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Sample records for investigating health effects

  1. Developing effective professional bus driver health programs: an investigation of self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yi-Shih; Wong, Jinn-Tsai

    2011-11-01

    The health of professional bus drivers is a critical factor in their driving performance; any impairment may lead to undesired consequences. In an attempt to develop and prioritize health and wellness programs, this study investigates the factors significantly affecting the health conditions of professional bus drivers, as well as the strength of these factors. This study uses self-rated health as the examination measurement. This simple assessment is an inclusive measure of health status for judging health trajectory, and is highly associated with changes in functional ability, including perceived control over driving. This study evaluates driver responses of self-rated health with ordered response models that consider factors such as the driver reported health problems, physical and psychological conditions, demographic factors, driving experience, and working environment. Analysis of a sample of 785 drivers shows that age, body mass index, depression, daily working hours, perceived company safety culture, and health problems are the factors significantly affecting self-rated health. Depression has the greatest effect among all factors except health problems. Unlike the linear relationships for the other factors, the relationships between depression levels and perceived health are S-shaped. The results of ordered response models suggest that these influential factors have distinct effects on the self-rated health of individual drivers and on the different levels of self-rated health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation on Health Effects of an Abandoned Metal Mine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Choi, Kyungho; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seungdo; Kim, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Young; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Jhung, Ik Jae; Yang, Won-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2008-01-01

    To investigate potential health risks associated with exposure to metals from an abandoned metal mine, the authors studied people living near an abandoned mine (n=102) and control groups (n=149). Levels of cadmium, copper, arsenic, lead, and zinc were measured in the air, soil, drinking water, and agricultural products. To assess individual exposure, biomarkers of each metal in blood and urine were measured. β2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and bone mineral density were measured. Surface soil in the study area showed 2-10 times higher levels of metals compared to that of the control area. Metal concentrations in the groundwater and air did not show any notable differences between groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and copper in rice and barley from the study area were significantly higher than those of the control area (p<0.05). Geometric means of blood and urine cadmium in the study area were 2.9 µg/L and 1.5 µg/g Cr, respectively, significantly higher than those in the control area (p<0.05). There were no differences in the levels of urinary markers of early kidney dysfunction and bone mineral density. The authors conclude that the residents near the abandoned mine were exposed to higher levels of metals through various routes. PMID:18583882

  3. Investigation on health effects of an abandoned metal mine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyeon; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Choi, Kyungho; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seungdo; Kim, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Young; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Jhung, Ik Jae; Yang, Won-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2008-06-01

    To investigate potential health risks associated with exposure to metals from an abandoned metal mine, the authors studied people living near an abandoned mine (n=102) and control groups (n=149). Levels of cadmium, copper, arsenic, lead, and zinc were measured in the air, soil, drinking water, and agricultural products. To assess individual exposure, biomarkers of each metal in blood and urine were measured. beta2-microglobulin, alpha1-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and bone mineral density were measured. Surface soil in the study area showed 2-10 times higher levels of metals compared to that of the control area. Metal concentrations in the groundwater and air did not show any notable differences between groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and copper in rice and barley from the study area were significantly higher than those of the control area (p<0.05). Geometric means of blood and urine cadmium in the study area were 2.9 microg/L and 1.5 microg/g Cr, respectively, significantly higher than those in the control area (p<0.05). There were no differences in the levels of urinary markers of early kidney dysfunction and bone mineral density. The authors conclude that the residents near the abandoned mine were exposed to higher levels of metals through various routes.

  4. Integrated MSS Effects: An Empirical Health Care Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgionne, Guisseppi A.; Kohli, Rajiv

    1995-01-01

    Gives an overview of the decision-making process, presents a management support system (MSS) for supporting decision making, and assesses the influence of the MSS on the process and outcomes of health-care decision making. Findings indicate that an MSS improves both the outcomes from, and process of, hospital decision making. (Author/JMV)

  5. Gateway Health Behaviors in College Students: Investigating Transfer and Compensation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Claudio Renato; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Hubbard, Amy E.; Min-Sun, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of studies on the mechanisms of multiple risk behaviors, even though these behaviors are significant public health issues. The authors investigated whether health behavior interventions have transfer or compensatory effects on other health behaviors. Participants and Methods: The authors looked at transfer and…

  6. Gateway Health Behaviors in College Students: Investigating Transfer and Compensation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Claudio Renato; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Hubbard, Amy E.; Min-Sun, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of studies on the mechanisms of multiple risk behaviors, even though these behaviors are significant public health issues. The authors investigated whether health behavior interventions have transfer or compensatory effects on other health behaviors. Participants and Methods: The authors looked at transfer and…

  7. Gateway health behaviors in college students: investigating transfer and compensation effects.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Claudio Renato; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Hubbard, Amy E; Min-Sun, Kim

    2009-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on the mechanisms of multiple risk behaviors, even though these behaviors are significant public health issues. The authors investigated whether health behavior interventions have transfer or compensatory effects on other health behaviors. The authors looked at transfer and compensation effects of 3 health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity) in a sample of college students aged 18 to 25 years (N = 973; 84% born in the United States; 50% female; 25% Japanese, 19% Caucasian, 16% mixed). The study revealed the following evidence for transfer effects: (1) nonsmokers consume less alcohol, (2) regularly active people smoke less, and (3) nondrinkers smoke less. The authors also found the following compensation effects: (1) regularly active people consume alcohol more frequently; and (2) alcohol drinkers are more active. Interventions involving college students' smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity need to take into account both transfer and compensation considerations to maximize health impacts.

  8. Health food stores investigation.

    PubMed

    Gourdine, S P; Traiger, W W; Cohen, D S

    1983-09-01

    In accordance with the New York City Department of Consumer Affairs' mandate to educate consumers and to prevent fraud and deception in the marketplace, the agency conducted a three-month investigation of city health food stores. Twenty-three health food businesses located throughout the five boroughs were visited from September through November 1982 in order to ascertain what those stores sold and how their merchandise compared, in quality and price, with items sold by other businesses.

  9. An investigation into the effect of alcohol consumption on health status and health care utilization in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Ormond, Gillian; Murphy, Rosemary

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of alcohol consumption on individual health status and health care utilization in Ireland using the 2007 Slán National Health and Lifestyle Survey, while accounting for the endogenous relationship between alcohol and health. Drinkers are categorized as those who never drank, non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, or heavy drinkers, based on national recommended weekly drinking levels in Ireland. The drinking-status equation is estimated using an ordered probit model. Predicted values for the inverse mills ratio are generated, which are then included in the health and health-care utilization equations. Differences in health status for each category of drinker are examined, and the relationship between both alcohol consumption and health with a host of other personal and socio-economic variables is also identified. Given that the measure of health status available is self-assessed, the effect of alcohol consumption on health-care utilization is also analyzed as an alternative measure of health. Findings show that in Ireland, moderate drinkers enjoy the best health status. More moderate drinkers report having very good or excellent health compared with heavy drinkers, non-drinkers, or those who never drank. While heavy drinkers do not report having as good a health status as moderate drinkers, they are better off in terms of health when compared with non-drinkers and those who are lifetime abstainers.

  10. Investigating the effects of temporal and interpersonal relative deprivation on health in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Tam, Tony

    2015-10-01

    We argue that in addition to interpersonal relative deprivation, it is important to examine how temporal relative deprivation influences health, especially in rapidly changing societies such as China. We develop four competing hypotheses regarding the possible effects of temporal relative deprivation on health. Moreover, we propose that temporal relative deprivation may confound the health effects of interpersonal relative deprivation, and for the sake of conceptual clarity, temporal relative deprivation needs to be accounted for in the examination of interpersonal relative deprivation. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China; our analytical sample consists of 10,828 respondents. The dependent variables are self-rated health and the frequency of experiencing depressive symptoms. Interpersonal relative deprivation is measured by individuals' evaluation of their current positions on a 10-rung 'ladder'. We also assess individuals' subjective positions at 14 years of age and from 10 years ago. To measure temporal relative deprivation, current subjective status is compared with subjective status at the two time points in the past to construct indicators of perceived upward and downward mobility. Both diagonal mobility models and conventional logistic regression are used and the results from the two types of model are comparable. The majority of Chinese people felt that they moved up the social ladder compared with their parents or themselves 10 years ago. Perceived upward mobility is not associated with health outcomes, whereas perceived downward mobility, especially intra-generational, is a strong predictor of worse mental and physical health. These patterns are consistent with the argument that the effects of bad experiences are stronger and longer lasting than those of good ones. They also focus our attention on those who perceived downward mobility. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the health effects of current subjective status also include

  11. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Extract.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    association between glucose intolerance, impaired insulin production, and dioxin exposure was revealed, but cause and effect...remain to be established. Also revealed was a significant association between selected peripheral pulses and dioxin exposure , and a significant...patterns within or across clinical areas that were suggestive of health detriment due to dioxin exposure

  12. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Evidence for a possible association between glucose intolerance, impaired insulin production, and dioxin exposure was revealed, but cause and effect...remain to be established. Also revealed was a significant association between selected peripheral pulses and dioxin exposure , and a significant...patterns within or across clinical areas that were suggestive of health detriment due to dioxin exposure

  13. The potential health effects of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits: phytochemical, chemotaxonomic and ethnobotanical investigations.

    PubMed

    Bystrom, Laura M

    2012-03-01

    Most natural product research is market-driven and thus many plant species are overlooked for their health value due to lack of financial incentives. This may explain the limited information available about the health effects of the edible fruit species Melicoccus bijugatus, a member of the Sapindaceae family that grows mostly in the Caribbean and in parts of South America. However, recent phytochemical studies of these fruits have shed some light on their biological effects. In this review the health effects of M. bijugatus fruit pulp and seeds are assessed in relation to phytochemical and ethnobotanical studies, as well as chemotaxonomic information and medicinal uses of other Sapindaceae species. The chemistry of M. bijugatus fruits was found to be different than the other Sapindaceae fruits, although some of the medicinal uses were similar. Specific phenolics or sugars in M. bijugatus fruits may contribute to their therapeutic uses, especially for gastrointestinal problems, and to some extent toxicological effects. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of M. bijugatus fruits, which may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses, potential drug or food interactions and may benefit people where the fruits are prevalent and healthcare resources are scarce.

  14. The Potential Health Effects of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. Fruits: Phytochemical, Chemotaxonomic and Ethnobotanical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Bystrom, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Most natural product research is market-driven and thus many plant species are overlooked for their health value due to lack of financial incentives. This may explain the limited information available about the health effects of the edible fruit species Melicoccus bijugatus, a member of the Sapindaceae family that grows mostly in the Caribbean and in parts of South America. However, recent phytochemical studies of these fruits have shed some light on their biological effects. In this review the health effects of M. bijugatus fruit pulp and seeds are assessed in relation to phytochemical and ethnobotanical studies, as well as chemotaxonomic information and medicinal uses of other Sapindaceae species. The chemistry of M. bijugatus fruits was found to be different than the other Sapindaceae fruits, although some of the medicinal uses were similar. Specific phenolics or sugars in M. bijugatus fruits may contribute to their therapeutic uses, especially for gastrointestinal problems, and to some extent toxicological effects. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of M. bijugatus fruits, which may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses, potential drug or food interactions and may benefit people where the fruits are prevalent and healthcare resources are scarce. PMID:22155593

  15. Spatial Variable Selection Methods for Investigating Acute Health Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Components

    PubMed Central

    Vock, Laura F. Boehm; Reich, Brian J.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dominici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Summary Multi-site time series studies have reported evidence of an association between short term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but the effect size varies across the United States. Variability in the effect may partially be due to differing community level exposure and health characteristics, but also due to the chemical composition of PM which is known to vary greatly by location and time. The objective of this article is to identify particularly harmful components of this chemical mixture. Because of the large number of highly-correlated components, we must incorporate some regularization into a statistical model. We assume that, at each spatial location, the regression coefficients come from a mixture model with the flavor of stochastic search variable selection, but utilize a copula to share information about variable inclusion and effect magnitude across locations. The model differs from current spatial variable selection techniques by accommodating both local and global variable selection. The model is used to study the association between fine PM (PM <2.5 μm) components, measured at 115 counties nationally over the period 2000–2008, and cardiovascular emergency room admissions among Medicare patients. PMID:25303336

  16. Methodological challenges in using routinely collected health data to investigate long-term effects of medication use during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Andrew L.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2013-01-01

    To date, the investigation of teratogenic effects of medications has largely focused on physical alterations present at birth (i.e. malformations) as opposed to functional alterations (i.e. neurodevelopment, metabolic function) that may not be apparent at birth but could influence an individual’s health and risk of disease in later life. The use of routinely collected health data represents one approach to better identifying, quantifying, and understanding the long-term risks or benefits of medication use during pregnancy. As such, the objective of this review was to identify and explore opportunities and challenges associated with using routinely collected health data to examine long-term effects of medication use during pregnancy. Drawing on published research several key methodological issues associated with their use in investigating long-term outcomes are reviewed. While significant opportunities exist to make greater use of routinely collected health data, there are a number of key challenges. Identified challenges relate to aspects of study design and analysis, and include obtaining access to data, the ability to match records across datasets and over long periods of time, how medication exposures are ascertained and classified, issues around loss to follow-up how outcomes are ascertained and classified, and the careful interpretation of results in light of study and data limitations. Understanding key challenges associated with using routinely collected health data to investigate long-term effects of medication use during pregnancy is essential in supporting their appropriate use and interpretation, which will contribute to improving the quality of research undertaken and ensure the reliability of results obtained. PMID:25083249

  17. Investigating the Effectiveness of Programs on Health Financing Based on Audit Procedures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present paper focuses on approaching the context and the actual manner of applying a method, known to be efficient and with a solid scientific background, on the institutional level of healthcare in Romania. Methods: The analyses and correlations developed by the author have taken into account the latest editions of the journals and publications of these institutions, such as statistical papers, standards, procedural guidebooks, reports. Most of the data (easily identifiable in the electronic environment) have been selected to enable the subsequent further investigation. Results: The payments made in 2012 for the audited NHP1–4, have increased by 82 282.66 thousand € (39.2%) as compared to 2010, and by 50578.22 thousand € (20.9%) as compared to 2011. The amounts paid for NHP1–4 have had an ascending trend starting with 2010, but, during 2010–2012, as the contribution of the Ministry of Health from the state budget has decreased from 152590.66 thousand € to 95328.22 thousand €, CNAS’s funding from the FNUASS resources has increased by 2.4 times. Conclusion: Following the analysis conducted on the NHP1–4, the findings based on representative samples are: (i) the specific legal standards related to the development of the NHP1–4, did not provide all the mechanisms that would ensure the certain procurement of medication and medical supplies as needed and did not ensure the efficient use of the allocated funds; (ii) clear discontinuities have been identified in the funding of NHP1–4, etc. PMID:27928534

  18. Effects of chewing gum on stress and health: a replication and investigation of dose-response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Research suggests that chewing gum may be associated with reduced stress, depression and a reduced likelihood of having high cholesterol and blood pressure. The present study aimed to replicate these findings and extend them by examining dose-response. A web-based survey was completed by a sample of 388 workers from public sector organisations (68.5% female; mean age: 42 years, range 17-64 years). The results showed that chewing gum was associated in a linear dose-response manner with lower levels of perceived stress (both at work and life in general), anxiety and depression. Occasional gum chewers also reported a reduced risk of high cholesterol and blood pressure. Intervention studies are now required to extend these findings, and the mechanisms underlying the effects reported here need further investigation.

  19. An investigation into the empowerment effects of using online support groups and how this affects health professional/patient communication.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Coulson, Neil S

    2011-04-01

    The current research investigates the potential of online support groups (OSGs) to foster empowerment and how membership might affect the patient/health professional relationship. 246 participants across 33 OSGs completed an online questionnaire. All empowerment processes and outcomes identified by van Uden-Kraan et al. [1] were found to be present. All empowerment outcomes were adequately predicted by empowerment processes. The majority (82.2%) of participants had discussed information found online with their health professional and most (74.2%) were satisfied with the response. Around 60% of participants felt membership of an OSG had affected the relationship with their health professional and from qualitative responses the effects were mostly positive. OSGs have the potential to produce empowerment outcomes for those who choose to use them. Furthermore, users report a positive reaction to information found online from their health professionals. Although not all patients will benefit from using OSGs, health professionals suggesting their use could ensure that they reach the maximum receptive audience. Furthermore, this research could be used to encourage a more 'net friendly' attitude amongst health professionals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-disaster health effects: strategies for investigation and data collection. Experiences from the Enschede firework disaster

    PubMed Central

    Roorda, J; van Stiphout, W A H J; Huijsman-Rubingh, R

    2004-01-01

    Background: Public health policy is increasingly concerned with the care for victims of a disaster. This article describes the design and implementation of an epidemiological study, which seeks to match care services to the specific problems of persons affected by a large scale incident. The study was prompted by the explosion of a firework depot in Enschede, the Netherlands. Study population: All those directly affected by this incident (residents, emergency services personnel, and people who happened to be in the area at the time), some of whom suffered personal loss or injury. The project investigates both the physical and psychological effects of the disaster, as well as the target group's subsequent call on healthcare services. Study design: A questionnaire based follow up survey of those directly affected and an ongoing monitoring of health problems relying on reports from healthcare professionals. The follow up survey started three weeks after the incident and was repeated 18 months and almost four years after the incident. The monitoring is conducted over a four year period by general practitioners, the local mental health services department, occupational health services, and the youth healthcare services department. It provides ongoing information. Results and Conclusions: The results of the study are regularly discussed with healthcare professionals and policy makers, and are made known to the research participants. The paper also explains the considerations that were made in designing the study to help others making up their research plans when confronted with possible health effects of a disaster. PMID:15547056

  1. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    1-1 3AIR FORCE HEALTH STUDY.............................................. 1-1 Questionnaire Methodology...M.D., CDC Questionnaire administration and scheduling: Ellwood Carter, NORC Jan Dyson, NORC Charlene Harris, NORC Cynthia Peters, NORC * Jacques Van...8-148 Questionnaire Variables

  2. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 10.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    examination Methodology, Study Selection and Participation, Quality Control, Statistical Methods, Covariate Associations with Estimates of Dioxin ... Exposure , General Health Assessment, Neoplasia Assessment, Neurological Assessment, Psychological Assessment, Gastrointestinal Assessment, Dermatologic

  3. New York's Health Care Workforce Recruitment and Retention Act: an investigation of the effects of nonrecurring increases in health worker wage on health worker supply.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kavin

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes New York's Health Care Workforce Recruitment and Retention Act of 2002. The analysis comes in 4 parts: part 1 provides a brief overview of New York's economy as it relates to health care, a feel for the political climate at the time, and a detailed presentation of the chain of events that connect this climate to the birth of the Health Care Workforce Recruitment and Retention Act of 2002; part 2 consists of a breakdown of the provisions contained within bill, including major and minor goals, intended effects, and the mechanics behind raising supporting funds; part 3 explores what actually happened by evaluating available data to determine whether the bill's 2 major goals of workforce recruitment and retention were fulfilled; and finally, part 4 will take all the aforementioned information to determine the overall success of the bill, the implications, and specific suggestions for future policy changes that time has revealed since its inception.

  4. Wildlife health investigations: needs, challenges and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In a fast changing world with growing concerns about biodiversity loss and an increasing number of animal and human diseases emerging from wildlife, the need for effective wildlife health investigations including both surveillance and research is now widely recognized. However, procedures applicable to and knowledge acquired from studies related to domestic animal and human health can be on partly extrapolated to wildlife. This article identifies requirements and challenges inherent in wildlife health investigations, reviews important definitions and novel health investigation methods, and proposes tools and strategies for effective wildlife health surveillance programs. Impediments to wildlife health investigations are largely related to zoological, behavioral and ecological characteristics of wildlife populations and to limited access to investigation materials. These concerns should not be viewed as insurmountable but it is imperative that they are considered in study design, data analysis and result interpretation. It is particularly crucial to remember that health surveillance does not begin in the laboratory but in the fields. In this context, participatory approaches and mutual respect are essential. Furthermore, interdisciplinarity and open minds are necessary because a wide range of tools and knowledge from different fields need to be integrated in wildlife health surveillance and research. The identification of factors contributing to disease emergence requires the comparison of health and ecological data over time and among geographical regions. Finally, there is a need for the development and validation of diagnostic tests for wildlife species and for data on free-ranging population densities. Training of health professionals in wildlife diseases should also be improved. Overall, the article particularly emphasizes five needs of wildlife health investigations: communication and collaboration; use of synergies and triangulation approaches; investments

  5. A randomized, blinded, controlled trial investigating the gastrointestinal health effects of drinking water quality.

    PubMed Central

    Hellard, M E; Sinclair, M I; Forbes, A B; Fairley, C K

    2001-01-01

    A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was carried out in in Melbourne, Australia, to determine the contribution of drinking water to gastroenteritis. Melbourne is one of the few major cities in the world that draws drinking water from a protected forest catchment with minimal water treatment (chlorination only). Six hundred families were randomly allocated to receive either real or sham water treatment units (WTUs) installed in their kitchen. Real units were designed to remove viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. Study participants completed a weekly health diary reporting gastrointestinal symptoms during the 68-week observation period. There were 2,669 cases of highly credible gastroenteritis (HCG) during the study (0.80 cases/person/year). The ratio of HCG episode rates for the real WTU group compared to the sham WTU group was 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.15, p = 0.85). We collected 795 fecal specimens from participants with gastroenteritis, and pathogens were not more significantly common in the sham WTU group. We found no evidence of waterborne disease in Melbourne. The application of this methodology to other water supplies will provide a better understanding of the relationship between human health and water quality. PMID:11564611

  6. A mixed-method systematic review to investigate the effect of group singing on health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Reagon, Carly; Gale, Nichola; Enright, Stephanie; Mann, Mala; van Deursen, Robert

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of group singing on health related quality of life (HRQoL) for adult, amateur singers with chronic health conditions. A literature search for experimental and observational studies and qualitative studies published before February 2014 was undertaken using the following databases: ASSIA (Proquest), CINAHL (Ebsco), EMBASE (OVID), HMIC (OVID), MEDLINE (OVID), MEDLINE in Process (OVID), OpenGrey, PsycINFO (OVID) and PubMed for Epub ahead of print studies. Social Science searches included: Web of Science, Proquest, and Scopus (Elsevier). The records were screened independently by two reviewers. Studies were critiqued using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. The literature search identified 573 papers, from which 18 were included (5 quantitative, 5 qualitative, 8 mixed-methods studies). These included a variety of patient populations including chronic respiratory disease, neurological conditions and mental health. The quantitative studies lacked consistency: two of the seven controlled studies demonstrated additional HRQoL benefits with singing compared to controls, while three of six uncontrolled studies showed improved HRQoL. Qualitative methods were recorded in variable depth. The qualitative data presented a range of benefits of group singing including increased confidence, increased mood and social support. Few negative effects of singing were reported. This systematic review indicates that group singing interventions may have beneficial effects on HRQoL, anxiety, depression and mood. Studies were heterogeneous with significant methodological limitations, allowing only a weak recommendation for group singing as an intervention for adults with chronic health problems. The undertaking of larger controlled and in-depth qualitative studies is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [New investigation of the effect of toner and its by-products on human health and occupational health management of toner].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Kitamura, Hiroko; Kuga, Hiroaki; Ide, Reiko; Myojo, Toshihiko; Higashi, Toshiaki; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    We need a new investigation of the effect of not only toner but also of its by-products on human health, because of the generation of fine particles and the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the process of photocopy. Therefore, we gathered epidemiological and animal data on toner and its by-products, and examined the occupational health management of toner. We examined the effect of carbonblack as the main component of toner, and titanium dioxide and amorphous silica as surface-adhesive nanomaterials, and VOC on human health, and reviewed them. We summarize the results as follows. 1) High sensitive c-reactive protein in serum, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in urine, and heart rate variability (HRV) are useful for biological monitoring of exposure to toner and its by-products. 2) Particle number concentrations have been often measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) compared with other apparatus, although this is not measurement gold standard. Taken together, we have examined whole occupational health management of toner and its by-products.

  8. What Factors Impact Consumer Perception of the Effectiveness of Health Information Sites? An Investigation of the Korean National Health Information Portal

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Lay public's concerns around health and health information are increasing. In response, governments and government agencies are establishing websites to address such concerns and improve health literacy by providing better access to validated health information. Since 2011, the Korean government has constructed the National Health Information Portal (NHIP) website run in collaboration with the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS). This study therefore aimed to 1) examine consumer use of NHIP, with respect to the usage patterns, evaluation on health information provided, and perceived effectiveness of the site; and 2) identify factors that may impact perceived effectiveness of the site. An online survey was conducted with 164 NHIP users, recruited through a popup window on the main screen of the portal website from October to November 2015. The significant predicting factors supported by the data include the relevance of health information on the site, the usefulness of information in making health decisions, and the effective visualization of information. These factors can inform future efforts to design more effective health information websites, possibly based on metadata systems, to further advance the lay public's information seeking and health literacy. PMID:28581262

  9. What Factors Impact Consumer Perception of the Effectiveness of Health Information Sites? An Investigation of the Korean National Health Information Portal.

    PubMed

    Choung, Ji Tae; Lee, Yoon Seong; Jo, Heui Sug; Shim, Minsun; Lee, Hun Jae; Jung, Su Mi

    2017-07-01

    Lay public's concerns around health and health information are increasing. In response, governments and government agencies are establishing websites to address such concerns and improve health literacy by providing better access to validated health information. Since 2011, the Korean government has constructed the National Health Information Portal (NHIP) website run in collaboration with the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS). This study therefore aimed to 1) examine consumer use of NHIP, with respect to the usage patterns, evaluation on health information provided, and perceived effectiveness of the site; and 2) identify factors that may impact perceived effectiveness of the site. An online survey was conducted with 164 NHIP users, recruited through a popup window on the main screen of the portal website from October to November 2015. The significant predicting factors supported by the data include the relevance of health information on the site, the usefulness of information in making health decisions, and the effective visualization of information. These factors can inform future efforts to design more effective health information websites, possibly based on metadata systems, to further advance the lay public's information seeking and health literacy. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  10. Hails from the crypt: a terror management health model investigation of the effectiveness of health-oriented versus celebrity-oriented endorsements.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Simon; Vail, Kenneth E; Arndt, Jamie; Goldenberg, Jamie L

    2014-03-01

    Interfacing the terror management health model with the meaning transfer model, we offer novel hypotheses concerning the effectiveness of celebrity and medical endorsements for consumer products and health behavior decisions. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that, compared with control topic primes, death thoughts in focal attention increased the effectiveness of health-oriented (doctor) endorsers but not culture-oriented (celebrity) endorsers, whereas death thoughts outside of focal attention increased the effectiveness of culture-oriented endorsers but not health-oriented endorsers. Studies 3 and 4 then focus more specifically on the valence and specificity of culture-oriented endorsements, revealing that death thoughts outside focal attention increase the effectiveness of culture-oriented endorsers only on the behaviors specifically endorsed and only when the endorser is characterized as possessing cultural value. Discussion focuses on everyday management of existential concerns and implications for persuasive communications in the health domain.

  11. Is previous psychological health associated with the likelihood of Iraq War deployment? An investigation of the "healthy warrior effect".

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jennifer; Jones, Margaret; Fear, Nicola T; Hull, Lisa; Hotopf, Matthew; Wessely, Simon; Rona, Roberto J

    2009-06-01

    Using survey data, the authors assessed whether military personnel's prior mental health status would influence their likelihood of being deployed. None of the previous studies that assessed a possible "healthy warrior effect," in which persons selected for deployment have better predeployment health, were based on surveys. A sample of 2,820 United Kingdom military personnel studied in 2002, before the Iraq War, was contacted again between 2004 and 2006. The baseline questionnaire included a measure of psychological distress (the General Health Questionnaire), the PTSD [posttraumatic stress disorder] Checklist (PCL), physical symptoms, and level of medical fitness. A total of 1,885 (67%) participants completed a follow-up questionnaire. General Health Questionnaire caseness in 2002 was associated with a reduction in risk of deployment later on (risk ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 0.99). Scoring high on the PCL intrusiveness and avoidance domains also reduced the risk of deployment. These associations were slightly stronger when the comparison was made between persons who were deployed to Iraq and those who were not. Although risk ratios were well below 1.00, PCL categories were not significantly associated with being deployed. This study demonstrated a small "healthy warrior effect"; persons with better psychological health had a higher chance of being deployed, even after adjustment for predeployment medical fitness.

  12. Wildlife health and disease investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, T.J.; Work, T.M.; Braun, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Wildlife population management requires knowledge of factors that affect population sustainability. Mortality is one of the most important of those factors. Without a clear understanding of the causes of mortality, decisions by managers of whether or how to intercede may be inappropriate. Wildlife biologists are usually the first to discover, assess, and respond to wildlife mortality. Biologists who make accurate, complete and timely field investigations, and proper collection and shipment of samples to a diagnostic facility are essential for an accurate diagnosis. In combination with wildlife disease specialists, biologists can identify causes of wildlife mortality, detect long-term patterns in factors that affect the survival of populations, and take appropriate corrective action to minimize the impact of some mortality factors on wildlife populations.

  13. Adherence to lipid-lowering therapy and the use of preventive health services: an investigation of the healthy user effect.

    PubMed

    Brookhart, M Alan; Patrick, Amanda R; Dormuth, Colin; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William; Cadarette, Suzanne M; Solomon, Daniel H

    2007-08-01

    Patients who adhere to preventive therapies may be more likely to engage in a broad spectrum of behaviors consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Because many of these behaviors cannot be measured easily, observational studies of outcomes associated with the long-term use of preventive therapies are subject to the so-called "healthy user bias." To better understand this effect, the authors examined the association between adherence to statin therapy and the use of preventive health services in a Pennsylvania cohort of 20,783 new users of statins between 1996 and 2004. After adjustment for age, gender, and various comorbid conditions, patients who filled two or more prescriptions for a statin during a 1-year ascertainment period were more likely than patients who filled only one prescription to receive prostate-specific antigen tests (hazard ratio (HR)=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17, 2.19), fecal occult blood tests (HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.53), screening mammograms (HR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.38), influenza vaccinations (HR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.31), and pneumococcal vaccinations (HR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.83) during follow-up. These results suggest that patients who adhere to chronic therapies are more likely to seek out preventive health services, such as screening tests and vaccinations. Further work is needed to identify study design and analysis methods that can be used to minimize the healthy user bias in studies of preventive therapies.

  14. Investigating the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity of the elderly in Rezaeian Health Center, Iran, in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Manavi, Narges; Abedi, Heidarali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reaching geriatric period is one of the greatest successes in human Beings. The older adults are predisposed to risk of many diseases and disabilities, and physical activity is one of the most efficient methods to prevent geriatric period disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed define the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity of the elderly residing in Shahid Rezaian health care center in 2014. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 older adults, age 65 years and over, selected through convenient sampling and assigned to groups of study and control. Study group was divided into 5 seven-member subgroups and a one-hour session of physical exercises was administrated for them once a week for eight sequential weeks. All subjects evaluated before and after intervention by International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Subjects’ physical activity was scored, based on the personal activity protocol,and the results were compared. Significance level was considered as P<0.05. Results: Frequency distributions of the female subjects were 29 (82%) and 28 (80%) in study and control groups respectively. Mean (SD) scores of physical activity were 347.8 (174.1) and 321.7 (119.2) before intervention, and 641.3 (240.6) and 331.3 (101.5) after intervention in study and control groups respectively. Independent t-test showed a significant increase in physical activity score in study group, compared to control (t=4.06, P<0.001). Conclusions: The level of physical activity can be improved in the elderly through application of an empowerment program so as to take steps toward solving their immobility related problems and promoting their health through application of an empowerment program at this period of their life. PMID:27563315

  15. [Investigation on the health effects of traffic-related air pollution from Mestre motorway (Veneto Region, Northern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Anello, Paola; Cestari, Laura; Canova, Cristina; Vianello, Luisa; Pistollato, Silvia; Lorenzet, Ketty; Sciarrone, Rocco; Selle, Vittorio; Simonato, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate whether living near motorway A57 (Mestre motorway, Veneto Region, Northern Italy) might have affected the residents' health status. longitudinal cohort study. 148,673 residents on the mainland in the Municipality of Venice (Mestre) who never changed their residence during the follow- up period (2002-2009). the 2001 Italian census data were linked with the data sources of the epidemiological integrated system which includes: population registry, death certificates, hospital discharges, drug prescriptions, and tax exemption. Mortality and incidence for several subgroups of causes, incidence of acute myocardial infarction and stroke, and prevalence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic cardiopathy and diabetes were estimated. The ADMS-Urban model was adopted to define three different exposure areas based on PM10 emissions from the motorway: A (highly exposed), B (moderately exposed) used as a comparison for the analysis, C (unexposed). Hazard ratios (HR) for incidence and mortality were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for calendar period, age, gender, and instruction level. The relationship between the exposure area and prevalence was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for the same covariates. compared with B area (23.25%of the population under study), people living in A area (3.16% of the population under study) had an increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (HR: 1.43; 95%CI 1.03-1.97) in females, and prevalence of ischemic cardiopathy (odds ratio - OR: 1.12; 95%CI 1.01-1.26) in both genders. Results were borderline for COPD in males (OR: 1.17; 95%CI 0.97-1.41). Positive but nonsignificant associations were found with pneumonia and respiratory recoveries. this study showed that residents who live near Mestre motorway had an increased prevalence of some cardiorespiratory diseases, particularly ischemic cardiopathy.

  16. Protocol investigating the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of cognitive–behavioural therapy delivered remotely for unscheduled care users with health anxiety: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shireen; Malins, Sam; Guo, Boliang; James, Marilyn; Kai, Joe; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; Rowley, Emma; Simpson, Jayne; Smart, David; Stubley, Michelle; Tyrer, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background Health anxiety and medically unexplained symptoms cost the National Health Service (NHS) an estimated £3 billion per year in unnecessary costs with little evidence of patient benefit. Effective treatment is rarely taken up due to issues such as stigma or previous negative experiences with mental health services. An approach to overcome this might be to offer remotely delivered psychological therapy, which can be just as effective as face-to-face therapy and may be more accessible and suitable. Aims To investigate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of remotely delivered cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) to people with high health anxiety repeatedly accessing unscheduled care (trial registration: NCT02298036). Method A multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be undertaken in primary and secondary care providers of unscheduled care across the East Midlands. One hundred and forty-four eligible participants will be equally randomised to receive either remote CBT (6–12 sessions) or treatment as usual (TAU). Two doctoral research studies will investigate the barriers and facilitators to delivering the intervention and the factors contributing to the optimisation of therapeutic outcome. Results This trial will be the first to test the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of remotely delivered CBT for the treatment of high health anxiety. Conclusions The findings will enable an understanding as to how this intervention might fit into a wider care pathway to enhance patient experience of care. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703758

  17. The GO-ACTIWE randomized controlled trial - An interdisciplinary study designed to investigate the health effects of active commuting and leisure time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Mads; Petersen, Martin Bæk; Gram, Anne Sofie; Quist, Jonas Salling; Winther, Jonas; Kamronn, Simon Due; Milling, Desirée Hornbæk; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille; Stallknecht, Bente

    2017-02-01

    Regular physical activity is efficacious for improving metabolic health in overweight and obese individuals, yet, many adults lead sedentary lives. Most exercise interventions have targeted leisure time, but physical activity also takes place in other domains of everyday life. Active commuting represents a promising alternative to increase physical activity, but it has yet to be established whether active commuting conveys health benefits on par with leisure time physical activity (LTPA). A 6-month randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of increased physical activity in transport (bicycling) or leisure time domains (moderate or vigorous intensity endurance exercise). We included 188 overweight and class 1 obese sedentary women and men (20-45years) of which 130 were randomized to either sedentary controls (n=18), active commuting (n=35) or moderate (n=39) or vigorous (n=38) intensity LTPA. At baseline and after 3 and 6months, participants underwent a rigorous 3-day biomedical test regimen followed by free-living measurements. In a sub-sample, physical activity level and energy expenditure were monitored by means of personal assistive technology and the doubly labeled water technique. Additionally, the delivery, reception and routinization of the exercise regimens were investigated by ethnological fieldwork. One year after termination of the intervention, participants will be invited for a follow-up visit to investigate sustained health effects and continuous physical activity adherence. By combining biomedical, technological and humanistic approaches, we aim to understand the health benefits of physical activity in different domains of everyday life, as well as how to improve adherence to physical activity.

  18. The Effect of Contact Investigations and Public Health Interventions in the Control and Prevention of Measles Transmission: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Enanoria, Wayne T A; Liu, Fengchen; Zipprich, Jennifer; Harriman, Kathleen; Ackley, Sarah; Blumberg, Seth; Worden, Lee; Porco, Travis C

    2016-01-01

    Measles cases continue to occur despite its elimination status in the United States. To control transmission, public health officials confirm the measles diagnosis, identify close contacts of infectious cases, deliver public health interventions (i.e., post-exposure prophylaxis) among those who are eligible, and follow-up with the close contacts to determine overall health outcomes. A stochastic network simulation of measles contact tracing was conducted using existing agent-based modeling software and a synthetic population with high levels of immunity in order to estimate the impact of different interventions in controlling measles transmission. The synthetic population was created to simulate California`s population in terms of population demographics, household, workplace, school, and neighborhood characteristics using California Department of Finance 2010 census data. Parameters for the model were obtained from a review of the literature, California measles case surveillance data, and expert opinion. Eight different scenarios defined by the use of three different public health interventions were evaluated: (a) post-exposure measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, (b) post-exposure immune globulin (IG), and (c) voluntary isolation and home quarantine in the presence or absence of public health response delays. Voluntary isolation and home quarantine coupled with one or two other interventions had the greatest reduction in the number of secondary cases infected by the index case and the probability of escape situations (i.e., the outbreak continues after 90 days). Interrupting contact patterns via voluntary isolation and home quarantine are particularly important in reducing the number of secondary cases infected by the index case and the probability of uncontrolled outbreaks.

  19. The Effect of Contact Investigations and Public Health Interventions in the Control and Prevention of Measles Transmission: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Harriman, Kathleen; Ackley, Sarah; Blumberg, Seth; Worden, Lee; Porco, Travis C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Measles cases continue to occur despite its elimination status in the United States. To control transmission, public health officials confirm the measles diagnosis, identify close contacts of infectious cases, deliver public health interventions (i.e., post-exposure prophylaxis) among those who are eligible, and follow-up with the close contacts to determine overall health outcomes. A stochastic network simulation of measles contact tracing was conducted using existing agent-based modeling software and a synthetic population with high levels of immunity in order to estimate the impact of different interventions in controlling measles transmission. Methods and Findings The synthetic population was created to simulate California`s population in terms of population demographics, household, workplace, school, and neighborhood characteristics using California Department of Finance 2010 census data. Parameters for the model were obtained from a review of the literature, California measles case surveillance data, and expert opinion. Eight different scenarios defined by the use of three different public health interventions were evaluated: (a) post-exposure measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, (b) post-exposure immune globulin (IG), and (c) voluntary isolation and home quarantine in the presence or absence of public health response delays. Voluntary isolation and home quarantine coupled with one or two other interventions had the greatest reduction in the number of secondary cases infected by the index case and the probability of escape situations (i.e., the outbreak continues after 90 days). Conclusions Interrupting contact patterns via voluntary isolation and home quarantine are particularly important in reducing the number of secondary cases infected by the index case and the probability of uncontrolled outbreaks. PMID:27941976

  20. Investigation of the effect of education based on the health belief model on the adoption of hypertension-controlling behaviors in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Fekrizadeh, Zohreh; Roozbahani, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and stroke, and has a direct relationship with aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of education based on the health belief model (HBM) on the adoption of hypertension-controlling behaviors in the elderly. The present quasiexperimental study was conducted on 100 hypertensive elderly persons from Qom, Iran. The questionnaire was completed by the participants before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. The results of repeated measure analysis of variance showed a significant difference in the scores of the constructs in the intervention and nonintervention groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention (P<0.001). Education based on the HBM increases the performance and enhances the health beliefs regarding hypertension in the elderly population with hypertension. Therefore, it is recommended to consider the HBM to enhance self-care behaviors in the elderly.

  1. Investigation of the effect of education based on the health belief model on the adoption of hypertension-controlling behaviors in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Fekrizadeh, Zohreh; Roozbahani, Nasrin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Hypertension is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and stroke, and has a direct relationship with aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of education based on the health belief model (HBM) on the adoption of hypertension-controlling behaviors in the elderly. Methods The present quasiexperimental study was conducted on 100 hypertensive elderly persons from Qom, Iran. The questionnaire was completed by the participants before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. Results The results of repeated measure analysis of variance showed a significant difference in the scores of the constructs in the intervention and nonintervention groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention (P<0.001). Conclusion Education based on the HBM increases the performance and enhances the health beliefs regarding hypertension in the elderly population with hypertension. Therefore, it is recommended to consider the HBM to enhance self-care behaviors in the elderly. PMID:28184154

  2. Climate Effects on Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapter . Additional information regarding the health effects of climate change and references to supporting literature can be found ... globalchange.gov/engage/activities-products/NCA3/technical-inputs . Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health ...

  3. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Introduction, Background and Conclusions (Chapters 1-5, 18, 19)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Donald G. Patterson, Ph.D., CDC James L Pirkle, M.D., CDC Questionnaire administration and scheduling: Ellwood Carter, NORC Jan Dyson, NORC Charlene...1-1 AIR FORCE HEALTH STUDY ............................................. 1-1 Questionnaire Methodology...888 and the subsequently received 314 Comparison assay results. Questionnaire Methodology One source of information used in the statistical analyses

  4. HALL EFFECT INVESTIGATIONS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, *SEMICONDUCTING FILMS, *THIN FILM STORAGE DEVICES, ANTIMONY ALLOYS, CRYSTALLIZATION, ELECTRODES, ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES, EVAPORATION, HALL EFFECT , HEAT TREATMENT, INDIUM ALLOYS, ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE.

  5. Investigating the role of transportation models in epidemiologic studies of traffic related air pollution and health effects.

    PubMed

    Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Valois, Marie-France; Goldberg, Mark S; Crouse, Dan; Ross, Nancy; Parent, Marie-Elise; Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2015-07-01

    In two earlier case-control studies conducted in Montreal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related air pollution was found to be associated with the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer and prostate cancer. These studies relied on a land use regression model (LUR) for NO2 that is commonly used in epidemiologic studies for deriving estimates of traffic-related air pollution. Here, we investigate the use of a transportation model developed during the summer season to generate a measure of traffic emissions as an alternative to the LUR model. Our traffic model provides estimates of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the level of individual roads, as does the LUR model. Our main objective was to compare the distribution of the spatial estimates of NOx computed from our transportation model to the distribution obtained from the LUR model. A secondary objective was to compare estimates of risk using these two exposure estimates. We observed that the correlation (spearman) between our two measures of exposure (NO2 and NOx) ranged from less than 0.3 to more than 0.9 across Montreal neighborhoods. The most important factor affecting the "agreement" between the two measures in a specific area was found to be the length of roads. Areas affected by a high level of traffic-related air pollution had a far better agreement between the two exposure measures. A comparison of odds ratios (ORs) obtained from NO2 and NOx used in two case-control studies of breast and prostate cancer, showed that the differences between the ORs associated with NO2 exposure vs NOx exposure differed by 5.2-8.8%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methods development for epidemiologic investigations of the health effects of prolonged ozone exposure. Part I: Variability of pulmonary function measures.

    PubMed

    Tager, I B; Künzli, N; Ngo, L; Balmes, J

    1998-03-01

    The acute and subacute effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on lung function have been studied extensively in a variety of settings. Such studies generally have focused on measures of function that reflect either lung volumes or flows that are influenced by the physiology of large and small airways (e.g., forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1). Data from animal studies suggest that the effects of prolonged exposure to elevated ambient concentrations of ozone result in abnormalities in the centriacinar region of the lung; and dosimetry models for humans predict that long-term exposure to ozone could impact the same areas of the human lung. However, alterations in structure at this level of the lung are not well reflected by measuring FEV1 until substantial structural changes have occurred. Measures of the lung function that reflect the functional mechanics of airways smaller than 2 mm in diameter are considered to be more relevant. At least one epidemiologic study has provided evidence that small-airway functions may be relevant to effects of prolonged exposure to environments with high concentrations of oxidants. A considerable body of physiologic data has established that flow rates measured during the terminal portion of a maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve are largely governed by airways smaller than 2 mm in diameter A similar interpretation has been given to changes in the slope of phase III (delta N2) of the single-breath nitrogen washout (SBNW) curve. Despite the attractiveness of these measures in relation to airway physiology, some data suggest that measurements of flow via the terminal portions of MEFV and SBNW curves have much greater within-subject variability than forced vital capacity (FVC and FEV1. The present study was undertaken as part of a larger feasibility study to develop methods to study the effects of prolonged exposure to elevated ambient ozone levels on lung function in adolescents. A convenience sample of 239 freshmen

  7. The feasibility of epidemiologic investigations of the health effects of low-level ionizing radiation. Final report, 3 July 1979-30 October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, N.A.; Kohn, H.I.; Clapp, R.W.; Covino, S.J. Jr.; Fahey, F.H.

    1980-11-01

    This is the final report of 'A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Conducting Epidemiologic Investigations of the Health Effects of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation', begun July 3, 1979. The study defines low-level ionizing radiation as a single dose of 5 rem (whole-body) or less and chronic doses that accumulate at the rate of less than 5 rem per year. The objective of this project was to determine whether or not further epidemiologic research (either expansion of current projects or initiation of new ones) would be useful at this time for quantitating the health effects due to low-level ionizing radiation. No outstanding candidate population is recommended for study since, even if the largest available populations are studied, the chance of finding a definite positive result is very small. However, the decision to conduct a study must rest heavily on social and political considerations rather than on purely scientific ones. Therefore, four populations are tentatively proposed for prospective cohort studies, with nested case-control studies as needed. Overall, the most practical approach would be to conduct a study through a national worker registry, with cancer as the endpoint of interest.

