the chamber. Subsequent expansion of the spring would push the diaphragm to the right, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to decrease, and thereby expelling fluid from the chamber. The fluid would enter and leave the chamber through check valves. The piezoelectric stack would be driven electrically to

  18. Piezoelectrically-induced trap-depth reduction model of elastico-mechanoluminescent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, B. P.; Chandra, V. K.; Jha, Piyush

    2015-03-01

    Considering the detrapping of charge carriers due to reduction in trap-depth caused by piezoelectric field produced by applied pressure, an expression is derived for the detrapping rate of electrons. Then, an expression is obtained for the rate of generation of excited ions produced during capture of detrapped electrons by Eu3+ ions in persistent luminescent materials or by the energy released during electron-hole recombination in ZnS:Mn crystals. Finally, an expression is explored for the elastico-mechanoluminescence (EML) intensity, which is able to explain satisfactorily the characteristics of EML for the application of static pressure as well as for impact pressure. The total number of detrapped electrons and the total EML intensity are found to increase linearly with the electrostatic energy of the crystals in piezoelectric field. It is shown that the EML intensity should increase with the EML efficiency, number of crystallites (volume of sample), concentration of local piezoelectric regions in crystallites, piezoelectric constant of local piezoelectric regions, average length of the local piezoelectric regions, total number of electron traps, pressing rate, and applied pressure, and it should be higher for the materials having low value of threshold pressure and low value of trap-depth in unstressed condition. On the basis of the piezoelectrically-induced trap-depth reduction model of EML reported in the present investigation novel intense elastico mechanoluminescent materials having repetitive EML with undiminished intensity for successive loadings can be tailored which may find applications in sensing, imaging, lighting, colored displays, and other mechano-optical devices.

  19. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  20. Graphene Exfoliation at a Ferroelectric Domain Wall Induced by the Piezoelectric Effect: Impact on the Conductance of the Graphene Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Kurchak, Anatolii I.; Strikha, Maksym V.

    2017-11-01

    p -n junctions in graphene on ferroelectric substrates have been actively studied, but the impact of the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric substrate with ferroelectric domain walls (FDWs) on graphene characteristics was not considered. Because of the piezoeffect, ferroelectric domain stripes with opposite spontaneous polarizations elongate or contract depending on the polarity of voltage applied to the substrate. We show that the alternating piezoelectric displacement of the ferroelectric domain surfaces can lead to the alternate stretching and separation of graphene areas at the steps between elongated and contracted domains. Graphene separation at FDWs induced by the piezoeffect can cause unusual effects. In particular, the conductance of the graphene channel in a field-effect transistor increases significantly because electrons in the stretched section scatter on acoustic phonons. At the same time, the graphene conductance is determined by ferroelectric spontaneous polarization and varies greatly in the presence of FDWs. The revealed piezomechanism of graphene conductance control is promising for next generations of graphene-based field-effect transistors, modulators, electrical transducers, and piezoresistive elements. Also, our results propose the method of suspended graphene fabrication based on the piezoeffect in a ferroelectric substrate that does not require any additional technological procedures.

  1. Optimization study on inductive-resistive circuit for broadband piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ting; Yan, Zhimiao

    2017-03-01

    The performance of cantilever-beam piezoelectric energy harvester is usually analyzed with pure resistive circuit. The optimal performance of such a vibration-based energy harvesting system is limited by narrow bandwidth around its modified natural frequency. For broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting, series and parallel inductive-resistive circuits are introduced. The electromechanical coupled distributed parameter models for such systems under harmonic base excitations are decoupled with modified natural frequency and electrical damping to consider the coupling effect. Analytical solutions of the harvested power and tip displacement for the electromechanical decoupled model are confirmed with numerical solutions for the coupled model. The optimal performance of piezoelectric energy harvesting with inductive-resistive circuits is revealed theoretically as constant maximal power at any excitation frequency. This is achieved by the scenarios of matching the modified natural frequency with the excitation frequency and equating the electrical damping to the mechanical damping. The inductance and load resistance should be simultaneously tuned to their optimal values, which may not be applicable for very high electromechanical coupling systems when the excitation frequency is higher than their natural frequencies. With identical optimal performance, the series inductive-resistive circuit is recommended for relatively small load resistance, while the parallel inductive-resistive circuit is suggested for relatively large load resistance. This study provides a simplified optimization method for broadband piezoelectric energy harvesters with inductive-resistive circuits.

  2. Role of interfacial charge in the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.K.; Shin, F.G.; Department of Applied Physics, Materials Research Center and Center for Smart Materials, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the effects of compensating charges (at the inclusion-matrix interface) on the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites. Our previously developed model [C. K. Wong, Y. M. Poon, and F. G. Shin, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4690 (2001)] has been extended to include the additional contribution from the deformation of the inclusion particles due to the applied stress in the piezoelectric measurement. The relative significance of this contribution is mainly determined by the amount of compensating interfacial charge, which is significantly governed by the degrees of poling of the constituent materials in the composite sample. This model provides anmore » explanation to an anomaly in the piezoelectric coefficients of 0-3 composite samples with the matrix and inclusion phases polarized in opposite directions. Explicit expressions in closed form have been derived for the effective d{sub 33}, d{sub 31}, and d{sub h} coefficients. After taking into consideration the degree of poling of the constituents and the effects of the compensating interfacial charges, theoretical predictions show good agreement with published experimental data. Goodness of fit is not limited to low volume concentration of inclusions.« less

