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Sample records for investments topower plants

  1. Investment and operating costs of binary cycle geothermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, B.; Brugman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Typical investment and operating costs for geothermal power plants employing binary cycle technology and utilizing the heat energy in liquid-dominated reservoirs are discussed. These costs are developed as a function of reservoir temperature. The factors involved in optimizing plant design are discussed. A relationship between the value of electrical energy and the value of the heat energy in the reservoir is suggested.

  2. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty: managing new plant breeding techniques.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline.

  3. Evaluation of Foreign Investment in Power Plants using Real Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper proposes new methods for evaluating foreign investment in power plants under market uncertainty using a real options approach. We suppose a thermal power plant project in a deregulated electricity market. One of our proposed methods is that we calculate the cash flow generated by the project in a reference year using actual market data to incorporate periodic characteristics of energy prices into a yearly cash flow model. We make the stochastic yearly cash flow model with the initial value which is the cash flow in the reference year, and certain trend and volatility. Then we calculate the real options value (ROV) of the project which has abandonment options using the yearly cash flow model. Another our proposed method is that we evaluate foreign currency/domestic currency exchange rate risk by representing ROV in foreign currency as yearly pay off and exchanging it to ROV in domestic currency using a stochastic exchange rate model. We analyze the effect of the heat rate and operation and maintenance costs of the power plant on ROV, and evaluate exchange rate risk through numerical examples. Our proposed method will be useful for the risk management of foreign investment in power plants.

  4. Electric utility power plant choice under investment regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rothwell, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Economists have examined electric utility behavior under an allowed rate of return (ARoR), but little attention has been given to the regulation of generation technology choice. Two financial methods for regulating this investment decision are Allowance for Funds Used During Construction (AFUDC) and Construction Work in Progress (CWIP). The switch from AFUDC to CWIP by federal and state commissions has sparked a national debate. One issue addressed in this study is whether AFUDC or CWIP influenced technology choice. The first chapter reviews policy and compares the present value of returns to the firm under AFUDC with returns under CWIP. Chapter 2 discusses previous studied of electric utility behavior. In the third chapter, a general model is developed in which profit and revenue maximization, and cost minimization, are nested. It incorporates cost uncertainty, as well as AFUDC and CWIP. Chapter 4 estimates cost functions for coal and nuclear capacity with data on 350 units completed between 1965 and 1980. These estimates are used to forecast firm expectations on the mean and variance of power plant costs. Results suggest that while rate-of-return and investment regulation may not have had a great influence on plant choice, policies that change perceived cost uncertainties will have a significant impact on firm behavior.

  5. Conservation investment for rare plants in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Mark W; Smith, Lacy M; Steel, Zachary L

    2013-01-01

    Budgets for species conservation limit actions. Expending resources in areas of high human density is costly and generally considered less likely to succeed. Yet, coastal California contains both a large fraction of narrowly endemic at-risk plant species as well as the state's three largest metropolitan regions. Hence understanding the capacity to protect species along the highly urbanized coast is a conservation priority. We examine at-risk plant populations along California's coastline from San Diego to north of San Francisco to better understand whether there is a relationship between human population density and: i) performance of at-risk plant populations; and ii) conservation spending. Answering these questions can help focus appropriate strategic conservation investment. Rare plant performance was measured using the annualized growth rate estimate between census periods using the California Natural Diversity Database. Human density was estimated using Census Bureau statistics from the year 2000. We found strong evidence for a lack of a relationship between human population density and plant population performance in California's coastal counties. Analyzing US Endangered Species expenditure reports, we found large differences in expenditures among counties, with plants in San Diego County receiving much higher expenditures than other locations. We found a slight positive relationship between expenditures on behalf of endangered species and human density. Together these data support the argument that conservation efforts by protecting habitats within urban environments are not less likely to be successful than in rural areas. Expenditures on behalf of federally listed endangered and threatened plants do not appear to be related to proximity to human populations. Given the evidence of sufficient performance in urban environments, along with a high potential to leverage public support for nature in urban environments, expenditures in these areas appear to be an

  6. Conservation Investment for Rare Plants in Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Smith, Lacy M.; Steel, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    Budgets for species conservation limit actions. Expending resources in areas of high human density is costly and generally considered less likely to succeed. Yet, coastal California contains both a large fraction of narrowly endemic at-risk plant species as well as the state's three largest metropolitan regions. Hence understanding the capacity to protect species along the highly urbanized coast is a conservation priority. We examine at-risk plant populations along California's coastline from San Diego to north of San Francisco to better understand whether there is a relationship between human population density and: i) performance of at-risk plant populations; and ii) conservation spending. Answering these questions can help focus appropriate strategic conservation investment. Rare plant performance was measured using the annualized growth rate estimate between census periods using the California Natural Diversity Database. Human density was estimated using Census Bureau statistics from the year 2000. We found strong evidence for a lack of a relationship between human population density and plant population performance in California's coastal counties. Analyzing US Endangered Species expenditure reports, we found large differences in expenditures among counties, with plants in San Diego County receiving much higher expenditures than other locations. We found a slight positive relationship between expenditures on behalf of endangered species and human density. Together these data support the argument that conservation efforts by protecting habitats within urban environments are not less likely to be successful than in rural areas. Expenditures on behalf of federally listed endangered and threatened plants do not appear to be related to proximity to human populations. Given the evidence of sufficient performance in urban environments, along with a high potential to leverage public support for nature in urban environments, expenditures in these areas appear to be an

  7. Chemical plant innovative safety investments decision-support methodology.

    PubMed

    Reniers, G L L; Audenaert, A

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which investing in safety during the creation of a new chemical installation proves profitable. The authors propose a management supporting cost-benefit model that identifies and evaluates investments in safety within a chemical company. This innovative model differentiates between serious accidents and less serious accidents, thus providing an authentic image of prevention-related costs and benefits. In classic cost-benefit analyses, which do not make such differentiations, only a rudimentary image of potential profitability resulting from investments in safety is obtained. The resulting management conclusions that can be drawn from such classical analyses are of a very limited nature. The proposed model, however, is applied to a real case study and the proposed investments in safety at an appointed chemical installation are weighed against the estimated hypothetical benefits resulting from the preventive measures to be installed at the installation. In the case-study carried out in question, it would appear that the proposed prevention investments are justified. Such an economic exercise may be very important to chemical corporations trying to (further) improve their safety investments.

  8. Geothermal well-field and power-plant investment-decision analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Amundsen, C.B.; Edelstein, R.H.; Blair, P.D.

    1981-05-31

    Investment decisions pertaining to hydrothermal well fields and electric power plants are analyzed. Geothermal investment decision models were developed which, when coupled to a site-specific stochastic cash flow model, estimate the conditional probability of a positive decision to invest in the development of geothermal resource areas. Quantitative decision models have been developed for each major category of investor currently involved in the hydrothermal projects. These categories include: large, diversified energy resource corporations; independently operating resource firms; investor-owned electric utilities; municipal electric utilities; state-run resource agencies; and private third-party power plant investors. The geothermal cash flow, the investment decision analysis, and an example of model application for assessing the likely development of geothermal resource areas are described. The sensitivity of this investment behavior to federal incentives and research goals is also analyzed and discussed.

  9. Low investment in sexual reproduction threatens plants adapted to phosphorus limitation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yuki; Venterink, Harry Olde; van Bodegom, Peter M; Douma, Jacob C; Heil, Gerrit W; Hölzel, Norbert; Jabłońska, Ewa; Kotowski, Wiktor; Okruszko, Tomasz; Pawlikowski, Paweł; de Ruiter, Peter C; Wassen, Martin J

    2014-01-02

    Plant species diversity in Eurasian wetlands and grasslands depends not only on productivity but also on the relative availability of nutrients, particularly of nitrogen and phosphorus. Here we show that the impacts of nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry on plant species richness can be explained by selected plant life-history traits, notably by plant investments in growth versus reproduction. In 599 Eurasian sites with herbaceous vegetation we examined the relationship between the local nutrient conditions and community-mean life-history traits. We found that compared with plants in nitrogen-limited communities, plants in phosphorus-limited communities invest little in sexual reproduction (for example, less investment in seed, shorter flowering period, longer lifespan) and have conservative leaf economy traits (that is, a low specific leaf area and a high leaf dry-matter content). Endangered species were more frequent in phosphorus-limited ecosystems and they too invested little in sexual reproduction. The results provide new insight into how plant adaptations to nutrient conditions can drive the distribution of plant species in natural ecosystems and can account for the vulnerability of endangered species.

  10. Low investment in sexual reproduction threatens plants adapted to phosphorus limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yuki; Venterink, Harry Olde; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Douma, Jacob C.; Heil, Gerrit W.; Hölzel, Norbert; Jabłońska, Ewa; Kotowski, Wiktor; Okruszko, Tomasz; Pawlikowski, Paweł; de Ruiter, Peter C.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant species diversity in Eurasian wetlands and grasslands depends not only on productivity but also on the relative availability of nutrients, particularly of nitrogen and phosphorus. Here we show that the impacts of nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry on plant species richness can be explained by selected plant life-history traits, notably by plant investments in growth versus reproduction. In 599 Eurasian sites with herbaceous vegetation we examined the relationship between the local nutrient conditions and community-mean life-history traits. We found that compared with plants in nitrogen-limited communities, plants in phosphorus-limited communities invest little in sexual reproduction (for example, less investment in seed, shorter flowering period, longer lifespan) and have conservative leaf economy traits (that is, a low specific leaf area and a high leaf dry-matter content). Endangered species were more frequent in phosphorus-limited ecosystems and they too invested little in sexual reproduction. The results provide new insight into how plant adaptations to nutrient conditions can drive the distribution of plant species in natural ecosystems and can account for the vulnerability of endangered species.

  11. Investment in plant research and development bears fruit in China.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kang; Xu, Zhihong

    2014-04-01

    Recent rapid progress in plant science and biotechnology in China demonstrates that China's stronger support for funding in plant research and development (R&D) has borne fruit. Chinese groups have contributed major advances in a range of fields, such as rice biology, plant hormone and developmental biology, genomics and evolution, plant genetics and epigenetics, as well as plant biotechnology. Strigolactone studies including those identifying its receptor and dissecting its complex structure and signaling are representative of the recent researches from China at the forefront of the field. These advances are attributable in large part to interdisciplinary studies among scientists from plant science, chemistry, bioinformatics, structural biology, and agronomy. The platforms provided by national facilities facilitate this collaboration. As well, efficient restructuring of the top-down organization of state programs and free exploration of scientists' interests have accelerated achievements by Chinese researchers. Here, we provide a general outline of China's progress in plant R&D to highlight fields in which Chinese research has made significant contributions.

  12. Investment in hydrogen tri-generation for wastewater treatment plants under uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharieh, Kaveh; Jafari, Mohsen A.; Guo, Qizhong

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present a compound real option model for investment in hydrogen tri-generation and onsite hydrogen dispensing systems for a wastewater treatment plant under price and market uncertainties. The ultimate objective is to determine optimal timing and investment thresholds to exercise initial and subsequent options such that the total savings are maximized. Initial option includes investment in a 1.4 (MW) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) fed by mixture of waste biogas from anaerobic digestion and natural gas, along with auxiliary equipment. Produced hydrogen in MCFC via internal reforming, is recovered from the exhaust gas stream using Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) purification technology. Therefore the expansion option includes investment in hydrogen compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) systems which creates additional revenue by selling hydrogen onsite in retail price. This work extends current state of investment modeling within the context of hydrogen tri-generation by considering: (i) Modular investment plan for hydrogen tri-generation and dispensing systems, (ii) Multiple sources of uncertainties along with more realistic probability distributions, (iii) Optimal operation of hydrogen tri-generation is considered, which results in realistic saving estimation.

  13. Quality of care and investment in property, plant, and equipment in hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, S W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explores the relationship between quality of care and investment in property, plant, and equipment (PPE) in hospitals. DATA SOURCES. Hospitals' investment in PPE was derived from audited financial statements for the fiscal years 1984-1989. Peer Review Organization (PRO) Generic Quality Screen (GQS) reviews and confirmed failures between April 1989 and September 1990 were obtained from the Massachusetts PRO. STUDY DESIGN. Weighted least squares regression models used PRO GQS confirmed failure rates as the dependent variable, and investment in PPE as the key explanatory variable. DATA EXTRACTION. Investment in PPE was standardized, summed by the hospital over the six years, and divided by the hospital's average number of beds in that period. The number of PRO reviewed cases with one or more GQS confirmed failures was divided by the total number of cases reviewed to create confirmed failure rates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Investment in PPE in Massachusetts hospitals is correlated with GQS confirmed failure rates. CONCLUSIONS. A financial variable, investment in PPE, predicts certain dimensions of quality of care in hospitals. PMID:8113054

  14. CONSOL Energy invests in West Virginia CTL plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-10-15

    Working with Synthesis Energy Systems (SES), America's leading bituminous coal producer assists with the engineering design package for a coal gasification and liquefaction plant to be located near Benwood in West Virginia. Coal will be converted to syngas using SES's proprietary U-GAS technology. The syngas is expected to be used to produce about 720,000 metric tons per year of methanol. The U-GAS technology is licensed from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The article explains how the GTI gasification process works. It is based on a surge-stage fluidised bed for production of low-to-medium calorific value synthesis gas from a variety of feedstocks, including coal. 2 figs.

  15. Host plant invests in growth rather than chemical defense when attacked by a specialist herbivore.

    PubMed

    Arab, Alberto; Trigo, José Roberto

    2011-05-01

    Plant defensive compounds may be a cost rather than a benefit when plants are attacked by specialist insects that may overcome chemical barriers by strategies such as sequestering plant compounds. Plants may respond to specialist herbivores by compensatory growth rather than chemical defense. To explore the use of defensive chemistry vs. compensatory growth we studied Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae) and the specialist larvae of the ithomiine butterfly Placidina euryanassa, which sequester defensive tropane alkaloids (TAs) from this host plant. We investigated whether the concentration of TAs in B. suaveolens was changed by P. euryanassa damage, and whether plants invest in growth, when damaged by the specialist. Larvae feeding during 24 hr significantly decreased TAs in damaged plants, but they returned to control levels after 15 days without damage. Damaged and undamaged plants did not differ significantly in leaf area after 15 days, indicating compensatory growth. Our results suggest that B. suaveolens responds to herbivory by the specialist P. euryanassa by investing in growth rather than chemical defense.

  16. User's manual for the INDCEPT code for estimating industrial steam boiler plant capital investment costs

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, H I; Fuller, L C; Hudson, II, C R

    1982-09-01

    The INDCEPT computer code package was developed to provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for single- and multiple-unit industrial steam boiler plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of boiler type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs. Boiler plant cost models are provided to reflect various types and sources of coal and alternate means of sulfur and particulate removal. Cost models are also included for low-Btu and medium-Btu gas produced in coal gasification plants.

  17. Within-plant variation in reproductive investment: consequences for selection on flowering time.

    PubMed

    Austen, E J; Forrest, J R K; Weis, A E

    2015-01-01

    Variation among the leaves, flowers or fruit produced by a plant is often regarded as a nuisance to the experimenter and an impediment to selection. Here, we suggest that within-plant variation can drive selection on other plant-level traits. We examine within-plant variation in floral sex allocation and in fruit set and predict that such variation generates variation in male success among plants, thereby driving selection on flowering time. We tested this prediction in a simulation model estimating selection on flowering time through male fitness when floral sex allocation and/or fruit set vary directionally among flowers on plants. We parameterized the model through a quantitative literature survey of within-plant change in sex allocation. As predicted, within-plant variation in floral sex allocation and in fruit set probability can generate selection on flowering time through male fitness. Declining fruit set from first to last flowers on plants, as occurs in many species, selected for early flowering onset through male fitness. This result was robust to self-incompatibility and to varying returns on male versus female investment. Selection caused by declining fruit set was strong enough to reverse the selection for late flowering that can be caused by intrafloral protandry. Our model provides testable predictions regarding selection on flowering time through male fitness. The model also establishes the intriguing possibility that within-plant variation may influence selection on other traits, regardless of whether that variation is under selection itself. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Mutualists or parasites? Context-dependent influence of symbiotic fly larvae on carnivorous investment in the Albany pitcher plant

    PubMed Central

    Didham, Raphael K.; Hopper, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous plants allocate more resources to carnivorous structures under nutrient-limited conditions, and relative investment can also be influenced by animals (infauna) that live in association with these plants and feed on their prey. We investigated these effects within a population of the pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis containing varying densities of larvae of the fly Badisis ambulans. For plants with a relatively high proportion of adult pitchers, increasing larval density was associated with lower relative leaf allocation to new pitcher buds. For plants with relatively few adult pitchers, however, there was greater relative leaf allocation to pitcher buds with increasing larval density. In a field experiment, there was no significant effect of experimental larval presence or absence on the change in carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of plants. Although the direction of the correlation between B. ambulans larvae and relative investment in carnivorous and non-carnivorous structures depends on the relative number of mature structures, whether the larvae enhance or reduce nutrient stress under different conditions remains unclear. The change in C/N was, however, less variable for pitchers that contained larvae, suggesting a stabilizing effect. Eighteen of 52 experimental pitchers were damaged by an unknown species, causing the pitcher fluid to drain. These pitchers were significantly more likely to survive if they contained larvae. These results suggest that the relationship between infauna and host varies with the initial resource status and environmental context of the host plant. PMID:28018659

  19. Mutualists or parasites? Context-dependent influence of symbiotic fly larvae on carnivorous investment in the Albany pitcher plant.

    PubMed

    Lymbery, Samuel J; Didham, Raphael K; Hopper, Stephen D; Simmons, Leigh W

    2016-11-01

    Carnivorous plants allocate more resources to carnivorous structures under nutrient-limited conditions, and relative investment can also be influenced by animals (infauna) that live in association with these plants and feed on their prey. We investigated these effects within a population of the pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis containing varying densities of larvae of the fly Badisis ambulans. For plants with a relatively high proportion of adult pitchers, increasing larval density was associated with lower relative leaf allocation to new pitcher buds. For plants with relatively few adult pitchers, however, there was greater relative leaf allocation to pitcher buds with increasing larval density. In a field experiment, there was no significant effect of experimental larval presence or absence on the change in carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of plants. Although the direction of the correlation between B. ambulans larvae and relative investment in carnivorous and non-carnivorous structures depends on the relative number of mature structures, whether the larvae enhance or reduce nutrient stress under different conditions remains unclear. The change in C/N was, however, less variable for pitchers that contained larvae, suggesting a stabilizing effect. Eighteen of 52 experimental pitchers were damaged by an unknown species, causing the pitcher fluid to drain. These pitchers were significantly more likely to survive if they contained larvae. These results suggest that the relationship between infauna and host varies with the initial resource status and environmental context of the host plant.

  20. Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy.

  1. An integrated approach for monitoring efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based wastewater treatment plants at large spatial scale.

    PubMed

    De Gisi, Sabino; Sabia, Gianpaolo; Casella, Patrizia; Farina, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    WISE, the Water Information System for Europe, is the web-portal of the European Commission (EU) that disseminates the quality state of the receiving water bodies and the efficiency of the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in order to monitor advances in the application of both the Water Framework Directive (WFD) as well as the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD). With the intention to develop WISE applications, the aim of the work was to define and apply an integrated approach capable of monitoring the efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based WWTPs located in a large spatial area, providing the following outcomes useful to the decision-makers: (i) the identification of critical facilities and their critical processes by means of a Performance Assessment System (PAS), (ii) the choice of the most suitable upgrading actions, through a scenario analysis. (iii) the assessment of the investment costs to upgrade the critical WWTPs and (iv) the prioritization of the critical facilities by means of a multi-criteria approach which includes the stakeholders involvement, along with the integration of some technical, environmental, economic and health aspects. The implementation of the proposed approach to a high number of municipal WWTPs highlighted how the PAS developed was able to identify critical processes with a particular effectiveness in identifying the critical nutrient removal ones. In addition, a simplified approach that considers the cost related to a basic-configuration and those for the WWTP integration, allowed to link the critical processes identified and the investment costs. Finally, the questionnaire for the acquisition of data such as that provided by the Italian Institute of Statistics, the PAS defined and the database on the costs, if properly adapted, may allow for the extension of the integrated approach on an EU-scale by providing useful information to water utilities as well as institutions.