  8. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 6: investigating methods to identify, prioritise, implement and evaluate disinvestment projects in a local healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire; Allen, Kelly; Brooke, Vanessa; Dyer, Tim; Waller, Cara; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne; Mortimer, Duncan

    2017-05-25

    This is the sixth in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. The SHARE program was established to investigate a systematic, integrated, evidence-based approach to disinvestment within a large Australian health service. This paper describes the methods employed in undertaking pilot disinvestment projects. It draws a number of lessons regarding the strengths and weaknesses of these methods; particularly regarding the crucial first step of identifying targets for disinvestment. Literature reviews, survey, interviews, consultation and workshops were used to capture and process the relevant information. A theoretical framework was adapted for evaluation and explication of disinvestment projects, including a taxonomy for the determinants of effectiveness, process of change and outcome measures. Implementation, evaluation and costing plans were developed. Four literature reviews were completed, surveys were received from 15 external experts, 65 interviews were conducted, 18 senior decision-makers attended a data gathering workshop, 22 experts and local informants were consulted, and four decision-making workshops were undertaken. Mechanisms to identify disinvestment targets and criteria for prioritisation and decision-making were investigated. A catalogue containing 184 evidence-based opportunities for disinvestment and an algorithm to identify disinvestment projects were developed. An Expression of Interest process identified two potential disinvestment projects. Seventeen additional projects were proposed through a non-systematic nomination process. Four of the 19 proposals were selected as pilot projects but only one reached the implementation stage. Factors with potential influence on the outcomes of disinvestment projects are discussed and barriers and enablers in the pilot projects are summarised. This study provides an in-depth insight into the experience of disinvestment

  9. Investigating burnout situations, nurses' stress perception and effect of a post-graduate education program in health care organizations of northern Italy: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Caruso, Rosario; Campanella, Francesca; Berzolari, Francesca Gigli; Miazza, Daniela; Pelissero, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Burnout (BO) is increasingly considered a public health problem: it is not only harmful to the individual, but also for the organization. Therefore, in recent years, research has given particular attention to the study of the phenomenon and its antecedents among the nursing profession. In the last ten years, the literature shows the prevalence of BO in different clinical settings, but there are few recent data describing the phenomenon and its relationship with educational preventive programs. The aims of this study are: a) to describe the prevalence of nurses' risk of BO in the northern Italy area b) to describe nurses' coping and their perception of the BO antecedents. c) to describe the effects of education on the nurses' coping and their recognition of BO antecedents. The study is structured into two main parts. The first was cross-sectional, the second was prospective. Burnout Potential Inventory (BPI) questionnaire was used in the cross-sectional part to survey risk of BO in three big hospitals in Northern Italy. The Health Profession Stress and Coping Scale (HPSCS) was used in the prospective part to survey the nurses' stress perception and their coping mechanisms in a post-graduate educational program. Nurses' BO risk is within the normal range, although the BPI highlighted three borderline subscales: poor team work, work overload and poor feedback. Post-graduate education had a positive effect on the stress perception, but it is not sufficient to improve coping mechanisms. The study revealed the more stressful work situations and the effect of post-graduate education to prevent the effects of stress. This topic needs further investigation in the light of the result of this study.

  10. Health effects of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tetley, T D

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid growth of nanotechnology and future bulk manufacture of nanomaterials comes the need to determine, understand and counteract any adverse health effects of these materials that may occur during manufacture, during use, or accidentally. Nanotechnology is expanding rapidly and will affect many aspects of everyday life; there are already hundreds of products that utilize nanoparticles. Paradoxically, the unique properties that are being exploited (e.g. high surface reactivity and ability to cross cell membranes) might have negative health impacts. The rapid progress in development and use of nanomaterials is not yet matched by toxicological investigations. Epidemiological studies implicate the ultrafine (nano-sized) fraction of particulate air pollution in the exacerbation of cardiorespiratory disease and increased morbidity. Experimental animal studies suggest that the increased concentration of nanoparticles and higher reactive surface area per unit mass, alongside unique chemistry and functionality, is important in the acute inflammatory and chronic response. Some animal models have shown that nanoparticles which are deposited in one organ (e.g. lung and gut) may access the vasculature and target other organs (e.g. brain and liver). The exact relationship between the physicochemistry of a nanoparticle, its cellular reactivity, and its biological and systemic consequences cannot be predicted. It is important to understand such relationships to enjoy the benefits of nanotechnology without being exposed to the hazards.

  11. Investigating the Respiratory Health of Deployed Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    exceed environmental, occupational, and military exposure guidelines. 8 Adverse health effects, includ- ing cardiovascular and pulmonary disease , are... disease . These articles suggest that the military is superficially investigating evidence that establishes a link between deployment and development of...chronic lung disease . Anecdotal cases of military personnel with lung disease are detailed to suggest a systemic problem with undiagnosed and

  12. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  13. Meditation, Health and Scientific Investigations: Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Cynthia Vieira Sanches; Lima, Manuela Garcia; Ladeia, Ana Marice

    2017-04-01

    A growing number of people are seeking health recovery treatments with a holistic approach to the human being. Meditation is a mental training capable of producing connection between the mind, body and spirit. Its practice helps people to achieve balance, relaxation and self-control, in addition to the development of consciousness. At present, meditation is classified as a complementary and integrative technique in the area of health. The purpose of this review of the literature was to describe what meditation is, its practices and effects on health, demonstrated by consistent scientific investigations. Recently, the advances in researches with meditation, the discovery of its potential as an instrument of self-regulation of the human body and its benefits to health have shown that it is a consistent alternative therapy when associated with conventional medical treatments.

  14. Investigating the Awareness and Knowledge of Secondary School Students about the Effects of Allergic Pollen on Human Health: A Case of Burdur Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuzlak, Kadir

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to increase the awareness of secondary school students of the effects of pollen allergy on human health by mapping allergic pollens appearing in Burdur atmosphere. This study is a pre-test and post-test experimental design. Mix method is applied thus. Both qualitative and quantitative data are gathered. The…

  15. Considerations for Use of Investigational Drugs in Public Health Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Kirchoff, Matthew Carl; Pierson, Jerome F.

    2017-01-01

    The paradigm for the use of investigational drugs in public health emergencies has been recently tested to prevent and treat highly infectious and lethal diseases. Examples include the successful implementation of vaccine and therapeutic clinical trials during the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa. On the other end of the spectrum was the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of peramivir in the treatment of H1N1 influenza virus that did not provide an opportunity to collect data or understand the effectiveness of the EUA program. Between the gold standard of a randomized controlled clinical trial and the problems associated with EUAs are the domain of expanded access protocols that may provide an avenue to make products available while awaiting licensure. This paper will examine the regulatory pathways in the United States (US) for the use of investigational drugs in a public health emergency as well as considerations when making these products available outside the US. Descriptions of the applications of the various approaches will be presented. Regardless of the pathway chosen, public health and clinical research planners need to work together to consider several factors associated with the respective options and maintain a goal of working toward the collection of data to support licensure before faced with future outbreaks. Finally, this paper will consider the lessons learned from public health response in the context of investigational drugs in other diseases where “right to try laws” may pose opportunities, as well as challenges. PMID:28663940

  16. Considerations for Use of Investigational Drugs in Public Health Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Kirchoff, Matthew Carl; Pierson, Jerome F

    2017-03-01

    The paradigm for the use of investigational drugs in public health emergencies has been recently tested to prevent and treat highly infectious and lethal diseases. Examples include the successful implementation of vaccine and therapeutic clinical trials during the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa. On the other end of the spectrum was the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of peramivir in the treatment of H1N1 influenza virus that did not provide an opportunity to collect data or understand the effectiveness of the EUA program. Between the gold standard of a randomized controlled clinical trial and the problems associated with EUAs are the domain of expanded access protocols that may provide an avenue to make products available while awaiting licensure. This paper will examine the regulatory pathways in the United States (US) for the use of investigational drugs in a public health emergency as well as considerations when making these products available outside the US. Descriptions of the applications of the various approaches will be presented. Regardless of the pathway chosen, public health and clinical research planners need to work together to consider several factors associated with the respective options and maintain a goal of working toward the collection of data to support licensure before faced with future outbreaks. Finally, this paper will consider the lessons learned from public health response in the context of investigational drugs in other diseases where "right to try laws" may pose opportunities, as well as challenges.

  17. Epidemiologic investigation of health effects in Air Force personnel following exposure to herbicides. Summary mortality update, 1989. Interim report 1979-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C.

    1989-04-17

    The purpose of the Air Force Health Study is to determine whether those individuals involved in the spraying of herbicides in Vietnam during the Ranch Hand operation have experienced any adverse health effects as a result of their participation in that program. The study is designed to evaluate both the mortality (death) and morbidity (disease) in these individuals over a 20-year beginning in 1982. The Baseline Mortality Report was released in June 1983, the Baseline Morbidity Report in February 1984. Follow-up mortality reports were released in 1984, 1985, and 1986. This study has not demonstrated health effects which can be conclusively attributed to herbicide or dioxin exposure. This report contains analyses of cumulative deaths occurring up to 31 December 1987. The overall cumulative mortality of the Ranch Hands remains statistically indistinguishable from that of both their matched Comparisons and the entire Comparison, population, although there is a statistically significant increasing trend in post-1983 death rates among Ranch Hand flying officers and a statistically significant increase in Ranch Hand digestive system deaths relative to the Comparison population; these findings are not suggestive of a herbicide effect. Ranch Hands are equivalent to all Comparisons in cumulative accidental, malignant neoplasm and circulatory system mortality.

  18. Pilot Study of A Novel Biobehavioral Intervention’s Effect on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect: An Investigation of the Health Benefits of Laughter Yoga Participational

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-25

    source for your study [e.g .. S9 MOW CRO Graduate Health Sciences Education (GHSE) (SGS O&M); SGS R&O; Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP...the CRO for processing (59crdpubspres@us.af.mil). This should be acc omplished no later than 30 days before final clearance is required to publish...assistance. 8. The 59 CRO /Publications and Presentations Section will route the request form to clinical investigations. 502 ISG/JAC (Ethics Review) and

  19. Epidemiologic investigation of health effects in Air Force personnel following exposure to herbicides: Extract reproductive outcomes. Executive summary, introduction, and conclusions. Interim report, 1985-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C.; Rahe, A.J.

    1992-08-31

    The Air Force is conducting a 20-year prospective study of veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. A comparison group of Air Force veterans who served in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the same period who were not occupationally exposed to herbicides was selected. The study, called the Air Force Health Study (AFHS), is in its tenth year and is designed to determine whether exposure to the herbicides or their contaminant, 2,3,37,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has adversely affected the health, survival or reproductive outcomes of Ranch Hands. This report summarizes the findings of an investigation of reproductive outcomes of the 791 Ranch Hands and 942 Comparisons for whom a dioxin level had been determined by August, 1991. These men have fathered 5,489 pregnancies including 4,514 live births. These men are a subset of all Ranch Hands (n=1,098) and Comparisons (n=1,549) who have fathered 8,263 pregnancies and 6,792 live births. All data in this report have been verified by review of birth certificates, newborn clinic records, health records and death certificates. The birth defect status of each child was verified through the age of 18.

  20. Watershed Health Assessment Tools Investigating Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    WHATIF is software that integrates a number of calculators, tools, and models for assessing the health of watersheds and streams with an emphasis on fish communities. The tool set consists of hydrologic and stream geometry calculators, a fish assemblage predictor, a fish habitat ...

  1. Watershed Health Assessment Tools Investigating Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    WHATIF is software that integrates a number of calculators, tools, and models for assessing the health of watersheds and streams with an emphasis on fish communities. The tool set consists of hydrologic and stream geometry calculators, a fish assemblage predictor, a fish habitat ...

  2. Investigation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre

    2005-01-01

    This report is to present the work that was performed during the summer in the Advance Computing Application office. The NFFP (NASA Faculty Fellow Program) had ten summer faculty members working on IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. The objective of this project was two-fold: 1) to become familiar with IVHM concepts and key demonstrated IVHM technologies; and 2) to integrate the research that has been performed by IVHM faculty members into the MASTLAB (Marshall Avionic Software Test Lab). IVHM is a NASA-wide effort to coordinate, integrate and apply advanced software, sensors and design technologies to increase the level of intelligence, autonomy, and health state of future vehicles. IVHM is an important concept because it is consistent with the current plan for NASA to go to the moon, mars, and beyond. In order for NASA to become more involved in deep exploration, avionic systems will need to be highly adaptable and autonomous.

  3. Preliminary Investigation of an Early Mental Health Intervention for Head Start Programs: Effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training on Children's Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Mary O.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    Head Start teachers and their aides (n = 24) were assigned to either the experimental or active control treatment in this preliminary investigation on the effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT) on 52 disadvantaged preschool children identified with behavioral problems. CTRT is based on the principles and procedures of Child Parent…

  4. Preliminary Investigation of an Early Mental Health Intervention for Head Start Programs: Effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training on Children's Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Mary O.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    Head Start teachers and their aides (n = 24) were assigned to either the experimental or active control treatment in this preliminary investigation on the effects of Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT) on 52 disadvantaged preschool children identified with behavioral problems. CTRT is based on the principles and procedures of Child Parent…

  5. Investigating impacts of positional error on potential health care accessibility.

    PubMed

    Bell, Scott; Wilson, Kathi; Shah, Tayyab Ikram; Gersher, Sarina; Elliott, Tina

    2012-04-01

    Accessibility to health services at the local or community level is an effective approach to measuring health care delivery in various constituencies in Canada and the United States. GIS and spatial methods play an important role in measuring potential access to health services. The Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method is a GIS based procedure developed to calculate potential (spatial) accessibility as a ratio of primary health care (PHC) providers to the surrounding population in urban settings. This method uses PHC provider locations in textual/address format supplied by local, regional, or national health authorities. An automated geocoding procedure is normally used to convert such addresses to a pair of geographic coordinates. The accuracy of geocoding depends on the type of reference data and the amount of value-added effort applied. This research investigates the success and accuracy of six geocoding methods as well as how geocoding error affects the 3SFCA method. ArcGIS software is used for geocoding and spatial accessibility estimation. Results will focus on two implications of geocoding: (1) the success and accuracy of different automated and value-added geocoding; and (2) the implications of these geocoding methods for GIS-based methods that generalise results based on location data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An investigation into the effect of health belief model-based education on healthcare behaviors of nursing staff in controlling nosocomial infections

    PubMed Central

    Zeigheimat, Farzaneh; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Ghadamgahi, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health-care acquired infections are significant given the risks and costs they impose. All previous studies indicate a poor level of knowledge and performance among the nurses in hospital infections; as such, educating nurses can play an important role in infection control. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the health belief model (HBM) in making nurses adopting health-care behaviors needed to control nosocomial infections (Nis). Materials and Methods: The participants of the study were 135 nurses from two hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire consisted of seven parts. The intervention group received four 45 min educational programs, both in individual and collective forms. After a 2-month interval, a post-test was conducted to see whether any difference has been resulted. Results: There was a significant relationship between knowledge (P = 0.001), perceived threat (P = 0.004), perceived benefits (P = 0.001), and practices (P = 0.001) in comparing to control and experimental groups after intervention. For the experimental and control groups, the most frequent cues to action at the preintervention stage were, respectively, related to the period of studying at university and in-service classes. Conclusion: According to this study, HBM-based education can increase knowledge, perceived threat, and perceived benefits of nurses. Additionally, it can reduce perceived barriers and improve the control of NIs among nurses. PMID:27500176

  7. Participation in a US community-based cardiovascular health study: investigating nonrandom selection effects related to employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Leslie A; Fujishiro, Kaori; Howard, Virginia J; Landsbergis, Paul; Hein, Misty J

    2017-08-15

    Participation in health studies may be inversely associated with employment and stress. We investigated whether employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving were related to participation in a longitudinal US community-based health study of black and white men and women aged ≥45 years. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were estimated for completion of the second stage (S2) of a two-stage enrollment process by employment (status, type), and stress (perceived stress, work-related stress, caregiving), adjusting for age, sex, race, region, income, and education. Eligibility and consent for a follow-up occupational survey were similarly evaluated. Wage- but not self-employed participants were less likely than the unemployed to complete S2. Among the employed, S2 completion did not vary by stress; however, family caregivers with a short time burden of care (<2 hour/d) were more likely to complete S2, compared to noncaregivers. Eligibility and participation in the follow-up occupational survey were higher among those employed (vs. unemployed) at enrollment but were not associated with enrollment stress levels. Limited evidence of selection bias was seen by employment and stress within a large US community-based cohort, but findings suggest the need for enrollment procedures to consider possible barriers to participation among wage-employed individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Spill Sleuths: An Interdisciplinary Environmental Health Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudensey, Lyle; Whidden, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    "We are on the eve of total contamination," said an eighth grade "toxicologist" at a mock town meeting at Mount Baker Middle School in Mount Vernon, Washington. The meeting was the culmination of a month-long investigation by students to determine why some of the townspeople were getting sick. During the unit, students used skills from several…

  9. Spill Sleuths: An Interdisciplinary Environmental Health Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudensey, Lyle; Whidden, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    "We are on the eve of total contamination," said an eighth grade "toxicologist" at a mock town meeting at Mount Baker Middle School in Mount Vernon, Washington. The meeting was the culmination of a month-long investigation by students to determine why some of the townspeople were getting sick. During the unit, students used skills from several…

  10. Anthocyanins and Human Health: An In Vitro Investigative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lila, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated ability to protect against a myriad of human diseases, yet they have been notoriously difficult to study with regard to human health. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals to potentiate biological effects, thus contributions from individual components are difficult to decipher. The complex, multicomponent structure of compounds in a bioactive mixture and the degradation of flavonoids during harsh extraction procedures obscure the precise assignment of bioactivity to individual pigments. Extensive metabolic breakdown after ingestion complicates tracking of anthocyanins to assess absorption, bioavailability, and accumulation in various organs. Anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids that are uniformly, predictably produced in rigorously controlled plant cell culture systems can be a great advantage for health and nutrition research because they are quickly, easily isolated, lack interferences found in whole fruits, can be elicited to provoke rapid and prolific accumulation, and are amenable to biolabeling so that metabolic fate can be investigated after ingestion. PMID:15577194

  11. Investigating the effect of education based on need to prevent falling during activities of daily living among the elderlies referring to health centers of Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Marziyeh; RezaeiDehaghani, Abdollah; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Falling has a great importance among the elderlies. Even if no physical injury occurs, it can cause fear of falling down again and, consequently, reduce older adults’ activities. With regard to the prevalence of falling among older adults, its prevention is essential. Therefore, the present study was aimed to define the effect of need-based education on prevention of older adults’ falling during their everyday life activities. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study. Study population comprised all the older adults of age 60 years and over referring to health care centers in Isfahan. Through multiple random sampling, 15 older adults were selected from four health care centers. Data collection tool in the present study was Daily Activity Questionnaire. Results: Results showed a significant difference between the mean of daily activity scores in the intervention group before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention (12, 13.6, and 13.5, respectively; P = 0.01). Meanwhile, there was no significant deference between the scores immediately after and 1 month after the intervention. There was no significant difference observed between the three time points in the control group (mean = 12.3; P = 0.907). Conclusion: Implementation of education concerning prevention of older adults’ falling led to improvement of their daily activity in the intervention group. PMID:27563329

  12. How do individuals value health states? A qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M; Brazier, J; Paisley, S

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of health state values in informing resource allocation in health care, there is arguably little known about how individuals value health. Previous studies have shown that a variety of non-health factors and beliefs are important in valuing health, but there is less evidence in the literature about how individuals' beliefs affect their preferences or what role non-health factors play in the process of forming preferences. This study investigated the thought processes of 21 U.K. based participants in March 2013 who valued health states using semi-structured interviews and a think-aloud protocol, with the aim to better understand the relationship between health states, the individual's underlying beliefs, and the individual's preferences. Participants followed several stages in valuing health. First, participants interpreted the health states more concretely, relying on their imagination and their experience of ill health. Participants judged how the concrete health problems combined with their personal interests, circumstances, and environment would affect them personally. Ultimately, participants valued health by estimating and weighing the non-health consequences of the health states. Six consequences were most frequently mentioned: activities, enjoyment, independence, relationships, dignity, and avoiding being a burden. At each stage participants encountered difficulties and expressed concerns. The findings have implications for methods of describing health, for example, whether the focus should be on health or a broader notion of well-being and capability. This is because the consequences are similar to the domains of broader measures such as the ICECAP measures for adults and older people, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. The findings suggest the need for testing whether individuals are informed about the health states they are valuing. Participants valued health by estimating the non-health consequences of health states

  13. Improving Mental Health Reporting Practices in Between Personnel Security Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    implemented this year, there is an increased emphasis on self-reporting based on the individual’s own perceptions of their mental health and whether their...Improving Mental Health Reporting Practices in Between Personnel Security Investigations Stephanie L. Jaros Donna L. Tadle David Ciani Keith B...2017 Improving Mental Health Reporting Practices in Between Personnel Security Investigations Stephanie L. Jaros, Donna L. Tadle, David Ciani, Keith

  14. A novel method for the analysis of clinical biomarkers to investigate the effect of diet on health in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hopes, K; Cauchi, M; Walton, C; MacQueen, H; Wassif, W; Turner, C

    2015-05-07

    Experiments into the relationship between diet and health have been an area of high interest for a long time. In this study, we investigate the application of multivariate data analysis to differentiate between rat populations fed on two different diets: normal rat diet (control) and Western affluent diet (WAD). Two sets of data were acquired and analysed: one from a biochemical clinical analyser, taking measurements of blood-based biochemical markers; the other from the analysis of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from faecal samples from the same animals using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Five classes were considered: weanlings, 12 month controls, 12 month WADs, 18 month controls, and 18 month WADs. Data from the biochemical analyser, weanlings and 18 month WAD fed rats showed significant differences from the other measurement classes. This was shown in both the exploratory analysis and through multivariate classification. Classification of control diet versus WAD diets suggested there are differences between classes with 92% accuracy for the 12 month classes and 91% for the 18 month classes. Cholesterol markers, especially as low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL), were the main factor in influencing WAD samples. The data from the SIFT-MS analysis also produced very good classification accuracies. Classification of control diet versus WAD diets using the H3O(+) precursor ion data suggested there are differences between classes with 71% accuracy for the 12 month classes and 100% for the 18 month classes. These findings confirm that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol are elevated in the 18 month WAD-fed rats. We therefore suggest that the analysis of VOCs from faecal samples in conjunction with multivariate data analysis may be a useful alternative to blood analysis for the detection of parameters of health.

  15. Investigation of health effects of current levels of environmental sanitation and hygienic living conditions of rural population in the municipality of Zenica.

    PubMed

    Tandir, Salih; Huseinagic, Senad; Sivic, Suad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate and identify all the relevant ways of epidemiology significance for transmitting infectious diseases in the existing unsatisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions in rural areas of the municipality of Zenica, which are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal diseases. The study was conducted in seven rural localities of Zenica municipality where the dominant livestock are sheep and cows, and the population is mostly dealing with individual production of cheese and milk. This research aimed to examine and identify the conditions favoring life as the primary issues that affect the increase in the risk of and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases such as: the level of environmental sanitation in investigated villages, sanitary and hygiene habits of families living in the villages studied, ratio of population to personal hygiene, health safety of water supply, hygienic disposal of fecal waste and waste generated in the breeding of animals. The study included the monitoring and statistical analysis of the epidemiological situation in the values of average prevalence rates of the intestinal infectious diseases in the 1000 inhabitants of each village studied. The study identified five major negative epidemiological indicators that have a major impact on the appearance and maintenance of intestinal infectious diseases. The leading indicator is a negative relationship and personal hygiene attitude in the broader sense, the pending state of water supply, sanitary toilets and unresolved rubbish dump with a negative attitude and stance toward general hygiene. Identified are all the relevant ways of epidemiology importance that are positively correlated with occurrence and spread of infectious intestinal disease. Investigations of the epidemiological situation regarding the occurrence of intestinal infectious disease in the study population showed that intestinal infectious diseases in the

  16. Peer Contagion of Aggression and Health Risk Behavior among Adolescent Males: An Experimental Investigation of Effects on Public Conduct and Private Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    Peer contagion of adolescent males' aggressive/health risk behaviors was examined using a computerized "chat room" experimental paradigm. Forty-three 11th-grade White adolescents (16-17 years old) were led to believe that they were interacting with other students (i.e., "e-confederates"), who endorsed aggressive/health risk behaviors and whose…

  17. Health care librarians and information literacy: an investigation.

    PubMed

    Kelham, Charlotte

    2014-09-01

    Until relatively recently, the concept of information literacy, and teaching the skills to enable it, was mainly a concern of academic libraries. Now, it is also seen to be of high importance within the context of health care libraries. Health care libraries and librarians can provide crucial support towards the implementation of evidence-based practice in patient care through both information literacy skills training and by conducting mediated searches on behalf of health care practitioners. This article reports the findings from an investigation conducted by Charlotte Kelham as part of her MA in Librarianship from the University of Sheffield. Her dissertation investigated how health care librarians understand the concept of information literacy, the implications of this for their role and their perceptions around how their role is valued. Charlotte graduated from Sheffield in 2013 and is currently job hunting. AM. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.

  18. Investigation of mean platelet volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in subjects with impaired fasting glucose: a cost-effective tool in primary health care?

    PubMed Central

    Ozder, Aclan; Eker, Hasan Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mean platelet volume (MPV) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and in non-diabetic controls. A total of 201 adults with T2DM and 201 subjects with IFG from the Family Medicine out-patient clinic as well as 201 healthy controls were included in the study. We measured blood fasting glucose, complete blood count and LDL-cholesterol and compared the results between the groups enrolled. In the patients with diabetes and subjects with IFG, MPV was significantly higher (10.66 ± 0.94 fL and 10.49 ± 0.96 fL, respectively ) as compared to the non-diabetic group (10.04 ± 1.01 fL) (p = 0.000). Among the diabetic subjects, a positive statistical Pearson correlation was seen between MPV and HbA1c levels (r = 0.357; p = 0.000) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels (r = 0.306; p = 0.000). The mean MPV in patients having HbA1C < 7.5% was 10.17 ± 0.83 fL and significantly lower than that of patients with HbA1c ≥ 7.5% (10.80 ± 0.92 fL) (p = 0.001). MPV could be used as a simple and cost-effective tool to monitor the progression and control of T2DM and thereby in preventing vascular events in primary health care. PMID:25232423

  19. Investigation of Tear Biomarkers as an Indicator of Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Stephen; Tucker, Bethany; Crucian, Brian; Steinberg, Susan; Hagan, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Scientific literature suggests that tear biomarkers can be used as a guide towards clinical diagnosis of human health (Hagan et al., 2016). This study will investigate whether tear biomarkers represents a research and clinical opportunity to assess human health prior to, during, and after exposure to the spaceflight environment. The focus of this study is to compare biomarkers previously identified as potentially relevant to both ocular and brain health against unique physiological outcomes of exposure to the space flight environment. Study subjects suffering from terrestrial conditions thought to be similar to Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS: formerly VIIP), e.g. patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and optic neuritis may be relevant to conditions associated with spaceflight. This study will review methodologies, tear biomarkers related to state of ocular and brain health, the strengths and weakness of using tear fluid biomarkers versus other body fluid samples, and will survey current tear fluid biomarker knowledge in research and clinical practice. A strength of using tear biomarkers is that sampling is non-invasive and used as a guide in understanding pathologies, including ocular and systemic inflammatory conditions (Cocho et al., 2016)., Salvisberg et al., 2014). Moreover, tear biomarkers may reflect diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) (Salvisberg et al., 2014). For example, in multiple sclerosis (MS), the concordance rate between tear biomarkers versus cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is approximately 83%, indicating that, in the majority of cases, tears are at least as effective as CSF in potentially identifying novel MS biomarkers (Devos et al., 2001).

  20. The Top Chinese Mobile Health Apps: A Systematic Investigation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Liu, Di; Yu, Ya Min; Zhao, Hui Tong; Chen, Zhi Rou; Li, Jiao; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-29

    China's mHealth market is on track to become a global leader by industry size. The Chinese mobile app market and health care system have peculiarities that distinguish them from other app markets. To date, Chinese mHealth apps have not been systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of Chinese mHealth apps as of December 2015. We identified and investigated the most downloaded apps from the iOS and Android platforms. For each app, we analyzed and recorded its main service offered, mHealth initiative, disease and specialty focus, app cost, target user, Web app availability, and emphasis on information security. Standard descriptive statistics were used. A total of 234 apps met the inclusion criteria and were investigated. The apps targeting nonhealth care professionals focused on providing telemedicine and appointment-making services. The apps targeting health care professionals focused on education and peer reviewed articles. The most common disease-specific apps focused primarily on diabetes, hypertension, and hepatitis management. Most apps were free and available on both iOS and Android platforms. The primary mHealth initiatives targeted by the apps reflect Chinese patients' demand for access to medical care. Disease-specific apps are also representative of disease prevalence in China. Government press releases suggest that new policies on the horizon may shift the industry.

  1. The Top Chinese Mobile Health Apps: A Systematic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Liu, Di; Yu, Ya Min; Zhao, Hui Tong; Chen, Zhi Rou; Li, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Background China’s mHealth market is on track to become a global leader by industry size. The Chinese mobile app market and health care system have peculiarities that distinguish them from other app markets. To date, Chinese mHealth apps have not been systematically investigated. Objective The objective of this study was to provide an overview of Chinese mHealth apps as of December 2015. Methods We identified and investigated the most downloaded apps from the iOS and Android platforms. For each app, we analyzed and recorded its main service offered, mHealth initiative, disease and specialty focus, app cost, target user, Web app availability, and emphasis on information security. Standard descriptive statistics were used. Results A total of 234 apps met the inclusion criteria and were investigated. The apps targeting nonhealth care professionals focused on providing telemedicine and appointment-making services. The apps targeting health care professionals focused on education and peer reviewed articles. The most common disease-specific apps focused primarily on diabetes, hypertension, and hepatitis management. Most apps were free and available on both iOS and Android platforms. Conclusions The primary mHealth initiatives targeted by the apps reflect Chinese patients’ demand for access to medical care. Disease-specific apps are also representative of disease prevalence in China. Government press releases suggest that new policies on the horizon may shift the industry. PMID:27573724

  2. Health Effects of Wildfires

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency was established in 1970 as a regulatory agency charged with the evaluation of air pollutants and emissions “as necessary to protect public health and the environment” and to regulate pollutants “which may reasonably be anticip...

  3. Health effects of dietary phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Küllenberg, Daniela; Taylor, Lenka A; Schneider, Michael; Massing, Ulrich

    2012-01-05

    Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs.From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits.

  4. An Investigation into Instructor Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.; Claxton, David B.

    1997-01-01

    Describes development of the Instructor Effectiveness Questionnaire (IEQ). Survey of 234 students participating in canoeing and kayaking at the Nantahala Outdoor Center (North Carolina) found that all 17 teachers received high scores, that the IEQ was able to discriminate between more- and less-effective instructors, and that female instructors…

  5. Evaluating the impact of public health notification of suspected transfusion-transmissible hepatitis C virus infection and effectiveness of lookback and traceback investigations by Canadian Blood Services in British Columbia, Canada, August 2002 through February 2005.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Mandy; Lord, Sandra; Buxton, Jane A; Doyle, Patrick; Bigham, Mark

    2007-08-01

    Suspected transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) have been reported to public health (PH) in British Columbia (BC) since August 2002. The impact of PH notification of suspected transfusion-transmissible hepatitis C virus (TT-HCV) infection over the first 2.5 years and the effectiveness of HCV lookback (LB) and traceback (TB) investigations conducted by Canadian Blood Services (CBS) in BC were evaluated. Suspected TT-HCV cases reported to CBS in BC between August 28, 2002, and February 28, 2005, were analyzed. The incremental yield of plausible TTIs from PH-reported suspected TTIs was calculated. The effectiveness of LB and TB investigations was assessed with respect to the impact of improved anti-HCV donor screening, the number of newly recognized HCV infections, and the timeliness of initiating investigations. Nine of 553 (1.6%) investigations were initiated after PH reporting, yielding an additional 2 of 237 (i.e., 0.8%) plausible TTIs. Ninety-two percent of investigations with transfused units involved transfusions before implementing second-generation anti-HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) donor screening. Almost one-third of HCV-infected persons in linked investigations (i.e., LB triggered by a TB and vice versa) were newly identified. Recently tested, PH-reported cases incurred a mean delay exceeding 6 months until initiating a LB or TB investigation. PH reporting of TTIs and investigating transfusions after second-generation anti-HCV EIA donor screening identified few plausible TT-HCV infections. Many HCV-infected recipients or lapsed donors first became aware of their infection status as a result of CBS investigations. The current process of reporting suspected TTIs incurs significant time delay.

  6. Clinical investigations for SUS, the Brazilian public health system.

    PubMed

    Paula, Ana Patrícia de; Giozza, Silvana Pereira; Pereira, Michelle Zanon; Boaventura, Patrícia Souza; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Sachetti, Camile Giaretta; Tamayo, César Omar Carranza; Kowalski, Clarissa Campos Guaragna; Elias, Flavia Tavares Silva; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    Scientific and technological development is crucial for advancing the Brazilian health system and for promoting quality of life. The way in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health has supported clinical research to provide autonomy, self-sufficiency, competitiveness and innovation for the healthcare industrial production complex, in accordance with the National Policy on Science, Technology and Innovation in Healthcare, was analyzed. Descriptive investigation, based on secondary data, conducted at the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health's research management database, PesquisaSaúde, was analyzed from 2002 to 2009, using the key word "clinical research" in the fields "primary sub-agenda" or "secondary sub-agenda". The 368 projects retrieved were sorted into six categories: basic biomedical research, preclinical studies, expanded clinical research, clinical trials, infrastructure support and health technology assessment. From a structured review on "clinical research funding", results from selected countries are presented and discussed. The amount invested was R$ 140 million. The largest number of projects supported "basic biomedical research", while the highest amounts invested were in "clinical trials" and "infrastructure support". The southeastern region had the greatest proportion of projects and financial resources. In some respects, Brazil is ahead of other BRICS countries (Russia, India, China and South Africa), especially with regard to establishing a National Clinical Research Network. The Ministry of Health ensured investments to encourage clinical research in Brazil and contributed towards promoting cohesion between investigators, health policies and the healthcare industrial production complex.

  7. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  8. Training physician investigators in medicine and public health research.

    PubMed

    Gourevitch, Marc N; Jay, Melanie R; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Dreyer, Benard P; Foltin, George L; Lipkin, Mack; Schwartz, Mark D

    2012-07-01

    We have described and evaluated the impact of a unique fellowship program designed to train postdoctoral, physician fellows in research at the interface of medicine and public health. We developed a rigorous curriculum in public health content and research methods and fostered linkages with research mentors and local public health agencies. Didactic training provided the foundation for fellows' mentored research initiatives, which addressed real-world challenges in advancing the health status of vulnerable urban populations. Two multidisciplinary cohorts (6 per cohort) completed this 2-year degree-granting program and engaged in diverse public health research initiatives on topics such as improving pediatric care outcomes through health literacy interventions, reducing hospital readmission rates among urban poor with multiple comorbidities, increasing cancer screening uptake, and broadening the reach of addiction screening and intervention. The majority of fellows (10/12) published their fellowship work and currently have a career focused in public health-related research or practice (9/12). A fellowship training program can prepare physician investigators for research careers that bridge the divide between medicine and public health.

  9. An investigation of the effects of a hand washing intervention on health outcomes and school absence using a randomised trial in Indian urban communities.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Julie A; Naeeni, Mojgan; Hoptroff, Michael; Matheson, Jane R; Roberts, Anthony J; Taylor, David; Sidibe, Myriam; Weir, Anthony J; Damle, Satyawan G; Wright, Richard L

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate how an intervention, which combined hand washing promotion aimed at 5-year-olds with provision of free soap, affected illnesses among the children and their families and children's school absenteeism. We monitored illnesses, including diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs), school absences and soap consumption for 41 weeks in 70 low-income communities in Mumbai, India (35 communities per arm). Outcomes from 847 intervention households (containing 847 5-year-olds and 4863 subjects in total) and 833 control households (containing 833 5-year-olds and 4812 subjects) were modelled using negative binomial regression. Intervention group 5-year-olds had fewer episodes of diarrhoea (-25%, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = -37%, -2%), ARIs (-15%, 95% CI = -30%, -8%), school absences due to illnesses (-27%, 95% CI = -41%, -18%) and eye infections (-46%, 95% CI = -58%, -31%). Further, there were fewer episodes of diarrhoea and ARIs in the intervention group for 'whole families' (-31%, 95% CI = -37%, -5%; and -14%, 95% CI = -23%, -6%, respectively), 6- to 15-year-olds (-30%, 95% CI = -39%, -7%; and -15%, 95% CI = -24%, -6%) and under 5 s (-32%, 95% CI = -41%, -4%; and -20%, 95% CI = -29%, -8%). Direct-contact hand washing interventions aimed at younger school-aged children can affect the health of the whole family. These may be scalable through public-private partnerships and classroom-based campaigns. Further work is required to understand the conditions under which health benefits are transferred and the mechanisms for transference. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Investigation of health literacy and enterprise provided health service utilization among migrants in construction site].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Zeng, Qingqi; Ji, Ying; Wang, Yanling; Zheng, Yunting; Chang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate health literacy and enterprise provided health service utilization among migrants in construction sites and explore the influencing factors of enterprise provided health service utilization. All 652 migrants in 10 construction sites in Xi'an and Tongchuan were selected using stratified cluster sampling method, and health literacy level, occupational health awareness and enterprise provided health service utilization of migrants were investigated in 2013 April to June.Score and pass rate was used to describe status of health literacy and occupational health awareness of migrants. Chi-square was used to analyze the difference of occupational health awareness and enterprise provided health service utilization between migrants of different levels of health literacy. And logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of enterprise provided health service utilization. Average score of health literacy among migrants in construction site was (3.75 ± 2.17) (9 score totally). Migrants who knew enterprise should provide health training, physical examination, safety training, occupational protection and pay health insurance for workers accounted for 28.2% (174/616), 43.5% (268/616), 52.8% (325/616), 54.9% (338/616) and 37.7% (230/616) respectively, and the percentage of migrants who thought there were noise and dust in their working environment were 46.4% (201/627) and 44.8% (281/627) respectively.61.1% (373/610) received none of health training, occupational training, physical examination and first-aid kit, and only 0.8% (5/610) had utilized all of the above health service in workplace. And logistic regression showed that migrants whose health literacy score was higher than 5 had 1.819 times probability to utilize enterprise provided health service (OR = 1.82, 95%CI:1.13-2.92) , and migrants who were educated for more than 13 years had 3.812 times probability to utilize enterprise provided health service than those who were educated for less

  11. A multilevel model of organizational health culture and the effectiveness of health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen

    2014-01-01

    Organizational health culture is a health-oriented core characteristic of the organization that is shared by all members. It is effective in regulating health-related behavior for employees and could therefore influence the effectiveness of health promotion efforts among organizations and employees. This study applied a multilevel analysis to verify the effects of organizational health culture on the organizational and individual effectiveness of health promotion. At the organizational level, we investigated the effect of organizational health culture on the organizational effectiveness of health promotion. At the individual level, we adopted a cross-level analysis to determine if organizational health culture affects employee effectiveness through the mediating effect of employee health behavior. The study setting consisted of the workplaces of various enterprises. We selected 54 enterprises in Taiwan and surveyed 20 full-time employees from each organization, for a total sample of 1011 employees. We developed the Organizational Health Culture Scale to measure employee perceptions and aggregated the individual data to formulate organization-level data. Organizational effectiveness of health promotion included four dimensions: planning effectiveness, production, outcome, and quality, which were measured by scale or objective indicators. The Health Promotion Lifestyle Scale was adopted for the measurement of health behavior. Employee effectiveness was measured subjectively in three dimensions: self-evaluated performance, altruism, and happiness. Following the calculation of descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test the multilevel hypotheses. Organizational health culture had a significant effect on the planning effectiveness (β = .356, p < .05) and production (β = .359, p < .05) of health promotion. In addition, results of cross-level moderating effect analysis by HLM demonstrated that the effects of organizational health culture

  12. Investigating the Association of Health Literacy with Health Knowledge and Health Behavior Outcomes in a Sample of Urban Community College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Hardaye Ramsaroop; Shneyderman, Yuliya; Belcastro, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence associating health literacy metrics with adults' enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or health behaviors. Purpose: Investigate whether health-literate undergraduates exhibit enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or behaviors compared to non-health-literate…

  13. Investigating the Association of Health Literacy with Health Knowledge and Health Behavior Outcomes in a Sample of Urban Community College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Hardaye Ramsaroop; Shneyderman, Yuliya; Belcastro, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence associating health literacy metrics with adults' enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or health behaviors. Purpose: Investigate whether health-literate undergraduates exhibit enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or behaviors compared to non-health-literate…

  14. Training Physician Investigators in Medicine and Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Melanie R.; Goldfrank, Lewis R.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Foltin, George L.; Lipkin, Mack; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We have described and evaluated the impact of a unique fellowship program designed to train postdoctoral, physician fellows in research at the interface of medicine and public health. Methods. We developed a rigorous curriculum in public health content and research methods and fostered linkages with research mentors and local public health agencies. Didactic training provided the foundation for fellows’ mentored research initiatives, which addressed real-world challenges in advancing the health status of vulnerable urban populations. Results. Two multidisciplinary cohorts (6 per cohort) completed this 2-year degree-granting program and engaged in diverse public health research initiatives on topics such as improving pediatric care outcomes through health literacy interventions, reducing hospital readmission rates among urban poor with multiple comorbidities, increasing cancer screening uptake, and broadening the reach of addiction screening and intervention. The majority of fellows (10/12) published their fellowship work and currently have a career focused in public health–related research or practice (9/12). Conclusions. A fellowship training program can prepare physician investigators for research careers that bridge the divide between medicine and public health. PMID:22594745

  15. Investigation of health care waste management in Binzhou District, China

    SciTech Connect

    Ruoyan, Gai; Xu Lingzhong; Li Huijuan; Zhou Chengchao; He Jiangjiang; Yoshihisa, Shirayama; Tang Wei; Chushi, Kuroiwa

    2010-02-15

    In China, national regulations and standards for health care waste management were implemented in 2003. To investigate the current status of health care waste management at different levels of health care facilities (HCF) after the implementation of these regulations, one tertiary hospital, one secondary hospital, and four primary health care centers from Binzhou District were visited and 145 medical staff members and 24 cleaning personnel were interviewed. Generated medical waste totaled 1.22, 0.77, and 1.17 kg/bed/day in tertiary, secondary, and primary HCF, respectively. The amount of medical waste generated in primary health care centers was much higher than that in secondary hospitals, which may be attributed to general waste being mixed with medical waste. This study found that the level of the HCF, responsibility for medical waste management in departments and wards, educational background and training experience can be factors that determine medical staff members' knowledge of health care waste management policy. Regular training programs and sufficient provision of protective measures are urgently needed to improve occupational safety for cleaning personnel. Financing and administrative monitoring by local authorities is needed to improve handling practices and the implementation of off-site centralized disposal in primary health care centers.

  16. Investigating the work-family conflict and health link: Repetitive thought as a mechanism.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly D; Gere, Judith; Sliwinski, Martin J

    2016-10-06

    Research is needed to investigate mechanisms linking work-family conflict to poor health in working adults. We took a novel approach to build on extant studies by testing a potential mechanism in these associations - repetitive thought. Data came from a sample of 203 partnered working adults. There were significant direct effects of work-family conflict with lower life satisfaction, positive affect, and perceived health as well as greater fatigue. As for total effects, work-family conflict was significantly associated with all health outcomes - life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, fatigue, perceived health, and chronic health conditions - in the expected directions through repetitive thought. This study provides support that repetitive thought is one potential mechanism of how work-family conflict can take a toll on psychological and physical health. Findings are discussed in relation to improving workplace policies to improve the health of working adults managing work-family conflict.

  17. Assessing Health Literacy and Oral Health: Preliminary Results of a Multi-Site Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Macek, Mark D.; Atchison, Kathryn A.; Watson, Maria Rosa; Holtzman, Jennifer; Wells, William; Braun, Bonnie; Aldoory, Linda; Messadi, Diana; Gironda, Melanie; Haynes, Don; Parker, Ruth M.; Chen, Haiyan; Coller, Susan; Richards, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To introduce a multi-site assessment of oral health literacy and to describe preliminary analyses of the relationships between health literacy and selected oral health outcomes within the context of a comprehensive conceptual model. Methods Data for this analysis came from the Multi-Site Oral Health Literacy Research Study (MOHLRS), a federally-funded investigation of health literacy and oral health. MOHLRS consisted of a broad survey, including several health literacy assessments, and measures of attitudes, knowledge, and other factors. The survey was administered to 922 initial care-seeking adult patients presenting to university-based dental clinics in California and Maryland. For this descriptive analysis, confidence filling out forms, word recognition, and reading comprehension comprised the health literacy assessments. Dental visits, oral health functioning, and dental self-efficacy were the outcomes. Results Overall, up to 21% of participants reported having difficulties with practical health literacy tasks. After controlling for sociodemographic confounders, no health literacy assessment was associated with dental visits or dental caries self-efficacy. However, confidence filling out forms and word recognition were each associated with oral health functioning and periodontal disease self-efficacy. Conclusions Our analysis showed that dental school patients exhibit a range of health literacy abilities. It also revealed that the relationship between health literacy and oral health is not straightforward, depending on patient characteristics and the unique circumstances of the encounter. We anticipate future analyses of MOHLRS data will answer questions about the role that health literacy and various mediating factors play in explaining oral health disparities. PMID:27126734

  18. An investigation of the health effects caused by exposure to arsenic from drinking water and coal combustion: arsenic exposure and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Kong, Chang; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Guo, Zhiwei; Cui, Na; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong

    2017-09-23

    Few studies have been conducted to compare arsenic exposure, metabolism, and methylation in populations exposed to arsenic in drinking water and from coal combustion. Therefore, arsenic concentrations in the environment and arsenic speciation in the urine of subjects exposed to arsenic as a consequence of coal combustion in a rural area in Shaanxi province (CCA) and in drinking water in a rural area in Inner Mongolia (DWA) were investigated. The mean arsenic concentrations in drinking water, indoor air, and soil in CCA were 4.52 μg/L, 0.03 mg/m(3), and 14.93 mg/kg, respectively. The mean arsenic concentrations in drinking water and soil in DWA were 144.71 μg/L and 10.19 mg/kg, respectively, while the level in indoor air was lower than the limit of detection. The total daily intakes of arsenic in DWA and CCA were 4.47 and 3.13 μg/day·kg, respectively. The mean urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), and total arsenic (TAs) for subjects with skin lesions in DWA were 50.41, 47.01, 202.66, and 300.08 μg/L. The concentrations for subjects without skin lesions were 49.76, 44.20, 195.60, and 289.56 μg/L, respectively. The %iAs, %MMA, and %DMA in the TAs in the urine of subjects from CCA were 12.24, 14.73, and 73.03%, while the corresponding values from DWA were 17.54, 15.57, and 66.89%, respectively. The subjects in DWA typically had a higher %iAs and %MMA, and a lower %DMA, and primary and secondary methylation index (PMI and SMI) than the subjects in CCA. It was concluded that the arsenic methylation efficiency of subjects in DWA and CCA was significantly influenced by chronic exposure to high levels of arsenic in the environment. The lower PMI and SMI values in DWA revealed lower arsenic methylation capacity due to ingestion of arsenic in drinking water. However, it remained unclear if the differences in arsenic metabolism between the two groups were due to differences in exposure levels

  19. Acrolein health effects.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O; Roney, N; Taylor, J; Ashizawa, A; Lumpkin, M H; Plewak, D J

    2008-08-01

    Acrolein is a chemical used as an intermediate reactive aldehyde in chemical industry. It is used for synthesis of many organic substances, methionine production, and methyl chloride refrigerant. The general population is exposed to acrolein via smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to wood and plastic smoke. Firefighters and population living or working in areas with heavy automotive traffic may expose to higher level of acrolein via inhalation of smoke or automotive exhaust. Degradation of acrolein in all environmental media occurs rapidly, therefore, environmental accumulation is not expected. Acrolein degrade in 6A days when applied to surface water, and it has not been found as a contaminant in municipal drinking water. Acrolein vapor may cause eye, nasal and respiratory tract irritations in low level exposure. A decrease in breathing rate was reported by volunteers acutely exposed to 0.3A ppm of acrolein. At similar level, mild nasal epithelial dysplasia, necrosis, and focal basal cell metaplasia have been observed in rats. The acrolein effects on gastrointestinal mucosa in the animals include epithelial hyperplasia, ulceration, and hemorrhage. The severity of the effects is dose dependent. Acrolein induces the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal irritations by inducing the release of peptides in nerve terminals innervating these systems. Levels of acrolein between 22 and 249 ppm for 10 min induced a dose-related decrease in substance P (a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator).