  3. Subatomic deformation driven by vertical piezoelectricity from CdS ultrathin films

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuewen; He, Xuexia; Zhu, Hongfei; Sun, Linfeng; Fu, Wei; Wang, Xingli; Hoong, Lai Chee; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhao, Wu; Wei, Jun; Jin, Zhong; Shen, Zexiang; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the development of high-performance piezoelectric materials, actuators become an important tool for positioning objects with high accuracy down to nanometer scale, and have been used for a wide variety of equipment, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. However, positioning at the subatomic scale is still a great challenge. Ultrathin piezoelectric materials may pave the way to positioning an object with extreme precision. Using ultrathin CdS thin films, we demonstrate vertical piezoelectricity in atomic scale (three to five space lattices). With an in situ scanning Kelvin force microscopy and single and dual ac resonance tracking piezoelectric force microscopy, the vertical piezoelectric coefficient (d33) up to 33 pm·V−1 was determined for the CdS ultrathin films. These findings shed light on the design of next-generation sensors and microelectromechanical devices. PMID:27419234

  4. Subatomic deformation driven by vertical piezoelectricity from CdS ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewen; He, Xuexia; Zhu, Hongfei; Sun, Linfeng; Fu, Wei; Wang, Xingli; Hoong, Lai Chee; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhao, Wu; Wei, Jun; Jin, Zhong; Shen, Zexiang; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Driven by the development of high-performance piezoelectric materials, actuators become an important tool for positioning objects with high accuracy down to nanometer scale, and have been used for a wide variety of equipment, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. However, positioning at the subatomic scale is still a great challenge. Ultrathin piezoelectric materials may pave the way to positioning an object with extreme precision. Using ultrathin CdS thin films, we demonstrate vertical piezoelectricity in atomic scale (three to five space lattices). With an in situ scanning Kelvin force microscopy and single and dual ac resonance tracking piezoelectric force microscopy, the vertical piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) up to 33 pm·V(-1) was determined for the CdS ultrathin films. These findings shed light on the design of next-generation sensors and microelectromechanical devices.

  5. Magnetic sensor for high temperature using a laminate composite of magnetostrictive material and piezoelectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2005-05-01

    A high sensitive and heat-resistive magnetic sensor using a magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate composite is investigated. The sensing principle is based on the magnetostrictive- and piezoelectric effect, whereby a detected yoke displacement is transduced into a voltage on the piezoelectric materials. The sensor is intended to detect the displacement of a ferromagnetic object in a high temperature environment, where conventional magnetic sensors are not useful. Such applications include sensors in engine of automobile and machinery used in material processing. The sensor features combination of a laminate composite of magnetostrictive/piezoelectric materials with high Curie temperatures and an appropriate magnetic circuit to convert mechanical displacement to sensor voltages and suppress temperature fluctuation. This paper describes the sensing principle and shows experimental results using a composite of Terfenol-D and Lithium Niobate to assure high sensitivity of 50V/mm at bias gap of 0.1mm and a temperature operating range over 200 °C.

  6. TECHNICAL NOTE: Characteristic analysis of an ultrasonic micromotor using a 3 mm diameter piezoelectric rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiangcheng; Yan, Li; Li, Longtu

    2004-04-01

    Smart systems and devices generally use certain microstructures, e.g. rod- and strip-shaped structures. In this paper, a miniaturized piezoelectric rod is analysed using the finite element method (FEM) and a laser scanning vibrometer (LSV). The effects of some factors, including the detailed structure, material parameters and input voltage, on the resonant frequencies and vibration behaviors of a piezoelectric rod are studied. On the basis of experimental results, the vibration modes of the piezoelectric rod can be made available for use in fabricating an ultrasonic micromotor or piezoelectric actuators of other types. The prototype motor fabricated here has a maximum output torque of 410 µN m for a stainless steel stator and 360 µN m for a copper stator. This article was originally published in 2003 by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in the framework of its Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures series. Reprinted by permission of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

  7. Alzheimer's disease: the amyloid hypothesis and the Inverse Warburg effect

    PubMed Central

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Pellerin, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and biochemical studies show that the sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by the following hallmarks: (a) An exponential increase with age; (b) Selective neuronal vulnerability; (c) Inverse cancer comorbidity. The present article appeals to these hallmarks to evaluate and contrast two competing models of AD: the amyloid hypothesis (a neuron-centric mechanism) and the Inverse Warburg hypothesis (a neuron-astrocytic mechanism). We show that these three hallmarks of AD conflict with the amyloid hypothesis, but are consistent with the Inverse Warburg hypothesis, a bioenergetic model which postulates that AD is the result of a cascade of three events—mitochondrial dysregulation, metabolic reprogramming (the Inverse Warburg effect), and natural selection. We also provide an explanation for the failures of the clinical trials based on amyloid immunization, and we propose a new class of therapeutic strategies consistent with the neuroenergetic selection model. PMID:25642192

  8. A new smart traffic monitoring method using embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Lu, Youyuan; Lu, Zeyu; Liu, Chao; Sun, Guoxing; Li, Zongjin

    2015-02-01

    Cement-based piezoelectric composites are employed as the sensing elements of a new smart traffic monitoring system. The piezoelectricity of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors enables powerful and accurate real-time detection of the pressure induced by the traffic flow. To describe the mechanical-electrical conversion mechanism between traffic flow and the electrical output of the embedded piezoelectric sensors, a mathematical model is established based on Duhamel’s integral, the constitutive law and the charge-leakage characteristics of the piezoelectric composite. Laboratory tests show that the voltage magnitude of the sensor is linearly proportional to the applied pressure, which ensures the reliability of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors for traffic monitoring. A series of on-site road tests by a 10 tonne truck and a 6.8 tonne van show that vehicle weight-in-motion can be predicted based on the mechanical-electrical model by taking into account the vehicle speed and the charge-leakage property of the piezoelectric sensor. In the speed range from 20 km h-1 to 70 km h-1, the error of the repeated weigh-in-motion measurements of the 6.8 tonne van is less than 1 tonne. The results indicate that the embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors and associated measurement setup have good capability of smart traffic monitoring, such as traffic flow detection, vehicle speed detection and weigh-in-motion measurement.

