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Sample records for investigate factors affecting

  1. Exploratory investigation of factors affecting the wing tip vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, J.; Megrail, J. L.; Shivers, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to study some factors affecting the tip vortex of a wing. It was found that there was a pronounced effect of Reynolds number on the tip-vortex core size. An attempt was made to determine what aerodynamic parameters, such as lift, drag, or induced drag, influence the size of the vortex core, but no particular function of the parameters was found to be superior to all others. Various spoilers placed on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing to increase the boundary-layer thickness resulted in a reduction in the vorticity as determined from the tuft grid. Various solid objects placed in the vortex core downstream of the wing tip seemed to decrease the vorticity within the vortex core.

  2. Fatigue factors affecting metropolitan bus drivers: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Herbert; Dingsdag, Donald; Stenson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan bus drivers daily face work in a stressful and draining work environment, exposing them to the serious risk of driver fatigue. However, there has been a dearth of information exploring the unique antecedents and effects of such fatigue. To date, much of the research into metropolitan bus drivers has been under the umbrella of large heavy vehicle driving studies, which include a disproportionally large population of long-haul drivers, who are likely to face a significantly different set of fatigue factors [1]. The present study aimed to investigate which work and environmental factors may cause fatigue in metropolitan bus drivers by seeking drivers' own perspectives on the issues. To this end, focus groups were held at five bus depots in Sydney and Newcastle, with an effort made to include a stratified sample of drivers at each. Each of the groups were invited to nominate what factors they felt were most salient, with a number of common factors emerging across the depots. Key themes identified were: support from management; ticketing and related issues; interaction with passengers; cabin ergonomics; tight route schedules; turn-around and shift irregularity; extended shift cycles; interactions with other road users; and extended commute times.

  3. Investigation of factors affecting asphalt pavement recycling and asphalt compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Venable, R.L.; Petersen, J.C.; Robertson, R.E.; Plancher, H.

    1983-03-01

    Both economic and environmental factors dictate that asphalt pavement be recycled. Many recycling projects have been completed using a variety of recycling additives, but little work has been done on the physiochemical aspects of pavement recycling. The present exploratory study was undertaken to better define the physiochemical variables of recycling. Objectives of the present study include: (1) to determine if molecular structuring in the asphalt binder could be observed in oxidized (air-aged) asphalt-aggregate briquets, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquits, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquet recycling and (2) to determine if recycling agents penetrate the strongly adsorbed asphalt layer on the aggregate surface. Differences were seen in asphalt component compatibility as judged by the state of peptization parameters. In extreme cases the values of the parameters correlated with properties of asphalts of known compatibility; however, a relationship between the parameters determined on a series of asphalts in pavements was not established. The parameters might be useful in evaluating additives for pavement recycling; however, more systems need to be studied to fully assess their potential usefulness. Finally, the parameters need to be correlated with performance-related measurements such as asphalt rheological and mix properties. Examination of the parameters and their changes on asphalt oxidative aging may also be informative with regard to asphalt durability inasmuch as oxidation-induced changes are a major cause of asphalt pavement failure.

  4. Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs of…

  5. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  6. Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating.

    PubMed

    Trdin, M; Benedik, L; Samardžija, Z; Pihlar, B

    2012-09-01

    Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established.

  7. Investigation of Factors Affecting Aerodynamic Performance of Nebulized Nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Hosein; Abbasi, Shayan; Amini, Mohammad Ali; Amani, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to prepare a nanoemulsion preparation containing budesonide and assess its aerodynamic behavior in comparison with suspension of budesonide. In-vitro aerodynamic performance of the corresponding micellar solution (ie. nanoemulsion preparation without oil) was investigated too. Nanoemulsions of almond oil containing budesonide, as a hydrophobic model drug molecule, were prepared and optimized. Then, the effect of variation of surfactant/co-surfactant concentration on the aerodynamic properties of the nebulized aerosol was studied. The results indicated that the most physically stable formulation makes the smallest aerodynamic size. The concentration of co-surfactant was also shown to be critical in determination of aerodynamic size. Furthermore, the optimized sample, with 3% w/w almond oil, 20% w/w Tween 80+Span 80 and 2% w/w ethanol showed a smaller MMAD in comparison with the commercially available suspension and the micellar solution. PMID:28243265

  8. Investigation of Factors Affecting Students' Science Achievement According to Student Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Erdal; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Tosun, Cemal; Ilhan, Nail

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the factors affecting students' science achievement according to student science teachers. The survey model which is one of the quantitative research methods was used. The sample was consisted of total 606 student science teachers from four state universities in Turkey. The data were obtained by using the…

  9. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Use of Educational Technology in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the related factors that affect the usage of educational technology in primary schools. This study depends on literature analysis and the questionnaire to collect data. Specifically, the items employed in this study were derived from the teachers' and school administrators' perceptions of using…

  10. An investigation of factors affecting the entry of radon into structures on the Island of Guam

    SciTech Connect

    Kladder, D.L.; Burkhart, J.F.; Thorburn, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    Factors affecting the entry of radon-222 gas into structures on the Island of Guam were investigated during the summer of 1993. Research findings indicated that radon transport into buildings on Guam, and perhaps in other tropical areas, is driven by sub-grade soil pressure (positive with respect to atmospheric pressure) rather than interior buildings vacuums. Immediate and substantive increases in indoor radon concentrations were associated with environmental effects of wind and rain. Radon entry, and hence indoor radon concentrations, is significantly greater during the rainy season as opposed to the dry season. In the absence of mechanically induced interior vacuums in buildings, external environmental forces creating sub-slab pressures are the predominant factor in affecting radon entry in Guam. Indoor radon potentials can be correlated to the locations where the underlying geology is limestone. Furthermore, the radon source appears to be within the first few feet of the surface of these limestones rather than uniformly distributed throughout the limestone. The effects of seismic activity on radon entry are short-lived unless significant damage occurs to a structure. Radon entry during calm weather conditions may also be a function of the rising and falling of ocean tides.

  11. An investigation of factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values based on the system dynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian-Syung; Chen, Kai-Ling; Chen, Pin-Chang; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students' amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students' high-calorie diets.

  12. Investigation of locally resonant absorption and factors affecting the absorption band of a phononic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng; Jiang, Heng; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Yuren

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigated the mechanisms of acoustic absorption in phononic glass to optimize its properties. First, we experimentally studied its locally resonant absorption mechanism. From these results, we attributed its strong sound attenuation to its locally resonant units and its broadband absorption to its networked structure. These experiments also indicated that the porosity and thickness of the phononic glass must be tuned to achieve the best sound absorption at given frequencies. Then, using lumped-mass methods, we studied how the absorption bandgaps of the phononic glass were affected by various factors, including the porosity and the properties of the coating materials. These calculations gave optimal ranges for selecting the porosity, modulus of the coating material, and ratio of the compliant coating to the stiff matrix to achieve absorption bandgaps in the range of 6-30 kHz. This paper provides guidelines for designing phononic glasses with proper structures and component materials to work in specific frequency ranges.

  13. An Investigation of Relationships between Internal and External Factors Affecting Technology Integration in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Shannon, David; Wolf, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Various factors affecting technology integration have been identified, but little research has examined the relationships between factors, especially internal and external ones, and whether they directly or indirectly influenced each other. To fill this research gap, this study examined the significance and relationships of five factors…

  14. Investigation of factors affecting the calibration of strain gage based transducers ( Goodzeit gages'') for SSC magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, M.; Gilbertson, A.; Dougherty, M.

    1991-03-01

    These transducers are designed to measure stresses on SSC collared coils. They are individually calibrated with a bonded ten-stack of SSC inner coil cable by applying a known load and reading corresponding output from the gages. The transducer is supported by a notched backing plate'' that allows for bending of the gage beam during calibration or in use with an actual coil. Several factors affecting the calibration and use of the transducers are: the number of times a backing plate'' is used, the similarities or difficulties between bonded ten-stacks, and the differences between the ten-stacks and the coil they represent. The latter is probably the most important because a calibration curve is a model of how a transducer should react within a coil. If the model is wrong, the calibration curve is wrong. Information will be presented regarding differences in calibrations between Brookhaven National Labs (also calibrating these transducers) and Fermilab -- what caused these differences, the investigation into the differences between coils and ten-stacks and how they relate to transducer calibration, and some suggestions for future calibrations.

  15. Investigation of factors affecting terrestrial passive sampling device performance and uptake rates in laboratory chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.; Weisskopf, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDS) for soil contaminant characterization shows extreme promise. The use of PSDs increases ease and speed of analysis, decreases solvent usage and cost, and minimizes the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a high sampling frequency, providing a more thorough site characterization than traditional methods. The authors have conducted both laboratory and field studies with terrestrial PSDS. Laboratory studies demonstrated the concentration and moisture dependence of sampler uptake and provided an estimate of the optimal field sampling time for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These PSDs were also used to accurately estimate PCB concentrations at hazardous waste site where concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 200 ug PCB/g soil. However, PSDs in the field had sampling rates approximately three times greater than in the laboratory. As a result several factors affecting PSD sampling rates and/or performance in laboratory chambers were evaluated. The parameters investigated were soil bulk density or compactness, chamber size and air flow. The chemicals used in these studies included two PCB congeners (52 and 153), three organochlorine pesticides (DDT, dieldrin and methoxychlor), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon and terbufos) and three herbicides (alachlor, atrazine and metolachlor).

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Appraisal of the Decision to Take Early Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowan, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines why individuals elect to take the early retirement package offered by their employer, as well as factors affecting their appraisal of that decision. Results suggest that all early retirement decisions are not voluntary. Individuals who do not wish to retire and who had lower self-esteem, fewer financial resources, and plans to continue…

  17. A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

  18. An Investigation into the Factors Affecting the Use of Language Learning Strategies by Persian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Riazi, Abdolmehdi; Saif, Shahrzad

    2008-01-01

    As part of a larger study (Rahimi, 2004), this study investigates the use of language learning strategies by post-secondary level Persian EFL learners. Particular attention is paid to the variables affecting learners' choice of strategies, and the relationship, if any, between these variables and learners' patterns of strategy use. Data were…

  19. Investigation of factors affecting intra-annual variability of evapotranspiration and streamflow under different climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaomang; Zhang, Qi; Liang, Kang; Liu, Changming

    2016-12-01

    Investigating the factors that affect intra-annual evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow variability is important to regional hydrological cycles and energy balance research. In this study, ET and streamflow variability (defined as their standard deviations) are attributed to precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and total water storage change (TWSC) based on a Budyko-based approach at 282 catchments in China. The results show that the Budyko-based approach satisfactorily simulates the intra-annual ET and streamflow variability (R2 of 0.63-0.84). The dominant contributor to ET variability is ET0 under energy-limited condition (aridity index ⩽ 0.76), whereas the dominant contributor is precipitation under equitant (0.76 < aridity index ⩽ 1.35) and water-limited conditions (aridity index ⩾ 1.35). The contribution of ET0 to ET variability decreases with the aridity index, whereas the contribution of precipitation to ET variability increases with the aridity index. However, the dominant contributor to streamflow variability is precipitation under all the three climate conditions, which is unaffected by the aridity index. TWSC enhances ET variability under energy-limited condition and inhibits ET variability under water-limited and equitant conditions. However, TWSC inhibits streamflow variability under all the three climate conditions. In addition, geography and vegetation also influence the contributors to ET and streamflow variability. The effects of geography on the contributors to streamflow variability are larger than that to ET variability. In contrast, the impacts of vegetation on the contributors to ET variability are larger than that to streamflow variability. This study demonstrates that the mechanism of ET variability under different climate conditions is much more complex than that of streamflow variability, suggesting that more attention should be given to ET for water-energy modeling, hydrological predictions and local water management.

  20. An investigation of the factors affecting flatfoot in children with delayed motor development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Chung; Tung, Li-Chen; Tung, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Yang, Jeng-Feng; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of flatfoot in children with delayed motor development and the relevant factors affecting it. In total, 121 preschool-aged children aged 3-6 with delayed motor development (male: 81; female: 40) were enrolled in the motor-developmentally delayed children group, and 4 times that number, a total of 484 children (male: 324; female: 160), of gender- and age-matched normal developmental children were used as a control group for further analyses. The age was from 3.0 to 6.9 years old for the participants. The judgment criterion of flatfoot was the Chippaux-Smirak index >62.70%, in footprint measurement. The results showed that the prevalence of flatfoot in children with motor developmental delay was higher than that in normal developmental children, approximately 58.7%, and that it decreased with age from 62.8% of 3-year-olds to 50.0% of 6-year-olds. The results also showed that motor-developmentally delayed children with flatfoot are at about 1.5 times the risk of normal developmental children (odds ratio=1.511, p=0.005). In addition, the prevalence of flatfoot is relatively higher in overweight children with delayed motor development, and that in obese children is even as high as 95.8% (23/24). Children with both excessive joint laxity and delayed development are more likely to suffer from flatfoot. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for clinical workers to deal with foot issues in children with delayed motor development.

  1. Experimental investigation of factors affecting the absolute recovery coefficients in iodine-124 PET lesion imaging.

    PubMed

    Jentzen, Walter

    2010-04-21

    The use of recovery coefficients (RCs) in (124)I PET lesion imaging is a simple method to correct the imaged activity concentration (AC) primarily for the partial-volume effect and, to a minor extent, for the prompt gamma coincidence effect. The aim of this phantom study was to experimentally investigate a number of various factors affecting the (124)I RCs. Three RC-based correction approaches were considered. These approaches differ with respect to the volume of interest (VOI) drawn, which determines the imaged AC and the RCs: a single voxel VOI containing the maximum value (maximum RC), a spherical VOI with a diameter of the scanner resolution (resolution RC) and a VOI equaling the physical object volume (isovolume RC). Measurements were performed using mainly a stand-alone PET scanner (EXACT HR(+)) and a latest-generation PET/CT scanner (BIOGRAPH mCT). The RCs were determined using a cylindrical phantom containing spheres or rotational ellipsoids and were derived from images acquired with a reference acquisition protocol. For each type of RC, the influence of the following factors on the RC was assessed: object shape, background activity spill in and iterative image reconstruction parameters. To evaluate the robustness of the RC-based correction approaches, the percentage deviation between RC-corrected and true ACs was determined from images acquired with a clinical acquisition protocol of different AC regimes. The observed results of the shape and spill-in effects were compared with simulation data derived from a convolution-based model. The study demonstrated that the shape effect was negligible and, therefore, was in agreement with theoretical expectations. In contradiction to the simulation results, the observed spill-in effect was unexpectedly small. To avoid variations in the determination of RCs due to reconstruction parameter changes, image reconstruction with a pixel length of about one-third or less of the scanner resolution and an OSEM 1 x 32

  2. Experimental investigation of factors affecting the absolute recovery coefficients in iodine-124 PET lesion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentzen, Walter

    2010-04-01

    The use of recovery coefficients (RCs) in 124I PET lesion imaging is a simple method to correct the imaged activity concentration (AC) primarily for the partial-volume effect and, to a minor extent, for the prompt gamma coincidence effect. The aim of this phantom study was to experimentally investigate a number of various factors affecting the 124I RCs. Three RC-based correction approaches were considered. These approaches differ with respect to the volume of interest (VOI) drawn, which determines the imaged AC and the RCs: a single voxel VOI containing the maximum value (maximum RC), a spherical VOI with a diameter of the scanner resolution (resolution RC) and a VOI equaling the physical object volume (isovolume RC). Measurements were performed using mainly a stand-alone PET scanner (EXACT HR+) and a latest-generation PET/CT scanner (BIOGRAPH mCT). The RCs were determined using a cylindrical phantom containing spheres or rotational ellipsoids and were derived from images acquired with a reference acquisition protocol. For each type of RC, the influence of the following factors on the RC was assessed: object shape, background activity spill in and iterative image reconstruction parameters. To evaluate the robustness of the RC-based correction approaches, the percentage deviation between RC-corrected and true ACs was determined from images acquired with a clinical acquisition protocol of different AC regimes. The observed results of the shape and spill-in effects were compared with simulation data derived from a convolution-based model. The study demonstrated that the shape effect was negligible and, therefore, was in agreement with theoretical expectations. In contradiction to the simulation results, the observed spill-in effect was unexpectedly small. To avoid variations in the determination of RCs due to reconstruction parameter changes, image reconstruction with a pixel length of about one-third or less of the scanner resolution and an OSEM 1 × 32 algorithm or

  3. Factors Affecting Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Success: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chun-I Philip

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce has a great impact on business performance improvement. Considerable research also shows that another dependent variable, B2B e-commerce success, can be a good overall measure of B2B systems. This paper investigated and examined the impact of several factors, which are either…

  4. Investigations into factors affecting the cascade developer used in ESDA--a review.

    PubMed

    Nic Daéid, N; Hayes, K; Allen, M

    2008-10-25

    The Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA) is a technique most commonly used for the visualisation of indented impressions on questioned documents. This work investigates some of the variables which are known to affect the results of ESDA and some variables which have, as yet, not been addressed. The investigation of variables included: examining the effects of different levels of indentation on different qualities of paper, chronological aging of cascade developer and the effects of repeated use of cascade developer on both the quality of results and the glass beads themselves, the effects of storage of cascade developer in a humidified environment and finally the effects of variation on the image development time. Results indicate that chronological aging of cascade developer does not have a negative effect on the quality of results and a 200 g portion of cascade developer will give good quality results for up to 30 traces before the quality will begin to deteriorate. Humidification of the cascade developer appears to have no advantages over storage in a normal environment and, in fact, the toner is lost sooner with humidification. The surface of the glass beads are affected through repeated use of cascade developer and appear to become visually smoother which may lead to a loss of attraction between them and the toner particles.

  5. Investigation of Factors Affecting Body Temperature Changes During Routine Clinical Head Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong Seong

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulsed radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields, required to produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from tissue during the MRI procedure have been shown to heat tissues. Objectives To investigate the relationship between body temperature rise and the RF power deposited during routine clinical MRI procedures, and to determine the correlation between this effect and the body’s physiological response. Patients and Methods We investigated 69 patients from the Korean national cancer center to identify the main factors that contribute to an increase in body temperature (external factors and the body’s response) during a clinical brain MRI. A routine protocol sequence of MRI scans (1.5 T and 3.0 T) was performed. The patient’s tympanic temperature was recorded before and immediately after the MRI procedure and compared with changes in variables related to the body’s physiological response to heat. Results Our investigation of the physiological response to RF heating indicated a link between increasing age and body temperature. A higher increase in body temperature was observed in older patients after a 3.0-T MRI (r = 0.07, P = 0.29 for 1.5-T MRI; r = 0.45, P = 0.002 for 3.0-T MRI). The relationship between age and body heat was related to the heart rate (HR) and changes in HR during the MRI procedure; a higher RF power combined with a reduction in HR resulted in an increase in body temperature. Conclusion A higher magnetic field strength and a decrease in the HR resulted in an increase in body temperature during the MRI procedure. PMID:27895872

  6. An investigation into the factors affecting the natural reproduction of Opsaridium peringueyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    An endangered freshwater fish, Opsaridium peringueyi, was studied from January, 2009 to December, 2009. The analysis of the environmental conditions indicated that the fish is found in streams with moderate to fast flow, high oxygen levels, a depth greater than 0.6 m and temperatures between 10 and 24 °C. O. peringueyi is sexually dimorphic with males growing at a faster rate and attaining a larger size than females. The breeding biology of this species was investigated in glass aquarium tanks. The spawning behaviour is described for the first time. The breeding colour of the male is deep red on the operculum, ventral part, caudal and ventral fins. The breeding colour in the female is the same as the male except the red colour is lighter. The breeding of O. peringueyi is a four stage process which begins with the appearance of breeding colour culminating in the laying of eggs after courtship. Temperature, flow-rate, conductivity and substrate were identified as the environmental cues important in the reproduction of this species. All these factors had a significant effect on the breeding activity of O. peringueyi. The possible effect of climate change on O. peringueyi is discussed.

  7. An investigation of the factors that affect surgical hand disinfection with polyvidone iodine.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, A; Caglayan, F; Cakmak, M; Apan, T Z; Gocmen, J S; Cakmak, A; Somuncu, S; Akman, H

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the factors influencing the effectiveness of 7.5% polyvidone iodine as a surgical antiseptic. The study involved 100 operating staff (75 doctors and 25 nurses) from hospital surgical teams. Fingertips of both hands of the subjects were pressed on to agar culture before and after washing and after completion of surgery. Handwashing lasting for more than 3 min led to a significant decrease in the number of colonies compared with handwashing lasting for less than 3 min. Moreover, the number of colonies was significantly higher when surgery lasted for longer than 95 min. However, the handwashing style (with or without brushing) was not found to have a significant effect on the outcome of the disinfection procedure in terms of bacterial colonization. Subjects who had colonization of their hands after surgery were found to have significantly higher colony counts before handwashing compared with those who did not have any colonization on their hands after surgery. The results of this study revealed that in order to attain effective disinfection with polyvidone iodine, the duration of handwashing should be at least 3 min. The risk of recolonization increases when the duration of surgery exceeds 95 min.

  8. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance in an Immersive Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    regarding age, gender , vision and hearing, military service, and computer experience. 3.2.4 Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist - Revised (MAACL-R...Depression, Hostility, Positive Affect, and Sensation Seeking) derived from a one-page list of 132 adjectives. An overall distress score, Dysphoria ...involving personality correlates because it provides maximal specificity at no loss in reproducibility across gender and populations (Zuckerman, Kuhlman

  9. Psychological factors affecting migraine.

    PubMed

    Shulman, B H

    1989-01-01

    Psychological factors are known to increase the severity and intensity of headaches. When they are shown to be present, an appropriate psychiatric diagnosis is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual's (DSMIII-R) category of psychological factors affecting physical condition (code no. 316.0). These factors can be differentiated into stress factors, personality traits, psychodynamic factors, learned behaviors, and mood disturbances. The factors overlap and intertwine in the average headache patient. Attention to these factors in a systematic way should enhance our understanding and treatment of the chronic headache patient.

  10. An investigation into factors affecting electron density calibration for a megavoltage cone-beam CT system.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jessica; Holloway, Lois C; Quinn, Alexandra; Fielding, Andrew

    2012-09-06

    There is a growing interest in the use of megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) data for radiotherapy treatment planning. To calculate accurate dose distributions, knowledge of the electron density (ED) of the tissues being irradiated is required. In the case of MV CBCT, it is necessary to determine a calibration-relating CT number to ED, utilizing the photon beam produced for MV CBCT. A number of different parameters can affect this calibration. This study was undertaken on the Siemens MV CBCT system, MVision, to evaluate the effect of the following parameters on the reconstructed CT pixel value to ED calibration: the number of monitor units (MUs) used (5, 8, 15 and 60 MUs), the image reconstruction filter (head and neck, and pelvis), reconstruction matrix size (256 by 256 and 512 by 512), and the addition of extra solid water surrounding the ED phantom. A Gammex electron density CT phantom containing EDs from 0.292 to 1.707 was imaged under each of these conditions. The linear relationship between MV CBCT pixel value and ED was demonstrated for all MU settings and over the range of EDs. Changes in MU number did not dramatically alter the MV CBCT ED calibration. The use of different reconstruction filters was found to affect the MV CBCT ED calibration, as was the addition of solid water surrounding the phantom. Dose distributions from treatment plans calculated with simulated image data from a 15 MU head and neck reconstruction filter MV CBCT image and a MV CBCT ED calibration curve from the image data parameters and a 15 MU pelvis reconstruction filter showed small and clinically insignificant differences. Thus, the use of a single MV CBCT ED calibration curve is unlikely to result in any clinical differences. However, to ensure minimal uncertainties in dose reporting, MV CBCT ED calibration measurements could be carried out using parameter-specific calibration measurements.

  11. Investigation of hydrodynamic and behavioral factors that affect zooplankton sampling by pumps. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, F.; Kuo, A.Y.; Grant, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    The present study used a recirculating hydraulic flume to examine the effects of ambient flow regimes, flow fields induced by sampling pumps, sampler orientation, and copepod behavior. The study evaluates the degree to which these factors and their interactions influence the accuracy of zooplankton density estimates. The methodology included a descriptive phase, which is a presentation of flow visualizations under a variety of ambient and pumping conditions. This was followed by quantitative experiments that tested the ability of pump samplers to obtain accurate density estimates of passive particles. Results of this study provide a greater understanding of problems associated with zooplankton sampling in power plant cooling systems and in natural waters.

  12. Investigation of factors affecting the heater wire method of calibrating fine wire thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keshock, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a transient method of calibrating fine wire thermocouples. The system consisted of a 10 mil diameter standard thermocouple (Pt, Pt-13% Rh) and an 0.8 mil diameter chromel-alumel thermocouple attached to a 20 mil diameter electrically heated platinum wire. The calibration procedure consisted of electrically heating the wire to approximately 2500 F within about a seven-second period in an environment approximating atmospheric conditions at 120,000 feet. Rapid periodic readout of the standard and fine wire thermocouple signals permitted a comparison of the two temperature indications. An analysis was performed which indicated that the temperature distortion at the heater wire produced by the thermocouple junctions appears to be of negligible magnitude. Consequently, the calibration technique appears to be basically sound, although several practical changes which appear desirable are presented and discussed. Additional investigation is warranted to evaluate radiation effects and transient response characteristics.

  13. An Investigation of Factors Affecting How Engineers and Scientists Seek Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Claire J; Glassman, Myron; McAfee, R. Bruce; Pinelli, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated how 872 US aerospace scientists and engineers select information carriers. When considering oral and written information carriers, the principle of least effort was supported with a strong preference for oral communication over written communication. In examining how the respondents select written carriers, the decision to use or not to use a written carrier was found to be primarily a function of the perceived importance of the carrier's information to a person's work. Task uncertainty and task complexity were found to be significant, but not the primary nor a totally consistent criteria. The perceived quality and accessibility of written carriers were not found significant. The findings reinforce the need for firms to hire knowledgeable employees, to provide them with comprehensive training programs, and to develop formal and informal communication networks.

  14. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Gender Differences in Standardized Math Performance: Results from U.S. and Hong Kong 15 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Learning strategies and affective factors could have a profound impact on student standardized mathematics performance. This study investigated gender differences in affective factors, learning strategies, and preferred learning situations, and how these variables affect math achievement of 15 year olds in the United States and Hong Kong on the…

  15. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  16. Investigation of planarization characteristics and novel defects in metal CMP affected by physical, chemical and mechanical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheemalapati, Krishnayya

    Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) has emerged as a widely used technology in the present day fabrication of Integrated Circuit (IC) chips in microelectronics. With the device size shrinking every year, the need for smaller and faster chips is also increasing. The use of novel materials and methods of fabrication are becoming inevitable. The replacement of aluminum with copper, low-k dielectrics in place of SiO2 in the Back End Of the Line processing (BEOL), multi-level metallization are some of the recent developments which the industry has witnessed. The patterning of features with smaller critical dimensions requires the Depth Of Focus (DOF) to be as low as possible. The requirement on the DOF hence increases with the reduction in the critical dimensions hence increasing the planarity requirements. Three different factors that impact the planarity in metal CMP have been investigated in detail in the thesis. The first topic of the thesis deals with a novel defect in Cu patterned wafer polishing where the feature experiences extra erosion at the edge of the feature in comparison to the center. Various first-step Cu slurries with different passivation chemistries were employed in the study supported by CFD modeling of slurry flow over patterned features. The relative roles of slurry passivation and fluid flow on the inception of the defect were investigated. The second topic deals with the impact of process temperature in CMP. Different factors such as process variables, slurry components and its effect on process temperature were investigated. The effect of process temperature on slurry physical properties in turn affecting the slurry performance was investigated in detail with different first-step Cu slurries. The final topic of the thesis deals with some important factors that determine the planarization efficiency in metal CMP. The impact of slurry physical properties, pad and wafer specifications and slurry abrasive content were studied in detail.

  17. Factors affecting bone growth.

    PubMed

    Gkiatas, Ioannis; Lykissas, Marios; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Korompilias, Anastasios; Batistatou, Anna; Beris, Alexandros

    2015-02-01

    Bone growth and development are products of the complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors. Longitudinal bone growth depends on the growth plate. The growth plate has 5 different zones-each with a different functional role-and is the final target organ for longitudinal growth. Bone length is affected by several systemic, local, and mechanical factors. All these regulation systems control the final length of bones in a complicated way. Despite its significance to bone stability, bone growth in width has not been studied as extensively as longitudinal bone growth. Bone growth in width is also controlled by genetic factors, but mechanical loading regulates periosteal apposition. In this article, we review the most recent data regarding bone growth from the embryonic age and analyze the factors that control bone growth. An understanding of this complex system is important in identifying metabolic and developmental bone diseases and fracture risk.

  18. Investigation and Identification of Factors affecting Migrating Peasant workers' Usage of Safety Footwear in the Chinese Construction Industry.

    PubMed

    Suo, Qinghui; Zhang, Daming

    2016-12-31

    A sample of 300 migrating peasant workers from 15 Chinese building construction sites completed a demographic questionnaire to investigate the usage of safety footwear. The survey form were constructed based on the theory of planned behaviour, and a total of 12 questions focusing on the workers' past experience, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were included in the survey. It was found that 92% of the participants did not wear safety footwear while working on construction sites, although more than 91% of them believed that safety footwear would protect the foot from injury; none of the participants had been provided free safety footwear by their employer. Regression analysis shows that employers' attitude is the most important factor affecting their usage of safety footwear, "Providing free safety footwear" and "comfortability of the safety footwear" ranks the second and third respectively.