  20. [Health effects of nanomaterials on next generation].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Ken; Shinkai, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Yanagita, Shinya; Umezawa, Masakazu; Yokota, Satoshi; Tainaka, Hitoshi; Oshio, Shigeru; Ihara, Tomomi; Sugamata, Masao

    2011-02-01

    In order to discuss the health effects of nanomaterials, we cannot disregard the research on the health effects of airborne particulates. It is said that many of the fine or ultrafine particles in airborne particulates originate from diesel vehicles in metropolitan areas. The results of not only animal experiments but many epidemiologic surveys and volunteer intervention experiments in humans are reported on the health effects of particles. Although the health effects of the particulate matter particle sizes below 10 µm (PM10) were investigated in the initial studies, recently even smaller particles have come to be regarded as questionable and research of the health effects of the minute particulate matter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been done. However, our recent study about maternal exposure to diesel exhaust suggests that health effect study of PM0.1, particles below 0.1 µm (100 nm), namely nanoparticles, is necessary from now on. We are proceeding with the study of the health effects of various types of intentionally produced nanomaterials such as carbon black, carbon nanotube, fullerene and titanium dioxide, examining in particular their influence on next generation. Although there are differences in the sites affected and the seriousness of the damage, basically similar findings to DEPs mentioned above are being discovered in research on nanomaterials. Regardless of dosage and administration method, such as inhalation, endotracheal administration, nasal drip and subcutaneous administration, once nanomaterials enter the bloodstream of a pregnant mother mouse, they move to the offspring and have effects on them. The effects may appear as various symptoms in the process of growth after birth, and can sometimes lead to the onset and aggravation of serious diseases.

  1. Pulmonary Health Effects of Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Tara M.; Bailey, Kristina L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are associated with numerous lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases. Efforts are ongoing to ascertain contributing factors to these negative respiratory outcomes and improve monitoring of environmental factors leading to disease. In this review, recently published studies investigating the deleterious effects of occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are discussed. Recent findings Occupational exposures to numerous agricultural environment aerosols, including pesticides, fungi, and bacteria are associated with impaired respiratory function and disease. Increases in certain farming practices, including mushroom and greenhouse farming, present new occupational exposure concerns. Improved detection methods may provide opportunities to better monitor safe exposure levels to known lung irritants. Summary In the agricultural industry, occupational exposures to organic and inorganic aerosols lead to increased risk for lung disease amongst workers. Increased awareness of respiratory risks and improved monitoring of agricultural environments are necessary to limit pulmonary health risks to exposed populations. PMID:26761627

  2. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    anoxia, shock, hypoglycemia, hypotension, physical exercise, psychological stimuli, and drugs in common use, such as caffeine , nicotine , and alcohol...iiii1i’tl 11,11H1 HEALTH EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION P. Naitoh T. I- Kelly C. Englund Repori No. 89-46 9 - 1 3 92 J20 28 Apmrowd fto P..bII .nO~m dI...mand to IO MMuwM I. AGENCY USE ONLY (Laom b 2 REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATE COVERED 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Health Effects of

  3. Applying Proteomics to Investigate Extracellular Matrix in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Randles, Michael; Lennon, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The molecular composition of basement membranes (BMs) has traditionally been investigated by candidate-based approaches leading to the identification of key structural components as described in previous chapters. Laminins, collagen IV, nidogens, perlecan, and type XV/XVIII collagen are integral to BMs with isoforms showing tissue specificity. More recently the application of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has led to the discovery of many more structural and regulatory components of BMs and more broadly, extracellular matrix (ECM). These investigations have revealed tissue-specific signatures of between 100 and 150 ECM components, demonstrating the complexity of the extracellular niche. In addition to providing a structural scaffold for cells, ECM is a dynamic extracellular environment capable of regulating the physical properties of tissues. Global investigations of ECM with proteomics in turn enable systems level analyses and when applied to health and disease states these investigations provide insights into pathways regulating matrix dysregulation. This chapter focuses on the methods used to extract ECM and on the analysis of its composition using MS-based proteomics, and it provides examples of how these approaches have been used to investigate health and disease states.

  4. Investigating Financial Incentives for Maternal Health: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-01-01

    Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured

  5. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured

  6. Methylmercury Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea. PMID:23230465

  7. Health effects of oxygenated fuels.

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, M G

    1993-01-01

    The use of oxygenated fuels is anticipated to increase over the next decades. This paper reviews the toxicological and exposure information for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), a fuel additive, and methanol, a replacement fuel, and discusses the possible health consequences of exposure of the general public to these compounds. For MTBE, the health effects information available is derived almost exclusively from rodent studies, and the exposure data are limited to a few measurements at some service stations. Based on these data, it appears unlikely that the normal population is at high risk of exposure to MTBE vapor. However, in the absence of health and pharmacokinetic data in humans or in nonhuman primates, this conclusion is not strongly supported. Similarly, there are a number of uncertainties to take into consideration in estimating human risk from the use of methanol as a fuel. Although methanol may be toxic to humans at concentrations that overwhelm certain enzymes involved in methanol metabolism, the data available provide little evidence to indicate that exposure to methanol vapors from the use of methanol as a motor vehicle fuel will result in adverse health effects. The uncertainties in this conclusion are based on the lack of information on dose-response relationship at reasonable, projected exposure levels and of studies examining end points of concern in sensitive species. In developing a quantitative risk assessment, more needs to be known about health effects in primates or humans and the range of exposure expected for the general public for both compounds. PMID:8020439

  8. Methylmercury exposure and health effects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Kyung-Eun

    2012-11-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea.

  9. Ethical tensions associated with the promotion of public health policy in health visiting: a qualitative investigation of health visitors' views.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Julie Catherine; Entwistle, Vikki Ann; terMeulen, Ruud

    2013-04-01

    To explore whether and how health visitors experience ethical tensions between the public health agenda and the need to be responsive to individual clients. Current health policy in England gives health visitors a key role in implementing the government's public health agenda. Health visitors are also required by their Professional Code to respond to the health-related concerns and preferences of their individual clients. This may generate tensions. A total of 17 semi-structured individual interviews covering participants' experiences of implementing public health interventions and perceptions of the ethical tensions involved were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically using a Framework approach. Health visitors raised a number of ethical concerns, which they attributed to organisational resource allocation and the introduction of protocols and targets relating to public health goals. They did not always regard it as appropriate to raise topics that employing organisations had identified as public health priorities with particular clients for whom they were not priorities, or who had other more pressing needs. They noted that resources that were allocated towards reaching public health targets were unavailable for clients who needed support in other areas. Organisational protocols designed to monitor performance put pressure on health visitors to prioritise achieving targets and undermined their ability to exercise professional judgement when supporting individual clients. This had implications for health visitors' sense of professionalism. Health visitors saw trusting relationships as key to effective health visiting practice, but the requirement to implement public health priorities, combined with a lack of resources in health visiting, eroded their ability to form these. Policies need to be evaluated with regard to their impact upon a broader range of processes and outcomes than public health goals. The erosion of health

  10. Effect of investigation intensity and treatment differences on prostate cancer survivor's physical symptoms, psychological well-being and health-related quality of life: a two country cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Anna T; Donnelly, David; Donnelly, Conan; Drummond, Frances J; Morgan, Eileen; Gormley, Gerard J; Sharp, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate effects on men's health and well-being of higher prostate cancer (PCa) investigation and treatment levels in similar populations. Participants PCa survivors in Ireland where the Republic of Ireland (RoI) has a 50% higher PCa incidence than Northern Ireland (NI). Method A cross-sectional postal questionnaire was sent to PCa survivors 2–18 years post-treatment, seeking information about current physical effects of treatment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL; EORTC QLQ-C30; EQ-5D-5L) and psychological well-being (21 question version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, DASS-21). Outcomes in RoI and NI survivors were compared, stratifying into ‘late disease’ (stage III/IV and any Gleason grade (GG) at diagnosis) and ‘early disease’ (stage I/II and GG 2–7). Responses were weighted by age, jurisdiction and time since diagnosis. Between-country differences were investigated using multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results 3348 men responded (RoI n=2567; NI n=781; reflecting population sizes, response rate 54%). RoI responders were younger; less often had comorbidities (45% vs 38%); were more likely to present asymptomatically (66%; 41%) or with early disease (56%; 35%); and less often currently used androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; 2%; 28%). Current prevalence of incontinence (16%) and impotence (56% early disease, 67% late disease) did not differ between RoI and NI. In early disease, only current bowel problems (RoI 12%; NI 21%) differed significantly in multivariate analysis. In late disease, NI men reported significantly higher levels of gynaecomastia (23% vs 9%) and hot flashes(41% vs 19%), but when ADT users were analysed separately, differences disappeared. For HRQoL, in multivariate analysis, only pain (early disease: RoI 11.1, NI 19.4) and financial difficulties (late disease: RoI 10.4, NI 7.9) differed significantly between countries. There were no significant between-country differences in DASS-21 or

  11. Health Versus Appearance Versus Body Competence: A Content Analysis Investigating Frames of Health Advice in Women's Health Magazines.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Hahn, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which women's health magazines advise readers to adopt healthy behaviors in order to look good (appearance frame), in order to feel good (health frame), or in order to perform better (body competence frame). A content analysis of 5 years of the 6 highest circulating U.S. women's health magazines revealed a higher frequency of health frames (32.6%) than appearance frames (24.8%) overall, but when beauty/health hybrid magazines (i.e., Shape and Self) were examined separately, appearance frames (32.8%) outnumbered health frames (26.5%). Compared to appearance and health frames, body competence frames were underrepresented (13.3% in the full sample). The visual sexual objectification of female models in women's health magazines was also investigated. Appearance-framed articles (43.2%) were significantly more likely to visually depict women with a high degree of skin exposure than health-framed articles (17.4%), and appearance-framed articles (34.8%) were more likely to focus on individual body parts than health-framed articles (21.3%). In addition, despite the magazines' editorial focus on health, the most frequent category of products advertised was appearance-enhancing products. Results are discussed in light of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997).

  12. Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

  13. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  14. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  15. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; Brenner, Hermann; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Matschinger, Herbert; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Schöttker, Ben; Quinzler, Renate; Heider, Dirk; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-06-01

    To investigate factors affecting willingness to pay (WTP) for health insurance of older adults in a longitudinal setting in Germany. Survey data from a cohort study in Saarland, Germany, from 2008-2010 and 2011-2014 (n1  = 3,124; n2  = 2,761) were used. Panel data were taken at two points from an observational, prospective cohort study. WTP estimates were derived using a contingent valuation method with a payment card. Participants provided data on sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, morbidity, and health care utilization. Fixed effects regression models showed higher individual health care costs to increase WTP, which in particular could be found for members of private health insurance. Changes in income and morbidity did not affect WTP among members of social health insurance, whereas these predictors affected WTP among members of private health insurance. The fact that individual health care costs affected WTP positively might indicate that demanding (expensive) health care services raises the awareness of the benefits of health insurance. Thus, measures to increase WTP in old age should target at improving transparency of the value of health insurances at the moment when individual health care utilization and corresponding costs are still relatively low. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. [Health effects of living habits].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Single healthy living habits such as non-smoking and regular physical activity decrease the risk of common non-communicable diseases, unsuccessful aging and premature death to a small to moderate degree. Their cumulative effects are, however, large. Only a small minority of people adhere well to all healthy living habits or even the healthiest ones. Consequently, the population attributable fractions of major public health problems due to unhealthy lifestyles are large. Substantial improvement of public health calls for policies and programs to influence the root causes of the lifestyles in the multiple environments and systems where they are developed, maintained, and changed.

  18. Investigating the effects of medical density on health-seeking behaviours using a multiscale approach to residential and activity spaces: results from a prospective cohort study in the Paris metropolitan area, France.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Julie; Chauvin, Pierre

    2012-12-26

    When measuring neighbourhood effects on health, it is both incorrect to treat individuals as if they were static and tied to their residential neighbourhood and to consider neighbourhoods rigid places whose geographical scales can be delineated a priori. We propose here to investigate the effects of residential medical density on health-seeking behaviours, taking into account the mono/polycentric structure of individual activity space (i.e., the space within which people move in the course of their daily activities) and exploring various neighbourhood units based on administrative delineations and regular grids. We used data collected in the SIRS cohort study, which was carried out over a 5-year period (2005-2010) among a representative population living in 50 census blocks in the Paris metropolitan area. In the 662 women who lived in the same census blocks during the follow-up period and who had reported a recent cervical screening at baseline, we studied the association between residential medical density and individual activity space and the incidence of delayed cervical screening (> 3 years) in multilevel logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. Among the 662 women studied, there were 94 instances of delayed cervical screening in 2010 (14%). The women who indicated that their activity space was concentrated within their neighbourhood of residence were significantly more at risk for an incident delayed cervical screening. No significant association was found between residential medical density and the incidence of delayed cervical screening. However, we observed a significant interaction between individual activity space and residential medical density. Indeed, women living in neighbourhoods with a low medical density had a significantly higher risk of delayed screening, but only if they reported that their daily activities were centred within their neighbourhood of residence. Lastly, a sensitivity analysis exploring various

  19. Investigation of waviness in wind turbine blades: Structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Dayal, Vinay; Barnard, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Waviness in composite wind turbine blades was detected and characterized with the help of air coupled ultrasonics. Based on the aspect ratio, the detected marcels are either accepted or rejected. A passive structural health monitoring approach has been presented here to monitor the accepted marcels above a threshold. The fatigue life of specimen is most affected in the presence of a marcel. Hence this study focused on the damage evaluation after fatigue testing. Wavy laminate was subjected to fatigue load to investigate the fracture mechanisms near the marcel. Different types of defects were identified from this study and were used to develop appropriate instrumentation for health monitoring of a wavy laminate using PVDF patches.

  20. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  1. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    PubMed

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  2. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    PubMed Central

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  3. Improving documentation of physical health investigations in an adolescent mental health inpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Horton, David

    2015-01-01

    Physical health investigations, such as blood tests, ECGs, and appropriate radiological tests, are essential in the assessment and management of many patients in inpatient mental health settings. This project took place in a 12-bed adolescent mental health unit in Swindon, UK, where on average at least two-thirds of patients have a diagnosed eating disorder. Multidisciplinary ward rounds provide an appropriate setting for discussion and documentation of physical investigations. Over a two-week period, 22 electronic ward round entries were audited for any documentation of five common investigations - blood tests, ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and ovarian ultrasound. Blood tests were documented in 2/22 (9.1%), ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and ovarian ultrasound were documented in 0/22 (0%). Modifications were made to an electronic ward round template, to include headings for each of these investigations, with free-text boxes as well as drop-down boxes for the radiological tests. Following this, re-audit of 22 ward round entries over a two-week period showed documentation had hugely improved - blood tests were documented in 21/22 (95.5%), with ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and pelvis US all documented in 22/22 (100%). A further audit a month later showed these results were largely sustained. In conclusion, use of a simple, structured ward round template can hugely improve documentation of important physical investigations within mental health settings.

  4. Improving documentation of physical health investigations in an adolescent mental health inpatient unit

    PubMed Central

    Horton, David

    2015-01-01

    Physical health investigations, such as blood tests, ECGs, and appropriate radiological tests, are essential in the assessment and management of many patients in inpatient mental health settings. This project took place in a 12-bed adolescent mental health unit in Swindon, UK, where on average at least two-thirds of patients have a diagnosed eating disorder. Multidisciplinary ward rounds provide an appropriate setting for discussion and documentation of physical investigations. Over a two-week period, 22 electronic ward round entries were audited for any documentation of five common investigations - blood tests, ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and ovarian ultrasound. Blood tests were documented in 2/22 (9.1%), ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and ovarian ultrasound were documented in 0/22 (0%). Modifications were made to an electronic ward round template, to include headings for each of these investigations, with free-text boxes as well as drop-down boxes for the radiological tests. Following this, re-audit of 22 ward round entries over a two-week period showed documentation had hugely improved - blood tests were documented in 21/22 (95.5%), with ECG, MRI head, DEXA, and pelvis US all documented in 22/22 (100%). A further audit a month later showed these results were largely sustained. In conclusion, use of a simple, structured ward round template can hugely improve documentation of important physical investigations within mental health settings. PMID:26734411

  5. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits and goals for emergency and remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency Program Office files are evaluated as they pertain to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Several quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. For systemic toxicants, these include Reference Doses (RfDs) for chronic and subchronic exposures for both the inhalation and oral exposures. In the case of suspected carcinogens, RfDs may not be estimated. Instead, a carcinogenic potency factor, or q1*, is provided. These potency estimates are derived for both oral and inhalation exposures where possible. In addition, unit risk estimates for air and drinking water are presented based on inhalation and oral data, respectively. Reportable quantities (RQs) based on both chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity are derived. The RQ is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified under CERCLA.

  6. Investigating referral pathways from primary care to consumer health organisations.

    PubMed

    Young, Charlotte E; Mutch, Allyson J; Boyle, Frances M; Dean, Julie H

    2010-01-01

    While chronic disease places an increasing burden on Australia's primary care system it is unrealistic to expect GPs to meet the range of support needs experienced by patients managing chronic conditions. Consumer health organisations (CHO) have the potential to augment clinical care by providing a variety of supportive services; however, they are underutilised by patients and GPs. This qualitative study investigates GPs' knowledge and perceptions of CHO and their contributions to chronic disease care. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 10 GPs. Overall, participants demonstrated clear understanding of the role of CHO in chronic disease management, but a critical finding was the way GPs' view of their own chronic care role appears to influence referral practices. GPs operating in a traditional role were less likely to refer to CHO than those who had adopted a chronic care approach. A second key finding related to GPs' views of Diabetes Australia. All GPs identified this organisation as an important referral point, providing some reassurance that CHO can be integrated into the primary care sector. Further research is needed to determine how the 'definite advantages' associated with Diabetes Australia can be used to extend GP referral and enhance the health system's integration of other CHO.

  7. A study to determine the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic investigations of the health effects of low-level ionizing radiation. Phase I report. Interim technical report 3 July 79-15 January 80

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, N.A.; Clapp, R.W.; Covino, S.J. Jr; Fahey, F.H.; Friedlander, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    This is the six-month interim report of 'A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Conducting Epidemiologic Investigations of the Health Effects of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation', begun July 3, 1979. The study defines low-level radiation as either doses up to 5 rem (whole-body) per year or doses up to 50 rem (whole body) cumulative. The overall intent of the study is a dual one: (1) to insure that all likely exposed population groups are identified, and (2) to determine at the operational level the requirements for feasibility, i.e. study design, data gathering, information potential and cost for future epidemiologic studies of low-level radiation exposure. Three criteria were developed to select the best prospects for in-depth feasibility studies of the dose-response relationship in the low-dose range. A rigorous application of these criteria would have eliminated all candidates from consideration. Nevertheless, the authors selected seven broadly-defined low-exposure groups that seemed most promising. These groups were exposed to either occupational or diagnostic medical radiation. In addition, owing to strong public interest, the authors selected three groups with special environmental radiation exposures, although this was not specifically required by the contract.

  8. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    PubMed Central

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

  9. Potent health effects of pomegranate.

    PubMed

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions.

  10. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of child health in Africa: the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, DJ; Koen, N; Donald, KA; Adnams, CM; Koopowitz, S; Lund, C; Marais, A; Myers, B; Roos, A; Sorsdahl, K; Stern, M; Tomlinson, M; van der Westhuizen, C; Vythilingum, B; Myer, L; Barnett, W; Brittain, K; Zar, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life psychobiological and psychosocial factors play a key role in influencing child health outcomes. Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the relevant risk and resilience profiles, and the underlying mechanisms that impact on child health, but there is a paucity of birth cohort data from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We describe the rationale for and present baseline findings from the psychosocial component of the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Methods We review the psychosocial measures used in the DCHS, a multidisciplinary birth cohort study in a peri-urban area in South Africa, and provide initial data on psychological distress, depression, substance use, and exposure to traumatic stressors and intimate partner violence (IPV). These and other measures will be assessed longitudinally in mothers in order to investigate associations with child neurodevelopmental and health outcomes. Results Baseline psychosocial data is presented for mothers (n = 634) and fathers (n = 75) who have completed antenatal assessments to date. The sample of pregnant mothers is characterized by multiple psychosocial risk factors, including a high prevalence of psychological distress and depression, high levels of substance use, and high exposure to traumatic stressors and IPV. Discussion These data are consistent with prior South African studies which have documented a high prevalence of a multitude of risk factors during pregnancy. Further longitudinal assessment of mothers and children may clarify the underlying psychobiological and psychosocial mechanisms which impact on child health, and so inform clinical and public health interventions appropriate to the South African and other LMIC contexts. PMID:25797842

  11. Adolescent Health Care Use: Investigating Related Determinants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakopoulos, George; Tzavara, Chara; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of health care use is crucial for adolescent well-being and health systems. The present study was the first to test a set of variables in a representative sample of Greek adolescents in order to identify factors that predict health care use and contribute to improving health service planning. Questionnaires were administered to a…

  12. Investigation of Health Care Components in Transition IEPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Jeanne B.; Jaress, Jennifer; Lindsey, Jenna; Bae, Jungah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the inclusion of health care components in transition Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students diagnosed with Other Health Impaired (OHI). In this study, we analyzed 50 IEPs of students with an OHI diagnosis to establish whether there are health-related components or other common health care…

  13. Adolescent Health Care Use: Investigating Related Determinants in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakopoulos, George; Tzavara, Chara; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of health care use is crucial for adolescent well-being and health systems. The present study was the first to test a set of variables in a representative sample of Greek adolescents in order to identify factors that predict health care use and contribute to improving health service planning. Questionnaires were administered to a…

  14. Investigation of Health Care Components in Transition IEPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Jeanne B.; Jaress, Jennifer; Lindsey, Jenna; Bae, Jungah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the inclusion of health care components in transition Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students diagnosed with Other Health Impaired (OHI). In this study, we analyzed 50 IEPs of students with an OHI diagnosis to establish whether there are health-related components or other common health care…

  15. [Health effects of ultraviolet radiation].

    PubMed

    Ohnaka, T

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) occurs from both natural and artificial sources. The main natural source is the sun. On the other hand, artificial UVR sources are widely used in industry and also used in hospitals, laboratories, etc. because of their germicidal properties. They are even used for cosmetic purposes. UVR can be classified into three regions according to its wavelength: as UVA (320-400nm), UVB (320-280nm) and UVC (280-200nm). The UVC has the greatest health effect on humans among the three. The sun radiates a wide range of spectrum of electromagnetic radiation including the UVR, however the radiation below 290 nm in wavelength does not reach the surface of the earth for effective absorption by the stratospheric ozone layer. As a result, UVR from a natural source consists of only UVA and a part of UVB. On the other hand, artificial UVR sources include UVC region and have serious effects on the human body, especially on the skin and eyes. The health effects of UVR on humans can be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the amount and form of UVR, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed. It has been acknowledged that a long period of UVR deficiency may have harmful effects on the human body, such as the development of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in children due to a disturbance in the phosphorus and calcium metabolism. Appropriate measures to increase the amount of exposure to UVR, especially to UVB radiation by the use of sun bathing, the exposure to artificial UVR sources, etc. have shown to prevent disease states caused by UVR deficiency. The harmful effects of UVR consist of erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancer is commonly produced by UVR. In this review, various states of UV from solar radiation and the degree of exposure to UVR are introduced. The benefits and harmful health effects of

  16. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption

    PubMed Central

    van Osch, Liesbeth; Beenackers, Mariëlle; Reubsaet, Astrid; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2009-01-01

    Background Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Methods Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572) and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585) in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Results Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. Conclusion The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health risk behaviors. Future

  17. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, M.; Kerr, K.J.; Sanin, L.H.; Cole, D.C.; Bassil, K.L.; Vakil, C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether there are associations between exposure to pesticides and 4 chronic non-cancer health effects: dermatologic, neurologic, reproductive, and genotoxic effects. DATA SOURCES We searched PreMedline, MEDLINE, and LILACS using the key word pesticide combined with the term for the specific health effect being searched. Reviewers scanned the references of all articles for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION Studies since 1992 were assessed using structured inclusion and quality-of-methods criteria. Studies scoring <4 on a 7-point global methodologic quality scale were excluded. In total, 124 studies were included. These studies had a mean quality score of 4.88 out of 7. SYNTHESIS Strong evidence of association with pesticide exposure was found for all neurologic outcomes, genotoxicity, and 4 of 6 reproductive effects: birth defects, fetal death, altered growth, and other outcomes. Exposure to pesticides generally doubled the level of genetic damage as measured by chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes. Only a few high-quality studies focused on the dermatologic effects of pesticides. In some of these studies, rates of dermatitis were higher among those who had had high exposure to pesticides on the job. CONCLUSION Evidence from research on humans consistently points to positive associations between pesticide exposure and 3 of the 4 non-cancer health outcomes studied. Physicians have a dual role in educating individual patients about the risks of exposure and in reducing exposure in the community by advocating for restrictions on use of pesticides. PMID:17934035

  18. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  19. Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Preetha, GS

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:22529532

  20. E-health: effect on health system efficiency of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Afshan; Rashid, Audil; Kureshi, Nadeem Ishaq

    2014-01-01

    The health system in Pakistan is spraining because of increasing cost and demand gravities. The shortage of skilled health care workers is one of the main factors of health issues. There is a need to move away from the dependency of tools such as pen, paper, and human memory to a milieu where patients and health care providers can reliably access and share health information in real time across geographic and health sector boundaries. The purpose of this research is to observe the effect of e-health on the physician-patient relationship and to analyze the capacity of health professionals by noting information and communication technologies usage as indicators. Structured questionnaire was used to gather data from physicians to judge the success and effect of existing e-health policy. Both categorical and Likert scale variables were used. The analysis of data was per.formed using chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Specialist doctors comprised the major proportion of health care professionals in both male and female categories with good knowledge about Internet usage. E-health-based communication does not seem to be gender specific. Logistic regression revealed that busy doctors whose patients are more than 100 per week believe that e-health would significantly strengthen their communication with patients (OR=3.06; 95% CI=1.05- 8.87). Among other significant impacts of e-health include reduced consultation period and time of diagnosis. E-health technology can play a crucial role in controlling many epidemic diseases through effective surveillance. E-health implementation will result in improving the efficiency, better access of general public to the health care system, and eradication of diseases in Pakistan.

  1. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, α-glucosidase and lipase.

    PubMed

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits.

  2. Health effects of acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.A.; Wyzga, R.; Kimber, S.

    1995-12-31

    A considerable amount of recent scientific research has addressed concerns about possible health effects of acidic atmospheric aerosols. The greatest concern--and the bulk of the research--has involved acidic sulfates, which form in the atmosphere as a result of reactions involving sulfur dioxide, emitted when fossil fuels are burned. The strongest evidence of a possible health threat comes from epidemiology studies, but since high levels of acidity in ambient air are inevitably accompanied by high levels of other agents likely to affect pulmonary function, it is impossible to determine whether acidity is the cause of the effects found in those studies. Clinical research involving exposure to acidic sulfate aerosol alone has failed to find convincing reproducible evidence of a response to acid exposures at levels near modern peak ambient levels. Slight, transient decreases in lung function have been noted in asthmatic subjects exposed to acids at levels considerably higher than ambient, and in nonasthmatic subjects exposed at even higher levels. However, the significance of these responses is unclear. Quite recently, some evidence has supported a shift of research emphasis from acidity per se to particulate matter in general.

  3. Understanding the effect of retirement on health: Mechanisms and heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Eibich, Peter

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms behind the health effects of retirement. Using a Regression Discontinuity Design to exploit financial incentives in the German pension system for identification, I find that retirement improves subjective health status and mental health, while also reducing outpatient care utilization. I explore a wide range of health behaviors, time use, and effect heterogeneity as potential mechanisms. Relief from work-related stress and strain, increased sleep duration as well as more frequent physical exercise seem to be key mechanisms through which retirement affects health.

  4. Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

  5. Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

  6. Use of online health information to manage children's health care: a prospective study investigating parental decisions.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Anne M; Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M; Hyde, Melissa K

    2015-04-02

    The use of the internet to access information is rapidly increasing; however, the quality of health information provided on various online sites is questionable. We aimed to examine the underlying factors that guide parents' decisions to use online information to manage their child's health care, a behaviour which has not yet been explored systematically. Parents (N = 391) completed a questionnaire assessing the standard theory of planned behaviour (TPB) measures of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention as well as the underlying TPB belief-based items (i.e., behavioural, normative, and control beliefs) in addition to a measure of perceived risk and demographic variables. Two months later, consenting parents completed a follow-up telephone questionnaire which assessed the decisions they had made regarding their use of online information to manage their child's health care during the previous 2 months. We found support for the TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and PBC as well as the additional construct of perceived risk in predicting parents' intentions to use online information to manage their child's health care, with further support found for intentions, but not PBC, in predicting parents' behaviour. The results of the TPB belief-based analyses also revealed important information about the critical beliefs that guide parents' decisions to engage in this child health management behaviour. This theory-based investigation to understand parents' motivations and online information-seeking behaviour is key to developing recommendations and policies to guide more appropriate help-seeking actions among parents.

  7. Study protocol to investigate the effect of a lifestyle intervention on body weight, psychological health status and risk factors associated with disease recurrence in women recovering from breast cancer treatment [ISRCTN08045231

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, John M; Daley, Amanda; Woodroofe, Nicola; Coleman, Robert; Powers, Hilary; Mutrie, Nanette; Siddall, Vanessa; Crank, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Background Breast cancer survivors often encounter physiological and psychological problems related to their diagnosis and treatment that can influence long-term prognosis. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on body weight and psychological well-being in women recovering from breast cancer treatment, and to determine the relationship between changes in these variables and biomarkers associated with disease recurrence and survival. Methods/design Following ethical approval, a total of 100 patients will be randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention (incorporating dietary energy restriction in conjunction with aerobic exercise training) or normal care control group. Patients randomised to the dietary and exercise intervention will be given individualised healthy eating dietary advice and written information and attend moderate intensity aerobic exercise sessions on three to five days per week for a period of 24 weeks. The aim of this strategy is to induce a steady weight loss of up to 0.5 Kg each week. In addition, the overall quality of the diet will be examined with a view to (i) reducing the dietary intake of fat to ~25% of the total calories, (ii) eating at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, (iii) increasing the intake of fibre and reducing refined carbohydrates, and (iv) taking moderate amounts of alcohol. Outcome measures will include body weight and body composition, psychological health status (stress and depression), cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. In addition, biomarkers associated with disease recurrence, including stress hormones, estrogen status, inflammatory markers and indices of innate and adaptive immune function will be monitored. Discussion This research will provide valuable information on the effectiveness of a practical, easily implemented lifestyle intervention for evoking positive effects on body weight and psychological well-being, two important factors that can

  8. Study protocol to investigate the effect of a lifestyle intervention on body weight, psychological health status and risk factors associated with disease recurrence in women recovering from breast cancer treatment [ISRCTN08045231].

    PubMed

    Saxton, John M; Daley, Amanda; Woodroofe, Nicola; Coleman, Robert; Powers, Hilary; Mutrie, Nanette; Siddall, Vanessa; Crank, Helen

    2006-02-09

    Breast cancer survivors often encounter physiological and psychological problems related to their diagnosis and treatment that can influence long-term prognosis. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on body weight and psychological well-being in women recovering from breast cancer treatment, and to determine the relationship between changes in these variables and biomarkers associated with disease recurrence and survival. Following ethical approval, a total of 100 patients will be randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention (incorporating dietary energy restriction in conjunction with aerobic exercise training) or normal care control group. Patients randomised to the dietary and exercise intervention will be given individualised healthy eating dietary advice and written information and attend moderate intensity aerobic exercise sessions on three to five days per week for a period of 24 weeks. The aim of this strategy is to induce a steady weight loss of up to 0.5 Kg each week. In addition, the overall quality of the diet will be examined with a view to (i) reducing the dietary intake of fat to approximately 25% of the total calories, (ii) eating at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, (iii) increasing the intake of fibre and reducing refined carbohydrates, and (iv) taking moderate amounts of alcohol. Outcome measures will include body weight and body composition, psychological health status (stress and depression), cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. In addition, biomarkers associated with disease recurrence, including stress hormones, estrogen status, inflammatory markers and indices of innate and adaptive immune function will be monitored. This research will provide valuable information on the effectiveness of a practical, easily implemented lifestyle intervention for evoking positive effects on body weight and psychological well-being, two important factors that can influence long

  9. The effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme on health care utilisation.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, N J; Fink, G; Osei-Akoto, I

    2012-06-01

    The study investigates the effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) on health care utilisation. We provide a short history of health insurance in Ghana, and briefly discuss general patterns of enrolment in Ghana as well as in Accra in a first step. In a second step, we use data from the Women's Health Study of Accra wave II to evaluate the effect of insurance on health seeking behaviour using propensity score matching. We find that on average individuals enrolled in the insurance scheme are significantly more likely to obtain prescriptions, visit clinics and seek formal health care when sick. These results suggest that the government's objective to increase access to the formal health care sector through health insurance has at least partially been achieved.

  10. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  11. Health anxiety in obsessive compulsive disorder and obsessive compulsive symptoms in severe health anxiety: An investigation of symptom profiles.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Axelsson, Erland; Andersson, Gerhard; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Severe health anxiety (SHA) shares features with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in recent years there has been a debate as to whether the two disorders may represent two facets of the same condition. Few studies have however investigated the overlap and differences in symptom profiles between the disorders. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate these aspects using one sample of participants with a principal diagnosis of SHA and one sample of participants with a principal OCD diagnosis. The second aim was to examine differences in improvement trajectories on measures of health anxiety and OCD symptoms in patients with SHA receiving treatment with exposure and response prevention. We compared persons participating in clinical trials with a principal diagnosis of SHA (N=290) to persons with a principal diagnosis of OCD (n=95) on measures of health anxiety, OCD symptoms, and depressive symptoms. A subsample of SHA participants (n=99) received exposure and response prevention (ERP) for SHA over 12 weeks and was assessed at baseline and post-treatment. The results showed large and significant differences between SHA and OCD patients on measures of health anxiety (ds=2.99-3.09) and OCD symptoms (ds=1.64-2.14), while they had equivalent levels of depressive symptoms (d=0.19, 95% CI [-0.04, 0.43]). In the SHA sample 7.6% had comorbid OCD, and in the OCD sample 9.5% had SHA. For participants with a principal diagnosis of SHA, ERP led to large reductions of health anxiety, but effects on OCD symptoms were small to moderate. Among participants with comorbid OCD, effect sizes were large on measures of health anxiety and moderate to large on OCD measures. We conclude that SHA and OCD are separate psychiatric disorders with limited overlap in symptom profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the benefits of conscientiousness: an investigation of the role of daily stressors and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Conner, Mark; Jones, Fiona; McMillan, Brian; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of conscientiousness and its facets on health behaviors and daily hassles (stressors) and the moderating effects of conscientiousness on the hassles-health behavior relationship Four hundred and twenty-two employees completed daily diaries over 4 weeks. Day-to-day within-person effects of daily hassles on health behaviors were examined, together with the influence of conscientiousness. Using hierarchical multivariate linear modeling, the results showed that conscientiousness was associated with lower consumption of high-fat snacks and more fruit and higher caffeine intake and smoking (in smokers) across the 28-day study period. Facets of conscientiousness were also found to moderate the effects of daily hassles on vegetable consumption, smoking, and likelihood of exercising each day. Participants with higher levels of order exercised more on days when they experienced daily hassles, whereas participants with lower levels of self-efficacy consumed less vegetables on stressful days. Among smokers, those with higher levels of self-discipline reported smoking more on days when they encountered hassles. These findings indicate that conscientiousness and its facets may influence health status directly via changes in health behaviors and indirectly through influencing stress-health behavior relations.

  13. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-01-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure. PMID:1821378

  14. Health Effects of Shift Work

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other “alternative work schedules” grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended. PMID:6962577

  15. An Electronic Health Record Investigation of Lenticulostriate Vasculopathy Features.

    PubMed

    Frankovich, Jennifer; Egan, Maximillian; Mahony, Talia; Benitz, William; Shaw, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Objective Lenticulostriate vasculopathy (LSV) is characterized by linear hyperechogenicities in the basal ganglia found on the head ultrasounds of infants. We reviewed electronic health records of infants with and without LSV to investigate whether physician dictations indicated symptoms which could reflect subtle basal ganglia injury. Study Design In a case-control study, we analyzed data from 46 infants with LSV and 127 controls. Infants were stratified between term and preterm birth. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for tone abnormalities, apnea, feeding difficulties, seizures, and movement abnormalities in the presence of LSV. Results Both term and preterm infants with LSV showed elevated risks for tone abnormalities (OR: 3.6 and 2.9, respectively). Term infants with LSV showed elevated risks for hypotonia (OR: 4.3), apnea (OR: 2.9), and feeding difficulties (OR: 4.1). Preterm infants with LSV showed elevated risks for truncal hypotonia (OR: 3.9) and hyperreflexia (OR: 3.9). Conclusion Our findings provide some evidence that LSV is associated with an increased risk of early signs of abnormal development, possibly relating to signs of subtle basal ganglia injury. Historically LSV has been considered incidental. The associations identified here suggest that LSV findings are worthy of further study.

  16. The place and promotion of well-being in mental health services: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Owens, C; Crone, D; Kilgour, L; El Ansari, W

    2010-02-01

    The study investigated the place and promotion of well-being from the perspectives of services users and mental health professionals. * Data from focus groups and interviews were analysed and found that well-being promotion was available, for example weight management groups in mental health services. However, they also found that there were some contradictions between the groups of people interviewed about what was available and what to promote in the future. * The study concludes suggesting partnerships with local communities to further develop well-being services, such as opportunities for physical activity, for people with mental health problems. Abstract This study explored service users' and mental health professionals' understandings, experiences and opinions of well-being and its promotion within mental health services. A qualitative case study methodology included nine participants (five adult service users, three mental health professionals, one senior manager) who were purposively sampled from a Mental Health Trust in England. Service users participated in a focus group, while individual semi-structured interviews were held with the mental health professionals and senior manager. Interpretative phenomenological analysis of the data revealed five main themes including well-being as a holistic concept; well-being promotion; the place, promotion and position of well-being; role of mental health services in well-being promotion; and areas for further improvement. Findings revealed evidence of well-being promotion; however, there were contradictions regarding what was known between the groups of participants and what could be provided in the future. Implications for practice include the need to establish more effective partnership working between mental health services and local communities, especially in light of financial constraints within health services at large. This could assist the increased provision of therapeutic services for well-being promotion.

  17. Investigations of Near-Zone Doppler Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prouty, Dale Austen

    Far away from an electromagnetic source the normal Doppler shifts in frequency occur--a red shift for receding and a blue shift for approaching. As indicated by previous work with an infinitesimal dipole, different frequency shifts occur when the source and observer move closer together, into the near-zone. These "near-zone Doppler effects" are investigated for general sources and subsequently two specific examples are presented. The general results show that near-zone shifts are similar to far-zone shifts, but the local phase velocity must be used, i.e. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). In the far zone the phase velocity is the speed of light; in the near zone it differs. Fundamentally, the distance between surfaces of constant phase in the near zone is changed. The surfaces of constant phase for the waves are no longer spherical, but more ellipsoidal or spheroidal, so that a moving observer sees a different frequency shift. Two specific examples are presented to indicate the actual magnitude of near-zone effects. The examples include a prolate spheroidal antenna and a circular aperture. Once the magnitude of the effects is determined, the measurability of near-zone Doppler effects is discussed. The investigation concentrates on Fresnel zone effects due to the measurement problem. Finally, it is shown that for an electrically large wire antenna (the spheroidal example) near-zone Doppler effects are measurable.

  18. School Effects on Pupils' Health Behaviours: Evidence in Support of the Health Promoting School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, P.; Sweeting, H.; Leyland, A.

    2004-01-01

    Compared with the volume of research on school effects on educational outcomes, and in spite of growing interest in the health promoting school, there are very few studies that have investigated the way schools influence pupils' health behaviours. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study of over 2000 young people in the West of…

  19. Ill Literates or Illiterates? Investigating the eHealth Literacy of Users of Online Health Communities.

    PubMed

    Petrič, Gregor; Atanasova, Sara; Kamin, Tanja

    2017-10-04

    Electronic health (eHealth) literacy is an important skill that allows patients to navigate intelligibly through the vast, often misleading Web-based world. Although eHealth literacy has been investigated in general and specific demographic populations, it has not yet been analyzed on users of online health communities (OHCs). Evidence shows that OHCs are important Web 2.0 applications for patients for managing their health, but at the same time, warnings have been expressed regarding the quality and relevance of shared information. No studies exist that investigate levels of eHealth literacy among users of OHCs and differences in eHealth literacy between different types of users. The study aimed to investigate eHealth literacy across different types of users of OHCs based on a revised and extended eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS). The study was based on a cross-sectional Web survey on a simple random sample of 15,000 registered users of the most popular general OHC in Slovenia. The final sample comprised 644 users of the studied OHC. An extended eHEALS (eHEALS-E) was tested with factor analytical procedures, whereas user types were identified with a hierarchical clustering algorithm. The research question was analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure and pairwise comparison tests. Factor analysis of the revised and extended eHEALS revealed six dimensions: awareness of sources, recognizing quality and meaning, understanding information, perceived efficiency, validating information, and being smart on the Net. The factor solution demonstrates a good fit to the data (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=.059). The most developed dimension of eHEALS-E is awareness of different Internet sources (mean=3.98, standard deviation [SD]=0.61), whereas the least developed is understanding information (mean=3.11, SD=0.75). Clustering resulted in four user types: active help-seekers (48.3%, 311/644), lurkers (31.8%, 205/644), core relational users (16

  20. Health Effects of Petroleum Coke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Significant quantities of fugitive dust from pet coke storage and handling operations present a health risk. EPA’s research suggests that petcoke does not pose a different health risk than similar-sized particulate matter (PM10).

  1. [Health technology assessment: II. Cost effectiveness analysis].

    PubMed

    Secoli, Silvia Regina; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Ono-Nita, Suzane Kioko; Nobre, Moacyr

    2010-01-01

    New health technologies have made an impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Therefore, research methodologies that allow to evaluate the efficiency of these new technologies such as cost-effectiveness analysis are necessary. Cost-effectiveness analysis assess the value of health care interventions or drugs, the technology. Cost-effectiveness analysis is also deemed a determinant of modern health care practice, because the therapeutic options available at public (SUS) or private health care system must go through a formal health technology assessment in Brazil; thus, both the health care system and the health care professionals have to reevaluate the clinical consequences and costs of their actions to assure that the most efficient technologies are the one used in the practice. In this second article about health technology assessment we review the concepts of cost-effectiveness analysis, the steps involved in performing such analysis, and the criteria most frequently used to critically review the results.

  2. Building a funded research program in cancer health disparities: considerations for young investigators.

    PubMed

    Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Phillips, Lynette S; Nichols, Hazel B; Martinez, Elena; Thompson, Beti; Ojeifo, John; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2015-05-01

    A workshop entitled "Building a funded research program in cancer health disparities" was held at the 38th Annual American Society of Preventive Oncology (ASPO) Meeting. Organized by the Junior Members Interest Group, the session addressed topics relevant to career development for cancer disparities investigators. Such considerations include the development of research programs on a backdrop of existing multi- and transdisciplinary teams, recognizing opportunities for advancing their research, given the growth of consortia-related research, and development of effective community-based partnerships. Key strategies for developing a sustainable career in cancer health disparities in the current environment include the need to effectively engage with communities, appreciate the value of team science and develop cross-discipline collaborations, and navigate the use and utility of consortia for disparities research. Academic considerations related to earning tenure and promotion that may be faced by the junior investigator in cancer health disparities were also discussed. This report may serve to both educate and provide lessons for early-stage investigators who wish to tackle complex scientific questions while developing their careers in cancer health disparities.

  3. Effects of caffeine on human health.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, P; Jordan, S; Eastwood, J; Rotstein, J; Hugenholtz, A; Feeley, M

    2003-01-01

    Caffeine is probably the most frequently ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world. It is found in common beverages (coffee, tea, soft drinks), in products containing cocoa or chocolate, and in medications. Because of its wide consumption at different levels by most segments of the population, the public and the scientific community have expressed interest in the potential for caffeine to produce adverse effects on human health. The possibility that caffeine ingestion adversely affects human health was investigated based on reviews of (primarily) published human studies obtained through a comprehensive literature search. Based on the data reviewed, it is concluded that for the healthy adult population, moderate daily caffeine intake at a dose level up to 400 mg day(-1) (equivalent to 6 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in a 65-kg person) is not associated with adverse effects such as general toxicity, cardiovascular effects, effects on bone status and calcium balance (with consumption of adequate calcium), changes in adult behaviour, increased incidence of cancer and effects on male fertility. The data also show that reproductive-aged women and children are 'at risk' subgroups who may require specific advice on moderating their caffeine intake. Based on available evidence, it is suggested that reproductive-aged women should consume

  4. Diet effects on bumblebee health.

    PubMed

    Roger, Nathalie; Michez, Denis; Wattiez, Ruddy; Sheridan, Christopher; Vanderplanck, Maryse

    2017-01-01

    Among physiological processes, the maintenance of immunity is one of the most energetically costly in invertebrates. Disease resistance can be quantified by measuring immunocompetence, which is defined as the ability of an organism to mount an immune response, either in cellular, humoral or behavioural forms. In insects, immune capacity can be affected by a variety of factors including pesticides, genetic diversity or diet. Here we focus on an important species of domesticated pollinator, Bombus terrestris, and the potential impact of a poor pollen diet (low nutritional content and toxic) on its health. We investigate three responses at both colony and individual levels: behavioural, humoral and cellular. Our results show that poor pollen diets decrease larval and pupal masses and increase larval ejection as well as adult constitutive immunity (i.e., prophenoloxidase assays). The susceptibility of bumblebees to disease and infection might therefore be greater after a nutritive stress. These findings raise the importance of available plant hosts, especially floral plant species providing pollen with suitable nutritive quality (i.e., nutrient pollen content) for bumblebees.