  9. Accurate determination of complex materials coefficients of piezoelectric resonators.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Qing-Ming; Uchino, Kenji

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents a method of accurately determining the complex piezoelectric and elastic coefficients of piezoelectric ceramic resonators from the measurement of the normalized electric admittance, Y, which is electric admittance Y of piezoelectric resonator normalized by the angular frequency omega. The coefficients are derived from the measurements near three special frequency points that correspond to the maximum and the minimum normalized susceptance (B) and the maximum normalized conductance (G). The complex elastic coefficient is determined from the frequencies at these points, and the real and imaginary parts of the piezoelectric coefficient are related to the derivative of the susceptance with respect to the frequency and the asymmetry of the conductance, respectively, near the maximum conductance point. The measurements for some lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based ceramics are used as examples to demonstrate the calculation and experimental procedures and the comparisons with the standard methods.

  10. Progress in engineering high strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Leontsev, Serhiy O; Eitel, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concerns are strongly driving the need to replace the lead-based piezoelectric materials currently employed as multilayer actuators. The current review describes both compositional and structural engineering approaches to achieve enhanced piezoelectric properties in lead-free materials. The review of the compositional engineering approach focuses on compositional tuning of the properties and phase behavior in three promising families of lead-free perovskite ferroelectrics: the titanate, alkaline niobate and bismuth perovskites and their solid solutions. The ‘structural engineering’ approaches focus instead on optimization of microstructural features including grain size, grain orientation or texture, ferroelectric domain size and electrical bias field as potential paths to induce large piezoelectric properties in lead-free piezoceramics. It is suggested that a combination of both compositional and novel structural engineering approaches will be required in order to realize viable lead-free alternatives to current lead-based materials for piezoelectric actuator applications. PMID:27877343

  11. A new piezoelectric energy harvesting design concept: multimodal energy harvesting skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an advanced design concept for a piezoelectric energy harvesting (EH), referred to as multimodal EH skin. This EH design facilitates the use of multimodal vibration and enhances power harvesting efficiency. The multimodal EH skin is an extension of our previous work, EH skin, which was an innovative design paradigm for a piezoelectric energy harvester: a vibrating skin structure and an additional thin piezoelectric layer in one device. A computational (finite element) model of the multilayered assembly - the vibrating skin structure and piezoelectric layer - is constructed and the optimal topology and/or shape of the piezoelectric layer is found for maximum power generation from multiple vibration modes. A design rationale for the multimodal EH skin was proposed: designing a piezoelectric material distribution and external resistors. In the material design step, the piezoelectric material is segmented by inflection lines from multiple vibration modes of interests to minimize voltage cancellation. The inflection lines are detected using the voltage phase. In the external resistor design step, the resistor values are found for each segment to maximize power output. The presented design concept, which can be applied to any engineering system with multimodal harmonic-vibrating skins, was applied to two case studies: an aircraft skin and a power transformer panel. The excellent performance of multimodal EH skin was demonstrated, showing larger power generation than EH skin without segmentation or unimodal EH skin.

  12. Nonlinear piezoelectric devices for broadband air-flow energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y.; Havránek, Z.; Tofel, P.; Meggs, C.; Hughes, H.; Button, T. W.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary work on an investigation of a nonlinear air-flow energy harvester integrating magnets and a piezoelectric cantilever array. Two individual piezoelectric cantilevers with the structure of free-standing multi-layer thick-films have been fabricated and assembled with a free-spinning fan. The cantilevers were attached with different tip masses thereby achieving separated resonant frequencies. Also, permanent magnets were fixed onto the blades of the fan as well as the tips of the cantilevers, in order to create nonlinear coupling and transfer fluidic movement into mechanical oscillation. The device has been tested in a wind tunnel. Bifurcations in the spectra of the blade rotation speed of the fan as a function of output voltage have been observed, and a bandwidth (blade rotation speed range) widening effect has been achieved.

  13. Composite Piezoelectric Rubber Band for Energy Harvesting from Breathing and Limb Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jhih-Jhe; Su, Huan-Jan; Hsu, Chang-I.; Su, Yu-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    We have successfully demonstrated the design and microfabrication of piezoelectric rubber bands and their application in energy harvesting from human motions. Composite polymeric and metallic microstructures with embedded bipolar charges are employed to realize the desired stretchability and electromechanical sensitivity. In the prototype demonstration, multilayer PDMS cellular structures coated with PTFE films and stretchable gold electrodes are fabricated and implanted with bipolar charges. The composite structures show elasticity of 300~600 kPa and extreme piezoelectricity of d33 >2000 pC/N and d31 >200 pC/N. For a working volume of 2.5cm×2.5cm×0.3mm, 10% (or 2.5mm) stretch results in effective d31 of >17000 pC/N. It is estimated that electric charge of >0.2 μC can be collected and stored per breath (or 2.5cm deformation). As such, the composite piezoelectric rubber bands (with spring constants of ~200 N/m) can be mounted on elastic waistbands to harvest the circumferential stretch during breathing, or on pads around joints to harvest the elongation during limb motion. Furthermore, the wearable piezoelectric structures can be spread, stacked and connected to charge energy storages and power micro devices.

