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Sample records for involuntary autobiographical memories

  1. Relationship between frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and cognitive failure.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories are memories of personal experiences that pop into mind without a conscious attempt at their retrieval. This study investigated individual differences in the number of involuntary autobiographical memories, and explored the relationship between the frequency of occurrence in involuntary autobiographical memory and cognitive failures in everyday memory, as indexed by metamemory questionnaires. A total of 24 undergraduate students reported involuntary autobiographical memories in controlled field interviews, and completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. The results showed that, despite controlled conditions, considerable individual differences were observed in the number of involuntary autobiographical memories reported while walking along a prescribed route on the campus, and that reported memories were predominantly serving self function. In addition, the number of involuntary autobiographical memories was positively related to cognitive failures in everyday memory: participants who acknowledged more problems in everyday memory had a higher frequency of involuntary memories. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the complementary function of involuntary autobiographical memory in everyday life.

  2. Positive involuntary autobiographical memories: You first have to live them

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A.; Mackay, Clare E.; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are typically discussed in the context of negative memories such as trauma ‘flashbacks’. However, IAMs occur frequently in everyday life and are predominantly positive. In spite of this, surprisingly little is known about how such positive IAMs arise. The trauma film paradigm is often used to generate negative IAMs. Recently an equivalent positive film was developed inducing positive IAMs (Davies, Malik, Pictet, Blackwell, & Holmes, 2012). The current study is the first to investigate which variables (emotional reaction to the film; recognition memory of the film; participant characteristics) would best predict the frequency of positive IAMs. Higher levels of positive mood change to the film were significantly associated with the number of positive IAMs recorded in the subsequent week. Results demonstrate the importance of positive emotional reaction at the time of an event for subsequent positive IAMs. PMID:23416539

  3. Involuntary memory chains: what do they tell us about autobiographical memory organisation?

    PubMed

    Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M; Bernas, Ronan S

    2013-04-01

    Involuntary memory chains are spontaneous recollections of the past that occur as a sequence of associated memories. This memory phenomenon has provided some insights into the nature of associations in autobiographical memory. For example, it has shown that conceptually associated memories (memories sharing similar content, such as the same people or themes) are more prevalent than general-event associated memories (memories from the same extended event period, such as a trip). This finding has suggested that conceptual associations are a central organisational principle in the autobiographical memory system. This study used involuntary memories chains to gain additional insights into the associative structure of autobiographical memory. Among the main results, we found that general-event associations have higher rates of forgetting than conceptual associations, and in long memory chains (i.e., those with more than two memories) conceptually associated memories were more likely to activate memories in their associative class, whereas general-event associated memories were less likely to activate memories in their associative class. We interpret the results as further evidence that conceptual associations are a major organising principle in the autobiographical memory system, and attempt to explain why general-event associations have shorter lifespans than conceptual associations.

  4. The Frequency of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories and Future Thoughts in Relation to Daydreaming, Emotional Distress, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.; Salgado, Sinue

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. PMID:26241025

  5. The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C; Salgado, Sinue

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two conditions: after being exposed to their own chosen music, and in silence. Compared to memories evoked in silence, memories evoked in the "Music" condition were found to be more specific, accompanied by more emotional content and impact on mood, and retrieved faster. In addition, these memories engaged less executive processes. Thus, with all these characteristics and the fact that they are activated by a perceptual cue (i.e., music), music-evoked autobiographic memories have all the features to be considered as involuntary memories. Our paper reveals several characteristics of music-evoked autobiographical memories in AD patients and offers a theoretical background for this phenomenon.

  7. The Effects of Instruction on the Frequency and Characteristics of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of experimental instruction on the retrieval of involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs). In previous studies of IAMs, participants were either instructed to record only memories (henceforth, the restricted group) or any thoughts (henceforth, the unrestricted group). However, it is unknown whether these two different types of instructions influence the retrieval of IAMs. The most recent study by Vannucci and her colleagues directly addressed this question and demonstrated that the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of IAMs strongly depended on the type of instruction received. The goal of the present study was to replicate these results while addressing some limitations of the Vannucci et al. study and to test three possible mechanisms proposed to explain the effect of instructions on the retrieval of IAMs. Our results accord well with the data presented by Vannucci et al. When participants were instructed to record only IAMs (the restricted group), they reported more memories and rated them as being retrieved in a more goal-oriented fashion. Their memories also were less clear, vivid, detailed and were less frequently accompanied by physiological reactions, compared to memories reported by the participants in the unrestricted group. In addition, the events to which the memories referred were rated as more unusual and personal by the restricted group. These results are consistent with the assumption that retrieval of IAMs depends on the type of instructions used in a study. In addition, our results suggest that one of the main mechanisms underlying the higher frequency of IAMs in the restricted group may be participants’ ability to monitor the stream of consciousness and to extract autobiographical content from this flow. Further implications of the effect of instructions for IAMs research are discussed. PMID:27294408

  8. Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Properties of voluntary and involuntary, traumatic and non-traumatic autobiographical memories in people with and without PTSD symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    One-hundred-fifteen undergraduates screened for PTSD symptom severity rated 15 word-cued memories and their 3 most-negatively-stressful, 3 most-positive, and 7 most-important events, and completed tests of personality and depression. Eighty-nine also recorded involuntary memories online for one week. We compared 1) memories of stressful to control events and 2) involuntary to voluntary memories 3) in people high versus low in PTSD symptom severity, providing the first three-way comparisons needed to test existing theories. Stressful versus control memories in all participants and high PTSD symptom severity in all memories produced memories with more emotional intensity and more frequent voluntary and involuntary retrieval, but not more fragmentation. Involuntary memories had more emotional intensity and less centrality to the life story than voluntary memories. Meeting the diagnostic criteria for traumatic events had no effect, the emotional responses to events did. Correlations among measures were replicated and the Negative-Intensity factor of the Affect Intensity Measure correlated with PTSD symptom severity in 533 undergraduates. No special trauma mechanisms were needed to account for the results, which are summarized by the Autobiographical Memory Theory of PTSD. PMID:18999355

  9. Out of One's Mind: A Study of Involuntary Semantic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Mandler, George

    2004-01-01

    The study of memories that pop into one's mind without any conscious attempt to retrieve them began only recently. While there are some studies on involuntary autobiographical memories (e.g., Berntsen, 1996, 1998) research on involuntary semantic memories or mind-popping is virtually non-existent. The latter is defined as an involuntary conscious…

  10. Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Properties of Voluntary and Involuntary, Traumatic and Nontraumatic Autobiographical Memories in People with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    One hundred fifteen undergraduates rated 15 word-cued memories and their 3 most negatively stressful, 3 most positive, and 7 most important events and completed tests of personality and depression. Eighty-nine also recorded involuntary memories online for 1 week. In the first 3-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, comparisons were…