  5. Investigating the temporal relationship between individual-level social capital and health in fragile families.

    PubMed

    Nichols Dauner, Kim; Wilmot, Neil A; Schultz, Jennifer F

    2015-11-16

    The potential for social capital to influence health outcomes has received significant attention, yet few studies have assessed the temporal ordering between the two. Even less attention has been paid to more vulnerable populations, such as low-income women with children. Our objective was to explore how different dimensions of social capital impact future health status among this population. This study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being (FFCWB) Study, which has followed a cohort of children and their families born in large U.S. cities between 1998 and 2000 to mostly minority, unmarried parents who tend to be at greater risk for falling into poverty. Four separate measures of social capital were constructed, which include measures of social support and trust, social participation, perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion, and perceptions of neighborhood social control. The temporal effect of social capital on self-reported health (SRH) is investigated using logistic regression and we hypothesize that higher levels of social capital are associated with higher levels of self-rated health. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors related to social capital and self-rated health, social support and trust, perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion and control at an earlier point in time were positively associated with higher levels of health four-years later. Social participation was not related to increased health. The empirical results appear robust. Higher levels of social capital are predictive of improved health over a four-year time frame. These results suggest that policy initiatives supporting increasing the social capital available and accessible by low-income, urban, minority women are viable for improving health. Such policies may have the potential to reduce socioeconomic health disparities.

  6. Investigation to Produce Guidelines for Health Technology Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Carol

    A study contracted by the Office of Education for the purpose of promoting increased use of 2-year collegiate institutions for the preparation of personnel in the health technologies consisted of the development and dissemination of a set of guidelines. A committee, comprised of junior college administrators, health facility administrators, and…

  7. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  8. Designing effective written health education materials: considerations for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Tammy; Worrall, Linda

    2004-10-07

    Written health education materials can only be effective if they can be read, understood, and remembered by patients. The purpose of this article was to review the literature about features that should be incorporated into written health education materials to maximize their effectiveness, identify where there is consensus and debate about which features should be incorporated, and develop recommendations that health professionals can use when reviewing their existing materials and designing new materials. Literature review of published research and education articles. There is a large number of features that need to be considered when designing written health education materials so that they are suitable for the target audience and effective. Although there is consensus about the majority of features that should be included, further research is needed to explore the contribution of certain features, such as illustrations, to the effectiveness of written materials and the effect of well-designed written materials on patient outcomes. Health professionals need to provide their patients with written health education materials that are patient-orientated and designed according to the best practice principles in written health education material design.

  9. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change Greenhouse Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals ...

  10. Catalog of Completed Studies, US Army Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-10

    Environment Substudy: AD A139001 Effects of Chemical Protective Clothing on the Performance of Basic Medical Tasks (HCSD Report #83-001) 8 DATE TITLE...Contact urticaria to parabens , Arch. Dermatol, 1979, 115:1231-1232. *13 Smith, E. B., Padilla, R. S., McCabe, J. M., Becker, L. E., Benzoyl...Chemical Environment . --3-Report #83-001. Ft. Sam Houston, TX: Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity, December 1982. 19 Penetar, D. M

  11. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  12. The Causal Effect of Education on Health: What is the Role of Health Behaviors?

    PubMed

    Brunello, Giorgio; Fort, Margherita; Schneeweis, Nicole; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the causal effect of education on health and the part of it that is attributable to health behaviors by distinguishing between short-run and long-run mediating effects: whereas, in the former, only behaviors in the immediate past are taken into account, in the latter, we consider the entire history of behaviors. We use two identification strategies: instrumental variables based on compulsory schooling reforms and a combined aggregation, differencing, and selection on an observables technique to address the endogeneity of both education and behaviors in the health production function. Using panel data for European countries, we find that education has a protective effect for European men and women aged 50+. We find that the mediating effects of health behaviors-measured by smoking, drinking, exercising, and the body mass index-account in the short run for around a quarter and in the long run for around a third of the entire effect of education on health.

  13. [Effective access to health services: operationalizing universal health coverage].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    The right to health and its operational form, as an organized social response to health: the right to health protection, are the mainstay for the global push towards universal health coverage. The path to achieve this goal is particular to each country and relates to the baseline and specific context in relation to what is feasible. In practical terms, universal coverage involves the correlation between demand and supply of services (promotion, prevention, and care), expressed by the ability for each individual to make use of services when these are required. In those terms universal coverage is then effective access. The objective of the paper is to explore the conceptualization of effective access to health services and propose a definition that allows its operationalization thereof. This definition considers key elements of supply and demand of services, including the availability of resources and adequate provision (quality), as well as barriers to use them.

  14. Health Effects and Energy Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1975-01-01

    The United States will continue to have a high energy demand to maintain our present life style. The development of a national health policy statement that would serve to coordinate federal programs for research and regulation of environmental health is suggested. (BT)

  15. [Health effects of nanoparticles and nanomaterials (I) recent oveview of health effects of nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the impact of nanoparticles and nanomaterials on health and environmental effects has become a big issue. There are two types of nanoparticles to be considered in hygiene science; environmental nanopartcles emitted from automobiles and manufactured nanoparticles such as fullerenes, carbon nanobutbes, and ultrafine metals/metal oxides. These very fine particles are potentially health threatening, because they are supposed to be highly permeable in the lung and skin tissues and small enough to evade phagocytosis by reticuloendothelial system. The dose metrics are critical to evaluate toxicity of nanoparticles, because the surface-based rather than weight-based concentration has been reported to correlate well with effects and endopoints of nanoparticles. Research on environmental nanoparticles should be done as a part of research for fine particles or particulate materials less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Variety of materials, such as carbon, metals, and metal oxides, are included in manufactured nanoparticles. Moreover, some of manomaterials are generated in the shape of fiber and sheet. Thus, we should focus more on nano-specific biological interactions and tissue permeability to investigate health effects of manufactured nanoparticles. In this report trend in health effects of nanoparticles is overviewed.

  16. Predictors of effectiveness among public health nutritionists.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, L S; Kohli, M

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated how public health nutrition directors and practitioners each rated the effectiveness of their professional performance. We examined the specific factors which were predictive of each set of effectiveness ratings. Eleven directors supplied the names and addresses of 226 practitioners, each of whom was mailed a questionnaire. The response rate to the mailing was 84 per cent. Director ratings of practitioners were not significantly related to the self-ratings. Results of multiple regression analysis revealed that the directors had based their evaluation on more "external" criteria, such as age, being a Registered Dietitian, and possessing an extroverted personality. In contrast, the nutritionists' self-ratings were based on more introspective qualities, including self-perceived innovativeness, and the number of competencies which they felt they were currently performing well. The roles of work environment, nature of supervision, and type of educational preparation need to be assessed in future research. PMID:6638231

  17. Music and health. Phenomenological investigation of a medical humanity.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Lucy; McLachlan, Emma; Perkins, Laurence; Dornan, Tim

    2013-05-01

    In response to the tendency for music to be under-represented in the discourse of medical humanities, we framed the question 'how can music heal?' We answered it by exploring the lived experiences of musicians with lay or professional interests in health. Two medical students and a medically qualified educationalist, all musicians, conducted a co-operative inquiry with a professional musician interested in health. All researchers and six respondents kept audio or written diaries. Three respondents were interviewed in depth. A medical school head (and experienced musician) critiqued the phenomenological analysis of respondents' accounts of music, health, and its relationship with undergraduate medical education. Respondents experienced music as promoting health, even in seriously diseased people. Music affected people's identity and emotions. Through the medium of structure and harmony, it provided a means of self-expression that adapted to whatever condition people were in. Music was a communication medium, which could make people feel less isolated. Immersion in music could change negative states of mind to more positive ones. A transport metaphor was commonly used; music 'taking people to better places'. Exercising control by becoming physically involved in music enhanced diseased people's self-esteem. Music was able to bring the spiritual, mental, and physical elements of their lives into balance, to the benefit of their wellbeing. Music could help medical students appreciate holistically that the state of health of people who are either well or diseased can be enhanced by a 'non-technical' intervention.

  18. Effective access to health care in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Methods Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining financial protection and effective utilization of pre-paid health services as required. The measure of effective access was estimated overall, by sex, by socioeconomic level, and by federal state for 2006 and 2012. Results In 2012, 48.49% of the Mexican population had no effective access to health services. Though this represents an improvement since 2006, when 65.9% lacked effective access, it still constitutes a major challenge for the health system. Effective access in Mexico presents significant heterogeneity in terms of federal state and socioeconomic level. Conclusions Measuring effective access will contribute to better target strategies toward universal health coverage. The analysis presented here highlights a need to improve quality, availability, and opportuneness (location and time) of health services provision in Mexico. PMID:24758691

  19. Effective access to health care in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián; Dolci, Germán Fajardo; Hernández Ávila, Mauricio

    2014-04-23

    Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining financial protection and effective utilization of pre-paid health services as required. The measure of effective access was estimated overall, by sex, by socioeconomic level, and by federal state for 2006 and 2012. In 2012, 48.49% of the Mexican population had no effective access to health services. Though this represents an improvement since 2006, when 65.9% lacked effective access, it still constitutes a major challenge for the health system. Effective access in Mexico presents significant heterogeneity in terms of federal state and socioeconomic level. Measuring effective access will contribute to better target strategies toward universal health coverage. The analysis presented here highlights a need to improve quality, availability, and opportuneness (location and time) of health services provision in Mexico.

  20. Vibration on board and health effects.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2014-01-01

    There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships' crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places, seafarers are also exposed to vibrations to the feet when standing on vibrating surfaces on board. Anecdotal reports have related the development of "white feet" to local exposure to vibration, e.g. in mining, but this connection has not been investigated in the maritime setting. As known from studies of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships' passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships' construction, but has limited value for the estimation of health risks because they express the vibration intensity differently that it is done in a medical context.

  1. Health Effects of Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... coastal ecosystem health could increase the incidence of water contamination with harmful pathogens and chemicals, resulting in increased human exposure. Malnutrition, particularly during the prenatal period ... air, soil, and water quality, distribution of toxicants, and new mixtures of ...

  2. Investigation of multiple scattering effects in aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.

    1980-01-01

    The results are presented of investigations on the various aspects of multiple scattering effects on visible and infrared laser beams transversing dense fog oil aerosols contained in a chamber (4' x 4' x 9'). The report briefly describes: (1) the experimental details and measurements; (2) analytical representation of the aerosol size distribution data by two analytical models (the regularized power law distribution and the inverse modified gamma distribution); (3) retrieval of aerosol size distributions from multispectral optical depth measurements by two methods (the two and three parameter fast table search methods and the nonlinear least squares method); (4) modeling of the effects of aerosol microphysical (coagulation and evaporation) and dynamical processes (gravitational settling) on the temporal behavior of aerosol size distribution, and hence on the extinction of four laser beams with wavelengths 0.44, 0.6328, 1.15, and 3.39 micrometers; and (5) the exact and approximate formulations for four methods for computing the effects of multiple scattering on the transmittance of laser beams in dense aerosols, all of which are based on the solution of the radiative transfer equation under the small angle approximation.

  3. School Health Reform: Investigating the Role of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Young, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    National and local polices have positioned schools to play an integral role in addressing the obesity epidemic by establishing preventive activities. Teachers are ideally suited to have a role in this process because teachers have direct and indirect impacts on student health outcomes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the health…

  4. School Health Reform: Investigating the Role of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Young, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    National and local polices have positioned schools to play an integral role in addressing the obesity epidemic by establishing preventive activities. Teachers are ideally suited to have a role in this process because teachers have direct and indirect impacts on student health outcomes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the health…

  5. The Southern Community Cohort Study: Investigating Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Over 73,700 adults age 40–79, nearly 70% African American, were recruited at community health centers across 12 southeastern states; individual characteristics were recorded and biologic specimens collected at baseline for later follow-up. The Southern Community Cohort Study is a unique national resource for assessing determinants of racial/ethnic differentials in diseases. PMID:20173283

  6. Investigating Environmental Concerns and Health Issues in Clarksville, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Shirley A.; Jones, Robert Emmet

    2005-01-01

    Environmental degradation is a serious problem for millions of people who are unjustly exposed to environmental conditions that threaten their everyday survival. A growing body of research shows race and class as significant predictors to exposure to environmental hazards and associated health problems. Presented are perceptions of environmental…

  7. Music and Health. Phenomenological Investigation of a Medical Humanity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Lucy; McLachlan, Emma; Perkins, Laurence; Dornan, Tim

    2013-01-01

    In response to the tendency for music to be under-represented in the discourse of medical humanities, we framed the question "how can music heal?" We answered it by exploring the lived experiences of musicians with lay or professional interests in health. Two medical students and a medically qualified educationalist, all musicians, conducted a…

  8. Music and Health. Phenomenological Investigation of a Medical Humanity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Lucy; McLachlan, Emma; Perkins, Laurence; Dornan, Tim

    2013-01-01

    In response to the tendency for music to be under-represented in the discourse of medical humanities, we framed the question "how can music heal?" We answered it by exploring the lived experiences of musicians with lay or professional interests in health. Two medical students and a medically qualified educationalist, all musicians, conducted a…

  9. Investigating the mechanism of marital mortality reduction: the transition to widowhood and quality of health care.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Chrisatakis, Nicholas A

    2009-08-01

    While it is well known that the widowed suffer increased mortality risks, the mechanism of this survival disadvantage is still under investigation. In this article, we examine the quality of health care as a possible link between widowhood and mortality using a unique data set of 475,313 elderly couples who were followed up for up to nine years. We address whether the transition to widowhood affects the quality of care that individuals receive and explore the extent to which these changes mediate the elevated mortality hazard for the widowed. We analyze six established measures of quality of health care in a fixed-effect framework to account for unobserved heterogeneity. Caregiving and acute bereavement during the transition to widowhood appear to distract individuals from taking care of their own health care needs in the short run. However, being widowed does not have long-term detrimental effects on individuals' ability to sustain contact with the formal medical system. Moreover, the short-run disruption does not mediate the widowhood effect on mortality. Nevertheless, long after spousal death, men suffer from a decline in the quality of informal care, coordination between formal and informal care, and the ability to advocate and communicate informal medical settings. These findings illustrate women's centrality in the household production of health and identify important points of intervention in optimizing men's adjustment to widowhood.

  10. Investigating the Mechanism of Marital Mortality Reduction: The Transition to Widowhood and Quality of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    JIN, LEI; CHRISATAKIS, NICHOLAS A.

    2009-01-01

    While it is well known that the widowed suffer increased mortality risks, the mechanism of this survival disadvantage is still under investigation. In this article, we examine the quality of health care as a possible link between widowhood and mortality using a unique data set of 475,313 elderly couples who were followed up for up to nine years. We address whether the transition to widowhood affects the quality of care that individuals receive and explore the extent to which these changes mediate the elevated mortality hazard for the widowed. We analyze six established measures of quality of health care in a fixed-effect framework to account for unobserved heterogeneity. Caregiving and acute bereavement during the transition to widowhood appear to distract individuals from taking care of their own health care needs in the short run. However, being widowed does not have long-term detrimental effects on individuals’ ability to sustain contact with the formal medical system. Moreover, the short-run disruption does not mediate the widowhood effect on mortality. Nevertheless, long after spousal death, men suffer from a decline in the quality of informal care, coordination between formal and informal care, and the ability to advocate and communicate in formal medical settings. These findings illustrate women’s centrality in the household production of health and identify important points of intervention in optimizing men’s adjustment to widowhood. PMID:19771947

  11. Jobless now, sick later? Investigating the long-term consequences of involuntary job loss on health.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Mathis

    2013-03-01

    In the light of the current economic crises which in many countries lead to business closures and mass lay-offs, the consequences of job loss are important on various dimensions. They have to be investigated not only in consideration of a few years, but with a long-term perspective as well, because early life course events may prove important for later life outcomes. This paper uses data from SHARELIFE to shed light on the long-term consequences of involuntary job loss on health. The paper distinguishes between two different reasons for involuntary job loss: plant closures, which in the literature are considered to be exogenous to the individual, and lay-offs, where the causal direction of health and unemployment is ambiguous. These groups are separately compared to those who never experienced a job loss. The paper uses eleven different measures of health to assess long-term health consequences of job loss, which has to have occurred at least 25 years before the current interview. As panel data cannot be employed, a large body of variables, including childhood health and socio-economic conditions, is used to control for the initial conditions. The findings suggest that individuals with an exogenous job loss suffer in the long run: men are significantly more likely to be depressed and they have more trouble knowing the current date. Women report poorer general health and more chronic conditions and are also affected in their physical health: they are more likely to be obese or overweight, and to have any limitations in their (instrumental) activities of daily living. In the comparison group of laid-off individuals, controlling for the initial conditions reduces the effects of job loss on health - proving that controlling for childhood conditions is important.

  12. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  13. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  14. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  15. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  16. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  17. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  18. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  19. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  20. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  1. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  2. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  3. The health effects of leaving school in a bad economy.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation into Worry about Mental Health: Development of the Mental Health Anxiety Inventory.

    PubMed

    Commons, Della; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark; Anderson, Rebecca A

    2016-05-01

    Worry about physical health is broadly referred to as health anxiety and can range from mild concern to severe or persistent anxiety such as that found in DSM-IV hypochondriasis. While much is known about anxiety regarding physical health, little is known about anxiety regarding mental health. However, recent conceptualizations of health anxiety propose that individuals can experience severe and problematic worry about mental health in similar ways to how people experience extreme worry about physical health. Given the paucity of research in this area, the aim of the current study was to explore anxiety regarding mental health through validation of the Mental Health Anxiety Inventory (MHAI), a modified version of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory. The MHAI, and measures of state anxiety (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21), trait worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), and health anxiety (Short Health Anxiety Inventory) were administered to 104 adult volunteers from the general community. The MHAI demonstrated high internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, and good construct validity when correlated with other measures of anxiety. Results also indicated that participants worried about their mental health and physical health equally, and that almost 9% of participants reported levels of mental health anxiety that were potentially problematic. Preliminary results suggest that a small proportion of adults in the community may experience high levels of mental health anxiety requiring treatment, and that the MHAI, if validated further, could be a useful tool for assessing this form of anxiety.

  5. Religious Music and Health in Late Life: A Longitudinal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David

    2013-01-01

    Listening to religious music is often an important part of religious life. Yet there has been little empirical research on it. The purpose of this study is to test a conceptual model that specifies one way in which religious music may be associated with change in health over time. This model contains the following core relationships: (1) people who attend worship services more often will have stronger emotional reactions to religious music; (2) individuals who are more emotionally involved in religious music will be more likely to feel a close sense of connectedness with other people; (3) people who feel more closely connected with others will be more hopeful about the future; and (4) individuals who feel more hopeful will be more likely to rate their health in a favorably over time. The data provide support for each of these relationships. Significant variations by race were also observed in the findings. PMID:24363543

  6. Health Effects of Energy Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; Tatu, Calin; Pavlovic, Nikola; Bunnell, Joseph; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources (coal, oil, and natural gas) are among the cornerstones of modern industrial society. The exploitation of these resources, however, is not without costs. Energy materials may contain harmful chemical substances that, if mobilized into air, water, or soil, can adversely impact human health and environmental quality. In order to address the issue of human exposure to toxic substances derived from energy resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program developed a project entitled 'Impacts of Energy Resources on Human Health and Environmental Quality.' The project is intended to provide policymakers and the public with the scientific information needed to weigh the human health and environmental consequences of meeting our energy needs. This fact sheet discusses several areas where the USGS Energy Resources Program is making scientific advances in this endeavor.

  7. Investigation of Current Methods to Identify Helicopter Gear Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Lewicki, David G.; Le, Dy D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current vibration methods used to identify the health of helicopter transmission gears. The gears are critical to the transmission system that provides propulsion, lift and maneuvering of the helicopter. This paper reviews techniques used to process vibration data to calculate conditions indicators (CI s), guidelines used by the government aviation authorities in developing and certifying the Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS), condition and health indicators used in commercial HUMS, and different methods used to set thresholds to detect damage. Initial assessment of a method to set thresholds for vibration based condition indicators applied to flight and test rig data by evaluating differences in distributions between comparable transmissions are also discussed. Gear condition indicator FM4 values are compared on an OH58 helicopter during 14 maneuvers and an OH58 transmission test stand during crack propagation tests. Preliminary results show the distributions between healthy helicopter and rig data are comparable and distributions between healthy and damaged gears show significant differences.

  8. Investigation of Current Methods to Identify Helicopter Gear Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Lewicki, David G.; Le, Dy D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current vibration methods used to identify the health of helicopter transmission gears. The gears are critical to the transmission system that provides propulsion, lift and maneuvering of the helicopter. This paper reviews techniques used to process vibration data to calculate conditions indicators (CI's), guidelines used by the government aviation authorities in developing and certifying the Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS), condition and health indicators used in commercial HUMS, and different methods used to set thresholds to detect damage. Initial assessment of a method to set thresholds for vibration based condition indicators applied to flight and test rig data by evaluating differences in distributions between comparable transmissions are also discussed. Gear condition indicator FM4 values are compared on an OH58 helicopter during 14 maneuvers and an OH58 transmission test stand during crack propagation tests. Preliminary results show the distributions between healthy helicopter and rig data are comparable and distributions between healthy and damaged gears show significant differences.

  9. The CTSA mentored career development program: supporting the careers of child health investigators.

    PubMed

    Byington, Carrie L; Higgins, Sarah; Kaskel, Fredrick J; Purucker, Mary; Davis, Jonathan M; Smoyer, William E

    2014-02-01

    Training translational scientists is a priority of the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium. 1) Describe the landscape of CTSA Mentored Research Career Development Awards (CDA) and 2) evaluate participation and outcomes of child health investigators in these programs. Survey of the CTSA Child Health Oversight Committee (CC-CHOC) and review of nonresponders' CTSA Websites. Thirty-two of 53 CC-CHOC members (60%) responded and all nonresponder Websites were reviewed. Institutions supported 1,166 CDA positions from 2006 to 2011, with 134 awarded to child health investigators (11.5%). Respondents reported a mean of 29.8 KL2 positions (95% CI 17.5-42.2) during their award period, with a mean of 2.8 (95% CI 1.8-3.8) awarded to child health investigators. The proportion of child health awardees varied from 0% to 50% across institutions. We identified 45 subsequent National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards to the 134 child health investigators (34%). The CTSA program contributes substantially to training the next generation of translational investigators. One-third of child health investigators obtained subsequent NIH awards in the short follow-up period demonstrating success of the CTSA CDA programs. Child health investigators are represented variably across the consortium. Pediatric institutions can partner with the CTSA program to further support training child health investigators. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  11. Potential effects on health of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, A. . Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. . Environmental Change Unit)

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

  12. [Scientific investigation in biomedicine and health sciences in Andalusia].

    PubMed

    Soriguer Escofet, F J; González-Valentín, A; Miranda, J; Doblas, S; Vallejo, J

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate the scientific output in Biomedicine and Health Sciences in Andalusia in the context of the published works on the national scientific output in the last few years. Descriptive study with seven different information sources: a) final Report of the Experts Committee on Documentation from the Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (IME: Indice Médico Español) suplemento internacional: 1980-1994; b) MEDLINE (Comprehensive Medline Ebsco, 1987-1993); c) EMBASE (Excerpta Medica; Elsevier Science Publisher) (1986-1994); d) IME, mechanized version: 1974-1993; Anales del FIS (1989-1993); e) Memoria REUNI: 1993-1994, and f) call for and resolution of research projects from the Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (1994). Scientific output in health sciences in Andalusia has gown in parallel with the national output from other communities. Nevertheless, in absolute terms this output is scant and the big difference compared with Catalonia and Madrid--the two Autonomous Communities with the largest scientific output--remains unchanged. Grenada is the Andalusian province with the largest output, with Seville, Cordoba and Malaga ranking next. The output in the other Andalusian provinces is very small. The output is apparently independent from the number of inhabitants or the historic presence of a Medicine School. In contrast with Catalonia and Madrid, where the largest output originates in hospitals, the largest output in Andalusia comes from Universities; this fact suggests relevant differences in scientific sub-structure. This suggestion is also endorsed by the lower competition of Andalusia to obtain resources and the lower number of research scholarships. With these results in mind a scientific policy of positive discrimination is proposed which allows the Andalusian Autonomous Community to reach the standard of scientific output in biomedicine and health sciences according to its socioeconomic status.

  13. Investigating the affordability of key health services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Susan; Birch, Steve; Chimbindi, Natsayi; Silal, Sheetal; McIntyre, Di

    2013-03-01

    This paper considers the affordability of using public sector health services for three tracer conditions (obstetric care, tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive people), based on research undertaken in two urban and two rural sites in South Africa. We understand affordability as the 'degree of fit' between the costs of seeking health care and a household's ability-to-pay. Exit interviews were conducted with over 300 patients for each of the three tracer conditions in each of the four sites (i.e. a total sample of over 3600). Total direct costs for the service used at the time of the interview, as well as other health related costs incurred during the preceding month either for self-care or the use of plural providers were assessed, as were a range of indicators of ability-to-pay. The percentage of households incurring direct costs exceeding 10% of household consumption expenditure and those borrowing money or selling assets as a mechanism for coping with the burden of direct costs were calculated. Logistic regressions were also conducted to identify factors that were significantly associated with these indicators of affordability. There were significant differences in affordability between rural and urban sites; costs were higher, ability-to-pay was lower and there was a greater proportion of households selling assets or borrowing money in rural areas. There were also significant differences across tracers, with a higher percentage of households receiving tuberculosis and antiretroviral treatment borrowing money or selling assets than those using obstetric services. As these conditions require expenses to be incurred on an ongoing basis, the sustainability of such coping strategies is questionable. Policy makers need to explore how to reduce direct costs for users of these key health services in the context of the particular characteristics of different treatment types. Affordability needs to be considered in relation to the dynamic

  14. A Vision for Investigating the Microbiology of Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Lipkin, W Ian

    2015-07-15

    The fields of microbial surveillance, discovery, and pathogenesis are evolving rapidly with introduction of cultivation-independent molecular diagnostic assays and highly multiplexed serologic analyses, as well as the development of animal models and prospective birth cohorts that can provide insights into host and microbial determinants of health and disease. Here, past, present, and future perspectives on these fields are provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Investigating the respiratory health of deployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Zacher, Lisa L; Jackson, David A

    2011-10-01

    Recent news media articles have implied a direct relationship between environmental exposures such as burn pits during current deployments and the development of serious and debilitating chronic pulmonary disease. These articles suggest that the military is superficially investigating evidence that establishes a link between deployment and development of chronic lung disease. Anecdotal cases of military personnel with lung disease are detailed to suggest a systemic problem with undiagnosed and untreated pulmonary disease in deployed service members. Despite these contentions, the U.S. Army Medical Department and other agencies have been actively pursuing numerous scientific investigations into deployment-related lung disease to define the severity and prevalence of the issue. This article will review relevant research efforts by the U.S. military in the existing medical literature and address the current efforts planned by the services to systematically investigate the possibility of deployment-related pulmonary disease.

  16. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Siller, Alexander; Ambach, Wolfgang; Vaitl, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT), in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate (HR), and reaction times. The participants (n = 154) were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full) or without replacement (pseudo) and were either presented category-wise (cat) or regardless of categories (nocat). To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment.

  17. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures

    PubMed Central

    Siller, Alexander; Ambach, Wolfgang; Vaitl, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT), in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate (HR), and reaction times. The participants (n = 154) were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full) or without replacement (pseudo) and were either presented category-wise (cat) or regardless of categories (nocat). To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment. PMID:26500600

  18. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of health care].

    PubMed

    Strnad, L

    1990-01-01

    health workers and community as a whole. Besides the needful enlargement of sources, these complicated questions are resolvable in observing unity of medical, organizational and economical rationality on all levels of health service management and in all health institutions. This is also the way how to improve the efficiency of health care. The term of efficiency in relation to the health services. In economics, the efficiency is the ratio between the achieved result (effect) and the expenditure of a specified amount of resources. Mathematically, this ratio is expressed as follows: efficiency = end-result/costs Linked to the Health care, the efficiency may be understood also differently from its economic term.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  19. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  20. People Create Health: Effective Health Promotion is a Creative Process

    PubMed Central

    Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective health promotion involves the creative cultivation of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Efforts at health promotion produce weak and inconsistent benefits when it does not engage people to express their own goals and values. Likewise, health promotion has been ineffective when it relies only on instruction about facts regarding a healthy lifestyle, or focuses on reduction of disease rather than the cultivation of well-being. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies and experimental interventions shows that improvements in subjective well-being lead to short-term and long-term reductions in medical morbidity and mortality, as well as to healthier functioning and longevity. However, these effects are inconsistent and weak (correlations of about 0.15). The most consistent and strong predictor of both subjective well-being and objective health status in longitudinal studies is a creative personality profile characterized by being highly self-directed, cooperative, and self-transcendent. There is a synergy among these personality traits that enhances all aspects of the health and happiness of people. Experimental interventions to cultivate this natural creative potential of people are now just beginning, but available exploratory research has shown that creativity can be enhanced and the changes are associated with widespread and profound benefits, including greater physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. In addition to benefits mediated by choice of diet, physical activity, and health care utilization, the effect of a creative personality on health may be partly mediated by effects on the regulation of heart rate variability. Creativity promotes autonomic balance with parasympathetic dominance leading to a calm alert state that promotes an awakening of plasticities and intelligences that stress inhibits. We suggest that health, happiness, and meaning can be cultivated by a complex adaptive process that enhances healthy functioning

  1. Investigating the geographical heterogeneity in PM10-mortality associations in the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES): A potential role of indoor exposure to PM10 of outdoor origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhao, Bin; Guo, Xuefei; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2013-08-01

    This study gives the first-time evidence for China that the geographical heterogeneity of the acute effects of outdoor PM10 can be partially explained by differences in indoor exposure to PM10 of outdoor origin. We used data from the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES), which demonstrated a geographical heterogeneity of the acute effect of particulate air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, or PM10) on mortality in 16 Chinese cities. Given that a large fraction of the exposure to PM10 of outdoor origin occurs indoors, we made the hypothesis that this heterogeneity might be partially explained by inter-city differences in indoor exposure to PM10 of outdoor origin. In our analysis, we estimated PM10 exposure coefficients (the change in the estimated personal exposure to PM10 of outdoor origin per unit change in outdoor PM10 concentration) in these 16 Chinese cities and examined their correlation with PM10 mortality coefficients (the increase in mortality associated with a given increase in the concentrations of outdoor PM10). We showed that the PM10 mortality coefficients and the PM10 exposure coefficients were significantly correlated, with an R-squared (R2) value of 0.549 (95% confidence interval: 0.201, 0.771; p < 0.01) for the 16 cities. The correlation was robust with different values of the key input parameters, and close in value to estimations found in previous studies on similar subjects.

  2. An overview of health effects on noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Although noise can damage the inner ear and cause other pathological changes, its most common negative effects are non-somatic, such as a perception of noisiness and disturbance of daily activities. According to the definition of health by WHO, this should be considered as a health hazard. These health effects of noise can be classified into the following three categories: (I) hearing loss, perception of noisiness and masking are produced along the auditory pathway and are thus direct and specific effects of noise; (II) interference with performance, rest and sleep, a feeling of discomfort and some physiological effects are produced as indirect and non-specific effects via reticular formation of the midbrain; (III) annoyance is not merely a feeling of unpleasantness but the feeling of being bothered or troubled, and includes the development of a particular attitude toward the noise source. Individual or group behavioral responses will be evoked when annoyance develops. Annoyance and behavioral response are integrated and composite effects. The health effects of noise are modified by many factors related to both the noise and the individual. Noise level, frequency spectrum, duration and impulsiveness modify the effects. Sex, age, health status and mental character also have an influence on the effects. Direct effects of noise are most dependent on the physical nature of the noise and least dependent on human factors. Indirect effects are more dependent, and integrated effects most dependent, on human factors.

  3. Investigating the effect of a 3-month workplace-based pedometer-driven walking programme on health-related quality of life in meat processing workers: a feasibility study within a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mansi, Suliman; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Tumilty, Steve; Hendrick, Paul; Higgs, Chris; Baxter, David G

    2015-04-22

    In New Zealand, meat processing populations face many health problems as a result of the nature of work in meat processing industries. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a pedometer-based intervention to increase physical activity and improve health-related outcomes in a population of meat processing workers. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. A convenience sample of meat workers (n = 58; mean age 41.0 years; range: 18-65) participated in the trial. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups. Intervention participants (n = 29) utilized a pedometer to self monitor their activity, whilst undertaking a brief intervention, and educational material. Control participants (n = 29) received educational material only. The primary outcomes of ambulatory activity, and health-related quality of life, were evaluated at baseline, immediately following the 12-week intervention and three months post-intervention. Fifty three participants completed the program (91.3% adherence). Adherence with the intervention group was high, 93% (n = 27/29), and this group increased their mean daily step count from 5993 to 9792 steps per day, while the control group steps changed from 5788 to 6551 steps per day from baseline. This increase in step counts remained significant within the intervention group p < 0.005; at three months post-intervention representing a 59% increase over baseline scores. There were significant group changes with large effect sizes for step count change (d = 1.94) and self-reported physical activity (p < 0.005; d = 2.59) at 12 weeks intervention. Further, results showed non-significant between-group differences in physical component (PCS) and mental component (MCS) scores (PCS: p = 0.44; MGD = 0.99, 95% CI, -1.6 to 3.6; ES = 0.14, and p = 0.90, MGD = 0.15; 95% CI, -2.3 to 2.6, ES = 0.022) at 12 weeks intervention. This research provides important information for a larger (RCT) in the future

  4. A Qualitative Investigation of Men, Masculinity, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Masculinity is a construct that is socially created and defined within a given time period (Kimmel, 2006). The research that is conducted on this specific topic shifts given one's cultural understanding of masculinity, which can differ from one man to another. Most of the literature and research investigates how masculinity negatively affects men…

  5. A Qualitative Investigation of Men, Masculinity, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Masculinity is a construct that is socially created and defined within a given time period (Kimmel, 2006). The research that is conducted on this specific topic shifts given one's cultural understanding of masculinity, which can differ from one man to another. Most of the literature and research investigates how masculinity negatively affects men…

  6. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  7. Linking Family Economic Hardship to Early Childhood Health: An Investigation of Mediating Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Wickrama, Kandauda A S

    2015-12-01

    The underlying mechanisms through which family economic adversity influences child health are less understood. Taking a process-oriented approach, this study examined maternal mental health and investment in children, child health insurance, and child healthcare as mediators linking family economic hardship (FEH) to child health. A structural equation modeling was applied to test the hypothesized mediating model. After adjustment for sociodemographic risk factors, results revealed: (1) a significant direct path linking FEH to poor child health (effect size = .372), and (2) six significant mediating pathways (total effect size = .089). In two mediating pathways, exposures to FEH undermined mothers' mental health: in the first pathway poor maternal mental health led to decreased parental investment, which, in turn, contributed to poor child health, whereas in the second pathway the adverse effect of poor maternal mental health was cascaded through child unmet healthcare need, which resulted in poor child health. One pathway involved child insurance status, where the effect of FEH increased the likelihood to be uninsured, which led to unmet healthcare need, and, in turn, to poor health. Three pathways involved preventive care: in one pathway FEH contributed to poor preventive care, which led to unmet healthcare need and then to poor health; in the other two pathways where poor preventive care respectively gave rise to decreased investment in children or poor maternal mental health, which further contributed to poor child health. Results suggest that the association between FEH and children's health is mediated by multiple pathways.

  8. Investigation of the Feasibility of Establishing Health Technology Demonstration Centers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Carol

    This investigation studied the feasibility of establishing a network of centers to demonstrate model programs in the health technologies. It was necessary to: 1)identify colleges with multiple health-related programs; 2) identify campus health-related programs which have recognizable strengths; 3)further define "recognizable strengths" through…

  9. Trait body shame predicts health outcomes in college women: A longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Jean M

    2015-12-01

    Trait body shame impacts psychological health, but its influence on physical health heretofore has not been examined. While body shame may be expected to impact physical health through many mechanisms, this investigation tested whether trait body shame predicts physical health outcomes by promoting negative attitudes toward bodily processes, thereby diminishing health evaluation and ultimately impacting physical health. Correlational (Study 1, N = 177) and longitudinal (Study 2, N = 141) studies tested hypotheses that trait body shame would predict infections, self-rated health, and symptoms, and that body responsiveness and health evaluation would mediate these relationships. In Study 1, trait body shame predicted all three poor health outcomes, and body responsiveness and health evaluation mediated these relationships. Study 2 partially replicated these results while controlling for depression, smoking, and BMI, and longitudinal analyses supported the temporal precedence of trait body shame in the proposed model. Limitations and alternative pathways are discussed.

  10. The Health Effects of Income Inequality: Averages and Disparities.

    PubMed

    Truesdale, Beth C; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Although most theories imply long and variable lags between changes in income inequality and changes in health, empirical evidence is confined largely to short-term effects. Rising income inequality can affect individuals in two ways. Direct effects change individuals' own income. Indirect effects change other people's income, which can then change a society's politics, customs, and ideals, altering the behavior even of those whose own income remains unchanged. Indirect effects can thus change both average health and the slope of the relationship between individual income and health.

  11. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  12. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  13. Health effects of internal rotation of shifts.

    PubMed

    Learthart, S

    Shirley Learthart examines the potential adverse effects to health of working on rotating shifts. Many studies indicate that shift work can cause health problems, including increased risk of coronary heart disease. Internal rotation is the reason given by many nurses for leaving the profession.

  14. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  15. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  16. Pre-implementation investigation of the readiness of allied health professionals to adopt electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Hailey, David; Yu, Ping; Munyisia, Esther

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited uptake of electronic health records (EHR) by allied health professionals. Yet, not much attention has been given to their information needs. For EHR to work for these health professionals, it is essential to understand their current practice of information management and their perceptions towards EHR. A qualitative interview study was thus conducted with four managers in four allied health practices in Sydney to understand their perceptions for the adoption and use of a new Australian e-health standards compliant EHR system. We found that these allied health professionals were highly confident with the use of electronic information system and were enthusiastically expecting the introduction of the EHR system to support their information management and practice. A number of issues related to the use of EHR in practice for small, independent allied health practices were also discussed. It appears that allied health professionals today are information technology (IT) savvy and ready to adopt EHR. EHR for allied health practices in Australia are long overdue. The health informatics community can no longer ignore the need and want of allied health professionals for EHR that are tailored and built to support their information and practice management.

  17. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant‐derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17‐β‐oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is to present a state‐of‐the‐art overview of the potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens. Various beneficial health effects have been ascribed to phytoestrogens, such as a lowered risk of menopausal symptoms like hot flushes and osteoporosis, lowered risks of cardiovascular disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, brain function disorders, breast cancer, prostate cancer, bowel cancer and other cancers. In contrast to these beneficial health claims, the (anti)oestrogenic properties of phytoestrogens have also raised concerns since they might act as endocrine disruptors, indicating a potential to cause adverse health effects. The literature overview presented in this paper illustrates that several potential health benefits of phytoestrogens have been reported but that, given the data on potential adverse health effects, the current evidence on these beneficial health effects is not so obvious that they clearly outweigh the possible health risks. Furthermore, the data currently available are not sufficient to support a more refined (semi) quantitative risk–benefit analysis. This implies that a definite conclusion on possible beneficial health effects of phytoestrogens cannot be made. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc PMID:27723080

  18. Effects of green buildings on employee health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amanjeet; Syal, Matt; Grady, Sue C; Korkmaz, Sinem

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the effects of improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) on perceived health and productivity in occupants who moved from conventional to green (according to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ratings) office buildings. In 2 retrospective-prospective case studies we found that improved IEQ contributed to reductions in perceived absenteeism and work hours affected by asthma, respiratory allergies, depression, and stress and to self-reported improvements in productivity. These preliminary findings indicate that green buildings may positively affect public health.

  19. Effects of subtle and explicit health messages on food choice.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heather Scherschel; Howland, Maryhope; Mann, Traci

    2015-01-01

    Explicitly--as opposed to subtly--labeling a food healthy may inadvertently license people to indulge, imply that the food tastes bad, or lead to reactance. We investigated the effects of explicit and subtle health messages on individuals' food selection in two field studies. We manipulated the signs on healthy foods such that they explicitly stated that the food was healthy, subtly suggested it with an image, or did not mention health. As participants--attendees at academic conferences--approached registration tables, research assistants recorded the number and type of snacks individuals chose. Participants were more likely to choose the healthy food when it was labeled with the subtle health message than when it was labeled with the explicit health message, which itself was not more effective than the control message. Subtle messages may be more useful than explicit health messages in encouraging individuals to make a healthy snack choice.

  20. Nanoparticles: health effects--pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Vallyathan, Val

    2006-12-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, the prospects for using engineered nanomaterials with diameters of < 100 nm in industrial applications, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy, and other areas have progressed rapidly. The potential for nanoparticles (NPs) in these areas is infinite, with novel new applications constantly being explored. The possible toxic health effects of these NPs associated with human exposure are unknown. Many fine particles generally considered "nuisance dusts" are likely to acquire unique surface properties when engineered to nanosize and may exhibit toxic biological effects. Consequently, the nuisance dust may be transported to distant sites and could induce adverse health effects. In addition the beneficial uses of NPs in drug delivery, cancer treatment, and gene therapy may cause unintentional human exposure. Because of our lack of knowledge about the health effects associated with NP exposure, we have an ethical duty to take precautionary measures regarding their use. In this review we highlight the possible toxic human health effects that can result from exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) generated by anthropogenic activities and their cardiopulmonary outcomes. The comparability of engineered NPs to UFPs suggests that the human health effects are likely to be similar. Therefore, it is prudent to elucidate their toxicologic effect to minimize occupational and environmental exposure. Highlighting the human health outcomes caused by UFPs is not intended to give a lesser importance to either the unprecedented technologic and industrial rewards of the nanotechnology or their beneficial human uses.

  1. Health needs, demand for health services and expenditure across social groups in Italy: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, V

    1993-04-01

    The shortage of empirical studies on socio-economic factors influencing demand for health care and inequalities across social groups is dramatic in the case of Italy. The present study aims at discussing these issues, although its results are to be considered mainly methodological, given the small dimension of the sample (n = 807). A survey was carried out in a 'qualitative' sample of 9 Local Health Units of different Italian regions. Attention was paid to report every 'illness episode', considered as a cause of demand for health services, within the reference period (4 weeks) in order to properly link health needs with utilization of health services and relative expenditure. The assessment of health status across social groups, using 4 different indicators, shows the weakest social groups as the most vulnerable. The same groups report higher per capita health services uses and expenditures than their morbidity conditions would require. Assuming equity to be defined as 'equal use for equal need' a particular use-need ratio is developed (i.e. health services used per illness episode) able to capture the 'intensity' of health services use and expenditure per need. The 'over-equity' towards the less favoured groups is interpreted as a possible accomplishment of the N.H.S. fundative goals. A structural model of determinants of health services utilization, carried out through the LISREL technique (R2 = 0.36), confirms the irrelevance of the social variables with respect to need variables.

  2. Nonmicrowave health and ecological effects: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. R.

    1980-07-01

    The potential environmental impacts due to the operation and construction of the Satellite Power System are discussed. The nonmicrowave health and ecological effects encompass impacts on the public, the terrestrial worker, the space worker, the ecology, and agriculture.

  3. Nonmicrowave health and ecological effects: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts due to the operation and construction of the Satellite Power System are discussed. The nonmicrowave health and ecological effects encompass impacts on the public, the terrestrial worker, the space worker, the ecology, and agriculture.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Endangerment Finding: Health Effects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View English or Spanish-language version of a fact sheet that highlights key effects that support EPA’s determination that current and future concentrations of greenhouse gases endanger public health.

  5. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.

  6. Effectiveness of total worker health interventions.

    PubMed

    Anger, W Kent; Elliot, Diane L; Bodner, Todd; Olson, Ryan; Rohlman, Diane S; Truxillo, Donald M; Kuehl, Kerry S; Hammer, Leslie B; Montgomery, Dede

    2015-04-01

    Total Worker Health (TWH) was introduced and the term was trademarked in 2011 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to formally signal the expansion of traditional occupational safety and health (OSH) to include wellness and well-being. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and other databases using keywords TWH, health promotion, health protection, and variants for articles meeting the criteria of (a) employing both occupational safety and/or health (OSH, or health protection) and wellness and/or well-being (health promotion, or HP) in the same intervention study, and (b) reporting both OSH and HP outcomes. Only 17 published studies met these criteria. All but 1 of the 17 TWH interventions improved risk factors for injuries and/or chronic illnesses, and 4 improved 10 or more risk factors. Several TWH interventions reported sustained improvements for over a year, although only 1 is readily available for dissemination. These results suggest that TWH interventions that address both injuries and chronic diseases can improve workforce health effectively and more rapidly than the alternative of separately employing more narrowly focused programs to change the same outcomes in serial fashion. These 17 articles provide useful examples of how TWH interventions can be structured. The promise of simultaneous improvements in safety, health, and well-being leads to the call to pursue TWH research to identify and disseminate best practices.

  7. Relationship between dose and health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, R.D.

    1984-09-01

    The health effects produced by chemicals depend on the inherent toxicity of the chemical and the dose received by the exposed individual. Health effects are modified by genetic make-up, life style, nutrition, and interaction with other chemicals. In some situations it may be difficult to impossible to determine through epidemiologic studies whether exposure to chemicals (naturally occurring or synthetic) has caused harm. For all practical purposes, the risk associated with minuscule doses of most chemicals is negligible.

  8. Health insurance in California, its effect on public health nursing.

    PubMed

    Russell, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Health insurance coverage and the means by which it is paid have been topics of intense interest in recent years, but in the United States, creation of a uniform system for provision of medical care has been debated for nearly a century. During the Great Depression, before large group insurance plans, workers who formerly had been able to adequately support their families found themselves without employment or in low income jobs that barely put food on the table and a roof over their heads. Medical care was a luxury they could not afford. Health professionals suffered the effects of the economy too. Published in Public Health Nursing in 1936, this paper reflects a time period when the ravages of the Great Depression were manifest. California had received an influx of poor, migrant workers from other states hoping to provide for their families as pickers, canners, and manual laborers. The author, Marion E. Russell, described a 1935 health insurance proposal to cover all state residents. Selected excerpts illustrate differences in philosophy still evident in current considerations of national health care reform, particularly as related to mandated coverage. Russell worked in the State Relief Administration in San Francisco.

  9. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    PubMed

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  11. Health and safety plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cofer, G.H.; Holt, V.L.; Roupe, G.W.

    1993-11-01

    This health and safety plan (HASP) was developed by the members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health Science Research Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared to ensure that health and safety related items for the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study and Site Investigation projects conform with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120 (April 18, 1992). The RI Plan calls for the characterization, monitoring, risk assessment, and identification of remedial needs and alternatives that have been structured and staged with short-term and long-term objectives. In early FY 1992, the WAG 2 RI was integrated with the ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Investigations program in order to achieve the complimentary objectives of the projects more effectively by providing an integrated basis of support. The combined effort was named the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigations Program (WAG 2 RI&SI). The Site Investigation activities are a series of monitoring efforts and directed investigations that support other ER activities by providing information about (1) watershed hydrogeology; (2) contaminants, pathways, and fluxes for groundwater at ORNL; (3) shallow subsurface areas that can act as secondary sources of contaminants; and (4) biological populations and contaminants in biota, in addition to other support and coordination activities.