  14. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drouant, George J. (Inventor); Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  15. Performance enhanced piezoelectric-based crack detection system for high temperature I-beam SHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Haifeng

    2017-04-01

    This paper proposes an innovative sensing system for high temperature (up to 150°C) I-beam crack detection. The proposed system is based on the piezoelectric effect and laser sensing mechanisms, which is proved to be effective at high temperature environment (up to 150°C). Different from other high temperature SHM approaches, the proposed sensing system is employing a piezoelectric disk as an actuator and a laser vibrometer as a sensor for remote detection. Lab tests are carried out and the vibrational properties are studied to characterize the relationship between crack depth and sensor responses by analyzing the RMS of sensor responses. Instead of utilizing a pair of piezoelectric actuator and sensor, using the laser vibrometer will enable 1) a more flexible detection, which will not be limited to specific area or dimension, 2) wireless sensing, which lowers the risk of operating at high temperature/harsh environment. The proposed sensing system can be applied to engineering structures such as in nuclear power plant reactor vessel and heat pipe structures/systems.

  16. Multimodal vibration damping of a plate by piezoelectric coupling to its analogous electrical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lossouarn, B.; Deü, J.-F.; Aucejo, M.; Cunefare, K. A.

    2016-11-01

    Multimodal damping can be achieved by coupling a mechanical structure to an electrical network exhibiting similar modal properties. Focusing on a plate, a new topology for such an electrical analogue is found from a finite difference approximation of the Kirchhoff-Love theory and the use of the direct electromechanical analogy. Discrete models based on element dynamic stiffness matrices are proposed to simulate square plate unit cells coupled to their electrical analogues through two-dimensional piezoelectric transducers. A setup made of a clamped plate covered with an array of piezoelectric patches is built in order to validate the control strategy and the numerical models. The analogous electrical network is implemented with passive components as inductors, transformers and the inherent capacitance of the piezoelectric patches. The effect of the piezoelectric coupling on the dynamics of the clamped plate is significant as it creates the equivalent of a multimodal tuned mass damping. An adequate tuning of the network then yields a broadband vibration reduction. In the end, the use of an analogous electrical network appears as an efficient solution for the multimodal control of a plate.

  17. Modeling of a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nano energy harvester based on two dimensional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhi

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a two dimensional theory for a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic bilayer nanoplate in coupled extensional and flexural vibrations with both flexoelectric and surface effects. The magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) coupling equations are derived from three-dimensional equations and Kirchhoff plate theory. Based on the developed theory, a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nano energy harvester is proposed, which can generate electricity under time-harmonic applied magnetic field. The approximate solutions for the mechanical responses and voltage of the energy harvester are obtained using the weighted residual method. Results show that the properties of the proposed energy harvester are size-dependent due to the flexoelectric and surface effects, and such effects are more pronounced when the bilayer thickness is reduced to dozens of nanometers. It is also found that the magnetoelectric coupling coefficient and power density of the energy harvester are sensitive to the load resistance, the thickness fraction of the piezoelectric or the piezomagnetic layer and damping ratios. Moreover, results indicate that the flexoelectric effect could be made use to build a dielectric/piezomagnetic nano energy harvester. This work provides modeling techniques and numerical methods for investigating the size-dependent properties of MEE nanoplate-based energy harvester and could be helpful for designing nano energy harvesters using the principle of flexoelectricity.

  18. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on ZnO and M13 Bacteriophage nanostructures (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong-Myeong; Kim, Kyujungg; Hong, Suck Won; Oh, Jin-Woo; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the portable and wearable electronic devices, operated in the power range of microwatt to miliwatt, become available thank to the nanotechnology development and become an essential element for a comfortable life. Our recent research interest mainly focuses on the fabrication of piezoelectric nanogenerators based on smart nanomaterials such as zinc oxide novel nanostructure, M13 bacteriophage. In this talk, we present a simple strategy for fabricating the freestanding ZnO nanorods/graphene/ZnO nanorods double sided heterostructures. The characterization of the double sided heterostructures by using SEM, and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveals the key process and working mechanism of a formation of the heterostructure. The mechanism is discussed in detail in term of the decomposed seed layer and the vacancy defect of graphene. The approach consists of a facile one-step fabrication process and could achieve ZnO coverage with a higher number density than that of the epitaxial single heterostructure. The resulting improvement in the number density of nanorods has a direct beneficial effect on the double side heterostructured nanogenerator performance. The total output voltage and current density are improved up to 2 times compared to those of a single heterostructure due to the coupling of the piezoelectric effects from both upward and downward grown nanorods. The facile one-step fabrication process suggests that double sided heterostructures would improve the performance of electrical and optoelectrical device, such as touch pad, pressure sensor, biosensor and dye-sensitized solar cells. Further, ioinspired nanogenerators based on vertically aligned phage nanopillars are inceptively demonstrated. Vertically aligned phage nanopillars enable not only a high piezoelectric response but also a tuneable piezoelectricity. Piezoelectricity is also modulated by tuning of the protein's dipoles in each phage. The sufficient electrical power from phage nanopillars thus

  19. Novel linear piezoelectric motor for precision position stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Shi, Yunlai; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Junshan