  19. Investigation factors affecting the first recurrence of coronary artery disease in patients undergone angioplasty using cox survival model

    PubMed Central

    Nasseryan, Javad; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Rasekhi, Aliakbar; Ahangar, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of restenosis in patients suffering from coronary artery disease after undergoing angioplasty is of paramount importance. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate factors affecting the time of the first incidence of restenosis in patients undergone angioplasty in the city of Zanjan, Iran. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 421 patients who referred to Ayatollah Musavi hospital in Zanjan for angioplasty during 2009 to 2012. The time of the incidence of restenosis after angioplasty constituted the dependent variable of the study. Independent variables of the study included signs of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, kidney disease, carotid stenosis, lung disease, anemia, angina history, and MI. The Cox regression model with the significance level of 0.05 was deployed for the statistical analysis. Results: According to the Cox regression model, hazard ratio of the first incidence of restenosis in patients with hypertension and angina was 22.8% and 29.5% less than other patients, respectively. However, hazard ratio of the first incidence of restenosis was 7.4 times more in patients suffering from carotid stenosis than other patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that as time goes on, the risk of the incidence of restenosis in angioplasty patients increases such that patients’ survival decreases dramatically after a year. To determine the role of effective factors on the incidence of restenosis, conducting a prospective interventional study is highly recommended. PMID:28210606

  20. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    SciTech Connect

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  1. Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances in Early Adolescence: A Structural Modeling Investigation Examining Negative Affect and Peer Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…

  2. Investigation of factors affecting hypothermic pelvic tissue cooling using bio-heat simulation based on MRI-segmented anatomic models

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuting; Lin, Wei-Ching; Fwu, Peter T.; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Su, Min-Ying; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2015-01-01

    This study applied a simulation method to map the temperature distribution based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of individual patients, and investigated the influence of different pelvic tissue types as well as the choice of thermal property parameters on the efficiency of endorectal cooling balloon (ECB). MR images of four subjects with different prostate sizes and pelvic tissue compositions, including fatty tissue and venous plexus, were analyzed. The MR images acquired using endorectal coil provided a realistic geometry of deformed prostate that resembled the anatomy in the presence of ECB. A single slice with the largest two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional area of the prostate gland was selected for analysis. The rectal wall, prostate gland, peri-rectal fatty tissue, peri-prostatic fatty tissue, peri-prostatic venous plexus, and urinary bladder were manually segmented. Pennes’ bioheat thermal model was used to simulate the temperature distribution dynamics, by using an in-house finite element mesh based solver written in Matlab. The results showed that prostate size and periprostatic venous plexus were two major factors affecting ECB cooling efficiency. For cases with negligible amount of venous plexus and small prostate, the averaged temperature in the prostate and neurovascular bundles could be cooled down to 25°C within 30 minutes. For cases with abundant venous plexus and large prostate, the temperature could not reach 25°C at the end of 3 hours cooling. Large prostate made the cooling difficult to propagate through. The impact of fatty tissue on cooling effect was small. The filling of bladder with warm urine during the ECB cooling procedure did not affect the temperature in the prostate or NVB. In addition to the 2D simulation, in one case a 3D pelvic model was constructed for volumetric simulation. It was found that the 2D slice with the largest cross-sectional area of prostate had the most abundant venous plexus, and was the most difficult

  3. An investigation into factors affecting the precision of CT radiation dose profile width measurements using radiochromic films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Baojun Behrman, Richard H.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of x-ray beam energy, exposure intensity, and flat-bed scanner uniformity and spatial resolution on the precision of computed tomography (CT) beam width measurements using Gafchromic XR-QA2 film and an off-the-shelf document scanner. Methods: Small strips of Gafchromic film were placed at isocenter in a CT scanner and exposed at various x-ray beam energies (80–140 kVp), exposure levels (50–400 mA s), and nominal beam widths (1.25, 5, and 10 mm). The films were scanned in reflection mode on a Ricoh MP3501 flat-bed document scanner using several spatial resolution settings (100 to 400 dpi) and at different locations on the scanner bed. Reflection measurements were captured in digital image files and radiation dose profiles generated by converting the image pixel values to air kerma through film calibration. Beam widths were characterized by full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) of dose profiles. Dependences of these parameters on the above factors were quantified in percentage change from the baselines. Results: The uncertainties in both FWHM and FWTM caused by varying beam energy, exposure level, and scanner uniformity were all within 4.5% and 7.6%, respectively. Increasing scanner spatial resolution significantly increased the uncertainty in both FWHM and FWTM, with FWTM affected by almost 8 times more than FWHM (48.7% vs 6.5%). When uncalibrated dose profiles were used, FWHM and FWTM were over-estimated by 11.6% and 7.6%, respectively. Narrower beam width appeared more sensitive to the film calibration than the wider ones (R{sup 2} = 0.68 and 0.85 for FWHM and FWTM, respectively). The global and maximum local background variations of the document scanner were 1.2%. The intrinsic film nonuniformity for an unexposed film was 0.3%. Conclusions: Measurement of CT beam widths using Gafchromic XR-QA2 films is robust against x-ray energy, exposure level, and scanner uniformity. With proper film

  4. An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlenga, Francis Howard

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

  5. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  6. Investigation of some factors affecting on release of radon-222 from phosphogypsum waste associated with phosphate ore processing.

    PubMed

    Hilal, M A; El Afifi, E M; Nayl, A A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is oriented to investigate the influence of some physicochemical factors such as radium distribution, grain size, moisture content and chemical constituents on releases of radon-222 from the accumulated phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The emanation fraction, activity concentration in the pore and the surface exhalation rate of radon-222 in the bulk PG waste are 34.5 ± 0.3%, 238.6 ± 7.8 kBq m(-3) and 213 ± 6.9 mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. These values were varied and enhanced slightly in the fine grain sizes (F1 < 0.125 mm) by a factor of 1.05 folds compared to the bulk residue. It was also found that release of radon from residue PG waste was controlled positively by radium (Ra-226), calcium (CaSO4) and strontium (SrO). About 67% of radon release attributed to the grain size below 0.5 mm, while 33% due to the large grain size above 0.5 mm. The emanation fraction of Rn-222 is increased with moisture content and the maximum emanation is ∼43% of moisture of 3-8%. It reduced slowly with the continuous increase in moisture till 20%. Due to PG waste in situ can be enhancing the background to the surround workers and/or public. Therefore, the environmental negative impacts due to release of Rn-222 can be minimized by legislation to restrict its civil uses, or increasing its moisture to ∼10%, or by the particle size separation of the fine fraction containing the high levels of Ra-226 followed by a suitable chemical treatment or disposal; whereas the low release amount can be diluted and used in cement industry, roads or dam construction.

  7. Psychological factors affecting oncology conditions.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Biancosino, Bruno; Marmai, Luciana; Rossi, Elena; Sabato, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The area of psychological factors affecting cancer has been the object of research starting from the early 1950s and consolidating from the 1970s with the development of psychooncology. A series of problems in the DSM and ICD nosological systems, such as the difficult application of the criteria for psychiatric diagnoses (i.e. major depression, adjustment disorders) and the scarce space dedicated to the rubric of psychosocial implications of medical illness (i.e. Psychological Factors Affecting a Medical Condition under 'Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention' in the DSM-IV) represent a major challenge in psycho-oncology. The application of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) has been shown to be useful in a more precise identification of several psychological domains in patients with cancer. The DCPR dimensions of health anxiety, demoralization and alexithymia have been shown to be quite frequent in cancer patient (37.7, 28.8 and 26%, respectively). The overlap between a formal DSM-IV diagnosis and the DCPR is low, with 58% of patients being categorized as non-cases on the DSM-IV having at least one DCPR syndrome. The specific quality of the DCPR in characterizing psychosocial aspects secondary to cancer is also confirmed by the fact that some dimensions of coping (e.g. Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer subscale hopelessness) correlate with the DCPR dimension of demoralization, while a quantitative approach on symptom assessment (e.g. stress symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory) is not useful in discriminating the patients with and without DCPR syndromes. More research is needed in order to understand the relationship between DCPR constructs (e.g. alexithymia) and psychosocial factors which have been shown to be significant in oncology (e.g. emotional repression and avoidance). The role of specific DCPR constructs in influencing the course of illness is also an area that should be investigated.

  8. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  9. Investigating Factors Affecting Science Teachers' Performance and Satisfaction toward Their Teaching Process at Najran University for Girls' Science Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshehry, Amel Thafer

    2014-01-01

    In Saudi educational system, many factors have led to a various need for teaching qualifications in higher educational institutions. One main aim of this study was to determine the perception of college teachers on how to assess the effectiveness of the teaching process and what most students consider when evaluating their teachers. Further, it…

  10. Investigation of factors affecting loosening of Ilizarov ring-wire external fixator systems at the bone-wire interface.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Finn E; Pankaj, Pankaj; Simpson, A Hamish R W

    2012-05-01

    The potential for peri-implant bone yielding and subsequent loosening of Ilizarov ring-wire external fixation systems was investigated using non-linear finite element (FE) analyses. A strain-based plasticity model was employed to simulate bone yielding. FE models also incorporated contact behavior at the wire-bone interface, orthotropic elasticity, and periosteal-endosteal variation of bone properties. These simulations were used to determine the extent and location of yielding with change in age-related bone structure and properties for the bone-Ilizarov construct at the tibial midshaft. At critical wire-bone interfaces, the predicted volume of yielded bone with four wires (on either side of the fracture) was ∼40% of that with two wires. Old-aged cases showed considerably greater bone yielding at the wire-bone interface than young cases (1.7-2.2 times greater volumes of yielded bone). The volume of yielded bone at all wire-bone interfaces decreased with an increase in wire pre-tension. The absence of continuous through-thickness yielding offers an explanation for the clinical observation that Ilizarov ring-wire fixation can provide stable fracture fixation even in bone with high porosity.

  11. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  12. Use of personal EEG monitors in a behavioral neuroscience course to investigate natural setting sleep patterns and the factors affecting them in college students.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jillian C; Malerba, Julie R; Schroeder, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is often a topic of avid interest to college students, yet it is one that does not yield itself well to hands-on, interactive learning modules. Supplementing classroom learning with interactive "real world" laboratory activities provides students with a deeper understanding of behavior and its neural control. The project described here was designed to supplement the teaching of EEGs, sleep and circadian rhythms and involved students in the empirical process from hypothesizing about the factors that affect sleep, to personal data collection, data analysis and writing in the style of a peer-reviewed manuscript. Students enrolled in Behavioral Neuroscience at Connecticut College were provided with a home-based personal EEG monitor used to collect sleep data in their natural sleep setting. Participants recorded sleep data with the use of the ZEO® Personal Sleep Coach system and completed a nightly sleep journal questionnaire for seven nights. The ZEO® system uses EEG patterns to define sleep stages including wakefulness, light, deep and REM sleep. The journal included questions about factors known to affect sleep such as stress, caffeine, academic activity, exercise and alcohol. A class data set was compiled and used by students to perform univariate correlations examining the relationships between ZEO® variables and sleep journal variables. The data set allowed students to choose specific variables to investigate, analyze and write a peer-reviewed style manuscript. Significant class-wide correlations were found between specific sleep stages and behavioral variables suggesting that the ZEO® system is sophisticated yet inexpensive enough to be used as an effective tool in the classroom setting. Overall student feedback on the exercise was positive with many students indicating that it significantly enhanced their understanding of sleep architecture and made them keenly aware of the factors that affect quality of sleep.

  13. Dietary factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount.

  14. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  15. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  16. Langley Full-scale-tunnel Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Static Lateral-stability Characteristics of a Typical Fighter-type Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Roy H

    1947-01-01

    The factors that affect the rate of change of rolling moment with yaw of a typical fighter-type airplane were investigated in the Langley full-scale tunnel on a typical fighter-type airplane.Eight representative flight conditions were investigated in detail. The separate effects of propeller operation, of the wing-fuselage combination, and of the vertical tail to the effective dihedral of the airplane in each condition were determined. The results of the tests showed that for the airplane with the propeller removed, the wing-fuselage combination had positive dihedral effect which increased considerably with increasing angle of attack for all conditions. Flap deflection decreased the dihedral effect of the wing-fuselage combination slightly as compared with that with the flaps retracted. Flap deflection resulted in negative dihedral effect due to the vertical tail. Propeller operation decreased the lateral stability parameter of the airplane for all the conditions investigated with larger decreases being measured for the flaps deflected conditions.

  17. Factors Affecting Radiologist's PACS Usage.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.

  18. Use of a generalized additive model to investigate key abiotic factors affecting microcystin cellular quotas in heavy bloom areas of Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan

    2012-01-01

    Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation.

  19. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  20. Flight Investigation on a Fighter-type Airplane of Factors which Affect the Loads and Load Distributions on the Vertical Tail Surfaces During Rudder Kicks and Fishtails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boshar, John

    1947-01-01

    Results are presented of a flight investigation conducted on a fighter-type airplane to determine the factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces in maneuvers. An analysis is made of the data obtained in steady flight, rudder kicks, and fishtail maneuvers. For the rudder kicks, the significant loads were the "deflection load" resulting from an abrupt control deflection and the "dynamic load" consisting of a load corresponding to the new static equilibrium condition for the rudder deflected plus a load due to a transient overshoot. The minimum time to reach the maximum control deflection attainable by the pilot in any flight condition was found to be a constant. In the fishtail maneuvers, it was found that the pilot tends to deflect the rudder in phase with the natural frequency of the airplane. The maximum loads measured in fishtails were of the same order of magnitude as those from a rudder kick in which the rudder is returned to zero at the time of maximum sideslip.

  1. Demographic Factors Affecting Faculty Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Allen L.

    1995-01-01

    Specific demographic attributes that influence salary at institutions of higher education were studied through data from 420 faculty members at 9 institutions. Results suggested that experience, publication rates, time at the institution, and possession of a terminal degree affected salary levels. The presence of salary compression was noted. (SLD)

  2. Factors Affecting Auditory Training Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Roberta M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine which of nine variables were most related to success in auditory training, using as Ss 43 students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. Findings showed that the single largest contributing factor to postcourse gain was the entering English score. (PHR)

  3. Factors Affecting Teenager Cyber Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Cho, Sun Yoo; Jung, Bo Kyung; Choi, Se Bin

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate structural relationships among teenagers' peer attachment, self-control, academic stress, internet usage time, and cyber delinquency. The data source was the Korea Youth Panel Survey, and the responses from 920 teenagers in the 12th grade provided the study data. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis.…

  4. Factors affecting the quality of cryoprecipitate

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyan, Rajeswari; Marwaha, Neelam; Jain, Ashish; Ahluwalia, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many variables affect the quality of cryoprecipitate (CRYO). We investigated the effect of freezing techniques and ABO blood groups on the quality of CRYO with respect to factor VIII: C and fibrinogen levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six whole blood units each collected from in-house (Group I) and blood donation camps outside the hospital premises (Group II) were processed for CRYO preparation. Within each group, half the number of plasma units was frozen using blast freezer and another half using the conventional freezer. The CRYOs from blood groups A, B, and O were equally distributed, i.e. 32 within each of the Groups I and II. The fibrinogen and factor VIII: C levels in CRYO were analyzed using single-stage clotting assay. RESULTS: In Group I, the mean ± standard deviation percentage recovery of factor VIII levels in CRYO prepared using the conventional freezer and blast freezer were 58.5% ±16.2% and 66.7% ±16.4%, respectively, and in Group II, it was 55.3% ±17.6% and 70.4% ±13.4%, respectively. Recovery of factor VIII was higher in CRYO prepared using blast freezer than that of CRYO prepared using conventional freezer (P < 0.000). In Group II, CRYOs prepared using blast freezer had higher percent recovery of fibrinogen than that of Group I. In both the groups, the mean factor VIII levels in blood group A were higher than that of factor VIII levels in the blood group O CRYO. CONCLUSION: The factor VIII recovery in CRYO improves significantly with higher baseline factor VIII: C levels, blood group A donor, and rapid freezing using blast freezer. Rapid freezing also increases the fibrinogen yield. PMID:28316438

  5. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making.

  6. Factors affecting calculation of L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient

  7. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy.

  8. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  9. Analysis of Preoperative Metabolic Risk Factors Affecting the Prognosis of Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Fujian Prospective Investigation of Cancer (FIESTA) Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Feng; Hu, Dan; Lin, Xiandong; Chen, Gang; Liang, Binying; Zhang, Hejun; Dong, Xiaoqun; Lin, Jinxiu; Zheng, Xiongwei; Niu, Wenquan

    2017-02-01

    Some metabolic factors have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer; however the association with its prognosis is rarely reported. Here, we assessed the prediction of preoperative metabolic syndrome and its single components for esophageal cancer mortality by analyzing a subset of data from the ongoing Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA) study. Between 2000 and 2010, patients who underwent three-field lymphadenectomy were eligible for inclusion. Blood/tissue specimens, demographic and clinicopathologic data were collected at baseline. Metabolic syndrome is defined by the criteria proposed by Chinese Diabetes Society. In this study, analysis was restricted to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) due to the limited number of other histological types. The median follow-up in 2396 ESCC patients (males/females: 1822/574) was 38.2months (range, 0.5-180months). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of metabolic syndrome for ESCC mortality was statistically significant in males (HR, 95% confidence interval, P: 1.45, 1.14-1.83, 0.002), but not in females (1.46, 0.92-2.31, 0.107). For single metabolic components, the multivariate-adjusted HRs were significant for hyperglycemia (1.98, 1.68-2.33, <0.001) and dyslipidemia (1.41, 1.20-1.65, <0.001) in males and for hyperglycemia (1.76, 1.23-2.51, <0.001) in females, independent of clinicopathologic characteristics and obesity. In tree-structured survival analysis, the top splitting factor in both genders was tumor-node-metastasis stage, followed by regional lymph node metastasis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that preoperative metabolic syndrome was a significant independent predictor of ESCC mortality in males, and this effect was largely mediated by glyeolipid metabolism disorder.

  10. Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

  11. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  12. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  13. Document Retrieval Systems; Factors Affecting Search Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, K. Leon, Ed.

    An experiment was conducted to identify some of the important parameters affecting search time, a critical cost factor in retrieval systems. Using actual computer searches of Chemical Abstracts Condensate, a comparison was made between the effectiveness of linear and inverted filing systems. Since the results indicated that it was the type and…

  14. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  15. Factors affecting spermatozoa morphology in beef bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  17. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  18. Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Petar

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

  19. The Western Ghat as the water tower of the South Indian Rivers : a stable isotope investigation on the origin of water and factors affecting the water cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambs, Luc; Tripti, Muguli; Balakrishna, Keshava

    2014-05-01

    The long stretch (1600 km) of Ghats on the western side (Western Ghats) of Peninsular India separates relatively wetter west coast from drier eastern coast. The western and eastern sides of the Ghats are having distinct isotopic signatures indicating unequal distribution of the moisture sources. South India is characterized by having moisture source for southwest monsoon from Arabian Sea and northeast monsoon from Bay of Bengal. The wetter side of Peninsular region is covered by combination of evergreen tropical forest and grass lands, termed as Shola Forests which support higher vapor recycling process. Very few isotopic studies have been undertaken in these areas, except few places, mainly along the coast lines. This study presents the stable isotope results on rivers and groundwater of the Western Ghats covering Agumbe (Karnataka) to Ooty (Tamil Nadu) and its west coast river basins as observed for the three year period. The stable isotope results on the surface, subsurface and deep water pools show that the mean d18O value range from -4 o to -2 o on the west slope, and from -5 o to -4 o on the east slope, with quite no altitude or amount effect up to 2000 m asl. The more depleted values are found only in higher elevation, like the Doddabeta in the Nilgiri (2637m), with d18O close to -9 o which is exceptional for a tropical area. The hills on the west slope of the Western Ghats as well as in the mountainous Shola forest exhibit strong water vapor recycling as evidenced by high d-excess values. On the contrary on the eastern slope, the drier condition and the numerous impoundments and river damming support strong evaporation process. Thus, the study identifies the profound effect of tropical vegetation and anthropogenic factors on the recharge functioning of river and groundwater pools in Southern India.

  20. Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852

  1. Factors affecting the retrieval of famous names.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Rodrigues, Susana; Dias, Beatriz; Slade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Tests of famous faces are used to study language and memory. Yet, the effect of stimulus properties on performance has not been fully investigated. To identify factors influencing proper name retrieval and to probe stimulus-specific parameters within proper name lexicon, we analysed the results obtained by 300 healthy participants on a test of famous faces that includes 74 personalities. A factor analysis yielded five main factors that were characterized by language (national or foreign names), epoch of peak popularity (current, recent or past) and occupation (politicians, entertainment and sports) of the personalities. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants' education, age and gender accounted for 10-32% of the variance in factor scores. These results indicate that there are variables of the stimulus and participants' that must be taken into account in proper name testing and in designing tests aimed to differentiate age-associated difficulties from cognitive decline.

  2. Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-02-01

    Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.

  3. [Factors that affect inpatients' quality of sleep].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Shíntia Viana; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the Factors Affecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients.

  4. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  5. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  6. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  7. The Perspective of Gozitan Teachers on Factors Affecting Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Lorna; De Giovanni, Katya Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at exploring the impact of factors at pupil, teacher and school levels on students? academic achievement. Moreover, the main purpose was that of investigating which one of the three levels is most likely to affect students? educational accomplishment. A questionnaire was administered to 100 Gozitan teachers. Results were analysed…

  8. Institutional and Managerial Factors Affecting International Student Recruitment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mitchell; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Cooper, Maxine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…

  9. Factors affecting gas content in coal beds

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.

    1996-06-01

    Gas content is one of the most important controls on coalbed methane producibility because coal gas production becomes uneconomical if insufficient amounts of gas are sorbed onto the coal surface. Gas content in coal beds is not fixed but changes when equilibrium conditions within the reservoir are disrupted. Therefore, the distribution of gas content varies laterally within individual coal beds, vertically among coals within a single well, and vertically within thicker coal beds. The key hydrogeologic factors affecting gas content variability include gas generation, coal properties, and reservoir conditions. The potential for high gas content depends on thermogenic and secondary biogenic gas generation, which are controlled by burial history (coal rank), maceral composition, and basin hydrodynamics. Coal properties such as ash and moisture content, maceral type, permeability, and diffusion coefficient affect the sorption capacity and diffusion rates in coal beds and, therefore, the final gas content. Reservoir conditions such as pressure and temperature also affect the amount of gases sorbed to the coal surface, whereas coal geometry, hydrogeology, and the presence or absence of permeability barriers determine whether or not gas contents are increased or decreased. Stratigraphic and/or structural trapping concentrates coal gases, resulting in higher gas contents adjacent to permeability barriers; the presence of abnormally high gas contents in lower-rank coals indicates secondary biogenic gas generation and/or conventional trapping of thermogenic or biogenic gases. Gas content decreases in areas of active recharge caused by flushing or in areas of convergent flow where no trapping mechanisms (seals) are present.

  10. Factors affecting metabolic syndrome by lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ2 test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725

  11. Factors affecting contraceptive use in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, N; Ringheim, K

    1996-01-01

    This study postulates that contraceptive use in Pakistan is affected by the usual demographic factors as well as husband-wife communication, female autonomy, son preference, religious beliefs, and family planning service supply. Analysis is based on data obtained from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91. Findings indicate that 74% of women never talked in the past year with their husbands about family planning. Almost 60% believed that family size was "up to God." About 47% knew where to obtain contraception; only 20.4% had easy access to a source of supplies. Current use was 14% and ever use was 22.4%. Analysis is based on three basic models. Model 1 includes the control variables and son preference. Model 2 includes husband-wife communication, religious attitudes, and female autonomy. Model 3 includes the addition of family planning to model 2 variables. Urban residence increases the odds of contraceptive use considerably only in Model 1. The influence of urban residence in the other models is reduced. Husband's education is significant only in Models 1 and 2 and insignificant in Model 3 when the family planning variable is included. Increased women's age is also insignificant in Model 3. Of the supply factors in Model 3, knowledge of a source and easy access to a source were highly significant, while mass media exposure was not important. Knowledge of a source was the most important predictor. Model 3 explained 90% of use. Among urban women, lack of husband-wife communication and fatalistic beliefs reduce the log-odds of contraceptive use. For rural women, age and women's secondary education were key predictors. Findings confirm that demographic and socio-cultural factors affect contraceptive use in Pakistan. All the theorized variables exerted a strong influence on contraceptive use, which can be counteracted by improved supply and service strategies.

  12. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates.

  13. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  14. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  15. Various factors affect coiled tubing limits

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-15

    Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

  16. Physical factors affecting chloroquine binding to melanin.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, R L; Pendleton, P; Gerber, J P

    2015-10-01

    Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug but is also prescribed for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term users risk toxic side effects, including retinopathy, thought to be caused by chloroquine accumulation on ocular melanin. Although the binding potential of chloroquine to melanin has been investigated previously, our study is the first to demonstrate clear links between chloroquine adsorption by melanin and system factors including temperature, pH, melanin type, and particle size. In the current work, two Sepia melanins were compared with bovine eye as a representative mammalian melanin. Increasing the surface anionic character due to a pH change from 4.7 to 7.4 increased each melanin's affinity for chloroquine. Although the chloroquine isotherms exhibited an apparently strong interaction with each melanin, isosteric heat analysis indicated a competitive interaction. Buffer solution cations competed effectively at low surface coverage; chloroquine adsorption occurs via buffer cation displacement and is promoted by temperature-influenced secondary structure swelling.

  17. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    PubMed

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P; Telfer, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that: 1. There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3. There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4. Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues.

  18. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  19. Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Patients About ACOG The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Home For Patients Search ... September 2013 PDF Format The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Pregnancy What is the ...

  20. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  1. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hyekyung; Kim, Yeonhee; Rhie, Sandy Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL) associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160) aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15). The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=−0.215, P=0.022), sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=−0.335, P=0.000), education level (β=−0.153, P=0.045), health-related problems (β=−0.239, P=0.004), and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018). Conclusion In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists should consider elderly patients’ individual characteristics such as educational background and specific patient-related health problems, provide sufficient information and explanation of medication, and ensure patient

  2. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  3. Iatrogenic Factors Affecting the Periodontium: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ravi Varma; Chincholi, Siddharth; V, Deepika; Sirajuddin, Syed; Biswas, Shriparna; Prabhu, Sandeep S; MP, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    The principal reason of gingival inflammation is bacterial plaque, along with other predisposing factors. These predisposing factors are calculus, malocclusion, faulty restorations, complications associated with orthodontic therapy, self- inflicted injuries, use of tobacco & radiation therapy. The contributing factors to gingival inflammation & periodontal destruction are deficient dental restorations and prosthesis. Inadequate dental procedures that add to the weakening of the periodontal tissues are referred to as iatrogenic factors. PMID:26312088

  4. Iatrogenic Factors Affecting the Periodontium: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ravi Varma; Chincholi, Siddharth; V, Deepika; Sirajuddin, Syed; Biswas, Shriparna; Prabhu, Sandeep S; Mp, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    The principal reason of gingival inflammation is bacterial plaque, along with other predisposing factors. These predisposing factors are calculus, malocclusion, faulty restorations, complications associated with orthodontic therapy, self- inflicted injuries, use of tobacco & radiation therapy. The contributing factors to gingival inflammation & periodontal destruction are deficient dental restorations and prosthesis. Inadequate dental procedures that add to the weakening of the periodontal tissues are referred to as iatrogenic factors.

  5. Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2005-01-01

    To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

  6. Hospital Views of Factors Affecting Telemedicine Use.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Kimberly A S; Ward, Marcia M; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine (also known as telehealth) is a means to increase access to care, one of the foundations of the Triple Aim. However, the expansion of telemedicine services in the United States has been relatively slow. We previously examined the extent of uptake of hospital based telemedicine using the 2013 HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) Analytics national database of 4,727 non-specialty hospitals. Our analysis indicated that the largest percentage of operational telemedicine implementations (15.7 percent) was in radiology departments, with a substantial number in emergency/trauma care (7.5 percent) and cardiology/stroke/heart attack programs (6.8 percent). However, existing databases are limited because they do not identify whether a respondent hospital is a "hub" (providing telemedicine services) or a "spoke" (receiving telemedicine services). Therefore, we used data from interviews with hospital representatives to deepen the research and understanding of telemedicine use and the factors affecting that use. Interviews were conducted with key informants at 18 hub hospitals and 18 spoke hospitals to explore their perceptions of barriers and motivators to telemedicine adoption and expansion. Key Findings. (1) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported that telemedicine helps them meet their mission, enhances access, keeps lower-acuity patients closer to home, and helps head off competition. (2) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported licensing and credentialing to be significant barriers to telemedicine expansion. Thus, half of hubs provide services only within their state. (3) A variety of one-time funding sources have been used to initiate and grow telemedicine services among hubs and spokes. However, reimbursement issues have impeded the development of workable business models for sustainability. Hub hospitals shoulder the responsibility for identifying sustainable business models. (4) Although respondents

  7. Factors affecting pelvic rotation in idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunfei; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Changwei; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic rotation (PR) is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), but factors contributing to this phenomenon and its relationship with the surgical outcome are not well established. This retrospective study included 85 IS patients in 2 groups: thoracic curve dominance group (group A) and lumbar curve dominance group (group B). Pre- and postoperative PR was measured on standing posteroanterior radiographs by the left/right ratio (L/R ratio) of horizontal distance between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the inferior ilium (SI) at the sacroiliac joint on the same side in both groups. Other radiographic data, age, sex, and Risser sign of each patient were recorded to analyze their correlations with PR before and after operation. The patients ranged in age from 10 to 35 years with a mean of 17.0 ± 5.2 years. The mean L/R ratio of PR before operation was 0.99 (0.73–1.40) versus 0.98 (0.87–1.26) after operation. The L/R ration was beyond the range of 1 ± 0.1 (indicating the presence of PR) in 17 (20%) patients before operation and in 14 (16.5%) patients after operation. There was no significant difference in PR between the 2 groups of patients either before (P = 0.468) or after (P = 0.944) surgery. The preoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = 0.220, P = 0.043), apex vertebral rotation (AVR) in the proximal thoracic curve (r = 0.242, P = 0.026), and AVR in the lumbar curve (r = 0.213, P = 0.049), while the postoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = −0.341, P = 0.001) and postoperative trunk shift (TS) (r = −0.282, P = 0.009). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that preoperative PR was affected by proximal thoracic curve AVR and lumbar curve AVR. There was no significant difference between PR before operation and 2 years after operation. Preoperative PR was mainly correlated with Risser sign and the rotation

  8. Factors affecting farm noise during common agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Franklin, R C; Depczynski, J; Challinor, K; Williams, W; Fragar, L J

    2006-05-01

    Hearing injury due to exposure to excessive noise during common farming activities is a significant problem for farmers. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that affect the level of risk to hearing caused by common farming activities. Noise levels on farms were measured across a range of activities and producer groups, and situational factors that effect noise levels were also investigated. Older tractors were found to be 6 dB louder than newer tractors. Cabs reduced noise to the operator by 16 dB, which was halved to 8 dB if a door was open. Radios added between 3 and 5 dB to the noise in the cab. These variables significantly affect the noise level at the ear of operators and others in the workplace, and affect the subsequent exposure limits that are considered safe. Situational factors need to be considered in assessing the level of risk to farmers' hearing and in choosing noise management strategies on the farm. This information has been incorporated into material about hearing and discussions with farmers who participated in field day hearing screening programs in Australia.

  9. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Peggy; Melnyk, W. T.

    1971-01-01

    Article is an excerpt from Mrs. Beagle's original analysis and includes such considerations as increases in enrollment, university admission policies, counseling, study skills, study facilities, and financial policies and practices affecting adult students. References. (RB)

  10. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Zozus, Meredith N.; Pieper, Carl; Johnson, Constance M.; Johnson, Todd R.; Franklin, Amy; Smith, Jack; Zhang, Jiajie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical record abstraction (MRA) is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA. Methods Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature. Results Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted). Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered. Conclusion The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given

  11. Factors Affecting Retention in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berling, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…

  12. Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2004-11-24

    The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

  13. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries.