  12. Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, Marcel; Gibson, Glenn R; Hoyles, Lesley; McCartney, Anne L; Rastall, Robert; Rowland, Ian; Wolvers, Danielle; Watzl, Bernhard; Szajewska, Hania; Stahl, Bernd; Guarner, Francisco; Respondek, Frederique; Whelan, Kevin; Coxam, Veronique; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Léotoing, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Meheust, Agnes

    2010-08-01

    a prebiotic effect has tentatively been investigated for potential health benefits. The prebiotic effect has been shown to associate with modulation of biomarkers and activity(ies) of the immune system. Confirming the studies in adults, it has been demonstrated that, in infant nutrition, the prebiotic effect includes a significant change of gut microbiota composition, especially an increase of faecal concentrations of bifidobacteria. This concomitantly improves stool quality (pH, SCFA, frequency and consistency), reduces the risk of gastroenteritis and infections, improves general well-being and reduces the incidence of allergic symptoms such as atopic eczema. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Promising beneficial effects have been demonstrated in some preliminary studies, including changes in gut microbiota composition (especially increase in bifidobacteria concentration). Often associated with toxic load and/or miscellaneous risk factors, colon cancer is another pathology for which a possible role of gut microbiota composition has been hypothesised. Numerous experimental studies have reported reduction in incidence of tumours and cancers after feeding specific food products with a prebiotic effect. Some of these studies (including one human trial) have also reported that, in such conditions, gut microbiota composition was modified (especially due to increased concentration of bifidobacteria). Dietary intake of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has been shown, especially in adolescents, but also tentatively in postmenopausal women, to increase Ca absorption as well as bone Ca accretion and bone

  13. Fructose and Fructans: Opposite Effects on Health?

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, Francesca; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Fructans are fructose-based oligo-and polysaccharides of natural origin. Fructan and fructose species are sometimes confused by the great public, although they clearly have different biochemical and physiological properties. This review discusses aspects of the use of fructose and fructans in foods in the context of human health, with possible differential effects on cellular autophagy in cells of the human body. Although there are uncertainties on the daily levels of ingested fructose to be considered harmful to human health, there is an emerging consensus on the benefits of the use of fructans in functional foods, sustaining health via direct immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects or through indirect, prebiotic mechanisms.

  14. Health Selection and the Process of Social Stratification: The Effect of Childhood Health on Socioeconomic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates whether childhood health acts as a mechanism through which socioeconomic status is transferred across generations. The study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to track siblings and to estimate fixed-effects models that account for unobserved heterogeneity at the family level. The results demonstrate that…

  15. The effect of individual factors on health behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of eHealth literacy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, WanChen; Chiang, ChiaHsun; Yang, ShuChing

    2014-12-12

    College students' health behavior is a topic that deserves attention. Individual factors and eHealth literacy may affect an individual's health behaviors. The integrative model of eHealth use (IMeHU) provides a parsimonious account of the connections among the digital divide, health care disparities, and the unequal distribution and use of communication technologies. However, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors, and IMeHU has not been empirically investigated. This study examines the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors using IMeHU. The Health Behavior Scale is a 12-item instrument developed to measure college students' eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students' functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. A nationally representative sample of 525 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to collect background information about participants' health status, degree of health concern, major, and the frequency with which they engaged in health-related discussions. This study used Amos 6.0 to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to identify the best measurement models for the eHealth Literacy Scale and the Health Behavior Scale. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Additionally, causal steps approach was used to explore indirect (mediating) effects and Sobel tests were used to test the significance of the mediating effects. The study found that perceptions of better health status (t520=2.14-6.12, P<.001-.03) and greater concern for health (t520=2.58-6.95, P<.001-.003) influenced college students' development of 3 dimensions of eHealth literacy and adoption of healthy eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. Moreover, eHealth

  16. The Effect of Individual Factors on Health Behaviors Among College Students: The Mediating Effects of eHealth Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, ChiaHsun

    2014-01-01

    Background College students’ health behavior is a topic that deserves attention. Individual factors and eHealth literacy may affect an individual’s health behaviors. The integrative model of eHealth use (IMeHU) provides a parsimonious account of the connections among the digital divide, health care disparities, and the unequal distribution and use of communication technologies. However, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors, and IMeHU has not been empirically investigated. Objective This study examines the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors using IMeHU. Methods The Health Behavior Scale is a 12-item instrument developed to measure college students’ eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students’ functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. A nationally representative sample of 525 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to collect background information about participants’ health status, degree of health concern, major, and the frequency with which they engaged in health-related discussions. This study used Amos 6.0 to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to identify the best measurement models for the eHealth Literacy Scale and the Health Behavior Scale. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Additionally, causal steps approach was used to explore indirect (mediating) effects and Sobel tests were used to test the significance of the mediating effects. Results The study found that perceptions of better health status (t520=2.14-6.12, P<.001-.03) and greater concern for health (t520=2.58-6.95, P<.001-.003) influenced college students’ development of 3 dimensions of eHealth literacy and adoption of healthy eating

  17. Effects of child and adolescent health on educational progress.

    PubMed

    Lê, Félice; Diez Roux, Ana; Morgenstern, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how childhood and adolescent health may affect schooling is important for understanding the socioeconomic ramifications of poor early-life health as well as the relations between schooling and adult health. Using three waves of U.S. longitudinal data with extensive covariate information on a national sample of 2368 American children aged 5-14 at baseline, we used regression methods to investigate how patterns of general health status over a 10-year period relate to completed years of schooling at the end of follow-up. As a sensitivity analysis, we used sibling fixed effects models to help control for differences stemming from familial or community factors shared between siblings. The effect of health on years of completed schooling appeared to accumulate over time, and was more evident among children who were older at baseline. Among participants aged 5-7, 8-10, and 11-14 at baseline, average differences in years of completed schooling between participants with poor health in all 3 waves and those with good health in all 3 waves were 0.02 ([95% confidence interval] -0.31, 0.35), -0.50 (-0.88, -0.12), and -1.28 (-1.78, -0.78), respectively. Point estimates from fixed effects models were very similar. Our results document the emergence and compounding over time of health-related disparities in schooling at young ages, suggesting a vicious cycle between poor health and educational outcomes. Future research better characterizing how early-life health affects educational progress will ultimately be necessary for developing effective interventions to reduce educational and health disparities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mexican journalists: an investigation of their emotional health.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Mexican journalists are frequently the victims of violence, often drug related. The purpose of the study was to assess their mental well-being. Of 104 journalists recruited from 3 news organizations, those who had stopped working on drug-related stories because of intimidation from the criminal drug cartels (n = 26) had significantly greater social dysfunction (p = .024); and more depressive (p = .001) and higher intrusive (p = .027), avoidance (p = .005), and arousal (p = .033) symptoms than journalists living and working under threat in regions of drug violence (n = 61). They also had more arousal (p = .05) and depressive (p = .027) symptoms than journalists (n = 17) never threatened before and living in regions without a drug problem. These findings provide preliminary data on the deleterious effects of drug-related violence on the Mexican media, amplifying the concerns expressed by journalist watchdog organizations monitoring the state of the press in the country. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  19. An Investigation of Health and Safety Measures in a Hydroelectric Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Acakpovi, Amevi; Dzamikumah, Lucky

    2016-12-01

    Occupational risk management is known as a catalyst in generating superior returns for all stakeholders on a sustainable basis. A number of companies in Ghana implemented health and safety measures adopted from international companies to ensure the safety of their employees. However, there exist great threats to employees' safety in these companies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the level of compliance of Occupational Health and Safety management systems and standards set by international and local legislation in power producing companies in Ghana. The methodology is conducted by administering questionnaires and in-depth interviews as measuring instruments. A random sampling technique was applied to 60 respondents; only 50 respondents returned their responses. The questionnaire was developed from a literature review and contained questions and items relevant to the initial research problem. A factor analysis was also carried out to investigate the influence of some variables on safety in general. Results showed that the significant factors that influence the safety of employees at the hydroelectric power plant stations are: lack of training and supervision, non-observance of safe work procedures, lack of management commitment, and lack of periodical check on machine operations. The study pointed out the safety loopholes and therefore helped improve the health and safety measures of employees in the selected company by providing effective recommendations. The implementation of the proposed recommendations in this paper, would lead to the prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses of employees as well as property damage and incidents in hydroelectric power plants. The recommendations may equally be considered as benchmark for the Safety and Health Management System with international standards.

  20. Investigating variations in implementation fidelity of an organizational-level occupational health intervention.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, Hanna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Hasson, Henna

    2015-06-01

    The workplace has been suggested as an important arena for health promotion, but little is known about how the organizational setting influences the implementation of interventions. The aims of this study are to evaluate implementation fidelity in an organizational-level occupational health intervention and to investigate possible explanations for variations in fidelity between intervention units. The intervention consisted of an integration of health promotion, occupational health and safety, and a system for continuous improvements (Kaizen) and was conducted in a quasi-experimental design at a Swedish hospital. Implementation fidelity was evaluated with the Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity and implementation factors used to investigate variations in fidelity with the Framework for Evaluating Organizational-level Interventions. A multi-method approach including interviews, Kaizen notes, and questionnaires was applied. Implementation fidelity differed between units even though the intervention was introduced and supported in the same way. Important differences in all elements proposed in the model for evaluating organizational-level interventions, i.e., context, intervention, and mental models, were found to explain the differences in fidelity. Implementation strategies may need to be adapted depending on the local context. Implementation fidelity, as well as pre-intervention implementation elements, is likely to affect the implementation success and needs to be assessed in intervention research. The high variation in fidelity across the units indicates the need for adjustments to the type of designs used to assess the effects of interventions. Thus, rather than using designs that aim to control variation, it may be necessary to use those that aim at exploring and explaining variation, such as adapted study designs.

  1. Radon-Induced Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, C. R.

    The following sections are included: * Lung Cancer * Studies of miners * Estimates of lifetime risk associated with indoor radon exposure * Factors that may affect risk estimates * Sex and age at exposure * Joint effect of radon and smoking * Exposure rate * Epidemiological studies of lung cancer and indoor radon exposure * Cancers Other Than Lung * Dosimetry * Epidemiological studies * Studies of miners * Indoor radon exposure * Concluding Remarks * References

  2. Poor housing quality: Prevalence and health effects.

    PubMed

    Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.

  3. Industrial wind turbines and adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Roy D; Krogh, Carmen M E; Horner, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Some people living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs) report experiencing adverse health and socioeconomic effects. This review considers the hypothesis that annoyance from audible IWTs is the cause of these adverse health effects. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published since 2000 that included the terms "wind turbine health," "wind turbine infrasound," "wind turbine annoyance," "noise annoyance" or "low frequency noise" in the title or abstract. Industrial wind turbines produce sound that is perceived to be more annoying than other sources of sound. Reported effects from exposure to IWTs are consistent with well-known stress effects from persistent unwanted sound. If placed too close to residents, IWTs can negatively affect the physical, mental and social well-being of people. There is sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that noise from audible IWTs is a potential cause of health effects. Inaudible low-frequency noise and infrasound from IWTs cannot be ruled out as plausible causes of health effects.

  4. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  5. An experimental investigation of dynamic ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pai Hung; Lan, C. Edward; Muirhead, Vincent U.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty degree delta wing, F-106B, and XB-70 models with and without flap deflections were tested in static and dynamic ground effect in the 36 by 51 inch subsonic wind tunnel at the University of Kansas. Dynamic ground effect was measured with movable sting support. For flow visualization, a tufted wire grid was mounted on the movable sting behind the model. Tests results showed that the lift and drag increments in dynamic ground effect were always lower than the static values. Effect of the trailing-edge flap deflections on lift increments was slight. The fuselage reduced the lift increments at a given ground height. From flow visualization under static conditions, the vortex core was seen to enlarge as the ground approached.

  6. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  7. [Phospholipids: properties and health effects].

    PubMed

    Torres García, Jairo; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-09-12

    Phospholipids are amphipathic lipids, which are found in all the cell membranes, organized as a lipid bilayer. They belong to the glycerol-derived lipids, showing a similar structure as triglycerides. The current interest of them comes from its effectiveness to incorporate different fatty acids in the cell membrane, as they exhibit better absorption and utilization than triglycerides. In this paper, the bibliographical data published about the benefits of the phospholipids in inflammatory processes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, liver disease and as an antioxidants transporter is reviewed.

  8. Investigation of presumptive tuberculosis cases by private health providers: lessons learnt from a survey in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fatima, R; Qadeer, E; Enarson, D A; Hinderaker, S G; Harris, R; Yaqoob, A; Bassili, A

    2014-06-21

    Pakistan's National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) is missing data on many tuberculosis (TB) cases who visit private providers. A survey on the incidence and under-reporting of TB in Pakistan provided a database for exploring the investigation and referral of presumptive TB cases by private health providers. The survey showed that private health providers requested both sputum smear and X-ray for diagnostic investigations. Of 2161 presumptive TB cases referred, 1189 (55%) were sent for investigations to a district NTP TB centre, of whom only 314 (26.4%) were registered. This indicates an urgent need to strengthen the link between private health providers and NTP to enhance TB notification.

  9. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  10. 'Side effects' of health promotion: an example from Austrian schools.

    PubMed

    Gugglberger, Lisa; Flaschberger, Edith; Teutsch, Friedrich

    2014-07-04

    While the existence of side effects of medical interventions is common knowledge and widely investigated, possible unintended effects of health promotion (HP) interventions are only sparsely discussed in the HP literature. Drawing on qualitative evaluation data generated within an on-going process evaluation of a regional health-promoting schools network in Austria, we demonstrate which desirable and undesirable effects HP practice can have for teachers. Thirteen group discussions with teachers (n = 63) and headteachers (n = 9) acting as health coordinators in the network schools were conducted between 2010 and 2013. These data were analysed using systems and thematic analyses. In our example, desirable side effects included health coordinators gaining new relationships, new skills and benefiting from improved infrastructure. The undesirable side effects centred on stress, work overload and frustration, due to the additional work brought about by HP practice, negative reactions by colleagues as well as by technicalities of the network. The undesirable side effects of HP predominated in our study, pointing to several implications like the need to accommodate the concept of HP in the teachers' core responsibilities; the participation of all staff members and students in a whole-school approach toward SHP, and the need for changes on an organizational level. Based on this study, we come to the conclusion that a systematic approach to investigating and analysing side effects of HP is currently lacking in HP research and suggest that theoretical examination and more empirical research is needed.

  11. Investigation of factors associated with health-related quality of life and psychological distress in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Bonotis, Konstantinos; Pantelis, Konstantinos; Karaoulanis, Sokratis; Katsimaglis, Chrysanthos; Papaliaga, Maria; Zafiriou, Efterpi; Tsogas, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases distort the body image with possible negative effects on the quality of life and psychosocial health of patients. While vitiligo does not affect the physical well-being, it may be psychologically distressing. The present study was based on the hypothesis that particular factors might be critical regarding the adjustment to the disease. We investigated the vitiligo-related quality of life and psychological distress of 216 patients diagnosed with the disease in relation to demographic factors, disease components, and personality traits. For this purpose, we administered the self-completed questionnaires Dermatological Quality of Life Index, General Health Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Statistical analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between patients' distress and health-related quality of life. Moreover, the impact of vitiligo on the quality of life was significantly associated with disease variables as well as personality traits and gender. On the other hand, psychological distress was significantly associated with personality traits and gender, but not with disease components. Our results indicate that the psychosocial adjustment to the disease is mainly influenced by subjective factors. This observation could imply the need for targeted support interventions in the treatment of vitiligo. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Investigation of piezoelectric impedance-based health monitoring of structure interface debonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Li; Chen, Guofeng; Chen, Xiaoming; Qu, Wenzhong

    2016-04-01

    Various damages might occur during the solid rocket motor (SRM) manufacturing/operational phase, and the debonding of propellant/insulator/composite case interfaces is one of damage types which determine the life of a motor. The detection of such interface debonding damage will be beneficial for developing techniques for reliable nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). Piezoelectric sensors are widely used for structural health monitoring technique. In particular, electromechanical impedance (EMI) techniques give simple and low-cost solutions for detecting damage in various structures. In this work, piezoelectric EMI structural health monitoring technique is applied to identify the debonding condition of propellant/insulator interface structure using finite element method and experimental investigation. A three-dimensional coupled field finite element model is developed using the software ANSYS and the harmonic analysis is conducted for high-frequency impedance analysis procedure. In the experimental study, the impedance signals were measured from PZT and MFC sensors outside attached to composite case monitoring the different debonding conditions between the propellant and insulator. Root mean square deviation (RMSD) based damage index is conducted to quantify the changes i n impedance for different de bonding conditions and frequency range. Simulation and experimental results confirmed that the EMI technique can be used effectively for detecting the debonding damage in SRM and is expected to be useful for future application of real SRM's SHM.

  13. Health managers' attitudes toward robotics and artificial computer intelligence: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Mendell, J S; Palkon, D S; Popejoy, M W

    1991-06-01

    An empirical investigation of the perceived role of robotics and artificial computer intelligence in the future of health care reveals factors favoring a positive attitude by health administrators. The study employed a two-part survey administered in late 1989 and early 1990 to health care managers in hospitals and nursing homes. Part One of the survey asked about the participant, his or her work habits and work environment. Part Two obtained a psychological profile of rationality vs. intuition in problem solving. Through bivariate and multivariate post hoc statistical tests, we discovered the following variables which significantly determined attitudes toward robotics and artificial computer intelligence: sex; number of employees supervised; perceptions of waste and inefficiency in the workplace; perceptions of time-consuming personnel problems; perceived need to make more efficient use of time, money, and facilities; and perceived favorable climate for innovation. Among the factors which did not have an effect on attitudes toward advanced technology were three measures of rationality vs. intuition in problem solving.

  14. Investigating unmet health needs in primary health care services in a representative sample of the Greek population.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Evelina; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Papadopoulos, Angelos; Tountas, Yannis; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-05-17

    Unmet health care needs are determined as the difference between the services judged necessary and the services actually received, and stem from barriers related to accessibility, availability and acceptability. This study aims to examine the prevalence of unmet needs and to identify the socioeconomic and health status factors that are associated with unmet needs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Greece in 2010 and involved data from 1,000 consenting subjects (>18 years old). Multiple binary logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the predictors of unmet needs and to determine the relation between the socio-demographic characteristics and the accessibility, availability and acceptability barriers. Ninety nine participants (9.9%) reported unmet health needs during the 12 months prior to the research. The most frequently self-reported reasons were cost and lack of time. Youth, parenthood, physician consultations, and poor mental health increased the likelihood of unmet needs. Women were less likely to report accessibility and availability than acceptability barriers. Educational differences were evident and individuals with primary and secondary education were associated with significantly more accessibility and availability barriers compared with those with tertiary education. Unmet health needs pose a significant challenge to the health care system, especially given the difficult current financial situation in Greece. It is believed that unmet health needs will continue to increase, which will widen inequalities in health and health care access.

  15. Investigating Unmet Health Needs in Primary Health Care Services in a Representative Sample of the Greek Population †

    PubMed Central

    Pappa, Evelina; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Papadopoulos, Angelos; Tountas, Yannis; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    Unmet health care needs are determined as the difference between the services judged necessary and the services actually received, and stem from barriers related to accessibility, availability and acceptability. This study aims to examine the prevalence of unmet needs and to identify the socioeconomic and health status factors that are associated with unmet needs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Greece in 2010 and involved data from 1,000 consenting subjects (>18 years old). Multiple binary logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the predictors of unmet needs and to determine the relation between the socio-demographic characteristics and the accessibility, availability and acceptability barriers. Ninety nine participants (9.9%) reported unmet health needs during the 12 months prior to the research. The most frequently self-reported reasons were cost and lack of time. Youth, parenthood, physician consultations, and poor mental health increased the likelihood of unmet needs. Women were less likely to report accessibility and availability than acceptability barriers. Educational differences were evident and individuals with primary and secondary education were associated with significantly more accessibility and availability barriers compared with those with tertiary education. Unmet health needs pose a significant challenge to the health care system, especially given the difficult current financial situation in Greece. It is believed that unmet health needs will continue to increase, which will widen inequalities in health and health care access. PMID:23685827

  16. Health effects of indebtedness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, millions of households have been left with debts that they are unable to manage. Indebtedness may impair the wellbeing of those affected by it for years to come. This systematic review focuses on the long-term consequences of indebtedness on health. Methods The method used in the paper is a systematic review. First, bibliographic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Second, the references and citations of the included articles were searched for additional articles. Results The results from our sample of 33 peer-reviewed studies demonstrate serious health effects related to indebtedness. Individuals with unmet loan payments had suicidal ideation and suffered from depression more often than those without such financial problems. Unpaid financial obligations were also related to poorer subjective health and health-related behaviour. Debt counselling and other programmes to mitigate debt-related stress are needed to alleviate the adverse effects of indebtedness on health. Conclusions The results demonstrate that indebtedness has serious effects on health. PMID:24885280

  17. Health effects of tank cleaners.

    PubMed

    Lillienberg, L; Högstedt, B; Järvholm, B; Nilson, L

    1992-06-01

    A total of 29 tank cleaners and 31 referent controls participated in the study. In most cases, the tank cleaners were employed in small companies, usually specialized subcontractors such as firms only working in refineries cleaning oil tanks and handling oil spills. The air concentrations of hydrocarbons (HCs) in tanks containing residuals from heavy fuel oil were generally low, unless the oil was still warm. Addition of light fuel oil to facilitate the cleaning of tanks containing viscous, heavy fuel oils resulted in total airborne HC levels of 1000-1500 mg/m3. High levels of HC were measured in tanks with low-boiling petroleum fractions (naphtha and light fuel oils) of 1000-2600 mg/m3 (maximum). Today, most cleaners use air-supplied respirators or air-purifying respirator cartridges inside tanks with petroleum products or other chemicals. The exception is small firms handling fuel oils for heating purposes where only 50% of the workers use protective equipment regularly; the other workers only occasionally use protective equipment even if the air concentrations of HC are high. Protective equipment is rarely used in small, domestic tanks. Measurements of heart rate showed that tank cleaning is, at times, a highly strenuous job. No differences between tank cleaners and controls were found with respect to spirometry, liver enzymes, or frequency of micronuclei. Acute intoxications were not frequently reported in this group. However, this investigation may underestimate the true risk, as it is a cross-sectional study that found that exposures were highly variable, both quantitatively and qualitatively. In many cases, the tank cleaners knew very little about the potential hazards or the proper use of protective equipment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. An Experimental Investigation of the Coanda Effect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-02-01

    wörk=-"waŗ conducted with, a Coanda slot and single flap 10 inches- in length.^ The j-- -3 slot had a rectangular cross-section one inch in height... Coanda effect and to reporting progress made by M. Coanda in the development of these various- äppIrca-tiöfia *- Interest in the Soanda effect in...transition. The Telocity distribution in the test section was improved by wire screening located’at the transition en- trance and exit; " The nozzle

  19. Health effects associated with waterpipe smoking

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, Ziad M; Chami, Hassan A; Zaatari, Ghazi S

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is widely held that waterpipe smoking (WPS) is not associated with health hazards. However, several studies have documented the uptake of several toxicants and carcinogens during WPS that is strongly associated with harmful health effects. This paper reviews the literature on the health effects of WPS. Data sources Three databases-PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE-were searched until August 2014 for the acute and long-term health effects of WPS using the terms ‘waterpipe’ and its synonyms (hookah, shisha, goza, narghileh, arghileh and hubble-bubble) in various spellings. Study selection We included original clinical studies, case reports and systematic reviews and focused on clinical human studies. ∼10% of the identified studies met the selection criteria. Data extraction Data were abstracted by all three authors and summarised into tables. Abstracted data included study type, results and methodological limitations and were analysed jointly by all three authors. Data synthesis WPS acutely leads to increased heart rate, blood pressure, impaired pulmonary function and carbon monoxide intoxication. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and coronary artery disease are serious complications of long-term use. Lung, gastric and oesophageal cancer are associated with WPS as well as periodontal disease, obstetrical complications, osteoporosis and mental health problems. Conclusions Contrary to the widely held misconception, WPS is associated with a variety of adverse short-term and long-term health effects that should reinforce the need for stronger regulation. In addition, this review highlights the limitations of the published work, which is mostly cross-sectional or retrospective. Prospective studies should be undertaken to assess the full spectrum of health effects of WPS, particularly in view of its growing popularity and attractiveness to youth. PMID:25661414

  20. Investigating Predictors of Visiting, Using, and Revisiting an Online Health-Communication Program: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, Rik; De Vries, Hein

    2010-01-01

    Background Online health communication has the potential to reach large audiences, with the additional advantages that it can be operational at all times and that the costs per visitor are low. Furthermore, research shows that Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in changing health behaviors. However, exposure to Internet-delivered health-communication programs is generally low. Research investigating predictors of exposure is needed to be able to effectively disseminate online interventions. Objective In the present study, the authors used a longitudinal design with the aim of identifying demographic, psychological, and behavioral predictors of visiting, using, and revisiting an online program promoting physical activity in the general population. Methods A webpage was created providing the public with information about health and healthy behavior. The website included a “physical activity check,” which consisted of a physical activity computer-tailoring expert system where visitors could check whether their physical activity levels were in line with recommendations. Visitors who consented to participate in the present study (n = 489) filled in a questionnaire that assessed demographics, mode of recruitment, current physical activity levels, and health motivation. Immediately after, participants received tailored feedback concerning their current physical activity levels and completed a questionnaire assessing affective and cognitive user experience, attitude toward being sufficiently physically active, and intention to be sufficiently physically active. Three months later, participants received an email inviting them once more to check whether their physical activity level had changed. Results Analyses of visiting showed that more women (67.5%) than men (32.5%) visited the program. With regard to continued use, native Dutch participants (odds ratio [OR] = 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-6.81, P = .02) and participants with a strong

  1. Epigenetics applied to epidemiology: investigating environmental factors and lifestyle influence on human health.

    PubMed

    Motta, Valeria; Bonzini, Matteo; Grevendonk, Lotte; Iodice, Simona; Bollati, Valentina

    2017-02-15

    Epigenetics modifications, that include variations in DNA methylation, histone acetylation and micro RNA (miRNA) expression, co-operate together, influencing genome expression and function, in response to exogenous stimuli or exposures. Thus, epigenetic tools applied to epidemiology are useful in investigating, at the population level, the relationships between exposures to environmental, lifestyle, genetic, socioeconomic risk factors, and the epigenome, and/or specific health outcomes. But the choice of an appropriate study design and of valid epidemiological methods has a key role in determining the achievement of the study. This review summarises available evidence about the role of the most investigated epigenetic mechanisms in mediating lifestyle or environmental exposure effects on human health, considering the entire life-course, from in-utero to adulthood. Moreover, we illustrate the most important variables that should be properly considered when designing an epigenetic epidemiology study: the choice of an appropriate study design, a proper estimation of the required sample size, a correct biological sample selection, a validation strategy for epigenetics data, and an integrated exposure assessment methodology.

  2. An Investigation into Effectiveness of Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Copious researches argue the effectiveness of peer-correction in writing courses (e.g., Connor & Asenavage, 1994). Also, Coit (2004) mentions using peer feedback for correcting articles through a student-centered environment is a beneficial pedagogy to extend learners' academic-style writing practice. Therefore, this study focused on…

  3. Effective High School Teachers: A Mixed Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Don P.; Slate, John R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    The researchers conducted a sequential qualitative-quantitative mixed analysis of the characteristics of effective high school teachers as perceived by 615 college students, predominantly Hispanic, at two Hispanic-Serving Institutions. Qualitative analyses revealed the presence of 24 themes: Caring; Communication; Creative; Disciplinarian;…

  4. Investigating the Compton Effect with a Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinderman, Jesusa Valdez

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation of the Compton effect designed to lead students to discover (1) the relationship of the electron's final kinetic energy to its angle of scattering and (2) the relationship between the scattering angles of the outgoing electron and photon. (MDH)

  5. Investigating the Effect of Advanced Automatic Transmissions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA used the validated ALPHA model to predict the effectiveness improvement of real-world transmissions over a baseline four-speed transmission and to predict further improvements possible from future eight-speed transmissions. In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule.

  6. Investigating the effects of caffeine on phonation.

    PubMed

    Erickson-Levendoski, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi

    2011-09-01

    A core component of vocal hygiene programs is the avoidance of agents that may dry the vocal folds. Clinicians commonly recommend that individuals reduce caffeine intake because of its presumed dehydrating effects on the voice. However, there is little evidence that ingestion of caffeine is detrimental to voice production. The first objective of this study was to evaluate whether caffeine adversely affects voice production. The second objective was to evaluate if caffeine exacerbates the adverse phonatory effects of vocal loading. Prospective, double-blinded, sham-controlled study. Sixteen healthy adults participated in two sessions where they consumed caffeine (caffeine concentration=480 mg) or sham (caffeine concentration=24 mg) beverages. Voice measures (phonation threshold pressure and perceived phonatory effort) were collected. Subjects then completed a vocal loading challenge and voice measures were obtained again. There were no significant differences in voice measures between the caffeine and sham conditions. Ingestion of caffeine did not adversely affect voice production (P>0.05) or exacerbate the detrimental phonatory effects of vocal loading (P>0.05). Our findings contribute to emerging knowledge on the effects of caffeine on voice production. Recommendations to completely eliminate caffeine from the diet, as a component of a vocal hygiene program, should be evaluated on an individual basis. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating the Compton Effect with a Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinderman, Jesusa Valdez

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation of the Compton effect designed to lead students to discover (1) the relationship of the electron's final kinetic energy to its angle of scattering and (2) the relationship between the scattering angles of the outgoing electron and photon. (MDH)

  8. Changing beliefs about leisure noise: using health promotion models to investigate young people's engagement with, and attitudes towards, hearing health.

    PubMed

    Gilliver, Megan; Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Williams, Warwick

    2015-04-01

    To investigate factors influencing young people's motivation to reduce their leisure noise exposure, and protect their hearing health. Questionnaires were conducted online to investigate young people's hearing health attitudes and behaviour. Items were developed using an integrated health promotion approach. The stage of change model was used to group participants in relation to their engagement with noise reduction behaviour. The health belief model was used to compare each group's perceptions of susceptibility and severity of hearing loss, as well as the benefits and barriers to noise reduction. Results are presented for 1196 young Australians aged between 18 and 35 years. Participants' engagement with noise reduction behaviour was used to assign them to stage of change groupings: Maintenance (11%), Action (28%), Contemplation (14%), or Pre-contemplation (43%). Each group's responses to health belief model items highlighted key differences across the different stages of engagement. Future hearing health promotion may benefit from tailoring intervention activities to best suit the stage of change of individuals. Different information may be useful at each stage to best support and motivate young people to look after their hearing health.

  9. [Health effects of ambient ultrafine particles--the project UFIREG].

    PubMed

    Dostál, Miroslav; Pastorková, Anna; Lanzinger, Stefanie; Schneider, Alexandra; Bastian, Susanne; Senghaas, Monika; Erzen, Ziva; Novák, Jiří; Kolodnitska, Teťana; Šrám, Radim J; Peters, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The project "Ultrafine particles--an evidence based contribution to the development of regional and European environmental and health policy" (UFIREG) started in July 2011 and ended in December 2014. It was implemented through the Central Europe Programme and co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund. Five cities in four Central European countries participated in the study: Augsburg (Germany), Chernivtsi (Ukraine), Dresden (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Prague (Czech Republic). The aim of the UFIREG project was to improve the knowledge base on possible health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (UFP) and to raise overall awareness of environmental and health care authorities and the population. Epidemiological studies in the frame of the UFIREG project have assessed the short-term effects of UFP on human mortality and morbidity, especially in relation to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Official statistics were used to determine the association between air pollution concentration and daily (cause-specific: respiratory and cardiovascular) hospital admissions and mortality. Associations of UFP levels and health effects were analysed for each city by use of Poisson regression models adjusting for a number of confounding factors. Results on morbidity and mortality effects of UFP were heterogeneous across the five European cities investigated. Overall, an increase in respiratory hospital admissions and mortality could be detected for increases in UFP concentrations. Results on cardiovascular health were less conclusive. Further multi-centre studies such as UFIREG are needed preferably investigating several years in order to produce powerful results.

  10. Effect of sorghum consumption on health outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Simnadis, Thomas G; Tapsell, Linda C; Beck, Eleanor J

    2016-11-01

    Sorghum, an ancient grain originating in Africa, may have health-protective properties that could encourage its consumption among those who do not traditionally consume it. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the health effects associated with the consumption of sorghum among humans. Academic databases were searched for relevant studies published between 1985 and November 2015. Nineteen studies -13 interventional and 6 observational - were identified for inclusion. Participant characteristics, study country, health outcomes, main findings, and study quality were reported. Interventional and observational studies were summarized separately. Studies were divided into those that investigated the effect of sorghum on chronic disease and those that investigated other effects of sorghum on health. There was evidence that the consumption of sorghum attenuated blood glucose responses and decreased the expression of markers of oxidative stress. Sorghum was also observed to be a suitable ingredient for the formulation of oral rehydration solutions and showed potential for use as a medical adjunct to boost immune responses in HIV-positive patients CONCLUSIONS: The implication is that sorghum may have attributes superior to those of other staple grains, indicating its potential for innovative uses in commercial foods. More work is required to elucidate the health effects of sorghum when consumed by population groups that have not been traditional consumers of the grain. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Investigation of mental health in Indonesian health workers immigrating to Japan under the Economic Partnership Agreement.

    PubMed

    Sato, Fumiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Kamide, Kei

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of Indonesian nurses and care workers who immigrated to Japan after the Economic Partnership Agreement was signed by the governments of Japan and Indonesia in 2008. From November 2012 to March 2013, questionnaires were mailed to 206 workers in 87 medical and caregiving facilities that openly accept Indonesian EPA immigrant workers. Responses were received from 71 workers in 35 facilities. Responses from 22.5% of workers suggested that they were at risk of developing mental health problems, and "gender" and "acquisition state of national qualifications" were the main factors influencing their mental health status. The results suggest that support after obtaining national qualifications is inadequate and that mid and long-term support systems that focus on the needs of immigrant healthcare workers after passing national examinations are necessary.

  12. Smoking Prevention Health and Education Act of 1983. Hearings before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on S. 772 to Promote Public Health by Improving Public Awareness of the Health Consequences of Smoking and to Increase the Effectiveness of Federal Health Officials in Investigating and Communicating to the Public Necessary Health Information, and for Other Purposes (May 5 and 12, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These hearings present opening statements which argue for the government's responsibility to protect the health of citizens, citing the dangerous and often fatal relationship of cigarette smoking to cancer and heart and lung disease. Statements include those from Mrs. Barney Clark, widow of the first heart transplant patient, and physicians,…

  13. Investigations of fission characteristics and correlation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundorin, N. A.; Zeinalov, Sh. S.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Popov, A. B.; Furman, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    We review the experimental results on the P-even and P-odd angular correlations of fission fragments in the fission of the 235U and 239Pu nuclei induced by unpolarized and polarized resonance neutrons, and on the TRI and ROT effects in the ternary and binary fission of actinides induced by polarized thermal neutrons. Also reported are the measured yields of prompt and delayed neutrons per fission event. The experimental data are analyzed within a novel theoretical framework developed by the JINR—RNC KI Collaboration, whereby the reduction of the multidimensional phase space of fission fragments to the JπK-channel space is consistently validated and the role of resonance interference in the observed correlation effects is revealed.

  14. Balancing Passion and Priorities: An Investigation of Health and Wellness Practices of Secondary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisser, Sally R.; Peters, Randal E.; Thacker, Valerie M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the increased attention on school-based programs to decrease obesity and emphasize fitness among children, there is an alarming lack of attention on health and wellness of school administrators. This study investigated the work-life balance, health, and nutrition status of secondary administrators in one Midwest state using an online survey.…

  15. Balancing Passion and Priorities: An Investigation of Health and Wellness Practices of Secondary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisser, Sally R.; Peters, Randal E.; Thacker, Valerie M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the increased attention on school-based programs to decrease obesity and emphasize fitness among children, there is an alarming lack of attention on health and wellness of school administrators. This study investigated the work-life balance, health, and nutrition status of secondary administrators in one Midwest state using an online survey.…

  16. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  17. Investigation of antibiotics in health care wastewater in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thi-Dieu-Hien; Bui, Xuan-Thanh; Cao, Ngoc-Dan-Thanh; Luu, Vinh-Phuc; Nguyen, Thanh-Tin; Dang, Bao-Trong; Thai, Minh-Quan; Nguyen, Dinh-Duc; Nguyen, Thanh-Son; Dinh, Quoc-Tuc; Dao, Thanh-Son

    2016-12-01

    Hospital wastewater contains huge amounts of hazardous pollutants which are being discharged daily to environment with or without treatment. Antibiotics were among the important group of pharmaceuticals considered as a potential source of health risk for human and other living creatures. Although the investigations about the existence of antibiotics in hospital wastewater have gained concern for researchers in many countries, there is only one research conducted in Hanoi-Vietnam. Hence, in this study, investigations have been done to fulfill the requirement of real situation in Vietnam by accomplishing survey for 39 health care facilities in Ho Chi Minh City. As results, seven popular antibiotics were detected to exist in all samples such as sulfamethoxazole (2.5 ± 1.9 μg/L), norfloxacin (9.6 ± 9.8 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (5.3 ± 4.8 μg/L), ofloxacin (10.9 ± 8.1 μg/L), erythromycin (1.2 ± 1.2 μg/L), tetracycline (0.1 ± 0.0 μg/L), and trimethoprim (1.0 ± 0.9 μg/L). On the other hand, survey also showed that only 64% of health care facilities using conventional activate sludge (AS) processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As a consequence, basic environmental factors (BOD5, COD, TSS, NH4(+)-N, or total coliforms) were not effectively removed from the hospital wastewater due to problems relating to initial design or operational conditions. Therefore, 18% effluent samples of the surveyed WWTPs have exceeded the national standard limits (QCVN 28:2010, level B).

  18. Cell Systems to Investigate the Impact of Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Grootaert, Charlotte; Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Van Camp, John

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are a diverse group of micronutrients from plant origin that may serve as antioxidants and that contribute to human health in general. More specifically, many research groups have investigated their protective effect against cardiovascular diseases in several animal studies and human trials. Yet, because of the excessive processing of the polyphenol structure by human cells and the residing intestinal microbial community, which results in a large variability between the test subjects, the exact mechanisms of their protective effects are still under investigation. To this end, simplified cell culture systems have been used to decrease the inter-individual variability in mechanistic studies. In this review, we will discuss the different cell culture models that have been used so far for polyphenol research in the context of cardiovascular diseases. We will also review the current trends in cell culture research, including co-culture methodologies. Finally, we will discuss the potential of these advanced models to screen for cardiovascular effects of the large pool of bioactive polyphenols present in foods and their metabolites. PMID:26569293

  19. Mental Illness and/or Mental Health? Investigating Axioms of the Complete State Model of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2005-01-01

    A continuous assessment and a categorical diagnosis of the presence (i.e., flourishing) and the absence (i.e., languishing) of mental health were proposed and applied to the Midlife in the United States study data, a nationally representative sample of adults between the ages of 25 and 74 years (N = 3,032). Confirmatory factor analyses supported…

  20. Investigate the chronic neurotoxic effects of diquat.

    PubMed

    Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Ahuja, Manuj; Buabeid, Manal; Parameshwaran, Koodeswaran; Abdel-Rehman, Engy; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishanan

    2012-05-01

    Chronic exposure to agricultural chemicals (pesticides/herbicides) has been shown to induce neurotoxic effects or results in accumulation of various toxic metabolic by-products. These substances have the relevant ability to cause or increase the risk for neurodegeneration. Diquat is an herbicide that has been extensively used in the United States of America and other parts of the world. Diquat is constantly released into the environment during its use as a contact herbicide. Diquat structurally resembles 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and paraquat. Rotenone, paraquat, maneb and MPTP reproduce features of movement disorders in experimental animal models. Based on the structural similarity to other neurotoxins, chronic exposure of diquat can induce behavioral and neurochemical alterations associated with dopaminergic neurotoxicity. However, in the present study, diquat unlike other neurotoxins (rotenone, 6-hydroxydopamine, MPTP, paraquat and maneb) did not induce dopamine depletion in the mouse striatum. Although, notable exacerbation in motor impairment (swimming score, akinesia and open field) were evident that may be due to the decreased dopamine turnover and mild nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. These data indicate that, despite the apparent structural similarity to other dopaminergic neurotoxins, diquat did not exert severe deleterious effects on dopamine neurons in a manner that is unique to rotenone and MPTP.

  1. Salutogenic effects of the environment: review of health protective effects of nature and daylight.

    PubMed

    Beute, Femke; de Kort, Yvonne A W

    2014-03-01

    Both nature and daylight have been found to positively influence health. These findings were, however, found in two separate research domains. This paper presents an overview of effects found for daylight and nature on health and the health-related concepts stress, mood, and executive functioning and self-regulation. Because of the overlap in effects found and the co-occurrence of both phenomena, the paper points to the need to consider daylight factors when investigating effects of nature and vice versa. Furthermore, the existence of possibly shared underlying mechanisms is discussed and the need to unify the research paradigms and dependent variables used between the two research fields. Last, in view of the beneficial effects of both phenomena on health, our objective is to raise awareness amongst the general public, designers, and health practitioners to use these naturally available phenomena to their full potential.

  2. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    PubMed

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  3. Health Effects of Unemployment Benefit Program Generosity

    PubMed Central

    Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. Methods. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Results. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b = 0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio = 2.777; 95% CI = 2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits = −0.124; 95% CI = −0.197, −0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Conclusions. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men. PMID:25521897

  4. Sound's effects on marine mammals need investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David M.

    Protecting marine mammals and conducting certain types of marine research, in particular, those that use sound in the ocean, have categorically come into conflict because of our lack of knowledge of the effects of low-frequency sound on marine mammals. Despite its intentions to improve Earth's overall environment, the proposed Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) project, and by implication, other uses of sound in the ocean by oceanographers, are now under fire because of the dearth of data on this very issue.By passing the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act, the United States acknowledged that marine mammals are indeed a valuable national resource. Since World War II, the United States has developed and maintained a high-quality marine science research effort.

  5. Investigation of electromagnetic effects in materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Sorin Gabriel

    A new contactless inductive technique has been developed to evaluate both thermophysical and rheological properties of metals in solid and molten states. This is based on the theory that when a conductor moves in a magnetic field, circulating eddy currents are induced and the opposing mechanical torque created is directly proportional to the electrical conductivity and size of the sample. It was determined that the damping torque T, produced by rotating a sample in a magnetic field, is T=23swLR4 B2 , where s is the electrical conductivity of the sample, w is the angular velocity of the crucible, L and R are the length and radius of the sample, respectively, and B represents the strength of the magnetic induction. The technique was applied to a series of materials, including both pure metals and alloys. The results are in excellent agreement with existing data, and new data for several alloys are presented. The technique can also be used in characterization of microstructural condition for various metals, depending on specific applications. The continuous monitoring of electrical resistivity during heat treatment is sensitive to slight modifications in the metal's microscopic structure like solute content, precipitation hardening, and increasing dislocation densities. Isothermal transformation C-curves for 3024 aluminum-copper alloy were determined based on the electrical resistivity measurements. The C-curves were supplemented with hardness and x-ray diffraction measurements. The results obtained in this investigation were in very good agreement with published literature data. In addition, an electromagnetic-based permanent-magnet probe was designed and tested for monitoring velocity (as well as the temperature) in molten metals. It is shown that, when rotating a molten metal in a DC magnetic field, the azimuthal velocity in the vicinity of the crucible is significantly different from the one in the center, which is evidence of secondary flow induced by the DC

  6. Adverse health effects of spousal violence among women attending Saudi Arabian primary health-care clinics.

    PubMed

    Eldoseri, H M; Tufts, K A; Zhang, Q; Fish, J N

    2014-12-17

    This study aimed to investigate the frequency of spousal violence among Saudi women and document the related health effects and injuries, as well as their attitudes to gender and violence. Structured interviews were conducted with 200 ever-married women recruited from primary-care centres in Jeddah. Nearly half of the surveyed women (44.5%) reported ever experiencing physical violence from their spouse. Although 37 women (18.5%) had received violence-related injuries, only 6.5% had reported these injuries to a health-care provider. Victims of spousal violence had poor perceptions of their overall health, and reported pain or discomfort, antidepressant use and suicidal thoughts. Women mostly disagreed with the presented justifications for wife-beating. However, the association between gender attitudes and spousal violence was not significant. The results of this study support calls for integration of education about partner violence into health-care curricula to enhance the access and quality of services.

  7. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  8. Health Effects of Toxicants: Online Knowledge Support ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Research in toxicology generates vast quantities of data which reside on the Web and are subsequently appropriated and utilized to support further research. This data includes a broad spectrum of information about chemical, biological and radiological agents which can affect health, the nature of the effects, treatment, regulatory measures, and more. Online resources are created and housed by a variety of institutions, including libraries and government agencies. This paper focuses on three such institutions and the tools they offer to the public: the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and its Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Reference is also made to other relevant organizations. A review of online public data sources and data resources on health effects of toxicants offered by NLM, EPA and OECD..

  9. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    PubMed Central

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  10. THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC DECLINE

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Ralph; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Saxton, Katherine; Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Subbaraman, Meenakshi; LeWinn, Kaja; Anderson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The recent recession and lingering high unemployment will likely lead to a burst of research studying the health effects of economic decline. We aim to inform that work by summarizing empirical research concerned with those effects. We separate the studies into groups defined by questions asked, mechanisms invoked, and outcomes studied. We conclude that although much research shows that undesirable job and financial experiences increase the risk of psychological and behavioral disorder, many other suspected associations remain poorly studied or unsupported. The intuition that mortality increases when the economy declines, for example, appears wrong. We note that the research informs public health programming by identifying risk factors, such as job loss, made more frequent by economic decline. The promise that the research would identify health costs and benefits of economic policy choices, however, remains unfulfilled and will likely remain so without stronger theory and greater methodological agreement. PMID:21054175

  11. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Steven A; Akinci, Adrian A; Leichty, Gary; Schaffer, Timothy; Murphy, Michael J; Munger, Alan; Thomas, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to

  12. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  13. Individual neurophysiological profile in external effects investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtseva, Daria; Tatiana Kotrovskaya, D..