  11. Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Properties of Voluntary and Involuntary, Traumatic and Nontraumatic Autobiographical Memories in People with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    One hundred fifteen undergraduates rated 15 word-cued memories and their 3 most negatively stressful, 3 most positive, and 7 most important events and completed tests of personality and depression. Eighty-nine also recorded involuntary memories online for 1 week. In the first 3-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, comparisons were…

  12. Regret as Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

  13. Regret as Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

  14. Origins of Autobiographical Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Keryn; Reese, Elaine

    1999-01-01

    Tested predictions of infantile amnesia theory compared with social-interactionist account of autobiographical memory. Found maternal reminiscing style and self-recognition when child was 19 months old uniquely predicted children's shared memory reports across time, even with children's initial language and nonverbal memory factored out.…

  15. Imaging autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) defines the memory systems that encode, consolidate, and retrieve personal events and facts, AM is strongly related to self-perception and self representation. We review here the neural correlates of AM retrieval. AM retrieval encompasses a large neural network including the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex, and limbic structures. All these regions subserve the cognitive processes (episodic remembering, cognitive control, self-processing, and scene construction) at play during memory retrieval. We emphasize the specific role of medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus in self-processing during autobiographical memory retrieval. Overall, these data call for further studies in psychiatric patients, to investigate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and self-representation in mental disorders.

  16. Autobiographical Memory for Stressful Events: The Role of Autobiographical Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David C.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    To provide the three-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, we compared 1) most-stressful memories to other memories and 2) involuntary to voluntary memories 3) in 75 community dwelling adults with and 42 without a current diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Each rated their 3 most-stressful, 3 most-positive, 7 most-important and 15 word-cued autobiographical memories, and completed tests of personality and mood. Involuntary memories were then recorded and rated as they occurred for two weeks. Standard mechanisms of cognition and affect applied to extreme events accounted for the properties of stressful memories. Involuntary memories had greater emotional intensity than voluntary memories, but were not more frequently related to traumatic events. The emotional intensity, rehearsal, and centrality to the life story of both voluntary and involuntary memories, rather than incoherence of voluntary traumatic memories and enhanced availability of involuntary traumatic memories, were the properties of autobiographical memories associated with PTSD. PMID:21489820

  17. Origins of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Harley, K; Reese, E

    1999-09-01

    This study tested the predictions of M. L. Howe and M. L. Courage's (1993, 1997) theory of infantile amnesia compared with a social-interactionist account of autobiographical memory development (R. Fivush & E. Reese, 1992; K. Nelson, 1993b). Fifty-eight mother-child dyads were assessed for maternal styles of talking about the past and for children's self-recognition, language production, and nonverbal memory when the children were 19 months old. Children's shared and independent memory reports were then assessed from 19 to 32 months. Maternal reminiscing style and self-recognition uniquely predicted children's shared memory reports across time, even with children's initial language and nonverbal memory factored out. Self-recognition skills also predicted children's later independent memory. These results support a pluralistic account of the origins of autobiographical memory.

  18. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  19. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  20. When Autobiographical Memory Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.; Edison, Shannon C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in "what" processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes…

  1. When Autobiographical Memory Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.; Edison, Shannon C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in "what" processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes…

  2. Emotional organization of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Schulkind, Matthew D; Woldorf, Gillian M

    2005-09-01

    The emotional organization of autobiographical memory was examined by determining whether emotional cues would influence autobiographical retrieval in younger and older adults. Unfamiliar musical cues that represented orthogonal combinations of positive and negative valence and high and low arousal were used. Whereas cue valence influenced the valence of the retrieved memories, cue arousal did not affect arousal ratings. However, high-arousal cues were associated with reduced response latencies. A significant bias to report positive memories was observed, especially for the older adults, but neither the distribution of memories across the life span nor response latencies varied across memories differing in valence or arousal. These data indicate that emotional information can serve as effective cues for autobiographical memories and that autobiographical memories are organized in terms of emotional valence but not emotional arousal. Thus, current theories of autobiographical memory must be expanded to include emotional valence as a primary dimension of organization.

  3. Time, Language, and Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Christopher D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Life themes, general events, and event-specific episodes, together with autobiographical knowledge, form autobiographical memory. Each of these memory structures is described, and research that has investigated the storage and retrieval of temporal information for life events, such as place in time, duration, and order, is examined. The general…

  4. Time, Language, and Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Christopher D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Life themes, general events, and event-specific episodes, together with autobiographical knowledge, form autobiographical memory. Each of these memory structures is described, and research that has investigated the storage and retrieval of temporal information for life events, such as place in time, duration, and order, is examined. The general…

  5. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  6. The Reappearance Hypothesis Revisited: Recurrent Involuntary Memories after Traumatic Events and in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent involuntary memories are autobiographical memories that come to mind with no preceding retrieval attempt and that are subjectively experienced as being repetitive. Clinically, they are classified as a symptom of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The present work is the first to systematically examine recurrent involuntary memories outside clinical settings. Study 1 examines recurrent involuntary memories among survivors of the tsunami catastrophe in Southeast Asia in 2004. Study 2 examines recurrent involuntary memories in a large general population. Study 3 examines whether the contents of recurrent involuntary memories recorded in a diary study are duplicates of, or differ from, one another. We show that recurrent involuntary memories are not limited to clinical populations or to emotionally negative experiences, that they typically do not come to mind in a fixed and unchangeable form, and that they show the same pattern regarding accessibility as autobiographical memories in general. We argue that recurrent involuntary memories after traumas and in everyday life can be explained in terms of general and well-established mechanisms of autobiographical memory. PMID:18426073

  7. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  8. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  9. Oscillatory correlates of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Savostyanov, Alexander N; Bocharov, Andrey V; Dorosheva, Elena A; Tamozhnikov, Sergey S; Saprigyn, Alexander E

    2015-03-01

    Recollection of events from one's own life is referred to as autobiographical memory. Autobiographical memory is an important part of our self. Neuroimaging findings link self-referential processes with the default mode network (DMN). Much evidence coming primarily from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies shows that autobiographical memory and DMN have a common neural base. In this study, electroencephalographic data collected in 47 participants during recollection of autobiographical episodes were analyzed using temporal and spatial independent component analyses in combination with source localization. Autobiographical remembering was associated with an increase of spectral power in alpha and beta and a decrease in delta band. The increase of alpha power, as estimated by sLORETA, was most prominent in the posterior DMN, but was also observed in visual and motor cortices, prompting an assumption that it is associated with activation of DMN and inhibition of irrelevant sensory and motor areas. In line with data linking delta oscillations with aversive states, decrease of delta power was more pronounced in episodes associated with positive emotions, whereas episodes associated with negative emotions were accompanied by an increase of delta power. Vividness of recollection correlated positively with theta oscillations. These results highlight the leading role of alpha oscillations and the DMN in the processes accompanying autobiographical remembering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spontaneous or intentional? Involuntary versus voluntary episodic memories in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rasmussen, Anne S; Miles, Amanda N; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Ramsgaard, Stine B