    PubMed

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15-78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in 21

  14. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbad, Muneer Mahmood; Morris, David; de Nahlik, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students' adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors? This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students' adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning…

  15. Factors Affecting Degradation of Aldicarb and Ethoprop

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Russell L.; Norris, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical and microbial degradation of the nematicides-insecticides aldicarb and ethoprop has been studied extensively in both laboratory and field studies. These studies show that temperature is the most important variable affecting the degradation rate of aldicarb and its carbamate metabolites in surface soils. Temperature and organic matter appear to be the most important variables affecting degradation rates of ethoprop in soils under normal agricultural conditions, with organic matter being inversely related to degradation, presumably due to increased binding to soil particles. Soil moisture may be important under some conditions for both compounds, with degradation reduced in low-moisture soils. The rate of degradation of aldicarb residues (aldicarb + aldicarb sulfoxide + aldicarb sulfone) does not seem to be significantly affected by depth from soil surface, except that aldicarb residues degrade more slowly in acidic, coarse sand subsoils. Degradation of ethoprop also continues in subsurface soils, although field data are limited due to its lower mobility. Both compounds degrade in groundwater. Because microbial activity decreases with depth below soil surface, chemical processes are important components of the degradation of both aldicarb residues and ethoprop. For aldicarb, transformation to carbamate oxides in surface soils is primarily microbial, while degradation to noncarbamate compounds appears to be primarily the result of soil-catalyzed hydrolysis throughout the soil profile. For ethoprop, both chemical and microbial catalyzed hydrolysis are important in surface soils, with chemical hydrolysis becoming more important with increasing depth. PMID:19274198

  16. Factors affecting spore germination in algae - review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C

    2009-01-01

    This review surveys whatever little is known on the influence of different environmental factors like light, temperature, nutrients, chemicals (such as plant hormones, vitamins, etc.), pH of the medium, biotic factors (such as algal extracellular substances, algal concentration, bacterial extracellular products, animal grazing and animal extracellular products), water movement, water stress, antibiotics, UV light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and pollution on the spore germination in algae. The work done on the dormancy of algal spores and on the role of vegetative cells in tolerating environmental stress is also incorporated.

  17. Intrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKay, Brenda B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative research study involving 13 undergraduate students who completed their student-teaching in overseas contexts. Participants completed two waves of interviews immediately after returning to campus from their multicultural experiences. Three intrinsic factors were found to have the greatest impact on students' overseas…

  18. Factors Affecting Teachers' Grading and Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, C. Randy; Noonan, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Teachers' classroom grading and assessment practices are important elements of assessment reform. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of classroom learning factors such as class size, subject area, and school size on teachers' classroom assessment practices. The results of a survey of 513 high school teachers showed evidence that…

  19. Bicultural Socialization: Factors Affecting the Minority Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Anda, Diane

    1984-01-01

    Discusses six factors that help determine which groups and individuals will be most successful in the process of bicultural socialization: (1) cultural overlap; (2) cultural translators; (3) feedback; (4) problem solving skills; (5) bilingualism; and (6) appearance. Discusses implications for social work. (JAC)

  20. Factors Affecting School Quality in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…

  1. Factors Affecting Students' Medicine-Taking Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.; Zantow, Kenneth; Peterson, Tim O.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines college students' beliefs about health, prescriptions, doctors, and the influence those beliefs have on adherence to prescribed medication regimens. After a brief review of attitudinal factors that influence adherence to prescription medicine directions, the authors discuss measurement issues and explain the reasons for their…

  2. Factors Affecting Specifications for Computer Software Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    Washington, D.C. 20375 Office of Naval Research 800 North Quincy Street Dr. Michael Melich Arlington, VA 22217 Communications Sciences Division Code...20310 Director, Human Factors Wing Dr. Edgar M. Johnson Defense & Civil Institute of Technical Director Environmental Medicine U.S. Army Research

  3. Factors Affecting Information Literacy Perception and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehner, Drusilla Charlene Beecher

    2009-01-01

    Information literacy, defined as, "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information" (American Library Association, 2003, paragraph 1), is necessary for success in life. The present study will examine whether the factors of gender, race, and/or socioeconomic status impact information literacy performance and…

  4. Factors Affecting Obedience in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Kenneth L.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the effects of threat, surveillance, time, and sex of the child on obedience by four-year-old children to an adult's request to carry marbles one at a time from one box to another. (Author/MP)

  5. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  6. Factors Affecting Sulfate Resistance of Mortars.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    sulfate des mortiers est affected par le rapport eau/ciment et la teneur en ciment (dont il n’ei;t pas parl4) ainsi que par la quantite d’aluminate...la pouzzolane, y compris les cendres volantes produites par ]a combustion de charbons bitumineux, subbitumineux et lignitiques, le verre volcanique...pour cent de SiO2 ; elles sont un sous-produit de la production de metal au silicium. Les cendres volantes produites par les charbons subbitumineux et

  7. Factors that Affect the Lung Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankhala, Shweta; Singh, H. S.; Singh, S. K.; Lalwani, Gautam

    The lung is an external organ forming the site of unwanted material or particles. In order to protect it, the airways have to be highly effective filters and if the particle deposit they need to be cleared. Inhaled particles can cause a variety of diseases. There are various factors on which the prediction of depositing particles depends, such as age, particle size, flow rate gender, the physics of the particles, the anatomy of the respiratory tract etc.

  8. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  9. Cooperation in wild Barbary macaques: factors affecting free partner choice.

    PubMed

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    A key aspect of cooperation is partner choice: choosing the best available partner improves the chances of a successful cooperative interaction and decreases the likelihood of being exploited. However, in studies on cooperation subjects are rarely allowed to freely choose their partners. Group-living animals live in a complex social environment where they can choose among several social partners differing in, for example, sex, age, temperament, or dominance status. Our study investigated whether wild Barbary macaques succeed to cooperate using an experimental apparatus, and whether individual and social factors affect their choice of partners and the degree of cooperation. We used the string pulling task that requires two monkeys to manipulate simultaneously a rope in order to receive a food reward. The monkeys were free to interact with the apparatus or not and to choose their partner. The results showed that Barbary macaques are able to pair up with a partner to cooperate using the apparatus. High level of tolerance between monkeys was necessary for the initiation of successful cooperation, while strong social bond positively affected the maintenance of cooperative interactions. Dominance status, sex, age, and temperament of the subjects also affected their choice and performance. These factors thus need to be taken into account in cooperative experiment on animals. Tolerance between social partners is likely to be a prerequisite for the evolution of cooperation.

  10. Factors affecting intraocular pressure in lions.

    PubMed

    Ofri, Ron; Steinmetz, Andrea; Thielebein, Jens; Horowitz, Igal H; Oechtering, Gerhard; Kass, Philip H

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a detailed analysis of the relationship between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in lions. Tonometry was conducted in 33 lions aged 5 days to 80 months. Age was significantly associated with IOP (P<0.005). Mean IOP was 12.8+/- and 23.9+/-4.1 mmHg in lions < or =1 year old and >1 year old, respectively. IOP linearly rose with age during the first 20 months of life, plateaued until approximately 40 months, and then gradually declined (r=0.85). Age-related changes in IOP were highly correlated with ultrasonographic measurements of intraocular dimensions (r > or = 0.72), and may be a determinant factor in developmental ocular growth. The dramatic rise in IOP of young lions is similar to that observed in children, but has not been previously demonstrated in animals. Significant IOP differences between lion sub-species were also demonstrated.

  11. Factors Affecting Seismic Velocity in Alluvium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Prothro, L.

    2015-12-01

    Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site has been selected as the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Dry Alluvium Geology Phase II site. The alluvium in this part of Yucca Flat is typical of desert basin fill, with discontinuous beds that are highly variable in clast size and provenance. Detailed understanding of the subsurface geology will be needed for interpretation of the SPE seismic data. A 3D seismic velocity model, created for Yucca Flat using interval seismic velocity data, shows variations in velocity within alluvium near the SPE Phase II site beyond the usual gradual increase of density with depth due to compaction. In this study we examined borehole lithologic logs, geophysical logs, downhole videos, and laboratory analyses of sidewall core samples to understand which characteristics of the alluvium are related to these variations in seismic velocity. Seismic velocity of alluvium is generally related to its density, which can be affected by sediment provenance, clast size, gravel percentage, and matrix properties, in addition to compaction. This study presents a preliminary subdivision of the alluvial strata in the SPE Phase II area into mappable units expected to be significant to seismic modeling. Further refinements of the alluvial units may be possible when seismic data are obtained from SPE Phase II tests. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Environmental factors affecting chemoreceptors: an overview.

    PubMed

    Halpern, B P

    1982-04-01

    Vertebrate olfactory and gustatory receptors are necessarily exposed to the fluid which contains their relevant chemosensory environment. In terrestrial mammals, the nasal airways serve as protective accessory tissues for the olfactory receptors, but tastes receptors in all vertebrates and olfactory receptors in fish are directly exposed to the liquids which bring chemosensory stimuli to them. The differentiated epithelial cells which form taste buds and the specialized neurons which are the vertebrate olfactory receptors are constantly replaced in normal adult animals, suggesting that chemosensory function per se is damaging to the receptors. Organic and sulfur-containing air pollutants may be among those which adversely affect olfactory receptors, but adequate data are not available. Surfactants and heavy metals can produce physiological and/or morphological damage in gustatory receptors. Some heavy metals are concentrated in saliva, a liquid which interacts closely with taste receptors. A failure to evaluate human chemosensory function in relation to potential chemosensory toxicants accounts for the present inability to specify the incidence of the problem.

  13. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  14. ASSESSING FACTORS THAT AFFECT COPING STRATEGIES AMONG NURSING PERSONNEL

    PubMed Central

    Zyga, Sofia; Mitrousi, Stavroula; Alikari, Victoria; Sachlas, Athanasios; Stathoulis, John; Fradelos, Evangelos; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios; Maria, Lavdaniti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The nursing profession is characterized as one of the most stressful professions. A significant number of international surveys prove that nurses experience anxiety that often is accompanied by intense symptoms that negatively affect their work performance and their psychological mood. Aim: To evaluate the ways of coping in stress adopted by the nursing staff and their relationship with sociodemographic and job characteristics. Methodology: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted in seven hospitals of Peloponnese Region, Greece. The study took place between April 2013-June 2013 and 395 nurses completed the Ways of Coping questionnaire. Socio-demographic, educational and job characteristics of nurses were, also, recorded. Results: Strategies focused on the problem were adopted to a greater extent more by postgraduate nurses, head nurses, and nurses with greater working experience. Intensive Care Unit nurses mainly adopted the strategy of denial while strategies focused on emotions were mostly adopted by females. Age and marital status did not affect significantly the choice of coping strategies. Conclusions: According to our findings several demographic factors that affect coping in stressful situations can be investigated and such an investigation could offer useful research findings for consideration. PMID:27147924

  15. Geological factors affecting CO2 plume distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Leetaru, H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the lateral extent of a CO2 plume has important implications with regards to buying/leasing pore volume rights, defining the area of review for an injection permit, determining the extent of an MMV plan, and managing basin-scale sequestration from multiple injection sites. The vertical and lateral distribution of CO2 has implications with regards to estimating CO2 storage volume at a specific site and the pore pressure below the caprock. Geologic and flow characteristics such as effective permeability and porosity, capillary pressure, lateral and vertical permeability anisotropy, geologic structure, and thickness all influence and affect the plume distribution to varying degrees. Depending on the variations in these parameters one may dominate the shape and size of the plume. Additionally, these parameters do not necessarily act independently. A comparison of viscous and gravity forces will determine the degree of vertical and lateral flow. However, this is dependent on formation thickness. For example in a thick zone with injection near the base, the CO2 moves radially from the well but will slow at greater radii and vertical movement will dominate. Generally the CO2 plume will not appreciably move laterally until the caprock or a relatively low permeability interval is contacted by the CO2. Conversely, in a relatively thin zone with the injection interval over nearly the entire zone, near the wellbore the CO2 will be distributed over the entire vertical component and will move laterally much further with minimal vertical movement. Assuming no geologic structure, injecting into a thin zone or into a thick zone immediately under a caprock will result in a larger plume size. With a geologic structure such as an anticline, CO2 plume size may be restricted and injection immediately below the caprock may have less lateral plume growth because the structure will induce downward vertical movement of the CO2 until the outer edge of the plume reaches a spill

  16. Factors Affecting Crowded Acuity: Eccentricity and Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from −2.5% to −99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding. PMID:23770657

  17. Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Iriarte, F. B.; Balogh, B.; Momol, M. T.; Smith, L. M.; Wilson, M.; Jones, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if applied on the day of phage application but not if applied 4 or 7 days in advance. Sunlight UV was evaluated for detrimental effects on phage survival on tomato foliage in the field. Phage was applied in the early morning, midmorning, early afternoon, and late evening, while UVA plus UVB irradiation and phage populations were monitored. The intensity of UV irradiation positively correlated with phage population decline. The protective formulation reduced the UV effect. In order to demonstrate direct effects of UV, phage suspensions were exposed to UV irradiation and assayed for effectiveness against bacterial spot of tomato. UV significantly reduced phage ability to control bacterial spot. Ambient temperature had a pronounced effect on nonformulated phage but not on formulated phages. The effects of desiccation and fluorescent light illumination on phage were investigated. Desiccation caused a significant but only slight reduction in phage populations after 60 days, whereas fluorescent light eliminated phages within 2 weeks. The protective formulation eliminated the reduction caused by both of these factors. Phage persistence was dramatically affected by UV, while the other factors had less pronounced effects. Formulated phage reduced deleterious effects of the studied environmental factors. PMID:17259361

  18. Factors which affect mortality in neonatal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Turhan, Esma Ebru; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in newborns. The causative agents may be different in different units and may change in time. It was aimed to examine the microbiological agents leading to sepsis, clinical features and antibiotic resistances in babies with sepsis hospitalized in our unit in a two-year period. Material and Methods: The clinical features, microbiological and laboratory results, antibiotic resistance patterns and mortality rates of the newborns with sepsis followed up in our unit between 2010 and 2011 were examined in the patient record system. Results: 351 babies diagnosed with sepsis among 3219 patients hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit were included in the study. The mean gestational age was found to be 30.1±4.1 weeks, the mean birth weight was found to be 1417.4±759.1 g and the mean hospitalization time was found to be 43.6±34.4 days. Blood cultures were found to be positive in 167 (47.6%) patients, urine cultures were found to be positive in 6 (7.1%) patients and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were found to be positive in 34 (9.6%) cases. Candida grew in 5 patients (2 patients with early-onset sepsis and 3 patients with late-onset sepsis). The most common cause of sepsis was found to be staphylococci (coagulase negative staphylococcus was found in 65 patients (51%) and Staphylococcus aureus was found in 38 patients (39%). 49.6% (n=63) of the gram positive bacteriae and 60% (n=21) of the gram negative bacteriae were resistant to antibiotics. Six (7.1%) of the patients who were infected with these bacteriae were lost. In total 24 babies were lost because of sepsis. The bacteriae which caused to mortality with the highest rate included E. coli, coagulase negative staphylocicci, S. aureus and Klebsiella. Low birth weight, mechanical ventilation and parenteral nutrition were found to be significant risk factors in terms of mortality. Conclusions: Staphylococci were found to be the most common agents

  19. High velocity formability and factors affecting it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehra, Mala Seth

    High velocity forming methods successfully address problems faced in conventional forming techniques. They can be effectively used for forming metals with low formability like aluminum alloys and high strength steel. They can be instrumental is manufacturing of lighter vehicles with higher fuel efficiency. Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is an HVF method that is gaining wide acceptance due to its advantages and scope for commercialization. A number of experimental studies were carried out with EMF with the main goal of exploring fundamentals about material formability at high velocities, which can be used to establish practical design guidelines and to make models of high velocity formability. Thus the main factors that influence high velocity formability-inertia/size effects; changes in constitutive behavior; impact; and dynamic failure modes, were studied mainly with experiments. The role of changes in constitutive behavior in improving formability was studied from existing studies and new theoretical studies involving High velocity Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and through solving an inverse problem of ring expansion. Tube free-expansion experiments were carried out to demonstrate enhanced metal formability even in the absence of die impact. To further establish the significance of inertia, electromagnetic ring free-expansion experiments with rings of different aspect ratios were carried out. A higher aspect ratio sample had better formability in terms of uniform and total elongation and also had fewer necks than a low aspect ratio (more slender) ring at the same velocity. The results clearly demonstrated the influence of sample aspect ratio (dimensions) and hence inertia on high velocity formability. Die impact experiments were carried out with tubes and rings to show the beneficial influence of die arrest of a moving sample. It was revealed that die impact in an appropriate range of velocities can significantly suppress failure and reduce the number of tears and

  20. Clinical trials involving cats: What factors affect owner 1 participation?

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E; Jiamachello, Katrina N; Thomson, Andrea; Lascelles, BDX

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are frequently hindered by difficulty recruiting eligible participants, increasing the timeline and limiting generalizability of results. In veterinary medicine, where proxy enrollment is required, no studies have detailed what factors influence owner participation in studies involving cats. We aimed to investigate these factors through a survey of owners at first opinion practices. The survey was designed using feedback from a pilot study and input from clinical researchers. Owners were asked demographic questions and whether they would, would not, or were unsure about participating in a clinical trial with their cat. They then ranked the importance and influence of various factors on participation using a 5-point Likert-type scale, and incentives from most to least encouraging. A total of 413 surveys were distributed to cat owners at four hospitals, two feline-only and two multi-species; 88.6% were completed. Data for importance and influence factors as well as incentive rankings were analyzed overall, by hospital type, location and whether owners would consider participating. The most influential factors were trust in the organization, benefit to the cat and veterinarian recommendation. Importance and influence factors varied by willingness to participate. Ranked incentives were not significantly different across groups, with “Free Services” ranked highest. This study provides a first look at what factors influence participation in clinical trials with cats. Given the importance placed in the recommendation of veterinarians, continued work is needed to determine veterinarian related factors affecting clinical trial participation. The results provide guidance towards improved clinical trial design, promotion and education. PMID:24938313

  1. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  2. Factors affecting the precision of warfarin treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Britt, R. P.; James, A. H.; Raskino, C. L.; Thompson, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To determine what factors influence the precision of anticoagulant control using warfarin by examining the computerised records of 2207 patients. METHODS: Records from seven district general hospitals were combined and analysed. The precision of anticoagulant control was taken as the absolute deviation of International Normalised Ratio (INR) from target at the most recent determination. This quantity was examined using univariate and multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Deviation of INR from target was continuously distributed, almost symmetrically about a mean of zero. The patients' age and sex had little bearing on control. Patients with a high target INR were more likely to be undertreated, and patients taking higher doses of warfarin were more likely to be overtreated. Previous over- or undertreatment were strongly related to poorer current control. The control of treatment varied substantially among the seven hospitals. One possible cause of this variation was the dose adjustment coefficient: the greater the dose adjustment for a given deviation from target INR, the better was the control achieved. CONCLUSION: Several groups of patients were identified whose control was less satisfactory and in whom anticoagulant treatment needs particular scrutiny: these include patients with a record of previous over- or undertreatment, but not elderly patients in general. The variation in control among hospitals is a source of concern that merits further attention to achieve better uniformity of anticoagulant treatment. Images PMID:1452773

  3. Some Factors Affecting Time Reversal Signal Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevorovsky, Z.; Kober, J.

    Time reversal (TR) ultrasonic signal processing is now broadly used in a variety of applications, and also in NDE/NDT field. TR processing is used e.g. for S/N ratio enhancement, reciprocal transducer calibration, location, identification, and reconstruction of unknown sources, etc. TR procedure in con-junction with nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy NEWS is also useful for sensitive detection of defects (nonlinearity presence). To enlarge possibilities of acoustic emission (AE) method, we proposed the use of TR signal reconstruction ability for detected AE signals transfer from a structure with AE source onto a similar remote model of the structure (real or numerical), which allows easier source analysis under laboratory conditions. Though the TR signal reconstruction is robust regarding the system variations, some small differences and changes influence space-time TR focus and reconstruction quality. Experiments were performed on metallic parts of both simple and complicated geometry to examine effects of small changes of temperature or configuration (body shape, dimensions, transducers placement, etc.) on TR reconstruction quality. Results of experiments are discussed in this paper. Considering mathematical similarity between TR and Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), prediction of signal reconstruction quality was possible using only the direct propagation. The results show how some factors like temperature or stress changes may deteriorate the TR reconstruction quality. It is also shown that sometimes the reconstruction quality is not enhanced using longer TR signal (S/N ratio may decrease).

  4. Factors affecting drug adsorption on beta zeolites.

    PubMed

    Pasti, Luisa; Sarti, Elena; Cavazzini, Alberto; Marchetti, Nicola; Dondi, Francesco; Martucci, Annalisa

    2013-05-01

    The adsorption behaviour of three commonly used drugs, namely ketoprofen, hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol, from diluted aqueous solutions on beta zeolites with different SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (i.e. 25, 38 and 360) was investigated by changing the ionic strength and the pH, before and after thermal treatment of the adsorbents. The selective adsorption of drugs was confirmed by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption capacity of beta zeolites was strongly dependent on both the solution pH and the alumina content of the adsorbent. Such a remarkable difference was interpreted as a function of the interactions between drug molecules and zeolite surface functional groups. Atenolol was readily adsorbed on the less hydrophobic zeolite, under pH conditions in which electrostatic interactions were predominant. On the other hand, ketoprofen adsorption was mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions. For undissociated molecules the adsorption capability increased with the increase of hydrophobicity.

  5. Factors affecting mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M; Ranheim, Birgit; Fosse, Torunn K; Hild, Sophie; Nordgreen, Janicke; Moe, Randi O; Zanella, Adroaldo J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the stability and repeatability of measures of mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets and to examine potentially confounding factors when using a hand held algometer. Study design Descriptive, prospective cohort. Animals Forty-four piglets from four litters, weighing 4.6 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) at 2 weeks of age. Methods Mechanical thresholds were measured twice on each of 2 days during the first and second week of life. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design to test the effects of behavior prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, and repetition within day. The effect of body weight and the interaction between piglet weight and behaviour were also tested. Piglet was entered into the model as a random effect as an additional test of repeatability. The effect of repeated testing was used to test the stability of measures. Pearson correlations between repeated measures were used to test the repeatability of measures. Variance component analysis was used to describe the variability in the data. Results Variance component analysis indicated that piglet explained only 17% of the variance in the data. All variables in the model (behaviour prior to testing, sex, week, day within week, repetition within day, body weight, the interaction between body weight and behaviour, piglet identity) except sex had a significant effect (p < 0.04 for all). Correlations between repeated measures increased from the first to the second week. Conclusions and Clinical relevance Repeatability was acceptable only during the second week of testing and measures changed with repeated testing and increased with increasing piglet weight, indicating that time (age) and animal body weight should be taken into account when measuring mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds in piglets. Mechanical (nociceptive) thresholds can be used both for testing the efficacy of anaesthetics and analgesics, and for assessing hyperalgesia in chronic pain states in research and

  6. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  7. The experience sampling method: Investigating students' affective experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Jayson M.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Improving non-cognitive outcomes such as attitudes, efficacy, and persistence in physics courses is an important goal of physics education. This investigation implemented an in-the-moment surveying technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) [1] to measure students' affective experience in physics. Measurements included: self-efficacy, cognitive efficiency, activation, intrinsic motivation, and affect. Data are presented that show contrasts in students' experiences (e.g., in physics vs. non-physics courses).

  8. Factors That Affect the Academic Success of Foreign Students at Cardinal Stritch University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annor, Peter

    2010-01-01

    There are limited studies in the literature on the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students in the United States. This ex post facto mixed method study investigated the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students at Cardinal Stitch University (CSU), a medium size, private university located in the Midwestern…

  9. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  10. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

  11. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  12. Students' application of a biological concept: Factors affecting consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated factors affecting students' ability to apply consistently the concept of adaptations (i.e., characteristics which suit an organism to its environment). Individual interviews were carried out with 74 Year 10 students, of whom only 47% showed an understanding of the concept. These students were asked to indicate on a list of living and non-living items which ones whould have adaptations. It was found that they were more likely to apply the concept to vertebrates than to other types of living things. In addition, many students appeared to be unable to separate consistently the idea of “adaptations as characteristics” from the other everyday and scientific meanings of the terms “adapt” and “adaptation”.

  13. Motivational and organizational factors affecting implementation of worker safety training.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K

    1994-01-01

    Training is unlikely to affect behavior on the job if the worker views it as unnecessary. This chapter describes types of safety behaviors and training activities, the implementation of safety training, current perspectives on motivation, and other motivational and organizational factors affecting the implementation of worker safety training.

  14. What Factors Affect Response to Ads? A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotzoll, Kim B.

    The concept of "frame of reference" offers a perspective from which to examine the many factors which affect advertising response. The advertiser is interested in affecting two types of overt behavior. First, the individual is induced to select a particular stimulus (the advertisement) from competing stimuli (such as other people, noise,…

  15. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ∼147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n = 856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n = 283), the effect of the ewes’ own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes. PMID:17244755

  16. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  17. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  18. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  19. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  20. Methods of Combinatorial Optimization to Reveal Factors Affecting Gene Length

    PubMed Central

    Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species. PMID:23300345

  1. Methods of combinatorial optimization to reveal factors affecting gene length.

    PubMed

    Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species.

  2. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  3. Factors that Affect Drain Indwelling Time after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Uslukaya, Ömer; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Gümüş, Metehan; Bozdağ, Zübeyir; Yılmaz, Ahmet; Gümüş, Hatice; Kaya, Şeyhmus; Gül, Mesut

    2016-01-01

    Objective The most common procedure to prevent seroma formation, a common complication after breast and axillary surgery, is to use prophylactic surgical drains. Ongoing discussions continue regarding the ideal time for removing drains after surgical procedures. In this study, we aimed to investigate factors that affect drain indwelling time (DIT). Materials and Methods From 2014 to 2015, a total of 91 consecutive patients with breast cancer were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of the patients, treatment methods, histopathologic features of the tumor, size of removed breast tissue (BS), tumor size (TS), number of totally removed lymph nodes (TLN), and metastatic lymph nodes (MLN), whether they had neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the DIT were retrospectively recorded from the hospital database. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years, and the mean DIT was 4.8 days. The mean size of breast removed was 17.3 cm and tumor size was 4.7 cm, and the mean number of metastatic lymph nodes was 3.3, and mean total number of lymph nodes was 14.1. Patients who had neoadjuvant chemotherahpy had longer DIT. There was a positive correlation between the BS, TS, TLN, MLN, length of hospital stay, and DIT. Linear regresion analysis revealed that the BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy were independent risk factors for DIT. Conclusion DIT primarily depends on BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy. A policy for the management of removing drains to prevent seroma formation should thus be individualized.

  4. [Additional administration of dutasteride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who did not respond sufficiently to α1-adrenoceptor antagonist : investigation of clinical factors affecting the therapeutic effect of dutasteride].

    PubMed

    Masuda, Mitsunobu; Murai, Tetsuo; Osada, Yutaka; Kawai, Masaki; Kasuga, Jun; Yokomizo, Yumiko; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Nakamura, Mami; Noguchi, Go

    2014-02-01

    We performed additional administration of dutasteride in patients who did not respond sufficiently to α1-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (LUTS/BPH). Among 76 registered patients, efficacy was analyzed in 58 patients. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), subscores for voiding and storage symptoms and quality of life (QOL) on the IPSS, and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) were all significantly improved from the third month of administration compared to the time of initiating additional administration of dutasteride. Additional administration of dutasteride also significantly reduced prostate volume, and residual urine with the exception of the sixth month after administration. Age at initiation of administration and voiding symptom subscore on the IPSS were clinical factors affecting the therapeutic effects of dutasteride. The rate of improvement with treatment decreased with increasing age at initiation of dutasteride administration, and increased as voiding symptom subscore on the IPSS increased. Therefore, additional administration of dutasteride appears useful for cases of LUTS/BPH in which a sufficient response is not achieved with α1-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment. Because patients who have severe voiding symptoms or begin dutasteride at an early age may be expected to respond particularly well to dutasteride in terms of clinical efficacy, they were considered to be suitable targets for additional administration.

  5. Are organisational factors affecting the emotional withdrawal of community nurses?

    PubMed

    Karimi, Leila; Leggat, Sandra G; Cheng, Cindy; Donohue, Lisa; Bartram, Timothy; Oakman, Jodi

    2016-12-05

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of work organisation on the emotional labour withdrawal behaviour of Australian community nurses.Methods Using a paper-based survey, a sample of 312 Australian community nurses reported on their emotional dissonance, withdrawal behaviours (i.e. job neglect, job dissatisfaction, stress-related presenteeism) and work organisation. A model to determine the partial mediation effect of work organisation was developed based on a literature review. The fit of the proposed model was assessed via structural equation modelling using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS; IMB).Results Community nurses with higher levels of emotional dissonance were less likely to be satisfied with their job and work organisation and had a higher tendency to exhibit withdrawal behaviours. Work organisational factors mediated this relationship.Conclusion Emotional dissonance can be a potential stressor for community nurses that can trigger withdrawal behaviours. Improving work organisational factors may help reduce emotional conflict and its effect on withdrawal behaviours.What is known about the topic? Although emotional labour has been broadly investigated in the literature, very few studies have addressed the effect of the quality of work organisation on nurses' withdrawal behaviours in a nursing setting.What does this paper add? This paper provides evidence that work organisation affects levels of emotional dissonance and has an effect on job neglect through stress-related presenteeism.What are the implications for practitioners? In order to minimise stress-related presenteeism and job neglect, healthcare organisations need to establish a positive working environment, designed to improve the quality of relationships with management, provide appropriate rewards, recognition and effective workload management and support high-quality relationships with colleagues.

  6. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3(-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3(-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3(-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time.

  7. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3−) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3− addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3− and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  8. The Factors Affecting Pain Pattern after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the factors that affect pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods From June 2009 to October 2010, 210 patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair operations. Of them, 84 patients were enrolled as subjects of the present study. The evaluation of postoperative pain was conducted by visual analog scale (VAS) scores during postoperative outpatient interviews at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. The factors that were thought to affect postoperative pain were evaluated by dividing into three categories: preoperative, operative, and postoperative. Results Pain after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery showed a strictly decreasing pain pattern. In single analysis and multiple regression tests for factors influencing the strictly decreasing pain pattern, initial VAS and pain onset were shown to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.012, 0.012, 0.044 and 0.028, respectively). With regard to the factors influencing lower than average intensity pain pattern for each period, the stiffness of internal rotation at 3 months postoperatively was shown to be a statistically significant factor in single and multiple regression tests (p = 0.017 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions High initial VAS scores and the acute onset of pain affected the strictly decreasing postoperative pain pattern. Additionally, stiffness of internal rotation at postoperative 3 months affected the higher than average intensity pain pattern for each period after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:25436062

  9. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  10. Statistical Analysis of the Different Factors Affecting the Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Qamruz; Khan, Imtiaz

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The response variable for the study was the recovery time of diarrhea. The results of the analysis show that the Zinc is the main factor which affect the recovery time in Peshawar. PMID:23408274

  11. Factors Affecting the Clearance and Biodistribution of Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery systems (5−250 nm) have the potential to improve current disease therapies because of their ability to overcome multiple biological barriers and releasing a therapeutic load in the optimal dosage range. Rapid clearance of circulating nanoparticles during systemic delivery is a critical issue for these systems and has made it necessary to understand the factors affecting particle biodistribution and blood circulation half-life. In this review, we discuss the factors which can influence nanoparticle blood residence time and organ specific accumulation. These factors include interactions with biological barriers and tunable nanoparticle parameters, such as composition, size, core properties, surface modifications (pegylation and surface charge), and finally, targeting ligand functionalization. All these factors have been shown to substantially affect the biodistribution and blood circulation half-life of circulating nanoparticles by reducing the level of nonspecific uptake, delaying opsonization, and increasing the extent of tissue specific accumulation. PMID:18672949

  12. Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of liposomal drugs.