    Cortex biopotentials are the significant elements in human psychophysiological individuality. Considered that cortical biopotentials are diverse and individually stable, therefore there is the existence of certain dependence between the basic properties of higher nervous activity and cerebral bioelectric activity. The main purpose of the study was to reveal the individual neurophysiological profile and CNS initial functional state manifestation in human electroencephalogram (EEG) under effect of inert gases (argon, xenon, helium), hypoxia, pressure changes (0.02 and 0.2 MPa). We obtained 5-minute eyes closed background EEG on 19 scalp positions using Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted in an electrode cap. All EEG signals were re-referenced to average earlobes; Fast Furies Transformation analysis was used to calculate the relative power spectrum of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta frequency band in artifact-free EEG. The study involved 26 healthy men who provided written informed consent, aged 20 to 35 years. Data obtained depend as individual EEG type and initial central nervous functional state as intensity, duration and mix of factors. Pronounced alpha rhythm in the raw EEG correlated with their adaptive capacity under studied factor exposure. Representation change and zonal distribution perversion of EEG alpha rhythm were accompanied by emotional instability, increased anxiety and difficulty adapting subjects. High power factor or combination factor with psychological and emotional or physical exertion minimizes individual EEG pattern.

  14. An investigation of the Venetian blind effect.

    PubMed

    Filley, E T; Khutoryansky, Natalie; Dobias, J J; Stine, Wm Wren

    2011-01-01

    When a rectangular wave grating is binocularly viewed with a neutral density filter over one eye, an illusory rotation resembling that of a partially opened Venetian blind is perceived (Cibis and Haber, 1951). Using a binary classification task, in the first experiment, the probability of perceiving a rotation in a given direction was measured as a function of a factorial combination of inter-ocular contrast (see Note 1) and luminance ratios. The probability of a rotation in a given direction decreased monotonically with the luminance of the brighter bars when the grating contains a less than unity contrast. This result is inconsistent with (i) the model of the Venetian blind effect proposed by Cibis and Haber (1951), (ii) a mechanism based on irradiation with a compressive non-linearity (von Helmholtz, 1911/1924, pp. 186-193) and (iii) contemporary stereo-energy/cross-correlation models of stereopsis. In the second and third experiments, we tested the prediction that irradiation combined with an early compressive non-linearity in response implies a positive relationship between both the threshold contrast or average luminance disparity to perceive rotation and the magnitude of perceived rotation, and the blur width at the bar's edge. No support was found for the prediction. We propose an intensity difference model of the probability of perceiving a rotation in a given direction as a function of the interocular difference in luminance or contrast.

  15. Views of Women and Health Professionals on mHealth Lifestyle Interventions in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Investigation

    PubMed Central

    van der Pligt, Paige; Ball, Kylie; Wilkinson, Shelley A; Lappas, Martha; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that women are failing to meet guidelines for nutrition, physical activity, and weight gain during pregnancy. Interventions to promote a healthy lifestyle in pregnancy demonstrate mixed results and many are time and resource intensive. mHealth-delivered interventions offer an opportunity to provide trusted source information in a timely and cost-effective manner. Studies regarding women’s and health professionals’ views of mHealth in antenatal care are limited. Objective This study aimed to explore women’s and health professionals’ views regarding mHealth information sources and interventions to assist women to eat well, be physically active, and gain healthy amounts of weight in pregnancy. Methods A descriptive qualitative research approach employed focus groups and in-depth interviews with 15 pregnant or postpartum women and 12 in-depth interviews with health professionals including two from each category: obstetricians, general practitioners, midwives, dietitians, physiotherapists, and community pharmacists. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Results Women uniformly embraced the concept of mHealth information sources and interventions in antenatal care and saw them as central to information acquisition and ideally incorporated into future antenatal care processes. Health professionals exhibited varied views perceiving mHealth as an inevitable, often parallel, service rather than one integrated into the care model. Four key themes emerged: engagement, risk perception, responsibility, and functionality. Women saw their ability to access mHealth elements as a way to self-manage or control information acquisition that was unavailable in traditional care models and information sources. The emergence of technology was perceived by some health professionals to have shifted control of information from trusted sources, such as health professionals and health organizations, to nontrusted sources. Some

  16. A multi-agency investigation of Heat and human Health relationships in the state of Vermont: Towards actionable science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, E.

    2015-12-01

    This talk focuses on an assemblage of work conducted primarily between the Vermont State Climate Office and the Vermont Department of Health for better understanding, communicating, and anticipating the impact which elevated air temperatures have, and my have in the future, on public health. This is an example in how several agencies, spanning scientific fields and levels, can all play roles in in producing important understanding and actionable consequences in the face of health risk. This talk starts with an investigation of the relationships between Vermont health statistics and daily maximum air temperature with a focus on the temperatures where the health statistics changed most rapidly with temperature changes, or "changepoints". The results of this investigation suggested that meaningful temperature changepoints exist below 90F. The local WFO considered a day as "hot" when it reached or exceeded 90F unless the day was particularly sunny and humid. Discussions with the local National Weather Service Forecast Office were productive and led to some rethinking of how they consider a "Hot" day. The changepoints information was also incorporated into a health impacts report prepared by the Vermont Department of Health for the CDC's Building Resilience Against Climate Effects, by utilizing climate indices tailored to a temperature less than 90F. This work stands as a demonstration that the co-production of knowledge can produce actionable science.

  17. [Investigation of the allocation of equipment among the major research agencies for occupational health and medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Xing

    2011-08-01

    To understand the allocation of instruments and equipment in major research institutions for occupational health and medicine in China. Questionnaire was designed for collecting the information of the equipment used in occupational health and medicine research. Questionnaires were distributed to 78 research agencies to investigate the situation of allocation of instrument and equipment. There was a great diversity of allocation in investigated agencies. The features in three kinds of agencies are different. The occupational health agencies in universities fit out the biological equipment in laboratories. The occupational health laboratories in CDCs were equipped with the chemical analytical devices. The institutes of occupational medicine were equipped with the clinical inspection instruments. The protocol of sharing resource and predominance complementation should be established among research institutions for occupational health and medicine in the same region or neighboring provinces.

  18. The effect of economic development on population health: a review of the empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Lange, Simon; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth is considered an important determinant of population health. Relevant studies investigating the effect of economic growth on health outcomes were identified from Google Scholar and PubMed searches in economics and medical journals. Additional resources generated through economic growth are potentially useful for improving population health. The empirical evidence on the aggregate effect of economic growth on population health is rather mixed and inconclusive. The causal pathways from economic growth to population health are crucial and failure or success in completing the pathways explains differences in empirical findings. Future research should investigate how additional resources can more effectively reach those in need and how additional resources can be used more efficiently. It is particularly relevant to understand why preventive health care in developing countries is very price elastic whereas curative health care is very health inelastic and how this understanding can inform public health policy.

  19. Formaldehyde - An Assessment of its Health Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    edema of the cornea and conjunctiva and iritis, graded 8 on a scale of 1-10 (Carpenter and Smyth, 1946). Exposure of rabbits and guinea pigs to airborne...Wilmington, Del. Kulle, T.J., and Cooper G.P. 1975. Effects of formaldehyde and ozone on the trigeminal nasal sensory system. Arch. Environ. Health 30

  20. Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Song, Ki-Hoon; Chung, Jin-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments. PMID:25284195

  1. Effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Mathew; Melancon, Jim; Sneed, Demarcus; Nunning, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Currently, heart disease and diabetes dominate society as the leading cause of death for Americans. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a lifestyle enhancement program on factors related to the development of heart disease. The Wabash Valley Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) is a community-based lifestyle change program with…

  2. Effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Mathew; Melancon, Jim; Sneed, Demarcus; Nunning, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Currently, heart disease and diabetes dominate society as the leading cause of death for Americans. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a lifestyle enhancement program on factors related to the development of heart disease. The Wabash Valley Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) is a community-based lifestyle change program with…

  3. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BFRs are a broad class of compounds providing fire safety. Because of high production and usage and recent findings that they are ubiquitous in environmental samples and biota, concerns exist about potential health effects. Some of the major commercial products, such as tetrabr...

  4. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BFRs are a broad class of compounds providing fire safety. Because of high production and usage and recent findings that they are ubiquitous in environmental samples and biota, concerns exist about potential health effects. Some of the major commercial products, such as tetrabr...

  5. An Investigation of the Mental Health Needs of Children Looked after by Craigavon and Banbridge Health and Social Services Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teggart, Tom; Menary, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    Rates of mental health difficulties were investigated among children in substitute care across five childcare teams in Craigavon and Banbridge H+SS Trust. A total of 64 children were assessed using a behavioural screening instrument. Results indicate that more than 60% of 4-10 year olds assessed may have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. The…

  6. Racism, other discriminations and effects on health.

    PubMed

    Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Borrell, Carme; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen; Miralles, Juanjo; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    We study the probability of perceived racism/other forms of discrimination on immigrant and Spanish populations within different public spheres and show their effect on the health of immigrants using a cross-sectional design (ENS-06). perceived racism/other forms of discrimination (exposure), socio-demographic (explicative), health indicators (dependent). Frequencies, prevalences, and bivariate/multivariate analysis were conducted separately for men (M) and women (W). We estimated the health problems attributable to racism through the population attributable proportion (PAP). Immigrants perceived more racism than Spaniards in workplace (ORM = 48.1; 95% CI 28.2-82.2), and receiving health care (ORW = 48.3; 95% CI 24.7-94.4). Racism and other forms of discrimination were associated with poor mental health (ORM = 5.6; 95% CI 3.9-8.2; ORW = 7.3; 95% CI 4.1-13.0) and injury (ORW = 30.6; 95% CI 13.6-68.7). It is attributed to perceived racism the 80.1% of consumption of psychotropics (M), and to racism with other forms of discrimination the 52.3% of cases of injury (W). Racism plays a role as a health determinant.

  7. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable.

  8. Are the arts an effective setting for promoting health messages?

    PubMed

    Mills, Christina; Knuiman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee

    2013-03-01

    Individuals can contribute to their own well-being through the adoption of positive health behaviours and the avoidance of negative health behaviours. The promotion of health messages is a cognitive strategy used to influence the adoption of health-enhancing behaviours. Since 1991, arts organizations have been sponsored by the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation (Healthway) to promote anti-smoking, safe alcohol consumption, physical activity, sun protection and nutrition messages to the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of arts sponsorship to promote health messages and therefore gauge the effectiveness of the arts as a communication channel to promote health to the general population. A secondary analysis of the Healthway Survey of Community Recreation and Health data was conducted. The data were collected via a telephone survey of Western Australian adults aged 16-69 years. Overall, 1997 respondents participated in this study, a response rate of 59%. The analysis included a descriptive investigation, followed by logistic regression analyses of message awareness by those engaged and not engaged in the arts for sponsored anti-smoking, safe alcohol consumption, physical activity, sun protection and nutrition messages. Overall, 68% of those surveyed were classified as engaged in the arts, either as a participant, attendee or member of an arts organization. In general, those engaged in the arts were significantly more likely to recall health messages relating to physical activity (adjusted OR = 1.9), sun protection (OR = 1.8) nutrition (OR = 1.5), safe alcohol consumption (OR = 1.5) and anti-smoking (adjusted OR = 1.3) than those not engaged in the arts. Findings from this study suggest the arts have merit beyond intrinsic artistic value and are a viable means of promoting health messages to the general population.

  9. The effect of military deployment on mental health.

    PubMed

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie Vincent; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Jepsen, Peter Winning

    2016-12-01

    Public concern about soldiers' mental health has increased over the last decade. Yet the large literature on the mental health problems of returning soldiers relies primarily on self-reported measures that may suffer from non-response bias, usually refers to older conflicts, and focuses mainly on specific diagnoses such as PTSD. Another challenge is that the differences between soldiers and non-soldiers are not necessarily causal, instead possibly reflecting an underlying propensity towards active military service. Using the objective measures of hospitalizations and the purchase of mental health medication, this paper is the first to investigate the effect of recent military deployments on a broader measure of mental health, for a full population of Danish soldiers and a comparison group of eligible men. We exploit a panel of Danish health administrative records and use propensity score matching process, using unique observables such as ability tests. Matching is helpful in both reducing the selection bias from observables and determining pre- and post-deployment period for the comparison group. Then, we estimate the effect of deployment in a difference-in-differences setting, controlling for time trends and other omitted variables affecting both groups. Overall, we find a significant and long-lasting adverse effect of military deployment on soldiers' mental health, regardless of the comparison groups and underlying assumptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  11. Health effects of hot weather: from awareness of risk factors to effective health protection.

    PubMed

    Hajat, Shakoor; O'Connor, Madeline; Kosatsky, Tom

    2010-03-06

    Because of the increasing concerns about climate change and deadly heatwaves in the past, the health effects of hot weather are fast becoming a global public health challenge for the 21st century. Some cities across the world have introduced public health protection measures, with the timely provision of appropriate home-based prevention advice to the general public being the most crucial point of intervention. In this Review, we report current epidemiological and physiological evidence about the range of health effects associated with hot weather, and draw attention to the interplay between climate factors, human susceptibility, and adaptation measures that contribute to heat burdens. We focus on the evidence base for the most commonly provided heat-protection advice, and make recommendations about the optimum clinical and public health practice that are expected to reduce health problems associated with current and future hot weather. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Multipart Prompts on Children's Testimonies in Sexual Abuse Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to explore the frequency and effects of multipart prompts on the testimonies of children who were alleged victims of sexual abuse and were interviewed using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Investigative Protocol. The effects of the multipart prompts were studied by considering…

  13. Ethnocentrism: a barrier to effective health care.

    PubMed

    Thiederman, S B

    1986-08-01

    The effective delivery of health care to growing ethnic populations within the United States is a challenge for nurse practitioners. A breakdown in cross-cultural communication and understanding, which stems from the tendency of health care professionals to project their own culturally specific values and behaviors onto the foreign-born patient, has contributed significantly to non-compliance in this patient population. In order to remedy this situation, it is important for nurse practitioners to separate the values of their own cultural background from the cultural background and values of the patients for whom they provide care.

  14. Effects of environmental change on wildlife health

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Duffus, Amanda L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental change has negatively affected most biological systems on our planet and is becoming of increasing concern for the well-being and survival of many species. At an organism level, effects encompass not only endocrine disruptions, sex-ratio changes and decreased reproductive parameters, but also include teratogenic and genotoxic effects, immunosuppression and other immune-system impairments that can lead directly to disease or increase the risk of acquiring disease. Living organisms will strive to maintain health by recognizing and resolving abnormal situations, such as the presence of invading microorganisms or harmful peptides, abnormal cell replication and deleterious mutations. However, fast-paced environmental changes may pose additional pressure on immunocompetence and health maintenance, which may seriously impact population viability and persistence. Here, we outline the importance of a functional immune system for survival and examine the effects that exposure to a rapidly changing environment might exert on immunocompetence. We then address the various levels at which anthropogenic environmental change might affect wildlife health and identify potential deficits in reproductive parameters that might arise owing to new immune challenges in the context of a rapidly changing environment. Throughout the paper, a series of examples and case studies are used to illustrate the impact of environmental change on wildlife health. PMID:19833653

  15. Global Foodomics strategy to investigate the health benefits of dietary constituents.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; Celebier, Mustafa; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Gómez-Martínez, Angeles; Herrero, Miguel; Castro-Puyana, María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena; Ferragut, José A; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-07-27

    A global methodology, called Foodomics, which allows carrying out a comprehensive evaluation of the health benefits of food ingredients is presented in this work. The new methodology is based on the combination of several analytical platforms and data processing for Transcriptomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics studies, allowing the determination of changes induced by food ingredients at molecular level. Both, the whole methodological development and its potential are presented through the investigation of a case study following a hypothesis-free strategy. Namely, the chemopreventive effect of polyphenols from rosemary was examined on the total gene, protein and metabolite expression in human HT29 colon cancer cells. Conclusions on the bioactivity of polyphenols against colon cancer cells based on the results from each single platform (Transcriptomics, Proteomics or Metabolomics) are compared with the conclusions based on the integration of the whole results from the three platforms, corroborating the interest of using a global integrative strategy as Foodomics. To our knowledge, although many papers and reviews have been published on this topic, this is the first time that Transcriptomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics platforms are put together to study the health benefits from dietary ingredients against colon cancer cells at gene, protein and metabolite level. Advantages, drawbacks and current challenges of this global analytical strategy are discussed in this work. The results from our study provide new insights on the biological mechanisms involved in the cancer risk reduction properties of dietary constituents.

  16. Investigating the relationship among self-reported oral health status, oral health-related behaviors, and self-consciousness in Romanian dental patients.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, A L; Kawamura, M; Zetu, L; Teslaru, S

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether self-consciousness, self-reported oral health status, and oral health-related behaviors were associated in a Romanian population. A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected between January and March 2008. The sample consisted of 180 Romanian adults (mean age: 35.8 years; 72.6% women; 57% married) who were a random population drawn consecutively from the registry file of a private dental practice in the Iasi area. The questionnaire included information about demographic, psychologic, self-reported oral health, and oral health-related behavior items. The self-consciousness (SC) scale with three subscales (public SC, private SC, and social anxiety) was applied. Significant differences were found on the public SC scale in relation to denture/removable false teeth and on the total SC scale in relation to periodontal problems. When oral health behaviors were analyzed, private SC was associated with oral health behaviors (flossing, use of mouthrinse, and dental visit frequency). There was no association between toothbrushing frequency and the self-consciousness subscales. The moderating effects of self-consciousness should be considered when evaluating risk-reduction interventions and tailoring intervention efforts to oral health promotion.

  17. A review of the animal models used to investigate the health benefits of soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M

    2006-01-01

    This review considers the recent literature in which animal models were used to investigate the purported health benefits of soy isoflavones. The main conclusions are that our animal models demonstrate minimal effects in breast, prostate, and colon cancer prevention, and that, while some cancers may respond to isoflavones, it would appear that isoflavones do not prevent further development once cancer has become established. Regarding cardiovascular health, the lipid-lowering effects of isoflavones have been established, but their efficacy may be less than original research purported. However, it may be considered a bonus of habitual soy consumption that blood cholesterol levels would be reduced somewhat. With respect to osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms, animal models do not show any consistent benefit of isoflavones in preventing osteoporosis, and calcium fortification or the use of prescribed medications are likely much better approaches to combat bone loss. However, our animal models of osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms may not be entirely representative of the human situation. Perhaps the benefit of isoflavones in cognitive skills and in delaying Alzheimer's disease is an area where they can be of some advantage. However, this field is very recent and requires much more research in both humans and animal models before any definitive benefit can be propounded. On the other hand, isoflavones in moderation are probably not dangerous, as few studies have indicated adverse effects. However, large doses have been shown to increase apoptosis and cell degeneration, and in some cancer regimes, once the cancer has progressed beyond the hormone-dependent stage, high doses of isoflavones may be contraindicated. The prospect of mega-dosing from isoflavone supplements opens a new chapter in the risk assessment of isoflavone consumption.

  18. Effects of Green Buildings on Employee Health and Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amanjeet; Syal, Matt; Korkmaz, Sinem

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) on perceived health and productivity in occupants who moved from conventional to green (according to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ratings) office buildings. In 2 retrospective–prospective case studies we found that improved IEQ contributed to reductions in perceived absenteeism and work hours affected by asthma, respiratory allergies, depression, and stress and to self-reported improvements in productivity. These preliminary findings indicate that green buildings may positively affect public health. PMID:20634460

  19. Child obesity prevention in primary health care: investigating practice nurse roles, attitudes and current practices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Alison; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Harris, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity affects approximately 20% of Australian pre-schoolers. The general practice nurse (PN) workforce has increased in recent years; however, little is known of PN capacity and potential to provide routine advice for the prevention of child obesity. This mixed methods pilot study aims to explore the current practices, attitudes, confidence and training needs of Australian PNs surrounding child obesity prevention in the general practice setting. PNs from three Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales were invited to complete a questionnaire investigating PN roles, attitudes and practices in preventive care with a focus on child obesity. A total of 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate 22%). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of PNs (n = 10). Questionnaire respondent demographics were similar to that of national PN data. PNs described preventive work as enjoyable despite some perceived barriers including lack of confidence. Number of years working in general practice did not appear to strongly influence nurses' perceived barriers. Seventy per cent of PNs were interested in being more involved in conducting child health checks in practice, and 85% expressed an interest in taking part in child obesity prevention training. Findings from this pilot study suggest that PNs are interested in prevention of child obesity despite barriers to practice and low confidence levels. More research is needed to determine the effect of training on PN confidence and behaviours in providing routine healthy life-style messages for the prevention of child obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. [Dependent relative: Effects on family health].

    PubMed

    Estrada Fernández, M Eugenia; Gil Lacruz, Ana I; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Viñas López, Antonio

    2017-04-18

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. The study included 19,351 participants aged over 25 years who completed the 2011-2012 Spanish National Health Survey. This research is based on demographic information obtained from a Spanish National Health Survey (2011/12). Using an empirical framework, the Logit model was select and the data reported as odds ratio. The estimations were repeated independently by sub-groups of age and gender. The study showed that the health of people who share their lives with a dependent person is worse than those who do not have any dependent person at home (they are 5 times at higher risk of developing health problems). The study found that being a woman, advance age, low educational level and does not work, also has an influence. Being a caregiver reduces the likelihood of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise, relaxation, or eating a balanced diet. Living with a dependent person reduces the likelihood of maintaining healthy lifestyles and worsens the state of health of family members. Significant differences in gender and age were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower II. Health-Related Institutions and Their Library Resources *

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Lesliebeth; Rees, Alan M.; Kronick, David A.

    1970-01-01

    As part of an investigation of health sciences library manpower, the universe of health-related institutions and programs (excluding hospitals) was surveyed by postcard questionnaire to produce an inventory and description of libraries providing services to these institutions and programs. Seventysix percent (5,215) of the institutions reported access to library resources, indicating usage of some 2,207 non-hospital libraries. Eighty percent (2,431) of the institutions reported that the library used was “within” their own institution; 20 percent (608) noted that the library was “outside” of their institution. The distribution of health-related institutions and libraries is shown by RML districts, together with relevant census data. A classification of libraries, based on the degree of involvement of the libraries' facilities, resources and personnel in supplying services to health-related institutions, was developed. It is concluded that projections of manpower needs should take into account institutions and programs not at present possessing health sciences libraries as well as documented demand in existing health sciences libraries. PMID:5496236

  2. Mental health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.

  3. Mental health effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change. PMID:26023264

  4. Impoverishing effects of catastrophic health expenditures in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mchenga, Martina; Chirwa, Gowokani Chijere; Chiwaula, Levison S

    2017-01-21

    Out of pocket (OOP) health spending can potentially expose households to risk of incurring large medical bills, and this may impact on their welfare. This work investigates the effect of catastrophic OOP on the incidence and depth of poverty in Malawi. The paper is based on data that was collected from 12,271 households that were interviewed during the third Malawi integrated household survey (IHS-3). The paper considered a household to have incurred a catastrophic health expenditure if the share of health expenditure in the household's non-food expenditure was greater than a given threshold ranging between 10 and 40%. As we increase the threshold from 10 to 40%, we found that OOP drives between 9.37 and 0.73% of households into catastrophic health expenditure. The extent by which households exceed a given threshold (mean overshoot) drops from 1.01% of expenditure to 0.08%, as the threshold increased. When OOP is accounted for in poverty estimation, additional 0.93% of the population is considered poor and the poverty gap rises by almost 2.54%. Our analysis suggests that people in rural areas and middle income households are at higher risk of facing catastrophic health expenditure. We conclude that catastrophic health expenditure increases the incidence and depth of poverty in Malawi. This calls for the introduction of social insurance system to minimize the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure especially to the rural and middle income population.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of health care teams.

    PubMed

    Mickan, Sharon M

    2005-05-01

    While it is recognised that effective health care teams are associated with quality patient care, the literature is comparatively sparse in defining the outcomes of effective teamwork. This literature review of the range of organisational, team and individual benefits of teamwork complements an earlier article which summarised the antecedent conditions for (input) and team processes (throughput) of effective teams. This article summarises the evidence for a range of outcome measures of effective teams. Organisational benefits of teamwork include reduced hospitalisation time and costs, reduced unanticipated admissions, better accessibility for patients, and improved coordination of care. Team benefits include efficient use of health care services, enhanced communication and professional diversity. Patients report benefits of enhanced satisfaction, acceptance of treatment and improved health outcomes. Finally, team members report enhanced job satisfaction, greater role clarity and enhanced well-being. Due to the inherent complexity of teamwork, a constituency model of team evaluation is supported where key stakeholders identify and measure the intended benefits of a team.

  6. A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Hélène; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Vérène

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from <2 km to >20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined. PMID:23818910

  7. A review of the epidemiological methods used to investigate the health impacts of air pollution around major industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Mathilde; Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Hélène; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Vérène

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from <2 km to >20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  8. Race, Gender, and the Resources That Matter: An Investigation of Intersectionality and Health.

    PubMed

    Etherington, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This study examined racial disparities in health among women, in particular, the relationship between social status and both the development of psychosocial resources and good health. These relationships were investigated using a sample of 869 women from the 2007 wave of the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement. While Black women developed the intrapersonal rewards of self-efficacy and self-esteem through socioeconomic status, they did not experience the same degree of health benefits with these advantages as White women. Models relating both self-rated health and chronic conditions suggested that, instead, highly educated Black women were at a persistent health disadvantage relative to Whites, even at the same levels of psychosocial resources. That being said, Black women with higher self-efficacy, and particularly, higher self-esteem, were more likely than Black women with lower levels of these resources to report being in better health. Thus, resources may improve health within a disadvantaged group while still not bringing them up to the level of health experienced by their advantaged counterparts. Overall, the findings demonstrated that research should not treat women as a homogenous group, assuming that mechanisms affecting health operate the same for women regardless of their race.

  9. Health Effects of Climate Change | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Kathy Sykes provided a general overview of the health effects and the Clean Power Plan expected health benefits while Wayne Cascio discussed the health effects of wildland fires. The Surgeon General requested that the National Prevention representatives from EPA, Kathy Sykes and Wayne Cascio, provide a presentation on the health effects of climate change.

  10. Investigating the relationship between socially-assigned ethnicity, racial discrimination and health advantage in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cormack, Donna M; Harris, Ricci B; Stanley, James

    2013-01-01

    While evidence of the contribution of racial discrimination to ethnic health disparities has increased significantly, there has been less research examining relationships between ascribed racial/ethnic categories and health. It has been hypothesized that in racially-stratified societies being assigned as belonging to the dominant racial/ethnic group may be associated with health advantage. This study aimed to investigate associations between socially-assigned ethnicity, self-identified ethnicity, and health, and to consider the role of self-reported experience of racial discrimination in any relationships between socially-assigned ethnicity and health. The study used data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey (n = 12,488), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of adults 15 years and over. Racial discrimination was measured as reported individual-level experiences across five domains. Health outcome measures examined were self-reported general health and psychological distress. The study identified varying levels of agreement between participants' self-identified and socially-assigned ethnicities. Individuals who reported both self-identifying and being socially-assigned as always belonging to the dominant European grouping tended to have more socioeconomic advantage and experience less racial discrimination. This group also had the highest odds of reporting optimal self-rated health and lower mean levels of psychological distress. These differences were attenuated in models adjusting for socioeconomic measures and individual-level racial discrimination. The results suggest health advantage accrues to individuals who self-identify and are socially-assigned as belonging to the dominant European ethnic grouping in New Zealand, operating in part through socioeconomic advantage and lower exposure to individual-level racial discrimination. This is consistent with the broader evidence of the negative impacts of racism on health and ethnic inequalities

  11. Investigation of Edge Effects in Thermoacoustic Couple Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    22 Ill. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -- 24 A. EDGE EFFECT ........................................................................................... 24...investigate the extent to which irregularities in the temperature difference extend into the plate interior. A. EDGE EFFECT We constructed a TAC (TAC#1) with

  12. Social disadvantage and individual vulnerability: a longitudinal investigation of welfare receipt and mental health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Kim M; Butterworth, Peter

    2013-07-01

    To examine longitudinal associations between mental health and welfare receipt among working-age Australians. We analysed 9 years of data from 11,701 respondents (49% men) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Mental health was assessed by the mental health subscale from the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Linear mixed models were used to examine the longitudinal associations between mental health and income support adjusting for the effects of demographic and socio-economic factors, physical health, lifestyle behaviours and financial stress. Within-person variation in welfare receipt over time was differentiated from between-person propensity to receive welfare payments. Random effect models tested the effects of income support transitions. Socio-demographic and financial variables explained the association between mental health and income support for those receiving student and parenting payments. Overall, recipients of disability, unemployment and mature age payments had poorer mental health regardless of their personal, social and financial circumstances. In addition, those receiving unemployment and disability payments had even poorer mental health at the times that they were receiving income support relative to the times when they were not. The greatest reductions in mental health were associated with transitions to disability payments and parenting payments for single parents. The poor mental health of welfare recipients may limit their opportunities to gain work and participate in community life. In part, this seems to reflect their adverse social and personal circumstances. However, there remains evidence of a direct link between welfare receipt and poor mental health that could be due to factors such as welfare stigma or other adverse life events coinciding with welfare receipt for those receiving unemployment or disability payments. Understanding these factors is critical to inform the next stage of welfare reform.

  13. Health Effects of Noise Exposure in Children.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Clark, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Environmental noise exposure, such as road traffic noise and aircraft noise, is associated with a range of health outcomes in children. Children demonstrate annoyance responses to noise, and noise is also related to lower well-being and stress responses, such as increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Noise does not cause more serious mental health problems, but there is growing evidence for an association with increased hyperactivity symptoms. Studies also suggest that noise might cause changes in cardiovascular functioning, and there is some limited evidence for an effect on low birth weight. There is robust evidence for an effect of school noise exposure on children's cognitive skills such as reading and memory, as well as on standardised academic test scores. Environmental noise does not usually reach levels that are likely to affect children's hearing; however, increasing use of personal electronic devices may leave some children exposed to harmful levels of noise.

  14. Characteristics of effective health care managers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherryl W

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of traditional and contemporary management theories. Concerns, characteristics, and skills of effective managers are also presented. Further, a self-assessment (survey) of 7 highly effective health care managers in a South Georgia community was conducted to determine their ratings on 6 management indices. The assessment or Scale of Transformational Leadership uses a Likert-type scale to allow for the evaluation of managers. The scale contains 6 management elements for assessment: attention, meaning, trust, self, vision, and feeling. Individual ratings and group summary skills rating are presented. Findings revealed the order of managerial importance of the elements as follows (from highest to lowest): Management of Trust, Management of Attention, Management of Self, Management of Feeling, Management of Meaning, and Management of Risk. As a second tier, the final ratings are corroborated by health care management interns.

  15. Measuring the health effects of gender.

    PubMed

    Phillips, S P

    2008-04-01

    The health effects of gender are mediated via group-level constraints of sex roles and norms, discrimination and marginalisation of individuals, and internalisation of the stresses of role discordance. Although gender is frequently a lens through which data are interpreted there are few composite measures that insert gender as an independent variable into research design. Instead, sex disaggregation of data is often conflated with gender, identifying statistically significant but sometimes clinically insignificant sex differences. To directly assess the impact of gender on wellbeing requires development of group and individual-level derived variables. At the ecological level such a summative variable could be composed of a selection of group-level measures of equality between sexes. This gender index could be used in ecological and individual-level studies of health outcomes. A quantitative indicator of gender role acceptance and of the personal effects of gender inequities could insert the often hidden variable of gender into individual-level clinical research.

  16. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  17. Investigating Happiness and its Related Factors in Married Women Referred to Health Centers of Shahroud City

    PubMed Central

    Sooky, Zahra; Keramat, Afsaneh; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Taebi, Mahboubeh; Sadat, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Happiness is one of the most important factors affecting women's mental health. Several factors contribute to happiness in different societies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the level of happiness in married women and its related factors. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with stratified sampling proportional to different age groups of married women in selected health centers (based on socioeconomic status). Subjects were 379 married women. The Oxford Happiness Inventory (scale: 0-87) was used to measure happiness. The Enrich Marital Satisfaction Inventory including 47 questions (scale: 47-235) and demographic information questionnaires were also used. Descriptive statistics, correlation, T-test, One-way ANOVA and Regression were used to analyze data. Results: The mean of happiness was 45.11 ± 14.40. Marital satisfaction was 164.68 ± 28.33 and 64% of the participants had a relative marital satisfaction. Univariate analysis of happiness showed significant effects of husband and wife education, husband job, economic status, stress in past six months, marital satisfaction and having social activates, but was not statistically significant for other factors (P < 0.05). Adjusting for the confounding effect of other variables, multiple linear regressions showed significant association of happiness with marital satisfaction, economic status and social activity. Conclusions: Regarding lower level of happiness of married women in Shahroud comparing to some other studies in Iran and abroad, leisure time programs, training life skills especially stress management skills, increasing marital satisfaction and improving economic status should be considered. PMID:25593738

  18. Thyroid toxicants: assessing reproductive health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Gloria D; Choksi, Neepa Y; Moore, John A; Shelby, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    A thyroid toxicant workshop sponsored by the National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction convened on 28-29 April 2003 in Alexandria, Virginia. The purpose of this workshop was to examine and discuss chemical-induced thyroid dysfunction in experimental animals and the relevance of reproductive and developmental effects observed for prediction of adverse effects in humans. Presentations highlighted and compared reproductive and developmental effects of thyroid hormones in humans and rodents. Rodent models of thyroid system dysfunction were presented. Animal testing protocols were reviewed, taking into account protocol designs that allow extrapolation to possible human health effects. Potential screening methods to assess toxicant-induced thyroid dysfunction were outlined, and postnatal bioassays of thyroid-related effects were discussed. PMID:14998754

  19. Pulmonary Health Effects of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ozlem Kar; Zhang, Jingjing; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting nine out of ten individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Exposure to air pollution is the ninth leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature for the most recent updates on health effects of specific air pollutants and their impact on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infection. Recent findings A total of 53 publications were reviewed to establish new insights as to how air pollution is associated with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Considerable past evidence suggests that air pollution is an important factor that enhances pulmonary disease, while also causing greater harm in susceptible populations, such as children, the elderly and those of low socio-economic status worldwide. Asthma, COPD, lung cancer and respiratory infections all seem to be exacerbated due to exposure to a variety of environmental air pollutants with the greatest effects due to particulate matter (PM), ozone and nitrogen oxides. New publications reviewed reaffirm these findings. Summary Continued vigilence will be essential to lessen the effects of air pollution on human health and pulmonary disease. Cooperation at a multi-national level will be required on the part of governments, industry, energy-based enterprises and the public working together to solve our air quality issues at the local, national and global level. PMID:26761628

  20. Pulmonary health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Ozlem Kar; Zhang, Jingjing; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Exposure to air pollution is the ninth leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature for the most recent updates on health effects of specific air pollutants and their impact on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infection. A total of 52 publications were reviewed to establish new insights as to how air pollution is associated with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Considerable past evidence suggests that air pollution is an important factor that enhances pulmonary disease, while also causing greater harm in susceptible populations, such as children, the elderly, and those of low socio-economic status worldwide. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections all seem to be exacerbated because of exposure to a variety of environmental air pollutants with the greatest effects because of particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen oxides. New publications reviewed reaffirm these findings. Continued vigilance will be essential to lessen the effects of air pollution on human health and pulmonary disease. Cooperation at a multinational level will be required on the part of governments, industry, energy-based enterprises, and the public working together to solve our air quality issues at the local, national, and global level.

  1. Distance Learning and the Health Professions: A Synthesis Report of the Literature Investigating Continuing Professional Health Education at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon; Noseworthy, Tanya

    This synthesis report provides an extensive overview of literature evaluating use and effectiveness of distance learning technologies in delivering continuing education (CE) for health professionals. Chapter 2 discusses advantages and disadvantages of correspondence materials, explores suggestions for improving print-based learning materials, and…

  2. Investigating children's spiritual experiences through the Health and Physical Education (HPE) learning area in Australian schools.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Timothy

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore spirituality within the Health and Physical Education (HPE) learning area, through investigating children's experiences within three Brisbane Catholic Education primary schools (Queensland, Australia). There are seven dimensions of wellness: physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual, environmental, and occupational, which are all strongly connected (Robbins et al. in A wellness way of life, 9th edition, McGraw Hill, USA, 2011). It is logical that HPE, which promotes students to adopt lifelong health and well-being, offers opportunities for spirituality to be experienced and warrants investigation. Data gathered in this qualitative research suggest that regular quality inclusive HPE lessons increased students' potential for spiritual experiences.

  3. An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: III. Manpower Supply and Demand in Health Sciences Libraries *

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Lesliebeth; Kronick, David A.; Rees, Alan M.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation of the manpower requirements of health sciences libraries and of educational programs appropriate to these manpower needs was begun in March 1968. To date, 4,727 libraries have been identified as being used by 14,000 health sciences institutions and programs. Of this total, 2,628 are hospital libraries; 1,328 are health sciences libraries and collections located outside of hospitals; and 771 are academic or public libraries. Within these libraries some 14,938 persons are directly involved, either full- or part-time, in the delivery of health sciences library services. Of the total work force, 5,861 persons are employed in hospital libraries and 9,077 are employed in health sciences libraries and collections. The ratio between professional and nonprofessional employees is 1:2; professional and nonprofessional status was assigned by the chief librarian. Survey data indicate a 7 percent manpower shortage in positions classified as professional, and a 3 percent shortage in positions classified as nonprofessional. PMID:5542913

  4. [The effect of oral health education on oral health in kindergarten children].

    PubMed

    Song, Byung-Sun

    2004-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of oral health education on kindergarten children. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group pre -post test design. Data was collected from April 1st to November 30th, 2001. The total samples were sixty seven healthy kindergarten children; the experiment group consisted of thirty three and the control group was thirty four children. The experimental group received an oral health education program daily for 20 minutes for four weeks. There was significant improvements on oral health behavior in the experimental group. Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli of the salivary variables in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group. The dmft was lower in the experimental group than the control group, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. However it was significantly lower in the experimental group than control group over time. Oral health education for kindergarten children showed an increase in the use of tooth paste and practicing correct tooth brush usage. Also, it decreased the rate of eating cariogenic food and had a positive effect on oral health through suppressing dental cavities.

  5. Health-promoting effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Yasuo; MIYOSHI, Noriyuki; ISEMURA, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis Theaceae and has been regarded to possess anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, and anti-viral effects. Many of the beneficial effects of green tea are related to the activities of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea catechins. For about 20 years, we have engaged in studies to reveal the biological activities and action mechanisms of green tea and EGCG. This review summarizes several lines of evidence to indicate the health-promoting properties of green tea mainly based on our own experimental findings. PMID:22450537

  6. Human health effects of ozone reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Modification of the stratosphere, such as a reduction in its equilibrium ozone content, could produce direct and indirect effects on human health. The direct hazard to humans would be caused by an increase in the cumulative amount of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface in the range of 285 to 340 nm, encompassing the UV-B or erythemal wavelength region of 280 to 320 nm. Exposing the susceptible human population to an increased total UV dosage of shorter wavelengths could increase skin cancer incidence. Although effects would be delayed by decades, for each 1% decrease in ozone the expected increase in skin cancer incidence would be on the order of 2%.

  7. Human health effects of ozone reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Modification of the stratosphere, such as a reduction in its equilibrium ozone content, could produce direct and indirect effects on human health. The direct hazard to humans would be caused by an increase in the cumulative amount of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface in the range of 285 to 340 nm, encompassing the UV-B or erythemal wavelength region of 280 to 320 nm. Exposing the susceptible human population to an increased total UV dosage of shorter wavelengths could increase skin cancer incidence. Although effects would be delayed by decades, for each 1% decrease in ozone the expected increase in skin cancer incidence would be on the order of 2%.

  8. Health effects of probiotics on the skin.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, M Rahmati; Karimi, R; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the body and is constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial, and fungal challenges. It is well known that probiotics are helpful for specific disorders and different clinical studies have indicated that probiotics have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly that can be considerable from versatile aspects. Probiotic bacteriotherapy can have great potential in preventing and treating the skin diseases including eczema, atopic dermatitis, acne, and allergic inflammation or in skin hypersensitivity, UV-induced skin damage, wound protection, and as a cosmetic product. The current paper comprehensively reviews the different health effects of probiotics on the skin.

  9. Neurophysiologic Analysis of the Effects of Interactive Tailored Health Videos on Attention to Health Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung A.

    2011-01-01

    Web-based tailored approaches hold much promise as effective means for delivering health education and improving public health. This study examines the effects of interactive tailored health videos on attention to health messages using neurophysiological changes measured by Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (EKG). Sixty-eight…

  10. Neurophysiologic Analysis of the Effects of Interactive Tailored Health Videos on Attention to Health Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung A.

    2011-01-01

    Web-based tailored approaches hold much promise as effective means for delivering health education and improving public health. This study examines the effects of interactive tailored health videos on attention to health messages using neurophysiological changes measured by Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (EKG). Sixty-eight…

  11. Priorities and approaches to investigating Asian youth health: perspectives of young Asian New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Agnes; Peiris-John, Roshini; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2015-12-01

    The proportion of young people in New Zealand identifying with Asian ethnicities has increased considerably. Despite some prevalent health concerns, Asian youth are less likely than non-Asian peers to seek help. As preparatory research towards a more nuanced approach to service delivery and public policy, this qualitative study aimed to identify young Asian New Zealanders' perspectives on best approaches to investigate health issues of priority concern to them. Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 15 Asian youth leaders aged 18-24 years. Using an inductive approach for thematic analysis, key themes were identified and analysed. Study participants considered ethno-cultural identity, racism and challenges in integration to play significant roles influencing the health of Asian youth (especially mental health) and their access to health services. While emphasising the importance of engaging young Asians in research and service development so that their needs and aspirations are met, participants also highlighted the need for approaches that are cognisant of the cultural, contextual and intergenerational dimensions of issues involved in promoting youth participation. Research that engages Asian youth as key agents using methods that are sensitive to their cultural and sociological contexts can inform more responsive health services and public policy. This is of particular relevance in primary health care where culturally competent services can mitigate risks of unmet health needs and social isolation.

  12. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  13. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  14. Potential health effects of space radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

  15. Acute health effects common during graffiti removal.

    PubMed

    Langworth, S; Anundi, H; Friis, L; Johanson, G; Lind, M L; Söderman, E; Akesson, B A

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify possible health effects caused by different cleaning agents used in graffiti removal. In 38 graffiti removers working 8-h shifts in the Stockholm underground system, the exposure to organic solvents was assessed by active air sampling, biological monitoring, and by interviews and a questionnaire. Health effects were registered, by physical examinations, porta7ble spirometers and self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of symptoms was compared with 49 controls working at the underground depots, and with 177 population controls. The 8-h time-weighted average exposures (TWA) were low, below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents. The short-term exposures occasionally exceeded the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL), especially during work in poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators. The graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of tiredness and upper airway symptoms compared with the depot controls, and significantly more tiredness, headaches and symptoms affecting airways, eyes and skin than the population controls. Among the graffiti removers, some of the symptoms increased during the working day. On a group basis, the lung function registrations showed normal values. However, seven workers displayed a clear reduction of peak expiratory flow (PEF) over the working shift. Though their average exposure to organic solvents was low, the graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of unspecific symptoms such as fatigue and headache as well as irritative symptoms from the eyes and respiratory tract, compared with the controls. To prevent adverse health effects it is important to inform the workers about the health risks, and to restrict use of the most hazardous chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to develop good working practices and to encourage the use of personal protective equipment.

  16. Assessment of health effects in epidemiologic studies of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M; Speizer, F E

    1993-01-01

    As we increasingly recognize the complexity of the pollutants in indoor and outdoor microenvironments, a broad array of inhaled mixtures has assumed scientific, public health, and regulatory importance. Few adverse effects of environmental pollutants are specific, that is, uniquely associated with a single agent; the adverse effects that might be considered in an investigation of the consequences of exposure to an inhaled complex mixture are generally nonspecific. In the context of this paper, we will refer to binary mixtures as complex, though we realize that a more precise definition of complexity would restrict the term to mixtures of three or more constituents. Their causes potentially include not only pollutant exposures through the medium of inhaled air but other environmental agents, such as infectious organisms and radiation, and inherent characteristics of the exposed persons, such as atopy. We review the outcome measures that have been used in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of single pollutants and complex mixtures. Some of these outcome measures have been carefully standardized, whereas others need similar standardization and modification to improve sensitivity and specificity for investigating the health effects of air pollution. PMID:8206024

  17. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzidine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Enviromental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Benzidine has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for benzidine is 234.13 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for benzidine 100.

  18. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Rosell, Magdalena S

    2006-02-01

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B(12) and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B(12) and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B(12). Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

  19. Chemical and biological sensing needs for health effects studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breysse, Patrick N.

    2012-06-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral component of occupational and environmental epidemiology, risk assessment and management, as well as regulatory compliance. For the most part, air sampling and analysis tools used in occupational and environmental exposure assessments are based on technologies that have changed little since the 1970s. In many cases the lack of simple, inexpensive, exposure assessment technologies has limited epidemiologists' and risk assessors' ability to evaluate the environmental and occupational causes of disease. While there have been tremendous investments and advances in medical diagnostic and biomonitoring technologies (e.g., glucose testing, human genetics), there has been less effort invested in advancing the science of exposure assessment. Recent developments in sensor technology have focused on medical and homeland security applications. Developing and applying new sensors to health effects studies can revolutionize the way epidemiologic studies are conducted. Time-series studies that investigate short-term (hours to days) changes in exposure that are linked to changes in health care encounters, symptoms, and biological markers of preclinical disease and/or susceptibility are needed to more fully evaluate the impact of chemicals and other agents on health. Current sampling technology limits our ability to assess time-varying concentrations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current state of air sampling and health assessment and the potential application of novel sensor technology for use in health effects studies.