    2017-03-01

    Involuntary episodic memories are memories of past events that come to mind with no preceding attempt of retrieval. Such memories have received little attention in relation to aging compared with voluntary episodic memories (i.e., intentionally retrieved memories of past events). It is well documented that older compared with younger adults have reduced access to episodic memories, when retrieval is voluntary, but little is known about their involuntary episodic recall. Recent evidence suggests that involuntary autobiographical memories are at least as frequent as voluntary autobiographical memories in daily life, but this research has been limited to younger adults. Here older and younger adults recorded involuntary and voluntary episodic memories in relation to a film of a simulated event (Study 1) and during a normal day in their lives (Study 2). Across both studies, no age differences were found regarding the frequency of involuntary episodic memories, whereas older adults showed slower (Study 1) and less frequent (Study 2) voluntary remembering compared with younger adults. The findings suggest that involuntary relative to voluntary episodic remembering is enhanced in older adults, consistent with reduced executive functioning and increased processing of task irrelevant information with aging. Involuntary episodic remembering may provide an adaptive compensation for reductions in strategic retrieval in later adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Autobiographical memory and trauma in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meesters, C; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P; Wessel, I

    2000-03-01

    Several clinicians who work with traumatized children have noted that these children exhibit a poor autobiographical memory. The present study was a first attempt to subject this clinical impression to formal testing. Memory for autobiographical facts (i.e., semantic autobiographical memory) was assessed in 10 adolescents with an alleged history of trauma and 17 adolescents without such a background. Results suggest that traumatized adolescents, indeed, have more difficulty with semantic personal memory than non-traumatized adolescents. Implications of the present findings for future research on trauma and autobiographical memory in children and adolescents are discussed.

  12. Imagery in the aftermath of viewing a traumatic film: Using cognitive tasks to modulate the development of involuntary memory

    PubMed Central

    Deeprose, Catherine; Zhang, Shuqi; DeJong, Hannah; Dalgleish, Tim; Holmes, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Involuntary autobiographical memories that spring unbidden into conscious awareness form part of everyday experience. In psychopathology, involuntary memories can be associated with significant distress. However, the cognitive mechanisms associated with the development of involuntary memories require further investigation and understanding. Since involuntary autobiographical memories are image-based, we tested predictions that visuospatial (but not other) established cognitive tasks could disrupt their consolidation when completed post-encoding. Methods In Experiment 1, participants watched a stressful film then immediately completed a visuospatial task (complex pattern tapping), a control-task (verbal task) or no-task. Involuntary memories of the film were recorded for 1-week. In Experiment 2, the cognitive tasks were administered 30-min post-film. Results Compared to both control and no-task conditions, completing a visuospatial task post-film reduced the frequency of later involuntary memories (Expts 1 and 2) but did not affect voluntary memory performance on a recognition task (Expt 2). Limitations Voluntary memory was assessed using a verbal recognition task and a broader range of memory tasks could be used. The relative difficulty of the cognitive tasks used was not directly established. Conclusions An established visuospatial task after encoding of a stressful experience selectively interferes with sensory-perceptual information processing and may therefore prevent the development of involuntary autobiographical memories. PMID:22104657

  13. [Autobiographical memory in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Żuchowicz, Paulina; Jasionowska, Justyna; Gałecki, Piotr; Talarowska, Monika

    2017-08-21

    Contemporary research studies regarding autobiographical memory (AM) indicate that its deficits have a significant impact on the development of mental disorders. We find particularly many reports regarding the comorbidity of AM deficits and depressive disorders. The characteristic feature of AM in the people suffering from depressive disorders is the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM), i.e. the reminiscences which contain a summary of many emotion-laden situations, yet without significant detail. This type of reminiscences is observed in the patients with depressive disorders and the ones susceptible to the disease but not experiencing presently an episode of depression, as well as the ones being in the phase of disease remission. In recent years, the interest in the significance of negative thinking processes, such as ruminations, as risk factors in the development of depression has been growing. It is emphasized that they are significantly associated with the occurrence of OGM. Research shows that people suffering from OGM and characterised by a rumination-based style of processing experience a greater number of depressive episodes. There are also research studies which confirm that the activities aimed at reducing the number of ruminations influence an improvement of the detail level of reminiscences. These data may serve as valuable therapeutic advice in depression disorders. The aim of the paper is to present results of contemporary research regarding mutual interrelations between autobiographical memory dysfunctions and the occurrence of symptoms of depression and its course.

  14. Motivated recruitment of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Sanitioso, R; Kunda, Z; Fong, G T

    1990-08-01

    We hypothesized that people motivated to believe that they possess a given trait search for autobiographical memories that reflect that trait, so as to justify their desired self-view. We led subjects to believe that either extraversion or introversion was desirable, and obtained convergent evidence from open-ended memory-listing tasks as well as from reaction-time tasks measuring the speed with which memories could be generated that this manipulation enhanced the accessibility of memories reflecting the desired trait. If people rely on their memories to construct desired self-concepts, motivated changes in self-concepts should be constrained by the content of available memories. Our final study demonstrates such constraints.

  15. How intention and monitoring your thoughts influence characteristics of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2017-09-05

    Involuntary autobiographical memories come to mind effortlessly and unintended, but the mechanisms of their retrieval are not fully understood. We hypothesize that involuntary retrieval depends on memories that are highly accessible (e.g., intense, unusual, recent, rehearsed), while the elaborate search that characterizes voluntary retrieval also produces memories that are mundane, repeated or distant - memories with low accessibility. Previous research provides some evidence for this 'threshold hypothesis'. However, in almost every prior study, participants have been instructed to report only memories while ignoring other thoughts. It is possible that such an instruction can modify the phenomenological characteristics of involuntary memories. This study aimed to investigate the effects of retrieval intentionality (i.e., wanting to retrieve a memory) and selective monitoring (i.e., instructions to report only memories) on the phenomenology of autobiographical memories. Participants were instructed to (1) intentionally retrieve autobiographical memories, (2) intentionally retrieve any type of thought (3) wait for an autobiographical memory to spontaneously appear, or (4) wait for any type of thought to spontaneously appear. They rated the mental content on a number of phenomenological characteristics both during retrieval and retrospectively following retrieval. The results support the prediction that highly accessible memories mostly enter awareness unintended and without selective monitoring, while memories with low accessibility rely on intention and selective monitoring. We discuss the implications of these effects. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  17. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  18. Autobiographical memory bias in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Bryant, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    In social anxiety the psychological self is closely related to the feared stimulus. Socially anxious individuals are, by definition, concerned about how the self is perceived and evaluated by others. As autobiographical memory is strongly related to views of the self it follows that biases in autobiographical memory play an important role in social anxiety. In the present study high (n = 19) and low (n = 29) socially anxious individuals were compared on autobiographical memory bias, current goals, and self-discrepancy. Individuals high in social anxiety showed a bias towards recalling more negative and more social anxiety-related autobiographical memories, reported more current goals related to overcoming social anxiety, and showed larger self-discrepancies. The pattern of results is largely in line with earlier research in individuals with PTSD and complicated grief. This suggests that the relation between autobiographical memory bias and the self is a potentially valuable trans-diagnostic factor.