    PubMed

    Song, Gina; Wu, Huali; Yoshino, Keisuke; Zamboni, William C

    2012-09-01

    Various attempts to increase the therapeutic index of the drug while minimizing side effects have been made in drug delivery systems. Among several promising strategies, liposomes represent an advanced technology to target active molecules to the site of action. Rapid clearance of circulating liposomal drugs administered intravenously has been a critical issue because circulation time in the blood affects drug exposure at the target site. The clinical use of liposomal drugs is complicated by large intra- and interindividual variability in their pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Thus, it is important to understand the factors affecting the PK/PD of the liposomal formulation of drugs and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the variability in the PK/PD of liposomal drugs. In this review article, we describe the characteristics of liposome formulations and discuss the effects of various factors, including liposome-associated factors, host-associated factors, and treatment on the PK/PD of liposomal agents.

  13. Ethnic and other factors affecting birthweight in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S; Cole, T J

    1989-08-01

    Data on 1800 term babies, 600 from each of the Chinese, Malay and Indian racial groups, were used to identify the factors affecting birthweight in Singapore. After adjustment for gestation, maternal height and other variables, the mean Indian birthweight was 100 g less than for the Chinese (P less than 0.001), 0.001), while the Malays averaged 33 g less than the Chinese. The shortfall in Indian birthweight is thought to be due, at least partly, to environmental factors.

  14. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  15. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  16. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of School Bond Elections in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lode, Marlin D.

    In spite of a nationwide concern for the crumbling infrastructure of school buildings, the prospects of passing bond issues to repair or replace buildings are elusive. This study examined positive and negative factors that affected the outcomes of school bond elections in four purposefully-selected school districts in Iowa. Variables that…

  17. Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Hisayo

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

  18. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  19. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  20. Industry Training: The Factors that Affect Demand. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, A.; Roberts, P.; Noble, C.; Hayton, G.; Thorne, E.

    A study was conducted in Australia, to determine the factors that affect demand for job training. The study consisted of 30 detailed industry case studies, an industry analysis, and a literature review. Each case study examined current training practices, training decision making in the business, and the determinants of training for the…

  1. Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilday, Carolyn R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

  2. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  3. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  4. Factors Affecting Training Effectiveness in Synchronous, Dispersed Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    report will consider both pedagogies but will be constrained to dispersed applications with synchronous modes of interaction (Figure 3). Where relatable ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT FACTORS AFFECTING TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS IN SYNCHRONOUS, DISPERSED...VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS By: William Spears June 2014 Advisors: Kathryn Aten, Marco DiRenzo Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

  5. Selected Factors Affecting the Performance Assessment of Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Scott

    1990-01-01

    This study determined whether nontraditional assessment factors (principal's gender, choice of subject matter for demonstrating competence, or years of teacher experience) would affect elementary teachers' scores when completing the Leon County (Florida) Teacher Assessment Process. Principal's gender and subject selected were significant…

  6. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  7. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  8. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  9. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  10. Factors Affecting the Demand for Congregate Meals at Nutrition Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Jon E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined factors affecting attendance by elderly persons at 660 congregate meal sites. Results showed that measures of the quality of services provided (method of food preparation, type of building used, presence of other nutrition programs in the community) predicted attendance more than conventional demographic measures of need. (WAS)

  11. Factors Affecting the Employability of Vocational Bookkeeping Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxner, Lois Ann

    To identify factors which affect the entry-level employability of high school vocational bookkeeping students, the study conducted: (1) a followup of vocational bookkeeping graduates, (2) a business and industry survey, and (3) help-wanted advertisement analysis. Data were collected for each of these areas from the entire population of 107…

  12. Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to…

  13. Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Stephanie E.

    2010-01-01

    Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

  14. Factors Affecting Use of Environmental Services by the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwigsen, Gail

    The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factors affecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…

  15. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  16. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  17. Students Perceptions on Factors That Affect Their Academic Performance: The Case of Great Zimbabwe University (GZU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapuranga, Barbra; Musingafi, Maxwell C. C.; Zebron, Shupikai

    2015-01-01

    Some educators argue that entry standards are the most important determinants of successful completion of a university programme; others maintain that non-academic factors must also be considered. In this study we sought to investigate open and distance learning students' perceptions of the factors affecting academic performance and successful…

  18. Factors Affecting the Supply of Recent College Graduates in New England. Policy Brief 09-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief investigates factors affecting New England's supply of recent college graduates and how those factors have changed over time, and suggests steps that states might take to expand this source of skilled labor. (Contains 3 figures.) [This brief summarizes analysis in NEPPC research report 08-1: "The Future of the Skilled Labor…

  19. Factors Affecting Learners' Attention to Teacher Talk in Nine ESL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    With classroom observation and stimulated recall interviews as research instruments, the present study investigated some of the factors that affected learners' attention to teacher talk in nine English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms. The results revealed five such factors, namely, learners' self evaluation of their language knowledge, the…

  20. Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

  1. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  2. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  3. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-17

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display.

  4. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  5. Investigating RNA editing factors from trypanosome mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Aphasizheva, Inna; Zhang, Liye; Aphasizhev, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial U-insertion/deletion mRNA editing is carried out by two principal multiprotein assemblies, enzymatic RNA editing core (RECC) and RNA editing substrate binding (RESC) complexes, and a plethora of auxiliary factors. An integral part of mitochondrial gene expression, editing receives inputs from primary mRNA and gRNA precursor processing pathways, and generates substrates for mRNA polyadenylation and translation. Although nearly all RECC-embedded enzymes have been implicated in specific editing reactions, the majority of proteins that populate the RESC are also essential for generating edited mRNAs. However, lack of recognizable motifs in RESC subunits limits the prowess of bioinformatics in guiding biochemical experiments and elucidating their specific biological functions. In this chapter, we describe a generic workflow for investigating mitochondrial mRNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei and focus on several methods that proved instrumental is assigning definitive functions to editing factors lacking known signature sequences. PMID:27020893

  6. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Muaed Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

  7. Factors Affecting Teachers' Continuation of Technology Use in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the continuation of technology use in science and mathematics teaching of the teachers who attended a professional development program between 2010 and 2012. Continuation of technology use was hypothesized to be affected by the professional development program and by personal, institutional, and…

  8. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…

  9. Factors Affecting Probabilistic Judgements in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the origins and nature of intuitive obstacles affecting the learning of elementary probability theory, 618 Italian elementary and middle school students were interviewed about their methods of solution for several problems dealing with probability. The discussion focuses on four varieties of obstacles to learning prevalent within…

  10. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery. PMID:25734051

  11. Factors affecting cold-induced hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Shechtman, O; Fregly, M J; Papanek, P E

    1990-12-01

    A 3- to 4-week exposure of rats to a cold environment (5 +/- 2 degrees C) induces hypertension, including elevation of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures and cardiac (left ventricular) hypertrophy. The studies described here were designed to investigate some factors affecting both the magnitude and the time course for development of cold-induced hypertension. The objective of the first study was to determine whether there was an ambient temperature at which the cold-induced elevation of blood pressure did not occur. The objective of the second experiment was to determine whether body weight at the time of exposure to cold affected the magnitude and time course for development of hypertension. To assess the first objective, male rats were housed in a chamber whose temperature was maintained at 5 +/- 2 degrees C while others were housed in an identical chamber at 9 +/- 2 degrees C. After 7 days of exposure to cold, the rats exposed to the colder temperature had a significant elevation of blood pressure (140 +/- 2 mm Hg) compared with the group maintained at 9 degrees C (122 +/- 3 mm Hg). The rats exposed to 9 degrees C had no significant elevation of systolic blood pressure at either 27 or 40 days after initiation of exposure to cold. At the latter time, the temperature in the second chamber was reduced to 5 +/- 2 degrees C. By the 25th day of exposure to this ambient temperature, the rats had a significant increase in systolic blood pressure above their levels at 9 degrees C. Thus, there appears to be a threshold ambient temperature for elevation of blood pressure during exposure to cold. That temperature appears to lie somewhere between 5 and 9 degrees C. The second objective was assessed by placing rats varying in weight from approximately 250 to 430 g in air at 5 degrees C. There was a highly significant direct relationship (r = 0.96) between body weight at the time of introduction to cold and the number of days required to increase systolic blood

  12. Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, A. K.; Yeoh, J.; Dorn, J. D.; Caspi, A.; Wuyyuru, V.; McMahon, M. J.; Humayun, M. S.; Greenberg, R. J.; daCruz, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis has been developed to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. Participants were surgically implanted with the system in the United States and Europe in a single arm, prospective, multicenter clinical trial. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which factors affect electrical thresholds in order to inform surgical placement of the device. Methods Electrode–retina and electrode–fovea distances were determined using SD-OCT and fundus photography, respectively. Perceptual threshold to electrical stimulation of electrodes was measured using custom developed software, in which current amplitude was varied until the threshold was found. Full field stimulus light threshold was measured using the Espion D-FST test. Relationships between electrical threshold and these three explanatory variables (electrode–retina distance, electrode–fovea distance, and monocular light threshold) were quantified using regression. Results Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between electrical threshold and electrode–retina distance (R2 = 0.50, P = 0.0002; n = 703 electrodes). 90.3% of electrodes in contact with the macula (n = 207) elicited percepts at charge densities less than 1 mC/cm2/phase. These threshold data also correlated well with ganglion cell density profile (P = 0.03). A weaker, but still significant, inverse correlation was found between light threshold and electrical threshold (R2 < 0.52, P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling indicated that electrode–retina distance and light threshold are highly predictive of electrode threshold (R2 = 0.87; P < 0.0005). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that while light threshold should be used to inform patient selection, macular contact of the array is paramount. Translational Relevance Reported Argus II clinical study results are in good agreement with prior in vitro and in vivo studies

  13. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  14. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    PubMed

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  15. Literature review of factors affecting continence after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pacik, Dalibor; Fedorko, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the most common cause of stress urinary incontinence (UI) in men. Several anatomic structures affect or may affect urinary continence - urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle, puboprostatic ligaments, bladder neck, endopelvic fascia, neurovascular bundle - and understanding of the anatomy of pelvic floor and urethra is crucial for satisfactory functional outcome of the procedure. Surgical techniques implemented to improve continence rates include nerve-sparing procedure, bladder neck preservation/plication, urethral length preservation, musculofascial reconstruction, puboprostatic ligaments preservation or seminal vesicle preservation. Perioperative (preoperative and postoperative) pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) aims to shorten the duration of postoperative UI and thus, improve early continence rates postoperatively. In the review, complex information regarding anatomical, intra- and perioperative factors affecting urinary continence after RP is provided, including description of important anatomical structures, possible implications for surgical technique and evaluation of different PFMT strategies in perioperative period. PMID:28042624

  16. Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

  17. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  18. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content. PMID:26114113

  19. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors.

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Salih, Bilal; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit; Bolshoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  20. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  1. Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

  2. 75 FR 62634 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number...

  3. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number...

  4. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies.

  5. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L. |

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  6. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine.

  7. Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2015-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for <0.05% of the total variance. In the analysis of 1,431,938 truncated records, the effects of dystocia and twinning rate were very similar but less than 50% of the effects found in the analysis of complete records. Pregnancy at the truncation date increased expected herd-life by 432d. The correlation between actual herd-life and predicted herd-life based on truncated records was 0.44. Genetic correlations between the truncated records and actual herd-life were 0.75 for records truncated after 6mo but approached unity for records truncated after 3 yr. The genetic correlations of herd-life with first-parity milk

  8. Factors affecting the pursuit of academic careers among dermatology residents.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Lisa L; Wen, Ge; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-04-01

    There is a shortage of academic dermatologists in the United States. This study aimed to examine characteristics of US dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing academic dermatologists. Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected; these data were correlated with the ratio of graduating full-time faculty members to estimated total number of graduates for each respective program. Results emphasize that the ratio of faculty to residents and the number of full-time faculty publications may represent key factors by which residency programs can increase their graduation of academic dermatologists.

  9. Factors Affecting Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Performance and Reproducibility

    SciTech Connect

    Moller-Holst S.

    1998-11-01

    Development of fuel cells is often based on small-scale laboratory studies. Due to limited time and budgets, a minimum number of cells are usually prepared and tested, thus, conclusions about improved performance are often drawn from studies of a few cells. Generally, statistics showing the significance of an effect are seldom reported. In this work a simple PEM fuel cell electrode optimization experiment is used as an example to illustrate the importance of statistical evaluation of factors affecting cell performance. The use of fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of cells that have to be studied is also addressed.

  10. Factors affecting the presence of ochratoxin A in wines.

    PubMed

    Blesa, J; Soriano, J M; Moltó, J C; Mañes, J

    2006-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) are synthesized mainly by different species of Aspergillus and Penicillium being its human toxicological effects reflected in different countries due to the consumption of different foods and beverages such as red, white, rose, and special wines. This review presents an overview of the direct (meteorological conditions, grape cultivation, and wine-making techniques) and indirect (latitude, year of production, use of pesticides, presence of spoilage microorganisms, conditions of storage of the harvested grapes, type of maceration, and conditions of fermentation), factors affecting the presence of OTA in wines.

  11. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A). Additionally, the resistance depends on the type of conductor. Resistance R can be thus be expressed as R = ρL/A, where ρ is the resistivity of the conductor.

  12. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Calcite and Picocyanobacteria in Lakes: Factors Affecting Their Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, M.; Obst, M.; Mavrocordatos, D.

    2003-12-01

    Calcites build large deposits which have been observed in the rock record throughout geological time at various localities around the globe. Carbonate deposits have affected atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. As it has been generally accepted, inorganic precipitation represents a source of carbon dioxide on short geological time scales and a sink of inorganic carbon at long time scales from millions to thousands of millions years. However, recent research indicates that calcite deposits may result from microbial calcification instead of inorganic precipitation. In this case the process may reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide on geologically short time scales. Thus the effect of carbonate sediment deposition on global carbon cycling depends on the origin of carbonate. Thus it is essential to understand the cause and the key parameters affecting calcite precipitation. The role of algae and bacteria in calcite formation in lakes has not been evaluated in detail. Some evidence, however, exists supporting precipitation of calcium carbonate by microbes as the origin of whiting. Several field studies on lakes have also produced puzzling results: The peaks of algal blooms were often not found at the same time as precipitation events of calcite. We suspect that parts of the discrepancies in the interpretation of field observations are due to the activity of autotrophic picoplankton. The unicellular autotrophic picoplankton (APP) is a ubiquitous component of pelagic ecosystems. But it has often been overlooked due to its small cell size of 0.2 - 2 μ m in diameter. Coccoid picocyanobacteria of the Synechococcus-type dominate the picoplankton community in most oligotrophic systems. Recently, laboratory experiments and field observations suggested that APP may play an important role in calcite precipitation. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of environmental factors such as saturation state, concentration of different dissolved ions and characteristics of

  14. Vestibular rehabilitation strategies and factors that affect the outcome.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, Anna; Skalidi, Nikoleta; Velegrakis, Georgios A

    2012-11-01

    Ever since the introduction of Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, vestibular rehabilitation (VR) has been gaining popularity in the treatment of the dizzy patient. Numerous studies support the effectiveness of VR in improving balance/walking skills, eye-head coordination and the quality of life of the patient. Different rehabilitation protocols have been used to treat patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Assessment of the patients' progress is based on the patients' selfperception of dizziness and their functional skills. Factors such as age, medication, time of onset of vertigo and home based VR have been evaluated on their effect on the rehabilitation's outcome. The aim of this review is to evaluate rehabilitation strategies and discuss the factors that affect the outcome.

  15. Factors affecting individual injury experience among petroleum drilling workers.

    PubMed

    Mueller, B A; Mohr, D L; Rice, J C; Clemmer, D I

    1987-02-01

    To identify factors affecting the number of injuries experienced by petroleum drilling workers, we carried out a 44-month incidence density study on a cohort employed in January 1979 on mobile drilling units in the Gulf of Mexico. To control for job-related hazards, we computed a standardized ratio of observed to expected injuries for each worker based on his job history. The effect of personal and work history factors was then examined using analysis of variance. Age, rate of job changes, and rate of rig transfers had independent effects on injury rates. Length of service had little effect when age was controlled. The findings suggest that younger workers under stress such as job change may be more susceptible to injury than older workers, regardless of job. If so, targeted changes in procedures and environment which protect workers of all ages are important alternatives to reliance on supervision and experience in injury reduction.

  16. Evaluation of different factors affecting antimicrobial properties of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Hosseinnejad, Mahmoud; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan as one of the natural biopolymers with antimicrobial activities could be a good choice to be applied in many areas including pharmaceuticals, foods, cosmetics, chemicals, agricultural crops, etc. There have been many studies in the literature which show this superb polymer is dependent on many factors to display its antimicrobial properties including the environmental conditions such as pH, type of microorganism, and neighbouring components; and its structural conditions such as molecular weight, degree of deacetylation, derivative form, its concentration, and original source. In this review, after a brief explanation of antimicrobial activity of chitosan and its importance, we will discuss the factors affecting the antimicrobial properties of this biopolymer based on recent studies.

  17. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  18. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  19. Factors that affect coseismic folds in an overburden layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shaogang; Cai, Yongen

    2016-12-01

    Coseismic folds induced by blind thrust faults have been observed in many earthquake zones, and they have received widespread attention from geologists and geophysicists. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding fold kinematics; however, few have studied fold dynamics quantitatively. In this paper, we establish a conceptual model with a thrust fault zone and tectonic stress load to study the factors that affect coseismic folds and their formation mechanisms using the finite element method. The numerical results show that the fault dip angle is a key factor that controls folding. The greater the dip angle is, the steeper the fold slope. The second most important factor is the overburden thickness. The thicker the overburden is, the more gradual the fold. In this case, folds are difficult to identify in field surveys. Therefore, if a fold can be easily identified with the naked eye, the overburden is likely shallow. The least important factors are the mechanical parameters of the overburden. The larger the Young's modulus of the overburden is, the smaller the displacement of the fold and the fold slope. Strong horizontal compression and vertical extension in the overburden near the fault zone are the main mechanisms that form coseismic folds.

  20. A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Michael SL

    2014-01-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded “routine” (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay “voluntary” groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  1. A Study of Students' Attitude toward Teachers' Affective Factors in EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranjbar, Nahid Amini; Narafshan, Mehry Haddad

    2016-01-01

    In any teaching-learning situation, teacher plays a significant role in the classroom. This study aimed at investigating the students' attitude toward teachers' affective factors in EFL classrooms. In this study, the students' population was 300 pre-intermediate (based on the institutes' placement test) female EFL students (10 to 25 years old) in…

  2. Personal and Situational Factors Affecting Exercise Involvement: The Importance of Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankel, Leonard M.

    1985-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with participants and dropouts of a male employee fitness program in order to investigate factors affecting involvement. A combination of items pertaining to reactions to the program, initial goals for joining, and social support for the program could effectively discriminate between participants and dropouts. (Author/MT)

  3. Factors Affecting the Academic and Cultural Adjustment of Saudi International Students in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsahafi, Nisreen; Shin, Seong-Chul

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigate factors affecting Saudi students' educational experiences in Australian universities and their adjustment issues. The data comes from the survey of 100 Saudi international students in Sydney and subsequent interviews. The analysis revealed that language proficiency is the main barrier to Saudi students' academic and social…

  4. The Relationships among Adult Affective Factors, Engagement in Science, and Scientific Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Li, Yuh-Yuh; Cheng, Ying-Yao

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among adult affective factors, engagement in science, and scientific competencies. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to select 504 participants between the ages of 18 and 70 years. Data were collected through individual face-to-face interviews. The results of hierarchical regression…

  5. Factors Affecting the Happiness of Urban Elementary School Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenney, Jodiann K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this transformative mixed methods study was to examine the school happiness of upper elementary students in three Connecticut urban demonstration schools. The study examined the differences in students' happiness based on ethnicity, gender, and their interaction. It also investigated the factors that affect students' happiness in…

  6. Factors, Correlates, Problem Areas Affecting Career Decision Making of a Cross-Sectional Sample of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.; And Others

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of the correlates and problem areas affecting career decision making and specifically to test the validity of the O'Neil, Meeker & Borgers' (1978) model. A cross-sectional sample of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students (N=1,436) responded to the Career Factor Checklist (CFC) and…

  7. Factors Affecting Career Choice among Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Larissa; Pellowski, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation assessed the factors affecting career choice among 474 current undergraduate and graduate speech-language pathology and audiology students (from four universities). A 14-item questionnaire was developed that included questions related to general influence of career choice and whether or not the participants had previously been,…

  8. Factors Affecting Individuals' Decisions to Enter Music Teacher Education Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachout, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study is one of the first investigations into the music teacher educator shortage. The purpose was to identify factors that affect music teachers' decisions about entering music education doctoral programs. Practicing music educators, identified as being outstanding candidates for doctoral studies (PME) (n = 22), and recent doctoral…

  9. Factors affecting pheromone production by the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and collection efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...

  10. Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alawneh, Muhammad K.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

  11. Factors Affecting Accent Acquisition: The Case of Russian Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Iliyan, Salman

    2011-01-01

    A debate centers on whether the native accent is acquired early in life or whether it can be acquired at any time. This study investigated factors that may affect native accent acquisition in a second language. Participants in this study were 50 Russians who immigrated to Israel, 17 males and 33 females. Their age on arrival was 5 to 25 years.…

  12. Factors Negatively Affect Speaking Skills at Saudi Colleges for Girls in the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated factors negatively affect English language speaking skills in Saudi colleges for girls in the South in terms of: a) Instructors. b) Students. c) Curriculum and textbook. d) English Language teaching methods and exercises. e) Teaching and learning environment. To collect data for the study, a questionnaire papers were…

  13. Exploring Factors Affecting Students' Continued Wiki Use for Individual and Collaborative Learning: An Extended UTAUT Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Huang, Jo-Yi; Chang, Chueh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors affect students' adaptation and continued use of a Wiki system for collaborative writing tasks through an extension of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). This study was conducted in a general education course in a university in northern Taiwan. Data were…

  14. Factors Affecting the Motivation of Turkish Primary Students for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavas, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Turkish primary students' (sixth to eighth grade) motivation toward science learning was investigated and factors affecting this determined. The sample for the study consisted of 376 students from 5 different primary schools in Izmir. The data were collected through a Students' Motivation toward Science Learning (SMTSL)…

  15. Individual and Technological Factors Affecting Undergraduates' Use of Mobile Technology in University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olufunmilola Ogulande, Oyeronke; Oladimeji Olafare, Festus; Ayuba Sakaba, Dabo

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation and utilization of handheld mobile technology among undergraduates for mobile learning cannot be underestimated. This study was geared towards investigating individual and technological factors affecting the perceived usefulness of mobile technology by undergraduates in university of Ilorin, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive…

  16. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…

  17. [Factors affecting Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica carrier state].

    PubMed

    Krízová, P; Vlcková, J

    1998-12-01

    Invasive meningococcal diseases have become in the Czech Republic since 1993 a serious epidemiological and clinical problem due to a clonus which was not present previously: Neisseria meningitidis C:2a:P1.2,P1.5, ET-15/37. In 1996 a trial was conducted focused on the problem how this altered epidemiological and clinical situation is reflected in carriership of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in the healthy population. Two age groups were followed up which were most severely affected by the new clonus of the meningococcus: 15-19 years (410 subjects) and 1-4 years (116 subjects). The trial was implemented in Olomouc where in 1993 the new epidemiological situation of the incidence of the invasive meningococcal disease was so serious that targeted vaccination was introduced. Of 116 children in the age group from 1-4 years in none Neisseria meningitidis was detected, in 9 Neisseria lactamica was found (7.7%). On repeated examination of children with a positive cultivation of Neisseria lactamica after two weeks in none Neisseria meningitidis nor Neisseria lactamica were found. Of 410 subjects in the age group from 15-19 years in none Neisseria lactamica was detected and in 35 Neisseria meningitidis (8.5%). Examinations were repeated after two weeks in 33 carriers: in 31 Neisseria meningitidis was again cultivated. Analysis of factors influencing carriership revealed in Neisseria lactamica two factors in young children which significantly promote this carriership: cold and close contact/kissing. A risk factor at the limit of significance are frequent respiratory diseases. In the carriership of Neisseria meningitidis in 15-19 year-old subjects six factors were revealed which promote carriership. A significant risk factor is close contact/kissing, the existence of partnership, participation in activities of the "disco" type, living in a town, flats in the centre of the town. Effort is a risk factor at the limit of significance.

  18. An investigation of flow regimes affecting the Mexico City region

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Mexico City region is well-known to the meteorological community for its overwhelming air pollution problem. Several factors contribute to this predicament, namely, the 20 million people and vast amount of industry within the city. The unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City also plays an important role. This basin covers approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (asl) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3500 m asl, with peaks over 5000 m asl. Only to the north is their a significant opening in the mountainous terrain. Mexico City sprawls over 1000 km{sup 2} in the southwestern portion of the basin. In recent years, several major research programs have been undertaken to investigate the air quality problem within Mexico City. One of these, the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI), conducted in 1990--1993, was a cooperative study between researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute. As part of this study, a field campaign was initiated in February 1991 during which numerous surface, upper air, aircraft, and LIDAR measurements were taken. Much of the work to date has focused upon defining and simulating the local meteorological conditions that are important for understanding the complex photochemistry occurring within the confines of the city. It seems reasonable to postulate, however, that flow systems originating outside of the Mexico City basin will influence conditions within the city much of the time.

  19. Factors affecting sequestration and bioavailability of phenanthrene in soils

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.; Kelsey, J.W.; Hatzinger, P.B.; Alexander, M.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine factors affecting the sequestration and changes in bioavailability as phenanthrene persists in soils. Phenanthrene became sequestered in seven soils differing appreciably in organic matter and clay content as measured by earthworm uptake, bacterial mineralization, or extractability. Phenanthrene also became sequestered as it aged in soil aggregates of various sizes as measured by decline in availability to a bacterium, a mild extractant, or both. Wetting and drying a soil during aging reduced the amount of phenanthrene recovered by a mild extractant and the rate and extent of bacterial mineralization of the hydrocarbon. After biodegradation of phenanthrene added to the soil, more of the compound remained if it had been aged than if it had not been aged. Wetting and drying the soil during aging further increased the amount of phenanthrene remaining after biodegradation. The rate and extent of bacterial mineralization of phenanthrene were less in leached than in unleached soil. Aging/sequestration is thus markedly affected by soil properties and environmental factors.

  20. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  1. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in legumes.

    PubMed

    Wong, S; Traianedes, K; O'Dea, K

    1985-07-01

    In an attempt to understand the mechanism for the extremely slow rate of digestion and absorption of carbohydrate from legumes, we have examined a number of factors which could potentially affect the process in vitro. The rate of hydrolysis of legume starch in vitro was not affected by the presence of fat (as either butter or an emulsion). However, it was significantly increased in commercially available canned bean preparations, suggesting that the high temperatures used in the canning process may alter the availability of starch in legumes. In vitro starch hydrolysis rate was also significantly increased by grinding legumes finely prior to cooking. Finally, the slow rate of digestion and absorption of legume carbohydrate does not appear to be due to viscosity since a) increasing the shaking rate of viscous mixture of either red kidney beans or lentils from 0 to 120 oscillations per minute did not affect the hydrolysis rate, and b) a thick viscous mixture of either of these legumes did not retard the diffusion of free glucose from a dialysis sac into the dialysate.

  2. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  3. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  4. 77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third... for transmitting its report to the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third Country Markets....

  5. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

    2014-05-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  6. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  7. A preliminary investigation of affective interaction in chronic pain couples.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Ayna Beate; Cano, Annmarie

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the extent to which affective marital interaction related to depressive symptoms in persons with chronic pain and their spouses and to pain severity in persons with pain. Couples from the community completed self-report surveys and engaged in a videotaped conversation on a topic of mutual disagreement that was coded for three affect types (i.e., anger/contempt, sadness, humor). Humor was positively related to marital satisfaction in both partners. Spouse anger/contempt and sadness were positively related to depressive symptoms in spouses. Several significant interaction effects between couple pain status (i.e., whether one or both partners reported pain) and affect also emerged. Specifically, sadness in the participant designated as the person with pain was associated with greater depressive symptoms and pain severity when only he or she reported pain whereas sadness was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less pain severity when both partners reported pain. The relationships between spouse anger and spouse depressive symptoms and between spouse humor and pain severity in the person with pain were also moderated by couple pain status. These exploratory findings can be interpreted in light of emotion regulation and pain empathy theories. For example, partners who have not experienced pain themselves may fail to empathize with persons in pain, thus preventing effective emotion regulation. When both spouses report chronic pain, expressions of negative affect may instead promote emotion regulation because the affect is experienced with a spouse who may be more empathetic.

  8. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  9. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    PubMed

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring.