  20. Health effects of toxicants: Online knowledge support

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Richard; de Marcellus, Sally; de Knecht, Joop; Leinala, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Research in toxicology generates vast quantities of data which reside on the Web and are subsequently appropriated and utilized to support further research. This data includes a broad spectrum of information about chemical, biological and radiological agents which can affect health, the nature of the effects, treatment, regulatory measures, and more. Information is structured in a variety of formats, including traditional databases, portals, prediction models, and decision making support tools. Online resources are created and housed by a variety of institutions, including libraries and government agencies. This paper focuses on three such institutions and the tools they offer to the public: the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and its Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Reference is also made to other relevant organizations. PMID:26506572

  1. Health effects of toxicants: Online knowledge support.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Philip; Judson, Richard; de Marcellus, Sally; de Knecht, Joop; Leinala, Eeva

    2016-01-15

    Research in toxicology generates vast quantities of data which reside on the Web and are subsequently appropriated and utilized to support further research. This data includes a broad spectrum of information about chemical, biological and radiological agents which can affect health, the nature of the effects, treatment, regulatory measures, and more. Information is structured in a variety of formats, including traditional databases, portals, prediction models, and decision making support tools. Online resources are created and housed by a variety of institutions, including libraries and government agencies. This paper focuses on three such institutions and the tools they offer to the public: the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and its Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Reference is also made to other relevant organizations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A study design to investigate the effect of short-form Sun-style Tai Chi in improving functional exercise capacity, physical performance, balance and health related quality of life in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Leung, R W M; Alison, J A; McKeough, Z J; Peters, M J

    2011-03-01

    The effectiveness of exercise training in people with COPD is well established. However, alternative methods of training such as Tai Chi have not been widely evaluated. This paper describes the study design of a clinical trial which aims to determine if short form Sun-style Tai Chi improves exercise capacity and quality of life in people with COPD. This randomised controlled trial will be conducted with concealed allocation and blinded outcome assessment. Participants will be recruited from Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Sydney. After baseline measurement, participants will be randomised into either a Tai Chi Group or a Control Group. Participants in the Tai Chi Group will undergo supervised training twice weekly for twelve weeks. Participants in the Control Group will undergo usual medical care. Measurements will be taken at baseline (week 0) and after the study period (week 12). The primary outcome measurement is endurance walking capacity assessed by the endurance shuttle walk test. Secondary outcomes include measures related to peak walking capacity, physical performance, balance, muscle strength and quality of life. Details of the physiological responses during Tai Chi will be collected in a small cohort to determine the training intensity of Sun-style Tai Chi. If short form Sun-style Tai Chi improves exercise capacity, physical performance and quality of life in people with COPD, this would provide an alternate form of exercise training which does not require exercise equipment thus making effective exercise training more accessible for the large numbers of people with COPD. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A National Survey of Mentoring Practices for Young Investigators in Circulatory and Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mottillo, Salvatore; Boyle, Pierre; Jacobi Cadete, Lindsay D; Rouleau, Jean-Lucien; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Background. Improving mentorship may help decrease the shortage of young investigators (graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators) available to work as independent researchers in cardiovascular and respiratory health. Objectives. To determine (1) the mentoring practices for trainees affiliated with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Institute of Circulatory and Respiratory Health (ICRH), (2) the positive attributes of mentors, and (3) the recommendations regarding what makes good mentorship. Methods. We conducted a survey and descriptive analysis of young investigators with a CIHR Training and Salary Award from 2010 to 2013 or who submitted an abstract to the ICRH 2014 Young Investigators Forum. Clinicians were compared to nonclinicians. Results. Of 172 participants, 7.0% had no mentor. Only 43.6% had defined goals and 40.7% had defined timelines, while 54.1% had informal forms of mentorship. A significant proportion (33.1%) felt that their current mentorship did not meet their needs. Among clinicians, 22.2% would not have chosen the same mentor again versus 11.4% of nonclinicians. All participants favored mentors who provided guidance on career and work-life balance. Suggestions for improved mentoring included formal mentorship, increased networking, and quality assurance. Conclusion. There is an important need to improve mentoring in cardiovascular and respiratory health.

  4. Mental Health Problems in Young Children Investigated by U.S. Child Welfare Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Heneghan, Amy; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Fisher, Emily; Landsverk, John; Stein, Ruth E. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence/predictors of mental health (MH) problems and services use in 12- to 36-month-old children who had been investigated for maltreatment. Method: Data came from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II), a longitudinal study of youth ages 0 to 17.5 years referred to U.S. child…

  5. Important Competencies for Future Health and Wellness Professionals: An Investigation of Employer Desired Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Loy, Marty

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the validity of the professional competencies developed by the Association of Worksite Health Promotion (AWHP) Professional Standards Task Force. The Task Force identified a competency framework that included business skills, program coordination skills, and human resource skills with corresponding…

  6. A National Survey of Mentoring Practices for Young Investigators in Circulatory and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Mottillo, Salvatore; Boyle, Pierre; Jacobi Cadete, Lindsay D.; Rouleau, Jean-Lucien; Eisenberg, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Improving mentorship may help decrease the shortage of young investigators (graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators) available to work as independent researchers in cardiovascular and respiratory health. Objectives. To determine (1) the mentoring practices for trainees affiliated with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Institute of Circulatory and Respiratory Health (ICRH), (2) the positive attributes of mentors, and (3) the recommendations regarding what makes good mentorship. Methods. We conducted a survey and descriptive analysis of young investigators with a CIHR Training and Salary Award from 2010 to 2013 or who submitted an abstract to the ICRH 2014 Young Investigators Forum. Clinicians were compared to nonclinicians. Results. Of 172 participants, 7.0% had no mentor. Only 43.6% had defined goals and 40.7% had defined timelines, while 54.1% had informal forms of mentorship. A significant proportion (33.1%) felt that their current mentorship did not meet their needs. Among clinicians, 22.2% would not have chosen the same mentor again versus 11.4% of nonclinicians. All participants favored mentors who provided guidance on career and work-life balance. Suggestions for improved mentoring included formal mentorship, increased networking, and quality assurance. Conclusion. There is an important need to improve mentoring in cardiovascular and respiratory health. PMID:27445544

  7. Investigating Adolescent Health-Related Quality of Life: From a Self-Identity Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kun-Hu; Yao, Grace

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between self-identity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescence. This study assumed that four aspects (i.e. personal, social, ability, and academic identity) of identity firmness could predict adolescent's HRQOL more than four aspects of identity importance. Meanwhile, this study…

  8. Beyond universal health insurance to effective health care.

    PubMed

    Ginzberg, E; Ostow, M

    1991-05-15

    The history of the U.S. governmental health care reform indicates that efforts toward universal health insurance cannot be expected from a financially strapped federal government. Ambitious governmental programs such as veterans' services and Medicaid have encountered accessibility problems associated with location, arbitrary limitations of reimbursement criteria, and opposition from taxpayers due to the higher taxes and premiums necessitated by program reform. Nonfinancial obstacles to access include physicians migration away from minorities and the poor, the strained conditions of many public hospitals, and immigrants' isolation due to language barriers and paranoia over citizenship status. Ginzberg presents interim targets for the expansion of access to health care: the expansion of Medicaid, subsidized coverage for the near poor, private sector catastrophic insurance policies, expansion of the Federal Community Health Center program, expansion of the National Health Service Corps and State Educational Debt Forgiveness Programs, and state subsidies for uncompensated care.

  9. Political violence, psychological distress, and perceived health: A longitudinal investigation in the Palestinian Authority

    PubMed Central

    Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Hall, Brian J.; Canetti, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    One thousand one hundred and ninety six Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem were interviewed beginning in September 2007 and again at 6- and 12-month intervals. Using structural equation modeling, we focused on the effects of exposure to political violence, psychosocial and economic resource loss, and social support, on psychological distress, and the association of each of these variables on subjective health. Our proposed mediation model was partially supported. Exposure to political violence, psychosocial resource loss, and social support were related to subjective health, fully mediated by their relationship with psychological distress. Female sex and being older were also directly related to poorer subjective health and partially mediated via psychological distress. Greater economic resource loss, lower income, and poorer education were directly related to poor subjective health. An alternative model exploring subjective health as a mediator of psychological distress revealed that subjective health partially mediated the relationship between resource loss and psychological distress. The associate between female sex, education, income, and age on psychological distress were fully mediated by subjective health. Social support and exposure to political violence were directly related to psychological distress. These results were discussed in terms of the importance of resource loss on both mental and physical health in regions of chronic political violence and potential intervention strategies. PMID:22328960

  10. Political violence, psychological distress, and perceived health: A longitudinal investigation in the Palestinian Authority.

    PubMed

    Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hall, Brian J; Canetti, Daphna

    2012-01-01

    One thousand one hundred and ninety six Palestinian adults living in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem were interviewed beginning in September 2007 and again at 6- and 12-month intervals. Using structural equation modeling, we focused on the effects of exposure to political violence, psychosocial and economic resource loss, and social support, on psychological distress, and the association of each of these variables on subjective health. Our proposed mediation model was partially supported. Exposure to political violence, psychosocial resource loss, and social support were related to subjective health, fully mediated by their relationship with psychological distress. Female sex and being older were also directly related to poorer subjective health and partially mediated via psychological distress. Greater economic resource loss, lower income, and poorer education were directly related to poor subjective health. An alternative model exploring subjective health as a mediator of psychological distress revealed that subjective health partially mediated the relationship between resource loss and psychological distress. The associate between female sex, education, income, and age on psychological distress were fully mediated by subjective health. Social support and exposure to political violence were directly related to psychological distress. These results were discussed in terms of the importance of resource loss on both mental and physical health in regions of chronic political violence and potential intervention strategies.

  11. Managing diversity in the health care industry: a conceptual model and an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Motwani, J; Hodge, J; Crampton, S

    1995-03-01

    Between 1985 and 2000, 8 out of every 10 new entrants to the work force will be minorities, immigrants, or women. If the U.S. health care industry has to retain a competitive edge, it will have to effectively attract and manage the diverse talent that will characterize its new work force. This article analyzes the authors' cultural awareness survey results and suggests a strategic model for managing diversity in the health care industry.

  12. The effect of population aging on health expenditure growth: a critical review.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, Claudine; Wouterse, Bram; Polder, Johan; Koopmanschap, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Although the consequences of population aging for growth in health expenditures have been widely investigated, research on this topic is rather fragmented. Therefore, these consequences are not fully understood. This paper reviews the consequences of population aging for health expenditure growth in Western countries by combining insights from epidemiological and health economics research. Based on a conceptual model of health care use, we first review evidence on the relationship between age and health expenditures to provide insight into the direct effect of aging on health expenditure growth. Second, we discuss the interaction between aging and the main societal drivers of health expenditures. Aging most likely influences growth in health expenditures indirectly, through its influence on these societal factors. The literature shows that the direct effect of aging depends strongly on underlying health and disability. Commonly used approximations of health, like age or mortality, insufficiently capture complex dynamics in health. Population aging moderately increases expenditures on acute care and strongly increases expenditures on long-term care. The evidence further shows that the most important driver of health expenditure growth, medical technology, interacts strongly with age and health, i.e., population aging reinforces the influence of medical technology on health expenditure growth and vice versa. We therefore conclude that population aging will remain in the centre of policy debate. Further research should focus on the changes in health that explain the effect of longevity gains on health expenditures, and on the interactions between aging and other societal factors driving expenditure growth.

  13. Potential health effects of greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ewan, C; Bryant, E A; Calvert, G D; Marthick, J; Condon-Paoloni, D

    1991-04-15

    To identify potential health effects of the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion in Australia. Data were derived from a number of sources: (i) published articles accessed from relevant databases in the disciplines of health, public health and climatology over the past 20 years; (ii) published conference proceedings, review monographs and government reports covering the topic; (iii) a survey of experts in public health and climatology/geography (150 individuals were surveyed in the first phase with a 63% response rate); and (iv) a consensus conference in which 22 invited experts reviewed the results of the literature review and survey and a second conference in which 18 senior members of the health bureaucracy and public health profession considered the implications of the findings. Over 200 published articles or monographs were reviewed. Criteria for selection were whether the papers contributed information to the objectives of the review. Because of the nature of the problem under investigation, predictions based on reasonable scientific assumptions were the major content of the review rather than conclusions based on scientific research. The major predicted health effects of long-term climatic change in Australia are skin and eye damage from increased ultraviolet radiation exposure, increased incidence of some respiratory diseases, vector-borne and water-borne diseases, and the social and physical effects of natural hazards and social and economic restructuring. The most vulnerable groups include the aged, the very young, the chronically ill, those living in poorly designed neighbourhoods and those working in outdoor occupations or heavy industry. The potential effects on health of long-term climatic change cover the broad spectrum of public health concerns. Detailed predictions of likely problems in specific geographic areas are not yet possible, but progressive development of such predictive capability is a high priority. Doctors will have an

  14. Towards an Effective Health Interventions Design: An Extension of the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Orji, Rita; Vassileva, Julita; Mandryk, Regan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The recent years have witnessed a continuous increase in lifestyle related health challenges around the world. As a result, researchers and health practitioners have focused on promoting healthy behavior using various behavior change interventions. The designs of most of these interventions are informed by health behavior models and theories adapted from various disciplines. Several health behavior theories have been used to inform health intervention designs, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Health Belief Model (HBM). However, the Health Belief Model (HBM), developed in the 1950s to investigate why people fail to undertake preventive health measures, remains one of the most widely employed theories of health behavior. However, the effectiveness of this model is limited. The first limitation is the low predictive capacity (R2 < 0.21 on average) of existing HBM’s variables coupled with the small effect size of individual variables. The second is lack of clear rules of combination and relationship between the individual variables. In this paper, we propose a solution that aims at addressing these limitations as follows: (1) we extended the Health Belief Model by introducing four new variables: Self-identity, Perceived Importance, Consideration of Future Consequences, and Concern for Appearance as possible determinants of healthy behavior. (2) We exhaustively explored the relationships/interactions between the HBM variables and their effect size. (3) We tested the validity of both our proposed extended model and the original HBM on healthy eating behavior. Finally, we compared the predictive capacity of the original HBM model and our extended model. Methods: To achieve the objective of this paper, we conducted a quantitative study of 576 participants’ eating behavior. Data for this study were collected over a period of one year (from August 2011 to August 2012). The questionnaire consisted of validated scales

  15. Towards an effective health interventions design: an extension of the health belief model.

    PubMed

    Orji, Rita; Vassileva, Julita; Mandryk, Regan

    2012-01-01

    The recent years have witnessed a continuous increase in lifestyle related health challenges around the world. As a result, researchers and health practitioners have focused on promoting healthy behavior using various behavior change interventions. The designs of most of these interventions are informed by health behavior models and theories adapted from various disciplines. Several health behavior theories have been used to inform health intervention designs, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Health Belief Model (HBM). However, the Health Belief Model (HBM), developed in the 1950s to investigate why people fail to undertake preventive health measures, remains one of the most widely employed theories of health behavior. However, the effectiveness of this model is limited. The first limitation is the low predictive capacity (R(2) < 0.21 on average) of existing HBM's variables coupled with the small effect size of individual variables. The second is lack of clear rules of combination and relationship between the individual variables. In this paper, we propose a solution that aims at addressing these limitations as follows: (1) we extended the Health Belief Model by introducing four new variables: Self-identity, Perceived Importance, Consideration of Future Consequences, and Concern for Appearance as possible determinants of healthy behavior. (2) We exhaustively explored the relationships/interactions between the HBM variables and their effect size. (3) We tested the validity of both our proposed extended model and the original HBM on healthy eating behavior. Finally, we compared the predictive capacity of the original HBM model and our extended model. To achieve the objective of this paper, we conducted a quantitative study of 576 participants' eating behavior. Data for this study were collected over a period of one year (from August 2011 to August 2012). The questionnaire consisted of validated scales assessing the HBM

  16. Pilot Investigation of the Effectiveness of Respite Care for Carers of an Adult with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardim, Claudia; Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Informal carers of an adult with mental illness have asked that respite care be an integral component of mental health service provision. The present study involved a pilot investigation of the effectiveness of accessing respite care for carers of individuals with a mental illness. It was hypothesised that compared to carers who have not accessed…

  17. Pilot Investigation of the Effectiveness of Respite Care for Carers of an Adult with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardim, Claudia; Pakenham, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Informal carers of an adult with mental illness have asked that respite care be an integral component of mental health service provision. The present study involved a pilot investigation of the effectiveness of accessing respite care for carers of individuals with a mental illness. It was hypothesised that compared to carers who have not accessed…

  18. Infection Management and Health Practices Among Forensic Science Investigators in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Kyeong-Sook; Cho, Ok-Hee; Yoo, Yang-Sook

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the current status of infection management for forensic science investigators in South Korea. This study included 104 forensic science investigators, of which 97.1% were exposed to the blood or body fluids of corpses during handling. Of these investigators, 98% claimed they wore gloves, and 12.9% used double-layered gloves. A total of 70.6% of the participants with relevant work experience wore masks to reduce infection risk; 43% wore gowns and goggles when at risk of contracting an infection. Furthermore, 59.8% of the investigators with pertinent work experience sought appropriate first aid and treatment when they experienced contaminated skin cuts or stab wounds. Working conditions and other problems should be analyzed consistently with the cooperation of employees, occupational health practitioners, and relevant organizations to prevent work-associated infections among forensic science investigators.

  19. An empirical investigation of the efficiency effects of integrated care models in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Oliver; Rapold, Roland; Flatscher-Thöni, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the efficiency gains of integrated care models in Switzerland, since these models are regarded as cost containment options in national social health insurance. These plans generate much lower average health care expenditure than the basic insurance plan. The question is, however, to what extent these total savings are due to the effects of selection and efficiency. Methods The empirical analysis is based on data from 399,274 Swiss residents that constantly had compulsory health insurance with the Helsana Group, the largest health insurer in Switzerland, covering the years 2006–2009. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the different integrated care models, we apply an econometric approach with a mixed-effects model. Results Our estimations indicate that the efficiency effects of integrated care models on health care expenditure are significant. However, the different insurance plans vary, revealing the following efficiency gains per model: contracted capitated model 21.2%, contracted non-capitated model 15.5% and telemedicine model 3.7%. The remaining 8.5%, 5.6% and 22.5%, respectively, of the variation in total health care expenditure can be attributed to the effects of selection. Conclusions Integrated care models have the potential to improve care for patients with chronic diseases and concurrently have a positive impact on health care expenditure. We suggest policy-makers improve the incentives for patients with chronic diseases within the existing regulations providing further potential for cost-efficiency of medical care. PMID:22371691

  20. Health effects of soy protein and isoflavones in humans.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chao Wu

    2008-06-01

    Epidemiological investigations suggest that soy consumption may be associated with a lower incidence of certain chronic diseases. Clinical studies also show that ingestion of soy proteins reduces the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This led to the approval of the food-labeling health claim for soy proteins in the prevention of coronary heart disease by the U.S. FDA in 1999. Similar health petitions for soy proteins have also been approved thereafter in the United Kingdom, Brazil, South Africa, the Philippines, Indonesia, Korea, and Malaysia. However, the purported health benefits are quite variable in different studies. The Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association has assessed 22 randomized trials conducted since 1999 and found that isolated soy protein with isoflavones (ISF) slightly decreased LDL cholesterol but had no effect on HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), or blood pressure. The other effects of soy consumption were not evident. Although the contributing factors to these discrepancies are not fully understood, the source of soybeans and processing procedures of the protein or ISF are believed to be important because of their effects on the content and intactness of certain bioactive protein subunits. Some studies have documented potential safety concerns on increased consumption of soy products. Impacts of soy products on thyroid and reproductive functions as well as on certain types of carcinogenesis require further study in this context. Overall, existing data are inconsistent or inadequate in supporting most of the suggested health benefits of consuming soy protein or ISF.

  1. The exposure to and health effects of antimony.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ross G; Harrison, Adrian P

    2009-04-01

    This minireview describes the health effects of antimony exposure in the workplace and the environment. To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to antimony on physiological function and well-being. The criteria used in the current minireview for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Articles were classified from an acute and chronic exposure and toxicity thrust. The proportion of utilised and non-utilised articles was tabulated. Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route (breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contact), other chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health. Chronic exposure to antimony in the air at levels of 9 mg/m(3) may exacerbate irritation of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant death syndrome, current findings suggest no link. Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters. Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure of the like. Its biological monitoring in the workplace is essential.

  2. The exposure to and health effects of antimony

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: This minireview describes the health effects of antimony exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to antimony on physiological function and well-being. Methods: The criteria used in the current minireview for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Articles were classified from an acute and chronic exposure and toxicity thrust. Results: The proportion of utilised and non-utilised articles was tabulated. Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route (breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contact), other chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health. Chronic exposure to antimony in the air at levels of 9 mg/m3 may exacerbate irritation of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant death syndrome, current findings suggest no link. Antimony trioxide exposure is predominant in smelters. Mining and exposure via glass working, soldering, and brazing are also important. Conclusion: Antimony has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being and measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure of the like. Its biological monitoring in the workplace is essential. PMID:20165605

  3. Research on Health and Environmental Effects of Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Research has linked regulated air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, to lung, heart disease and other health problems. Further investigation is needed to understand the role poor air quality plays on health and disease

  4. [Effects of sodium chloride on bone health].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marija; Piasek, Martina

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses the physiology of sodium effects on calcium metabolism and possible implications of increased salt intake on bone remodelling and bone mass. Osteoporosis is an increasing public health problem affecting more than 200 million of women around the world. The major complications of osteoporosis are fractures, which are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality. A number of clinical, epidemiological and experimental studies aim at identifying lifestyle factors that may improve bone mass and prevent bone loss. Different nutrients are proposed to play a role in bone development during growth and in the maintenance of bone mass thereafter. However, the importance of sodium intake for bone health has not been elucidated. It is well known that high dietary sodium intake decreases renal calcium reabsorption, which in turn leads to a greater urinary calcium excretion. This effect has been demonstrated in studies in humans of all ages as well as in experimental animals. It is not clear to what extent sodium-induced calcium loss is compensated for by increased intestinal calcium absorption. It is suspected that, if not fully compensated, sustained hypercalciuria due to increased sodium intake may diminish bone mass. Postmenopausal women showed that increased dietary salt may indeed augment bone resorption. Sodium effects on bone mass in various studies are inconsistent and there is still no evidence that increased salt intake is a risk factor in the aetiology of osteoporosis A randomized longitudinal study of different sodium intake in two groups of subject could clarify the role of sodium in bone mass.

  5. Health effects of uranium: new research findings.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Recent plans for a nuclear renaissance in both established and emerging economies have prompted increased interest in uranium mining. With the potential for more uranium mining worldwide and a growth in the literature on the toxicology and epidemiology of uranium and uranium mining, we found it timely to review the current state of knowledge. Here, we present a review of the health effects of uranium mining, with an emphasis on newer findings (2005-2011). Uranium mining can contaminate air, water, and soil. The chemical toxicity of the metal constitutes the primary environmental health hazard, with the radioactivity of uranium a secondary concern. The update of the toxicologic evidence on uranium adds to the established findings regarding nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and developmental defects. Additional novel toxicologic findings, including some at the molecular level, are now emerging that raise the biological plausibility of adverse effects on the brain, on reproduction, including estrogenic effects, on gene expression, and on uranium metabolism. Historically, most epidemiology on uranium mining has focused on mine workers and radon exposure. Although that situation is still overwhelmingly true, a smaller emerging literature has begun to form around environmental exposure in residential areas near uranium mining and processing facilities. We present and critique such studies. Clearly, more epidemiologic research is needed to contribute to causal inference. As much damage is irreversible, and possibly cumulative, present efforts must be vigorous to limit environmental uranium contamination and exposure.

  6. [The effects of noise on health].

    PubMed

    Cabaní, Fernando Tolosa

    2005-02-01

    This article is adapted from the inaugural speech which Dr. Tolosa made to the Royal Academy of Medicine in the Balearic Islands during the 2003 academic year. In his speech, he analyzed how the presence of sound in our environment is such a common factor in our daily lives that we are hardly aware of its effects. Sound provides experiences as pleasant as listening to music or birdsongs, or sound enables oral communication among people; but together with these agreeable auditory perceptions, bothersome, even harmful, noise is also present in our lives; this noise can limit our relationships and affect our health in an irreversible manner.

  7. Recording and measuring public health effect.

    PubMed

    2017-08-30

    It is important to record and measure public health impact, not least because they highlight the work of healthcare professionals, encourage continued investment in public health and demonstrate the value of public health services to commissioners.

  8. Health literacy and its importance for effective communication. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Veronica; Keogh, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    This is the first of two articles exploring the concept of health literacy, an often hidden barrier to effective healthcare communication. The authors define the components of health literacy, as well as describing the extent and implications of limited health literacy for parents/caregivers and their children. The article also identifies the link between poor health literacy and health outcomes and outlines a framework for adolescent health literacy. Part two will be published in May.

  9. Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of poor lighting and glare on public safety are well-known, as are the harmful environmental effects on various species and the environment in general. What is less well-known is the potential harmful medical effects of excessive poor nighttime lighting. A significant body of research has been developed over the last few years regarding this problem. One of the most significant effects is the startling increased risk for breast cancer by excessive exposure to nighttime lighting. The mechanism is felt to be by disruption of the circadian rhythm and suppression of melatonin production from the pineal gland. Melatonin has an anticancer effect that is lost when its production is disrupted. I am in the process of developing a monograph that will summarize this important body of research, to be presented and endorsed by the American Medical Association, and its Council of Science and Public health. This paper is a brief overall summary of this little known potential harmful effect of poor and excessive nighttime lighting.

  10. Adverse Health Effects of Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Peng, Roger D.; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Background The short-term effects of particulate matter (PM) on mortality and morbidity differ by geographic location and season. Several hypotheses have been proposed for this variation, including different exposures with air conditioning (AC) versus open windows. Methods Bayesian hierarchical modeling was used to explore whether AC prevalence modified day-to-day associations between PM10 and mortality, and between PM2.5 and cardiovascular or respiratory hospitalizations, for those 65 years and older. We considered yearly, summer-only, and winter-only effect estimates and 2 types of AC (central and window units). Results Communities with higher AC prevalence had lower PM effects. Associations were observed for cardiovascular hospitalizations and central AC. Each additional 20% of households with central AC was associated with a 43% decrease in PM2.5 effects on cardiovascular hospitalization. Central AC prevalence explained 17% of between-community variability in PM2.5 effect estimates for cardiovascular hospitalizations. Conclusions Higher AC prevalence was associated with lower health effect estimates for PM. PMID:19535984

  11. Health care provider beliefs concerning the adverse health effects of environmental and ecosystem degradation.

    PubMed

    Truckner, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about health care provider interest, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the health effects of human-induced environmental degradation (HIED). A survey was created and distributed to better characterize health provider beliefs about the adverse health effects of HIED. An invitation to participate in an online 24-question survey was e-mailed to 2177 members of the Wilderness Medical Society to characterize experience with health effects of HIED, types of health effects attributed to HIED, attitudes toward HIED, and educational sources about HIED. Data were analyzed from 665 responses, a response rate of 35%. Results demonstrate that health care providers identify a large number and variety of health effects associated with HIED, although exacerbation of asthma, reactive airways disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were most commonly identified. Over 80% report that HIED has affected the health of a patient they have cared for; 60% report patients have asked about HIED effects on health; and 93% report that they do not distribute information to patients about HIED. Over 75% of respondents believe there is an unfulfilled need for information and education about the adverse health effects of HIED. Respondents report continuing medical education, journal articles, and medical schools/residency programs as the best methods for education and for raising awareness of the health effects of HIED. Results indicate strong health professional belief in health effects of HIED, patient concern related to the health effects of HIED, and a need to educate both health care providers and patients on the adverse health effects of HIED.

  12. Investigation of the Impact of Extracting and Exchanging Health Information by Using Internet and Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pistolis, John; Zimeras, Stelios; Chardalias, Kostas; Roupa, Zoe; Fildisis, George; Diomidous, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Social networks (1) have been embedded in our daily life for a long time. They constitute a powerful tool used nowadays for both searching and exchanging information on different issues by using Internet searching engines (Google, Bing, etc.) and Social Networks (Facebook, Twitter etc.). In this paper, are presented the results of a research based on the frequency and the type of the usage of the Internet and the Social Networks by the general public and the health professionals. Objectives: The objectives of the research were focused on the investigation of the frequency of seeking and meticulously searching for health information in the social media by both individuals and health practitioners. The exchanging of information is a procedure that involves the issues of reliability and quality of information. Methods: In this research, by using advanced statistical techniques an effort is made to investigate the participant’s profile in using social networks for searching and exchanging information on health issues. Results: Based on the answers 93 % of the people, use the Internet to find information on health-subjects. Considering principal component analysis, the most important health subjects were nutrition (0.719 %), respiratory issues (0.79 %), cardiological issues (0.777%), psychological issues (0.667%) and total (73.8%). Conclusions: The research results, based on different statistical techniques revealed that the 61.2% of the males and 56.4% of the females intended to use the social networks for searching medical information. Based on the principal components analysis, the most important sources that the participants mentioned, were the use of the Internet and social networks for exchanging information on health issues. These sources proved to be of paramount importance to the participants of the study. The same holds for nursing, medical and administrative staff in hospitals. PMID:27482135

  13. Investigation of the Impact of Extracting and Exchanging Health Information by Using Internet and Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Pistolis, John; Zimeras, Stelios; Chardalias, Kostas; Roupa, Zoe; Fildisis, George; Diomidous, Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Social networks (1) have been embedded in our daily life for a long time. They constitute a powerful tool used nowadays for both searching and exchanging information on different issues by using Internet searching engines (Google, Bing, etc.) and Social Networks (Facebook, Twitter etc.). In this paper, are presented the results of a research based on the frequency and the type of the usage of the Internet and the Social Networks by the general public and the health professionals. The objectives of the research were focused on the investigation of the frequency of seeking and meticulously searching for health information in the social media by both individuals and health practitioners. The exchanging of information is a procedure that involves the issues of reliability and quality of information. In this research, by using advanced statistical techniques an effort is made to investigate the participant's profile in using social networks for searching and exchanging information on health issues. Based on the answers 93 % of the people, use the Internet to find information on health-subjects. Considering principal component analysis, the most important health subjects were nutrition (0.719 %), respiratory issues (0.79 %), cardiological issues (0.777%), psychological issues (0.667%) and total (73.8%). The research results, based on different statistical techniques revealed that the 61.2% of the males and 56.4% of the females intended to use the social networks for searching medical information. Based on the principal components analysis, the most important sources that the participants mentioned, were the use of the Internet and social networks for exchanging information on health issues. These sources proved to be of paramount importance to the participants of the study. The same holds for nursing, medical and administrative staff in hospitals.

  14. A Cost-Effective Model for Digital Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overill, Richard; Kwan, Michael; Chow, Kam-Pui; Lai, Pierre; Law, Frank

    Because of the way computers operate, every discrete event potentially leaves a digital trace. These digital traces must be retrieved during a digital forensic investigation to prove or refute an alleged crime. Given resource constraints, it is not always feasible (or necessary) for law enforcement to retrieve all the related digital traces and to conduct comprehensive investigations. This paper attempts to address the issue by proposing a model for conducting swift, practical and cost-effective digital forensic investigations.

  15. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss) in feline plaque. Knowledge of these species is a first step in understanding the potential for improving oral health of cats via dietary interventions that alter the proportions of influential species. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 92 cats with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs.

  16. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O’Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss) in feline plaque. Knowledge of these species is a first step in understanding the potential for improving oral health of cats via dietary interventions that alter the proportions of influential species. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 92 cats with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs. PMID:26605793

  17. Investigation into health science students' awareness of occupational therapy: implications for interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Naser; Shayea, Abdulaziz; Nadar, Mohammed; Abu Tariah, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the level of awareness of the occupational therapy profession among final-year health sciences students at Kuwait University. This study utilized a survey targeting final-year students in the Health Sciences Center at Kuwait University schools of medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and allied health sciences. The survey addressed awareness of occupational therapy, its scope of practice, work environments, and preference for learning more about the profession. Of the 244 surveys distributed, 132 were returned, for a 54% response rate. The proportion of those who knew about occupational therapy ranged from 94% (radiologic science) to a low of 17% (medicine). Most respondents learned about occupational therapy from colleagues (77.1%), rather than from their academic programs (28.1%). RESULTS indicated that about one fifth of students (21.4%) were unsure about the role of occupational therapists as members of the health care team. Preferences for learning more about the profession were consistent with interprofessional opportunities, such as observing an occupational therapy session (64.5%) and attending a workshop (63.6%) or presentation (59.8%). Although most respondents had some awareness of occupational therapy, specifics about its scope of practice and relevance to the health care team were lacking. Preferences for learning more about occupational therapy were consistent with the current trend for interprofessional education in health care. Implications for interprofessional education are presented.

  18. Novel psychoactive substances: An investigation of temporal trends in social media and electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Kolliakou, A; Ball, M; Derczynski, L; Chandran, D; Gkotsis, G; Deluca, P; Jackson, R; Shetty, H; Stewart, R

    2016-10-01

    Public health monitoring is commonly undertaken in social media but has never been combined with data analysis from electronic health records. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in social media and their appearance in a large mental health database. Insufficient numbers of mentions of other NPS in case records meant that the study focused on mephedrone. Data were extracted on the number of mephedrone (i) references in the clinical record at the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK, (ii) mentions in Twitter, (iii) related searches in Google and (iv) visits in Wikipedia. The characteristics of current mephedrone users in the clinical record were also established. Increased activity related to mephedrone searches in Google and visits in Wikipedia preceded a peak in mephedrone-related references in the clinical record followed by a spike in the other 3 data sources in early 2010, when mephedrone was assigned a 'class B' status. Features of current mephedrone users widely matched those from community studies. Combined analysis of information from social media and data from mental health records may assist public health and clinical surveillance for certain substance-related events of interest. There exists potential for early warning systems for health-care practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  20. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  1. The Future of U.S. Health Care and Its Effect on Health Care Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildick, Sue; Kohler, Peter O.

    1998-01-01

    Traces trends in health care, including growth of managed care, increased consumer choice, and changes in administration and funding of academic health centers, and examines the challenges they create for teaching, research, and practice. The Oregon Health Plan and its effect on Oregon Health Sciences University are used for illustration. (MSE)

  2. Effects of industrial wind turbine noise on sleep and health.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, Michael A; Aramini, Jeffery J; Hanning, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines (IWTs) are a new source of noise in previously quiet rural environments. Environmental noise is a public health concern, of which sleep disruption is a major factor. To compare sleep and general health outcomes between participants living close to IWTs and those living further away from them, participants living between 375 and 1400 m (n = 38) and 3.3 and 6.6 km (n = 41) from IWTs were enrolled in a stratified cross-sectional study involving two rural sites. Validated questionnaires were used to collect information on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - PSQI), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score - ESS), and general health (SF36v2), together with psychiatric disorders, attitude, and demographics. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the effect of the main exposure variable of interest (distance to the nearest IWT) on various health outcome measures. Participants living within 1.4 km of an IWT had worse sleep, were sleepier during the day, and had worse SF36 Mental Component Scores compared to those living further than 1.4 km away. Significant dose-response relationships between PSQI, ESS, SF36 Mental Component Score, and log-distance to the nearest IWT were identified after controlling for gender, age, and household clustering. The adverse event reports of sleep disturbance and ill health by those living close to IWTs are supported.

  3. Health effects of asbestos and nonasbestos fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Osinubi, O Y; Gochfeld, M; Kipen, H M

    2000-01-01

    Exposures to asbestos and synthetic fibers remain areas of great concern in the field of occupational lung disease. Despite extensive study, the health effects associated with fibers remains an area of substantial controversy. In particular, effects of fibers at relatively low doses, particularly for mesothelioma, remain a matter of evolving opinion, especially when integrated with the divergence of opinion on relative pathogenicity of different fiber types. Mechanistic studies continue to provide a window into pathogenesis and some hope for understanding dose-response relationships at the lower levels seen in contemporary Western workplaces and the general environment. Changes in clinical assessment based on use of new chest imaging techniques beyond the traditional plain film are also an area of evolution and begin to challenge B-reading as the definitive tool for noninvasive assessment of disease. Public health concerns have to a great extent been transported to the developing world where there is a strong trend toward increased use of asbestos, although it has been virtually eliminated from commerce in most developed countries. For nonasbestos fibers, the major unsettled issues are their relative potencies as carcinogens for the human lung and mesothelium and the need to sort out the relation between physical and chemical properties of these fibers and their pathogenicity. The recent discovery of "flock worker's lung" due to synthetic fibers once again alerts us to emerging diseases associated with new technologies. PMID:10931785

  4. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    PubMed

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  5. Epidemiology of Health Effects of Radiofrequency Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ahlbom, Anders; Green, Adele; Kheifets, Leeka; Savitz, David; Swerdlow, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive review of epidemiologic studies about the effects of radiofrequency fields (RFs) on human health in order to summarize the current state of knowledge, explain the methodologic issues that are involved, and aid in the planning of future studies. There have been a large number of occupational studies over several decades, particularly on cancer, cardiovascular disease, adverse reproductive outcome, and cataract, in relation to RF exposure. More recently, there have been studies of residential exposure, mainly from radio and television transmitters, and especially focusing on leukemia. There have also been studies of mobile telephone users, particularly on brain tumors and less often on other cancers and on symptoms. Results of these studies to date give no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relation between RF exposure and any adverse health effect. On the other hand, the studies have too many deficiencies to rule out an association. A key concern across all studies is the quality of assessment of RF exposure. Despite the ubiquity of new technologies using RFs, little is known about population exposure from RF sources and even less about the relative importance of different sources. Other cautions are that mobile phone studies to date have been able to address only relatively short lag periods, that almost no data are available on the consequences of childhood exposure, and that published data largely concentrate on a small number of outcomes, especially brain tumor and leukemia. PMID:15579422

  6. Epidemiology of health effects of radiofrequency exposure.

    PubMed

    Ahlbom, Anders; Green, Adele; Kheifets, Leeka; Savitz, David; Swerdlow, Anthony

    2004-12-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive review of epidemiologic studies about the effects of radiofrequency fields (RFs) on human health in order to summarize the current state of knowledge, explain the methodologic issues that are involved, and aid in the planning of future studies. There have been a large number of occupational studies over several decades, particularly on cancer, cardiovascular disease, adverse reproductive outcome, and cataract, in relation to RF exposure. More recently, there have been studies of residential exposure, mainly from radio and television transmitters, and especially focusing on leukemia. There have also been studies of mobile telephone users, particularly on brain tumors and less often on other cancers and on symptoms. Results of these studies to date give no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relation between RF exposure and any adverse health effect. On the other hand, the studies have too many deficiencies to rule out an association. A key concern across all studies is the quality of assessment of RF exposure. Despite the ubiquity of new technologies using RFs, little is known about population exposure from RF sources and even less about the relative importance of different sources. Other cautions are that mobile phone studies to date have been able to address only relatively short lag periods, that almost no data are available on the consequences of childhood exposure, and that published data largely concentrate on a small number of outcomes, especially brain tumor and leukemia.

  7. Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. )

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

  8. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    PubMed

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory.

  9. An empirical test of the Health Empowerment Model: Does patient empowerment moderate the effect of health literacy on health status?

    PubMed

    Náfrádi, Lilla; Nakamoto, Kent; Csabai, Márta; Papp-Zipernovszky, Orsolya; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-09-06

    The Health Empowerment Model (Schulz & Nakamoto, 2013) advocates that the effects of health literacy and empowerment are intertwined on health outcomes. This study aims to test this assumption in the context of health status as a patient outcome. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 302 participants between June and December 2015. The participants' health literacy (using the NVS and S-TOFHLA tests), empowerment and self-reported health status were assessed. The participants having a high level of patient empowerment and concurrent adequate health literacy (the so-called 'effective self-managers') reported better health status compared to patients who had either lower health literacy and/or lower empowerment scores (P<0.05). Moreover, the meaningfulness (b=0.053, t(297)=2.29, P=0.02) and competence (b=0.07, t(297)=2.47, P=0.01) sub-dimensions of patient empowerment moderated the effect of the NVS on current health status. The study provides evidence for the independence of health literacy and empowerment and partial evidence for their interaction predicting health status. Our findings highlight that health literacy and patient empowerment (in particular its competence and meaningfulness sub-facets) are crucial patient-related variables, to be taken into consideration simultaneously, during screening and health promotion campaigns fostering health status in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products- pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (n = 1098). Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1%) could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  11. An Investigation on Self-Rated Health of Adolescent Students and Influencing Factors From Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Zhao, Li; Feng, Xianqiong; Hu, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    To investigate adolescent students' self-rated health status and to identify the influencing factors that affect students' health status. A stratified cluster sampling method and the Self-assessed General Health Questionnaires were used to enroll 503 adolescent students from Sichuan Province, Southwest part of China. Most adolescent students perceived their self-rated health as “Fair” (29.4%), “Good” (52.1%), or “Very Good” (16.3%). Regarding the sleep quality, most of them rated them as “Fair” (24.9%), “Good” (43.1%), or “Very Good” (19.7%), but 59.7% students reported to sleep less than 8 hours a day, even a few reported to sleep less than 6 hours (4.4%) or more than 9 hours (9.7%). A considerable number of students (41.1%) reported that they “Never” or just “Occasionally” participated in appropriate sports or exercises. As to the dietary habit, a significant number of students (15.7%) reported that they “Never” or “Occasionally” have breakfast. Students from different administrative levels of schools (municipal level, county level, and township level) rated differently (P < 0.05) in terms of their self-rated health, Health Behaviors, Sleeping, Dietary behaviors, Safety Awareness, and Drinking and Smoking behaviors. In general, Chinese teenage students perceived their own health status as fairly good. However, attention needs to be paid to health problems of some of the students, such as lack of sleep and exercise and inadequate dietary habits, etc. More concerns need to be addressed to students from different administrative levels of schools, and strategies should be put forward accordingly. PMID:27058576

  12. Outbreak investigations: Community participation and role of community and public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Sistrom, Maria Gilson; Hale, Patty J

    2006-01-01

    Community and public health nurses (C/PHNs) may play a vital role in the investigation of disease outbreaks. C/PHNs possess skills in conducting interviews on sensitive subjects and in collaborating with communities. C/PHNs maintain key links to community providers, symptomatic clients, their families and associates, as well as community institutions where outbreaks occur. This combination of skills makes C/PHNs ideally suited to perform outbreak investigations. There are, however, pressing questions about whether C/PHNs are adequately prepared to contribute to investigation outcomes, to foster participation of affected communities, and to fully apply nursing skills to outbreak investigations to stop the spread of disease. Using one case study, the authors explore investigation outcomes, community participation issues, educational preparation, and public health funding and workforce policies required to achieve these ends successfully. One model of community participation in the steps of outbreak investigation and several Quad Council domains and competencies are proposed for use in practice. Questions regarding the use of emergency preparedness funding and employment of C/PHNs in epidemiology roles are raised.

  13. The health effects of jobs: status, working conditions, or both?

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Rennie M; Strazdins, Lyndall; Clements, Mark S; Broom, Dorothy H; Parslow, Ruth; Rodgers, Bryan

    2005-06-01

    This study investigates whether the association of job strain and insecurity with health differs by status. A cross-sectional study of 2,249 employed workers aged 40-44 years conducted in two regions in south-east Australia in 2000 used a self-completed questionnaire to collect data. Multivariate analyses were used to compare depression, anxiety, physical health and general practitioner (GP) visits over 12 months across categories of job strain and insecurity for three status groups (high, middle and low). High job strain and job insecurity were independently associated with poor mental health, poor physical health and visits to the GP for all status groups when adjusted for confounders. High job strain was associated with depression (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.96-3.07), anxiety (OR = 2.56, 95% Cl 2.05-3.20), lower mean physical health scores (-1.11, 95% CI -1.98 - -0.23), and more visits to the GP (IRR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37). High job insecurity also showed significant associations with depression (OR = 3.03, 95% Cl 2.03-4.53), anxiety (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.81-3.91), and GP visits (IRR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60). There were no significant differences by status in the associations of job strain and insecurity with outcomes. High-status workers were just as likely as low-status workers to be exposed to adverse work conditions and both status groups showed similar health effects. Exposure to insecure and high-strain jobs is likely to rise as economies and labour markets respond to globalisation and political change. High status may not protect employees from either exposure or impact, thus widening the population health consequences of adverse work conditions.

  14. Oral health and access to dental care: a qualitative investigation among older people in the community.

    PubMed

    Slack-Smith, Linda; Lange, Andrea; Paley, Glenys; O'Grady, Martin; French, Davina; Short, Leonie

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore older persons' beliefs and attitudes towards oral health and access to and use of dental care services. As the proportion of dentate older people increases, the need and demand for dental services will rise (J Public Health Dent, 60, 2000, 276). Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The study participants included 63 older people in Perth, WA. Five major themes emerged from the interviews - the need for information and knowledge; accessibility of services; cost and affordability of oral care; fear and anxiety regarding dental visits and relationships with dentists. Attitudes and behaviours were slow to change in this group. This investigation provided important perspectives regarding oral health and dental access for older people residing in the community and demonstrated the importance of understanding this group when considering provision and use of services.

  15. On-site investigation of the early phase of Bhutan Health Telematics Project.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongguo; Nakajima, Isao; Juzoji, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    Telemedicine is valuable to many developing countries. International use of telemedicine is widespread. Telemedicine can improve health care in the developing countries by removing time and distance barrier, and optimize the use of limited health services in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current situation of healthcare services and telecommunications infrastructure in Bhutan. It summarizes the experience gained from a previous telemedicine pilot project initiated and implemented by the Telecommunication Development Bureau, International Telecommunication Union (BDT/ITU). It also introduces the priorities of telemedicine development set out by the local health authorities as well as the international organizations. By analyzing the common and most urgent problems in the country, which could be alleviated by using telemedicine, it formulates several recommendations concerning the future development strategy of telemedicine in Bhutan.

  16. Investigating Effects of Computer-Based Grammar Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolesnikova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study examined a broad question of whether computer-based grammar tutorials are effective and welcome tools to review grammar for language learners by investigating effects of three different modes of such tutorials on learners' knowledge and satisfaction. For this study, I developed experimental tutorials in three different…

  17. Investigating the Effects of Authentic Childhood Games in Teaching English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursen, Cigdem; Salaz, Dursun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of authentic childhood games in teaching English. The study group of the research consists of 43 5-year-old kindergarten students. The study was carried out in the first semester of 2014-2015 academic year. An experimental method was used in this study to state the effects of teaching English…

  18. The Effect of Entry Regulation in the Health Care Sector: the Case of Home Health

    PubMed Central

    Polsky, Daniel; David, Guy; Yang, Jianing; Kinosian, Bruce; Werner, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of government regulation in the post-acute care sector are not well understood. We examine the effect of entry regulation on quality of care in home health care by analyzing the universe of hospital discharges during 2006 for publicly insured beneficiaries (about 4.5 million) and subsequent home health admissions to determine whether there is a significant difference in home health utilization, hospital readmission rates, and health care expenditures in states with and without Certificate of Need laws (CON) regulating entry. We identify these effects by looking across regulated and nonregulated states within Hospital Referral Regions, which characterize well-defined health care markets and frequently cross state boundaries. We find that CON states use home health less frequently, but system-wide rehospitalization rates, overall Medicare expenditures, and home health practice patterns are similar. Removing CON for home health would have negligible system-wide effects on health care costs and quality. PMID:24497648

  19. Introduction to intellectual property rights for investigators in health research and institutional intellectual property policy.

    PubMed

    Shemdoe, Georges S

    2009-11-01

    The concept of Intellectual Property (IP) in the domain of technology has assumed enhanced importance and the subject matter has attracted more interest with time. As the world moves towards a knowledge-based economy, where wealth creation is no longer based on the capital investment per se, but rather more and more on the brainpower and ability to create, Intellectual Property has become an integral part of world business and a major source for wealth creation and economic growth (ARIPO, 2002). In recognizing the importance of IPR, African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET) has decided to include a module of intellectual property rights in its Health Research Ethics Training Courses for Investigators. This paper is introducing the subject of IP to investigators in health research so that they are able to recognize its importance as IP creators and utilizers of the IP system.

  20. A State Level Investigation of the Associations among Intellectual Capital, Religiosity and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Basalik, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines the degree to which state intellectual capital, state religiosity and reproductive health form a meaningful nexus of ecological relations. Though the specific magnitude of effects vary across outcomes, results from hierarchical regression analyses were consistent with the hypothesized path model indicating that a state's…

  1. A State Level Investigation of the Associations among Intellectual Capital, Religiosity and Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Basalik, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines the degree to which state intellectual capital, state religiosity and reproductive health form a meaningful nexus of ecological relations. Though the specific magnitude of effects vary across outcomes, results from hierarchical regression analyses were consistent with the hypothesized path model indicating that a state's…

  2. Investigating exposure to violence and mental health in a diverse urban community sample: data from the South East London Community Health (SELCoH) survey.