  19. The neuropsychology of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Rubin, David C

    2003-01-01

    This special issue of Cortex focuses on the relative contribution of different neural networks to memory and the interaction of 'core' memory processes with other cognitive processes. In this article, we examine both. Specifically, we identify cognitive processes other than encoding and retrieval that are thought to be involved in memory; we then examine the consequences of damage to brain regions that support these processes. This approach forces a consideration of the roles of brain regions outside of the frontal, medial-temporal, and diencephalic regions that form a central part of neurobiological theories of memory. Certain kinds of damage to visual cortex or lateral temporal cortex produced impairments of visual imagery or semantic memory; these patterns of impairment are associated with a unique pattern of amnesia that was distinctly different from the pattern associated with medial-temporal trauma. On the other hand, damage to language regions, auditory cortex, or parietal cortex produced impairments of language, auditory imagery, or spatial imagery; however, these impairments were not associated with amnesia. Therefore, a full model of autobiographical memory must consider cognitive processes that are not generally considered 'core processes,' as well as the brain regions upon which these processes depend.

  20. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  1. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  2. Autobiographical memory: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Urbanowitsch, Nadja; Gorenc, Lina; Herold, Christina J; Schröder, Johannes

    2013-12-10

    Autobiographical memory (ABM) comprises memories of one's own past that are characterized by a sense of subjective time and autonoetic awareness. Although ABM deficits are among the primary symptoms of patients with major psychiatric conditions such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD) or chronic schizophrenia large clinical studies are scarce. We therefore summarize and discuss the results of our clinical studies on ABM deficits in the respective conditions. In these studies ABM was assessed by using the same instrument - i.e., the Erweitertes Autobiographisches Gedächtnis Inventar (E-AGI) - thus allowing a direct comparison between diagnostic groups. Episodic ABM, especially the richness of details was impaired already in MCI and in beginning AD. Semantic memories were spared until moderate stages, indicating a dissociation between both memory systems. A recency effect was detectable in cognitively unimpaired subjects and vanished in patients with AD. A similar pattern of deficits was found in patients with chronic schizophrenia but not in patients with major depression. These ABM deficits were not accounted for by gender, or education level and did not apply for the physiological ageing process in otherwise healthy elderly. In conclusion, ABM deficits are frequently found in AD and chronic schizophrenia and primarily involve episodic rather than semantic memories. This dissociation corresponds to the multiple trace theory which hypothesized that these memory functions refer to distinct neuronal systems. The semi-structured interview E-AGI used to discern ABM changes provided a sufficient reliability measures, moreover potential effects of a number of important confounders could be falsified so far. These findings underline the relevance of ABM-assessments in clinical practice.

  3. Autobiographical Memory in the Angry Self

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Lynette; Bryant, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of anger on autobiographical recall was examined in two studies. In Experiment 1, 76 participants differing in trait anger completed an autobiographical memory task (AMT). In Experiment 2, 50 participants with elevated trait anger were either provoked or not provoked and subsequently completed an AMT. Across both studies, participants with high dispositional anger reported more anger-related memories, describing themselves as the primary agent of anger. In Experiment 2, provoked participants reported more memories describing themselves as the target of anger. These findings highlight the distinct patterns of memory recall associated with trait versus state anger. Findings are discussed in terms of retrieval biases operating in angry individuals and proposals stemming from self-memory system models of autobiographical memory. PMID:27023327

  4. Cultural Differences in Autobiographical Memory of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…

  5. Cultural Differences in Autobiographical Memory of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…

  6. Anchoring effects on early autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Bishara, Anthony J; Mugayar-Baldocchi, Marino A

    2017-10-01

    Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, participants answered either a high-anchor or a low-anchor question, and were warned that the anchor was uninformative; they went on to estimate their age during their earliest autobiographical memory. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 and extended the design to examine additional early autobiographical memories. In both experiments, participants in the low-anchor condition gave earlier age estimates than those in the high-anchor condition. These results provide new insights into the methods used to investigate autobiographical memory. Moreover, they show that reports of early autobiographical memories can be influenced by a relatively light touch - a change to a single digit in a single question.

  7. Reduced levels of specific autobiographical memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Riutort, Marielle; Cuervo, Christine; Danion, Jean-Marie; Peretti, Charles Siegfried; Salamé, Pierre

    2003-01-25

    Autobiographical memory is intrinsically related to the self and personal identity. This study investigated whether both personal episodic memory and semantic memory are impaired in schizophrenia, a disease characterized by an abnormal personal identity. Personal episodic memory and personal semantic memory were investigated in 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 normal subjects using an autobiographical fluency task and an autobiographical memory inquiry. Autobiographical memory scores and the proportion of specific memories were lower in patients with schizophrenia than in normal subjects. The deficit of personal episodic and semantic memory, as assessed by the autobiographical memory inquiry and the autobiographical fluency task, respectively, was most apparent after the onset of clinical symptoms. Schizophrenia is associated with an impairment of both personal episodic and semantic memory and with a reduction of specific autobiographical memories. Those impairments are consistent with the existence of an abnormal personal identity in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Visual object imagery and autobiographical memory: Object Imagers are better at remembering their personal past.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Manila; Pelagatti, Claudia; Chiorri, Carlo; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether higher levels of object imagery, a stable characteristic that reflects the ability and preference in generating pictorial mental images of objects, facilitate involuntary and voluntary retrieval of autobiographical memories (ABMs). Individuals with high (High-OI) and low (Low-OI) levels of object imagery were asked to perform an involuntary and a voluntary ABM task in the laboratory. Results showed that High-OI participants generated more involuntary and voluntary ABMs than Low-OI, with faster retrieval times. High-OI also reported more detailed memories compared to Low-OI and retrieved memories as visual images. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on voluntary and involuntary ABMs are discussed.

  9. [Nostalgia and the functions of autobiographical memory].

    PubMed

    Wolf, T

    2014-11-01

    Current research on autobiographical memory distinguishes between a self function, a directive function, and a social function of autobiographical memory. From a lifespan perspective, the use of autobiographical memory for these functions is expected to decrease with age. The present study extended these functions by the function of nostalgia: Often triggered by negative emotions, remembering personal and positive experiences might, among others, enhance positive effects. This emotion-regulating function is expected to become more important in old age. In the present study 273 adults (aged between 19 and 90 years) completed the Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE) as well as 11 newly developed items to assess the nostalgia function. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a four-factor model reflecting the presumed self, directive, social, and nostalgia functions of autobiographical memory. The results showed a decrease in the use of autobiographical memory for self, directive and social functions with increasing age, whereas the nostalgia function followed a U-shaped pattern.