  10. Needs of Hemodialysis Patients and Factors Affecting Them

    PubMed Central

    Xhulia, Dhima; Gerta, Jaku; Dajana, Zefaj; Koutelekos, Ioannis; Vasilopoulou, Chrysoula; Skopelitou, Margitsa; Polikandrioti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Of this study was to explore the needs of hemodialysis patients and the factors that affect them. Material & Methods: The sample of the study included 141 patients undergoing hemodialysis. Data collection was performed by the method of interview using a specially designed questionnaire which served the purposes of the study. The needs were grouped into six categories. Patients were asked to answer how important was for them each of the statements in the questionnaire. Furthermore, there were collected socio-demographic characteristics, information on health status and relations with the physicians and nurses, as well as data on the incidence of the disease in their social life. Results: The results of this study showed that patients evaluated as fairly important all six categories of their needs, with similar results in both sexes. Age was found to be statistically significantly associated with ’the need for support and guidance’, ’the need to be informed’ and ’the need to meet the emotional and physical needs’, (p=0.023, p=0.012, p=0.028 respectively). Education level was found to be statistically significantly associated with all patients’ needs with the exception of ’the need to trust the medical and nursing staff’, (p=<0.05). Place of residence was statistically significantly associated with ’the need for support and guidance’, (p=0.029). Furthermore, difficulties in relations with family members was found to be statistically significantly associated with ’the need for support, the need for communication and individualization of care’, (p=0.014, p=0.040, p=0.041). After multivariate analysis, however, it was shown that the only independent factor affecting ’the need for support and guidance’, ’the need for individualized care’ and ’the need to meet the emotional and physical needs’, was if the patients reported themselves as anxious or not (p=0,024, p=0,012 and p=0,004, respectively). In particular, patients who

  11. A key genetic factor for fucosyllactose utilization affects infant gut microbiota development

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Takahiro; Yahagi, Kana; Mori, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hoshitaka; Hara, Taeko; Tajima, Saya; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yamada, Takuji; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota development influences infants' health and subsequent host physiology. However, the factors shaping the development of the microbiota remain poorly understood, and the mechanisms through which these factors affect gut metabolite profiles have not been extensively investigated. Here we analyse gut microbiota development of 27 infants during the first month of life. We find three distinct clusters that transition towards Bifidobacteriaceae-dominant microbiota. We observe considerable differences in human milk oligosaccharide utilization among infant bifidobacteria. Colonization of fucosyllactose (FL)-utilizing bifidobacteria is associated with altered metabolite profiles and microbiota compositions, which have been previously shown to affect infant health. Genome analysis of infants' bifidobacteria reveals an ABC transporter as a key genetic factor for FL utilization. Thus, the ability of bifidobacteria to utilize FL and the presence of FL in breast milk may affect the development of the gut microbiota in infants, and might ultimately have therapeutic implications. PMID:27340092

  12. Motivational factors and negative affectivity as predictors of alcohol craving.

    PubMed

    Pombo, Samuel; Luísa Figueira, M; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto

    2016-09-30

    Craving is thought to play an important role in alcohol use disorders. The recent inclusion of "craving" as a formal diagnostic symptom calls for further investigation of this subjective phenomenon with multiple dimensions. Considering that alcohol-dependent patients compensate negative physical/emotional states with alcohol, the aim of this study is to investigate alcohol craving and its correlation with drinking measures and affective personality dimensions. A sample of 135 alcohol-dependent patients (104 males and 31 females) was collected from a clinical setting. Subjects self-rated their cravings (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) and the stage of change. Several personality scales were also administered. Craving was related to drinking status, abstinence time, age, and taking steps. After controlling for these conditions, psychological characteristics related to low self-concept, neuroticism, cyclothymic affective temperament, depression, and hostility were found to be predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients. Our results support craving as a component of the phenomenology of alcohol dependence and highlight the presence of unpleasant feelings as predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients without co-occurring psychiatric conditions. The predisposition to experience negative emotions may induce a stronger craving response and increase the likelihood of a first drink and a subsequent loss of control.

  13. Personality Factors Affecting Pilot Combat Performance: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    collected by personnel from Metrica , Inc., under Contract F33615-91-D-0010 (Delivery Order 0005) sponsored by the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory. The...authors would like to thank ’their colleagues at Metrica for their contributions to . this effort; in particular, Mr John Quebe and Mr Martin Dittmar...aircrew combat performance. San Antonio TX: Metrica Inc. 7 . Dolgin, D.L., & Gibb, G.D. (1988). Personality assessment in aviator selection (NAMRL

  14. An Initial Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Schmidt, H. G. Computer Experience and Computer Anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior 2003, 19, 785-797. Bluedorn, A. C.; Kalliath, T. J.; Strube...Training. Computers in Human Behavior 2002, 18, 241-255. Salthouse, T. A. Influence of Experience on Age Differences in Cognitive Functioning... Computers in Human Behavior 1999, 15, 227-242. Todman, J.; Drysdale, E. Effects of Qualitative Differences in Initial and subsequent Computer

  15. Investigating Factors Affecting the Uptake of Automated Assessment Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreher, Carl; Reiners, Torsten; Dreher, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Automated assessment is an emerging innovation in educational praxis, however its pedagogical potential is not fully utilised in Australia, particularly regarding automated essay grading. The rationale for this research is that the usage of automated assessment currently lags behind the capacity that the technology provides, thus restricting the…

  16. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  17. Factors Affecting Work Load in General Practice—II

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, G. N.; McNay, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The second part of a survey studying factors that affect a general practitioner's work load considers the effects of age, sex, social class and time on list. Women, the old, and the young created the most work for the doctor and his paramedical team. Patients in the lower social classes also generated more work, even though a larger proportion of the higher social classes used the resources of the general practice—and more fully. Newly-registered patients generated slightly more work than the more permanent residents. Not only the size of a doctor's list, therefore, but also the demographic features of the community should be taken into account in determining the size and structure of the general-practice team needed for an area. PMID:4819157

  18. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  19. Factors affecting Brucella spp. blood cultures positivity in children.

    PubMed

    Apa, Hurşit; Devrim, Ilker; Memur, Seyma; Günay, Ilker; Gülfidan, Gamze; Celegen, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuri; Karaarslan, Utku; Bağ, Ozlem; Işgüder, Rana; Oztürk, Aysel; Inan, Seyhan; Unal, Nurrettin

    2013-03-01

    Brucella infections have a wide spectrum of symptoms especially in children, making the diagnosis a complicated process. The gold standard for the final diagnosis for brucellosis is to identify the Brucella spp. isolated from blood or bone marrow cultures. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the factors affecting the isolation of Brucella spp. from blood cultures. In our study, the ratio of fever, presence of hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In addition, C-reactive protein levels and liver function enzymes were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In our opinion, while evaluating the febrile child with suspected Brucella infection, we highly recommend sampling blood cultures regardless of the history of previous antimicrobial therapy and duration of the symptoms.

  20. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-02-22

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  1. Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

  2. Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: a review.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Rachana; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2006-09-01

    Solidification/stabilization is accepted as a well-established disposal technique for hazardous waste. As a result many different types of hazardous wastes are treated with different binders. The S/S products have different property from waste and binders individually. The effectiveness of S/S process is studied by physical, chemical and microstructural methods. This paper summarizes the effect of different waste stream such as heavy metals bearing sludge, filter cake, fly ash, and slag on the properties of cement and other binders. The factors affecting strength development is studied using mix designs, including metal bearing waste alters the hydration and setting time of binders. Pore structure depends on relative quantity of the constituents, cement hydration products and their reaction products with admixtures. Carbonation and additives can lead to strength improvement in waste-binder matrix.

  3. Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

    2014-09-01

    The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area.

  4. Investigation of Various Essential Factors for Optimum Infrared Thermography

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Keiji; TAKEMURA, Kei; SATO, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of the eye circle, rectum temperature and ambient temperature. Also, the surface temperature of the flank at different time points after eating was examined. The best conditions of thermography for cattle clinics were determined and were as follows: (1) The distance between a thermal camera and an object should be fixed, and the camera should be set within a 45-degree angle with respect to the objects using the optimum focal length. (2) Factors that affect the camera temperature, such as extreme cold or heat, direct sunshine, high humidity and wind, should be avoided. (3) For the comparison of thermographs, imaging should be performed under identical conditions. If this is not achievable, hairless parts should be used. PMID:23759714

  5. Investigation of various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Okada, Keiji; Takemura, Kei; Sato, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of the eye circle, rectum temperature and ambient temperature. Also, the surface temperature of the flank at different time points after eating was examined. The best conditions of thermography for cattle clinics were determined and were as follows: (1) The distance between a thermal camera and an object should be fixed, and the camera should be set within a 45-degree angle with respect to the objects using the optimum focal length. (2) Factors that affect the camera temperature, such as extreme cold or heat, direct sunshine, high humidity and wind, should be avoided. (3) For the comparison of thermographs, imaging should be performed under identical conditions. If this is not achievable, hairless parts should be used.

  6. Factors Affecting Response to Infertility Treatment: Case of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Peyromusavi, Fatemeh; Barouni, Mohsen; Naderi, Tayebeh; Shahravan, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility affects both women and men in all the countries. Infertility often has profound long-term or short-term impacts on the people involved and puts them at risk of familial and social pressures. According to WHO estimates, between 8% and 12% of all the couples worldwide experience some form of infertility during their reproductive life, i.e. 50–80 million people are affected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to infertility treatment by taking into account factors such as age, hirsutism, menstruation and galactose among women in Kerman. Methodology: Of a total of 300 patient files evaluated 220 cases were flawless, of which the study factors were recorded. These data were estimated by Logit model. The dependent variable was the response to treatment (0 and 1) and the independent variables included age of men and women, hirsutism, menstruation, galactose, duration of the period no preventive measures were used and body mass index. After entering the data, model output was analyzed by using the STATA software. Results: The results showed that of all the model variables, female age (prob=0.0065), menstruation (prob=0.04), hirsutism (prob=0.02), marriage age (in months) (prob=0.02) and BMI were significant and other variables were not significant. McFadden analysis for goodness of fit was 0.92. Conclusion: The study results showed that women should pay more attention to variables such as BMI, menstruation quality (regular and irregular) and aging because clinical disregard of any of the above can have a significant impact on the individual’s fertility. PMID:26234994

  7. Radiation-induced sarcomas of bone: factors that affect outcome.

    PubMed

    Kalra, S; Grimer, R J; Spooner, D; Carter, S R; Tillman, R M; Abudu, A

    2007-06-01

    We identified 42 patients who presented to our unit over a 27-year period with a secondary radiation-induced sarcoma of bone. We reviewed patient, tumour and treatment factors to identify those that affected outcome. The mean age of the patients at presentation was 45.6 years (10 to 84) and the mean latent interval between radiotherapy and diagnosis of the sarcoma was 17 years (4 to 50). The median dose of radiotherapy given was estimated at 50 Gy (mean 49; 20 to 66). There was no correlation between radiation dose and the time to development of a sarcoma. The pelvis was the most commonly affected site (14 patients (33%)). Breast cancer was the most common primary tumour (eight patients; 19%). Metastases were present at diagnosis of the sarcoma in nine patients (21.4%). Osteosarcoma was the most common diagnosis and occurred in 30 cases (71.4%). Treatment was by surgery and chemotherapy when indicated: 30 patients (71.4%) were treated with the intention to cure. The survival rate was 41% at five years for those treated with the intention to cure but in those treated palliatively the mean survival was only 8.8 months (2 to 22), and all had died by two years. The only factor found to be significant for survival was the ability to completely resect the tumour. Limb sarcomas had a better prognosis (66% survival at five years) than central ones (12% survival at five years) (p = 0.009). Radiation-induced sarcoma is a rare complication of radiotherapy. Both surgical and oncological treatment is likely to be compromised by the treatment received previously by the patient.

  8. Factors affecting the valve movements in freshwater unionids

    SciTech Connect

    Pynnoenen, K.S.; Englund, V.P.M.

    1994-12-31

    In order to avoid harmful conditions, freshwater unionids are able to close their valves and to resist extended long periods of complete anoxia. Xenobiotics and diverse abiotic and biotic factors can change the rhythm of valve movements and thus affect the accumulation of heavy metals in these bivalves. When bivalves are used a bioindicators in the field and when the accumulation of toxicants are studied under the laboratory conditions, the effects of valve movements and shell closure have to be involved. In this study, the authors have recorded valve movements of two different unionid species (Anodonta anatina, Unio tumidus) in the field and in the laboratory using a digital monitoring system. Several experimental arrangements were compared (caged mussels vs. sediment dwelling mussels, flow-through vials vs. static aquaria with and without sediment). Some parameters of the mussel hemolymph, such as electrolytes, gases and acid base status, were compared with the results on the valve activity (time with valves open, number of adductions). The natural valve activity of the two unionid species differed clearly. In the field, effects of transfer and caging were found, and in the laboratory, sediment and water flow changed their behavior. The level of the blood oxygen was most affected, whereas, the acid-base status and the concentrations of electrolytes were effectively regulated by the unionids. The correlation between valve movements and the hemolymph parameters was weaker than expected.

  9. Formulation factors affecting acceptability of oral medicines in children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ranmal, Sejal; Batchelor, Hannah K; Orlu-Gul, Mine; Ernest, Terry B; Thomas, Iwan W; Flanagan, Talia; Kendall, Richard; Tuleu, Catherine

    2015-08-15

    Acceptability of medicines in children and caregivers affects safety and effectiveness of medicinal treatments. The pharmaceutical industry is required to demonstrate acceptability of new paediatric formulations in target age groups as an integrated part of the development of these products (Kozarewicz, 2014). Two questions arise when trying to tackle this task: "which dosage form to choose for each target age group?" and "how to formulate it once the dosage form is decided?". Inevitably, both the regulator and the developer turn to scientific evidence for answers. Research has emerged in recent years to demonstrate age-appropriateness and patient acceptability of different dosage forms; however, such information is still fragmented and far from satisfactory to define efficient formulation development strategies for a diverse patient subset (Ranmal and Tuleu, 2013). This paper highlights how formulation factors affect the acceptability of different oral medicines in children (Table 1), and it is based on a more extensive review article by Liu et al. (Liu et al., 2014). Gaps in knowledge are highlighted in order to stimulate further research. In some areas, findings from studies conducted in adult populations may provide useful guidance for paediatric development and this is also discussed.

  10. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    PubMed Central

    Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ≥ 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm). PMID:24379484

  11. Heteroscedastic regression analysis of factors affecting BMD monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Moayyeri, Alireza; Wang, Liqun; Leslie, William D

    2008-11-01

    Identifying factors affecting BMD precision and interindividual heterogeneity in BMD change can help optimize BMD monitoring. BMD change for the lumbar spine and total hip for short-term reproducibility (n = 328) and long-term clinical monitoring (n = 2720) populations were analyzed with heteroscedastic regression using linear prediction for mean (monitoring population only) and log-linear prediction for SD (both populations). For clinical monitoring, male sex, baseline body mass index (BMI), and systemic corticosteroid use were associated with greater SD of BMD change. Weight gain was negatively associated with SD for the hip, whereas height change was positively associated with SD for the spine. Each additional year of monitoring increased the SD by 6.5-9.2%. Osteoporosis treatment affected mean change but did not increase dispersion. For short-term reproducibility, performing scans on a different day increased the SD of measurement error by 38-44%. Baseline BMD, difference in bone area, and a repeat scan performed by different technologists were associated with higher measurement error only for the hip. For both samples, heteroscedastic regression outperformed models that assumed homogeneous variance. Heteroscedastic regression techniques are powerful yet underused tools in analyzing longitudinal BMD data and can be used to generate individualized predictions of BMD change and measurement error.

  12. Factors affecting indoor radon concentrations in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gunby, J A; Darby, S C; Miles, J C; Green, B M; Cox, D R

    1993-01-01

    Data collected in a nationwide study on natural radiation exposure in UK dwellings (Wrixon et al. 1988) were re-analyzed to investigate the effects of rock type and various building and lifestyle characteristics, taken into account simultaneously, on indoor radon concentrations. A multiplicative model which takes into consideration the outdoor radon concentration is used. Indoor radon concentrations were found to be influenced by type of rock underlying the dwelling, double glazing, house type, floor level of rooms in which measurements were taken, window opening habits in the main bedroom, building materials used in the construction of the walls, floor type, and draught proofing. However, these eight factors together account for only 22% of the variation between dwellings. Estimates of the size of the effect associated with each factor are given.

  13. Factors that affect the flow of patients through triage

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Melinda; Brown, Ruth; Wears, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective To use observational methods to objectively evaluate the organisation of triage and what issues may affect the effectiveness of the process. Design A two‐phase study comprising observation of 16 h of triage in a London hospital emergency department and interviews with the triage staff to build a qualitative task analysis and study protocol for phase 2; observation and timing in triage for 1870 min including 257 patients and for 16 different members of the triage staff. Results No significant difference was found between grades of staff for the average triage time or the fraction of time absent from triage. In all, 67% of the time spent absent from triage was due to escorting patients into the department. The average time a patient waited in the reception before triage was 13 min 34 s; the average length of time to triage for a patient was 4 min 17 s. A significant increase in triage time was found when patients were triaged to a specialty, expected by a specialty, or were actively “seen and treated” in triage. Protocols to prioritise patients with potentially serious conditions to the front of the queue had a significantly positive effect on their waiting time. Supplementary tasks and distractions had varying effects on the timely assessment and triage of patients. Conclusions The human factors method is applicable to the triage process and can identify key factors that affect the throughput at triage. Referring a patient to a specialty at triage affects significantly the triage workload; hence, alternative methods or management should be suggested. The decision to offer active treatment at triage increases the time taken, and should be based on clinical criteria and the workload determined by staffing levels. The proportion of time absent from triage could be markedly improved by support from porters or other non‐qualified staff, as well as by proceduralised handovers from triage to the main clinical area. Triage productivity could be

  14. Factors affecting methane production and mitigation in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masaki; Terada, Fuminori

    2010-02-01

    Methane (CH(4)) is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) and that emitted from enteric fermentation in livestock is the single largest source of emissions in Japan. Many factors influence ruminant CH(4) production, including level of intake, type and quality of feeds and environmental temperature. The objectives of this review are to identify the factors affecting CH(4) production in ruminants, to examine technologies for the mitigation of CH(4) emissions from ruminants, and to identify areas requiring further research. The following equation for CH(4) prediction was formulated using only dry matter intake (DMI) and has been adopted in Japan to estimate emissions from ruminant livestock for the National GHG Inventory Report: Y = -17.766 + 42.793X - 0.849X(2), where Y is CH(4) production (L/day) and X is DMI (kg/day). Technologies for the mitigation of CH(4) emissions from ruminants include increasing productivity by improving nutritional management, the manipulation of ruminal fermentation by changing feed composition, the addition of CH(4) inhibitors, and defaunation. Considering the importance of ruminant livestock, it is essential to establish economically feasible ways of reducing ruminant CH(4) production while improving productivity; it is therefore critical to conduct a full system analysis to select the best combination of approaches or new technologies to be applied under long-term field conditions.

  15. The science of cycling: factors affecting performance - part 2.

    PubMed

    Faria, Erik W; Parker, Daryl L; Faria, Irvin E

    2005-01-01

    This review presents information that is useful to athletes, coaches and exercise scientists in the adoption of exercise protocols, prescription of training regimens and creation of research designs. Part 2 focuses on the factors that affect cycling performance. Among those factors, aerodynamic resistance is the major resistance force the racing cyclist must overcome. This challenge can be dealt with through equipment technological modifications and body position configuration adjustments. To successfully achieve efficient transfer of power from the body to the drive train of the bicycle the major concern is bicycle configuration and cycling body position. Peak power output appears to be highly correlated with cycling success. Likewise, gear ratio and pedalling cadence directly influence cycling economy/efficiency. Knowledge of muscle recruitment throughout the crank cycle has important implications for training and body position adjustments while climbing. A review of pacing models suggests that while there appears to be some evidence in favour of one technique over another, there remains the need for further field research to validate the findings. Nevertheless, performance modelling has important implications for the establishment of performance standards and consequent recommendations for training.

  16. Lithium-oxygen batteries-Limiting factors that affect performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padbury, Richard; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2011-05-01

    Lithium-oxygen batteries have recently received attention due to their extremely high theoretical energy densities, which far exceed that of any other existing energy storage technology. The significantly larger theoretical energy density of the lithium-oxygen batteries is due to the use of a pure lithium metal anode and the fact that the cathode oxidant, oxygen, is stored externally since it can be readily obtained from the surrounding air. Before the lithium-oxygen batteries can be realized as high performance, commercially viable products, there are still many challenges to overcome, from designing their cathode structure, to optimizing their electrolyte compositions and elucidating the complex chemical reactions that occur during charge and discharge. The scientific obstacles that are related to the performance of the lithium-oxygen batteries open up an exciting opportunity for researchers from many different backgrounds to utilize their unique knowledge and skills to bridge the knowledge gaps that exist in current research projects. This article is a summary of the most significant limiting factors that affect the performance of the lithium-oxygen batteries from the perspective of the authors. The article indicates the relationships that form between various limiting factors and highlights the complex yet captivating nature of the research within this field.

  17. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  18. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  19. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  20. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  1. Factors affecting the shrinkage of fly ash geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridtirud, Charoenchai; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Pimraksa, Kedsarin

    2011-02-01

    The shrinkage of fly ash geopolymers was studied in the present study. Fly ash was used as the source material for making the geopolymers. The effects of the concentration of NaOH, sodium silicate-to-NaOH ratio, liquid-to-ash ratio, curing temperature, and curing time on shrinkage were investigated. The geopolymers were cured at 25, 40, and 60°C, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of geopolymers is strongly dependent on curing temperature and liquid-to-ash ratio. The increase in shrinkage is associated with the low strength development of geopolymers. It is also found that NaOH concentration and sodium silicate-to-NaOH ratio also affect the shrinkage of geopolymers but to a lesser extent.

  2. Detection of key factors affecting lycopene in vitro accessibility.

    PubMed

    Periago, M J; Bravo, S; García-Alonso, F J; Rincón, F

    2013-04-24

    On the basis of a Plackett-Burman experimental design for a resolution IV level obtained via a foldover strategy, the effect of 11 factors on lycopene in vitro accessibility was investigated. The selected factors were thermal treatment (X1), olive oil addition (X2), gastric pH (X3), gastric digestion time (X4), pepsin concentration (X5), intestinal pH (X6), pancreatin concentration (X7), bile salts concentration (X8), colipase addition (X9), intestinal digestion time (X10), and intestinal digestion speed (X11). Tomato passata was used as a natural source of lycopene. Samples were collected after gastric and intestinal digestion, and from the micellar phase, to quantify the (all-E)-lycopene and its (Z)-isomers by HPLC. Except for X3, X6, X7, and X11, the other factors studied explained lycopene in vitro accessibility, mainly regarding intestinal digestion, with R(2) values ≥ 0.60. Our results showed that the accessibility of lycopene is influenced by the conditions applied during in vitro intestinal digestion.

  3. Factors affecting residual hearing preservation in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, D; Nassif, N; Redaelli de Zinis, L O

    2015-12-01

    The likelihood of residual hearing preservation in cochlear implantation (CI) is related to surgical factors such as type of cochleostomy (trans-fenestral vs. promontorial), use of lubricants and protective drugs, and device-related factors such as shape, length and flexibility of the array. We investigated the impact of these factors on the hearing preservation rate in adults and children with conventional audiological indications to CI. Eighty-two children aged 1-9 years and 73 adults (16-79 years) received a CI in the right (59%) or left ear (41%). An anterior-inferior promontorial cochleostomy was performed in 143 ears (92%); a trans-fenestral approach was used in 12 (8%). A perimodiolar electrode was implanted in 144 ears (93%), and a straight electrode in the remaining 11 (7%). Overall, some post-operative hearing was retained in 39% of ears. The rate of preservation was higher at the low than at the high frequencies. When correlated with age, side of implant, implant model and type of cochleostomy, the mean threshold variations did not reach statistical significance for any of these variables. A slight trend in favour of better residual hearing preservation in children vs. adults was seen, especially at lower frequencies.

  4. Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

    2011-03-01

    An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life.

  5. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a

  6. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  7. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface

  8. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    PubMed

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  9. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct

  10. Factors affecting spontaneous resolution of hematuria in childhood nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Il; Park, Jee Min; Lee, Soon Min; Shin, Youn Ho; Kim, Ji Hong; Lee, Jae Seung; Kim, Myung Joon

    2005-05-01

    To identify factors affecting spontaneous resolution of hematuria in children with nutcracker syndrome, 20 patients diagnosed as having nutcracker syndrome using renal Doppler ultrasound (US) were analyzed retrospectively. Sixteen patients had microscopic hematuria, and four had gross hematuria at presentation. The mean age was 10.6 years (range 2.5-14 years). All underwent a follow-up Doppler US examination after a mean period of 1.4 years (range 0.5-3.5 years) after the first US was performed, and height and weight were measured at the time of US. At the time of follow-up US, hematuria disappeared in 15 patients and improved in 3. The peak velocity (PV) ratios of the left renal vein (LRV) at the follow-up US decreased significantly when compared to the first US examination (7.74+/-2.64 vs 3.50+/-1.09, p<0.0001), and height (147.4+/-20.1 vs 152.3+/-18.8 cm) and weight (36.1+/-10.9 vs 42.3+/-12.7 kg) increased (p<0.0001). Changes in the PV ratios of the LRV correlated positively with changes in the PV at the aortomesenteric portion (r=0.569, p=0.009). Changes in the PV at the aortomesenteric portion correlated negatively with changes in body mass index (BMI) (r=-0.543, p=0.013). Although spontaneous resolution of hematuria in children with nutcracker syndrome is obscure, our findings suggest the increase in BMI may be a possible hemodynamic factor.

  11. Physical Factors Affecting Outflow Facility Measurements in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boussommier-Calleja, Alexandra; Li, Guorong; Wilson, Amanda; Ziskind, Tal; Scinteie, Oana Elena; Ashpole, Nicole E.; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Farsiu, Sina; Challa, Pratap; Gonzalez, Pedro; Downs, J. Crawford; Ethier, C. Ross; Stamer, W. Daniel; Overby, Darryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mice are commonly used to study conventional outflow physiology. This study examined how physical factors (hydration, temperature, and anterior chamber [AC] deepening) influence ocular perfusion measurements in mice. Methods Outflow facility (C) and pressure-independent outflow (Fu) were assessed by multilevel constant pressure perfusion of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6 mice. To examine the effect of hydration, seven eyes were perfused at room temperature, either immersed to the limbus in saline and covered with wet tissue paper or exposed to room air. Temperature effects were examined in 12 eyes immersed in saline at 20°C or 35°C. Anterior chamber deepening was examined in 10 eyes with the cannula tip placed in the anterior versus posterior chamber (PC). Posterior bowing of the iris (AC deepening) was visualized by three-dimensional histology in perfusion-fixed C57BL/6 eyes and by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in living CD1 mice. Results Exposure to room air did not significantly affect C, but led to a nonzero Fu that was significantly reduced upon immersion in saline. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 35°C increased C by 2.5-fold, more than could be explained by viscosity changes alone (1.4-fold). Perfusion via the AC, but not the PC, led to posterior iris bowing and increased outflow. Conclusions Insufficient hydration contributes to the appearance of pressure-independent outflow in enucleated mouse eyes. Despite the large lens, AC deepening may artifactually increase outflow in mice. Temperature-dependent metabolic processes appear to influence conventional outflow regulation. Physical factors should be carefully controlled in any outflow studies involving mice. PMID:26720486

  12. Microflora of Processed Cheese and the Factors Affecting It.

    PubMed

    Buňková, Leona; Buňka, František

    2015-09-11

    The basic raw materials for the production of processed cheese are natural cheese which is treated by heat with the addition of emulsifying salts. From a point of view of the melting temperatures used (and the pH-value of the product), the course of processed cheese production can be considered "pasteurisation of cheese". During the melting process, the majority of vegetative forms of microorganisms, including bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, are inactivated. The melting temperatures are not sufficient to kill the endospores, which survive the process but they are often weakened. From a microbiological point of view, the biggest contamination problem of processed cheese is caused by gram-positive spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Geobacillus and Clostridium. Other factors affecting the shelf-life and quality of processed cheese are mainly the microbiological quality of the raw materials used, strict hygienic conditions during the manufacturing process as well as the type of packaging materials and storage conditions. The quality of processed cheese is not only dependent on the ingredients used but also on other parameters such as the value of water activity of the processed cheese, its pH-value, the presence of salts and emulsifying salts and the amount of fat in the product.

  13. [Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school.

  14. Factors affecting nurses' attitudes toward computers in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Nurten

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting nurses' attitudes toward computers in healthcare. This cross-sectional study was carried out with nurses employed at one state and one university hospital. The sample of the study included 890 nurses who were selected via a purposive sampling method. Data were collected by using a questionnaire for demographic information and Pretest for Attitudes Toward Computers in Healthcare Assessment Scale v.2. The nurses, in general, had positive attitudes toward computers. Findings of the present study showed a significant difference in attitudes for different categories of age (P < .001), marital status (P < .05), education (P < .001), type of facility (P < .01), job title (P < .001), computer science education (P < .01), computer experience (P < .001), duration of computer use (P < .001), and place of use of computer (P < .001). The results of the present study could be used during planning and implementation of computer training programs for nurses in Turkey and could be utilized in improving the participation of Turkish nurses in initiatives to develop hospital information systems and, above all, in developing computerized patient care planning.

  15. Factors affecting the bacteriological contamination of commercial washing machines.

    PubMed

    Legnani, P P; Leoni, E

    1997-10-01

    Wash water from self-service washing machines in three commercial launderettes of Bologna (Italy) were examined to verify which factors affect their bacterial contamination and to determine which procedures in the laundering process have the most significant effects on the removal of bacteria. Four washing formulas were compared: a delicates cycle (programmed temperature 25-30 degrees C; actual temperature: 28-31 degrees C); a whites cycle (programmed temperature: 80-90 degrees C; actual temperature: 50-57.5 degrees C); a delicates cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach safe for delicate fabrics and a whites cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach. Bacterial contamination of washing machines was higher in the launderette most heavely used, and, furthermore, it was in relation with the washing temperature and the use of bleaches. The low temperature laundering cycle (20-30 degrees C) did not guarantee elimination of bacterial content from either the inside of the washing machine or from the fabric being washed. Washing with water at a higher temperature, of about 55 degrees C, or adding an oxygen-based bleach to the low temperature cycle did ensure a significant reduction in bacterial recovery from water samples and fabrics, but did not prevent bacteria such as P. aeruginosa from surviving inside the washing machine. Only the addition of bleaches to the hot water program ensured the almost total elimination of bacteria and also guaranteed their elimination from protected parts of the drum.

  16. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  17. Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.

  18. Factors affecting members' evaluation of agri-business ventures' effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Hedjazi, Yousef

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents work to identify factors affecting effectiveness of agri-business ventures (A-BVs) on the side of providers as perceived by their members. A survey was conducted among 95 members of A-BVs in Zanjan province, Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed. Two distinct groups of A-BVs with low (group 1) and high (group 2) perceived (evaluated) levels of effectiveness were revealed. The study showed that there were significant differences between the two groups on important characteristics of A-BVs and their members. The study also found that there were statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' governance structure and capacity, management and organization characteristics and the perceived effectiveness, whereas there were no statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' advisory methods characteristic applied by members and the perceived effectiveness. Logistic regression results also showed that level of application of rules encouraging members' active participation in important decision makings, clear terms of reference to guide contracting procedures, roles, and responsibilities of parties involved, type of people served and geographical area of program coverage, and members' ability to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) were predictors of the perceived (evaluated) effectiveness of A-BVs. The study showed that evaluation of members of effectiveness of A-BVs would not be the same. It is suggested that Iranian public agricultural extension organization, as responsible organization for monitoring and evaluating services conducted by A-BVs, considered these differences between members with different levels of some important variables.

  19. Investigation of Power Factor Controller Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    16 V’. Auburn Report 16 Pacific Gas and Electric Study 25 San Diego Gas and Electric Study 34 Northern Natural Gas Study 42 6...application. San Diego Gas and Electric Study SDG&E’s testing was primarily to determine the effect the NASA PFC has on power consumption and power...Magdaluyo, and J. D. Huey, Three Phase Power Factor Controller Test (Internal Correspondence)(San Diego Gas and Electric Com- • .’-," pany, December 1981

  20. Organisational factors affecting the quality of hospital clinical coding.

    PubMed

    Santos, Suong; Murphy, Gregory; Baxter, Kathryn; Robinson, Kerin M

    2008-01-01

    The influence of organisational factors on the quality of hospital coding using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) was investigated using a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach. The organisational variables studied were: hospital specialty; geographical locality; structural characteristics of the coding unit; education, training and resource supports for Clinical Coders; and quality control mechanisms. Baseline data on the hospitals' coding quality, measured by the Performance Indicators for Coding Quality tool, were used as an independent index measure. No differences were found in error rates between rural and metropolitan hospitals, or general and specialist hospitals. Clinical Coder allocation to "general" rather than "specialist" unit coding resulted in fewer errors. Coding Managers reported that coding quality can be improved by: Coders engaging in a variety of role behaviours; improved Coder career opportunities; higher staffing levels; reduced throughput; fewer time constraints on coding outputs and associated work; and increased Coder interactions with medical staff.