  2. Determinants of farmers' tree planting investment decision as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessesse, B.; Bewket, W.; Bräuning, A.

    2015-11-01

    Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices are one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explores the major determinants of farm level tree planting decision as a land management strategy in a typical framing and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model. The model significantly predicted farmers' tree planting decision (Chi-square = 37.29, df = 15, P<0.001). Besides, the computed significant value of the model suggests that all the considered predictor variables jointly influenced the farmers' decision to plant trees as a land management strategy. In this regard, the finding of the study show that local land-users' willingness to adopt tree growing decision is a function of a wide range of biophysical, institutional, socioeconomic and household level factors, however, the likelihood of household size, productive labour force availability, the disparity of schooling age, level of perception of the process of deforestation and the current land tenure system have positively and significantly influence on tree growing investment decisions in the study watershed. Eventually, the processes of land use conversion and land degradation are serious which in turn have had adverse effects on agricultural productivity, local food security and poverty trap nexus. Hence, devising sustainable and integrated land management policy options and implementing them would enhance ecological restoration and livelihood sustainability in the study watershed.

  3. Determinants of farmers' tree-planting investment decisions as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessesse, Berhan; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Bräuning, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices is one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explored the major determinants of farm-level tree-planting decisions as a land management strategy in a typical farming and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression model. The model significantly predicted farmers' tree-planting decisions (χ2 = 37.29, df = 15, P < 0.001). Besides, the computed significant value of the model revealed that all the considered predictor variables jointly influenced the farmers' decisions to plant trees as a land management strategy. The findings of the study demonstrated that the adoption of tree-growing decisions by local land users was a function of a wide range of biophysical, institutional, socioeconomic and household-level factors. In this regard, the likelihood of household size, productive labour force availability, the disparity of schooling age, level of perception of the process of deforestation and the current land tenure system had a critical influence on tree-growing investment decisions in the study watershed. Eventually, the processes of land-use conversion and land degradation were serious, which in turn have had adverse effects on agricultural productivity, local food security and poverty trap nexus. Hence, the study recommended that devising and implementing sustainable land management policy options would enhance ecological restoration and livelihood sustainability in the study watershed.

  4. Development of a low capital investment reactor system: application for plant cell suspension culture

    PubMed

    Hsiao; Bacani; Carvalho; Curtis

    1999-01-01

    Growth of plant cell cultures is demonstrated in an uncontrolled, simple, and inexpensive plastic-lined vessel. Sustained specific growth rates of 0.22 day-1 for Hyoscyamus muticus cell suspension cultures are achieved in a low-cost gas-sparged bioreactor configuration (6.5 L working volume, wv) which is comparable to an "optimized" 5 L wv mechanically agitated fermentor. In an effort to reduce bioreactor costs, the need for an autoclavable vessel was eliminated. Sterilization is achieved by separate autoclaving of the plastic liner and by gas-phase sterilization using ethylene oxide. The initial run sterilized with ethylene oxide displayed a long lag, apparently due to residual sterilant gas. Because ethylene oxide could eliminate costs associated with autoclave rated vessels, a quantitative basis for aeration time was developed by experimental measurements and modeling of diffusion in the polymer liner. Operational techniques to eliminate toxicity are implemented to grow 0.2 kg dry weight of plant cells in 13 days in a 40 L (28.5 L wv) air-lift bioreactor without autoclave sterilization. The biomass yields for all reactors were statistically indistinguishable from shake flask culture.

  5. Investment Avenues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2012-11-01

    Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.

  6. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline. PMID:24499745

  7. The most influential investment.

    PubMed

    Summers, L

    1993-01-01

    Investment in women's education possibly has a greater return than investing in areas such as power generation. Education is an economic issue. When the self-fulfilling prophecy of girls' lack of education yielding lower economic worth is compared with the self-fulfilling prophecy of educated women having healthy children and greater earning ability, there is no doubt which scenario is more beneficial to the individual and society. Wages of educated female workers rise by 20%, and personal hygiene and public health improvements contribute to lower fertility and infant mortality. In Pakistan, educating an additional 1000 girls/year would cost $40,000 in 1990 prices. Each year of schooling would reduce the under-5 year child mortality rate by 10%. 1000 women with an extra year of schooling would prevent 60 infant deaths, which if prevented through health care interventions would cost an estimated $48,000. Female fertility would be reduced by about 10% for an extra year of schooling, and thus would avert 660 births or a saving $43,000. Social improvement alone is worth the extra cost. Investing in female education means establishing scholarship funds, providing more free books and other supplies, adapting curricula to cultural and practical concerns, and hiring female teachers. Increasing female primary school enrollment to equal boys enrollment in low income countries would mean educating an extra 25 million girls every/year at a total cost of about $938 million. Equalizing secondary school enrollment would entail educating an extra 21 million girls at a cost of $1.4 billion. The total cost of $2.4 billion constitutes less than .25% of the gross domestic product of low income countries, less than 1% of investment in new capital goods, and less than 10% of defense spending. Investment statistics on power plants in a sample of 57 developing countries showed a return on physical plant assets of less than 4% over the past 3 years and less than 6% over the past 10 years

  8. Need of the regulation for profit percentage investment by pharmaceutical companies in new drug discovery research from the various local traditional medicinal and plant systems.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, M D

    2012-01-01

    In the modern medical systems the active pharmacological ingredients, effective against any disease is identified, purified and studied for its various effects and side-effects whereas it is not so in the traditional systems. Therefore, it is not surprising that safety concerns have often been raised about the traditional medical products. The major issue now, is to make appropriate situation with basic supports to bring all the available experts and resources together for the identification, purification, and study of efficacy and safety of the active molecules of the popular traditional medicines. Government and public sectors in the countries with such rich traditional medicinal and plant systems have related experts, but they also have much hurdle regarding recruitment and retention of expert human resources, getting fund, purchase and maintenance of equipment, bureaucratic formalities and others. The pharmaceutical companies have basic laboratories with related infrastructure and human resources as well as interest about bringing the drug molecules. To bridge the gap, there is a need of the regulation which will make the pharmaceutical companies to invest certain percentage of their profit in the field of research to identify new drug molecules and to study their effects. It is just not an issue of discovering the active molecule but also of creating the concept and culture of research, purity and quality of drugs, safety of people, and future direction of the human society.

  9. Energy Conservation Investment Program, FY95 Limited Energy Study Area B Nitric Acid Production Facilities Holston Army Ammunition Plant Kingsport, Tennessee.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Opportunities (ECO’s). ECO’s were analyzed for suitability for the Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) using the government’s software package called Life Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID).

  10. The Investment Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Is marketing an expense or an investment? Most accountants will claim that marketing is an expense, and clearly that seems true when cutting the checks to fund these efforts. When it is done properly, marketing is the best investment. A key principle to Smart Marketing is the Investment Paradigm. The Investment Paradigm is understanding that every…

  11. The Investment Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2005-01-01

    Is marketing an expense or an investment? Most accountants will claim that marketing is an expense, and clearly that seems true when cutting the checks to fund these efforts. When it is done properly, marketing is the best investment. A key principle to Smart Marketing is the Investment Paradigm. The Investment Paradigm is understanding that every…

  12. Investing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Leonard E.

    1992-01-01

    Four steps to retirement planning, intended to demystify retirement investment, are offered for college faculty: (1) establish diversification goals; (2) urge their institutions to offer more investment options; (3) coordinate retirement investments with other investments; and (4) take steps to guarantee against inflation. Typical age-related…

  13. Specialized Investment Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Robert S.

    1970-01-01

    The informational needs of the investing public should be met by the public library. Suggestions for specialized investment information services with broad appeal, technical charts, and advisory services which public libraries might consider purchasing. (JS)

  14. Managing Public Library Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Don

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of public library survey conducted by a Public Library Association committee that was established to study library investment practices and assess the need for establishing an investment management service. Revenue sources, investment patterns, benefits of pooling, and a proposed management service are highlighted. Six sources are…

  15. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  16. Transmission Investment: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    McGarvey, Joe

    2006-10-15

    This primer highlights recent trends in transmission investment, summarizes the division of jurisdictional authority over transmission, and presents four alternative models for transmission ownership. (author)

  17. Investment in Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Operating a financial investment company in an unstable economy is not easy. But the right training at Vanguard ensures satisfied customers. The company made an investment of its own in learning and development that paid off big in 2009. The learning offerings, both innovative and efficient, keep its workers updated on strategies that bring…

  18. Investing in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Investing in Innovation" provides a snapshot of trends in the states and identifies a wide range of strategies now employed. California's big investments, such as $3 billion for stem cell research, have already grabbed national headlines. But states like Arizona, Indiana and North Dakota, which haven't historically been big research and…

  19. The Investment Policy Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Successful investing for long-term funds requires a strategic plan. This is true despite--indeed, because of--the fact that the future is unknowable. The plan must be specific, embodying in concrete terms the best thinking of the board of trustees about the investment pool, its goals and purposes; but it also needs to be sufficiently flexible to…

  20. Investment in Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Operating a financial investment company in an unstable economy is not easy. But the right training at Vanguard ensures satisfied customers. The company made an investment of its own in learning and development that paid off big in 2009. The learning offerings, both innovative and efficient, keep its workers updated on strategies that bring…

  1. Leaf Investment and Light Partitioning among Leaves of Different Genotypes of the Clonal Plant Potentilla reptans in a Dense Stand after 5 Years of Competition

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Peter J.; Stuefer, Josef F.; During, Heinjo J.; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims While within-species competition for light is generally found to be asymmetric – larger plants absorbing more than proportional amounts of light – between-species competition tends to be more symmetric. Here, the light capture was analysed in a 5-year-old competition experiment that started with ten genotypes of the clonal plant Potentilla reptans. The following hypotheses were tested: (a) if different genotypes would do better in different layers of the canopy, thereby promoting coexistence, and (b) if leaves and genotypes with higher total mass captured more than proportional amounts of light, possibly explaining the observed dominance of the abundant genotypes. Methods In eight plots, 100 leaves were harvested at various depths in the canopy and their genotype determined to test for differences in leaf biomass allocation, leaf characteristics and the resulting light capture, calculated through a canopy model using the actual vertical light and leaf area profiles. Light capture was related to biomass to determine whether light competition between genotypes was asymmetric. Key Results All genotypes could reach the top of the canopy. The genotypes differed in morphology, but did not differ significantly in light capture per unit mass (Φmass) for leaves with the laminae placed at the same light levels. Light capture did increase disproportionately with leaf mass for all genotypes. However, the more abundant genotypes did not capture disproportionately more light relative to their mass than less-abundant genotypes. Conclusions Vertical niche differentiation in light acquisition does not appear to be a factor that could promote coexistence between these genotypes. Contrary to what is generally assumed, light competition among genetic individuals of the same species was size-symmetric, even if taller individual leaves did capture disproportionately more light. The observed shifts in genotype frequency cannot therefore be explained by asymmetric

  2. Leaf investment and light partitioning among leaves of different genotypes of the clonal plant Potentilla reptans in a dense stand after 5 years of competition.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Peter J; Stuefer, Josef F; During, Heinjo J; Anten, Niels P R

    2008-12-01

    While within-species competition for light is generally found to be asymmetric - larger plants absorbing more than proportional amounts of light - between-species competition tends to be more symmetric. Here, the light capture was analysed in a 5-year-old competition experiment that started with ten genotypes of the clonal plant Potentilla reptans. The following hypotheses were tested: (a) if different genotypes would do better in different layers of the canopy, thereby promoting coexistence, and (b) if leaves and genotypes with higher total mass captured more than proportional amounts of light, possibly explaining the observed dominance of the abundant genotypes. In eight plots, 100 leaves were harvested at various depths in the canopy and their genotype determined to test for differences in leaf biomass allocation, leaf characteristics and the resulting light capture, calculated through a canopy model using the actual vertical light and leaf area profiles. Light capture was related to biomass to determine whether light competition between genotypes was asymmetric. All genotypes could reach the top of the canopy. The genotypes differed in morphology, but did not differ significantly in light capture per unit mass (Phi(mass)) for leaves with the laminae placed at the same light levels. Light capture did increase disproportionately with leaf mass for all genotypes. However, the more abundant genotypes did not capture disproportionately more light relative to their mass than less-abundant genotypes. Vertical niche differentiation in light acquisition does not appear to be a factor that could promote coexistence between these genotypes. Contrary to what is generally assumed, light competition among genetic individuals of the same species was size-symmetric, even if taller individual leaves did capture disproportionately more light. The observed shifts in genotype frequency cannot therefore be explained by asymmetric competition for light.

  3. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  4. Heartfelt and Heady Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiskeaux, Charlie D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how institutions of higher education are taking a fresh look at socially responsible investing, seeking to grow endowments while taking a stand against unhealthy or unjust corporate practices. (EV)

  5. Endowments: Investing in Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald A.

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of college endowment fund management looks at a trend toward successful investments in the last year and focuses on the increasing financial sophistication of historically black institutions. Trends include less conservative investing, more trustee involvement in investment decision making, and use of investment counselors. (MSE)

  6. Watering the investment tree

    SciTech Connect

    Heumann, J.M.

    1997-04-01

    Recycling investment forums have started to catch hold across the US as a means of educating investors about the benefits of recycling businesses, while helping those businesses obtain the startup of expansion funding they need. Recycling investment forums are designed to bring together recycling business entrepreneurs with investors, financiers, and economic development officials for their mutual benefit. But will investors shell out the money, and will investment forums be successful in increasing opportunities for recycling businesses? All small, start-up business need funding to be successful. A great idea or innovative program can wither on the vine if it does not get the financial support it needs to grow. Recycling businesses are no exception, and many also face additional challenges beyond those faced by the average small business. Recycling businesses are newer and have no proven track record of success, and many investors are wary of taking a chance on an unknown entity.

  7. Comparing project investments

    SciTech Connect

    Wirasinghe, E.

    1988-06-01

    HPI managers are often faced with the nightmare of deciding on which projects to invest their limited capital. There usually are more potential projects than money available for investment. A typical strategy is in two parts: select a method to rank the projects; consider corporate policy to make a choice. This discussion highlights various ways to rank projects. After a discussion of some ranking methods, three cases are presented where it appears the wrong project was selected - either because of incorrect advice or because data were intentionally manipulated.

  8. Invest in Family*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The family is an integral part of one's life. It is very essential that every individual employed or unemployed invests time therein. The family is a source of support and growth for an individual, and the lack of family support or loneliness may be a causative factor in the genesis of psychiatric disorders, especially depression. In India, family plays a paramount role when it comes to mental health of the individual. Tips on how one should invest time in one's family along with the role of a family in one's personal and social structure are discussed. PMID:25838732

  9. An investment in community.

    PubMed

    Thrall, Terese Hudson

    2002-03-01

    Memorial Hospital and Health System of South Bend, Ind., is this year's Foster McGaw Prize winner. Since 1993, Memorial has invested $20 million in nearly 100 community programs, including a kids' health museum, a homeless center and senior activities.

  10. Gaining an Investment Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, William T.

    2000-01-01

    Recommendations for investing college/university endowment funds focus on identifying structural and skill-based competitive advantages. These include the long institutional time horizon and the ability to endure short-term volatility. Implications for endowment management are applied to selecting an endowment manager and asset allocation. (DB)

  11. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  12. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  13. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  14. Energy Investment: Beyond Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald T.; Amarant, John

    2005-01-01

    People vary considerably in their work performance as well as their overall approach to work. At one extreme are the outstanding performers, who approach work with enthusiasm and energy, and, at the other extreme, are those who seem to do only what is necessary to get by. Organizatins often invest a good deal of energy in trying to improve the…

  15. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  16. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  17. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  18. Strategic Investments Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Doug

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the organizational hierarchy for strategic management and strategic investments at NASA. The presentation also relates these topics to the budgets it submits to Congress, strategies for space exploration research and development, and systems analysis.

  19. Doubling an investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2004-01-01

    We study the issue of optimal long-term portfolio management in continuous time multi-asset financial markets. Rather than following the abstract notion of ‘utility’ and its implied paradigm of ‘maximization of expected utility’ we suggest a different approach: The investor sets a goal-such as reaching a desired fortune level, or doubling the initial investment-and then operates to minimize the expected time-to-goal, i.e., achieving the goal as quick as possible. We assume the ‘standard model’ of multi-asset financial markets where assets are governed by correlated Geometric Brownian motion dynamics, and study optimality under the criteria of ‘minimization of the expected time-to-goal’. We explicitly compute: (i) the optimal holding strategies; (ii) the dynamics and behavior of the optimal investment portfolios; and, (iii) the statistics-mean, variance, and Laplace transform-of the time-to-goal (under the optimal investment strategy). Also, an investment paradox arising in this context-in which some portfolios have exponential mean growth but have a positive probability of never doubling their initial value-is discussed and explained.

  20. Gaining an Investment Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, William T.

    2000-01-01

    Recommendations for investing college/university endowment funds focus on identifying structural and skill-based competitive advantages. These include the long institutional time horizon and the ability to endure short-term volatility. Implications for endowment management are applied to selecting an endowment manager and asset allocation. (DB)

  1. Beyond the Investment Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…

  2. Energy Investment: Beyond Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald T.; Amarant, John

    2005-01-01

    People vary considerably in their work performance as well as their overall approach to work. At one extreme are the outstanding performers, who approach work with enthusiasm and energy, and, at the other extreme, are those who seem to do only what is necessary to get by. Organizatins often invest a good deal of energy in trying to improve the…

  3. Designing a successful investment program.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, J P

    1997-02-01

    Healthcare organizations have various asset pool funds that can be invested to increase nonoperating revenues. In order to maximize the long-term success of investment efforts, healthcare organizations need to develop comprehensive investment management programs. Such programs identify the assets that can be invested, establish the level of risk each asset type can be exposed to, and match long-term and short-term investment opportunities to the appropriate asset pool. Programs can be managed internally or outsourced to investment management firms with objectives and procedures that are compatible with those of the healthcare organizations' investment policies and guidelines. These policies and guidelines must address asset allocation. Oversight committees must be established to monitor investment performance and reallocate assets, as needed, to take advantage of market movements.

  4. A basic guide to investing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael C

    2006-03-01

    Today's investors have many choices. From seemingly simple investments, such as stocks, bonds and cash, to more complicated option strategies, there is a dizzying array of investment vehicles that can leave even the most seasoned investor a bit confused. In discussions with our clients, one common thread is the desire to learn more about the various types of investments available. Following is a basic guide to the most common investments and the risks inherent in those choices.

  5. Investing in Software Sustainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Investing in Software Sustainment Robert Ferguson, Software Engineering...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investing in Software Sustainment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In many government weapon systems, sustaining software depends heavily on organic engineering efforts. This is different

  6. Modeling Sustainment Investment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University,Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...Improving the Product Engineering Improving the Organization Capability and capacity 1 2 3 4 Modeling Sustainment Investment May 2015 © 2015

  7. Low investment approach to alcohol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bungay, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper suggests attitudes for designing a low investment fuel alcohol plant instead of providing a specific blueprint, noting that the criteria for an agro-industrial complex can be applied rather than those of a modern chemical plant. In the case of fermenter design, for example, alternative approaches suggested are, the use of open-vat fermenters, tower fermentation maintaining high concentrations of organisms, combined fermentation and storage and use of 12 ft diameter plastic sewer pipe buried in the ground for an inexpensive and well-insulated fermenter. Instead of 3 or more distillation columns, the proposed plant would have only one, producing 85% alcohol, plus a tank or column for a drying agent to remove the remaining water. A direct fired still using biomass residues or coal could be designed to avoid the major expense of a large power plant to generate process steam.