    2016-03-01

    Conventional servomotor and stepping motor face challenges in nanometer positioning stages due to the complex structure, motion transformation mechanism, and slow dynamic response, especially directly driven by linear motor. A new butterfly-shaped linear piezoelectric motor for linear motion is presented. A two-degree precision position stage driven by the proposed linear ultrasonic motor possesses a simple and compact configuration, which makes the system obtain shorter driving chain. Firstly, the working principle of the linear ultrasonic motor is analyzed. The oscillation orbits of two driving feet on the stator are produced successively by using the anti-symmetric and symmetric vibration modes of the piezoelectric composite structure, and the slider pressed on the driving feet can be propelled twice in only one vibration cycle. Then with the derivation of the dynamic equation of the piezoelectric actuator and transient response model, start-upstart-up and settling state characteristics of the proposed linear actuator is investigated theoretically and experimentally, and is applicable to evaluate step resolution of the precision platform driven by the actuator. Moreover the structure of the two-degree position stage system is described and a special precision displacement measurement system is built. Finally, the characteristics of the two-degree position stage are studied. In the closed-loop condition the positioning accuracy of plus or minus <0.5 μm is experimentally obtained for the stage propelled by the piezoelectric motor. A precision position stage based the proposed butterfly-shaped linear piezoelectric is theoretically and experimentally investigated.

  20. Design and dynamic analysis of a piezoelectric linear stage for pipetting liquid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-Jen, Wang; Chien, Lee; Yi-Bin, Jiang; Kuo-Chieh, Fu

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric actuators have been widely used in positioning stages because of their compact size, stepping controllability, and holding force. This study proposes a piezoelectric-driven stage composed of a bi-electrode piezoelectric slab, capacitive position sensor, and capillary filling detector for filling liquid samples into nanopipettes using capillary flow. This automatic sample-filling device is suitable for transmission electron microscopy image-based quantitative analysis of aqueous products with added nanoparticles. The step length of the actuator is adjusted by a pulse width modulation signal that depends on the stage position; the actuator stops moving once the capillary filling has been detected. A novel dynamic model of the piezoelectric-driven stage based on collision interactions between the piezoelectric actuator and the sliding clipper is presented. Unknown model parameters are derived from the steady state solution of the equivalent steady phase angle. The output force of the piezoelectric actuator is formulated using the impulse and momentum principle. Considering the applied forces and related velocity between the sliding clipper and the piezoelectric slab, the stage dynamic response is confirmed with the experimental results. Moreover, the model can be used to explain the in-phase slanted trajectories of piezoelectric slab to drive sliders, but not elliptical trajectories. The maximum velocity and minimum step length of the piezoelectric-driven stage are 130 mm s-1 and 1 μm respectively.

  1. Implementation of a piezoelectric energy harvester in railway health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    With development of wireless sensor technology, wireless sensor network has shown a great potential for railway health monitoring. However, how to supply continuous power to the wireless sensor nodes is one of the critical issues in long-term full-scale deployment of the wireless smart sensors. Some energy harvesting methodologies have been available including solar, vibration, wind, etc; among them, vibration-based energy harvester using piezoelectric material showed the potential for converting ambient vibration energy to electric energy in railway health monitoring even for underground subway systems. However, the piezoelectric energy harvester has two major problems including that it could only generate small amount of energy, and that it should match the exact narrow band natural frequency with the excitation frequency. To overcome these problems, a wide band piezoelectric energy harvester, which could generate more power on various frequencies regions, has been designed and validated with experimental test. Then it was applied to a full-scale field test using actual railway train. The power generation of the wide band piezoelectric array has been compared to a narrow-band, resonant-based, piezoelectric energy harvester.

  2. Steel Bar corrosion monitoring based on encapsulated piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Tang, Tianyou

    2018-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete has a great impact on the structural bearing capacity, while the corrosion of steel bars is the main reason for the degradation of structural durability. In this paper, a new type of encapsulated cement based piezoelectric sensor is developed and its working performance is verified. The consistency of the finite element simulation and the experimental results shows the feasibility of monitoring the corrosion of steel bars using encapsulated piezoelectric sensors. The research results show that the corrosion conditions of the steel bars can be determined by the relative amplitude of the measured signal through the encapsulated piezoelectric sensor.

  3. Effects of shoot inversion on stem structure in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Sack, F. D.; Cline, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of shoot inversion on stem structure over 72 hr were investigated in Pharbitis nil by analyzing cell number, cell length, and the cross sectional areas of cells, tissues, and regions. An increase in stem diameter can be attributed to an increase in both cell number and cross sectional area of pith (primarily) and vascular tissue (secondarily). Qualitative observations of cell wall thickness in the light microscope did not reveal any significant effects of shoot inversion on this parameter. The inhibition of shoot elongation was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell length in the pith. The results are generally consistent with an ethylene effect on cell dimensions, especially in the pith.

  4. Inverse Target- and Cue-Priming Effects of Masked Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattler, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    The processing of a visual target that follows a briefly presented prime stimulus can be facilitated if prime and target stimuli are similar. In contrast to these positive priming effects, inverse priming effects (or negative compatibility effects) have been found when a mask follows prime stimuli before the target stimulus is presented: Responses…

  5. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with <7mW power consumption. The close match between test data and simulation results suggests that the piezoelectric properties of bulk-PZT5A are mostly preserved without any necessity of repolarization. Three generations of resonant vibration energy harvesters are designed, simulated and fabricated to demonstrate the competitive performance of the new fabrication process over traditional piezoelectric deposition systems. An unpackaged PZT/Si unimorph harvester with 27mm3 active device volume produces up to 205microW at 1.5g/154Hz. The prototypes have achieved the highest figure-of-merits (normalized

  6. The Effects of Including Piezoelectric Film as Part of a Wing Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappo, Charlotte