  10. Mapping autobiographical memory in schizophrenia: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Ricarte, J J; Ros, L; Latorre, J M; Watkins, E

    2017-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that impaired autobiographical memory (AM) mechanisms may be associated with the onset and maintenance of psychopathology. However, there is not yet a comprehensive review of the components of autobiographical memory in schizophrenic patients. The first aim of this review is a synthesis of evidence about the functioning of AM in schizophrenic patients. The main autobiographical elements reviewed in schizophrenic patients include the study of overgeneral memory (form); self-defining memories (contents); consciousness during the process of retrieval (awareness), and the abnormal early reminiscence bump (distribution). AM impairments have been involved in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of other psychopathologies, especially depression. The second aim is to examine potential parallels between the mechanisms responsible for the onset and maintenance of disturbed AM in other clinical diagnosis and the mechanisms of disturbed autobiographical memory functioning in schizophrenic patients. Cognitive therapies for schizophrenic patients are increasingly demanded. The third aim is the suggestion of key elements for the adaptation of components of autobiographical recall in cognitive therapies for the treatment of symptoms and consequences of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Overgeneral autobiographical memory in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Dutra, Tarcísio Gomes; Kurtinaitis, Laila da Camara Lima; Cantilino, Amaury; Vasconcelos, Maria Carolina Souto de; Hazin, Izabel; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to review studies focusing on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive disorders. Such characteristic has attracted attention because of its relationship with a poor ability to solve problems and to imagine the future, as well as with the maintenance and a poor prognosis of depression. Data were collected through a systematic search on LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and IBECS databases, and also on the health sciences records of Portal de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), a Brazilian journal database, focusing on articles published between 2000 and 2010. The following keywords were used: memória autobiográfica, supergeneralização da memória autobiográfica, and memória autobiográfica e depressão in Portuguese; and autobiographical memory, overgeneral autobiographical memory, and autobiographical memory and depression in English. Following application of exclusion criteria, a total of 27 studies were reviewed. Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been investigated in several depressive disorders. However, further longitudinal studies are required to confirm the relevant role of this cognitive characteristic in anamnesis and in the treatment of mood disorders.

  12. Autobiographical Thinking Interferes with Episodic Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Michael; Della Sala, Sergio; Dewar, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an ‘internal’ memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues. PMID:24736665

  13. Autobiographical thinking interferes with episodic memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael; Della Sala, Sergio; Dewar, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.

  14. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM.

  15. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  16. Characterization of music-evoked autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Janata, Petr; Tomic, Stefan T; Rakowski, Sonja K

    2007-11-01

    Despite music's prominence in Western society and its importance to individuals in their daily lives, very little is known about the memories and emotions that are often evoked when hearing a piece of music from one's past. We examined the content of music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) using a novel approach for selecting stimuli from a large corpus of popular music, in both laboratory and online settings. A set of questionnaires probed the cognitive and affective properties of the evoked memories. On average, 30% of the song presentations evoked autobiographical memories, and the majority of songs also evoked various emotions, primarily positive, that were felt strongly. The third most common emotion was nostalgia. Analyses of written memory reports found both general and specific levels of autobiographical knowledge to be represented, and several social and situational contexts for memory formation were common across many memories. The findings indicate that excerpts of popular music serve as potent stimuli for studying the structure of autobiographical memories.

  17. Autobiographical Memory from a Life Span Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroots, Johannes J. F.; van Dijkum, Cor; Assink, Marian H. J.

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study (i.e., three age groups, three measures) explores the distribution of retrospective and prospective autobiographical memory data across the lifespan, in particular the bump pattern of disproportionally higher recall of memories from the ages 10 to 30, as generally observed in older age groups, in conjunction with the…

  18. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  19. Does retrieval intentionality really matter? Similarities and differences between involuntary memories and directly and generatively retrieved voluntary memories.

    PubMed

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2016-08-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory distinguish between involuntary and voluntary retrieval as a consequence of conscious intention (i.e., wanting to remember). Another distinction can be made between direct and generative retrieval, which reflects the effort involved (i.e., trying to remember). However, it is unclear how intention and effort interacts. For example, involuntary memories and directly retrieved memories have been used interchangeably in the literature to refer to the same phenomenon of effortless, non-strategic retrieval. More recent theoretical advances suggest that they are separate types of retrieval, one unintentional (involuntary), another intentional and effortless (direct voluntary retrieval), and a third intentional and effortful (generative voluntary retrieval). Whether this also entails differing phenomenological characteristics, such as vividness, rehearsal, or emotional valence, has not been previously investigated. In the current study, participants reported memories in an experimental paradigm designed to elicit voluntary and involuntary memories and rated them on a number of characteristics. If intention affects the retrieval process, then we should expect differences between the characteristics of involuntary and directly retrieved memories. The results imply that retrieval intention seems to differentiate how a memory appears in a person's mind. Furthermore, we argue that these differences in part could result from differences in encoding and consolidation.

  20. The relation between verbal and visuospatial memory and autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Steve M J; Kristo, Gert; Rouw, Romke; Murre, Jaap M J

    2015-01-01

    The basic-systems approach (Rubin, 2005, 2006) states that autobiographical memory is supported by other cognitive systems and argues that autobiographical memories are constructed from interactions between cognitive systems, such as language, vision and emotion. Although deficiencies in one or more of the basic systems influence the properties of autobiographical memories, little is known about how these cognitive abilities and autobiographical memory are related. To assert whether participants with stronger cognitive abilities also perform better on autobiographical memory tests, participants who completed verbal and visuospatial memory tests also recorded one personal event, which they recalled after a certain interval. Participants who performed well on the verbal memory tests also had better retention for the personal event, providing support for the basic-systems approach to autobiographical memory and preliminary support for the view that people have more memories from adolescence and early adulthood because the memory system works optimally in these lifetime periods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trait mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Rosalind

    2015-02-01

    Training in mindfulness skills has been shown to increase autobiographical memory specificity. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is also an association between individual differences in trait mindfulness and memory specificity using a non-clinical student sample (N = 70). Also examined were the relationships between other memory characteristics and trait mindfulness, self-reported depression and rumination. Participants wrote about 12 autobiographical memories, which were recalled in response to emotion word cues in a minimal instruction version of the Autobiographical Memory Test, rated each memory for seven characteristics, and completed the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and the Ruminative Responses Scale. Higher rumination scores were associated with more reliving and more intense emotion during recall. Depression scores were not associated with any memory variables. Higher trait mindfulness was associated with lower memory specificity and with more intense and more positive emotion during recall. Thus, trait mindfulness is associated with memory specificity, but the association is opposite to that found in mindfulness training studies. It is suggested that this difference may be due to an influence of trait mindfulness on memory encoding as well as retrieval processes and an influence on the mode of self-awareness that leads to a greater focus on momentary rather than narrative self-reference.