  8. The effect of a low-fat spread with added plant sterols on vascular function markers: results of the Investigating Vascular Function Effects of Plant Sterols (INVEST) study12345

    PubMed Central

    Ras, Rouyanne T; Fuchs, Dagmar; Koppenol, Wieneke P; Garczarek, Ursula; Greyling, Arno; Keicher, Christian; Verhoeven, Carole; Bouzamondo, Hakim; Wagner, Frank; Trautwein, Elke A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plant sterols (PSs) lower LDL cholesterol, an established risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). No direct evidence is available supporting a reduced risk of CAD for foods with added PSs. Endothelial dysfunction is seen as an early indicator of atherosclerotic damage. Objectives: This study was primarily designed to investigate the effect of a low-fat spread with added PSs on brachial artery endothelial function as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Second, effects on arterial stiffness, blood pressure, serum lipids, and plasma PS concentrations were investigated. We hypothesized that PSs would not worsen FMD but would rather modestly improve FMD. Design: This study had a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design. After a 4-wk run-in period, 240 hypercholesterolemic but otherwise healthy men and women consumed 20 g/d of low-fat spread without (control) or with added PSs (3 g/d) during 12 wk. Pre- and postintervention, vascular function measurements and blood sampling were performed. Results: In total, 232 participants completed the study period. For the primary endpoint FMD, 199 participants were included in the statistical analysis. PS intake did not affect FMD (+0.01 percentage points; 95% CI: −0.73, 0.75) compared with control. Measures of arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and blood pressure were also not significantly changed compared with control. After PS intervention, LDL cholesterol significantly decreased on average by 0.26 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.40, −0.12) or 6.7% compared with control. Plasma sitosterol and campesterol concentrations significantly increased in the PS group up to on average 11.5 μmol/L and 13.9 μmol/L (expressed as geometric means), respectively. Conclusions: The intake of a low-fat spread with added PSs neither improved nor worsened FMD or other vascular function markers in hypercholesterolemic men and women. As expected, serum LDL cholesterol decreased

  9. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a Project...

  10. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a Project...

  11. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a Project...

  12. Ranking independent timber investments by alternative investment criteria

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Mills; Gary E. Dixon

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 231 independent timber investments were ranked by internal rate of return, present net worth per acre and the benefit cost ratio—the last two discounted by 3, 6.4. 7.5. and 10 percent—to determine if the different criteria had a practical influence on timber investment ranking. The samples in this study were drawn from a group of timber investments...

  13. The Good Investment.

    PubMed

    Prescott, John E; Fresne, Julie A; Youngclaus, James A

    2017-01-24

    The authors reflect on the article in this issue entitled "Borrow or Serve? An Economic Analysis of Options for Financing a Medical School Education" by Marcu and colleagues, which makes a compelling case that a medical school education is a good investment, no matter what financing option students use, from federal service programs to federal loans. The lead author of this Commentary shares lessons learned from his own medical school education, which was funded by an Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship, and from his current position interacting with medical students across the United States.Regardless of the financing path they choose, all students should understand basic financial concepts and the details of the various pathways that are available to pay for their medical school education, as well as how each could potentially impact their own future and that of their families. One underappreciated aspect of financing a medical school education is that federal repayment scenarios can link loan payments to income, rather than debt levels, which means that all physicians are able to afford their loan payments no matter what specialty they practice, what they are paid, or where they live.Medical education, while expensive, remains the good investment. An MD degree can lead to a lifetime of personal fulfillment and societal contributions. Everyone, with rare exceptions, accepted to a U.S. medical school will be able to finance their medical education via a path that aligns with their personal values and priorities.

  14. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  15. NASA's Hypersonic Investment Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Hutt, John; McClinton, Charles

    2002-01-01

    NASA has established long term goals for access to space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goal for third-generation launch systems represents significant reduction in cost and improved safety over the current first generation system. The Advanced Space Transportation Office (ASTP) at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonic Investment Area (HIA), third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframe, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations and system analysis. These technologies are being matured through research and both ground and flight-testing. This paper provides an overview of the HIA program plans and recent accomplishments.

  16. Investments in random environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Barrientos, Jesús Emeterio; Cantero-Álvarez, Rubén; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Schweitzer, Frank

    2008-03-01

    We present analytical investigations of a multiplicative stochastic process that models a simple investor dynamics in a random environment. The dynamics of the investor's budget, x(t) , depends on the stochasticity of the return on investment, r(t) , for which different model assumptions are discussed. The fat-tail distribution of the budget is investigated and compared with theoretical predictions. We are mainly interested in the most probable value xmp of the budget that reaches a constant value over time. Based on an analytical investigation of the dynamics, we are able to predict xmpstat . We find a scaling law that relates the most probable value to the characteristic parameters describing the stochastic process. Our analytical results are confirmed by stochastic computer simulations that show a very good agreement with the predictions.

  17. NASA's Hypersonic Investment Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Hutt, John; McClinton, Charles

    2002-01-01

    NASA has established long term goals for access to space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goal for third-generation launch systems represents significant reduction in cost and improved safety over the current first generation system. The Advanced Space Transportation Office (ASTP) at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonic Investment Area (HIA), third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframe, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations and system analysis. These technologies are being matured through research and both ground and flight-testing. This paper provides an overview of the HIA program plans and recent accomplishments.

  18. The role of financial market performance in hospital capital investment.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Kristin L; Song, Paula H

    2011-01-01

    Many not-for-profit hospitals hold large portfolios of financial investments, making them vulnerable to fluctuations in market performance. This article examines the association of bond and equity market performance with investment in property, plant, and equipment by 194 not-for-profit general hospitals in California over the period 1997 to 2006. The study combines retrospective panel data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development with year-end returns on the S&P 500 and ten-year US Treasury bonds. Using fixed-effects regression, we find a significant positive association between S&P 500 performance and hospitals' capital investment; investment is not correlated with ten-year Treasury bond performance.

  19. Investment and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    The article argues that Norton Peirce's (1995) concept of a language learner's investment should figure centrally in how instructors address the needs of adult learners in ESL classrooms. Investment is discussed in relation to second language acquisition research that addresses the role of social factors in second language acquisition. The article…

  20. In Defense of Parental Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    Defends attachment theory and its relation to parental investment. Misunderstandings of the rationale for Parental Investment in the Child Questionnaire (PIC) and the measurement of attitudes in Sharon Hays's article are discussed. Parental and cultural issues are discussed with particular attention to data on fathers and applicability across…

  1. Foreign Investment Boosts Rural Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasmeier, Amy; Glickman, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Through 1987, 10 percent of foreign investment was in nonmetro counties; 44 percent of this was in the South; and 38 percent of nonmetro foreign investment created new jobs (versus 17 percent in metro areas). Foreign investors chose nonmetro areas with low wages, lack of unionization history, good transportation access, and government incentives.…

  2. Investing in Financial Planning Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKimm, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 34 sources of information on various aspects of financial planning for libraries interested in building a core collection. Highlights include general advice, insurance guidelines, buying and selling homes, investment guides, women's special needs, retirement planning, periodicals, and investment newsletters.…

  3. Investment in Green Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, Supratim

    Since the middle of the 1970's, there has been considerable research about how to deal with exhaustible natural resources which are essential to production. In the absence of substitution possibilities, the finite stock of these resources acts as a limiting factor to continued growth of output and hence consumption possibilities. In our first chapter, we combine a finite natural resource and human capital in the production function and look at the possibility of maintaining a non-declining or sustainable level of consumption for an infinite horizon. Our results show that the return to human capital accumulation plays a key role in ensuring this objective. In our model without physical capital, we obtain a similar result where this return must be such that the fraction of time devoted to acquiring human capital each period is at least as much as the share of natural resources in output. Our second chapter focuses on the transition from a relatively cheap exhaustible natural resource (coal, gasoline) to an expensive alternative technology assumed to be in nearly unlimited supply (wind, solar). Due to significant cost differences between fossil-fuel based energy sources and these alternative (backstop) technologies, their use is not as widespread. Public subsidies to research can however bring about innovation through cheaper production techniques which would significantly reduce the operating costs of these backstop technologies. But without sufficient incentives for investment and patent protections, individual firms typically underinvest in backstop technologies relative to the socially optimal level. In our paper, we find that this underinvestment in the backstop also leads to an under-extraction of the exhaustible natural resource. This imply firms would conserve the natural resource for too long and switch later to the alternative technology relative to the socially optimal solution. We extend the chapter to include pollution as a flow variable. Pollution from

  4. 12 CFR 563e.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment test. 563e.23 Section 563e.23 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates... lending or service tests may not be considered under the investment test. (c) Affiliate investment. At...

  5. 12 CFR 563e.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment test. 563e.23 Section 563e.23 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates... lending or service tests may not be considered under the investment test. (c) Affiliate investment. At...

  6. 12 CFR 195.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment test. 195.23 Section 195.23 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 195.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a... lending or service tests may not be considered under the investment test. (c) Affiliate investment. At...

  7. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is apportioned...

  8. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  9. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is apportioned...

  10. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  11. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  12. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  13. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is apportioned...

  14. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is apportioned...

  15. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  16. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  17. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  18. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  19. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is apportioned...

  20. Innovative uses for municipal investment contracts.

    PubMed

    Smith, S D

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the benefits of using municipal investment contracts for the reinvestment of municipal bond proceeds. It shows how municipal investment contracts may be structured to meet a borrower's objectives of liquidity, security, and maximization of investment yield. Several examples show how a custom-tailored municipal investment contract may achieve results unobtainable through traditional investment vehicles.

  1. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  2. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  3. Tax-advantaged investing: a wise choice.

    PubMed

    Smith, J

    2001-01-01

    Your investment strategy should be just that--a plan to make the most of your assets. Considering the tax advantages and disadvantages help you stretch your investments and take full advantage of stocks, mutual funds, and other investments.

  4. Whose crazy investment in sex?

    PubMed

    Mandlis, Lane R

    2011-01-01

    By probing the processes of exclusion of transsexuals from the political sphere, this article offers contributions to social and political theory through an examination of the processes of exclusion from the category "human." This article considers how the erasure of investment in their own embodied sex constructs a platform from which to blame others for sex/gender variance, as well as to justify that blaming. Bringing together Giorgio Agamben, Georges Bataille, Judith Butler, and Nikolas Rose with transphobia, medicalization in psychiatry, law, and ethopolitics, this article questions whose investment in sexed embodiment counts and why that investment might be seen as "crazy."

  5. Documenting investment policy boosts safety, returns.

    PubMed

    Kovener, R R

    1992-02-01

    The process and responsibility for a healthcare organization's investment decisions should be clearly documented in an investment policy. Any investment policy should contain at least seven elements: how investments relate to the organization's mission; responsibilities of involved parties; long- and short-term objectives; desired balance between return and risk; proportions of a portfolio held in stocks, bonds, and other investments; disposition of donated assets; desired investment reports; and the process for keeping the policy current.

  6. Making the Right Investment Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1984-01-01

    Issues in college divestiture of investments based on moral considerations, such as South Africa's apartheid system, are outlined. A governing board's options, role, and responsibility to the institution in the face of such decisions are discussed. (MSE)

  7. Investment strategies and hidden variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; Serva, M.

    2006-06-01

    The present study shows how the information on `hidden' market variables effects optimal investment strategies. We take the point of view of two investors, one who has access to the hidden variables and one who only knows the quotes of a given asset. Following Kelly's theory on investment strategies, the Shannon information and the doubling investment rate are quantified for both investors. Thanks to his privileged knowledge, the first investor can follow a better investment strategy. Nevertheless, the second investor can extract some of the hidden information looking at the past history of the asset variable. Unfortunately, due to the complexity of his strategy, this investor will have computational difficulties when he tries to apply it. He will than follow a simplified strategy, based only on the average sign of the last l quotes of the asset. This results have been tested with some Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Small investments, huge savings.

    PubMed

    Rose, Ewen

    2015-03-01

    Writing on behalf of the Building & Engineering Services Association (B&ES), Ewen Rose, an experienced journalist specialising in building engineering services, reports on a number of presentations at October's IHEEM Healthcare Estates 2014 conference where the focus was very much on how healthcare estates and facilities and healthcare engineering teams can save energy and cut carbon emissions through more efficient monitoring, and, if necessary, subsequent adjustment, of key HVAC plant. Among the key conclusions were that basic energy efficiency measures could 'shave millions of pounds from NHS estates' running costs', and that hospitals and other healthcare buildings face both 'an air-conditioning legal crisis', and a growing threat from outdoor air pollution.

  9. 12 CFR 347.108 - Portfolio investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portfolio investments. 347.108 Section 347.108... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.108 Portfolio investments. (a) Portfolio investments. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization as a portfolio investment and...

  10. The Investment Committee. Effective Committees. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, John H.

    1997-01-01

    The investment committee of the college or university governing board is charged with determining, overseeing, and assessing the policies and processes by which institutional funds are invested. The committee has fiduciary duty to ensure that the terms of investment of donors' gifts are met and to maximize investment returns within an appropriate…

  11. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5133 Investment management. (a... investment activities. Your board must also ensure that management complies with these policies and...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its funding...

  13. The Investment Committee. Effective Committees. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, John H.

    1997-01-01

    The investment committee of the college or university governing board is charged with determining, overseeing, and assessing the policies and processes by which institutional funds are invested. The committee has fiduciary duty to ensure that the terms of investment of donors' gifts are met and to maximize investment returns within an appropriate…

  14. 12 CFR 347.108 - Portfolio investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Portfolio investments. 347.108 Section 347.108... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.108 Portfolio investments. (a) Portfolio investments. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization as a portfolio investment and the...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its funding...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5132 - Investment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment purposes. 615.5132 Section 615.5132... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5132 Investment purposes. (a) Each Farm Credit bank may hold eligible investments, listed under § 615.5140, in an amount not to...

  17. 12 CFR 615.5132 - Investment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment purposes. 615.5132 Section 615.5132... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5132 Investment purposes. Each Farm Credit bank is allowed to hold eligible investments, listed under § 615.5140, in an amount not to...

  18. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment procedures. 211.9 Section 211.9... Investment procedures. (a) General provisions. 5 Direct and indirect investments shall be made in accordance... investments in excess of the limitations therein based on capital and surplus. (1) Minimum capital adequacy...

  19. 12 CFR 347.108 - Portfolio investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Portfolio investments. 347.108 Section 347.108... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.108 Portfolio investments. (a) Portfolio investments. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization as a portfolio investment and the...

  20. 12 CFR 347.108 - Portfolio investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Portfolio investments. 347.108 Section 347.108... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.108 Portfolio investments. (a) Portfolio investments. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization as a portfolio investment and the...

  1. 12 CFR 703.18 - Grandfathered investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grandfathered investments. 703.18 Section 703... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.18 Grandfathered investments. (a) Subject to safety and soundness... zero coupon security with a maturity greater than 10 years, if it purchased the investment: (1) Before...

  2. 47 CFR 32.102 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.102 Section 32.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... investments. Nonregulated investments shall include the investment in nonregulated activities that are...

  3. 47 CFR 32.102 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.102 Section 32.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... investments. Nonregulated investments shall include the investment in nonregulated activities that are...

  4. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment procedures. 211.9 Section 211.9... Investment procedures. (a) General provisions. 5 Direct and indirect investments shall be made in accordance... investments in excess of the limitations therein based on capital and surplus. (1) Minimum capital adequacy...

  5. 12 CFR 195.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment test. 195.23 Section 195.23 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 195.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a... qualified investments that benefit its assessment area(s) or a broader statewide or regional area that...

  6. 47 CFR 32.102 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.102 Section 32.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... investments. Nonregulated investments shall include the investment in nonregulated activities that are...

  7. 43 CFR 29.11 - Investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investment. 29.11 Section 29.11 Public... Investment. (a) The monies accumulated in the Fund shall be prudently invested in the following types of... investment advisor or custodian to the Fund, or their affiliates may be purchased or held by the Fund. (3...

  8. 47 CFR 32.102 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.102 Section 32.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... investments. Nonregulated investments shall include the investment in nonregulated activities that are...

  9. 47 CFR 32.102 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.102 Section 32.102 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... investments. Nonregulated investments shall include the investment in nonregulated activities that are...

  10. 12 CFR 703.18 - Grandfathered investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grandfathered investments. 703.18 Section 703... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.18 Grandfathered investments. (a) Subject to safety and soundness... zero coupon security with a maturity greater than 10 years, if it purchased the investment: (1) Before...

  11. 12 CFR 563e.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Investment test. 563e.23 Section 563e.23 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates... qualified investments that benefit its assessment area(s) or a broader statewide or regional area that...

  12. 12 CFR 347.108 - Portfolio investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Portfolio investments. 347.108 Section 347.108... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.108 Portfolio investments. (a) Portfolio investments. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization as a portfolio investment and the...

  13. 12 CFR 956.2 - Authorized investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized investments. 956.2 Section 956.2... ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.2 Authorized investments. In addition to assets... securities of any small business investment company formed pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 681(d), to the extent such...

  14. 12 CFR 195.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment test. 195.23 Section 195.23 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 195.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a... qualified investments that benefit its assessment area(s) or a broader statewide or regional area that...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments. An association may hold eligible investments listed in § 615.5140, with the approval of its funding...

  16. 43 CFR 29.11 - Investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investment. 29.11 Section 29.11 Public... Investment. (a) The monies accumulated in the Fund shall be prudently invested in the following types of... investment advisor or custodian to the Fund, or their affiliates may be purchased or held by the Fund. (3...

  17. Unit Method of Accounting for Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leigh A.

    1971-01-01

    The unit method of accounting for investments, also called the market-value method, is defined as a procedure for accurately allocating income and investment gains and losses, both realized and unrealized, between component funds of an investment pool. This procedure provides a data base for the calculation of investment performance. Advantages of…

  18. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537....311 New investment. (a) The term new investment means any of the following activities if such activity... located in Burma, without regard to the form of the participation. (b) The term new investment shall not...

  19. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537....311 New investment. (a) The term new investment means any of the following activities if such activity... located in Burma, without regard to the form of the participation. (b) The term new investment shall not...

  20. Government Strategic Support for Investment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turekulova, Assiya N.; Mukhambetova, Lyazzat K.; Doshan, Almagul S.; Issabekov, Baurzhan N.; Chimgentbayeva, Gulbakyt K.; Turegeldinova, Aliya Zh.

    2016-01-01

    When system risks are high most investors choose to exit the market; however, there are some contrarian investors who opt to make investments. The authors analyzed the main goals of the investment process and measures that should be provided by the government to stimulate investments and innovation especially by means of investment banking. The…

  1. Investment policy, guidelines help providers control risk.

    PubMed

    Seidner, A G

    1989-03-01

    Because the financial markets are volatile, every healthcare organization should establish its own investment policy and guidelines. An investment policy reflects the views of a hospital's board of trustees, and helps the trustees avoid conflict of interest situations. Investment guidelines spell out management's approach to three critical investing components: safety of principal, liquidity, and yield.

  2. 17 CFR 270.17f-2 - Custody of investments by registered management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... registered management investment company. 270.17f-2 Section 270.17f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....17f-2 Custody of investments by registered management investment company. (a) The securities and similar investments of a registered management investment company may be maintained in the custody of...

  3. 77 FR 27499 - Destra Capital Investments LLC and Destra Unit Investment Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Destra Capital Investments LLC and Destra Unit Investment Trust; Notice of Application May 3, 2012...) section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from sections 2(a)(32), 2(a...: Destra Investments LLC (``Destra'') and Destra Unit Investment Trust (``DUIT'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Applicants also...