    2014-11-01

    Micro air vehicles (MAVs) are size- and weight-restricted, unmanned, flying vehicles that often exploit biology for inspiration. Membrane wings, one commonly employed biological adaptation, improves aerodynamic efficiency. These efficiency gains are due to the passive deformations and vibrations of the membrane. Piezoelectric films have the potential to further utilize these vibrations through the conversion of this motion into measureable electrical energy. In this investigation, an amplifier circuit was designed to measure the charge generated by a flexible polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film adhered to a rectangular wing frame (aspect ratio of 2). The trailing edge was unattached and free to vibrate. The circuit consisted of two charge amplifiers, to convert the high impedance charge of the piezoelectric film into an output voltage, and an instrumentation amplifier, to reject common-mode noise. Amplifying and filtering the output signal appropriately, through the use of the feedback capacitance and resistance, was discovered to be of the utmost importance for this endeavor. Results from shaker and wind tunnels tests are presented. NSF ECE Grant 1358991 supported the first author as a REU student.

  7. Conception of the system for traffic measurements based on piezoelectric foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.

    2016-08-01

    A concept of mechatronic system for traffic measurements based on the piezoelectric transducers used as sensors is presented. The aim of the work project is to theoretically and experimentally analyse the dynamic response of road infrastructure forced by vehicles motion. The subject of the project is therefore on the borderline of civil engineering and mechanical and covers a wide range of issues in both these areas. To measure the dynamic response of the tested pieces of road infrastructure application of piezoelectric, in particular piezoelectric transducers in the form of piezoelectric films (MFC - Macro Fiber Composite) is proposed. The purpose is to verify the possibility to use composite piezoelectric transducers as sensors used in traffic surveillance systems - innovative methods of controlling the road infrastructure and traffic. Presented paper reports works that were done in order to receive the basic information about analysed systems and their behaviour under excitation by passing vehicles. It is very important to verify if such kind of systems can be controlled by the analysis of the dynamic response of road infrastructure measured using piezoelectric transducers. Obtained results show that it could be possible.

  8. Resonant efficiency improvement design of piezoelectric biosensor for bacteria gravimetric sensing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jang-Zern; Chen, Ching-Jung; Shie, Dung-Ting; Liu, Jen-Tsai

    2014-01-01

    The piezoelectric biosensor have been widely used in ultra-small mass detection of biomolecular, based on PZT piezoelectric material can create a variety of compositions geometrically; it could widely develop a high-frequency resonator and measure the change of the slightest mass while improve the limited detection simultaneously. Therefore, the piezoelectric biosensor of this study was fabricated by a spin-coating method and backside etching process for improving the characteristic of piezoelectric biosensor. The result exhibited that the 250 μm × 250 μm working size has the most favorable piezoelectric characteristic. The tunability was approximately 38.56 % and it showed that reducing the substrate thickness could obtain a clear resonance signal in a range of 60 to 380 MHz. In theory calculated for gravimetric sensing, it could achieve 0.1 ng sensing sensitivity. In gravimetric sensing, the sensing range was between 50,000~100,000 CFU/ml. Sensing range was lower in clinical urinary tract infection (100,000 CFU/ml), thus demonstrating its usefulness for preventive medicine. It can understand the piezoelectric sensor of this study has potential application in the future for biomedical gravimetric sensing.

  9. Direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in poly-l-lactic acid nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael; Calahorra, Yonatan; Jing, Qingshen; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric polymers are capable of interconverting mechanical and electrical energy, and are therefore candidate materials for biomedical applications such as sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. In particular, nanowires of these materials are attractive as they can be unclamped, flexible and sensitive to small vibrations. Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) nanowires have been investigated for their use in biological applications, but their piezoelectric properties have never been fully characterised, even though macroscopic films and fibres have been shown to exhibit shear piezoelectricity. This piezoelectric mode is particularly interesting for in vivo applications where shear forces are especially relevant, and is similar to what has been observed in natural materials such as bone and DNA. Here, using piezo-response force microscopy (PFM), we report the first direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in highly crystalline and oriented PLLA nanowires grown by a novel template-wetting method. Our results are validated using finite-element simulations and numerical analysis, which importantly and more generally allow for accurate interpretation of PFM signals in soft nanostructured materials. Our work opens up the possibility for the development of biocompatible and sustainable piezoelectric nanogenerators and sensors based on polymer nanowires.

  10. Aeroelastic flutter enhancement by exploiting the combined use of shape memory alloys and nonlinear piezoelectric circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Vagner Candido de; Silva, Tarcísio Marinelli Pereira; De Marqui Junior, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the combined effects of semi-passive control using shunted piezoelectric material and passive pseudoelastic hysteresis of shape memory springs on the aerolastic behavior of a typical section is investigated. An aeroelastic model that accounts for the presence of both smart materials employed as mechanical energy dissipation devices is presented. The Brinson model is used to simulate the shape memory material. New expressions for the modeling of the synchronized switch damping on inductor technique (developed for enhanced piezoelectric damping) are presented, resulting in better agreement with experimental data. The individual effects of each nonlinear mechanism on the aeroelastic behavior of the typical section are first verified. Later, the combined effects of semi-passive piezoelectric control and passive shape memory alloy springs on the post-critical behavior of the system are discussed in details. The range of post-flutter airflow speeds with stable limit cycle oscillations is significantly increased due to the combined effects of both sources of energy dissipation, providing an effective and autonomous way to modify the behavior of aeroelastic systems using smart materials.