  2. Directed forgetting of autobiographical memory in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Haj, Mohamad El; Postal, Virginie; Gall, Didier Le; Allain, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Using the autobiographical directed forgetting method (Barnier et al., 2007), the present paper addressed the intentional inhibitory processes of episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mild AD patients and healthy elderly people were instructed to either forget or to continue remembering previously generated autobiographical events. In a later recall test they were asked to reconstruct the early-generated memories regardless of the forget/remember instruction. Autobiographical reconstruction was further distributed into episodic and semantic memories. Results showed no forget instruction effect on episodic or semantic autobiographical recall with AD patients, whereas healthy elderly people were able to inhibit only episodic autobiographical memories. The findings suggest an impairment of the intentional inhibitory processes in autobiographical memory with AD and a relative preservation of these mechanisms with normal ageing. They also demonstrate an earlier decline in the intentional inhibitory processes compared to the autobiographical deterioration in AD.

  3. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

  4. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

  5. Autobiographical Memory Specificity and Emotional Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. Mark G.; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Crane, Catherine; Herman, Dirk; Raes, Filip; Watkins, Ed; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research showing that when recalling autobiographical events, many emotionally disturbed patients summarize categories of events rather than retrieving a single episode. The mechanisms underlying such overgeneral memory are examined, with a focus on M. A. Conway and C. W. Pleydell-Pearce's (2000) hierarchical search model of…

  6. Autobiographical Memory Specificity and Emotional Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. Mark G.; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Crane, Catherine; Herman, Dirk; Raes, Filip; Watkins, Ed; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research showing that when recalling autobiographical events, many emotionally disturbed patients summarize categories of events rather than retrieving a single episode. The mechanisms underlying such overgeneral memory are examined, with a focus on M. A. Conway and C. W. Pleydell-Pearce's (2000) hierarchical search model of…

  7. Empathy and autobiographical memory: are they linked?

    PubMed

    Tani, Franca; Peterson, Carole; Smorti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memory and empathy have been linked with social interaction variables as well as gender in independent bodies of literature. However a scarcity of research exists on the direct link between autobiographical memory and empathy. Exploring this link, in particular for memory of friendships and empathy, was the authors' main aim. A total of 107 Italian undergraduates participated. A memory fluency task was used to assess accessibility of memories spanning their entire life (preschool through university) and an empathy scale (Italian version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index) was employed to measure the participants' level and dimensions of empathy. For men, empathy scores were related to how many memories they could recall. Specifically, men with higher scores on the fantasy and empathic concern scales and those with lower scores on the personal distress scales recalled more memories of friends. However, affective quality of their memories was unrelated to empathy. In contrast, for women there was no relationship between number of memories and empathy, but the emotional tone of their memories was related to empathy: those with higher scores on the personal distress scale had proportionately fewer affectively positive memories. Results are discussed in terms of gender differences in both empathy and parental socialization patterns.

  8. Self and social functions: individual autobiographical memory and collective narrative.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katherine

    2003-03-01

    The personal functions of autobiographical memory build on the basic biological functions of memory common to most mammals that, however, do not have the kind of episodic memories that compose human autobiographical memory according to present theory. The thesis here is that personal autobiographical memory is functionally and structurally related to the use of cultural myths and social narratives, and that the relative emphasis put on the self in different cultural and social contexts influences the form and function of autobiographical memory and the need for developing a uniquely personal life narrative in those contexts. Historical and cross-cultural trends revealed in psychological and literary research are invoked to support this thesis.

  9. The association between involuntary memory and emotional adjustment after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Briddon, Emma; Isaac, Claire; Slade, Pauline

    2015-11-01

    A woman's memory of her experience of giving birth can strongly influence her mental health, and the development of her relationship with her infant, in a positive or negative direction. Highly distressing, involuntary memories of the birth may indicate symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS), which is increasingly recognized as a possible outcome of childbirth. Involuntary memories are not, however, exclusive to trauma and can also be experienced after positive events. This study sought to investigate involuntary memories for childbirth, as this is an event that is known to be potentially experienced both as highly positive and negative, and associated with a range of emotional outcomes, including greater well-being and symptoms of PTS. A total of 122 women completed a measure of their emotional experience of giving birth within 3 days of the event, and 65 of these women responded to a postal follow-up at 6 weeks, with measures of involuntary memory experience, PTS symptoms and well-being. Experiencing pleasant involuntary memories was more common than experiencing unpleasant involuntary memories of the birth. The frequency of these memories and how they were experienced as either distressing or enjoyable was associated with post-partum emotional adjustment, demonstrated by the development of PTS symptoms or greater well-being. These results are important because to date, little research has examined the development of positive involuntary memories and their association with positive emotional adjustment. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Positive and negative emotional experiences can coexist in childbirth. Involuntary memories after negative events can be associated with post-traumatic stress. Involuntary memories can also occur after strongly positive events. What does this study add? Women can experience both positive and negative involuntary memories after childbirth. Involuntary negative memories mediate the link between birth

  10. Autobiographical memory specificity in dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specific event from memory located in time and place. Previous studies of overgeneral memory have not included patients with dissociative disorders. These patients are interesting to consider, as they are hypothesized to have the ability to selectively compartmentalize information linked to negative emotions. This study examined avoidance and overgeneral memory in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 12). The patients completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Their performance was compared with control groups of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients (n = 26), healthy controls (n = 29), and DID simulators (n = 26). Specifically, we compared the performance of separate identity states in DID hypothesized to diverge in the use of avoidance as a coping strategy to deal with negative affect. No significant differences in memory specificity were found between the separate identities in DID. Irrespective of identity state, DID patients were characterized by a lack of memory specificity, which was similar to the lack of memory specificity found in PTSD patients. The converging results for DID and PTSD patients add empirical evidence for the role of overgeneral memory involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  11. Relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and psychological wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Waters, Theodore E A

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autobiographical memory serves three basic functions in everyday life: self-definition, social connection, and directing behaviour (e.g., Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005). However, no research has examined relations between the functions of autobiographical memory and healthy functioning (i.e., psychological wellbeing). The present research examined the relations between the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory and three factors of psychological wellbeing in single and recurring autobiographical memories. A total of 103 undergraduate students were recruited and provided ratings of each function for four autobiographical memories (two single, two recurring events). Results found that individuals who use their autobiographical memories to serve self, social, and directive functions reported higher levels of Purpose and Communion and Positive Relationships, and that these relations differ slightly by event type.

  12. Latent constructs of the autobiographical memory questionnaire: a recollection-belief model of autobiographical experience.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Joseph M; Broadbridge, Carissa L

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers employ single-item scales of subjective experiences such as imagery and confidence to assess autobiographical memory. We tested the hypothesis that four latent constructs, recollection, belief, impact, and rehearsal, account for the variance in commonly used scales across four different types of autobiographical memory: earliest childhood memory, cue word memory of personal experience, highly vivid memory, and most stressful memory. Participants rated each memory on scales hypothesised to be indicators of one of four latent constructs. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses and structural analyses confirmed the similarity of the latent constructs of recollection, belief, impact, and rehearsal, as well as the similarity of the structural relationships among those constructs across memory type. The observed pattern of mean differences between the varieties of autobiographical experiences was consistent with prior research and theory in the study of autobiographical memory.