  4. Essays on the investment behavior of independent power producers in the United States electricity industry under regulatory restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jingming

    2002-09-01

    In recent years, there have been efforts at both the federal and state level to introduce greater competition and markets into the US electricity industry through regulatory restructuring. A key to the success of such efforts is the ability of the restructuring to attract investment from non-utility, independent power producers (IPPs). The two essays in this dissertation examine empirically the investment behavior of IPPs under the regulatory restructuring between 1996 and 2000. In both essays, the effects of restructuring on a firm's investment decision are decomposed into the effects that work through the investment cost and that through the expected profit from the investment. The first essay studies the entry behavior of IPPs under the restructuring. The main finding of the essay is that the restructuring has done little to lower the entry barrier faced by IPPs-high fixed cost to entry is still a main factor that hinders IPP investment. The second essay studies IPPs' decisions between investing through building new power plants ("make") and investing through acquiring divested plants ("buy"). It finds that the availability of the "buy" option does not "squeeze" out investment on new capacities. IPPs that chose to "buy" did so because they expected a lower return from "make" and hence would not have switched their investment to new capacities even if the "buy" option were not available. Therefore, divestiture is a viable policy tool for state regulators to attract more IPP investment.

  5. FSU's natural gas liquids business needs investment

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnikov, V.S.; Berman, M.; Angerinos, G.F. )

    1995-03-13

    Production of natural gas liquids has fallen seriously behind its potential in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Restoration of the gas liquids business thus represents a rich investment opportunity. Capital, however, must come from international sources, which remain uncertain about the FSU's legal, commercial, and political systems. If these hurdles can be overcome, FSU output of liquid petroleum gas alone might double between 1990 and 2010. In the FSU, LPG is produced from associated and nonassociated natural gas, condensate, and refinery streams. It also comes from what is known in the FSU as ShFLU--a mixture of propane, butane, pentane, and hexane produced at gas processing plants in Western Siberia and fractionated elsewhere. The paper reviews FSU production of gas liquids focusing on West Siberia, gives a production outlook, and describes LPG use and business development.

  6. Manpower Targets and Educational Investments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzen, Jo M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the use of quadratic programming to calculate the optimal distribution of educational investments required to closely approach manpower targets when financial resources are insufficient to meet manpower targets completely. Demonstrates use of the quadratic programming approach by applying it to the training of supervisory technicians in…

  7. Defense Financial and Investment Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    to direct its attention to problems such as profit policy and the management and investment practices of defense contractors. Prorit Study 󈨖 In 1982...I \\-L 10 NO ADJUSTMENT 46- 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Sources: Touche Ross; Prorit 󈨐 V-34

  8. Our Investment in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Examines the role of public schools in promoting social and economic progress and discusses the future costs of inadequate investments in public education. Research shows that education reduces racial and ethnic prejudice and that literacy increases worker productivity. Inadequate education is directly related to increased unemployment, welfare…

  9. Capital planning: investing in excellence.

    PubMed

    Slater, G; Del Bravo, K

    1994-04-01

    Graham Slater and Kate Del Bravo describe the priorities considered and work undertaken by SETRHA to develop its capital investment strategy. Although the underlying concepts are straightforward, it represents a significant development beyond traditional NHS approaches to planning, embraces the NHS market reforms, and has reduced capital aspirations for the same service objectives by some 300m pounds.

  10. Personal Investment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parzen, Maurine

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, in Ontario, RPN's have had the option to return to school to obtain their BScN degree in three years of full time study instead of four years. Many of these students are mature and come with prior family and financial responsibilities that add extra challenges to their learning experience. Questioning their choice of investment in…

  11. Multinational Investment: Opportunity and Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains nine articles focusing on the internationalization of the world's economy and business and how employment security and employment and training programs can be involved. The opening article, "Foreign Investment Euphoria Hides Community Upheaval" (W. Scott Boyd), provides an overview of the volume…

  12. Investing in the Central Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Regis Anne

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking against similar districts, ideally higher-performing ones, can be a valuable tool for determining the appropriate level of central-office investment. Unfortunately, reliable benchmarks on district spending in teaching and learning support are not readily available. This should not preclude districts from using this valuable method to…

  13. Afresh look at capital investments.

    PubMed

    Levy, Alexis; Lawrence, Jennifer; Shiple, David

    2009-03-01

    Hospitals should focus on optimizing performance in five primary areas of capital investment: facilities, IT, physician networks, service lines, and clinical equipment/technology. Hospitals require a broad evaluation framework to help identify the key issues and concerns associated with each area. Discipline is critical to this process, so that every area receives its due consideration.

  14. Multinational Investment: Opportunity and Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains nine articles focusing on the internationalization of the world's economy and business and how employment security and employment and training programs can be involved. The opening article, "Foreign Investment Euphoria Hides Community Upheaval" (W. Scott Boyd), provides an overview of the volume…

  15. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  16. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  17. Investment Clubs Teach Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sheri

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted by "Money" Magazine in August 2006 found that students are not as financially literate as they ought to be. Teachers are now being challenged to find alternative strategies to educate students in the ways of personal finance. One component of personal finance that is particularly challenging is investments. In this article, the…

  18. Investment Clubs Teach Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sheri

    2007-01-01

    A study conducted by "Money" Magazine in August 2006 found that students are not as financially literate as they ought to be. Teachers are now being challenged to find alternative strategies to educate students in the ways of personal finance. One component of personal finance that is particularly challenging is investments. In this article, the…

  19. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  20. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., as long as the prospectus of the company or fund restricts the investment portfolio to investments... assessment of the market value of the securities under § 703.13(c)(1) using an independent qualified...

  1. 12 CFR 615.5140 - Eligible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... economic stability by an NRSRO. (c) Marketable securities. All eligible investments, except money market... must explain the risk characteristics of the investment and your purpose and objectives for making the...

  2. Colleges Explore Innovative Ways to Invest Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    1985-01-01

    Trends in innovative investment of college funds are discussed, and the nontraditional, entrepreneurial investments of Bowdoin, Bryn Mawr, Duke, and the Universities of Missouri at Kansas City, Utah, and Virginia are described. (MSE)

  3. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  4. [Sensitivity analysis in health investment projects].

    PubMed

    Arroyave-Loaiza, G; Isaza-Nieto, P; Jarillo-Soto, E C

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the concepts and methodologies frequently used in sensitivity analyses in the evaluation of investment programs. In addition, a concrete example is presented: a hospital investment in which four indicators were used to design different scenarios and their impact on investment costs. This paper emphasizes the importance of this type of analysis in the field of management of health services, and more specifically in the formulation of investment programs.

  5. Investment and regulation: the Dutch experience

    SciTech Connect

    Haffner, Robert; Helmer, Dorine; van Til, Harry

    2010-06-15

    Theoretical studies on the relationship between incentive regulation and investment in network industries generally point out that incentive regulation has a negative impact on investment. However, empirical evidence in this area is scarce. An analysis suggests that in the Dutch electricity and gas networks since 2001, incentive regulation has ensured a more rational and professional approach towards investments, with investment levels coming down somewhat at the start of the regulation but picking up later on. (author)

  6. Investment Dynamics with Natural Expectations*

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, Andreas; Hebert, Benjamin; Laibson, David

    2012-01-01

    We study an investment model in which agents have the wrong beliefs about the dynamic properties of fundamentals. Specifically, we assume that agents underestimate the rate of mean reversion. The model exhibits the following six properties: (i) Beliefs are excessively optimistic in good times and excessively pessimistic in bad times. (ii) Asset prices are too volatile. (iii) Excess returns are negatively autocorrelated. (iv) High levels of corporate profits predict negative future excess returns. (v) Real economic activity is excessively volatile; the economy experiences amplified investment cycles. (vi) Corporate profits are positively autocorrelated in the short run and negatively autocorrelated in the medium run. The paper provides an illustrative model of animal spirits, amplified business cycles, and excess volatility. PMID:23243469

  7. Investment Dynamics with Natural Expectations.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Andreas; Hebert, Benjamin; Laibson, David

    2010-01-01

    We study an investment model in which agents have the wrong beliefs about the dynamic properties of fundamentals. Specifically, we assume that agents underestimate the rate of mean reversion. The model exhibits the following six properties: (i) Beliefs are excessively optimistic in good times and excessively pessimistic in bad times. (ii) Asset prices are too volatile. (iii) Excess returns are negatively autocorrelated. (iv) High levels of corporate profits predict negative future excess returns. (v) Real economic activity is excessively volatile; the economy experiences amplified investment cycles. (vi) Corporate profits are positively autocorrelated in the short run and negatively autocorrelated in the medium run. The paper provides an illustrative model of animal spirits, amplified business cycles, and excess volatility.

  8. 17 CFR 256.124 - Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Investments § 256.124 Other investments. This account shall include the cost or... insurance policies for employees, or other investments in nonassociate companies, other than account 136...

  9. 17 CFR 256.124 - Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Investments § 256.124 Other investments. This account shall include the cost or... insurance policies for employees, or other investments in nonassociate companies, other than account 136...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5132 - Investment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment purposes. 615.5132 Section 615.5132 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5132 Investment purposes. Each...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5132 - Investment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment purposes. 615.5132 Section 615.5132 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5132 Investment purposes. Each...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615.5142 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5142 - Association investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Association investments. 615.5142 Section 615.5142 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5142 Association investments...

  14. 12 CFR 703.18 - Grandfathered investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grandfathered investments. 703.18 Section 703.18 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.18 Grandfathered investments. (a) Subject to safety and soundness considerations, a Federal credit union may hold a...

  15. 12 CFR 703.18 - Grandfathered investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grandfathered investments. 703.18 Section 703.18 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.18 Grandfathered investments. (a) Subject to safety and soundness considerations, a Federal credit union may hold a...

  16. 12 CFR 345.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment test. 345.23 Section 345.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment...

  17. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit... considered under the lending or service tests may not be considered under the investment test. (c)...

  18. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  19. 12 CFR 25.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment test. 25.23 Section 25.23 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  20. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  1. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  2. 12 CFR 345.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment test. 345.23 Section 345.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5133 Investment management. (a... activities. Your board of directors must also ensure that management complies with these policies and...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5133 Investment management. (a... activities. Your board of directors must also ensure that management complies with these policies and that...

  5. 12 CFR 25.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment test. 25.23 Section 25.23 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its...

  6. 12 CFR 25.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 25.23 Section 25.23 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its...

  7. 47 CFR 32.1406 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.1406 Section 32.1406 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Nonregulated investments. This account shall include the carrier's investment in nonregulated activities...

  8. 47 CFR 32.1406 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.1406 Section 32.1406 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Nonregulated investments. This account shall include the carrier's investment in nonregulated activities...

  9. 47 CFR 32.1406 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.1406 Section 32.1406 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Nonregulated investments. This account shall include the carrier's investment in nonregulated activities...

  10. 47 CFR 32.1406 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.1406 Section 32.1406 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Nonregulated investments. This account shall include the carrier's investment in nonregulated activities...

  11. 12 CFR 25.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment test. 25.23 Section 25.23 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its...

  12. 12 CFR 25.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment test. 25.23 Section 25.23 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its...

  13. 31 CFR 560.207 - Prohibited investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207 Section... Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and notwithstanding any contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to May 7, 1995, any new investment by a United States...

  14. 31 CFR 560.207 - Prohibited investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207 Section... Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and notwithstanding any contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to May 7, 1995, any new investment by a United States...

  15. 31 CFR 560.207 - Prohibited investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207 Section... Prohibitions § 560.207 Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... investment by a United States person in Iran or in property (including entities) owned or controlled by the...

  16. 31 CFR 560.207 - Prohibited investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207 Section... Prohibitions § 560.207 Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... investment by a United States person in Iran or in property (including entities) owned or controlled by the...

  17. 47 CFR 32.1406 - Nonregulated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated investments. 32.1406 Section 32.1406 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Nonregulated investments. This account shall include the carrier's investment in nonregulated activities...

  18. 31 CFR 560.207 - Prohibited investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207... § 560.207 Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... investment by a United States person in Iran or in property (including entities) owned or controlled by the...

  19. Should Your Endowment Invest in Alternatives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Jay A.

    2005-01-01

    Alternative investments (those that exhibit risk and return properties not easily attainable from traditional asset classes) constitute an investment option that no modern college or university investment strategist can ignore. Colleges and universities with larger allocations to alternatives outperformed institutions with smaller allocations in…

  20. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... A Federal credit union may invest in a registered investment company or collective investment fund... less than 5 years. (g) European financial options contract. A Federal credit union may purchase a European financial options contract or a series of European financial options contracts only to fund the...

  1. 31 CFR 586.312 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 586.312 Section 586.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.312 New investment. The term new investment means...

  2. 31 CFR 560.316 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New investment. 560.316 Section 560.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.316 New investment. The term new investment means a transaction after 12:01 EDT, May 7, 1995, that...

  3. 31 CFR 560.316 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 560.316 Section 560.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.316 New investment. The term new investment means a transaction after 12:01 EDT, May 7, 1995, that...

  4. 31 CFR 560.316 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New investment. 560.316 Section 560.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 560.316 New investment. The term new investment means a transaction after 12:01 Eastern Daylight...

  5. 31 CFR 560.316 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New investment. 560.316 Section 560.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.316 New investment. The term new investment means a transaction after 12:01 EDT, May 7, 1995, that...

  6. 31 CFR 560.316 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New investment. 560.316 Section 560.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 560.316 New investment. The term new investment means a transaction after 12:01 Eastern Daylight...

  7. Principles for Managing a Tribe's Financial Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    1996-01-01

    Argues that to manage a tribe's investment portfolio well requires knowledge of the tribe's needs as well as of the money management industry and its concepts and language. Discusses opportunities for the investment of tribal funds, examining mutual funds, the use of investment advisors and consultants, diversification, and levels of risk. (MAB)

  8. Principles for Managing a Tribe's Financial Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    1996-01-01

    Argues that to manage a tribe's investment portfolio well requires knowledge of the tribe's needs as well as of the money management industry and its concepts and language. Discusses opportunities for the investment of tribal funds, examining mutual funds, the use of investment advisors and consultants, diversification, and levels of risk. (MAB)

  9. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... credit union may invest in a variable rate investment, as long as the index is tied to domestic interest rates. Except in the case of Treasury Inflation Protected Securities, the variable rate investment cannot, for example, be tied to foreign currencies, foreign interest rates, domestic or foreign commodity...

  10. Investment opportunities in the Peruvian oil indusry

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga, E.

    1993-12-31

    Investment opportunities in the Peruvian oil industry are discussed. The following topics are discussed: historical highlights; sedimentary basins currently available; renewed investment climate; need for oil exploration investment; petroperu`s privatization; global strategy for the sale of petroperu; petroperu`s main assets; and financial profile.

  11. Staying on track with your investment plan.

    PubMed

    Harper, M E

    2000-01-01

    The key to successful investing is not to try to pick the "hot" stocks but rather to invest for the long run. The best approach is not trying to predict market trends but making financial goals and diversifying your investments to reach them.

  12. 76 FR 43385 - Lending and Investment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... on the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number: 1550... investments for safety and soundness purposes are found at 12 CFR 560 and 562.1, 563.41, 563.170, and...

  13. 12 CFR 1.8 - Nonconforming investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exercise reasonable efforts to bring an investment that is nonconforming as a result of events described in... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonconforming investments. 1.8 Section 1.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.8...

  14. 12 CFR 1.8 - Nonconforming investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exercise reasonable efforts to bring an investment that is nonconforming as a result of events described in... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonconforming investments. 1.8 Section 1.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.8...

  15. 12 CFR 1.8 - Nonconforming investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exercise reasonable efforts to bring an investment that is nonconforming as a result of events described in... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonconforming investments. 1.8 Section 1.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.8...

  16. 12 CFR 1.8 - Nonconforming investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exercise reasonable efforts to bring an investment that is nonconforming as a result of events described in... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonconforming investments. 1.8 Section 1.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.8...

  17. 12 CFR 1.8 - Nonconforming investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exercise reasonable efforts to bring an investment that is nonconforming as a result of events described in... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonconforming investments. 1.8 Section 1.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.8...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5140 - Eligible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible investments. 615.5140 Section 615.5140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5140 Eligible investments. (a...

  19. Nation Assistance, Charity or Investment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 SBOOD ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■I WTC PÜXI.TTT VR USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Nation Assistance, Charity or Investment? by Cortez... collapse . Many investors are seeing this as an opportunity to get in while the market is under valued and make huge profits in a short period of

  20. 78 FR 46805 - Certain Transfers of Property to Regulated Investment Companies [RICs] and Real Estate Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final... to a Regulated Investment Company (RIC) or a Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT). These regulations... 851(a). (iv) REIT. The term REIT means a real estate investment trust within the meaning of...

  1. 12 CFR 703.5 - Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers. 703.5 Section 703.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.5 Discretionary control over investments and...

  2. 12 CFR 703.5 - Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers. 703.5 Section 703.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.5 Discretionary control over investments and...

  3. 12 CFR 703.5 - Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers. 703.5 Section 703.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.5 Discretionary control over investments and...

  4. 12 CFR 703.5 - Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers. 703.5 Section 703.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.5 Discretionary control over investments and...

  5. 17 CFR 210.12-15 - Summary of investments-other than investments in related parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Summary of investments-other than investments in related parties. 210.12-15 Section 210.12-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT...

  6. 12 CFR 703.5 - Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers. 703.5 Section 703.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.5 Discretionary control over investments and...

  7. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by open-end Funds. (5) Fund means an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act... this section: (1) Access person means: (i) Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund's investment adviser. If an investment adviser's primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all...

  8. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by open-end Funds. (5) Fund means an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act... this section: (1) Access person means: (i) Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund's investment adviser. If an investment adviser's primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all...

  9. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by open-end Funds. (5) Fund means an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act... this section: (1) Access person means: (i) Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund's investment adviser. If an investment adviser's primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all...

  10. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by open-end Funds. (5) Fund means an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act... this section: (1) Access person means: (i) Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund's investment adviser. If an investment adviser's primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all...

  11. 17 CFR 270.17j-1 - Personal investment activities of investment company personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by open-end Funds. (5) Fund means an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act... this section: (1) Access person means: (i) Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund's investment adviser. If an investment adviser's primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all...

  12. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... investment information concerning the other investment alternatives available under the plan. (e) Qualified... accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of large losses and that is... portfolio that applies generally accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of...

  13. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... investment information concerning the other investment alternatives available under the plan. (e) Qualified... accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of large losses and that is... portfolio that applies generally accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of...

  14. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... investment information concerning the other investment alternatives available under the plan. (e) Qualified... accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of large losses and that is... portfolio that applies generally accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of...

  15. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... investment information concerning the other investment alternatives available under the plan. (e) Qualified... accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of large losses and that is... portfolio that applies generally accepted investment theories, is diversified so as to minimize the risk of...

  16. Minimal investment risk of a portfolio optimization problem with budget and investment concentration constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, the minimal investment risk for a portfolio optimization problem with imposed budget and investment concentration constraints is considered using replica analysis. Since the minimal investment risk is influenced by the investment concentration constraint (as well as the budget constraint), it is intuitive that the minimal investment risk for the problem with an investment concentration constraint can be larger than that without the constraint (that is, with only the budget constraint). Moreover, a numerical experiment shows the effectiveness of our proposed analysis. In contrast, the standard operations research approach failed to identify accurately the minimal investment risk of the portfolio optimization problem.