  11. A flex-compressive-mode piezoelectric transducer for mechanical vibration/strain energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaotian; Guo, Mingsen; Dong, Shuxiang

    2011-04-01

    A piezoelectric transducer for harvesting energy from ambient mechanical vibrations/strains under pressure condition was developed. The proposed transducer was made of two ring-type piezoelectric stacks, one pair of bow-shaped elastic plates, and one shaft that pre-compresses them. This transducer works in flex-compressive (F-C) mode, which is different from a conventional flex-tensional (F-T) one, to transfer a transversely applied force F into an amplified longitudinal force N pressing against the two piezo-stacks via the two bowshaped elastic plates, generating a large electric voltage output via piezoelectric effect. Our experimental results show that without an electric load, an F-C mode piezo-transducer could generate a maximum electric voltage output of up to 110 Vpp, and with an electric load of 40 κΩ, it a maximum power output of 14.6 mW under an acceleration excitation of 1 g peak-peak at the resonance frequency of 87 Hz. © 2011 IEEE

  12. Theory-Guided Synthesis of a Metastable Lead-Free Piezoelectric Polymorph.

    PubMed

    Garten, Lauren M; Dwaraknath, Shyam; Walker, Julian; Mangum, John S; Ndione, Paul F; Park, Yoonsang; Beaton, Daniel A; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Gorman, Brian P; Schelhas, Laura T; Toney, Michael F; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Persson, Kristin A; Ginley, David S

    2018-05-10

    Many technologically critical materials are metastable under ambient conditions, yet the understanding of how to rationally design and guide the synthesis of these materials is limited. This work presents an integrated approach that targets a metastable lead-free piezoelectric polymorph of SrHfO 3 . First-principles calculations predict that the previous experimentally unrealized, metastable P4mm phase of SrHfO 3 should exhibit a direct piezoelectric response (d 33 ) of 36.9 pC N -1 (compared to d 33 = 0 for the ground state). Combining computationally optimized substrate selection and synthesis conditions lead to the epitaxial stabilization of the polar P4mm phase of SrHfO 3 on SrTiO 3 . The films are structurally consistent with the theory predictions. A ferroelectric-induced large signal effective converse piezoelectric response of 5.2 pm V -1 for a 35 nm film is observed, indicating the ability to predict and target multifunctionality. This illustrates a coupled theory-experimental approach to the discovery and realization of new multifunctional polymorphs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. BaTiO3-based piezoelectrics: Fundamentals, current status, and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, M.; Novak, N.; Rojas, V.; Patel, S.; Vaish, R.; Koruza, J.; Rossetti, G. A.; Rödel, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a critical review that encompasses the fundamentals and state-of-the-art knowledge of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics. First, the essential crystallography, thermodynamic relations, and concepts necessary to understand piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in barium titanate are discussed. Strategies to optimize piezoelectric properties through microstructure control and chemical modification are also introduced. Thereafter, we systematically review the synthesis, microstructure, and phase diagrams of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics and provide a detailed compilation of their functional and mechanical properties. The most salient materials treated include the (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O3, (Ba,Ca)(Sn,Ti)O3, and (Ba,Ca)(Hf,Ti)O3 solid solution systems. The technological relevance of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics is also discussed and some potential market indicators are outlined. Finally, perspectives on productive lines of future research and promising areas for the applications of these materials are presented.

  14. A piezoelectric film-based intrasplint detection method for bruxism.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Ikeda, T; Clark, G T

    2001-08-01

    An accurate, easy-to-use, long-term method other than EMG is needed to monitor bruxism. This article presents pilot data on the reproducibility, validity, and utility of an intrasplint piezoelectric film method. Simulated bruxism behaviors (steady-state and rhythmic clenching, grinding, and tapping) in 5 subjects were recorded with the use of both masseter EMG and an intrasplint piezoelectric film method. Correlation coefficients calculated for simulated bruxism event duration with the use of a masseter EMG or an intrasplint piezoelectric film method were 0.99 for tapping and steady-state clenching, 0.96 for rhythmic clenching, and 0.79 for grinding. Piezoelectric film has its limitations and does not faithfully capture sustained force magnitudes. However, for the target behaviors associated with bruxism (tooth grinding, clenching, and tapping), it appears to faithfully reproduce above-baseline events with durations statistically indistinguishable from those recorded with masseter EMG. Masseter EMG was poorest at detecting a simulated side-to-side grinding behavior.

  15. Planar Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Geiyer, Daniel; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Allen, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A motor involves a simple design that can be embedded into a plate structure by incorporating ultrasonic horn actuators into the plate. The piezoelectric material that is integrated into the horns is pre-stressed with flexures. Piezoelectric actuators are attractive for their ability to generate precision high strokes, torques, and forces while operating under relatively harsh conditions (temperatures at single-digit K to as high as 1,273 K). Electromagnetic motors (EM) typically have high rotational speed and low torque. In order to produce a useful torque, these motors are geared down to reduce the speed and increase the torque. This gearing adds mass and reduces the efficiency of the EM. Piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds directly without the need for gears. Designs were developed for producing rotary motion based on the Barth concept of an ultrasonic horn driving a rotor. This idea was extended to a linear motor design by having the horns drive a slider. The unique feature of these motors is that they can be designed in a monolithic planar structure. The design is a unidirectional motor, which is driven by eight horn actuators, that rotates in the clockwise direction. There are two sets of flexures. The flexures around the piezoelectric material are pre-stress flexures and they pre-load the piezoelectric disks to maintain their being operated under compression when electric field is applied. The other set of flexures is a mounting flexure that attaches to the horn at the nodal point and can be designed to generate a normal force between the horn tip and the rotor so that to first order it operates independently and compensates for the wear between the horn and the rotor.