  1. Examining Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Nuclear Power in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Tzu-Jen

    Nuclear power has become a major issue in Taiwan for several decades. The objective of the present study is to obtain evidence about the major determinants contributing to attitudes toward nuclear power, by investigating socioeconomic factors, environmental attitudes, knowledge of issues, trust, and risk perception, in shaping nuclear attitudes. A face-to-face survey was conducted using paper-based questionnaires from July 2014 to September 2014. Finally, 364 surveys were collected, of which 356 met validation requirements. The findings showed (1) knowledge of issues, trust in university scientists, trust in environmental groups, and risk perception directly influence attitudes toward nuclear power. (2) Risk perception is directly influenced by trust in nuclear authorities, trust in environmental groups, environmental attitudes, and party preference. (3) Gender, age, and party preference directly influence knowledge, trust in nuclear authorities, or trust in university scientists. The potential explanations and implications of findings are discussed.

  2. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital

  3. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  4. Factors affecting breastfeeding duration in Greece: What is important?

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Chrousos, George; Kreatsas, George; Gryparis, Alexandros; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate factors associated with breastfeeding duration (BD) in a sample of mothers living in Greece. METHODS Four hundred and twenty-eight mothers (438 infants) were initially recruited in a tertiary University Hospital. Monthly telephone interviews (1665 in total) using a structured questionnaire (one for each infant) were conducted until the sixth postpartum month. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors influencing any BD. RESULTS Any breastfeeding rates in the first, third, and sixth month of the infant’s life reached 87.5%, 57.0% and 38.75%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, maternal smoking in the lactation period [hazard-ratio (HR) = 4.20] and psychological status (HR = 1.72), and the introduction of a pacifier (HR = 2.08), were inversely associated, while higher maternal education (HRuniversity/college vs primary/high school = 0.53, HRmaster’s vs primary/high school = 0.20), and being an immigrant (HR = 0.35) were positively associated with BD. CONCLUSION Public health interventions should focus on campaigns against smoking during lactation, target women of lower educational status, and endorse the delayed introduction of pacifiers. PMID:27610353

  5. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong

    2016-01-01

    Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers’ online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans’ interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users. PMID:26849568

  6. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing.

    PubMed

    Ko, Minsam; Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong; Lee, Uichin; Jang, Young Jae

    2016-01-01

    Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers' online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans' interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users.

  7. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  8. Curvature affects Doppler investigation of vessels: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Balbis, S; Roatta, S; Guiot, C

    2005-01-01

    In clinical practice, blood velocity estimations from Doppler examination of curved vascular segments are normally different from those of nearby straight segments. The observed "accelerations," sometimes considered as a sort of stochastic disturbances, can actually be related to very specific physical effects due to vessel curvature (i.e., the development of nonaxial velocity [NAV] components) and the spreading of the axial velocity direction in the Doppler sample volume with respect to the insonation axis. The relevant phenomena and their dependence on the radius of curvature of the vessels and on the insonation angle are investigated with a beam-vessel geometry as close as possible to clinical setting, with the simplifying assumptions of steady flow, mild vessel curvature, uniform ultrasonic beam and complete vessel insonation. The insonation angles that minimize the errors are provided on the basis of the study results.

  9. Factors Affecting Scholarly Research among Mass Communications Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Identifies factors that contribute most to productive scholars' success as published researchers. Finds that personal motivation is the strongest factor contributing to an individual researcher's productivity. (RS)

  10. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    PubMed

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P < 0.05). USDA grade did not affect any consumer evaluation traits or Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P > 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving

  11. Experimental factors affecting the robustness of DNA methylation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pharo, Heidi D.; Honne, Hilde; Vedeld, Hege M.; Dahl, Christina; Andresen, Kim; Liestøl, Knut; Jeanmougin, Marine; Guldberg, Per; Lind, Guro E.

    2016-01-01

    Diverging methylation frequencies are often reported for the same locus in the same disease, underscoring the need for limiting technical variability in DNA methylation analyses. We have investigated seven likely sources of variability at different steps of bisulfite PCR-based DNA methylation analyses using a fully automated quantitative methylation-specific PCR setup of six gene promoters across 20 colon cancer cell lines. Based on >15,000 individual PCRs, all tested parameters affected the normalized percent of methylated reference (PMR) differences, with a fourfold varying magnitude. Additionally, large variations were observed across the six genes analyzed. The highest variation was seen using single-copy genes as reference for normalization, followed by different amounts of template in the PCR, different amounts of DNA in the bisulfite reaction, and storage of bisulfite converted samples. Finally, when a highly standardized pipeline was repeated, the difference in PMR value for the same assay in the same cell line was on average limited to five (on a 0–100 scale). In conclusion, a standardized pipeline is essential for consistent methylation results, where parameters are kept constant for all samples. Nevertheless, a certain level of variation in methylation values must be expected, underscoring the need for careful interpretation of data. PMID:27671843

  12. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating

  13. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Powdered Drug Reconstitution in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Johnston, Smith; Marshburn, Tom

    1999-01-01

    standard pharmacological supplies. The experiment included a parametric assessment of possible factors affecting the reconstitution process. The specific questions that we wished to answer were: (1) Is it possible to reconstitute powdered drugs in weightlessness using standard pharmacological equipment? (2) What are the differences between drug reconstitution in a 1-G and a 0-G environment? (3) What techniques of mixing the drug powder and diluent are more successful? (4) What physical and chemical factors play a role in determining the success of mixing and dissolution? (5) Is it necessary to employ crewmember and equipment restraints during the reconstitution process?

  14. Analysis of factors that affect DQE in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamura, Miho; Higaki, Akiko; Kodera, Yoshie

    2005-04-01

    The international standard IEC 62220-1 about DQE measurement of digital X-ray equipment was published in 2003, but mammography systems aren"t applied to this IEC standard because the factor affect measurement is complicated. Especially, the influence to the pre-sampling MTF by edge method when X-ray beam is oblique to detector. The influence of nonuniformity of x-ray intensity by the heel effect on digital Wiener spectrum (WS) doesn"t become clear. A 0.1mm-thick tungsten edge was imaged in the position where X-ray beam was perpendicular to detector plane and in 6cm from chest wall, respectively. And the pre-sampling MTFs were obtained from these edge images. The calculation area of the digital WS within irradiation area was moved in parallel direction to X-ray tube axis, and the digital WS were calculated. The pre-sampling MTFs and the digital WS are calculated by the method based on the IEC proposal. We used MAMMOMAT3000(SIEMENS), MGU-100B(TOSHIBA), M-IV(LORAD) and Senographe DMR+(GE) as X-ray generator. Images were obtained by FCR PROFECT CS (Fujifilm medical). In all equipments and both arrangement directions of the edge test device, pre-sampling MTFs are almost the same, even if the arrangement places of the edge test device varied. In all equipments, when the calculation area was moved about 10cm, the digital WS of the anode side was higher 7.2-17.9% than those of the cathode side. It was found that the dose of anode side was lower about 20% than cathode side from the profile of an exposure image. We think that digital WS modified the nonuniformity of the dose by the heel effect is obtained by multiplying the digital WS by the compensation coefficient obtained by the dose profile, in low spatial frequency.

  15. Factors affecting the cryosurvival of mouse two-cell embryos.

    PubMed

    Critser, J K; Arneson, B W; Aaker, D V; Huse-Benda, A R; Ball, G D

    1988-01-01

    A series of 4 experiments was conducted to examine factors affecting the survival of frozen-thawed 2-cell mouse embryos. Rapid addition of 1.5 M-DMSO (20 min equilibration at 25 degrees C) and immediate, rapid removal using 0.5 M-sucrose did not alter the frequency (mean +/- s.e.m.) of blastocyst development in vitro when compared to untreated controls (90.5 +/- 2.7% vs 95.3 +/- 2.8%). There was an interaction between the temperature at which slow cooling was terminated and thawing rate. Termination of slow cooling (-0.3 degrees C/min) at -40 degrees C with subsequent rapid thawing (approximately 1500 degrees C/min) resulted in a lower frequency of blastocyst development than did termination of slow cooling at -80 degrees C with subsequent slow thawing (+8 degrees C/min) (36.8 +/- 5.6% vs 63.9 +/- 5.7%). When slow cooling was terminated between -40 and -60 degrees C, higher survival rates were achieved with rapid thawing. When slow cooling was terminated below -60 degrees C, higher survival rates were obtained with slow thawing rates. In these comparisons absolute survival rates were highest among embryos cooled below -60 degrees C and thawed slowly. However, when slow cooling was terminated at -32 degrees C, with subsequent rapid warming, survival rates were not different from those obtained when embryos were cooled to -80 degrees C and thawed slowly (52.4 +/- 9.5%, 59.5 +/- 8.6%). These results suggest that optimal cryosurvival rates may be obtained from 2-cell mouse embryos by a rapid or slow thawing procedure, as has been found for mouse preimplantation embryos at later stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Factors affecting the cerebral network in brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Heimans, Jan J; Reijneveld, Jaap C

    2012-06-01

    Brain functions, including cognitive functions, are frequently disturbed in brain tumor patients. These disturbances may result from the tumor itself, but also from the treatment directed against the tumor. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy all may affect cerebral functioning, both in a positive as well as in a negative way. Apart from the anti-tumor treatment, glioma patients often receive glucocorticoids and anti-epileptic drugs, which both also have influence on brain functioning. The effect of a brain tumor on cerebral functioning is often more global than should be expected on the basis of the local character of the disease, and this is thought to be a consequence of disturbance of the cerebral network as a whole. Any network, whether it be a neural, a social or an electronic network, can be described in parameters assessing the topological characteristics of that particular network. Repeated assessment of neural network characteristics in brain tumor patients during their disease course enables study of the dynamics of neural networks and provides more insight into the plasticity of the diseased brain. Functional MRI, electroencephalography and especially magnetoencephalography are used to measure brain function and the signals that are being registered with these techniques can be analyzed with respect to network characteristics such as "synchronization" and "clustering". Evidence accumulates that loss of optimal neural network architecture negatively impacts complex cerebral functioning and also decreases the threshold to develop epileptic seizures. Future research should be focused on both plasticity of neural networks and the factors that have impact on that plasticity as well as the possible role of assessment of neural network characteristics in the determination of cerebral function during the disease course.

  17. Factors affecting in vitro maturation of alpaca (Lama paco) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Leisinger, Ca; Coffman, Ea; Coutinho da Silva, Ma; Forshey, Bs; Pinto, Crf

    2014-11-10

    The present study utilized a 2×2×2 factorial design examining age (old vs. young), follicle size (≥2mm vs. <2mm) and media supplementation (with or without fetal bovine serum [FBS]) to determine factors that might affect in vitro maturation of alpaca oocytes. We hypothesized that oocytes collected from follicles ≥2mm from young alpacas and incubated in maturation media supplemented with FBS would have greater maturation rates than those incubated in any other factorial combination. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of 11 young alpacas (<10 years old) and 14 old alpacas (>11 years old). Oocytes were classified as morphologically normal oocytes (MNO) and deemed suitable for incubation if ≥3 compact layers of cumulus cells and a homogeneous, evenly granulated cytoplasm were observed. Oocytes from each group of follicle sizes were incubated separately and halves of each group were randomly divided and incubated 24h in chemically defined maturation media with or without 10% FBS. Maturation was defined as the visualization of a polar body at the end of the incubation period. Overall, a greater proportion of MNO were collected from follicles ≥2mm than that obtained from smaller follicles, 55% (136/247) vs. 29.6% (162/547), respectively (P<0.05). A greater proportion of oocytes reached maturation when collected from ≥2mm follicles 36% (49/136) than from <2mm follicles 8% (13/162) (P<0.05). For oocytes obtained from ≥2mm follicles of old alpacas, a greater proportion reached maturation when incubated in media supplemented with FBS than when incubated without FBS; 57.6% (19/33) vs. 18.2% (6/33), respectively (P<0.05).

  18. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

    2013-04-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife.

  19. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

  20. Factors affecting gestation length in the Thoroughbred mare.

    PubMed

    Davies Morel, M C G; Newcombe, J R; Holland, S J

    2002-12-16

    In order to assist in the accurate prediction of the timing of parturition in the mare true gestation length, along with the potential effect of a number of factors, was investigated. Data from 433 Thoroughbred foal pregnancies were used. Sequential ultrasonic scanning allowed the true gestation length (fertilisation-parturition) to be ascertained, as apposed to previous work, which used the mating-parturition interval. An average gestation length of 344.1 +/- 0.49 days was evident. Colt foal pregnancies were significantly (P < 0.001) longer (346.2 +/- 0.72) than fillies (342.4 +/- 0.65). Month of birth had a significant effect on gestation length in all foals (P < 0.001). With foals born in January having the shortest gestation lengths and those born in April the longest. Mare age, year of birth, stallion age, stud farm and the interval between ovulation and mating had no significant effect. It is concluded that (i) the gestation length range (315-388 days), all resulting in viable foals is noteworthy and of clinical importance when considering the classification of dysmaturity in foals, (ii) mares carrying colt foals due to be born in the middle of the breeding season (April) are likely to have the longer gestation lengths.

  1. Factors Affecting the Intensity of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported that is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of coronal holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

  2. Investigating Learner Affective Performance in Web-Based Learning by Using Entrepreneurship as a Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ming-Chou; Chi, Ming-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    In the era of the Internet, factors which influence effective learning in a Web-based learning environment are well worth exploring. In addition to knowledge acquisition and skills training, affect is also an important factor, since successful learning requires excellent affective performance. Thus this study focuses on learners' affective…

  3. Factors Affecting Nurse Supply and Demand: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    This article addresses the nursing shortage from an economic standpoint by exploring supply and demand factors that influence the availability of nurses. Demand factors include payment mechanisms, cost containment, and availability of substitutes. Supply factors include the women's movement, labor force participation, and entry-level preparation.…

  4. Factors affecting student performance in an undergraduate genetics course.

    PubMed

    Bormann, J Minick; Moser, D W; Bates, K E

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some of the factors that affect student success in a genetics course. Genetics for the Kansas State University College of Agriculture is taught in the Department of Animal Sciences and Industry and covers Mendelian inheritance, molecular genetics, and quantitative/population genetics. Data collected from 1,516 students over 7 yr included year and semester of the course; age; gender; state of residence; population of hometown; Kansas City metro resident or not; instructor of course; American College Testing Program (ACT) scores; number of transfer credits; major; college; preveterinary student or not; freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior grade point average (GPA); semester credits when taking genetics; class standing when enrolled in genetics; cumulative GPA before and after taking genetics; semester GPA in semester taking genetics, number of semesters between the biology prerequisite and genetics; grade in biology; location of biology course; and final percentage in genetics. Final percentage in genetics did not differ due to instructor, gender, state of residence, major, or college (P > 0.16). Transfer students tended to perform better than nontransfer students (P = 0.09), and students from the Kansas City metro outscored students from other areas (P = 0.03). Preveterinary option students scored higher in genetics than non-preveterinary students (P < 0.01). Seniors scored higher than juniors and sophomores, who scored higher than freshmen (P < 0.02). We observed a tendency for students with higher grades in biology to perform better in genetics (P = 0.06). Students who took biology at Kansas State University performed better in genetics than students who transferred the credit (P < 0.01). There was a negative regression of hometown population on score in genetics (P < 0.01), and positive regressions of ACT score, all measures of GPA, course load, and cumulative credits on final percentage in the course (P < 0.02). To

  5. 75 FR 80114 - Agency Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity Under... INFORMATION: Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement (38 CFR 3.204(a)(1), 38 CFR 3.256(a... compensation benefits must report changes in their entitlement factors. Individual factors such as...

  6. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Schöberl, Iris; Wedl, Manuela; Beetz, Andrea; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, p<0.001), whereas owner Agreeableness (NEO-FFI) scaled positively with owner iCV (F = 4.981, p = 0.028). Dogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI) and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT), had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016), as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ) or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ) (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003). We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context) in science and in counselling. PMID:28178272

  7. Exploring Individual and Item Factors that Affect Assessment Validity for Diverse Learners: Results from a Large-Scale Cognitive Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Phoebe C.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Chen, Chen-Su; Emick, Jessica E.

    2006-01-01

    A cognitive lab technique (n=156) was used to investigate interactions between individual factors and item factors presumed to affect assessment validity for diverse students, including English language learners. Findings support the concept of "access"--an interaction between specific construct-irrelevant item features and individual…

  8. Factors Affecting Option Choices Relative to the Uptake of Design and Technology at a Selected Hong Kong International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to identify those factors which affect Year 9 students at Sha Tin College, Hong Kong, as they make option choices at the end of Key Stage 3 (Year 9: age 14). The main focus of the investigation was how these factors influence the selection or rejection of the four subjects offered under the…

  9. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  10. Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated p...

  11. Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Vaccine Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors have the potential to influence the efficacy of Marek's disease (MD) vaccination. Some of these factors include maternal antibody, vaccine dose, age of birds at vaccination or challenge, challenge virus strain and genetic background of chickens. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  12. Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-01-01

    Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

  13. An Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Honors Program Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Hallie; Raehsler, Rod D.; Fiedor, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important issues in any educational environment is identifying factors that promote academic success. A plethora of research on such factors exists across most academic fields, involving a wide range of student demographics, and the definition of student success varies across the range of studies published. The analysis in this…

  14. [Factors affecting the attitude of the Czech population towards induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Weiss, P; Zvĕrina, J

    1998-10-01

    Based on an anonymous questionnaire survey of a representative population group above 15 years of age in the Czech Republic (862 men and 857 women) the authors investigated also sociodemographic factors affecting attitudes of the Czech population to induced abortions. The findings suggest that attitudes of men and women to induced abortions do not differ essentially in any of the investigated criteria. The size of domicile does not affect the attitudes substantially. The most restrictive views are expressed by respondents of the oldest age group (above 60 years) and respondents of the youngest age group (15-17 years). The liberal attitude to induced abortions increases with the educational level. Religious belief has a marked effect on restrictive attitudes to abortions, nevertheless among catholic subjects only 7% male and female respondents expressed refused induced abortions unequivocally.

  15. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Yassin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I) axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake), correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM). Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term 'IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc' was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report.

  16. Environmental and nutritional factors affecting geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, I M; Schrader, K K; Blevins, W T

    2001-04-01

    A cyanobacterium isolated from a source-water reservoir during a spring odor and taste episode and identified as Anabaena sp. consistently produced geosmin during laboratory culture on modified BG-11 liquid medium. Maximal geosmin/biomass occurred at 20 degrees C and a light intensity of 17 microE/m2/s; geosmin/chla values directly correlated with increasing light intensity (r2 = 0.95, P < 0.01). It was concluded that at 20 degrees C, increasing light intensity favors less chla synthesis and higher geosmin synthesis; at 17 microE/m2/s, increasing temperature stimulates chla production (to 25 degrees C) while repressing geosmin synthesis (above 20 degrees C). Nutritional factors promoting biomass, chla, and geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp. were also investigated. For cultures grown at 17 microE/m2/s and 20 degrees C for 20 days, both ammonium-N and nitrate-N generally enhanced the growth of Anabaena sp. Nitrate-N promoted more chla production (r2 = 0.99) than ammonium-N. Geosmin synthesis was directly correlated with ammonium-N concentrations (r2 = 0.89), with low nitrate-N (123.5 micrograms/l) favoring maximal geosmin production (2.8 micrograms/l). Increasing nitrate-N concentrations promoted a three-fold increase in chla content with geosmin synthesis decreased by two-fold. Geosmin/mg biomass was directly related to ammonium-N concentration; high nitrate-N levels suppressed geosmin production. No geosmin was detected at or below 118 micrograms phosphate-phosphorus/l. Geosmin, dry weight biomass, and chla production were correlated with increasing phosphorus (P) concentration (r2 = 0.76, 0.96 and 0.98, respectively). No geosmin was detected when copper was present in growth media at or above 6.92 micrograms Cu2+/l (CuSO4.5H2O). Dry weight biomass and chla production were negatively correlated with Cu2+ ion concentrations.

  17. Factors That Affect Academic Performance Among Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita

    2006-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. Methods A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Results Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Conclusion Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year. PMID:17149433

  18. Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs.

  19. Factors Affecting the Inclusion Potency for Acicular Ferrite Nucleation in High-Strength Steel Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yongjoon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Kang, Joo-Hee; Lee, Changhee

    2016-06-01

    Factors affecting the inclusion potency for acicular ferrite nucleation in high-strength weld metals were investigated and the contribution of each factor was qualitatively evaluated. Two kinds of weld metals with different hardenabilities were prepared, in both, MnTi2O4-rich spinel formed as the predominant inclusion phase. To evaluate the factors determining the inclusion potency, the inclusion characteristics of size, phase distribution in the multiphase inclusion, orientation relationship with ferrite, and Mn distribution near the inclusion were analyzed. Three factors affecting the ferrite nucleation potency of inclusions were evaluated: the Baker-Nutting (B-N) orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion; the formation of an Mn-depleted zone (MDZ) near the inclusion; and the strain energy around the inclusion. Among these, the first two factors were found to be the most important. In addition, it was concluded that the increased chemical driving force brought about by the formation of an MDZ contributed more to the formation of acicular ferrite in higher-strength weld metals, because the B-N orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion was less likely to form as the transformation temperature decreased.

  20. Genetic and epigenetic factors affecting meiosis induction in eukaryotes revealed in paramecium research.

    PubMed

    Prajer, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This review presents studies of the induction of meiosis undertaken on the ciliate Paramecium, a unicellular model eukaryotic organism. Meiosis in Paramecium, preceding the process of fertilization, appears in starved cells after passing a defined number of divisions (cell generations), starting from the last fertilization. Investigations were performed on clones of cells entering autogamy, a self-fertilization process. Genetic as well as epigenetic factors, i.e. endo- and exogenous factors, affecting the induction ofmeiosis and changing the duration of the interautogamous interval (IAI), were analyzed. The results show that: (1) Meiosis induction is controlled genetically by the somatic macronucleus. However, besides the nuclear factors, the cytoplasmic protein immaturin also affects this process (Haga & Hiwatashi 1981); (2) Epigenetic factors, such as non-genetically disturbed cytoskeleton structures and changes in the cell architecture observed in doublet Paramecium cells, exert internal mechanical stress (Ingber 2003), which constitutes the endogenous impulse accelerating meiosis; (3) Mild osmotic stress, acting as an exogenous factor, can initiate the specific MAP kinases signaling pathway resulting in earlier meiosis induction, as in other unicellular eukaryotes (Seet & Pawson 2004).

  1. Major psychological factors affecting acceptance of gene-recombination technology.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yutaka

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of a causal model that was made to predict the acceptance of gene-recombination technology. A structural equation model was used as a causal model. First of all, based on preceding studies, the factors of perceived risk, perceived benefit, and trust were set up as important psychological factors determining acceptance of gene-recombination technology in the structural equation model. An additional factor, "sense of bioethics," which I consider to be important for acceptance of biotechnology, was added to the model. Based on previous studies, trust was set up to have an indirect influence on the acceptance of gene-recombination technology through perceived risk and perceived benefit in the model. Participants were 231 undergraduate students in Japan who answered a questionnaire with a 5-point bipolar scale. The results indicated that the proposed model fits the data well, and showed that acceptance of gene-recombination technology is explained largely by four factors, that is, perceived risk, perceived benefit, trust, and sense of bioethics, whether the technology is applied to plants, animals, or human beings. However, the relative importance of the four factors was found to vary depending on whether the gene-recombination technology was applied to plants, animals, or human beings. Specifically, the factor of sense of bioethics is the most important factor in acceptance of plant gene-recombination technology and animal gene-recombination technology, and the factors of trust and perceived risk are the most important factors in acceptance of human being gene-recombination technology.

  2. The Importance of Social Learning Environment Factors for Affective Well-Being among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idsoe, Ella Maria Cosmovici

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether perceived inclusion and exclusion with peers at school, as well as self-reported bullying exposure, affected positive and negative affect among 1161 students from grades five through seven. Positive affect was significantly, but only weakly, affected by perceived exclusion and inclusion. Negative affect was not related to…

  3. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  4. Factors, Correlates, Emotional Barriers Affecting Career Decisions of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.; And Others

    The correlates of career choice and the problem areas affecting career decisions are important to counseling psychologists. They are important to understanding the complexities of vocational behavior, facilitating differential treatment in counseling, and developing preventive career programs for men, women, and special groups. The effects of the…

  5. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  6. Factors Affecting Willingness to Communicate in a Spanish University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahuerta, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013.…

  7. Affective and Cognitive Factors Related to Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pamela V.; Higbee, Jeanne L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study that explores the relationship between affective variables and mathematics achievement among high-risk students enrolled in developmental-mathematics courses. Finds that time taken from traditional instruction in college algebra to encourage persistence and problem-solving skills enhances spatial visualization, promotes…

  8. Factors Affecting Item Difficulty in English Listening Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Pei-Ju; Lin, Su-Wei; Hung, Pi-Hsia

    2015-01-01

    Task difficulty is a critical issue affecting test developers. Controlling or balancing the item difficulty of an assessment improves its validity and discrimination. Test developers construct tests from the cognitive perspective, by making the test constructing process more scientific and efficient; thus, the scores obtained more precisely…

  9. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING METHANE GAS RECOVERY FROM SIX LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot study of six U.S. landfills that have methane (CH4) gas recovery systems. NOTE: The study was a first step in developing a field testing program to gather data to identify key variables that affect CH4 generation and to develop an empirical mod...

  10. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  11. Synopsis of discussion session on physicochemical factors affecting toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, R.J.; Bills, T.D.; Clark, J.R.; Hansen, D.J.; Knezovich, J.; Hamelink, J.L.; Landrum, P.F.; Bergman, H.L.; Benson, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    The paper documents the workshop discussion regarding the role of these factors in altering toxicity. For each factor, the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of its empirical relation to the toxicity of various chemicals or chemical classes is discussed. Limitations in the empirical database regarding the variety of species and endpoints tested were addressed. Possible mechanisms underlying the empirical relations are identified. Finally, research needed to better understand these effects is identified.

  12. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 ??l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose-response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this

  13. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  14. Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E.

    1996-12-31

    Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect on energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.

  15. Influence factors affecting career choice of preclinical medical technology students.

    PubMed

    Gleich, C

    1978-06-01

    Over a seven-year period, data were gathered on 249 declared medical technology majors enrolled in an Introduction to Medical Technology course at the University of Iowa. The Kendall Tau C test for significance (p = less than .05) was utilized in determining the influence of several variables or factors in the students' choice of medical technology as a career. Such factors as the type of work, demand for medical technologists, and desire to help people were found to be highly motivating factors in choice. It appeared the motivation was primarily internalized with assistance sought from various sources. The decision of medical technology as a career was predominantly made in the junior/senior year in high school or freshman/sophomore year in college.

  16. Research on Outer Factor Affecting the Freezing of Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji; Une, Hiroshi; Tanogashira, Ken'ichi; Tojiki, Akira

    In relation to the problem of supercooling for ice storage devices, various kinds of experiments were carried out to find some factors which control the supercooling phenomenon. Convection due to rotating solid in water, stirring, vibration, shock, rubbing glass with glass in water and collision of solid in water were selected as outer factors. It was found that factors such as convection, stirring, vibration, non-contacting shock have no effect on freezing supercooled water. They seem to be just adding some positive energy to water. On the other hand, collision or rubbing between solids or solid and liquid surface helps supercooled water to freeze. We believe that making water molecules closer to each other, whose motion were restricted by solid or liquid surface, induce the growth of ice embryo.

  17. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  18. The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

  19. Psychological Factors Affecting Rehabilitation and Outcomes Following Elective Orthopaedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, David C; Everhart, Joshua S; Glassman, Andrew H

    2015-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgery often requires many months of rehabilitation to achieve a successful outcome, regardless of subspecialty. Several important psychological factors strongly influence pain perceptions, rehabilitation compliance, and patient outcomes after common orthopaedic surgeries that require extensive rehabilitation, including total joint arthroplasty, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and spine surgery for degenerative disease. Early recognition of patients exhibiting psychological distress, fear-avoidance behavior, or poor perceived self-efficacy or pessimistic personality traits can be used to improve preoperative risk stratification for poor rehabilitation or surgical outcomes. Several intervention strategies exist to address these psychological factors when they appear to contribute suboptimal postoperative rehabilitation or recovery.

  20. Evaluation of factors affecting resolution of shallow water bottom features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, C. C.; Norris, D. R.; Browne, I. D.

    1972-01-01

    To ensure good aerial photography, the effects that factors such as submergence depth, sun angle, film and filter type, exposure, aircraft altitude, and polarization have on the photographic resolution of an underwater object must be determined. Various subjects were photographed, such as the deck of a small submersible, colored and gray scale panels, and natural bottom features. No underwater resolution target was used.

  1. Factors Affecting Computer Anxiety in High School Computer Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayek, Linda M.; Stephens, Larry

    1989-01-01

    Examines factors related to computer anxiety measured by the Computer Anxiety Index (CAIN). Achievement in two programing courses was inversely related to computer anxiety. Students who had a home computer and had computer experience before high school had lower computer anxiety than those who had not. Lists 14 references. (YP)

  2. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  3. Students' Perceptions of Factors that Affect College Funding Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…

  4. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  5. Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

  6. Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Students' Learning with Erroneous Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopp, Eric; Stark, Robin; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of diagnostic competence is seen as a major goal during the course of study in medicine. One innovative method to foster this goal is problem-based learning with erroneous worked examples provided in a computer learning environment. The present study explores the relationship of attitudinal, emotional and cognitive factors for…

  7. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident. PMID:23012183

  10. Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrignola, Matt Nolan

    2010-01-01

    What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…

  11. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  12. Factors Affecting the Shape of Current-Potential Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloy, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Voltammetry, the fundamental electrochemical experiment, is the measurement of the current which flows at an electrode as a function of the potential applied to the electrode. Such an experiment is discussed, focusing on factors which influence the shape of the current potential curve. (JN)

  13. Some External Factors Which Might Affect L2 Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentric, Dragica

    Yugoslav elementary school students of English as a second language were the subjects of a longitudinal study to determine factors influencing the acquisition of correct English pronunciation. The students were tested for their ability to articulate 32 sounds within ten specific English words. The test was administered each year from the second…

  14. Factors Affecting Teachers' Participation in Professional Development Activities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between factors (internal [personal] and external [environmental]) and teachers' participation in professional development (PD) programs in Turkey. The researcher employed a survey design, using a multiple-stage sampling method, selecting 30 out of 66 elementary schools in the Center…

  15. Factors affecting the development of lung function in Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Y; Pariès, J; Harrabi, I; Zbidi, A; Tabka, Z; Richalet, J P; Buvry, A

    2008-01-01

    We undertook to evaluate the impacts of morphology at birth, physical activity, anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors on lung function in healthy Tunisian children. Pulmonary function parameters were measured with a Minato portable spirometer in a randomized population of 756 healthy children (388 males and 368 females) aged between 6 and 16. The morphology at birth, the gestational age, the physical activity, the socioeconomic status, the type of habitation, and the environmental factors were all assessed by a standard questionnaire. Using univariate analysis, we found that: (1) morphometric parameters (height, weight, maximal inspiratory, and expiratory perimeter), as well as sex were highly associated with pulmonary function parameters; (2) Height at birth showed strong significant relations with FVC, FEV(1), and FEV(1)/FVC; (3) lung function parameters were influenced by physical training of our children, socioeconomic status, indoor pollution, and passive smoking; and (4) we did not observe any association between the gestational age and the weight at their birth and lung function parameters. Using a general linear model analysis, morphometric parameters, age, sex, type of heating, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory perimeters had significant relation with respiratory parameters. In our population of healthy Tunisian children, the main predictive factors of the pulmonary development were the morphological factors such as height, weight, maximal inspiratory, and expiratory thoracic perimeter, sex and age, and the environmental conditions such as type of heating but not morphology at birth, physical activity, or socioeconomic status.