  17. Testing the Terminal Investment Hypothesis in California Oaks.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter D; Knops, Johannes M H; Carmen, William J; Pesendorfer, Mario B

    2017-05-01

    The terminal investment hypothesis-which proposes that reproductive investment should increase with age-related declines in reproductive value-has garnered support in a range of animal species but has not been previously examined in long-lived plants, such as trees. We tested this hypothesis by comparing relative acorn production and radial growth among 1,000+ mature individuals of eight species of California oaks (genus Quercus) followed for up to 37 years, during which time 70 trees died apparently natural deaths. We found no significant differences in the radial growth, acorn production, or index of reproductive effort, taking into consideration both growth and reproduction among dying trees relative to either conspecific trees at the same site that did not die or growth and reproduction from earlier years for the focal trees that did eventually die. Furthermore, we found no consistent trade-off between growth and reproduction among trees that died, nor did dying trees significantly alter their relative investment in reproduction even as they underwent physical decline. Trees approaching the end of their lives are often in poor physical condition but do not appear to differentially invest more of their diminished resources in reproduction compared with healthy trees.

  18. The economics of stranded investment - a two-way street

    SciTech Connect

    Cearley, R.; McKinzie, L.

    1995-11-01

    In the transition to deregulation, the risk, costs and benefits of utility assets are transferred from the customer to the investor, creating potential stranded benefits as well as stranded costs. Investors may be better or worse off depending on whether an asset`s cost is below or above market. Regulators can minimize unintended wealth transfers by compensating each potential loser in the transition. The amount of investment stranded - i.e., the portion of plant that is above market value - does seem to be a murky issue. This article sets a framework for evaluating stranded investment and traces the possible welfare effects of different policies to address it. It defines {open_quote}stranded costs,{close_quote} {open_quote}stranded investment,{close_quote} and {open_quote}stranded benefits.{close_quote} It addresses their interrelationship, and shows that the redefinition of property rights during the transition to a competitive market is what leads to stranded investment. The elimination of the utility`s exclusive franchise - i.e., its obligation to serve and customers` obligation to pay - leads to the redefinition of those property rights as they pertain to the costs, benefits and risks associated with existing utility generation. Finally, the authors address the possible welfare implications from this transition.

  19. 12 CFR 160.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... investments. A pass-through investment occurs when you invest in an entity (“company”) that engages only in... invested in nonresidential real property loans). (b) You may make a pass-through investment without prior notice to the OCC if all of the following conditions are met: (1) You do not invest more than 15% of your...

  20. 12 CFR 160.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... investments. A pass-through investment occurs when you invest in an entity (“company”) that engages only in... invested in nonresidential real property loans). (b) You may make a pass-through investment without prior notice to the OCC if all of the following conditions are met: (1) You do not invest more than 15% of your...

  1. Quality improvement as an investment.

    PubMed

    Weeks, William B

    2002-01-01

    Health care organizations are experiencing increasing internal and external pressures to improve the quality of care that they provide. However, there is not a framework that can be used to help understand the value of quality improvement projects and to prioritize competing projects. By understanding the current processes, costs and outcomes of care, enumerating the costs and benefits of change, anticipating the timing of the costs and benefits, and performing a financial analysis, quality improvement efforts can be evaluated as investments. Only by understanding and adapting to the financial environments in which health care organizations operate can continuous quality improvement in health care succeed.

  2. Leasing equipment minimizes capital investment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M E; Maier, R A

    1989-03-01

    As consumers continue to demand the most advanced technology at the lowest cost, healthcare organizations are turning to leasing as a way of acquiring equipment with a minimum amount of capital investment. Institutions considering leasing should determine their balance sheet constraints, compare the relative costs of debt financing and leasing, and assess the residual value of the equipment at the end of its use. Comparing potential lessors requires careful analysis of rate structures and the capability of the companies to commit to a contract promptly.

  3. Global Governmental Investment in Nanotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnologies seem to have huge potential to bring benefits in areas as diverse as drug development, water decontamination, information and communication infrastructures, and the production of stronger, lighter and perfect nanomaterials. This potential attracts global investment from governments and private sectors in nanotechnologies with the hopes that R&D and commercial applications of nanomaterials, nanodevices, nanoparticles and nanodrugs will provide new impetus, after the ebb-tides of biotechnology and dotcom, to turn faltering economies around. The global governmental funding has been actively promoting industrial and academic cooperation to realize big prosperity from the nanotechnologies. This article summarizes historic trends and status of global governmental supports for nanotechnologies. PMID:19865495

  4. 12 CFR 150.330 - Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are there investments in which I may not invest... Restrictions on Self Dealing § 150.330 Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account? You may not invest funds of a fiduciary account for which you have investment discretion in the...

  5. 12 CFR 550.330 - Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are there investments in which I may not invest... on Self Dealing § 550.330 Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account? You may not invest funds of a fiduciary account for which you have investment discretion in the...

  6. 12 CFR 550.330 - Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are there investments in which I may not invest... on Self Dealing § 550.330 Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account? You may not invest funds of a fiduciary account for which you have investment discretion in the...

  7. 12 CFR 150.330 - Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are there investments in which I may not invest... Restrictions on Self Dealing § 150.330 Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account? You may not invest funds of a fiduciary account for which you have investment discretion in the...

  8. 12 CFR 550.330 - Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Are there investments in which I may not invest... on Self Dealing § 550.330 Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account? You may not invest funds of a fiduciary account for which you have investment discretion in the...

  9. 12 CFR 550.330 - Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are there investments in which I may not invest... on Self Dealing § 550.330 Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account? You may not invest funds of a fiduciary account for which you have investment discretion in the...

  10. 12 CFR 150.330 - Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are there investments in which I may not invest... Restrictions on Self Dealing § 150.330 Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account? You may not invest funds of a fiduciary account for which you have investment discretion in the...

  11. 12 CFR 550.330 - Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Are there investments in which I may not invest... on Self Dealing § 550.330 Are there investments in which I may not invest funds of a fiduciary account? You may not invest funds of a fiduciary account for which you have investment discretion in the...

  12. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  13. Investment risk in bioenergy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Skevas, Theodoros; Swinton, Scott M.; Tanner, Sophia; Sanford, Gregg; Thelen, Kurt D.

    2015-11-18

    Here, perennial, cellulosic bioenergy crops represent a risky investment. The potential for adoption of these crops depends not only on mean net returns, but also on the associated probability distributions and on the risk preferences of farmers. Using 6-year observed crop yield data from highly productive and marginally productive sites in the southern Great Lakes region and assuming risk neutrality, we calculate expected breakeven biomass yields and prices compared to corn (Zea mays L.) as a benchmark. Next we develop Monte Carlo budget simulations based on stochastic crop prices and yields. The crop yield simulations decompose yield risk into three components: crop establishment survival, time to maturity, and mature yield variability. Results reveal that corn with harvest of grain and 38% of stover (as cellulosic bioenergy feedstock) is both the most profitable and the least risky investment option. It dominates all perennial systems considered across a wide range of farmer risk preferences. Although not currently attractive for profit-oriented farmers who are risk neutral or risk averse, perennial bioenergy crops.

  14. Investment risk in bioenergy crops

    DOE PAGES

    Skevas, Theodoros; Swinton, Scott M.; Tanner, Sophia; ...

    2015-11-18

    Here, perennial, cellulosic bioenergy crops represent a risky investment. The potential for adoption of these crops depends not only on mean net returns, but also on the associated probability distributions and on the risk preferences of farmers. Using 6-year observed crop yield data from highly productive and marginally productive sites in the southern Great Lakes region and assuming risk neutrality, we calculate expected breakeven biomass yields and prices compared to corn (Zea mays L.) as a benchmark. Next we develop Monte Carlo budget simulations based on stochastic crop prices and yields. The crop yield simulations decompose yield risk into threemore » components: crop establishment survival, time to maturity, and mature yield variability. Results reveal that corn with harvest of grain and 38% of stover (as cellulosic bioenergy feedstock) is both the most profitable and the least risky investment option. It dominates all perennial systems considered across a wide range of farmer risk preferences. Although not currently attractive for profit-oriented farmers who are risk neutral or risk averse, perennial bioenergy crops.« less

  15. Foundations Invest In Environmental Health.

    PubMed

    Sessions, Kathryn; Fortunato, Karla; Johnson, Philip R S; Panek, Amy

    2016-11-01

    Nearly one in four deaths globally are due to environmental hazards such as air and water pollution, according to the World Health Organization. However, knowledge about how the environment affects health and health equity outcomes has not been well integrated into decisions that shape the conditions in which people live, work, and play. To address this challenge, US foundations have invested millions of dollars to make it easier to incorporate environmental health information into decisions ranging from family purchases and governmental policy making to business, medical, and other professional practices. This article summarizes grant making aimed at improving environmental conditions to improve health and health equity outcomes. We provide examples of environmental health grants that focus on tools that the public, policy makers, and professionals can use in making decisions. We found that the investment in and attention to environmental factors, including in work addressing social determinants of health, have been insufficient to realize the potential for reducing negative environmental impacts on health and health disparities. We argue that the grant making highlighted here has increased knowledge that could enable more widespread consideration of environmental health in many decisions, with positive effects on health and health equity.

  16. Investment management. 8 steps to improve performance.

    PubMed

    Calvello, Angelo A

    2003-06-01

    Today's troubling economic times call for financial managers to take a back-to-basics approach to investment management. Goals and investment practices should be reexamined to determine if they continue to meet the organization's needs. The policy asset allocation and portfolio should reflect the appropriate weight and mix to serve the organization's present and long-term goals. Consultants, investment managers, and custodians should be evaluated carefully to support cost-efficient, effective service.

  17. The return on investment for information technology.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, B P; Bergeron, R A

    1998-01-01

    Investment in information technology accounts for an increasingly large component of the cost of modern health care. In most businesses, a quantitative return on investment analysis forms the basis for decisions regarding technology investment. As a whole, the medical community lags behind in the quantitative analysis of the benefits of information technology. However, economic pressures are forcing health care organizations to step back and understand the implications of technology investments and how they can best be applied to create a more productive staff and, in the end, better patient care.

  18. Statistical properties of world investment networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Ming; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2009-06-01

    We have performed a detailed investigation on the world investment networks constructed from the Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey (CPIS) data of the International Monetary Fund, ranging from 2001 to 2006. The distributions of degrees and node strengths are scale-free. The weight distributions can be well modeled by the Weibull distribution. The maximum flow spanning trees of the world investment networks possess two universal allometric scaling relations, independent of time and the investment type. The topological scaling exponent is 1.17±0.02 and the flow scaling exponent is 1.03±0.01.

  19. Thermal behaviour of casting investment during setting.

    PubMed

    Wakasa, K; Yamaki, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the thermal reactions of silica-sol liquids for mixing investment powders using differential thermal analysis (DTA) and also the setting behaviour of the mixed powders using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The silica-sol liquids showed the appearance of vapourization (around 100 degrees C as a peak temperature) and combustion (200-300 degrees C) in DTA measurement. Mixed silica-sol investment exhibited the setting behaviour with an exotherm in the DSC measurement representing that greater peak time, setting time and heat in mixed investment than with gypsum-bonded investment.

  20. Where to Plant Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; Walter M. Broadfoot

    1978-01-01

    Before anyone invests in planting hardwoods, he wants to know that his trees are suited to the site and will grow well. That assurance is now available to those interested in green ash, cottonwood, sweetgum, sycamore, or Nuttall, water, willow or cherrybark oaks.

  1. \\t Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) for the Management of Information Technology Investments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) is the Information Technology (IT) governance and management methodology in use at EPA for selecting, controlling and evaluating the performance of EPA IT investments throughout the full lifecycle.

  2. Association of market, operational, and financial factors with nonprofit hospitals' capital investment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; McCue, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Capital investments in the latest medical equipment and the replacement of aging facilities are critical decisions for sustaining hospitals' financial viability. A recent survey over the period 1997 to 2001 found that hospitals increased their capital expenditures by only 1%. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the changes in market, operational, and financial factors that may have influenced hospital capital investment during this period. The sample consisted of a panel of nonprofit hospitals operating between 1998 and 2001. Capital investment was measured on the basis of capital purchases for buildings, fixtures, and movable equipment during a fiscal year. The results suggest that liquidity-the availability of internal funds-is a critical determinant of capital investment in both urban and rural facilities. From a market perspective, findings indicate that growth in the over-65 population led to increases in the capital investment of rural hospitals. Financially, an increase in cash flow also was strongly related to a change in capital investment among urban facilities. Surprisingly, rural hospitals with aging plants and equipment had declining capital investment.

  3. Increased Host Investment in Extrafloral Nectar (EFN) Improves the Efficiency of a Mutualistic Defensive Service

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Silva Bueno, Juan Carlos; Heil, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar (EFN) plays an important role as plant indirect defence through the attraction of defending ants. Like all rewards produced in the context of a mutualism, however, EFN is in danger of being exploited by non-ant consumers that do not defend the plant against herbivores. Here we asked whether plants, by investing more in EFN, can improve their indirect defence, or rather increase the risk of losing this investment to EFN thieves. We used the obligate plant-ant Acacia-Pseudomyrmex system and examined experimentally in the field during the dry and the rainy seasons how variations in EFN secretion are related to (i) ant activity, to (ii) the ant-mediated defence against herbivores and (iii) the exploitation of EFN by non-ant consumers. Extrafloral investment enhanced ant recruitment and was positively related to the ant mediated defence against herbivores. The ant-mediated protection from exploiters also increased in proportion to the nectar sugar concentration. Although the daily peak of EFN production coincided with the highest activity of EFN thieves, Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus ants protected this resource effectively from exploiters. Nevertheless, the defensive effects by ants differed among seasons. During the dry season, plants grew slower and secreted more EFN than in the rainy season, and thus, experienced a higher level of ant-mediated indirect defence. Our results show that an increased plant investment in an indirect defence trait can improve the resulting defensive service against both herbivores and exploiters. EFN secretion by obligate ant-plants represents a defensive trait for which the level of investment correlates positively with the beneficial effects obtained. PMID:23056362

  4. 26 CFR 1.58-6 - Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regulated investment companies; real estate... TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-6 Regulated investment companies; real... of the items of tax preference of regulated investment companies (as defined in section 851)...

  5. 26 CFR 1.58-6 - Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regulated investment companies; real estate... TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-6 Regulated investment companies; real... of the items of tax preference of regulated investment companies (as defined in section 851)...

  6. 77 FR 20292 - Small Business Investment Companies-Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ..., where both parties invested previously on the same terms and conditions and where the follow-on... under which an SBIC is permitted to co-invest with its Associates. The primary purpose of these... the SBIC; one of these safe harbors covers financings where the SBIC and its Associate invest at the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.58-6 - Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Regulated investment companies; real estate... their shareholders and real estate investment trusts (as defined in section 856) and their shareholders... real estate investment trust, accelerated depreciation on section 1250 property (sections 57(a)(2)...

  8. 26 CFR 1.58-6 - Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts. 1.58-6 Section 1.58-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-6 Regulated investment companies; real...

  9. 26 CFR 1.58-6 - Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regulated investment companies; real estate investment trusts. 1.58-6 Section 1.58-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-6 Regulated investment companies; real...

  10. 17 CFR 210.12-15 - Summary of investments-other than investments in related parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Summary of investments-other than investments in related parties. 210.12-15 Section 210.12-15 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT...

  11. 17 CFR 270.17f-2 - Custody of investments by registered management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of investments by registered management investment company. 270.17f-2 Section 270.17f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270...

  12. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section in connection with the management of a qualified default... as investment management fees, distribution and/or service fees, “12b-1” fees, or legal, accounting... to management by the investment management service to the extent the investment management...

  13. Public Libraries--A Wise Investment: A Return on Investment Study of Colorado Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffen, Nicolle; Lietzau, Zeth; Lance, Keith Curry; Rybin, Amanda; Molliconi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Public libraries deliver many benefits to their patrons, but understanding these benefits in terms of dollars-and-cents is difficult. In an effort to quantify the return on investment to taxpayers for monies invested in public libraries, the Library Research Service (LRS) initiated the study, "Public Libraries -- A Wise Investment: A Return…

  14. 17 CFR 270.17f-2 - Custody of investments by registered management investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of investments by registered management investment company. 270.17f-2 Section 270.17f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270...

  15. 75 FR 18407 - Investing in Innovation Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... CFR Chapter II RIN 1855-AA06 Investing in Innovation Fund Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA...: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Final priorities, requirements..., definitions, and selection criteria (Final Rule) for the Investing in Innovation Fund. This document makes...

  16. Investment Primer for Green Revolving Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, Dano

    2012-01-01

    Developing return-oriented green revolving funds (GRFs) is a rapidly growing trend at colleges and universities. A green revolving fund (GRF) is a special account designated for investment in on-campus projects that improve energy efficiency or decrease material use. GRFs invest in a variety of cost-saving initiatives, resulting in significant…

  17. Financing Higher Education: The Public Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, John C., Ed.; Bernstein, Melvin H., Ed.

    The relationship between public investment in higher education and a strong regional economy is examined in eight chapters, with a focus on New England. In "Underfunding and Overtaxing in New England," Melvin H. Bernstein considers the business climate and excessive tax burdens in New England. "Higher Education: Investment or…

  18. Reporting on Investments of Endowment Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Much has been said and written about the need for measuring accurately and improving the investment performance of college and university endowment funds, but little has been written about how colleges and universities should report on the status and performance of the investments of endowment funds. When guidelines for reporting are adopted, a…

  19. Endowment Investing: Time for a Sustainability Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Managers of university endowment funds are paying closer attention to investing in "green" industries, commonly bundled under the umbrella "cleantech." Cleantech offers the possibility of buying in while prices are low "and" making a "green" investment play, but it also harbors the risks inherent in any emerging industry. Cleantech has varying…

  20. 12 CFR 615.5132 - Investment purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment purposes. 615.5132 Section 615.5132 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN... Farm Credit bank is allowed to hold eligible investments, listed under § 615.5140, in an amount not...

  1. 12 CFR 652.10 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment management. 652.10 Section 652.10... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS § 652.10 Investment management. (a) Responsibilities of the board of... activities. Your board must also ensure that management complies with these policies and that...

  2. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... management information systems that are appropriate for the level and complexity of your investment... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615.5133 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN...

  3. Enterprise Return on a Training Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucouliagos, Chris; Sgro, Pasquale

    The return on investment (ROI) obtained by enterprises that invest in training was examined through case studies of seven Australian work organizations. The case study organizations included a government-owned transportation company, a privately owned company, a major nongovernmental charitable organization, a publicly listed corporation, and two…

  4. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... terms are defined in 12 U.S.C. 2907(b)) will be considered as a qualified investment. (e) Performance... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... broader statewide or regional area that includes the bank's assessment area(s). (b) Exclusion....

  5. 12 CFR 741.219 - Investment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment requirements. 741.219 Section 741.219 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.219 Investment...

  6. 12 CFR 741.219 - Investment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment requirements. 741.219 Section 741.219 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.219 Investment...

  7. 12 CFR 741.219 - Investment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment requirements. 741.219 Section 741.219 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.219 Investment...

  8. 12 CFR 741.219 - Investment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment requirements. 741.219 Section 741.219 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.219 Investment...

  9. 12 CFR 741.219 - Investment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment requirements. 741.219 Section 741.219 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.219 Investment...

  10. Offshore Investments by Colleges Draw Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul; Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars in untaxed, offshore investments by college endowments could be subject to taxation under a proposal being considered by the leaders of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. The proposed change, which targets hedge funds, a popular investing strategy for many colleges, would affect the largest college endowments, including those…

  11. 77 FR 59144 - Investment and Deposit Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 703 RIN 3133-AE06 Investment and Deposit Activities AGENCY: National Credit Union... to amend its investment regulation to allow federal credit unions (FCUs) to purchase...

  12. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  13. Endowment Investing: Time for a Sustainability Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Managers of university endowment funds are paying closer attention to investing in "green" industries, commonly bundled under the umbrella "cleantech." Cleantech offers the possibility of buying in while prices are low "and" making a "green" investment play, but it also harbors the risks inherent in any emerging industry. Cleantech has varying…

  14. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... credit union may invest in a variable rate investment, as long as the index is tied to domestic interest rates and not, for example, to foreign currencies, foreign interest rates, or domestic or foreign commodity prices, equity prices, or inflation rates. For purposes of this part, the U.S. dollar-denominated...