  16. Electrically rectified piezoelectric energy harvester excited by rotary magnetic plucking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y. C.; Chang, Y. P.; Wang, W. C.

    2018-03-01

    The paper is focuses on the development of a theoretical framework together with an experimental validation to investigate rotational piezoelectric energy harvesting. The proposed device includes an electrically rectified piezoelectric bimorph mounted on a stationary base with a magnet attached to its free end. Energy is harvested by vibration of beam induced by non-contact rotary magnetic plucking. The DC power frequency response is predicted and found to be in good agreement with experiment. It shows that the harvested DC power is around 1 mW in average with the rotational frequency ranging from 5 Hz to 14 Hz. In addition, the parallel connection of two piezoelectric oscillators with respective electrical rectification is considered. It is observed that the power output of the array is the addition of the response from each individual piezoelectric oscillator.

  17. Piezoelectric Actuator with Frequency Characteristics for a Middle-Ear Implant.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Ho; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2018-05-24

    The design and implementation of a novel piezoelectric-based actuator for an implantable middle-ear hearing aid is described in this paper. The proposed actuator has excellent low-frequency output characteristics, and can generate high output in a specific frequency band by adjusting the mechanical resonance. The actuator consists of a piezoelectric element, a miniature bellows, a cantilever membrane, a metal ring support, a ceramic tip, and titanium housing. The optimal structure of the cantilever-membrane design, which determines the frequency characteristics of the piezoelectric actuator, was derived through finite element analysis. Based on the results, the piezoelectric actuator was implemented, and its performance was verified through a cadaveric experiment. It was confirmed that the proposed actuator provides better performance than currently used actuators, in terms of frequency characteristics.

  18. Design, Manufacturing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Flextensional Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigo, R. C. R.; Vatanabe, S. L.; Silva, E. C. N.

    2013-03-01

    Previous works have been shown several advantages in using Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) for the performance of flextensional devices, such as reduction of stress concentrations and gains in reliability. In this work, the FGM concept is explored in the design of graded devices by using the Topology Optimization Method (TOM), in order to determine optimal topologies and gradations of the coupled structures of piezoactuators. The graded pieces are manufactured by using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique and are bonded to piezoelectric ceramics. The graded actuators are then tested by using a modular vibrometer system for measuring output displacements, in order to validate the numerical simulations. The technological path developed here represents the initial step toward the manufacturing of an integral piezoelectric device, constituted by piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric materials without bonding layers.

  19. Surface acoustic waves in one-dimensional piezoelectric-metallic phononic crystal: Effect of a cap layer.

    PubMed

    Alami, M; El Boudouti, E H; Djafari-Rouhani, B; El Hassouani, Y; Talbi, A

    2018-06-18

    We study the propagation of transverse acoustic waves associated with the surface of a semi-infinite superlattice (SL) composed of piezoelectric-metallic layers and capped with a piezoelectric layer. We present closed-form expressions for localized surface waves, the so-called Bleustein-Gulyaev (BG) waves depending on whether the cap layer is open-circuited or short-circuited. These expressions are obtained by means of the Green's function method which enables to deduce also the densities of states. These theoretical results are illustrated by a few numerical applications to SLs made of piezoelectric layers of hexagonal symmetry belonging to the 6 mm class such as PZT4 and ZnO in contact with metallic layers such as Fe, Al, Au, Cu and boron-doped-diamond. We demonstrate a rule about the existence of surface modes when considering two complementary semi-infinite SLs obtained by the cleavage of an infinite SL along a plane parallel to the piezoelectric layers. Indeed, when the surface layers are open-circuited, one obtains one surface mode per gap, this mode is associated with one of the two complementary SLs. However, when the surface layers are short-circuited, this rule is not fulfilled and one can obtain zero, one or two modes inside each gap of the two complementary SLs depending on the position of the plane where the cleavage is produced. We show that in addition to the BG surface waves localized at the surface of the cap layer, there may exist true guided waves and pseudo-guided waves (i.e. leaky waves) induced by the cap layer either inside the gaps or inside the bands of the SL respectively. Also, we highlight the possibility of existence of interface modes between the SL and a cap layer as well as an interaction between these modes and the BG surface mode when both modes fall in the same band gaps of the SL. The strength of the interaction depends on the width of the cap layer. Finally, we show that the electromechanical coupling coefficient (ECC) is very

  20. Energy Harvesting for Micropower Applications by Flow-Induced Flutter of an Inverted Piezoelectric Flag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoele, Kourosh; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Piezoelectric flexible flags can be used to continuously generate energy for small-scale sensor used in a wide variety of applications ranging from measurement/monitoring of environmental conditions (outdoors or indoors) to in-situ tracking of wild animals. Here, we study the energy harvesting performance as well as the flow-structure interaction of an inverted piezoelectric flag. We use a coupled fluid-structure-electric solver to examine the dynamic response of the inverted flag as well as the associated vortical characteristics with different inertia and bending stiffness. Simulations indicate that large amplitude vibrations can be achieved over a large range of parameters over which lock-on between the flag flutter and the intrinsic wake shedding occurs. The effects of initial inclination of the flag to the prevailing flow as well as Reynolds number of the flow are explored, and the effect of piezoelectric material parameters on the energy harvesting performance of this flutter state is examined in detail. The maximum energy efficiency occurs when there is a match between the intrinsic timescales of flutter and the piezoelectric circuit. The simulations are used to formulate a scaling law that could be used to predict the energy harvesting performance of such devices. The support for this study comes from AFSOR, NSF, EPRI and Johns Hopkins E2SHI Seed Grant.