    PubMed

    Kadra, Giouliana; Dean, Kimberlie; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L

    2014-01-01

    General population surveys have seldom examined violence as a multidimensional concept and in relation to an array of mental disorders. Data from the South East London Community Health Study was used to examine the prevalence, overlap and distribution of proximal witnessed, victimised and perpetrated violence and their association with current mental disorders. We further investigated the cumulative effect of lifetime exposure to violence on current mental disorders. Unadjusted and adjusted (for confounders and violence) models were examined. In the last twelve months, 7.4% reported witnessing violence, 6.3% victimisation and 3.2% perpetration of violence. There was a significant overlap across violence types, with some shared correlates across the groups such as being younger and male. Witnessing violence in the past year was associated with current common mental disorders (CMD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Proximal perpetration was associated with current CMD, PTSD symptoms and past 12 months drug use; whereas proximal victimisation was associated with lifetime and past 12 months drug use. Lifetime exposure to two or more types of violence was associated with increased risk for all mental health outcomes, suggesting a cumulative effect. Exposure to violence needs to be examined in a multi-faceted manner: i) as discrete distal and proximal events, which may have distinct patterns of association with mental health and ii) as a concept with different but overlapping dimensions, thus also accounting for possible cumulative effects.

  3. Investigating Exposure to Violence and Mental Health in a Diverse Urban Community Sample: Data from the South East London Community Health (SELCoH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kadra, Giouliana; Dean, Kimberlie; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L.

    2014-01-01

    Background General population surveys have seldom examined violence as a multidimensional concept and in relation to an array of mental disorders. Methods Data from the South East London Community Health Study was used to examine the prevalence, overlap and distribution of proximal witnessed, victimised and perpetrated violence and their association with current mental disorders. We further investigated the cumulative effect of lifetime exposure to violence on current mental disorders. Unadjusted and adjusted (for confounders and violence) models were examined. Results In the last twelve months, 7.4% reported witnessing violence, 6.3% victimisation and 3.2% perpetration of violence. There was a significant overlap across violence types, with some shared correlates across the groups such as being younger and male. Witnessing violence in the past year was associated with current common mental disorders (CMD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Proximal perpetration was associated with current CMD, PTSD symptoms and past 12 months drug use; whereas proximal victimisation was associated with lifetime and past 12 months drug use. Lifetime exposure to two or more types of violence was associated with increased risk for all mental health outcomes, suggesting a cumulative effect. Conclusion Exposure to violence needs to be examined in a multi-faceted manner: i) as discrete distal and proximal events, which may have distinct patterns of association with mental health and ii) as a concept with different but overlapping dimensions, thus also accounting for possible cumulative effects. PMID:24691206

  4. Community Perspectives: Mixed-Methods Investigation of Culture, Stress, Resilience, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Jones, Felica; Roubinov, Danielle; Tsai, Sid; Jones, Loretta; Lu, Michael; Hobel, Calvin

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented ethnic and socioeconomic disparities, our understanding of child, maternal and family health is based disproportionately on White middle-class populations in the United States. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded the Community Child Health Network (CCHN) in 2004, a partnership of five academic institutions and community organizations, to collaborate in the design and conduct of a study to foster new understandings of these disparities. Reported here are findings from a pilot study conducted at one site to inform CCHN regarding community views of stress, coping resources, family and health. Mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) interviews were conducted with 54 adult participants recruited from public healthcare clinics to obtain both their self-reports and their reports of their communities' perspectives. Findings include the pervasiveness of experiences of racism and gender differences in support seeking and coping behavior. There was little recognition of some common health conditions, such as low birth weight and preterm birth, which disproportionately affect poor and minority communities. Many indicators of strength and resilience in individuals, families, and the communities at large emerged in these interviews. Communities were described as valuing achievement and upward mobility. Participants also indicated an intuitive understanding of effective parenting and of the roles of nature (genetics) and nurture (environment and behavior) in determining child health. The results inform intervention and stress research in underrepresented communities. PMID:20629246

  5. Investigating Choice Experiments for Preferences of Older People (ICEPOP): evaluative spaces in health economics.

    PubMed

    Coast, Joanna; Flynn, Terry; Sutton, Eileen; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Vosper, Jane; Lavender, Sarita; Louviere, Jordan; Peters, Tim

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with three concerns about the evaluative framework that is currently dominant within health economics. These concerns are: that the evaluative framework is concerned entirely with health; that the evaluative framework has an individualistic focus on patients alone; and that the methods used to estimate 'health' within the current evaluative framework could be improved both in terms of the generation of descriptive systems and in using valuation methods that rely less on people's ability to express their preferences on a cardinal scale. In exploring these issues the Investigating Choice Experiments for Preferences of Older People (ICEPOP) programme has explicitly focused on both the topic of older people and the methods of discrete choice experiments. A capability index has been developed and attributes for an economic measure of end-of-life care are currently being generated, providing the possibility of extending the evaluative framework beyond health alone. A measure of carer's experience and a framework for extending measurement in end-of-life care to loved ones are both also in development, thus extending the evaluative framework beyond the patient alone. Rigorous qualitative methods employing an iterative approach have been developed for use in constructing attributes, and best-worst scaling has been utilized to reduce task complexity and provide insights into heterogeneity. There are a number of avenues for further research in all these areas, but in particular there is need for greater attention to be paid to the theory underlying the evaluative framework within health economics.

  6. Qualities of life, educational level and human development: an international investigation of health.

    PubMed

    Skevington, Suzanne M

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health-related quality of life (QoL), educational level and culture, using a high quality cross-cultural generic measure (WHOQOL-BREF) containing 25 international dimensions organised in physical, psychological, social and environmental domains. Cross-cultural data from 9,404 sick and well adults in 13 countries showed that environmental QoL increased positively and sequentially from no education to tertiary education. The other three domains increased only up to secondary school level. These MANCOVA results were significantly influenced by health status, age, culture and economic development level. More positive feelings, less dependence on medication and treatment, better perceptions of financial resources, physical environment, and opportunities for information and skills, represent adult QoL advantages to those who received tertiary education compared with secondary schooling. Developing countries reported poorer environmental, psychological and physical QoL than developed countries, although social QoL was good, and no different for the two development bands. Only psychological QoL distinguished between every educational level, in developing countries. Increased positive feelings serve to link better mental health with more education. Across each domain, secondary and tertiary education was associated with better QoL in developing countries. The results support a QoL case for universal secondary education on which better health and health care may be built.

  7. Investigating the mental health and coping strategies of parents with major thalassemic children in Bandar Abbas.

    PubMed

    Dadipoor, Sakineh; Haghighi, Hamid; Madani, Abdoulhhossain; Ghanbarnejad, Amin; Shojaei, Fatemeh; Hesam, Aliakbar; Moradabadi, Ali Safari

    2015-01-01

    Major thalassemia is a hereditary, chronic blood disease caused by the synthesis deficiency of one or more polypeptide chains of globin during childhood. This leads to the rise of blood pressure and family tensions. Therefore, the coping strategies of the family could seriously affect and facilitate the thalassemic child's healthy growth. The present research sought to investigate the mental health and coping strategies of families with major thalassemic children in Bandar Abbas in 2013. This study is of a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional type. Research population consisted of 140 parents of major thalassemic children who visited Shahid Mohammadi Hospital of Bandar Abbas. The instruments used were the 12-item General Health Questionnaire of Goldberg and Williams along with the coping strategies questionnaire. Nonprobabilistic, convenient sampling method was used. To analyze the data, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Chi-square and descriptive statistical tests were used. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Data analysis showed that parents' mental health (32 ± 4.25) along with their coping strategy scores (45 ± 7.50) was about the average. The most prevalent coping strategies among the parents were represented as: "I trust in God in order to get my problems solved" (87%), "to get mentally and spiritually relieved, I would visit mosques and holy shrines" (53%), and "to overcome problems, I make harder attempts" (50.7%). A significant correlation was found between the parents' coping strategies and general health (P < 0.001). A significant correlation was also observed between mother's educational level (P = 0.044), age (P = 0.022) and general health. According to the results of this research, it is categorical for the ministry of health and medical education and those in charge to pay special and adequate attention to the social, spiritual, and mental health of these children and their families.

  8. Investigation of lifestyle choices of individuals following a vegan diet for health and ethical reasons.

    PubMed

    Radnitz, Cynthia; Beezhold, Bonnie; DiMatteo, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The proportion of individuals choosing to follow a vegan diet has increased in recent years. The choice is made for different reasons, primarily concern for animals (ethics) and health, which may impact both specific food choices and other lifestyle behaviors linked to health outcomes. To determine the extent to which the reason for following a vegan diet was associated with health behaviors, we conducted an online survey recruiting an international sample of 246 individuals who reported adhering to a vegan diet. We hypothesized that compared to those following the diet for ethical reasons, those doing so for health reasons would consume foods with higher nutritional value and engage in other healthier lifestyle behaviors. Our hypotheses were partially supported in that those citing health reasons (n = 45) reported eating more fruit (U = 3503.00, p = 0.02) and fewer sweets (U = 3347.00, p <0.01) than did those citing ethical reasons (n = 201). Individuals endorsing ethical reasons reported being on the diet longer (U = 3137.00, p <0.01), and more frequent consumption of soy (U = 2936.00, p <0.01), foods rich in vitamin D (U = 3441.00, p = 0.01), high-polyphenol beverages (U = 3124.50, p <0.01), and vitamin supplements (vitamin D: χ(2)=4.65, p = 0.04; vitamin B12: χ(2)=4.46, p = 0.03) than did those endorsing health reasons. As these factors may affect outcome in studies investigating the impact of vegan diets on health, they should be taken into account when studying persons following a vegan diet.

  9. Health-risk Behaviors in Teens Investigated by US Child Welfare Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Heneghan, Amy; Stein, Ruth E.K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine prevalence and correlates of health-risk behaviors in 12–17.5 year olds investigated by child welfare and compare risk-taking over time and with a national school-based sample. Methods Data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) were analyzed to examine substance use, sexual activity, conduct behaviors, and suicidality. In a weighted sample of 815 adolescents aged 12–17.5 years, prevalence and correlates for each health-risk behavior were calculated using bivariate analyses. Comparisons to data from NSCAW I and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey were made for each health-risk behavior. Results Overall, 65.6% of teens reported at least one health-risk behavior with significantly more teens in the 15–17.5 year age group reporting such behaviors (81.2% vs 54.4%, p≤0.001). Almost 75% of teens with a prior out-of-home placement and 77% of teens with CBCL scores ≥ 64 reported at least one health-risk behavior. The prevalence of smoking was lower than in NSCAW I (10.5% vs. 23.2%, p ≤0.05) as was that of sexual activity (18.0% vs. 28.8%, p≤0.05). Prevalence of health-risk behaviors was lower among older teens in the NSCAW II sample (n=358) compared to the 2011 YRBS high school-based sample with the exception of suicidality, which was approximately 1.5 times higher (11.3% (95% CI: 6.5%, 19.0%) vs 7.8% (95% CI: 7.1%, 8.5%)). Conclusion Health-risk behaviors in this population of vulnerable teens are highly prevalent. Early efforts for screening and interventions should be part of routine CWS monitoring. PMID:25744208

  10. Investigating the mental health and coping strategies of parents with major thalassemic children in Bandar Abbas

    PubMed Central

    Dadipoor, Sakineh; Haghighi, Hamid; Madani, Abdoulhhossain; Ghanbarnejad, Amin; Shojaei, Fatemeh; Hesam, Aliakbar; Moradabadi, Ali Safari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Major thalassemia is a hereditary, chronic blood disease caused by the synthesis deficiency of one or more polypeptide chains of globin during childhood. This leads to the rise of blood pressure and family tensions. Therefore, the coping strategies of the family could seriously affect and facilitate the thalassemic child's healthy growth. The present research sought to investigate the mental health and coping strategies of families with major thalassemic children in Bandar Abbas in 2013. Materials and Methods: This study is of a descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional type. Research population consisted of 140 parents of major thalassemic children who visited Shahid Mohammadi Hospital of Bandar Abbas. The instruments used were the 12-item General Health Questionnaire of Goldberg and Williams along with the coping strategies questionnaire. Nonprobabilistic, convenient sampling method was used. To analyze the data, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Chi-square and descriptive statistical tests were used. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: Data analysis showed that parents’ mental health (32 ± 4.25) along with their coping strategy scores (45 ± 7.50) was about the average. The most prevalent coping strategies among the parents were represented as: “I trust in God in order to get my problems solved” (87%), “to get mentally and spiritually relieved, I would visit mosques and holy shrines” (53%), and “to overcome problems, I make harder attempts” (50.7%). A significant correlation was found between the parents’ coping strategies and general health (P < 0.001). A significant correlation was also observed between mother's educational level (P = 0.044), age (P = 0.022) and general health. Discussion and Conclusion: According to the results of this research, it is categorical for the ministry of health and medical education and those in charge to pay special and adequate attention to the social, spiritual, and mental

  11. Update on human health effects of boron.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Watershed Health Assessment Tools Investigating Fisheries WHAT IF Version 2: A Manager’s Guide to New Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CVI Watershed Health Assessment Tool Investigating Fisheries, WHAT IF version 2, currently contains five components: Regional Prioritization Tool, Hydrologic Tool, Clustering Tool, Habitat Suitability Tool, BASS model

  13. The dramatic dehospitalization of health services is a prerequisite for a sustainable and effective health system.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Using the general precepts of integration, Lean thinking, and patient centredness, this article highlights the potential for dramatic dehospitalization of health services as a prerequisite for a sustainable and effective health system.

  14. About the Associate Director for Health of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dr. Ronald Hines serves as Associate Director for Health for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD).

  15. Report on health and environmental effects of increased coal utilization*

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    major areas of uncertainty and concern requiring further investigation if the nation is to minimize undesirable consequences of increased coal utilization now, and in the future. Two critical health issues of concern are air pollution health effects and coal mine worker health and safety. Two critical environmental issues are global effects of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and acid fallout. Two additional important issues of concern are trace elements in the environment and reclamation of arid land. Finally, because of the inadequate data and methodology used in the study of these matters, the Committee strongly recommended the establishment of an improved national environmental data collection, modeling and monitoring system. PMID:6775943

  16. Investigating the early-life determinants of illness in Africa: the Drakenstein Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Zar, H J; Barnett, W; Myer, L; Stein, D J; Nicol, M P

    2015-06-01

    Respiratory disease is the predominant cause of illness in children globally. We describe a unique multidisciplinary South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), to investigate the incidence, risk factors, aetiology and long-term impact of early lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) on child health. Pregnant women from a poor, peri-urban community with high exposure to infectious diseases and environmental risk factors are enrolled with 1000 mother-child pairs followed for at least 5 years. Biomedical, environmental, psychosocial and demographic risk factors are longitudinally measured. Environmental exposures are measured using monitors placed at home visits. Lung function is measured in children at 6 weeks, annually and during LRTI episodes. Microbiological investigations including microbiome and multiplex PCR measures are done longitudinally and at LRTI episodes. The DCHS is a unique African birth cohort study that uses sophisticated measures to comprehensively investigate the early-life determinants of child health in an impoverished area of the world. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Effects of multidimensional child poverty on children's mental health in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunkai; Yin, Xican; Jiang, Shan

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of multidimensional child poverty on children's mental health in Mainland China. The data were based on a survey of children in 2015 conducted by multi-stage cluster random sampling method in Xiushui, where levels of poverty are very high. Structural equation model was adopted to analyze the data and test the hypothesized model. Results showed that multidimensional child poverty had a significant effect on both negative mental health and positive mental health of children, and the seven indicators of multidimensional child poverty all had slightly different effects on children's mental health.

  18. Exposure to the airborne mould Botrytis and its health effects.

    PubMed

    Jurgensen, Claudia Wurtz; Madsen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations into the correlation between exposure to fungi and detrimental health effects focus on the 2-4 most prevalent genera in ambient air, both outdoors and indoors. Yet over 80 genera of fungi have been shown to have allergenic potential. Also, there is no agreement about threshold values for exposure to fungi. One of the fungal genera expected to be less prevalent in ambient air and known to cause allergy is Botrytis. In this review, we investigate the airborne exposure level and health effect of Botrytis, both at general exposure and in occupational settings. The surveyed papers show that Botrytis is found globally with different spore seasons depending on the region investigated. The levels of Botrytis in the percentage of all fungi have a calculated median of around 1.1% in the different environments, confirming that it is among the less prevalent fungi. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients and workers are allergic to Botrytis cinerea, and when B. cinerea was included in extended test panels additional allergic patients were found. Thus, B. cinerea is as important as the more prevalent mould genera Cladosporium and Alternaria and we suggest that it should be included in standard allergic tests panels.

  19. Applying the 15 Public Health Emergency Preparedness Capabilities to Support Large-Scale Tuberculosis Investigations in Complex Congregate Settings.

    PubMed

    Levy, Alison Jaffe; Toren, Katelynne Gardner; Elsenboss, Carina; Narita, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    Public Health-Seattle and King County, a metropolitan health department in western Washington, experiences rates of tuberculosis (TB) that are 1.6 times higher than are state and national averages. The department's TB Control Program uses public health emergency management tools and capabilities sustained with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grant funding to manage large-scale complex case investigations. We have described 3 contact investigations in large congregate settings that the TB Control Program conducted in 2015 and 2016. The program managed the investigations using public health emergency management tools, with support from the Preparedness Program. The 3 investigations encompassed medical evaluation of more than 1600 people, used more than 100 workers, identified nearly 30 individuals with latent TB infection, and prevented an estimated 3 cases of active disease. These incidents exemplify how investments in public health emergency preparedness can enhance health outcomes in traditional areas of public health.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Health Coaching: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Hale, Rachel; Giese, Jeannie

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate published literature to distinguish how health coaching influences the cost of chronic disease management in insured adults with chronic conditions. An integrated literature review was conducted. MEDLINE, Business Source Complete, and OneSearch were searched for the years 2001-2016 utilizing the following key words: health coaching, health coaching AND insurance companies, health coaching AND cost, health coaching AND health insurance, and health coaching AND insurance cost. A total of 67 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed for applicability. Of those, 27 articles were found to be relevant to the research question. The practice settings of these articles are mostly primary care and wellness programs. Throughout the literature, health coaching has been found effective in chronic disease management such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of health coaching are limited. The current literature does not clearly demonstrate that health coaching lowers expenditures and patient copayments in the short term but projects future savings. Health coaching has the potential to improve chronic disease management and lower health care expenditures. Further long-term research is needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health coaching. It has been projected that the cost-effectiveness of health coaching will be long-term or over 12 months after initiating the health coaching program.

  1. Ole Taeao Afua, the new morning: a qualitative investigation into Samoan perspectives on mental health and culturally appropriate services.

    PubMed

    Tamasese, Kiwi; Peteru, Carmel; Waldegrave, Charles; Bush, Allister

    2005-04-01

    The first objective was to develop a culturally appropriate research method to investigate Samoan perspectives on mental health issues. The second objective was to apply this to identify cultural values and understandings important in the care and treatment of Samoan people with mental health problems. Gender-specific focus groups consisting of Samoan elders and service providers were facilitated by Samoan researchers in the Samoan language. Systematic analysis of the transcripts, adapted to the cultural context, were conducted in Samoan and later translated into English. A culturally derived method, referred to as Fa'afaletui, reflecting Samoan communal values and familiar institutional structures within the community, allowed each focus group to come to a consensual view on issues discussed. The Samoan self was identified as an essential concept for understanding Samoan views of mental health. This self was described as a relational self and mental wellness as a state of relational harmony, where personal elements of spiritual, mental and physical are in balance. Mental ill health was sometimes linked to breaches of forbidden and sacred relationships, which could be addressed effectively only within protocols laid down in the culture. Additional stressors contributing to mental ill-health were identified as low income, unemployment, rising housing costs and the marginalization of Samoan cultural norms in New Zealand. Participants identified the need for a culturally based mental health service for Samoan people to address key cultural factors. The Fa'afaletui method is a new research method which is sensitive and responsive to Samoan cultural norms and is methodologically rigorous. Such an approach may be relevant for other Pacific Island cultures and other cultures, which have a strong emphasis on collectivity. The Samoan concept of self provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the mental health needs of Samoan people and a basis for developing

  2. Hydrogen cyanide health effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, B.L.; Baker, L.H.; Herndon, B.L.; Ellis, H.V. III; Horn, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Health effects literature primarily related to inhalation exposures to hydrogen cyanide was collected, evaluated, tabulated and summarized. Approximately 170 documents were collected from computerized and manual literature searches covering the period 1899-1981. Pharmacologists and an M.D. epidemiologist rated the documents according to their applicability to the study and their methodology. The approximately 20 documents considered useful for deriving a range of concern for human exposure to hydrogen cyanide from automotive emissions were tabulated. The 25 pages of tables detail the results of acute and repeated dose testing of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, monkeys, dogs, goats, donkeys and humans as well as human occupational studies. Most of the documents evaluated are described in an annotated bibliography.

  3. Investigating Mumps Outbreak in Odisha, India: An Opportunity to Assess the Health System by Utilizing the Essential Public Health Services Framework.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sourabh; Mahajan, Preetam B; Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Bhatia, Vikas; Subba, Sonu H

    2017-05-01

    AbstractMumps, a highly contagious, viral disease continues to spread in India, despite the availability of an effective vaccine. On November 24, 2014, we came across a suspected case of mumps in a 6-year-old boy in a village of Bhusandapur sector in Odisha. We initiated an outbreak investigation using standard techniques outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. This uncovered a silent epidemic of 94 case patients (10% of the population) over a period of 16 weeks between August and December 2014, in a single village, which had gone completely unnoticed by the existing health-care system. Since the index case was one of the last case patients of the outbreak, investigation for immediate control was not a priority. Hence, we have used this exercise to describe the outbreak and identify causes that led to its nondetection. Age range of the case patients was between 2 and 40 years; 85 (90.4%) case patients were ≤ 15 years of age and 54 (57.4%) were females. Average duration of illness was 9 days. No child had received the mumps vaccine. The outbreak had led to a community expenditure of 538 USD. The exercise uncovered a number of weak links in the essential public health services within the health-care delivery system in the area.

  4. Public Health Effects of Inadequately Managed Stormwater Runoff

    PubMed Central

    Gaffield, Stephen J.; Goo, Robert L.; Richards, Lynn A.; Jackson, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated the scale of the public health risk from stormwater runoff caused by urbanization. Methods. We compiled turbidity data for municipal treated drinking water as an indication of potential risk in selected US cities and compared estimated costs of waterborne disease and preventive measures. Results. Turbidity levels in other US cities were similar to those linked to illnesses in Milwaukee, Wis, and Philadelphia, Pa. The estimated annual cost of waterborne illness is comparable to the long-term capital investment needed for improved drinking water treatment and stormwater management. Conclusions. Although additional data on cost and effectiveness are needed, stormwater management to minimize runoff and associated pollution appears to make sense for protecting public health at the least cost. PMID:12948975

  5. AS 2008: Arsenic exposure a nd health effects in Inner Mongolia: studies on cardiac, diabetes and cancer-related effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water has been of great public health concern world wide. Arsenic exposure has been associated with human cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate health effects of arsenic and to asses...

  6. AS 2008: Arsenic exposure a nd health effects in Inner Mongolia: studies on cardiac, diabetes and cancer-related effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water has been of great public health concern world wide. Arsenic exposure has been associated with human cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate health effects of arsenic and to asses...

  7. How physical therapists can strategically effect health outcomes for older adults with limited health literacy.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Katherine; Hawthorne, Kelly; Frownfelter, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Patient education is the physical therapist's key in guiding patients to a healthier future. When considering patient education, it is important to note that barriers such as limited health literacy can alter the effectiveness of teaching strategies. Health literacy is the ability to comprehend health information and use that information to make informed decisions about one's health and medical care, thus giving individuals the knowledge and skills to optimally function and navigate in the health care environment. While millions of Americans have marginalized literacy skills, older adults aged 65 years and older represent the largest group with compromised general literacy skills in the United States, which significantly contribute to limited health literacy skills. Limited health literacy can have negative consequences on health outcomes due to a lack of knowledge of healthy lifestyle choices, preventative services, disease etiology and management, being able to locate and access appropriate health care services, and carrying out self-care tasks. In addition, limited health literacy increases the risk of hospitalization, the overall cost of health care, and mortality rates. This article includes (1) the definition of health literacy, (2) the prevalence and consequences of limited health literacy, (3) signs of limited health literacy, (4) health literacy screening and assessment tools, (5) intervention strategies, and (6) implications for physical therapist education. PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EBSCOHost were searched for articles published from 1990 to 2010 with the descriptors: health literacy, older adults, patient education, functional health literacy, health literacy outcomes, health literacy assessment, and health literacy interventions. Limited health literacy affects millions of Americans and plays a significant role in reduced health outcomes for patients. Through patient education and targeted intervention strategies, physical therapists can assist

  8. Investigation of optimum roasting conditions to obtain possible health benefit supplement, antioxidants from coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    In order to investigate the role of roasting conditions in antioxidant formation, methanol and hot water extracts from Robusta coffee beans roasted for various lengths of time and at various temperatures were analyzed for total phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine content, as well as for their antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and malonaldehyde/gas chromatography (MA/GC) assays. The amount of total phenolics in methanol extracts decreased linearly over the roasting temperature from 63.51 ± 0.77 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent (CAE)/g coffee beans (roasted at 200°C) to 42.56 ± 0.33 mg CAE/g coffee beans (roasted at 240°C). The total chlorogenic acid content decreased when the roasting time was increased from 78.33 ± 1.41 mg/g (green coffee beans) to 4.31 ± 0.23 mg/g (roasted for 16 min at 250°C). All methanol extracts from roasted coffee beans possessed over 90% antioxidant activities in the DPPH assay. The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts ranged from 41.38 ± 1.77% (roasted at 250°C for 10 min) to 98.20 ± 1.49% (roasted at 230°C for 16 min) as tested by the TBA assay. The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of green coffee beans and roasted coffee beans ranged from 93.01% (green coffee beans) to 98.62 ± 1.32% (roasted at 250°C for 14 min) in the MA/GC assays. All hot water extracts exhibited moderate pro-oxidant activities in TBA and MA/GC assays. The results indicated that roasting conditions of coffee beans play an important role in the formation of antioxidants in brewed coffee, which can be dietary supplements having beneficial effect to human health.

  9. Mental health promotion of Iranian university students: the effect of self-esteem and health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Moshki, M; Amiri, M; Khosravan, S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of self-esteem and health control belief on promoting students' mental health. In so doing, 144 students from two medical universities in the north-east of Iran were recruited into study. They were pair-matched and randomly assigned to case and control groups. The data were collected through Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire-28, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scales. The results showed that there were significant differences between the groups before and after the intervention. The external components of health locus of control (chance and powerful others) showed a significant decrease but the internal health locus of control and self-esteem revealed a significant increase after the intervention (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the students' mental health had a significant increase after 3 months of intervention (P < 0.0001). The findings emphasize that the programme can improve the health locus of control beliefs, self-esteem and mental health promotion of the students. This will require additional monitoring and uninterrupted attempts to be effective. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  10. [Investigation and strategy research of eye disease prevention resources in community health service centers in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    He, Jiangnan; Zou, Haidong; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; Lu, Lina

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the status of eye disease prevention resources in community health service centers, to understand the distribution of ophthalmology service resources in each community, and to understand the main problems existing in the work of blindness prevention and treatment in Shanghai, so as to strengthen the prevention of blindness and improve the primary eye care level. Using the survey method, we carried out the investigation of disease control and prevention resources in all community health service centers to obtain the data of eye disease prevention and treatment resources. Using the descriptive statistics, we described the distribution of resources of eye disease prevention and treatment in different districts. There were 244 communities in 17 districts and counties in Shanghai, of which 236 (96.72%) communities participated in the survey and completed the questionnaires. Forty-nine (20.8%) communities had independent outpatient departments of ophthalmology, 96 (40.7%) had departments of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology, 33 (14%) had ophthalmology doctor visits from secondary or tertiary medical institutions, and 87 (36.9%) had no outpatient department of ophthalmology. There were 82 oculists, 129 general or otorhinolaryngology doctors treating eye disease, 9 ophthalmic nurses, and 1 optometrist. There were 36 specialized personnel for public health of eye protection and 217 part-time personnel. Moreover, there were a total of 1 103 pieces of ophthalmic equipment in all communities with the use rate of 91%. Uneven ophthalmology resources and eye care professional ability in community health service centers, lack of technical and public health personnel for prevention of eye disease, backward eye disease screening equipment, and inadequate investment in prevention and treatment of eye disease are major problems. More government supports for prevention and treatment of eye disease in communities and continuous improvement in three-level blindness

  11. Plasma effects on Heliac configurations: a preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Mondt, J.P.

    1983-08-01

    Plasma effects on equilibrium, stability, and transport properties of helical stellarators with a hardcore current through the center (Heliac) are investigated, mainly analytically and with an emphasis on understanding the underlying physics and rough scaling rather than on accuracy and completeness. The presently reported results provide a focus in parameter space for further detailed research on the feasibility of the Heliac concept, as well as some tools with which to carry out such investigations.

  12. Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health.

    PubMed

    Kundi, Michael; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2009-08-01

    Studying effects of mobile phone base station signals on health have been discouraged by authoritative bodies like WHO International EMF Project and COST 281. WHO recommended studies around base stations in 2003 but again stated in 2006 that studies on cancer in relation to base station exposure are of low priority. As a result only few investigations of effects of base station exposure on health and wellbeing exist. Cross-sectional investigations of subjective health as a function of distance or measured field strength, despite differences in methods and robustness of study design, found indications for an effect of exposure that is likely independent of concerns and attributions. Experimental studies applying short-term exposure to base station signals gave various results, but there is weak evidence that UMTS and to a lesser degree GSM signals reduce wellbeing in persons that report to be sensitive to such exposures. Two ecological studies of cancer in the vicinity of base stations report both a strong increase of incidence within a radius of 350 and 400m respectively. Due to the limitations inherent in this design no firm conclusions can be drawn, but the results underline the urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of this issue. Animal and in vitro studies are inconclusive to date. An increased incidence of DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats at a SAR of 1.4W/kg in one experiment could not be replicated in a second trial. Indications of oxidative stress after low-level in vivo exposure of rats could not be supported by in vitro studies of human fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells. From available evidence it is impossible to delineate a threshold below which no effect occurs, however, given the fact that studies reporting low exposure were invariably negative it is suggested that power densities around 0.5-1mW/m(2) must be exceeded in order to observe an effect. The meager data base must be extended in the coming years. The difficulties of investigating

  13. Challenges faced by multidisplinary new investigators on addressing grand challenges in global health.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen; Dimaras, Helen; Fortin, Anny; Ramón-García, Santiago

    2014-04-15

    The grand challenges approach aims to spark innovative and transformative strategies to overcome barriers to significant global health issues. Grand Challenges Canada endorses an 'Integrated Innovation™' approach that focuses on the intersection of scientific/technological, social and business innovation. In this article we explore themes emerging from a dialogue between the authors, who are multidisciplinary recipients of the 'Rising Stars in Global Health' award from Grand Challenges Canada, regarding benefits of engaging in integrated innovation research, and recommendations for how this approach may develop in the future. Our dialogue followed a semi-structured interview format that addressed three topics: 1) reflections on applying an Integrated Innovation™ approach for global health; 2) thoughts on participation in the Grand Challenges 2012 meeting; and 3) authors' visions of Grand Challenges Canada and the Grand Challenge movement towards 2020. The dialogue was transcribed verbatim and we used thematic analysis techniques to identify, analyze and report themes in the data. Benefits of working using the Grand Challenges approach centered on two themes: a) the potential for scientific breakthrough and b) building interdisciplinary collaborations and a community of scholars. Challenges and opportunities for Grand Challenges in moving forward included: a) capacity building, particularly regarding Integrated Innovation™ and scale-up planning; b) interdisciplinary and international mentorship for new investigators; and c) potential for future commercialization. Our discussion highlighted that Integrated Innovation™ offers the opportunity to develop new theories, methods and approaches to global health while simultaneously fostering a collaborative spirit grounded in international, interdisciplinary collaborations. However, the arguable over-emphasis on corporatization poses a major challenge for new investigators. We propose a more balanced way forward

  14. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make...

  15. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make...

  16. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make...

  17. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make...

  18. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims... adverse health effects associated with each of the chemicals claimed as trade secret and shall make...

  19. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  20. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  1. International program on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kreisel, W

    1995-05-01

    The International Program on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991. Currently, the technical part of IPHECA consists of five projects addressing the following areas of priority health problems or needs: thyroid, hematology, brain damage in utero, epidemiological registry and oral health. Important findings are: 1) a significant increase of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus and Ukraine since 1989, and in Russia since 1992 though not so pronounced. A relationship between detected thyroid cancers and radiation exposure is yet to be established, 2) no increase yet in the incidence of hemoblastoses in the three States, 3) no relationship established between mental retardation and radiation exposure in utero in 4,500 children investigated. The importance of dosimetry and biological indicators of radiation damage has been recognized by IPHECA. Several methods of biological and physical dosimetry are being employed using instrumentation provided by IPHECA. Some preliminary results indicate: 1) unstable aberrations can indicate an integral exposure but it is heavily biased to recent exposures, 2) when comparing healthy persons and patients with hematological diseases in contaminated areas, there is a higher ratio of total aberrations compared to their background and that the level of stable is lower than unstable aberrations, and 3) by applying electron spin resonance (ESR) it has been shown that the individual distribution of doses approaches a log-normal one, especially for adults, and that a peak shift towards higher doses is noticeable for children.

  2. [The effect of coping and appraisal for coping on mental health and later coping].

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Masahiro; Aikawa, Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effect of coping and appraisal for coping on mental health and later coping in two longitudinal studies. In Study 1 (Time 1: n = 342, Time 2: n = 367) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and assumed coping. In Study 2 (Time 1: n = 161, Time 2: n = 154) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and later coping. The results indicated that coping and coping for appraisal affected mental health and later coping. However, the influence of the coping for appraisal was more limited than selected coping.

  3. Questioning context: a set of interdisciplinary questions for investigating contextual factors affecting health decision making

    PubMed Central

    Charise, Andrea; Witteman, Holly; Whyte, Sarah; Sutton, Erica J.; Bender, Jacqueline L.; Massimi, Michael; Stephens, Lindsay; Evans, Joshua; Logie, Carmen; Mirza, Raza M.; Elf, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To combine insights from multiple disciplines into a set of questions that can be used to investigate contextual factors affecting health decision making. Background  Decision‐making processes and outcomes may be shaped by a range of non‐medical or ‘contextual’ factors particular to an individual including social, economic, political, geographical and institutional conditions. Research concerning contextual factors occurs across many disciplines and theoretical domains, but few conceptual tools have attempted to integrate and translate this wide‐ranging research for health decision‐making purposes. Methods  To formulate this tool we employed an iterative, collaborative process of scenario development and question generation. Five hypothetical health decision‐making scenarios (preventative, screening, curative, supportive and palliative) were developed and used to generate a set of exploratory questions that aim to highlight potential contextual factors across a range of health decisions. Findings  We present an exploratory tool consisting of questions organized into four thematic domains – Bodies, Technologies, Place and Work (BTPW) – articulating wide‐ranging contextual factors relevant to health decision making. The BTPW tool encompasses health‐related scholarship and research from a range of disciplines pertinent to health decision making, and identifies concrete points of intersection between its four thematic domains. Examples of the practical application of the questions are also provided. Conclusions  These exploratory questions provide an interdisciplinary toolkit for identifying the complex contextual factors affecting decision making. The set of questions comprised by the BTPW tool may be applied wholly or partially in the context of clinical practice, policy development and health‐related research. PMID:21029277

  4. Effects of Health Status and Health Behaviors on Depression Among Married Female Immigrants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung A; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; An, Jisook

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of health status and health behaviors on depression in married female immigrants in South Korea. Sampling 316 immigrant women from the Philippines, Vietnam, China, and other Asian countries, a cross-sectional research design was used with self-report questionnaires that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, health status, health behaviors, and depression. There were significant differences in stillbirth experience, induced abortion, morbidity, perceived health status, meal skipping, and physical activity between depressed and nondepressed immigrant women. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, stillbirth experience, poorer perceived health status, more meal skipping, and less physical activity were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Both health status and health behaviors had significant impacts on depression, suggesting that development of nursing interventions and educational programs should be targeted towards improving maternal health, healthy lifestyle, and subjective health perception to promote married female immigrants' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The effects of public health insurance expansion on private health insurance in urban China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing

    2017-02-08

    The public social health insurance coverage has rapidly increased in China in the last decade. The rapid market development and high economic growth also present an immense opportunity for the private insurance market. This paper uses the China Health and Nutrition Survey panel data and the difference-in-difference method to identify the causal effects of public health insurance expansion on private health insurance development in the case of expansion of the China Urban Residential Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) program. The paper finds private health insurance enrollment is not affected by the introduction and expansion of URBMI. Rather, private health insurance plays supplementary roles. The findings present the challenges and opportunities for public policies to develop and regulate private health insurance to meet the market niches and provide health insurance to the demands of a heterogeneous population. The findings also have broader implications for other developing nations where public health insurance intends to rapidly expand towards the universal health coverage.

  6. Public Health Effects of Medical Marijuana Legalization in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jonathan M.; Mendelson, Bruce; Berkes, Jay J.; Suleta, Katie; Corsi, Karen F.; Booth, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The public health consequences of the legalization of marijuana, whether for medical or recreational purposes, are little understood. Despite this, numerous states are considering medical or recreational legalization. In the context of abrupt changes marijuana policy in 2009 in Colorado, the authors sought to investigate corresponding changes in marijuana-related public health indicators. Methods This observational, ecologic study used an interrupted time-series analysis to identify changes in public health indicators potentially related to broad policy changes that occurred in 2009. This was records-based research from the state of Colorado and Denver metropolitan area. Data were collected to examine frequency and trends of marijuana-related outcomes in hospital discharges and poison center calls between time periods before and after 2009 and adjusted for population. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results Hospital discharges coded as marijuana-dependent increased 1% per month (95% CI=0.8, 1.1, p<0.001) from 2007 to 2013. A change in trend was detected in poison center calls mentioning marijuana (p<0.01). After 2009, poison center calls increased 0.8% per month (95% CI=0.2, 1.4, p<0.01). Poison center calls also increased 56% (95% CI=49%, 63%, p<0.001) in the period following the policy change. Further, there was one hospital discharge coded as dependent for every 3,159 (95% CI=2,465, 3,853, p<0.001) medical marijuana registrant applications. Conclusions The abrupt nature of these changes suggests public health effects related to broad policy changes associated with marijuana. This report may be used to assist in policy decisions regarding the short-term public health effects of marijuana legalization. PMID:26385161

  7. Public Health Effects of Medical Marijuana Legalization in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathan M; Mendelson, Bruce; Berkes, Jay J; Suleta, Katie; Corsi, Karen F; Booth, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    The public health consequences of the legalization of marijuana, whether for medical or recreational purposes, are little understood. Despite this, numerous states are considering medical or recreational legalization. In the context of abrupt changes in marijuana policy in 2009 in Colorado, the authors sought to investigate corresponding changes in marijuana-related public health indicators. This observational, ecologic study used an interrupted time-series analysis to identify changes in public health indicators potentially related to broad policy changes that occurred in 2009. This was records-based research from the state of Colorado and Denver metropolitan area. Data were collected to examine frequency and trends of marijuana-related outcomes in hospital discharges and poison center calls between time periods before and after 2009 and adjusted for population. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Hospital discharges coded as marijuana-dependent increased 1% per month (95% CI=0.8, 1.1, p<0.001) from 2007 to 2013. A change in trend was detected in poison center calls mentioning marijuana (p<0.01). After 2009, poison center calls increased 0.8% per month (95% CI=0.2, 1.4, p<0.01). Poison center calls also increased 56% (95% CI=49%, 63%, p<0.001) in the period following the policy change. Further, there was one hospital discharge coded as dependent for every 3,159 (95% CI=2465, 3853, p<0.001) medical marijuana registrant applications. The abrupt nature of these changes suggests public health effects related to broad policy changes associated with marijuana. This report may be used to assist in policy decisions regarding the short-term public health effects of marijuana legalization. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation on the role of consumer health orientation in the use of food labels.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, A; De Marchi, E; Banterle, A

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between health orientation (i.e. individual motivation to engage in healthy attitudes, beliefs and behaviours) and consumers' use of nutritional information on food labels. Specifically, this study analysed the relationship between a number of direct investments in health (namely those behaviours that can contribute directly to maintain a good health status) and use of nutritional information on food labels. Data for the analysis were collected through face-to-face interviews with a sample of 540 Italian consumers in charge of their grocery shopping. Forty grocery stores, including supermarkets and hypermarkets, were selected using a systematic sampling technique. Data were analysed using three equations and accounting for endogeneity issues. This study found that those consumer groups with low health orientation (specifically smokers, those who do not exercise regularly, and those with an unhealthy body weight) show little interest in nutritional labels. Nutritional labels as a tool to promote healthier food choices have a limited effect on those consumers in greatest need of pursuing healthier lifestyle habits. Alternative policy intervention should be undertaken to reach these consumer groups. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mediating Effects of Stalking Victimization on Gender Differences in Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter; Dressing, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that stalking victimization may have a serious mental health impact. The present article investigates gender differences in mental health and possible mediating effects of stalking victimization in a community sample. The study includes a postal survey of 665 German community residents on the experience of stalking and various…

  10. Effects of Nutrition Health Intervention on Pupils' Nutrition Knowledge and Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of nutrition health intervention on pupils' nutrition knowledge and eating habits from grade seven to grade nine. The study was part of the ENHPS (since 2008, Schools for Health in Europe (SHE)) program in Finland, and more specifically its sub-project titled "From Puijo to the…

  11. Mediating Effects of Stalking Victimization on Gender Differences in Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter; Dressing, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that stalking victimization may have a serious mental health impact. The present article investigates gender differences in mental health and possible mediating effects of stalking victimization in a community sample. The study includes a postal survey of 665 German community residents on the experience of stalking and various…

  12. Patient health communication mediating effects between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To investigate the effects of patient health communication regarding their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to their health care providers and significant others in their daily life as a mediator in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients. ...

  13. Effects of Nutrition Health Intervention on Pupils' Nutrition Knowledge and Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of nutrition health intervention on pupils' nutrition knowledge and eating habits from grade seven to grade nine. The study was part of the ENHPS (since 2008, Schools for Health in Europe (SHE)) program in Finland, and more specifically its sub-project titled "From Puijo to the…

  14. Physical and Mental Health Trajectories of Cancer Patients and Caregivers Across the Year Post-Diagnosis: A Dyadic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Kelly M.; Kim, Youngmee; Carver, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests interdependence between cancer patients’ and their caregivers’ physical and mental health. However, the extent to which caregivers’ health relates to their patients’ recovery, or patients’ health affects their caregivers’ outcomes, is largely unknown. This dyadic investigation reports the relations between cancer patients’ and their caregivers’ physical and mental health trajectories during the year following diagnosis. Design Ninety-two colorectal cancer patient-caregiver dyads completed questionnaires at two, six, and twelve months post-diagnosis. Outcome Measures Self-reported physical and mental health using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey-12. Results Patients reported improved physical health over the year following their diagnosis, whereas caregivers reported declining physical health. Patients with lower mental health at diagnosis had stagnated physical health recovery. Caregivers’ physical health declined most noticeably among those reporting low mental health at diagnosis and whose patients reported low physical health at diagnosis. Conclusion Findings suggest targeting health interventions to cancer patients and caregivers reporting poor mental health at diagnosis may mitigate their long-term physical morbidity. Limited evidence of dyadic interdependence between patients’ and caregivers’ physical and mental health trajectories suggests future studies are warranted to identify psychosocial and medical characteristics moderating the relations between patients’ and caregivers’ health. PMID:26680247

  15. Health and ergogenic effects of caffeine.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, B H; Kulling, F A

    1989-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of caffeine by people of all ages may present health hazards. The public at large needs to be more informed of the presence of caffeine in commonly consumed foods and beverages, particularly by infants, children and pregnant women. It is the responsibility of all consumers to investigate the caffeine content of suspected products so that intake may be objectively monitored. Although doubts still exist about the efficacy of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, particularly for exercise of high intensity and short duration, the IOC and the National Collegiate Athletic Association of the US have adopted bans on the use of caffeine to aid sport performance. Currently, both of these organizations prohibit the concentration of caffeine in urine to exceed 15 micrograms-ml-1. That is to say, only very large amounts of caffeine are not permitted at present. Additional research is needed to confirm or deny the contraindications presented by the ingestion of caffeine on a chronic basis. PMID:2659130

  16. Investigating the role of state and local health departments in addressing public health concerns related to industrial food animal production sites.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jillian P; Laestadius, Linnea I; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E; Neff, Roni A

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of community health concerns stemming from industrial food animal production (IFAP) facilities continues to accumulate. This study examined the role of local and state health departments in responding to and preventing community-driven concerns associated with IFAP. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with state and county health department staff and community members in eight states with high densities or rapid growth of IFAP operations. We investigated the extent to which health concerns associated with IFAP sites are reported to health departments, the nature of health departments' responses, and barriers to involvement. Health departments' roles in these matters are limited by political barriers, lack of jurisdiction, and finite resources, expertise, and staff. Community members reported difficulties in engaging health departments on these issues. Our investigation suggests that health departments frequently lack resources or jurisdiction to respond to health concerns related to IFAP sites, resulting in limited engagement. Since agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP frequently lack a health focus, increased health department engagement may better protect public health.

  17. Bifidobacteria and Their Health-Promoting Effects.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Delgado, Susana; Ruiz, Lorena; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Sánchez, Borja; Margolles, Abelardo

    2017-06-01

    Bifidobacteria are members of the intestinal microbiota of mammals and other animals, and some strains are able to exert health-promoting effects. The genus Bifidobacterium belongs to the Actinobacteria phylum. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in the human intestinal microbiota, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes being predominant in adults, and Actinobacteria in breast-fed infants, where bifidobacteria can reach levels higher than 90% of the total bacterial population. They are among the first microbial colonizers of the intestines of newborns, and play key roles in the development of their physiology, including maturation of the immune system and use of dietary components. Indeed, some nutrients, such as human milk oligosaccharides, are important drivers of bifidobacterial development. Some Bifidobacterium strains are considered probiotic microorganisms because of their beneficial effects, and they have been included as bioactive ingredients in functional foods, mainly dairy products, as well as in food supplements and pharma products, alone, or together with, other microbes or microbial substrates. Well-documented scientific evidence of their activities is currently available for bifidobacteria-containing preparations in some intestinal and extraintestinal pathologies. In this review, we focus on the role of bifidobacteria as members of the human intestinal microbiota and their use as probiotics in the prevention and treatment of disease.