  15. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... credit union may invest in a variable rate investment, as long as the index is tied to domestic interest rates and not, for example, to foreign currencies, foreign interest rates, or domestic or foreign commodity prices, equity prices, or inflation rates. For purposes of this part, the U.S. dollar-denominated...

  16. Financial and Investment Sources on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discusses print and World Wide Web resources on personal finance, investments, and other business information and provides an annotated bibliography of investment and the stock market sites: meta sites, stock quotes, market news, data and analysis, brokerage firms, and sites for beginning investors. Includes addresses. (PEN)

  17. Offshore Investments by Colleges Draw Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul; Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars in untaxed, offshore investments by college endowments could be subject to taxation under a proposal being considered by the leaders of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. The proposed change, which targets hedge funds, a popular investing strategy for many colleges, would affect the largest college endowments, including those…

  18. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  19. Financing Higher Education: The Public Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, John C., Ed.; Bernstein, Melvin H., Ed.

    The relationship between public investment in higher education and a strong regional economy is examined in eight chapters, with a focus on New England. In "Underfunding and Overtaxing in New England," Melvin H. Bernstein considers the business climate and excessive tax burdens in New England. "Higher Education: Investment or…

  20. 12 CFR 703.3 - Investment policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment policies. 703.3 Section 703.3 Banks... extent of that authority. Those with authority must be qualified by education or experience to assess the... requirement of this part; and (k) How the Federal credit union will conduct investment trading activities,...

  1. 12 CFR 703.3 - Investment policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment policies. 703.3 Section 703.3 Banks... extent of that authority. Those with authority must be qualified by education or experience to assess the... requirement of this part; and (k) How the Federal credit union will conduct investment trading activities,...

  2. 12 CFR 956.2 - Authorized investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Obligations of the United States; (b) Deposits in banks or trust companies; (c) Obligations, participations or... securities of any small business investment company formed pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 681(d), to the extent such... determined are permissible investments for fiduciary or trust funds under the laws of the state in which...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... commensurate with the complexity and risk in the investment. You must perform stress testing on any investment...-backed securities, before you purchase it. The stress test must be commensurate with the risk and.... The stress testing must comply with the requirements in paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section. (2...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5140 - Eligible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Investment portfolio limit (1) Obligations of the United States None NA None None. • Treasuries. • Agency... investments or marketable securities rated in the highest credit rating category by an NRSRO 100 days NA None None. (5) Mortgage Securities: • Issued or guaranteed by the United States None NA None None. • Fannie...

  5. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment.

    PubMed

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Silverstein, Merril

    2013-05-01

    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chinese Anhui Survey (n=4026). In the Netherlands, grandparental investments are biased towards daughters' children, which is in accordance with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. But in China, grandparental investments are biased towards sons' children, which is in conflict with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. This study found no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. These results raise doubts over the relevance of paternity uncertainty as an explanation of a grandparental investment bias towards daughters' children that is often found in Western populations. The results suggest that discriminative grandparental investments are better understood as the outcome of cultural prescriptions and economic motives.

  6. Prioritizing conservation investments for mammal species globally

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kerrie A.; Evans, Megan C.; Di Marco, Moreno; Green, David C.; Boitani, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P.; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We need to set priorities for conservation because we cannot do everything, everywhere, at the same time. We determined priority areas for investment in threat abatement actions, in both a cost-effective and spatially and temporally explicit way, for the threatened mammals of the world. Our analysis presents the first fine-resolution prioritization analysis for mammals at a global scale that accounts for the risk of habitat loss, the actions required to abate this risk, the costs of these actions and the likelihood of investment success. We evaluated the likelihood of success of investments using information on the past frequency and duration of legislative effectiveness at a country scale. The establishment of new protected areas was the action receiving the greatest investment, while restoration was never chosen. The resolution of the analysis and the incorporation of likelihood of success made little difference to this result, but affected the spatial location of these investments. PMID:21844046

  7. Capital investment strategies in health care systems.

    PubMed

    Reiter, K L; Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R; Rivenson, H L

    2000-01-01

    Capital investment decisions are among the most important decisions made by firms. They determine the firm's capacity for providing services and commit the firm's cash for an extended period of time. Interviews with chief financial officers of leading health care systems reveal capital investment strategies that generally follow the recommendations of modern finance theory. Still, there is substantial variation in capital budgeting techniques, methods of risk adjustment, and the importance of qualitative considerations in investment decision making. There is also variation in delegation of investment decision making to operating units and methods of performance evaluation. Health care systems face the same challenges as other organizations in developing and implementing capital investment strategies that use consistent methods for evaluation of projects that have inconsistent aims and outcomes.

  8. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 560.32 Section 560.32... Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.32 Pass-through investments. (a) A federal savings association (“you”) may make pass-through investments. A pass-through investment...

  9. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus...

  10. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus...

  11. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus...

  12. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus...

  13. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... registered investment company and any series of the investment company. (2) Assets means net assets, plus...

  14. 12 CFR 390.268 - Investment in State housing corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment in State housing corporations. 390... Investment § 390.268 Investment in State housing corporations. (a) Any State savings association to the extent it has legal authority to do so, may make investments in, commitments to invest in, loans to, or...

  15. 12 CFR 1267.3 - Prohibited investments and prudential rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibited investments and prudential rules... HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 1267.3 Prohibited investments and prudential rules. (a) Prohibited investments. A Bank may not invest in: (1) Instruments that provide an ownership interest in an entity, except...

  16. 17 CFR 210.12-13 - Investments other than securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investments other than... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 For Management Investment Companies § 210.12-13 Investments other than...

  17. Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into

  18. Forest resources, government policy, and investment location decisions of the forest products industry in the southern United States

    Treesearch

    Changyou Sun; Daowei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the results of an initial attempt to estimate the effects of state attributes on plant location and investment expenditure were presented for the forest products industry in the southern United States. A conditional logit model was used to analyze new plant births, and a time-series cross-section model to assess the total capital expenditure....

  19. Intrafamilial conflict and parental investment: a synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Geoff A; Royle, Nick J; Hartley, Ian R

    2002-01-01

    We outline and develop current theory on how inherent genetic conflicts of interest between the various family members can affect the flow of parental investment from parents to offspring, and discuss the problems for empirical testing that this generates. The parental investment pattern realized in nature reflects the simultaneous resolution of all the conflicts between the family players. This depends on the genetic mechanism, the mating system and reproductive constraints, on whether extra demand by progeny affects current or future sibs, and particularly on the behavioural mechanisms underlying demand (begging or solicitation) and supply (provision of parental investment by parents). The direction of deviation from the optimal parental investment for the parent(s) depends on the slope of what we term the 'effect of supply on demand', the mechanism that determines how changes in food supply affect begging levels. If increasing food increases begging (positive slope), less parental investment is supplied than the parental optimum and if increasing food decreases begging (negative slope), more parental investment is supplied. The magnitude of deviation depends on both the 'effect of supply on demand' and on the 'effect of demand on supply' (the mechanism determining how changes in begging affect food supply, which always has a positive slope). We conclude that it will often be impossible to deduce the extent of underlying conflict by establishing the amount of parental investment given relative to the ideal optimum for the parent. Some possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:11958698

  20. Ecosystem services in urban water investment.

    PubMed

    Kandulu, John M; Connor, Jeffery D; MacDonald, Darla Hatton

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, water agencies and utilities have an obligation to consider the broad environmental impacts associated with investments. To aid in understanding water cycle interdependencies when making urban water supply investment decisions, an ecosystem services typology was augmented with the concept of integrated water resources management. This framework is applied to stormwater harvesting in a case study catchment in Adelaide, South Australia. Results show that this methodological framework can effectively facilitate systematic consideration and quantitative assessment of broad environmental impacts of water supply investments. Five ecosystem service impacts were quantified including provision of 1) urban recreational amenity, 2) regulation of coastal water quality, 3) salinity, 4) greenhouse gas emissions, and 5) support of estuarine habitats. This study shows that ignoring broad environmental impacts can underestimate ecosystem service benefits of water supply investments by a value of up to A$1.36/kL, or three times the cost of operating and maintenance of stormwater harvesting. Rigorous assessment of the public welfare impacts of water infrastructure investments is required to guide long-term optimal water supply investment decisions. Numerous challenges remain in the quantification of broad environmental impacts of a water supply investment including a lack of peer-reviewed studies of environmental impacts, aggregation of incommensurable impacts, potential for double-counting errors, uncertainties in available impact estimates, and how to determine the most suitable quantification technique.

  1. 12 CFR 615.5143 - Disposal of ineligible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5143 Disposal of... Management of ineligible investments and reservation of authority to require divestiture. (a) Investments...

  2. Avoiding the Orange County Syndrome: Investment Guidelines Are Crucial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Mark

    1995-01-01

    A sound investment policy for colleges and universities should address these factors: spending rate, return requirements, time horizon for evaluating fund performance, risk tolerance, asset allocation, delegation of responsibility, investment monitoring, and procedure for amending an investment plan. (MSE)

  3. 7 CFR 1280.213 - Investment of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Board may invest, pending disbursement, funds it receives under this subpart, only in obligations of the... the United States. Income from any such investment may be used for any purpose for which the invested...

  4. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments of... available for tribal use are not undertaken by the tribe pursuant to authorizing law. Invested judgment...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.213 - Investment of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Board may invest, pending disbursement, funds it receives under this subpart, only in obligations of the... the United States. Income from any such investment may be used for any purpose for which the invested...

  6. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  7. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  8. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of...

  9. Avoiding the Orange County Syndrome: Investment Guidelines Are Crucial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Mark

    1995-01-01

    A sound investment policy for colleges and universities should address these factors: spending rate, return requirements, time horizon for evaluating fund performance, risk tolerance, asset allocation, delegation of responsibility, investment monitoring, and procedure for amending an investment plan. (MSE)

  10. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... direct investments, SDIs, term investments, or other investment programs. (c) Withdrawals. The amount of... balance limit. (3) SDIs. SDIs are credited to the SDI account balance and are not considered in...

  11. Accuracy of investment risk models varies.

    PubMed

    Gapenski, L C

    1992-04-01

    Financial analysis of proposed capital investments must include an assessment of risk as well as return. Four assessment techniques can be used to provide insight into the risk inherent in any capital investment project: breakeven analysis, sensitivity analysis, scenario analysis, and Monte Carlo simulation. The most complete picture of a project's stand-alone risk is provided by a Monte Carlo simulation, which generates a profitability probability distribution. The primary concern of most hospital decision makers, however, is the amount of risk the capital investment adds to the riskiness of the hospital in the aggregate.

  12. Considerations in asset allocation: investing wisely.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Ellen

    2006-12-01

    In this article, the author reviews the steps an investor should take to make sound asset allocation decisions and offers guidelines on assembling a portfolio that helps meet the investor's needs. The most important decision in structuring a broadly diversified investment portfolio is the allocation among and within the three major asset classes: stocks, bonds and short-term reserves. In selecting the appropriate mix, the investor should weigh four interrelated factors-investment objective, time horizon, risk tolerance and personal financial situation. A well-diversified investment portfolio and a disciplined savings program are important factors in reaching financial goals.

  13. In Investments, Reason Rules the Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John S., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that college governing board investment committees should respond to the current economic and terrorism-related crisis by using SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) to examine factors that can crystallize money-management decision points. (EV)

  14. Optimal security investments and extreme risk.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Hamid; Agiwal, Swati

    2012-08-01

    In the aftermath of 9/11, concern over security increased dramatically in both the public and the private sector. Yet, no clear algorithm exists to inform firms on the amount and the timing of security investments to mitigate the impact of catastrophic risks. The goal of this article is to devise an optimum investment strategy for firms to mitigate exposure to catastrophic risks, focusing on how much to invest and when to invest. The latter question addresses the issue of whether postponing a risk mitigating decision is an optimal strategy or not. Accordingly, we develop and estimate both a one-period model and a multiperiod model within the framework of extreme value theory (EVT). We calibrate these models using probability measures for catastrophic terrorism risks associated with attacks on the food sector. We then compare our findings with the purchase of catastrophic risk insurance. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. 12 CFR 615.5140 - Eligible investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the United States, the host country must maintain the highest sovereign rating for political and economic stability by an NRSRO. (c) Marketable securities. All eligible investments, except money market...

  17. Investing in a Large Stretch Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choate, M.; Nealson, W.; Jay, G.; Buss, W.

    1986-01-01

    Press for forming large aluminum parts from plates provides substantial economies. Study assessed advantages and disadvantages of investing in large stretch-forming press, and also developed procurement specification for press.

  18. Ranking Forestry Investments With Parametric Linear Programming

    Treesearch

    Paul A. Murphy

    1976-01-01

    Parametric linear programming is introduced as a technique for ranking forestry investments under multiple constraints; it combines the advantages of simple tanking and linear programming as capital budgeting tools.

  19. Factor investing based on Musharakah principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Shahril; Omar, Mohd; Lazam, Norazliani Md; Amin, Mohd Nazrul Mohd

    2015-10-01

    Shariah stock investing has become a widely discussed topic in financial industry as part of today's investment strategy. The strategy primarily applies market capitalization allocations. However, some researchers have argued that market capitalization weighting is inherently flawed and have advocated replacing market capitalization allocations with factor allocations. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for factor investing based on Musharakah principle. The essential elements or factors of Musharakah principle such as business sector, management capability, profitability growth and capital efficiency are embedded in the Shariah-compliant stock. We then transform these factors into indexation for better analysis and performance measurement. Investment universe for this research covers Malaysian stocks for the period of January 2009 to December 2013. We found out that these factor indexes have historically earned excess returns over market capitalization weighted indexes and experienced higher Sharpe Ratios.

  20. Business Case for Early Childhood Investments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.

  1. Emerging clean energy technology investment trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumpus, A.; Comello, S.

    2017-06-01

    Early-stage capital providers and clean energy technology incubators are supporting a new wave of innovations focused on end-use efficiency and demand control. This wave complements expanding investments in supply technologies required for electricity sector decarbonization.

  2. Direct Foreign Investment in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    Notes introductory undergraduate economics textbooks have no formal analysis of the rationale for direct foreign investment by multinational firms. Examines this area in an attempt to develop more content information for undergraduate courses. (RKM)

  3. Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)

  4. 12 CFR 703.18 - Grandfathered investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considerations, a Federal credit union may hold a CMO/REMIC residual, stripped mortgage-backed securities, or zero coupon security with a maturity greater than 10 years, if it purchased the investment: (1) Before...

  5. Energy conservation economics by investment equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Investment Equivalents of Energy Savings is a quick and easy technique for companies to assess investment options. Energy conservation proposals must produce an acceptable return before a company will allocate capital. The author describes how the technique operates and how it produces results which allow design engineers, supervisors, and others to choose between alternatives. A hypothetical case provides figures to illustrate how the system develops evaluation criteria and ranks possible solutions. 2 tables.

  6. Combination Of Investment And Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creeger, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    Modifications, including incorporation of centrifugal casting, made in investment-casting process reducing scrap rate. Used to make first- and second-stage high-pressure-fuel-turbopump nozzles, containing vanes with thin trailing edges and other thin sections. Investment mold spun for short time while being filled, and stopped before solidification occurs. Centrifugal force drives molten metal into thin trailing edges, ensuring they are filled. With improved filling, preheat and pour temperatures reduced and solidification hastened so less hot tearing.

  7. Combination Of Investment And Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creeger, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    Modifications, including incorporation of centrifugal casting, made in investment-casting process reducing scrap rate. Used to make first- and second-stage high-pressure-fuel-turbopump nozzles, containing vanes with thin trailing edges and other thin sections. Investment mold spun for short time while being filled, and stopped before solidification occurs. Centrifugal force drives molten metal into thin trailing edges, ensuring they are filled. With improved filling, preheat and pour temperatures reduced and solidification hastened so less hot tearing.

  8. Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-13

    economy as a whole must equal the supply of funds, a deficit in one sector must be offset by a surplus in another sector. Generally, the household...a surplus or a deficit , respectively. The interplay within the economy between saving and investment, or the supply and uses of funds, tends to...the combination of household saving, business sector saving and investment, and the extent of the deficit or surplus in the government sector

  9. Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-22

    demand for funds in the economy as a whole must equal the supply of funds, a deficit in one sector must be offset by a surplus in another sector...whether the sector is running a surplus or a deficit , respectively. The interplay within the economy between saving and investment, or the supply and...of household saving, business sector saving and investment, and the extent of the deficit or surplus in the government sector. Starting in 1999

  10. Caring relationships: an investment in health?

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, P A

    2000-01-01

    Although the US has created the most expensive, technologically advanced medical system in the world, health outcomes are not commensurate with investment. The author argues that providers and policy makers have neglected the effect of human relationships on health, citing research showing that better relationships lead to better health. The author concludes with recommendations for improving public health by supporting society's investments in social capital. Images p145-a p149-a PMID:10968746

  11. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    PubMed

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  12. Outsourcing meets expanded plant`s requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes a system provided and operated by outside contractor that converts treated sewage water to high-purity makeup for expanded gas-turbine plant with minimal environmental impact. Florida Power Corp. (FPC), St. Petersburg, Fla., faced various challenges when planning to expand the Intercession City gas-turbine plant located near Kissimmee, Fla. One challenge was dealing with water for NO{sub x} emissions reduction supplied from the Kissimmee sanitary sewage treatment plant. Another was to minimize or eliminate wastewater generated by chemical cleaning of the reverse-osmosis (RO) system envisioned for the plant. Because of the substantial capital investment needed to meet these challenges, FPC outsourced the design, construction, and operation of the water treatment system to Ecolochem Inc., Norfolk, VA. After three years of operation, the system is meeting all design requirements and is saving the utility about $250,000/yr.

  13. Genotype-density interactions in a clonal, rosette-forming plant: cost of increased height growth?

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Peter J; During, Heinjo J

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Game theoretical models predict that plants growing in dense stands invest so much biomass in height growth that it trades-off with investment in other organs such as the leaves, leading to decreased plant production. Using the stoloniferous plant Potentilla reptans, we tested the hypothesis that genotypes investing more in the petioles in response to increased density show a greater decrease in total plant mass. We also tested whether a greater increase in mother ramet investment would lead to a greater decrease in investment in vegetative propagation. Methods To uncouple costs and benefits of investments in petioles, ten genotypes that were known to differ in their response to shading signals were grown in monogenotypic stands at two different densities. Key Results Genotypes differed in their increase in petiole investment in response to an increase in density, but not in their decrease in total plant mass or root mass. Total lamina area per plant did not differ significantly between the densities, nor did the mass invested in the laminae per unit of total plant mass. Genotypes differed considerably in the change in vegetation height and petiole investment, but this was not significantly negatively correlated with the change in total plant mass. The genotypes did differ in the change of mass investment in the mother ramet: a greater increase in investment in the mother ramet was correlated to a greater decrease in vegetative propagation. Conclusions While a greater increase in height investment did not lead to a greater decrease in biomass production, it did lead to a decrease in vegetative propagation. This ability to change allocation towards the mother ramets may imply that competition within a stand of stoloniferous plants does not necessarily result in lower total biomass production due to increased height investment.