  13. Neural mechanism underlying autobiographical memory modulated by remoteness and emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ruiyang; Fu, Yan; Wang, DaHua; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2012-03-01

    Autobiographical memory is the ability to recollect past events from one's own life. Both emotional tone and memory remoteness can influence autobiographical memory retrieval along the time axis of one's life. Although numerous studies have been performed to investigate brain regions involved in retrieving processes of autobiographical memory, the effect of emotional tone and memory age on autobiographical memory retrieval remains to be clarified. Moreover, whether the involvement of hippocampus in consolidation of autobiographical events is time dependent or independent has been controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of memory remoteness (factor1: recent and remote) and emotional valence (factor2: positive and negative) on neural correlates underlying autobiographical memory by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. Although all four conditions activated some common regions known as "core" regions in autobiographical memory retrieval, there are some other regions showing significantly different activation for recent versus remote and positive versus negative memories. In particular, we found that bilateral hippocampal regions were activated in the four conditions regardless of memory remoteness and emotional valence. Thus, our study confirmed some findings of previous studies and provided further evidence to support the multi-trace theory which believes that the role of hippocampus involved in autobiographical memory retrieval is time-independent and permanent in memory consolidation.

  14. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    PubMed Central

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  15. A Developmental Psychopathology Model of Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) is a phenomenon that refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall has been commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared to those without emotional disorders. Despite significant advances in identifying…

  16. Autobiographical Memory Specificity among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; McNeill, Anne T.; Stey, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    "Overgeneral memory" refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories and is consistently associated with depression and/or trauma. The present study developed a downward extension of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) given the need to document normative developmental changes in…

  17. Autobiographical Memory, Autonoetic Consciousness, and Identity in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanweer, Tilait; Rathbone, Clare J.; Souchay, Celine

    2010-01-01

    Previous results from research on individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) suggest a diminished ability for recalling episodic autobiographical memory (AM). The primary aim of this study was to explore autobiographical memory in individuals with Asperger syndrome and specifically to investigate whether memories in those with AS are characterized by…

  18. Children's Long-Term Memory for Autobiographical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Traces the origins of children's autobiographical memories, discussing research on infantile amnesia and young children's memory skills. Focuses on studies of children's long-term memory for autobiographical events that investigate delays of 1-2 years and delays of 4 years or more. Reports that a few studies have documented remarkably robust…

  19. Autobiographical Memory Specificity among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; McNeill, Anne T.; Stey, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    "Overgeneral memory" refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories and is consistently associated with depression and/or trauma. The present study developed a downward extension of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) given the need to document normative developmental changes in…

  20. A Developmental Psychopathology Model of Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) is a phenomenon that refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall has been commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared to those without emotional disorders. Despite significant advances in identifying…

  1. Autobiographical Memory, Autonoetic Consciousness, and Identity in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanweer, Tilait; Rathbone, Clare J.; Souchay, Celine

    2010-01-01

    Previous results from research on individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) suggest a diminished ability for recalling episodic autobiographical memory (AM). The primary aim of this study was to explore autobiographical memory in individuals with Asperger syndrome and specifically to investigate whether memories in those with AS are characterized by…

  2. Children's Long-Term Memory for Autobiographical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Traces the origins of children's autobiographical memories, discussing research on infantile amnesia and young children's memory skills. Focuses on studies of children's long-term memory for autobiographical events that investigate delays of 1-2 years and delays of 4 years or more. Reports that a few studies have documented remarkably robust…

  3. Executive dysfunction and autobiographical memory retrieval in recovered depressed women☆

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D.M.; Harmer, Catherine J.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Depressed individuals have difficulty remembering specific autobiographical events. These deficits often persist after recovery of mood symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying impaired memory specificity in recovered depressed individuals remain unclear. Here, we sought to examine whether performance on two cognitive measures might be related to deficits in autobiographical memory retrieval in individuals with a history of depression. Methods Twenty-four recovered depressed women (12 with more than one previous episode) and 24 never depressed women completed two cognitive measures (Digit Span and a Number Generation Task) and tests of autobiographical memory recall. Results Overall, the recovered depressed women did not show deficits in autobiographical retrieval. However, those with more than one previous episode had impaired retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories. Moreover, depression history moderated the relationship between Digit Span and retrieval of categoric autobiographical memories such that within the whole recovered depressed group (but not the never depressed group), those with lower Digit Span also had poorer retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories. Limitations Our sample size was small and included only women. Moreover, order effects may have been a significant factor. Conclusions These findings support the notion that working memory is an important factor in impairing autobiographical memory in those who have recovered from depression, but suggest a complex relationship with autobiographical recall. PMID:24374578

  4. Executive dysfunction and autobiographical memory retrieval in recovered depressed women.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Anneke D M; Harmer, Catherine J; Williams, J Mark G

    2014-06-01

    Depressed individuals have difficulty remembering specific autobiographical events. These deficits often persist after recovery of mood symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying impaired memory specificity in recovered depressed individuals remain unclear. Here, we sought to examine whether performance on two cognitive measures might be related to deficits in autobiographical memory retrieval in individuals with a history of depression. Twenty-four recovered depressed women (12 with more than one previous episode) and 24 never depressed women completed two cognitive measures (Digit Span and a Number Generation Task) and tests of autobiographical memory recall. Overall, the recovered depressed women did not show deficits in autobiographical retrieval. However, those with more than one previous episode had impaired retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories. Moreover, depression history moderated the relationship between Digit Span and retrieval of categoric autobiographical memories such that within the whole recovered depressed group (but not the never depressed group), those with lower Digit Span also had poorer retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories. Our sample size was small and included only women. Moreover, order effects may have been a significant factor. These findings support the notion that working memory is an important factor in impairing autobiographical memory in those who have recovered from depression, but suggest a complex relationship with autobiographical recall. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    PubMed Central

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  6. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-12-24

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  7. Activating attachment representations impact how we retrieve autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Bali, Agnes

    2017-09-01

    Although much research indicates that proximity to attachment figures confers many psychological benefits, there is little evidence pertaining to how attachment activation may impact autobiographical memory retrieval. Following a negative mood induction to elicit overgeneral autobiographical retrieval, participants (N = 70) were administered an induction in which they imagined a person who is a strong attachment figure or an acquaintance. Participants then completed an autobiographical memory task to retrieve memories in response to neutral and negative cue words. Attachment priming resulted in less distress, increased retrieval of specific memories, and reduced retrieval of categoric memories. These findings indicate that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can impact on the specificity of autobiographical memory retrieval, and extends prevailing models of autobiographical memory by integrating them with attachment theory.