  16. Factors Affecting Completion of Apprenticeship Training in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambin, Lynn; Hogarth, Terence

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines factors that are associated with the probability of completion of apprenticeship programmes by individual learners in England. Data are from the 2008/2009 academic year Individualised Learner Record--the administrative database containing information on all learners in the Further Education system in England. The analysis…

  17. Factors Affecting the Success of Hmong College Students in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Soua; Lam, Sarah K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEPOSITION OF INHALED POROUS DRUG PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Recent findings indicate that the inhalation of large manufactured porous particles may be particularly effective for drug delivery. In this study, a mathematical model was employed to systematically investigate the effects of particle size, particle density, aerosol ...

  19. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran's national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit.

  20. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release.

  1. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M. Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es. PMID:27513636

  2. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults.

    PubMed

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es.

  3. Factors affecting the dynamic response of the seated subject.

    PubMed

    Pope, M H; Broman, H; Hansson, T

    1990-06-01

    An impact method, combined with pins placed into the spinous process at L3, has been used to establish the dynamic response of the spine of the seated subject. The resonant frequency is at 4-5 Hz, due primarily to a vertical response of the buttocks-pelvis system. A maximum attenuation at 8 Hz occurs because of a second resonance due to pelvic rotation. The attenuation is also affected by additional load and by the addition of a helmet. Neck braces have no dynamic effect.

  4. Environmental factors that can affect sleep and breathing: allergies.

    PubMed

    Kent, David T; Soose, Ryan J

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis and associated symptomatic nasal obstruction negatively affect sleep through a variety of mechanisms and may contribute to persistent symptoms and poor adherence with medical device therapy for sleep apnea. A history of sinonasal symptoms, particularly those that occur at night or in the supine position, is the cornerstone of the medical evaluation. Further research into the relationship between allergic rhinitis and sleep disturbance would benefit from improved anatomic and pathophysiologic phenotyping as well as more advanced outcome measures such as spectral electroencephalogram analysis or other polysomnography variables beyond the apnea-hypopnea index.

  5. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    MORALES, LEO S.; LARA, MARIELENA; KINGTON, RAYNARD S.; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; ESCARCE, JOSÉ J.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review. PMID:12407964

  6. Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Morales, Leo S; Lara, Marielena; Kington, Raynard S; Valdez, Robert O; Escarce, José J

    2002-11-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher porverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review.

  7. Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds.

  8. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    SciTech Connect

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  9. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    SciTech Connect

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  10. Host Factors That Affect Ty3 Retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Michael; Irwin, Becky; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Chen, Eric; Garrus, Jennifer; Sandmeyer, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    The retrovirus-like element Ty3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrates at the transcription initiation region of RNA polymerase III. To identify host genes that affect transposition, a collection of insertion mutants was screened using a genetic assay in which insertion of Ty3 activates expression of a tRNA suppressor. Fifty-three loci were identified in this screen. Corresponding knockout mutants were tested for the ability to mobilize a galactose-inducible Ty3, marked with the HIS3 gene. Of 42 mutants tested, 22 had phenotypes similar to those displayed in the original assay. The proteins encoded by the defective genes are involved in chromatin dynamics, transcription, RNA processing, protein modification, cell cycle regulation, nuclear import, and unknown functions. These mutants were induced for Ty3 expression and assayed for Gag3p protein, integrase, cDNA, and Ty3 integration upstream of chromosomal tDNAVal(AAC) genes. Most mutants displayed differences from the wild type in one or more intermediates, although these were typically not as severe as the genetic defect. Because a relatively large number of genes affecting retrotransposition can be identified in yeast and because the majority of these genes have mammalian homologs, this approach provides an avenue for the identification of potential antiviral targets. PMID:15579677

  11. Recommended for release on recognizance: factors affecting pretrial release recommendations.

    PubMed

    Petee, T A

    1994-06-01

    Researchers have acknowledged the influence of pretrial release agencies in judicial decision making regarding bail; however, few researchers have focused on the process used by the pretrial release agencies to make bail-bond recommendations. In this study I sought to establish which factors were most salient in making the decision to recommend a defendant for release on recognizance. I found that both officially sanctioned release criteria and "extralegal" variables were predictive of this decision.

  12. Review of factors affecting sustainability in the universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajilian, Hosna

    Understanding the factors which influence adopting sustainability practices in IHE is an important issue to develop more effective sustainability's methods and policies. The focus of this research is to find out a meaningful relationship between adopting sustainability practices and some of the characteristics of institutions of higher education (IHE). IHE can be considered as the best place to promote sustainability and develop the culture of sustainability in society. Thus, this research is conducted to help developing sustainability in IHE which have significant direct and indirect impact on society and the environment. First, the sustainability letter grades were derived from "Greenreportcard.org" which have been produced based on an evaluation of each school in nine main categories including: Administration, Climate Change & Energy, Food & Recycling, etc. In the next step, the characteristics of IHE as explanatory variables were chosen from "The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System" (IPEDS) and respective database was implemented in STATA Software. Finally, the "ordered-Probit Model" is used through STATA to analyze the impact of some IHE's factor on adopting sustainability practices on campus. The results of this analysis indicate that variables related to "Financial support" category are the most influential factors in determining the sustainability status of the university. "The university features" with two significant variables for "Selectivity" and "Top 50 LA" can be classified as the second influential category in this table, although the "Student influence" is also eligible to be ranked as the second important factor. Finally, the "Location feature" of university was determined with the least influential impact on the sustainability of campuses.

  13. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology

    PubMed Central

    Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn; Naenna, Thanakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand. Data collected from 400 employees including physicians, nurses, and hospital staff members were tested the model using structural equation modeling technique. The results found that the factors with a significant effect are performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions. They were also found to have a significant impact on behavioral intention to use the acceptance healthcare technology. In addition, in Thai provincial areas, positive significance was found with two factors: social influence on behavioral intention and facilitating conditions to direct using behavior. Based on research findings, in order for healthcare information technology to be widely adopted and used by healthcare staffs in healthcare supply chain management, the healthcare organizational management should improve healthcare staffs' behavioral intention and facilitating conditions. PMID:26417235

  14. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology.

    PubMed

    Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn; Naenna, Thanakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand. Data collected from 400 employees including physicians, nurses, and hospital staff members were tested the model using structural equation modeling technique. The results found that the factors with a significant effect are performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions. They were also found to have a significant impact on behavioral intention to use the acceptance healthcare technology. In addition, in Thai provincial areas, positive significance was found with two factors: social influence on behavioral intention and facilitating conditions to direct using behavior. Based on research findings, in order for healthcare information technology to be widely adopted and used by healthcare staffs in healthcare supply chain management, the healthcare organizational management should improve healthcare staffs' behavioral intention and facilitating conditions.

  15. Affective factors and learning behaviour in secondary school mathematics and English lessons for average and low attainers.

    PubMed

    Norwich, B; Rovoli, I

    1993-06-01

    This study had two broad aims; firstly, to investigate the predictive relationships between i) overall subject affective factors (attitude and subjective norm), ii) specific lesson factors (behaviour intention, perceived preventive factors and self efficacy) and iii) learning behaviour during lessons; and secondly, to investigate the consistency of these affective factors across English and maths, and whether there were differences between average and low attaining pupils in these affective factors. Twenty-eight boys and girls, aged 11-14 years, in an inner city comprehensive school were assessed for these factors in two subjects over two occasions. It was found that neither attitude nor subjective norm were consistently predictive of intentions. The lesson specific factors (behaviour intention, preventive factors and self efficacy), which were inter-related, were moderately predicted by past learning behaviour, and were each predictive of subsequent learning behaviour. Pupils were also consistent in their affective perspectives to learning maths and English, though few differences were found between average and low attaining pupils. The significance of the findings is discussed in terms of the theoretical links between self efficacy and reasoned action approaches, the context of assessment and the nature of behaviour intention.

  16. Factors Affecting Intervention Fidelity of Differentiated Instruction in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Elma M.; Walraven, Amber; Mooij, Ton; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings in the first phase of a design-based research project as part of a large-scale intervention study in Dutch kindergartens. The project aims at enhancing differentiated instruction and evaluating its effects on children's development, in particular high-ability children. This study investigates relevant…

  17. Factors Affecting the Professional Development of Elementary English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zein, Subhan

    2016-01-01

    The poor classroom practices of English teachers at elementary level in Indonesia have been attributed to the inadequacy of pre-service education. Yet, whether in-service professional development (PD) also plays a role is unknown. This study investigated the perspectives of 23 teachers, 14 teacher educators and 3 school principals regarding the…

  18. Factors Affecting Retirement Attitude among Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wan-Chen; Chiang, Chia-Hsun; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of teacher efficacy, perceived organizational control, and the teacher-student age gap with teachers' retirement attitudes. Stratified random sampling was adopted to collect survey responses. A total of 498 valid surveys from 33 elementary schools were collected. Correlational analyses revealed significant…

  19. Factors That Affect Patient Attitudes toward Infection Control Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated patient attitudes toward different disease control measures taken in dental school clinics (n=272 patients) and private practices (n=107 patients). Variables examined included sex, age, educational background, and knowledge of infectious diseases. Patients tended to accept the control measures being used in each context. (MSE)

  20. Factors Affecting School District Performance Scores in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between District Performance Scores (DPS) in Louisiana and (a) socio-economic status of students, (b) academic achievement using average ACT scores, (c) percentage of certified teachers, (d) district class size, (e) per pupil expenditure, and (f) percentage of minority students in…

  1. Factors Affecting the Acquisition of Plural Morphology in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the development of plural morphology in Jordanian Arab children, and explores the role of the predictability, transparency, productivity, and frequency of different plural forms in determining the trajectory that children follow in acquiring this complex inflectional system. The study also re-examines the development of the…

  2. Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, F. A.; Swanson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A brief historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is presented to see whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet area. Significant differences between the two periods were demonstated. Current technological and operational economic perspectives were investigated in detail. Some conclusions are drawn to aircraft retirement policies.

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

  4. Factors affecting engorgement behavior in the salt marsh horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...

  5. Evaluation of factors affecting diffusion in compacted bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Lehikoinen, J.; Carlsson, T.; Muurinen, A.; Olin, M.; Salonen, P.

    1996-08-01

    The information available from the open literature and studies on exclusion, sorption and diffusion mechanisms of ionic and neutral species in bentonite has been compiled and re-examined in relation to the microstructure of bentonite. The emphasis is placed on a more thorough understanding of the diffusion processes taking place in compacted bentonite. Despite the scarcity of experiments performed with neutral diffusants, these imply that virtually all the pores in compacted bentonite are accessible to neutral species. Anion exclusion, induced by the overlap of electrical double layers, may render the accessible porosity for anions considerably less than the porosity obtained from the water content of the clay. On the basis of the compiled data, it is highly probable that surface diffusion plays a significant role in the transport of cations in bentonite clays. Moreover, easily soluble compounds in bentonite can affect the ionic strength of porewater and, consequently, exclusion, equilibrium between cations, and surface diffusion.

  6. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  7. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.

    1987-11-01

    A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

  8. Biofortification of crops with nutrients: factors affecting utilization and storage.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, Joana; Twyman, Richard M; Zhu, Changfu; Farré, Gemma; Serrano, José Ce; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Muñoz, Pilar; Sandmann, Gerhard; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2017-01-06

    Biofortification is an effective and economical method to improve the micronutrient content of crops, particularly staples that sustain human populations in developing countries. Whereas conventional fortification requires artificial additives, biofortification involves the synthesis or accumulation of nutrients by plants at source. Little is known about the relative merits of biofortification and artificial fortification in terms of nutrient bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and much depends on the biochemical nature of the nutrient, which can promote or delay uptake, and determine how efficiently different nutrients are transported through the blood, stored, and utilized. Data from the first plants biofortified with minerals and vitamins provide evidence that the way in which nutrients are presented can affect how they are processed and utilized in the human body. The latest studies on the effects of the food matrix, processing and storage on nutrient transfer from biofortified crops are reviewed, as well as current knowledge about nutrient absorption and utilization.

  9. Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

  10. Psychosocial factors affecting employees abilities to return to work.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Sirja

    2010-02-01

    This literature review explored the experiences of workers with on-the-job injuries, and the effect of psychosocial factors on their abilities to return to work. Four common themes were discovered frustration, depression, discrimination, and obstacles in understanding how the workers compensation system works and in obtaining care. The literature review suggested that interventions such as rehabilitation programs and psychosocial interventions help injured workers return to work. Nursing implications, including early, comprehensive, and fair interventions, are discussed. Intervening in this manner contributes to holistic nursing care of injured workers.

  11. Factors affecting attitudes toward care of elderly mothers: urban versus agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Mio; Kai, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    In our previous study, we examined factors that affect rural people's attitudes toward parental care when their mothers or mothers-in-law become fragile and need 24-h care. Our next task was to examine the factors in an urban area to test external validity. In the previous studies, several factors affecting adult children's attitudes between caring directly for parents or sending parents to a nursing home were indicated. Factors identified included affection, filial obligation, sekentei (i.e., wanting to keep an appearance of taking care), and others. In this study, we examine these factors in a residential urban area, using the same model as before. Results revealed that filial obligation affected attitudes toward care in the case of a mother while affection did in the case of a mother-in-law. This is consistent with the results in the rural setting. Sekentei did not affect attitudes in the urban area, though it had in the rural area.

  12. Investigation of Demographic Properties and Motivation Factors of Physics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzel, Hatice

    2011-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments resulted in an increase in the requirement of education in the society. In addition to this, the expectations from teachers differed and the need for more qualified teachers also increased. One of the factors affecting the quality of teachers is their motivation. In this research, it was aimed to reveal…

  13. Factors affecting the surface shape and removal rate of workpiece in CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Quantang; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Baoan; Shen, Weixing

    2006-02-01

    The factors affecting the removal rate and surface shape in CMP is introduced. The edge effect is a critical problem in CMP process, which behaves on the global planarization of workpiece-pad interface and change on local planarization and results in collapse or rise in workpiece edges. One of the main factors of edge effect is Von Mises stress, which is a composition stress. The main affecting factor of Von Mises is the axial stress component. The factors affecting the material removal rate (MRR) of workpiece surface and surface nonuniformity include shape, material properties and thickness of pad and polishing media. Factors of load and relative velocity in CMP are also discussed.

  14. Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; de la Fuente, B; Clemente, M J; Ruiz, A; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2013-09-01

    Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility (quantity of the element solubilized during the digestive process) is a parameter to be considered when estimating the risk/benefit associated with this element. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the digestion phase, gastrointestinal digestion factors (pH, pepsin and bile salt concentrations) and the presence of cations on the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products. The results show that the solubilization of fluoride takes place entirely during the gastric phase. Its bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by conditions that favor the formation of insoluble complexes of fluoride with other elements present in the matrix. The factors that are most influential in reducing its bioaccessibility are the increase in pH in the gastric phase, the presence of cations, especially in the intestinal phase, and a low concentration of bile salts.

  15. Key factors affecting mechanical behavior of metallic glass nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Qi-Kai; Li, Mo

    2017-01-01

    Both strengthening and weakening trends with decreasing diameter have been observed for metallic glass nanowires, sometimes even in the samples with the same chemical composition. How to reconcile the results has reminded a puzzle. Since the detailed stress state and microstructure of metallic glass nanowires may differ from each other significantly depending on preparation, to discover the intrinsic size effect it is necessary to study metallic glass nanowires fabricated differently. Here we show the complex size effects from one such class of metallic glass nanowires prepared by casting using molecular dynamics simulations. As compared with the nanowires of the same composition prepared by other methods, the cast nanowires deform nearly homogeneously with much lower strength but better ductility; and also show strengthening in tension but weakening in compression with decreasing wire diameter. The subtle size dependence is shown to be related to the key factors including internal and surface stress state, atomic structure variation, and presence of various gradients. The complex interplay of these factors at decreasing size leads to the different deformation behaviors. PMID:28134292

  16. Key factors affecting mechanical behavior of metallic glass nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Qi-Kai; Li, Mo

    2017-01-01

    Both strengthening and weakening trends with decreasing diameter have been observed for metallic glass nanowires, sometimes even in the samples with the same chemical composition. How to reconcile the results has reminded a puzzle. Since the detailed stress state and microstructure of metallic glass nanowires may differ from each other significantly depending on preparation, to discover the intrinsic size effect it is necessary to study metallic glass nanowires fabricated differently. Here we show the complex size effects from one such class of metallic glass nanowires prepared by casting using molecular dynamics simulations. As compared with the nanowires of the same composition prepared by other methods, the cast nanowires deform nearly homogeneously with much lower strength but better ductility; and also show strengthening in tension but weakening in compression with decreasing wire diameter. The subtle size dependence is shown to be related to the key factors including internal and surface stress state, atomic structure variation, and presence of various gradients. The complex interplay of these factors at decreasing size leads to the different deformation behaviors.

  17. Stress factors affecting academic physicians at a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Sara; Eintrei, Christina; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding occupational stress in academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of factors experienced as stressful by academic physicians employed by a university hospital. A questionnaire assessing the frequency and intensity of 36 potentially stressful factors was sent to all 157 academic physicians who were employed at the Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. The response rate was 77%. Both a high frequency and intensity of stress was experienced by 66% of the academic physicians in relation to "time pressure" and by almost 50% in connection with both "find time for research" and having "conflict of interest between different work assignments". Moreover, physicians in the higher age group and those who had attained a higher academic position experienced less stress. The female participants experienced more stress than the males due to gender-related problems and to variables associated with relationships at work. More knowledge is needed to determine the consequences of this finding and to identify coping strategies used for handling such stress.

  18. Factors affecting proppant flowback with resin coated proppants

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S.W.; Penny, G.S.; Conway, M.W.

    1995-12-31

    Resin coated proppants (RCPs) have been used to prevent proppant flowback for several years in the hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells. Proppant flowback problems, however, still exist with the commercially available RCPs and several operators report failures around the world under a variety of well conditions. To date, a clear explanation of the RCP failure mechanisms and the conditions under which failure occurs has not been presented in the industry. A correlation between the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of RCP materials and the proppant flowback potential has been previously presented by Vreeburg, et al. This paper will present the results of a study on a variety of factors which effect the proppant flowback of a number of commercially available RCP materials. These factors include (1) the effect of fluid pH (7 to 12) and fluid type (KCL, seawater and a HPG/Borate fracturing fluid), (2) the effect of fluid/proppant slurry shear, (3) the effect of closure pressure during RCP curing, (4) the effect of stress cycling and (5) the effect of downhole flow conditions on proppant flowback.

  19. Factors affecting allied health faculty job satisfaction: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Romig, Barbara; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Denmark, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Evidence in the literature suggests job satisfaction can make a difference in keeping qualified workers on the job, but little research has been conducted focusing specifically on allied health faculty. In order to attract and retain top quality faculty, colleges and universities should understand the variables impacting faculty satisfaction and develop a plan to enhance satisfaction. An integrative literature review (CINHAL, ERIC, Journal of Allied Health, Chronicle of Higher Education, Research in Higher Education, and current books on job satisfaction) of faculty job satisfaction and dissatisfaction produced a variety of publications presenting the key determinants of job satisfaction by allied health faculty in the United States. The purpose of the analysis was to examine the various factors that influence job satisfaction, especially by allied health faculty, in institutions of higher education in the U.S. The procedure used for this analysis consisted of reviewing allied health and higher education faculty studies to identify factors influencing job satisfaction, research questions, sample size reported, instruments used for measurement of job satisfaction, and job satisfaction results. While the theoretical models of allied health and higher education faculty job satisfaction exist separately in the literature, their remarkable similarities permit the prospect of a contemporary framework of the essential components of job satisfaction. Potential opportunities for continuing research on the personal and professional variables impacting job satisfaction of allied health faculty and similar disciplines are presented.

  20. Factors affecting the adsorption of chromium (VI) on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, R.; Orbak, I.; Karatepe, N.

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the adsorption behavior of chromium (VI) on two different activated carbon samples produced from Tuncbilek lignite. The effects of the initial chromium (VI) concentration (250-1000 mg/L), temperature (297-323 K) and pH (2.0-9.5) on adsorption were investigated systematically. The effectiveness of the parameters on chromium adsorption was found to be in the order of pH, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and the temperature. Increasing the pH from 2.0 to 9.5 caused a decrease in adsorption. However, the adsorption was increased by increasing the initial Cr(VI) concentration and temperature. The multilinear mathematical model was also developed to predict the Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon samples within the experimental conditions.

  1. The affective dimension of pain as a risk factor for drug and alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Dana M; McGinn, M Adrienne; Itoga, Christy A; Edwards, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Addiction, or substance use disorder (SUD), is a devastating psychiatric disease composed of multiple elemental features. As a biobehavioral disorder, escalation of drug and/or alcohol intake is both a cause and consequence of molecular neuroadaptations in central brain reinforcement circuitry. Multiple mesolimbic areas mediate a host of negative affective and motivational symptoms that appear to be central to the addiction process. Brain stress- and reinforcement-related regions such as the central amygdala (CeA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAc) also serve as central processors of ascending nociceptive input. We hypothesize that a sensitization of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of persistent and maladaptive pain contributes to a composite negative affective state to drive the enduring, relapsing nature of addiction, particularly in the case of alcohol and opioid use disorder. At the neurochemical level, pain activates central stress-related neuropeptide signaling, including the dynorphin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, and by this process may facilitate negative affect and escalated drug and alcohol use over time. Importantly, the widespread prevalence of unresolved pain and associated affective dysregulation in clinical populations highlights the need for more effective analgesic medications with reduced potential for tolerance and dependence. The burgeoning epidemic of prescription opioid abuse also demands a closer investigation into the neurobiological mechanisms of how pain treatment could potentially represent a significant risk factor for addiction in vulnerable populations. Finally, the continuing convergence of sensory and affective neuroscience fields is expected to generate insight into the critical balance between pain relief and addiction liability, as well as provide more effective therapeutic strategies for chronic pain and addiction.

  2. Factors affecting European badger (Meles meles) capture numbers in one county in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrew W; O'Keeffe, James; Sleeman, D Paddy; Davenport, John; Martin, S Wayne

    2013-04-01

    Understanding factors affecting the number of badgers captured at and around badger setts (burrows) is of considerable applied importance. These factors could be used to estimate probable badger densities for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control and also for monitoring badger populations from a conservation perspective. Furthermore, badger management and vaccination programs would benefit by increasing the probability of efficiently capturing the target badger populations. Within this context, it was investigated whether badger capture numbers can be estimated from field signs and previous capture histories. Badger capture records (initial and repeated capture numbers at a sett) from a large-scale removal program (405 km(2), 643 setts) were used. Univariable count models indicated that there were a number of significant potential predictors of badger numbers, during initial capture attempts. Using a multivariable zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model of initial captures we found that badger capture numbers were significantly affected by sett type, season, year, and the number of sett entrances in active use. Badger capture numbers were also affected by the total previous catch during repeated capture events and by the number of previous capture attempts. There was a significant negative trend in badger captures across events. Measures of the ability of these models to estimate badger captures suggested that the models might be useful in estimating badger numbers across a population; however the confidence intervals associated with these predictions were large.

  3. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M.; Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Masque, Pere; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Steven, Andy; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-08-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher Corg stocks (averaging 6.3 kg Corg m-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 g Corg m-2 yr-1) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg Corg m-2 and 3.6 g Corg m-2 yr-1). In shallower meadows, Corg stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88 % in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45 % on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr-1 and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr-1 and 5 %, respectively). The Corg stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg Corg m-2 and 1.2 g Corg m-2 yr-1) were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  4. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to <3 years of age. The voluntary vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination.

  5. Geomorphic and biophysical factors affecting water tracks in northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    A better understanding of water movement on hillslopes in Arctic environments is necessary for evaluating the effects of climate variability. Drainage networks include a range of features that vary in transport capacity from rills to water tracks to rivers. This research focuses on describing and classifying water tracks, which are saturated linear-curvilinear stripes that act as first-order pathways for transporting water off of hillslopes into valley bottoms and streams. Multiple factor analysis was used to develop five water tracks classes based on their geomorphic, soil, and vegetation characteristics. The water track classes were then validated using conditional inference trees, to verify that the classes were repeatable. Analysis of the classes and their characteristics indicate that water tracks cover a broad spectrum of patterns and processes primarily driven by surficial geology. This research demonstrates an improved approach to quantifying water track characteristics for specific areas, which is a major step toward understanding hydrological processes and feedbacks within a region.

  6. Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.

    PubMed

    Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A

    2014-02-05

    The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability.

  7. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mauger, Alexis R

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed “exercise-induced pain”. Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. PMID:25228823

  8. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers.

    PubMed

    House, R A

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.

  9. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.A. )

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  10. Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption.

  11. Factors affecting polyethylene wear in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Markus S; Stachowiak, Gwidon W

    2002-02-01

    A complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is fatigue-type wear, which can destroy a tibial inlay in <10 years. This deleterious wear mechanism occurs during cyclic loading if the yield stress of polyethylene is exceeded. Because increased stress on and within the polyethylene inlay is associated with increased wear, it is important to reduce the inlay stress by either activity restrictions or conformity changes of design. All stress parameters are more sensitive to conformity changes (eg, design changes) than to load changes (eg, activity restrictions). However, the reduction of stress on and within the polyethylene through increased conformity will increase the stress at the tibial fixation interfaces. An attempt was made to solve this problem with the introduction of mobile-bearing designs. Many mobile-bearing designs exist with good long-term results. One important difference among the various designs is the amount of flexion range with full conformity between the femoral component and the tibial inlay. Although a single radius design reduces polyethylene stress throughout the flexion range, it may be disadvantageous for a revision design to intraoperatively adapt to different degrees of constraint. Aseptic loosening and osteolysis due to small abrasive and adhesive wear particles have also been reported as a cause of failure. The design and material parameters affecting polyethylene wear in TKAs, as well as the potential detrimental effects of wear particle size, are the key issues in defining the life of a TKA.

  12. Factors Affecting Contrast Sensitivity in Healthy Individuals: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Karatepe, Arzu Seyhan; Köse, Süheyla; Eğrilmez, Sait

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the demographic and ocular features affecting contrast sensitivity levels in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four eyes of 37 subjects (7-65 years old) with refractive errors less than 1.0 diopter, no history of ocular surgery, and 20/20 visual acuity were included in the study. The participants were divided by age into three groups: group 1, 7-19 years, n=11; group 2, 20-49 years, n=15; and group 3, 50-65 years, n=11. All subjects underwent anterior and posterior segment evaluation, intraocular pressure measurements, refraction measurements, and clinical evaluation for strabismus. Contrast static test was performed using Metrovision MonPack 3 vision monitor system after measuring pupil diameter. Photopic and mesopic measurements were taken sequentially from right eyes, left eyes, and both eyes together. Results: Contrast sensitivity at intermediate and high spatial frequencies was lower with increasing age. Binocular measurements were better than monocular, and mesopic measurements were better than photopic measurements at all spatial frequencies. Contrast sensitivity at higher spatial frequency was lower with hyperopic refraction values. Conclusion: Increasing age, small pupil diameter, hyperopia, and photopic conditions were associated with lower contrast sensitivity in healthy individuals. Binocular contrast sensitivity measurements were better than monocular contrast sensitivity measurements in all conditions and spatial frequencies.

  13. Factors affecting floral herbivory in a limestone grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breadmore, Karen N.; Kirk, William D. J.

    1998-12-01

    The amount of herbivore damage to the petals of 41 species of herbaceous plant was surveyed from April to September in a limestone grassland in central England. Damage was recorded as the percentage of the petal area removed. Most damage was caused by invertebrates, particularly slugs. The amount of invertebrate damage differed significantly between plant species and with time of year. The mean damage across all species was only 2 %, ranging from an average of 0 % in Galium sterneri to 8 % in Primula vulgaris. In most species, less than a quarter of flowers received any damage, so those that were damaged were often severely affected. Species flowering early or late in the season received more damage, possibly because of greater slug activity. Hypotheses to explain the inter-specific variation in the amount of herbivory were examined by testing for correlations with a range of plant variables. No correlations with flower-stem length, flower-stem thickness or the longevity of flowers were apparent. The amount of petal damage correlated strongly with flower size and petal thickness. This appeared to result from the prevalence of large-flowered species early and late in the season rather than from a preference for flower size and petal thickness per se. The evolutionary significance of floral herbivory is discussed.

  14. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this

  15. Factors affecting rabbit meat consumption among Spanish university students.

    PubMed

    González-Redondo, Pedro; Mena, Yolanda; Fernández-Cabanás, Victor M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the rabbit meat consumption patterns among students. Results of the 342 students surveyed at the University of Seville, Spain showed that more men than women consumed rabbit meat. More students consumed wild rabbit meat than farmed rabbit meat. The practice of hunting by students or their relatives, and the raising of rabbits for self-consumption, positively influenced the proportion of students that currently consumed rabbit meat. Most of the students that had eaten rabbit meat before but are currently non-eaters do so because of the meat's organoleptic characteristics or from lack of consumption habit.