  14. Genotype–density interactions in a clonal, rosette-forming plant: cost of increased height growth?

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Peter J.; During, Heinjo J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Game theoretical models predict that plants growing in dense stands invest so much biomass in height growth that it trades-off with investment in other organs such as the leaves, leading to decreased plant production. Using the stoloniferous plant Potentilla reptans, we tested the hypothesis that genotypes investing more in the petioles in response to increased density show a greater decrease in total plant mass. We also tested whether a greater increase in mother ramet investment would lead to a greater decrease in investment in vegetative propagation. Methods To uncouple costs and benefits of investments in petioles, ten genotypes that were known to differ in their response to shading signals were grown in monogenotypic stands at two different densities. Key Results Genotypes differed in their increase in petiole investment in response to an increase in density, but not in their decrease in total plant mass or root mass. Total lamina area per plant did not differ significantly between the densities, nor did the mass invested in the laminae per unit of total plant mass. Genotypes differed considerably in the change in vegetation height and petiole investment, but this was not significantly negatively correlated with the change in total plant mass. The genotypes did differ in the change of mass investment in the mother ramet: a greater increase in investment in the mother ramet was correlated to a greater decrease in vegetative propagation. Conclusions While a greater increase in height investment did not lead to a greater decrease in biomass production, it did lead to a decrease in vegetative propagation. This ability to change allocation towards the mother ramets may imply that competition within a stand of stoloniferous plants does not necessarily result in lower total biomass production due to increased height investment. PMID:19884156

  15. [Research on investing methods and mold cooling methods of the self-made investment for pure titanium castings].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Huang, Xu; Zhao, Yun-Feng; Xiao, Mao-Chun; Li, Yong

    2006-10-01

    To observe the influence of different investing methods and mold cooling methods on pure titanium castings invested in the self-made investment, and to provide theoretic base for the development for the investment. The influence of investing methods (one-step investing method and two-step investing method) on castability and crown fit of titanium castings were investigated, and the influence of cooling methods on reaction layers, mechanical properties and crown fit of titanium castings were investigated. Both the investing methods exhibited good castability, but only the titanium full crowns by one-step investing method showed clinically acceptable fit. Although the quenching group showed thinner reaction layer(100 microm), lower strength and similar elongation rate, the titanium castings by bench cooling showed clinically acceptable full crown fit with 115 microm thick reaction layer as cast. The one-step investing method and the bench cooling are recommended for the self-made investment.

  16. [Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2003-02-01

    For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long

  17. NACUBO's Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) "Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools" addresses the principles and concepts for administering a consolidated investment pool. Unitization is the mechanism by which investment funds are pooled to maximize investment efficiencies and provide information for donors,…

  18. 29 CFR 2550.404a-1 - Investment duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plan's investment portfolio with respect to which the fiduciary has investment duties; and (ii) Has... particular investment or investment course of action is reasonably designed, as part of the portfolio (or, where applicable, that portion of the plan portfolio with respect to which the fiduciary has...

  19. 12 CFR 703.19 - Investment pilot program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment pilot program. 703.19 Section 703.19... AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.19 Investment pilot program. (a) Under the investment pilot program, NCUA... seeking approval of an investment pilot program must submit a request to the Director of the Office of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to...

  1. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to be made...

  2. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to...

  3. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to...

  4. 26 CFR 1.852-3 - Investment company taxable income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investment company taxable income. 1.852-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-3 Investment company taxable income. Section 852(b)(2) requires certain adjustments to...

  5. 17 CFR 1.27 - Record of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Each futures commission merchant which invests customer funds, and each derivatives clearing organization which invests customer funds of its clearing members' customers or option customers, shall keep a... securities so invested; (4) A description of the instruments in which such investments were made, including...

  6. 24 CFR 202.9 - Investing lenders and mortgagees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investing lenders and mortgagees... Investing lenders and mortgagees. (a) Definition. An investing lender or mortgagee is an organization that is not approved under any other section of this part. An investing lender or mortgagee may purchase...

  7. 24 CFR 202.9 - Investing lenders and mortgagees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Investing lenders and mortgagees... Investing lenders and mortgagees. (a) Definition. An investing lender or mortgagee is an organization that is not approved under any other section of this part. An investing lender or mortgagee may purchase...

  8. 24 CFR 202.9 - Investing lenders and mortgagees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investing lenders and mortgagees... Investing lenders and mortgagees. (a) Definition. An investing lender or mortgagee is an organization that is not approved under any other section of this part. An investing lender or mortgagee may purchase...

  9. 12 CFR 160.121 - Investment in state housing corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to the extent it has legal authority to do so, may make investments in, commitments to invest in... has legal authority to do so, invest in obligations (including loans) of, or issued by, any state... total capital. (c) Each state housing corporation in which a savings association invests under the...

  10. From SRI to ESG: The Changing World of Responsible Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Lauren; Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Thoughtful investment professionals continue to debate whether a portfolio's long-term performance can be enhanced by including environmental, social, and governance (ESG) considerations in the security selection process, but responsible investing is more than a passing trend. The terms socially-responsible investing, mission-related investing,…

  11. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... when you invest in an entity (“company”) that engages only in activities that you may conduct directly... investment limits (e.g., no more than 400% of total capital may be invested in nonresidential real property... conditions are met: (1) You do not invest more than 15% of your total capital in one company; (2) The book...

  12. 12 CFR 160.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false De minimis investments. 160.36 Section 160.36 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.36 De minimis investments. A Federal savings association may invest in the aggregate up to the...

  13. 12 CFR 560.121 - Investment in State housing corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... do so, may make investments in, commitments to invest in, loans to, or commitments to lend to any... association that is adequately capitalized may, to the extent it has legal authority to do so, invest in... capital. (c) Each state housing corporation in which a savings association invests under the authority of...

  14. 12 CFR 160.121 - Investment in state housing corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to the extent it has legal authority to do so, may make investments in, commitments to invest in... has legal authority to do so, invest in obligations (including loans) of, or issued by, any state... association invests under the authority of paragraph (b) of this section shall agree, before accepting any...

  15. 12 CFR 560.121 - Investment in State housing corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... do so, may make investments in, commitments to invest in, loans to, or commitments to lend to any... association that is adequately capitalized may, to the extent it has legal authority to do so, invest in... capital. (c) Each state housing corporation in which a savings association invests under the authority of...

  16. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... when you invest in an entity (“company”) that engages only in activities that you may conduct directly... investment limits (e.g., no more than 400% of total capital may be invested in nonresidential real property... conditions are met: (1) You do not invest more than 15% of your total capital in one company; (2) The book...

  17. 24 CFR 202.9 - Investing lenders and mortgagees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investing lenders and mortgagees... Investing lenders and mortgagees. (a) Definition. An investing lender or mortgagee is an organization that is not approved under any other section of this part. An investing lender or mortgagee may purchase...

  18. 24 CFR 202.9 - Investing lenders and mortgagees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investing lenders and mortgagees... Investing lenders and mortgagees. (a) Definition. An investing lender or mortgagee is an organization that is not approved under any other section of this part. An investing lender or mortgagee may purchase...

  19. 12 CFR 160.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false De minimis investments. 160.36 Section 160.36 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.36 De minimis investments. A Federal savings association may invest in the aggregate up to the...

  20. Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the role of direct foreign ownership of U.S. energy enterprises with respect to their energy operations, capital investments, and net foreign investment flows (including net loans). In addition, since energy investments are made in a global context, the report examines patterns of direct investment in foreign energy enterprises by U.S.-based companies.

  1. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A...

  2. 12 CFR 160.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false De minimis investments. 160.36 Section 160.36 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.36 De minimis investments. A Federal savings association may invest in the aggregate up to...

  3. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A...

  4. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A...

  5. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section 24.3... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly or...

  6. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section 24.3... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly or...

  7. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section 24.3... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly or...

  8. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section 24.3... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly or...

  9. 17 CFR 210.12-13 - Investments other than securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Investments other than... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-13 Investments other than...

  10. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Investment account requirements. 203... TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM Investment Program and Collateral Security Requirements for TT&L Depositaries § 203.20 Investment account requirements. (a) Additions. Treasury will invest funds in obligations of...

  11. 12 CFR 1805.401 - Forms of investment instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Forms of investment instruments. 1805.401... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.401 Forms of investment instruments. (a) Equity. The Fund may make nonvoting equity investments in an Awardee, including...

  12. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a unit...

  13. 12 CFR 703.13 - Permissible investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible investment activities. 703.13... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.13 Permissible investment activities. (a) Regular way settlement and... funds transactions. (c) Investment repurchase transaction. A Federal credit union may enter into an...

  14. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Investment account requirements. 203... TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM Investment Program and Collateral Security Requirements for TT&L Depositaries § 203.20 Investment account requirements. (a) Additions. Treasury will invest funds in obligations of...

  15. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.6 Supplementary investment assistance. (a) Pursuant to a request by an...

  16. 12 CFR 1805.401 - Forms of investment instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Forms of investment instruments. 1805.401... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.401 Forms of investment instruments. (a) Equity. The Fund may make nonvoting equity investments in an Awardee, including...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.305 - Return on investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Return on investment. 3560.305 Section 3560.305... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.305 Return on investment. (a) Borrower's return on investment. Borrowers may receive a return on their investment (ROI) in...

  18. 48 CFR 1830.7002-3 - Representative investment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Representative investment... Representative investment calculations. (a) The calculation of the representative investment requires... accounting period, the contractor shall either: (1) Determine a representative investment for the cost...

  19. 12 CFR 560.43 - Foreign assistance investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Foreign assistance investments. 560.43 Section... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.43 Foreign assistance investments. Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(4)(C), a Federal savings association may make foreign assistance...

  20. 18 CFR 367.1240 - Account 124, Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... investments. 367.1240 Section 367.1240 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1240 Account 124, Other investments. (a) This account must include the book cost of investments in securities issued or assumed by non...

  1. 18 CFR 367.1240 - Account 124, Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... investments. 367.1240 Section 367.1240 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1240 Account 124, Other investments. (a) This account must include the book cost of investments in securities issued or assumed by non...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.213 - Investment of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment of funds. 1280.213 Section 1280.213... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses § 1280.213 Investment of funds. The... the United States. Income from any such investment may be used for any purpose for which the invested...

  3. 17 CFR 210.12-13 - Investments other than securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investments other than... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Form and Content of Schedules § 210.12-13 Investments other than...

  4. 12 CFR 1267.2 - Authorized investments and transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized investments and transactions. 1267.2... BANK INVESTMENTS § 1267.2 Authorized investments and transactions. (a) In addition to assets enumerated....S.C. 1454 or 1455); (5) Stock, obligations, or other securities of any small business investment...

  5. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments held...

  6. 18 CFR 367.1240 - Account 124, Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... investments. 367.1240 Section 367.1240 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1240 Account 124, Other investments. (a) This account must include the book cost of investments in securities issued or assumed by non...

  7. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments held...

  8. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a unit...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.305 - Return on investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Return on investment. 3560.305 Section 3560.305... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.305 Return on investment. (a) Borrower's return on investment. Borrowers may receive a return on their investment (ROI) in...

  10. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.6 Supplementary investment assistance. (a) Pursuant to a request by an...

  11. 12 CFR 703.13 - Permissible investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible investment activities. 703.13... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.13 Permissible investment activities. (a) Regular way settlement and... funds transactions. (c) Investment repurchase transaction. A Federal credit union may enter into an...

  12. 12 CFR 703.13 - Permissible investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permissible investment activities. 703.13... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.13 Permissible investment activities. (a) Regular way settlement and... funds transactions. (c) Investment repurchase transaction. A Federal credit union may enter into an...

  13. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.6 Supplementary investment assistance. (a) Pursuant to a request by an...

  14. 12 CFR 652.35 - Eligible non-program investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible non-program investments. 652.35... MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.35 Eligible non-program investments. (a) You may hold only the types, quantities, and qualities of non-program investments listed in...

  15. 12 CFR 560.32 - Pass-through investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pass-through investments. 560.32 Section 560.32 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.32 Pass-through investments. (a) A...

  16. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments of...

  17. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monitoring non-security investments. 703.10... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of directors...

  18. 12 CFR 560.43 - Foreign assistance investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign assistance investments. 560.43 Section... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.43 Foreign assistance investments. Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(4)(C), a Federal savings association may make foreign assistance...

  19. 12 CFR 1805.400 - Investment instruments-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment instruments-general. 1805.400... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.400 Investment... investment instruments described in § 1805.401, and under such terms and conditions as described in this...

  20. 12 CFR 703.13 - Permissible investment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permissible investment activities. 703.13... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.13 Permissible investment activities. (a) Regular way settlement and... funds transactions. (c) Investment repurchase transaction. A Federal credit union may enter into an...

  1. 12 CFR 560.43 - Foreign assistance investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Foreign assistance investments. 560.43 Section... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.43 Foreign assistance investments. Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(4)(C), a Federal savings association may make foreign assistance...

  2. 12 CFR 208.21 - Investments in premises and securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investments in premises and securities. 208.21... MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Investments and Loans § 208.21 Investments in premises and securities. (a) Investment in bank premises. No state member bank...

  3. 13 CFR 301.7 - Investment Assistance application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment Assistance application... COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Application Requirements; Evaluation Criteria § 301.7 Investment Assistance application. (a) The EDA Investment Assistance process begins with...

  4. 26 CFR 1.851-7 - Certain unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain unit investment trusts. 1.851-7 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-7 Certain unit investment trusts. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, a unit...

  5. 48 CFR 1830.7002-3 - Representative investment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Representative investment... Representative investment calculations. (a) The calculation of the representative investment requires... accounting period, the contractor shall either: (1) Determine a representative investment for the cost...

  6. 31 CFR 203.20 - Investment account requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Investment account requirements. 203... TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM Investment Program and Collateral Security Requirements for TT&L Depositaries § 203.20 Investment account requirements. (a) Additions. Treasury will invest funds in obligations of...

  7. 12 CFR 1805.400 - Investment instruments-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment instruments-general. 1805.400... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.400 Investment... investment instruments described in § 1805.401, and under such terms and conditions as described in this...

  8. 13 CFR 301.7 - Investment Assistance application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment Assistance application... COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Application Requirements; Evaluation Criteria § 301.7 Investment Assistance application. (a) The EDA Investment Assistance process begins with...

  9. 12 CFR 1805.400 - Investment instruments-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment instruments-general. 1805.400... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.400 Investment... investment instruments described in § 1805.401, and under such terms and conditions as described in this...

  10. 12 CFR 1267.2 - Authorized investments and transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized investments and transactions. 1267... HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 1267.2 Authorized investments and transactions. (a) In addition to assets....S.C. 1454 or 1455); (5) Stock, obligations, or other securities of any small business investment...

  11. 48 CFR 1830.7002-3 - Representative investment calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Representative investment... Representative investment calculations. (a) The calculation of the representative investment requires... accounting period, the contractor shall either: (1) Determine a representative investment for the cost...

  12. 12 CFR 703.19 - Investment pilot program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment pilot program. 703.19 Section 703.19 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.19 Investment pilot program. (a) Under the investment pilot program, NCUA...

  13. 12 CFR 652.35 - Eligible non-program investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible non-program investments. 652.35... MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.35 Eligible non-program investments. (a) You may hold only the types, quantities, and qualities of non-program investments listed in...

  14. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments of...

  15. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.6 Supplementary investment assistance. (a) Pursuant to a request by an...

  16. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments of...

  17. 13 CFR 301.7 - Investment Assistance application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment Assistance application... COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Application Requirements; Evaluation Criteria § 301.7 Investment Assistance application. (a) The EDA Investment Assistance process begins with...

  18. 18 CFR 367.1240 - Account 124, Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... investments. 367.1240 Section 367.1240 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1240 Account 124, Other investments. (a) This account must include the book cost of investments in securities issued or assumed by non...

  19. 12 CFR 1267.2 - Authorized investments and transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorized investments and transactions. 1267.2... BANK INVESTMENTS § 1267.2 Authorized investments and transactions. (a) In addition to assets enumerated....S.C. 1454 or 1455); (5) Stock, obligations, or other securities of any small business investment...

  20. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A Federal...

  1. 12 CFR 1805.401 - Forms of investment instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Forms of investment instruments. 1805.401... TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.401 Forms of investment instruments. (a) Equity. The Fund may make nonvoting equity investments in an Awardee, including...

  2. 12 CFR 703.10 - Monitoring non-security investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monitoring non-security investments. 703.10... INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.10 Monitoring non-security investments. (a) At least quarterly, a... credit union does not have an investment-related committee, then each member of its board of directors...

  3. 12 CFR 703.19 - Investment pilot program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment pilot program. 703.19 Section 703.19 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.19 Investment pilot program. (a) Under the investment pilot program, NCUA...

  4. 13 CFR 301.7 - Investment Assistance application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment Assistance application... COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Application Requirements; Evaluation Criteria § 301.7 Investment Assistance application. (a) The EDA Investment Assistance process begins with...

  5. 26 CFR 1.936-10 - Qualified investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subject to the provisions of paragraph (c)(8) of this section, a loan qualifies as an investment in active....263-1T(c)(4)(i). (D) An amount not in excess of 5 percent of the sum of the investment in active... investments described in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) in the case of an investment in active business assets, or...

  6. 18 CFR 367.1240 - Account 124, Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-associate companies, investment advances to these companies, and any investments not accounted for elsewhere... investments. 367.1240 Section 367.1240 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1240 Account 124,...

  7. NACUBO's Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO's) "Guide to Unitizing Investment Pools" addresses the principles and concepts for administering a consolidated investment pool. Unitization is the mechanism by which investment funds are pooled to maximize investment efficiencies and provide information for donors,…

  8. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly or... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section 24.3...

  9. 13 CFR 301.6 - Supplementary investment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance under this section; and (3) Assists Projects that are otherwise eligible for Investment Assistance... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementary investment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment...

  10. Current Trends in College and University Investment Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Rodney H.

    1972-01-01

    Investment trends and the total return concept discussed at the NACUBO Regional Investment Workshop are described. A survey was made by the NACUBO Committee on Investment of 1,059 institutions, 189 of which responded. The most important finding was that 26 institutions reported the adoption of total return investing. Other findings were that about…

  11. 12 CFR 560.43 - Foreign assistance investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign assistance investments. 560.43 Section... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.43 Foreign assistance investments. Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(4)(C), a Federal savings association may make foreign...

  12. 12 CFR 560.36 - De minimis investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false De minimis investments. 560.36 Section 560.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.36 De minimis investments. A...

  13. 48 CFR 2152.210-70 - Investment income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment income. 2152.210... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.210-70 Investment income. As prescribed in 2110.7004(a), insert the following clause: Investment Income (OCT 2005) (a) The Contractor must invest and reinvest...

  14. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Administration § 92.500 The HOME Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in this...

  15. Survey of School District Short-Term Investment Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of Education Performance Review, Albany.

    This document reports the results of a New York State survey undertaken to determine if school districts invested all available funds not needed to meet immediate operating expenses and if interest rates on their investments were competitive with rates generally available for comparable investments at the time of investment. Findings indicate that…

  16. Are alternative investments the right approach for your organization?

    PubMed

    French, Charles J; Dodd, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    The decision by a healthcare provider to implement and monitor an alternative investment program requires careful consideration and planning. There are several things an organization should do when making this decision: Begin slowly. Consider access and liquidity. Don't force the investment to fill a target allocation. View an alternative investment as an opportunity investment."

  17. 24 CFR 92.500 - The HOME Investment Trust Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The HOME Investment Trust Fund. 92... Investment Trust Fund. (a) General. A HOME Investment Trust Fund consists of the accounts described in this... Investment Trust Fund United States Treasury account for each participating jurisdiction. Each...

  18. 12 CFR 225.125 - Investment adviser activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... investment adviser for an investment company should exercise care to maintain at a minimal level demand... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment adviser activities. 225.125 Section... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.125 Investment adviser activities. (a) Effective February 1, 1972...