  16. Investigating changes of electrical characteristics of the saturated zone affected by hazardous organic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Reinhard K.; Barosh, Patrick J.; Boving, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The Picillo Farm, EPA Superfund Site, in western Rhode Island was an unauthorized disposal site of hazardous organic chemicals. Predominantly organic contaminants have entered an aquifer comprised of layered glacial deposits and fractured bedrock and spread past the site boundaries with groundwater flow. Hydraulic conductivities in the glacial deposits range over two orders of magnitude and fractures and faults in the granitic bedrock further complicate the spreading of contaminants. Monitoring wells delineate two plumes that extend towards a fault-controlled valley with lakes and wetlands; one to the northwest and the other to the southwest. In this investigation we studied the electrical characteristics of both plumes. One dimensional Schlumberger depth soundings were conducted along several profile lines over the plumes and compared to those over non-contaminated sections of the site. With regard to the southwestern plume, high formation factors (ratio of bulk layer to pore water resistivity) between 12 and 45 were observed compared to values between 2.5 and 7.7 measured over the non-contaminated sections. Also, high values (> 5) of vertical electrical anisotropy (ratio of geoelectrically determined depth to high resistivity bedrock to drilled depth to bedrock) were measured over the contaminated part of the site. These values are extremely high compared to other non-contaminated sites (range: 2 to 3) in glacial stream channels of southern Rhode Island. Geoelectric measurements were affected by lateral effects. However, the consistency of high formation factors (11 to 35) and high vertical anisotropies (3 to 5) over the southwestern plume in comparison to low formation factors (3 to 8) and vertical anisotropies (1 to 1.5) over non-contaminated sites represents a marked difference between both sites. Overall, the Schlumberger depth soundings are less susceptible to near-surface lateral inhomogeneities than expected from other geoelectrical methods. Also, the

  17. Factors Affecting Groundwater Chemistry in Abandoned Terraced Paddy Fields on Sado Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, Nobuhiro; Nakata, Makoto; Matsuyama, Keiko; Tsujii, Norie; Tsuchida, Takeyoshi

    The factors affecting the groundwater level and chemistry in abandoned terraced paddy fields on Sado Island, Japan, were investigated. Seasonal changes of the groundwater level in site A, which is on the bottom of the slope, was slight throughout the year compared with that in site B, which is on the middle part of the gentle slope. EC, pH, and some components involved in mineral weathering (Na+, Ca2+ and alkalinity) in the groundwater from site A were higher than those from site B. These results showed that the infiltrating water from the upper part of the slope was the main source of the groundwater in site A. On the other hand, the impact of sea salt components (Na+ and Cl-) was evident in site B, because the concentration of these components increased during winter. Groundwater chemistry was also affected by other factors such as the dilution of groundwater caused by rainfall, sulfur redox, and nutrient uptake by vegetation. The effects of each factor on groundwater chemistry differed between sites because the topography of the two adjacent sites was different. The characteristics of water environment, such as the groundwater level and chemistry, should be considered in the management of abandoned terraced paddy fields on Sado Island.

  18. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  19. Factors affecting rectal temperature measurement using commonly available digital thermometers.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Jonathan M; Streeter, Renee M; Torgerson, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Rectal temperature measurement is an essential part of physical examination of cattle and some physiological experiments. Modern digital thermometers are often used to measure rectal temperatures by students; this study describes their reliability and appropriate use. Students measured rectal temperature on 53 occasions using their personal digital thermometer and techniques gained from previous instruction, rectal temperature was also measured by an experienced person using a Cornell mercury thermometer completely inserted in the rectum. Cornell mercury thermometers values were 38.95±0.05°C (mean±1 SE, n=53). Student rectal temperature measurements using their initial technique were nearly 0.5°C lower, 38.46±0.07°C. After receiving instruction to insert the digital thermometer to the window, student obtained values were 38.77±0.06°C; these are significantly higher than with the student's initial technique and closer to those obtained with a Cornell thermometer. In a series of 53 water bath tests, student owned thermometers recorded similar mean values to those of a traceable (reference) digital thermometer, Cornell mercury thermometer readings were 0.2°C higher. 10 individual digital thermometers were repeatedly tested against a traceable thermometer in a water bath, one was inaccurate. In a separate experiment a trained clinician tested the effect of angle of insertion of a digital thermometer on temperature readings and the affect was <0.1°C. We conclude that accurate temperature measurements using digital thermometers are only likely if the thermometer is inserted to the beginning of the window and the thermometer's accuracy is checked periodically.

  20. Factors affecting RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry: empirical evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the adoption of radio frequency identification (RFID) methods in the agricultural product distribution industry. Through a literature review and field research, and based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) theoretical framework, this paper analyzes factors influencing RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry in reference to three contexts: technological, organizational, and environmental contexts. An empirical analysis of the TOE framework was conducted by applying structural equation modeling based on actual data from a questionnaire survey on the agricultural product distribution industry in China. The results show that employee resistance and uncertainty are not supported by the model. Technological compatibility, perceived effectiveness, organizational size, upper management support, trust between enterprises, technical knowledge, competitive pressure and support from the Chinese government, which are supported by the model, have significantly positive effects on RFID adoption. Meanwhile, organizational size has the strongest positive effect, while competitive pressure levels have the smallest effect. Technological complexities and costs have significantly negative effects on RFID adoption, with cost being the most significantly negative influencing factor. These research findings will afford enterprises in the agricultural products supply chain with a stronger understanding of the factors that influence RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry. In addition, these findings will help enterprises remain aware of how these factors affect RFID adoption and will thus help enterprises make more accurate and rational decisions by promoting RFID application in the agricultural product distribution industry.

  1. [Factors affecting oxidative damage in obese children: an exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Rentería, Ivan; Arenas Berumen, Ever; Arellano García, María Evarista; Carrasco-Legleu, Claudia Esther; De León-Fierro, Lidia Guillermina; Arenas-Berumen, Enrique Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: La obesidad es un trastorno metabólico que crea condiciones oxidantes, las cuales pueden generar niveles elevados de estrés fisiológico, así como una perturbación en el estado de oxidación-reducción celular conocido como Estrés Oxidativo. Objetivo: Examinar la asociación entre el daño en el ADN cromosómico y la capacidad antioxidante total (TAC) en niños clasificados con obesidad severa. Métodos: En el estudio participaron 11 niños con edad e índice de masa corporal promedio de 9.5±1.2 años y 27.7±3.3 kg/m2, respectivamente, de quienes se obtuvieron muestras de sangre entera venosa y se analizó algunos factores de riesgo característicos del síndrome metabólico, así como el número de sitios abásicos (SA) en la molécula de ADN y los niveles de CAT. Los biomarcadores se determinaron utilizando técnicas espectrofotométricas y de ensayo ELISA. Resultados: Se reconocieron en promedio 4.0±4.1x105 sitios abásicos en la molécula de ADN y un nivel de concentración en plasma sanguíneo de la Capacidad Antioxidante Total de 0.218±0.03 mmol/L, donde se obtuvo una correlación inversa entre ambas variables (r = - 0.63, p = 0.038, r2 = 0.4). Advirtiéndose un desequilibrio del estado de reducción-oxidación (REDOX) celular. Conclusión: Los valores altos de sitios abásicos y bajos niveles de concentración de la Capacidad Antioxidante Total en presencia de obesidad severa sugieren la existencia de estrés oxidativo, lo que podría considerarse como un factor de riesgo alto, vinculado al desarrollo temprano de comorbilidades asociadas a la obesidad.

  2. Socioeconomic factors affecting local support for black bear recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Morzillo, Anita T; Mertig, Angela G; Hollister, Jeffrey W; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species' historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  3. Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (τ) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

  4. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  5. Factors affecting the erosion of jets penetrating high explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Haselman, L.C.; Winer, K.A.

    1995-05-01

    It has been observed in various experiments with shaped charge jets penetrating high explosives that the erosion of the jet can be considerably greater than that expected from analytical theory or from two dimensional hydrodynamic computer simulations. In a previous study, we found that the initial penetration of the jet agreed with theory, and that the erosion of the jet happened subsequent to the initial penetration. This additional erosion can be the dominant factor in the total length of jet that is eroded. We also found that in one experiment the jet did not show any excess erosion and that the penetration could be predicted from theory. We also found a rough correlation of the amount of excess erosion with the diameter of the jet, with larger jet diameters giving less erosion. A problem with previous experiments was that a wide variety of shaped charges, target shapes, and target thicknesses were used. This made it difficult to isolate the effect of a particular parameter. For the current study we chose to isolate the effects of scale and target thickness. For this purpose we used well characterized jets and carefully chosen targets. We also did computer calculations to help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the excess erosion.

  6. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    PubMed

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  7. In vitro fertilisation treatment and factors affecting success.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jack Yu Jen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies has improved significantly over the past decades. The main indications for in vitro fertilisation include tubal obstruction, severe male-factor infertility, severe endometriosis, ovulatory dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, and infertility of unexplained cause. In vitro fertilisation has also become an effective treatment option for couples wishing to undergo pre-implantation genetic diagnosis or screening, and for those wishing to cryopreserve their oocytes or embryos for preservation of fertility. The management of women in late reproductive age poses a major challenge; the optimum in vitro fertilisation treatment for poor responders remains elusive. The success of in vitro fertilisation treatment can be optimised by taking an individualised, patient-centered approach to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Key components involve selection of an appropriate controlled ovarian protocol, close-cycle monitoring, adjustment of gonadotropin dosage to avoid hyper-response, and individualised timing of human chorionic gonadotropin injection. Future directions of assisted reproductive technologies include development of non-invasive embryo selection methods, use of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and time-lapse imaging technologies.

  8. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  9. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

  10. Factors affecting the forensic examination of automotive lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Ryan; Goodpaster, John V; Evans, Michelle R

    2011-05-01

    Lubricating oil comparisons impact a variety of forensic investigations, including cases where oil was transferred from a suspect vehicle to the crime scene or victim. In this study, high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the influence of oil mixtures and oil changes over time on the comparison of known and questioned lubricating oils. Varying concentrations of oil mixtures were prepared and showed the potential for identifying individual components. Motor oils from 18 automobiles monitored over a 2-month period did not demonstrate significant changes in the chromatographic data. Chemometric analysis of motor oil mass spectral data provided little information regarding differentiation of, or changes in, the samples. Power steering fluid (PSF) from a naturally occurring leak collected from several locations was consistent with the PSF in the automobile's reservoir, and the PSF composition did not change over time.

  11. Defective Pricing: An Analysis of Factors Affecting Sustention Rates and Disposition Times

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    AFIT/GCM/LAS/94S-5 0 .TIC Accespori For NTIS CRA&j DEFECTIVE PRICING: AN ANALYSIS OF OTIC TAB 0 FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTENTION U.:announced 0J1:;ti...the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. AFIT/GCM/LAS/94S-5 DEFECTIVE PRICING: AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTENTION RATES AND...2 Sustention Rates

  12. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout in an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukselturk, Erman; Inan, Fethi Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students…

  13. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  14. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting...

  19. Attitudes to and Factors Affecting Unauthorized Copying of Computer Software in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siponen, M.T.; Vartiainen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Several quantitative studies have sought to determine the factors affecting the unauthorized copying of software, particularly in North America. However, we find no statistically reliable studies on the situation in Europe. In order to address this gap in the literature, we explored the attitudes to and factors affecting the unauthorized copying…

  20. Key factors, Soil N Processes, and nitrite accumulation affecting nitrous oxide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of the key factors affecting nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and potential mitigation strategies is essential for sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study was to examine the important factors affecting N2O emissions, soil processes involved, and potential mitigation s...

  1. Factors affecting storage stability of various commercial phytase sources.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Jones, C K; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S; Campbell, D R; Ratliff, B W; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

    2011-12-01

    phytase activity than when phytases were mixed with the vitamin or VTM premixes. Coated phytases stored in any form had greater (P < 0.01) activity retention than the uncoated phytases at all sampling periods. Results indicate that storage stability of commercially available phytases is affected by duration of storage, temperature, product form, coating, and phytase source. Pure products held at 23°C or less were the most stable. In premixes, longer storage times and higher temperatures reduced phytase activity, but coating mitigated some of these negative effects.

  2. Analysis of geological structure and anthropological factors affecting arsenic distribution in the Lahore aquifer, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Akhtar Malik; Zhonghua, Tang; Sissou, Zakari; Mohamadi, Bahaa; Ehsan, Muhsan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the potential factors affecting arsenic concentration in the groundwater system of Lahore, Pakistan. The effects of several factors such as population density (PD), pumping rate (PR), impermeable land use (LU), surface elevation (SE), and water-table elevation (WL) on arsenic concentration were studied in 101 union councils of Lahore. Forty single and multi-factor models were established using geographic information system (GIS) techniques to develop an arsenic contamination map and to investigate the most effective combinations among factors. Additionally, statistical tests were used to evaluate arsenic concentration between classes of the same single factor. The arsenic concentration in the Lahore aquifer varied from 0.001 to 0.143 mg L-1. The highest arsenic concentrations were detected in the Walled City and the town of Shahdara. Among the 40 raster models, groundwater arsenic concentration showed the best matching frequency with single-factor models for PD (50.70 %) and SE (47 %). Thus, PD and SE were used to develop an arsenic distribution raster map, and they were also used to study the effect of aquifer depth on arsenic concentration. PD was found to have hidden latent variables such as PR and LU. The shallow aquifer depth was negatively correlated with arsenic concentration ( r = -0.23) and positively with PR ( r = 0.15). Therefore, when there was high PR in wells with smaller aquifer depth, the arsenic concentration was high. The existing water treatment and alternative water resources are good options, which should be developed to deal with Lahore wells contaminated with arsenic at high concentrations.

  3. Factors Affecting Two Types of Memory Specificity: Particularization of Episodes and Details

    PubMed Central

    Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif A.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for repeated events is relevant to legal investigations about repeated occurrences. We investigated how two measures of specificity (number of events referred to and amount of detail reported about the events) were influenced by interviewees’ age, number of experienced events, interviewer, perceived unpleasantness, and memory rehearsal. Transcribed narratives consisting of over 40.000 utterances from 95 dental patients, and the corresponding dental records, were studied. Amount of detail was measured by categorizing the utterances as generic, specific, or specific-extended. We found that the two measures were affected differently by all five factors. For instance, number of experienced events positively influenced number of referred events but had no effect on amount of detail provided about the events. We make suggestions for future research and encourage reanalysis of the present data set and reuse of the material. PMID:27851775

  4. Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.

    PubMed Central

    Amos, W; Harwood, J

    1998-01-01

    Genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. It is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. However, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic polymorphism is virtually absent. Instead, we suggest that the low levels of variability observed in endangered populations are more likely to result from a combination of publication biases, which tend to inflate the level of variability which is considered 'normal', and inbreeding effects, which may hasten loss of variability due to drift. To account for species with large population sizes but low variability we advance three hypotheses. First, it is known that certain metapopulation structures can result in effective population sizes far below the census size. Second, there is increasing evidence that heterozygous sites mutate more frequently than equivalent homozygous sites, plausibly because mismatch repair between homologous chromosomes during meiosis provides extra opportunities to mutate. Such a mechanism would undermine the simple relationship between heterozygosity and effective population size. Third, the fact that related species that differ greatly in variability implies that large amounts of variability can be gained or lost rapidly. We argue that such cases are best explained by rapid loss through a genome-wide selective sweep, and suggest a mechanism by which this could come about, based on forced changes to a control gene inducing coevolution in the genes it controls. Our model, based on meiotic drive in mammals, but easily extended to other systems, would tend to facilitate population isolation by generating molecular incompatabilities. Circumstances can even be

  5. Factors affecting the levels of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiwei; Zuo, Yuegang

    Measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and several meteorological and chemical parameters were made for 34 rain events which occurred in Miami, Florida between April, 1995 and October, 1996. The measured H 2O 2 concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 38.6 μM with an average concentration of 6.9 μM. A strong seasonal dependence for H 2O 2 concentrations was observed during this period, with highest concentrations in the summer and lower levels in the winter, which corresponds to the stronger solar radiation and higher vaporization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the summer and fall, and the weaker sunlight and lower vaporization in the winter and spring. Measurements also showed a significant increase trend of H 2O 2 with increasing ambient rainwater temperature. Rains that were out from lower latitude were exposed to higher solar irradiation and contained relatively higher levels of H 2O 2 than those from the north. All these observations indicate that photochemical reactions that involved volatile organic compounds are the predominant source of H 2O 2 observed in rainwater. During several individual rainstorms, H 2O 2 concentration was found to increase as a function of time due to electrical storm activities. This finding suggests that lightning could be an important factor that determines the level of H 2O 2 during thunderstorms. Statistical data showed that the highest concentrations of H 2O 2 were observed only in rains containing low levels of nonsea-salt sulfate (NSS), nitrate and hydrogen ion. H 2O 2 concentrations in continental originated rains were much lower than marine originated ones, indicating that air pollutants in continental rains could significantly deplete the H 2O 2 concentration in atmospheric gas-phase, clouds and rainwater.

  6. Factors affecting spruce establishment and recruitment near western treeline, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. E.; Sherriff, R.; Wilson, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Regional warming and increases in tree growth are contributing to increased productivity near the western forest margin in Alaska. The effects of warming on seedling recruitment has received little attention, in spite of forecasted forest expansion near western treeline. Here, we used stand structure and environmental data from white spruce (Picea glauca) stands (n = 95) sampled across a longitudinal gradient to explore factors influencing white spruce growth, establishment and recruitment in southwest Alaska. Using tree-ring chronologies developed from a subset of the plots (n = 30), we estimated establishment dates and basal area increment (BAI) for trees of all age classes across a range of site conditions. We used GLMs (generalized linear models) to explore the relationship between tree growth and temperature in undisturbed, low elevation sites along the gradient, using BAI averaged over the years 1975-2000. In addition, we examined the relationship between growing degree days (GDD) and seedling establishment over the previous three decades. We used total counts of live seedlings, saplings and live and dead trees, representing four cohorts, to evaluate whether geospatial, climate, and measured plot covariates predicted abundance of the different size classes. We hypothesized that the relationship between abundance and longitude would vary by size class, and that this relationship would be mediated by growing season temperature. We found that mean BAI for trees in undisturbed, low elevation sites increased with July maximum temperature, and that the slope of the relationship with temperature changed with longitude (interaction significant with 90% confidence). White spruce establishment was positively associated with longer summers and/or greater heat accumulation, as inferred from GDD. Seedling, sapling and tree abundance were also positively correlated with temperature across the study area. The response to longitude was mixed, with smaller size classes

  7. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  8. Factors affecting sodium hypochlorite extraction of CCA from treated wood.

    PubMed

    Gezer, E D; Cooper, P A

    2009-12-01

    Significant amounts of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood products, such as utility poles and residential construction wood, remain in service. There is increasing public concern about environmental contamination from CCA-treated wood when it is removed from service for reuse or recycling, placed in landfills or burned in commercial incinerators. In this paper, we investigated the effects of time, temperature and sodium hypochlorite concentration on chromium oxidation and extraction of chromated copper arsenate from CCA-treated wood (Type C) removed from service. Of the conditions evaluated, reaction of milled wood with sodium hypochlorite for one hour at room temperature followed by heating at 75 degrees C for two hours gave the highest extraction efficiency. An average of 95% Cr, 99% Cu and 96% As could be removed from CCA-treated, milled wood by this process. Most of the extracted chromium was oxidized to the hexavalent state and could therefore be recycled in a CCA treating solution. Sodium hypochlorite extracting solutions could be reused several times to extract CCA components from additional treated wood samples.

  9. Factors affecting the association of oral contraceptives and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cramer, D W; Hutchison, G B; Welch, W R; Scully, R E; Knapp, R C

    1982-10-21

    We investigated the relation between epithelial ovarian cancer and the use of oral contraceptives in a case-control study of 144 white women under the age of 60 who had ovarian cancer and 139 white women under 60 who were selected from the general population. We observed a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives in subjects 40 through 59 years of age at the time of the study. The relative risk, adjusted for parity, was 0.11, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.04 to 0.33. In contrast to the findings in older women, a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with oral-contraceptive use was not found in women under 40. In this group, the adjusted relative risk associated with any use of oral contraceptives was 1.98, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.74 to 5.27. The lowest risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives was observed in older parous subjects and in women who had discontinued use more than 10 years previously.

  10. Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Telford, Richard D; Hawley, John A

    2004-01-01

    Running economy (RE) is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, and is determined by measuring the steady-state consumption of oxygen (VO2) and the respiratory exchange ratio. Taking body mass (BM) into consideration, runners with good RE use less energy and therefore less oxygen than runners with poor RE at the same velocity. There is a strong association between RE and distance running performance, with RE being a better predictor of performance than maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in elite runners who have a similar VO2max). RE is traditionally measured by running on a treadmill in standard laboratory conditions, and, although this is not the same as overground running, it gives a good indication of how economical a runner is and how RE changes over time. In order to determine whether changes in RE are real or not, careful standardisation of footwear, time of test and nutritional status are required to limit typical error of measurement. Under controlled conditions, RE is a stable test capable of detecting relatively small changes elicited by training or other interventions. When tracking RE between or within groups it is important to account for BM. As VO2 during submaximal exercise does not, in general, increase linearly with BM, reporting RE with respect to the 0.75 power of BM has been recommended. A number of physiological and biomechanical factors appear to influence RE in highly trained or elite runners. These include metabolic adaptations within the muscle such as increased mitochondria and oxidative enzymes, the ability of the muscles to store and release elastic energy by increasing the stiffness of the muscles, and more efficient mechanics leading to less energy wasted on braking forces and excessive vertical oscillation. Interventions to improve RE are constantly sought after by athletes, coaches and sport scientists. Two interventions that have received recent widespread attention are strength training and

  11. Factors affecting the catalytic oligomerization of methane via microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Luis Daniel

    Catalytic microwave heating has been used as a method for the oligomerization of methane to higher hydrocarbons. Many catalysts were tested in this reaction. Nickel powder, raney nickel, iron powder and activated carbon were the most active and efficient catalysts for the production of higher hydrocarbons. When helium was used as a diluent gas and the applied power was optimized, the selectivities were controlled to the most desired products. In general, the most abundant products for all the experiments were C2s. Iron powder was active only at high power (1130 W). At these conditions acetylene was avoided and ethylene and ethane were produced in the same proportion. Activated carbon catalysts with helium as diluent led to a selectivity towards benzene up to 33%. Some manganese oxides such as OMS-1, OMS-2 and MnO2 (dielectric constant, epsilon ≈ 104) were not active in these reactions. These data suggest that the dielectric constant is not the most important factor in the oligomerization of methane via microwave heating. Conversion and activities of these materials are not proportionally related to the surface area of the catalysts. Higher catalytic activity was observed for Raney nickel than for regular nickel powder. The maximum conversion obtained was 24% at 400 W and 10 min of irradiation time. For regular nickel powder that conversion can be achieved only after 700 W of power and more than 20 min of reaction. BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Temperature-Programmed Desorption and Reduction analysis were performed to characterize the catalyst before and after reaction. Deactivation of Raney nickel by fouling and sintering was observed after 500 W and/or 15 min of reaction. The effect of microwave radiation frequency on activity and product distribution for methane oligomerization has been studied. Nickel, iron, and activated carbon catalysts were used in these studies. Experiments were done with pure methane

  12. Factors affecting pollutant concentrations in the near-road environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Nichole; Gilani, Owais; Raja, Suresh; Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Hopke, Philip; Berrocal, Veronica; Robins, Thomas; Hoogterp, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    An improved understanding of traffic-related air pollutants is needed to estimate exposures and adverse health impacts in traffic corridors and near-road environments. In this study, concentrations of black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, ultrafine particles, and accumulation mode particles, AMP) were measured using a mobile air pollutant laboratory along nine transects across major roads in Detroit, MI in winter 2012. Repeated measurements were taken during rush-hour periods at sites in residential neighborhoods located 50-500 m from both sides of the road. Concentration gradients attributable to on-road emissions were estimated by accounting for traffic volume and mix, wind speed, wind direction, and background concentrations. BC, NO, NOx, and UFP had the strongest gradients, and elevated concentrations of NOx, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10, as well as decreased particle size, were found at the 50 m sites compared to background levels. Exponential models incorporating effects of road size, wind speed, and up- and downwind distance explained from 31 to 53% of the variability in concentration gradients for BC, NO, NOx, UFP and particle size. The expected concentration increments 50 m from the study roads were 17.0 ppb for NO, 17.7 ppb for NOx, 2245 particles/cm3 for UFP, and 0.24 μg/m3 for BC, and the expected distance to decrease increments by half was 89-129 m in the downwind direction, and 14-20 m in the upwind direction. While accounting for portion of the temporal and spatial variability across transects and measurement periods, these results highlight the influence of road-to-road differences and other locally-varying factors important in urban and industrial settings. The study demonstrates a methodology to quantify near-road concentrations and influences on these concentrations while accounting for temporal and spatial variability, and it provides information useful for estimating exposures of

  13. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  14. Wintertime Factors Affecting Contaminant Distribution in a Swine Farrowing Room

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Kelsie A.; Peters, Thomas M.; Anthony, T. Renée

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 200,000 to 500,000 U.S. workers in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are at risk of adverse respiratory outcomes from exposures to indoor contaminants. In the wintertime, general ventilation is minimized in the Midwest due to high heating costs required to maintain indoor temperatures optimal for animal production. Pit fans typically operate to exhaust under-floor manure pits, but little other fresh air intake exists. Many operators believe that these systems are sufficient to reduce contaminant concentrations within the building during winter. Investigating whether these pit fans provide sufficient protection against classic CAFO contaminants during minimal wintertime ventilation was warranted. Direct-reading instruments were used to measure and record concentrations of multiple contaminants using both fixed-area and mobile contaminant mapping in a farrowing room during a Midwest winter. With the exception of CO, concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) higher with the pit fan off compared with those with the pit fan on. Additional analyses identified that significant changes (p < 0.001) in mean room concentrations of respirable dust (decreased, 77% with pit fan off and 87% with pit fan on) and CO2 (increased, 24%) over the 5-hr study periods and that multiple fixed-area monitors rather than the much-used, single center-of-room monitor provided a more conservative (e.g., protective) assessment of room concentrations. While concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limits from OSHA or ACGIH for individual contaminants, recommended agricultural health limits from exposure-response studies suggested in the literature were exceeded for respirable dust, CO2, and NH3, indicating a need to consider personal exposures and control options to reduce contaminant concentrations in farrowing rooms. Pit fans reduced NH3 and H2S concentrations, but these fans may not be sufficient to control dust and eliminate the need for secondary

  15. Factors affecting ranging behaviour in young and adult laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gilani, A-M; Knowles, T G; Nicol, C J

    2014-01-01

    1. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of environment on ranging in 33 flocks reared with (16) or without (17) range access. Ranging was observed at 8, 16 and 35 weeks. Information on house layout, weather conditions and range characteristics was used to create models predicting the percentage of the flock out on the range and the percentage of ranging birds observed away from the house. 2. Three flocks had range access at 8 weeks. The percentage of birds ranging averaged 28%, with 22% of these ranging away from the house. For the 13 flocks with range access at 16 weeks, the percentage of pullets on the range was 12%, with 29% of these ranging away from the house. At 35 weeks, all flocks had range access and the average percentage of birds out on the range was 13%, with 42% of these ranging away from the house. 3. The percentage of birds seen using the range was higher with reduced flock size and stocking density, increased pop hole availability (cm/bird) and light intensity inside the house. More birds ranged on cooler days and on farms located in areas with fewer days of rain per year and lower average rainfall. The percentage of birds ranging varied with season and was lowest in May. More birds ranged away from the house when cover and more artificial structures were present on the range. The proportion of ranging birds located away from the house increased with lower outdoor humidity levels, higher air pressure, and on warmer days. Lastly, birds ranged away from the house more as they got older.

  16. Scratching around mating: factors affecting anxiety in wild Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Valentina; Norscia, Ivan; Antonacci, Daniela; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2012-07-01

    Scratching has been successfully used to detect anxiety, a proxy for stress, in primates, from strepsirrhines to Homo sapiens. Here, we investigated the fluctuation of scratching in Lemur catta during the mating season. In particular we evaluated whether scratching (1) varied according to sex and rank differences, (2) increased in the period of maximum stress (around the mating days), and (3) was reduced by grooming. At Berenty (South Madagascar), we followed two lemur groups (23 adult/subadult individuals) and gathered data on self-scratching, aggression, and grooming. Based on perineal area features, we recognized two periods: low swelling (LS), with no estrus female, and high swelling (HS), when at least one female was in estrus. We predicted that aggressive behaviors and anxiety-related scratching would covary. Indeed, scratching peaked in HS, when aggression was also highest. In agreement with previous literature, this result suggests that conflicts around estrus days may raise anxiety levels in the social group. We expected scratching levels to be highest in males because they aggressively compete for females and are subject to mate choice and repeated attacks by dominant females. Instead, the scratching rates were similar in males and females, probably because the high competition, which involves both sexes, dampened intersexual differences. In contrast to our prediction, scratching was not rank dependent, probably because animal ranking positions changed from LS to HS. Finally, we showed that, in ring-tailed lemurs, as well as in other primates, scratching decreases after reciprocal grooming in both periods. This finding provides the first evidence that grooming could assist in reducing anxiety in strepsirrhines.

  17. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  18. Factors Negatively Affecting University Adjustment from the Views of First-Year University Students: The Case of Mersin University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevinç, Seda; Gizir, Cem Ali

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study aims to investigate the most common factors that negatively affect adjustment to university and coping strategies used by first-year university students in the adaptation process from the viewpoint of first-year university students. The participants were 25 first-year university students from various faculties at Mersin…

  19. A Study of the Physiological Factors Affecting the Nature of the Adult Learner in the Phoenix Air National Guard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, James Brison

    An investigation reviewed current literature in the field of physiological factors affecting the adult learning environment. These findings were compared to the academic learning environment at the Phoenix Air National Guard. The end product was a set of recommendations for management to implement in order to improve the learning climate for the…

  20. Biogeochemical factors affecting the presence of 210Po in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Stillings, L.L.; Cutler, N.; Salonen, L.; Outola, I.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of natural 210Po enrichment at levels exceeding 500 mBq/L in numerous domestic wells in northern Nevada, USA, led to a geochemical investigation of the processes responsible for its mobilization. 210Po activities in 63 domestic and public-supply wells ranged from below 1 mBq/L to 6590 ± 590 mBq/L, among the highest reported levels in the USA. There is little spatial or depth variability in 210Pb activity in study-area sediments and mobilization of a few percent of the 210Po in the sediments would account for all of the 210Po in water. Stable-isotope measurements indicate SO4 reduction has occurred in all 210Po contaminated wells. Sulfide species are not accumulating in the groundwater in much of Lahontan Valley, probably because of S cycling involving microbial SO4 reduction, abiotic oxidation of H2S to S0 by Mn(IV), followed by microbial disproportionation of S0 to H2S and SO4. The high pH, Ca depletion, MnCO3 saturation, and presence of S0 in Lahontan Valley groundwater may be consequences of the anaerobic S cycling. Consistent with data from naturally-enriched wells in Florida, 210Po activities begin to decrease when aqueous sulfide species begin to accumulate. This may be due to formation and precipitation of PoS, however, Eh–pH diagrams suggest PoS would not be stable in study-area groundwater. An alternative explanation for the study area is that H2S accumulation begins when anaerobic S cycling stops because Mn oxides are depleted and their reduction is no longer releasing 210Po. Common features of 210Po-enriched groundwater were identified by comparing the radiological and geochemical data from Nevada with data from naturally-enriched wells in Finland, and Florida and Maryland in the USA. Values of pH ranged from 9 in Nevada wells, indicating that pH is not critical in determining whether 210Po is present. Where U is present in the sediments, the data suggest 210Po levels may be elevated in aquifers with (1) SO4-reducing waters with low H2S