  19. Review of capital investment in economic growth cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffie, Siti Salihah; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Mohamad, Daud

    2016-11-01

    The study of linkages of macroeconomics factors is prominent in order to understand how the economic cycle affects one another. These factors include interest rate, growth rate, saving and capital investment which are mutually correlated to stabilize the GDP. Part of this study, it will look upon the impact of investment which emphasize the efficiency of capital investment to the economic growth. Capital investment is one investment appraisal that gives impact to the economic growth. It is a long term investment and involve with large amount of capital to incorporate the development of private and public capital investment.

  20. Investing 101: How Your School District Can Turn Those Pennies into Dollars through Wise Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Districts should develop a conservative investment policy, give the finance director appropriate latitude, and avoid using local banks as investment brokers. They should secure adequate bank protection against things going wrong, use competitive bidding, expect interest rates to fluctuate, and accept risk the district can live with. (MLH)

  1. 75 FR 55372 - Tudor Employee Investment Fund LLC and Tudor Investment Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... merits and risks of investing in a Fund and be able to bear the economic risk of such investment, and be... management business, the Fund Investors will be able to understand and evaluate the attendant risks... reduce any risk of abuse in transactions involving a Fund and a Tudor Group Entity. 5. Section 17(d) of...

  2. Social Investment or Private Profit? Diverging Notions of "Investment" in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Elizabeth; Brennan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many OECD countries have adopted the notion of "social investment" to reframe traditional approaches to social welfare. Social investment strategies and policies focus on employment rather than welfare and promote public expenditure on skills and education throughout the life course, starting with early childhood…

  3. 75 FR 63110 - Small Business Investment Companies-Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... exemption in the case of a follow-on investment in a small business concern by an SBIC and an Associate... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 RIN 3245-AF56 Small Business Investment Companies--Conflicts of Interest and...

  4. [Are investment activity and backlog in investments risks for university medicine in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Amann, I; Heyder, R; Strehl, R

    2009-08-01

    University medicine in Germany requires significantly higher funding and investment because its tasks not only include health care but also research and teaching. However, over recent decades less and less funding compared to the development of the turnover has been available. This trend is due to decreasing public funding. The diminishing funding has caused a major backlog of investment at German university hospitals. The first part of the article summarizes the investments policies at university hospitals and other hospitals. The second part describes the investment needs in university medicine and exposes risk factors for research, education and health care due to the process of investment planning and realization. Goal-oriented solutions are shown to facilitate investments. The third part discusses several risks caused by insufficient investments in university medicine. There are special risks for research, teaching, and the capacity for innovation in university medicine besides economical and medical risks. Some policies and financial strategies to overcome the backlog in investments are presented. After a summary, the article concludes with some practical examples of further measures to ensure sustainable funding.

  5. Social Investment or Private Profit? Diverging Notions of "Investment" in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Elizabeth; Brennan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many OECD countries have adopted the notion of "social investment" to reframe traditional approaches to social welfare. Social investment strategies and policies focus on employment rather than welfare and promote public expenditure on skills and education throughout the life course, starting with early childhood…

  6. Quantifying Transmission Investment in Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Greischar, Megan A.; Mideo, Nicole; Read, Andrew F.; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.

    2016-01-01

    Many microparasites infect new hosts with specialized life stages, requiring a subset of the parasite population to forgo proliferation and develop into transmission forms. Transmission stage production influences infectivity, host exploitation, and the impact of medical interventions like drug treatment. Predicting how parasites will respond to public health efforts on both epidemiological and evolutionary timescales requires understanding transmission strategies. These strategies can rarely be observed directly and must typically be inferred from infection dynamics. Using malaria as a case study, we test previously described methods for inferring transmission stage investment against simulated data generated with a model of within-host infection dynamics, where the true transmission investment is known. We show that existing methods are inadequate and potentially very misleading. The key difficulty lies in separating transmission stages produced by different generations of parasites. We develop a new approach that performs much better on simulated data. Applying this approach to real data from mice infected with a single Plasmodium chabaudi strain, we estimate that transmission investment varies from zero to 20%, with evidence for variable investment over time in some hosts, but not others. These patterns suggest that, even in experimental infections where host genetics and other environmental factors are controlled, parasites may exhibit remarkably different patterns of transmission investment. PMID:26890485

  7. Evolution of international trade and investment networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhong; Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhixin; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an evolving two-layer international economy network (IEN) consisting of international trade network (ITN) and international investment network (IIN) as layers, is constructed to investigate the world economy from 2001 to 2010. First, the structure analysis shows that the average partner numbers for both trade and investment are increasing year by year, and the average volume has a significant decrease in 2008 for investment and 2009 for trade. The IIN has longer average path length and dramatically lower edge density compared with the ITN, yet its clustering coefficient is larger in all years. Then, the regional relativity indicates that the longer the distance between two countries, the smaller trade and investment volumes they carry in are general, and the impact of the geographical distance gradually reduces as time goes on. Furthermore, the countries and regions are ranked by Pagerank in ITN, IIN and IEN to illustrate the roles they played. And finally, community structures are detected to visualize the global economic landscape, with countries and regions in the same community ranked according to the total volume of trade or investment.

  8. Quantifying Transmission Investment in Malaria Parasites.

    PubMed

    Greischar, Megan A; Mideo, Nicole; Read, Andrew F; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2016-02-01

    Many microparasites infect new hosts with specialized life stages, requiring a subset of the parasite population to forgo proliferation and develop into transmission forms. Transmission stage production influences infectivity, host exploitation, and the impact of medical interventions like drug treatment. Predicting how parasites will respond to public health efforts on both epidemiological and evolutionary timescales requires understanding transmission strategies. These strategies can rarely be observed directly and must typically be inferred from infection dynamics. Using malaria as a case study, we test previously described methods for inferring transmission stage investment against simulated data generated with a model of within-host infection dynamics, where the true transmission investment is known. We show that existing methods are inadequate and potentially very misleading. The key difficulty lies in separating transmission stages produced by different generations of parasites. We develop a new approach that performs much better on simulated data. Applying this approach to real data from mice infected with a single Plasmodium chabaudi strain, we estimate that transmission investment varies from zero to 20%, with evidence for variable investment over time in some hosts, but not others. These patterns suggest that, even in experimental infections where host genetics and other environmental factors are controlled, parasites may exhibit remarkably different patterns of transmission investment.

  9. Grandparental investment: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Coall, David A; Hertwig, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    What motivates grandparents to their altruism? We review answers from evolutionary theory, sociology, and economics. Sometimes in direct conflict with each other, these accounts of grandparental investment exist side-by-side, with little or no theoretical integration. They all account for some of the data, and none account for all of it. We call for a more comprehensive theoretical framework of grandparental investment that addresses its proximate and ultimate causes, and its variability due to lineage, values, norms, institutions (e.g., inheritance laws), and social welfare regimes. This framework needs to take into account that the demographic shift to low fecundity and mortality in economically developed countries has profoundly altered basic parameters of grandparental investment. We then turn to the possible impact of grandparental acts of altruism, and examine whether benefits of grandparental care in industrialized societies may manifest in terms of less tangible dimensions, such as the grandchildren's cognitive and verbal ability, mental health, and well-being. Although grandparents in industrialized societies continue to invest substantial amounts of time and money in their grandchildren, we find a paucity of studies investigating the influence that this investment has on grandchildren in low-risk family contexts. Under circumstances of duress - for example, teenage pregnancy or maternal depression - there is converging evidence that grandparents can provide support that helps to safeguard their children and grandchildren against adverse risks. We conclude by discussing the role that grandparents could play in what has been referred to as Europe's demographic suicide.

  10. Energy return on investment for algal biofuel production coupled with wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Beal, Colin M; Stillwell, Ashlynn S; King, Carey W; Cohen, Stuart M; Berberoglu, Halil; Bhattarai, Rajendra P; Connelly, Rhykka L; Webber, Michael E; Hebner, Robert E

    2012-09-01

    This study presents a second-order energy return on investment analysis to evaluate the mutual benefits of combining an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (with biological nutrient removal) with algal biofuel production. With conventional, independently operated systems, algae production requires significant material inputs, which require energy directly and indirectly, and the WWTP requires significant energy inputs for treatment of the waste streams. The second-order energy return on investment values for independent operation of the WWTP and the algal biofuels production facility were determined to be 0.37 and 0.42, respectively. By combining the two, energy inputs can be reduced significantly. Consequently, the integrated system can outperform the isolated system, yielding a second-order energy return on investment of 1.44. Combining these systems transforms two energy sinks to a collective (second-order) energy source. However, these results do not include capital, labor, and other required expenses, suggesting that profitable deployment will be challenging.

  11. Making Energy-Efficiency and Productivity Investments in Commercial Buildings: Choice of Investment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    This study examines the decision to invest in buildings and the types of investment decision rules that may be employed to inform the ''go--no go'' decision. There is a range of decision making tools available to help in investment choices, which range from simple rules of thumb such as payback periods, to life-cycle analysis, to decision theoretic approaches. Payback period analysis tends to point toward lower first costs, whereas life-cycle analysis tends to minimize uncertainties over future events that can affect profitability. We conclude that investment models that integrate uncertainty offer better explanations for the behavior that is observed, i.e., people tend to delay investments in technologies that life-cycle analysis finds cost-effective, and these models also lead to an alternative set of policies targeted at reducing of managing uncertainty.

  12. Investigating investment in biopharmaceutical R&D

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Percy H.; Berndt, Ernst R.; DiMasi, Joseph A.; Trusheim, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a reduction in projected financial returns associated with biopharmaceutical R&D, owing to decreased productivity, increases in costs and flattening revenue per new drug, prompting calls for dramatic revisions to R&D models. On the basis of previous financial modelling, the simplest hypothesis would be that new investment in such R&D should be minimal and focused on biologics in preference to small molecules, as the internal rate of return on investment for biologics projects has been reported to be higher. PMID:27616295

  13. The growing challenge of hospital investment.

    PubMed

    Sibbel, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Healthcare providers around the world are faced with challenges like limited financial scope, demographic changes, technical and medical progress, a rising transparency level and increasing patient claims which all lead to high pressure on healthcare markets. Reduced federal support intensifies this situation. But, financial capability and an adequate investment strategy are key success factors for hospitals in the future. Therefore, hospitals have to evaluate new ways of capital allocation. This article analyses five different opportunities for inpatient care facilities to meet their investment requirements and to underline their market position as a service enterprise.

  14. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  15. Plant Models for DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisonnier, David

    2008-03-01

    The European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been a study of conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants. It focused on five power plant models, named PPCS A, B, AB, C and D, which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. The PPCS study highlighted the need for specific design and R&D activities as well as the need to clarify the concept of DEMO, the device that will bridge the gap between ITER and the first fusion power plant. An assessment of the PPCS models with limited extrapolations has led to the clarification of the objectives of DEMO. Many parameters will have to be controlled in DEMO in order (1) to control the machine, (2) to satisfy the testing requirements, (3) to satisfy regulatory requirements (primarily safety), and (4) to protect the investment. On the other, DEMO will ulilise one or two plasma scenarios only.

  16. Plant Models for DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Maisonnier, David

    2008-03-12

    The European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been a study of conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants. It focused on five power plant models, named PPCS A, B, AB, C and D, which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. The PPCS study highlighted the need for specific design and R and D activities as well as the need to clarify the concept of DEMO, the device that will bridge the gap between ITER and the first fusion power plant. An assessment of the PPCS models with limited extrapolations has led to the clarification of the objectives of DEMO. Many parameters will have to be controlled in DEMO in order (1) to control the machine, (2) to satisfy the testing requirements, (3) to satisfy regulatory requirements (primarily safety), and (4) to protect the investment. On the other, DEMO will ulilise one or two plasma scenarios only.

  17. 75 FR 26742 - Investing in Innovation Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-11451] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Investing in Innovation Fund Catalog of Federal... (Development grants). AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice...: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/grants_spoc/ . You can also find the list of SPOCs in the appendix to...

  18. Estimating investment returns from growing red pine.

    Treesearch

    Allen L. Lundgren

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes how to estimate present values of incomes and costs in growing red pine trees for sale as cordwood or sawtimber, and how to calculate expectation values and rates of return for a wide range of timber-growing conditions, using the tables of expectation value indexes and interest rate multipliers provided. It illustrates how to compare investment...

  19. Measuring the Return on Investment for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotamraju, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education (CTE) is increasingly being seen as a major contributor to the recovery of the U.S. economy. However, questions exist as to the effectiveness and impact of CTE. One is whether the federal investment (Carl D. Perkins Act) in CTE is paying off. To answer this, there is a need to establish the "internal…

  20. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prior notice constitute the Board's approval under section 25A(8) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 615) for...) Composite rating. Except as the Board may otherwise determine, in order for an investor to make investments under the general consent or limited general consent procedures of paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  1. The Economics of an Investment in Kaizen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visuwan, Danupun

    2010-10-01

    Kaizen has been widely accepted as a continuous process improvement with the gradualist approach. This paper presents the research carried out to explore the pattern of an investment in Kaizen to enhance overall profit. System dynamics-based simulation has been employed with an optimization technique, a Steepest Ascent approach, to improve experimental variables e.g. the amount of spending on prevention and appraisal activities, the time and the amount to reduce the investment which results in maximum Net Present Value (NPV) of profit. The simulation model in this study is based on a Thai automobile manufacturer as a case study company. The result suggests that the investment in Kaizen should spend on activities to eliminate and detect all defects in the early phase and then reduce economically when the process is under controlled. It can be named as the `Hybrid quality improvement', which was proved in this study that it provides greater overall profit than the Stepwise Kaizen and the constant spending. This study also presents the behavior of quality costs and profit against time scale along the different patterns of the investment in Kaizen.

  2. The Appraisal of Investments in Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Programme on Educational Building.

    This collection of papers covers, from a European perspective, the basic aspects of investments in physical educational facilities, as well as important issues in the economics of education. Four themes are covered. The first presents the art of the economic analysis of educational projects. The second focuses on the contribution of performance…

  3. Investing in the Future: Automation Marketplace 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    In a year where the general economy presented enormous challenges, libraries continued to make investments in automation, especially in products that help improve what and how they deliver to their end users. Access to electronic content remains a key driver. In response to anticipated needs for new approaches to library automation, many companies…

  4. 31 CFR 542.311 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New investment. 542.311 Section 542.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  5. Return on Investment in Training: Research Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew, Ed.

    Following an introduction ("Return on Investment in Training" by Andrew Smith) that provides an overview and a synopsis of research findings, the following five chapters of this book present the results of five research projects funded by the National Research and Evaluation Committee in Australia in 1999-2000. The first four of these…

  6. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... for the participation in royalties, earnings, or profits in the economic development of...

  7. 31 CFR 537.311 - New investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New investment. 537.311 Section 537.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... for the participation in royalties, earnings, or profits in the economic development of...

  8. 12 CFR 703.16 - Prohibited investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.16 Prohibited investments. (a) Derivatives. A Federal credit union may not purchase or sell financial derivatives, such as futures, options, interest rate swaps, or forward rate swaps. This prohibition does not apply to: (1) Any derivatives permitted under §§ 701.21(i)...

  9. Comparative dynamics in a health investment model.

    PubMed

    Eisenring, C

    1999-10-01

    The method of comparative dynamics fully exploits the inter-temporal structure of optimal control models. I derive comparative dynamic results in a simplified demand for health model. The effect of a change in the depreciation rate on the optimal paths for health capital and investment in health is studied by use of a phase diagram.

  10. Financial Planning for Energy Efficiency Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Financing options for energy efficiency investments by colleges are outlined by the Energy Task Force of three higher education associations. It is suggested that alternative financing techniques generate a positive cash flow and allow campuses to implement conservation despite fiscal constraints. Since energy conservation saves money, the savings…

  11. Investing in Information Technology Pays Big Dividends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1999-01-01

    A college or university's investment in information technology (IT) makes possible more effective teaching methods using both traditional and IT-based techniques, as well as making both student learning and faculty use of time more productive. A possible plan for making the transition from traditional to mixed teaching methods is presented. (MSE)

  12. Years and Intensity of Schooling Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Arleen

    1976-01-01

    Calculates human capital earnings functions over 20 years for 822 men (the Terman sample) and argues that the percentage of gross earnings invested in education may fall below 100 percent well before school ends. (Available from the Secretary's Office, American Economic Association, 1313 21st Ave., South, Nashville, Tennessee 37212) (Author/JG)

  13. The Labor Market and Human Capital Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallmann, Judith I.; And Others

    This study tests the hypothesis that the local labor market structure, particularly the proportions of high- and low-paying occupations, affects human capital investment. Most studies have assumed that the direction of causation flows from the supply of human capital to employment growth. However, the creation of low-skilled jobs merely reshuffles…

  14. Conway, Ark., Receives EPA Investment Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (May 28, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced the city of Conway, Ark., is one of 146 communities across the country to be awarded a total of $54.3 million in investment grants. These grants will provide communiti

  15. Investing in a Surgical Outcomes Auditing System

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Luis; Trost, Kristen; Ayala, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background. Humanitarian surgical organizations consider both quantity of patients receiving care and quality of the care provided as a measure of success. However, organizational efficacy is often judged by the percent of resources spent towards direct intervention/surgery, which may discourage investment in an outcomes monitoring system. Operation Smile's established Global Standards of Care mandate minimum patient followup and quality of care. Purpose. To determine whether investment of resources in an outcomes monitoring system is necessary and effectively measures success. Methods. This paper analyzes the quantity and completeness of data collected over the past four years and compares it against changes in personnel and resources assigned to the program. Operation Smile began investing in multiple resources to obtain the missing data necessary to potentially implement a global Surgical Outcomes Auditing System. Existing personnel resources were restructured to focus on postoperative program implementation, data acquisition and compilation, and training materials used to educate local foundation and international employees. Results. An increase in the number of postoperative forms and amount of data being submitted to headquarters occurred. Conclusions. Humanitarian surgical organizations would benefit from investment in a surgical outcomes monitoring system in order to demonstrate success and to ameliorate quality of care. PMID:23401763

  16. San Antonio, TX, Receives EPA Investment Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (May 28, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced the city of San Antonio is one of 146 communities across the country to be awarded a total of $54.3 million in investment grants. These grants will provide communities

  17. Oklahoma City Receives EPA Investment Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (May 28, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced Oklahoma City is one of 146 communities across the country to be awarded a total of $54.3 million in investment grants. These grants will provide communities with fund

  18. How Fidelity invests in service professionals.

    PubMed

    McColgan, E A

    1997-01-01

    If you're in the business of service delivery, investment in the training and development of your staff is one of the keys to your company's success. But what's the best way to design and implement your investment? In 1994, Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Company (FIRSCo) needed to ensure that its rapidly expanding staff maintained the company's high levels of customer satisfaction. The solution, according to Ellyn McColgan, formerly an executive vice president of FIRSCo and now the president of Fidelity Investments Tax-Exempt Services Company, was to reach out to its service associates with a powerful new model for training and development called Service Delivery University. SDU is a virtual university with a content-based core curriculum and five colleges that focus on business concepts and skills. It is driven by three principles. First, all training must be directly aligned with the company's strategic and financial objectives and focused on customer needs. Second, service delivery is a profession and should be taught as such. And finally, professional development should be the primary responsibility of line managers rather than the human resources department. McColgan explains how FIRSCo overcame resistance to this sweeping change in employee education. (Time was one obstacle: each associate receives 80 hours of training per year.) In addition, the author discusses the fine art of measuring the success of a program like SDU. She finds that the company's investment has paid dividends to the staff, to the organization as a whole, and to FIRSCo's customers.

  19. GASB Statement No. 3 Guides Deposits, Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Linda A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses an April 1986 Governmental Accounting Standards Board statement concerning disclosures of repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements. The statement tries to help financial statement users assess the risks a goverment entity takes when investing public funds. It is effective for financial statement periods ending after December 15,…

  20. 77 FR 4885 - Rural Business Investment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... / Wednesday, February 1, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 4290 RIN 0570-AA80 Rural Business Investment Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service and Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION:...