  8. Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Child Sexual Abuse Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Goodman, Gail S.; Pineda, Annarheen; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony; Saywitz, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the specificity of autobiographical memory in adolescents and adults with versus without child sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Eighty-five participants, approximately half of whom per age group had experienced CSA, were tested on the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Individual difference measures, including for trauma-related psychopathology, were also administered. Findings revealed developmental differences in the relation between autobiographical memory specificity and CSA. Even with depression statistically controlled, reduced memory specificity in CSA victims relative to controls was observed among adolescents but not among adults. A higher number of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder criteria met predicted more specific childhood memories in participants who reported CSA as their most traumatic life event. These findings contribute to the scientific understanding of childhood trauma and autobiographical memory functioning and underscore the importance of considering the role of age and degree of traumatization within the study of autobiographical memory. PMID:23627947

  9. Involuntary conscious memory facilitates cued recall performance: further evidence that chaining occurs during voluntary recall.

    PubMed

    Mace, John H

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conscious recollection of the past occurs spontaneously when subjects voluntarily recall their own past experiences or a list of previously studied words. Naturalistic diary studies and laboratory studies of this phenomenon, often called involuntary conscious memory (ICM), show that it occurs in 2 ways. One is direct ICM retrieval, which occurs when a cue spontaneously triggers a conscious memory; the other is chained ICM retrieval, which occurs when a retrieved conscious memory spontaneously triggers another. Laboratory studies investigating ICM show that chained ICM retrieval occurs on voluntary autobiographical memory tasks. The present results show that chained ICM retrieval also occurs on a voluntary word list memory task (cued recall). These results are among a handful suggesting that ICM retrieval routinely occurs during voluntary recall.

  10. It's All in the Detail: Intentional Forgetting of Autobiographical Memories Using the Autobiographical Think/No-Think Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noreen, Saima; MacLeod, Malcolm D.

    2013-01-01

    Using a novel autobiographical think/no-think procedure (ATNT; a modified version of the think/no-think task), 2 studies explored the extent to which we possess executive control over autobiographical memory. In Study 1, 30 never-depressed participants generated 12 positive and 12 negative autobiographical memories. Memories associated with…

  11. It's All in the Detail: Intentional Forgetting of Autobiographical Memories Using the Autobiographical Think/No-Think Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noreen, Saima; MacLeod, Malcolm D.

    2013-01-01

    Using a novel autobiographical think/no-think procedure (ATNT; a modified version of the think/no-think task), 2 studies explored the extent to which we possess executive control over autobiographical memory. In Study 1, 30 never-depressed participants generated 12 positive and 12 negative autobiographical memories. Memories associated with…

  12. Neurophysiological Traces of Interpersonal Pain: How Emotional Autobiographical Memories Affect Event-Related Potentials.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Kristina B; Caspar, Franz; Koenig, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Stein, Maria

    2017-08-31

    The automatic, involuntary reactivation of disturbing emotional memories, for example, of interpersonal pain, causes psychological discomfort and is central to many psychopathologies. This study aimed at elucidating the automatic brain processes underlying emotional autobiographical memories by investigating the neurophysiological dynamics within the first second after memory reactivation. Pictures of different individualized familiar faces served as cues for different specific emotional autobiographical memories, for example, for memories of interpersonal pain and grievances or for memories of appreciation in interpersonal relationships. Nineteen subjects participated in a passive face-viewing task while multichannel electroencephalogram was recorded. Analyses of event-related potentials demonstrated that emotional memories elicited an early posterior negativity and a stronger late positive potential, which tended to be particularly enhanced for painful memories. Source estimations attributed this stronger activation to networks including the posterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. The findings suggest that the reactivation of emotional autobiographical memories involves privileged automatic attention at perceptual processing stages, and an enhanced recruitment of neural network activity at a postperceptual stage sensitive to emotional-motivational processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. An Integrative Model of the Development of Autobiographical Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch-Ross, Melissa K.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a working model for studying development of autobiographical memory based on literatures concerning children's metacognitive capacities, social construction of personal narratives, and development of self-concept. Notes that source monitoring and parental styles of discussing the past affect autobiographical memory, and emphasizes the…

  14. Involuntary Memories and Dissociative Amnesia: Assessing Key Assumptions in PTSD Research

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories of trauma victims are often described as disturbed in two ways. First, the trauma is frequently re-experienced in the form of involuntary, intrusive recollections. Second, the trauma is difficult to recall voluntarily (strategically); important parts may be totally or partially inaccessible—a feature known as dissociative amnesia. These characteristics are often mentioned by PTSD researchers and are included as PTSD symptoms in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In contrast, we show that both involuntary and voluntary recall are enhanced by emotional stress during encoding. We also show that the PTSD symptom in the diagnosis addressing dissociative amnesia, trouble remembering important aspects of the trauma is less well correlated with the remaining PTSD symptoms than the conceptual reversal of having trouble forgetting important aspects of the trauma. Our findings contradict key assumptions that have shaped PTSD research over the last 40 years. PMID:25309832

  15. Autobiographical Memory Functioning among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children: The Overgeneral Memory Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background: This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods: Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events…

  16. Autobiographical Memory Functioning among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children: The Overgeneral Memory Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Background: This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods: Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events…

  17. Posthypnotic amnesia for autobiographical episodes: influencing memory accessibility and quality.

    PubMed

    Barnier, Amanda J; McConkey, Kevin M; Wright, Jonathan

    2004-07-01

    The authors examined the impact of posthypnotic amnesia on the accessibility and quality of personal memories. High, medium,and low hypnotizable individuals recalled two autobiographical episodes and rated those memories. During hypnosis, subjects were given a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion that targeted one of the episodes. After hypnosis, they recalled and rated their memories of the episodes. The posthypnotic amnesia suggestion influenced the accessibility and quality of autobiographical memory for high and some medium, but not low, hypnotizable participants. The article discusses these findings in terms of investigating and understanding the impact of posthypnotic amnesia on autobiographical memory.

  18. Ageing and autobiographical memory for emotional and neutral events

    PubMed Central

    St. Jacques, Peggy L.; Levine, Brian

    2007-01-01

    We investigated age-related effects in recall of emotional and neutral autobiographical memories. Protocols were scored according to episodic and non-episodic detail categories using the Autobiographical Interview. Young adults recalled a greater number of episodic details compared to older adults, whereas older adults recalled more semantic details, replicating previous findings. Both young and older adults’ emotional memories contained more overall detail than neutral ones, with the enhancement from emotion-specific to episodic details, but this did not alter the effect of age group on the pattern of episodic and semantic details. However, the age effect on episodic details was attenuated for neutral autobiographical memories. The findings suggest that age differences for emotional autobiographical recollection might reflect a more general pattern of age-related changes in memory, with impaired recall of episodic components and relative sparing of semantic aspects of autobiographical memory in older adults when compared to young adults. PMID:17534107

  19. Priming voluntary autobiographical memories: Implications for the organisation of autobiographical memory and voluntary recall processes.

    PubMed

    Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to show that voluntary autobiographical memories could be primed by the prior activation of autobiographical memories. Three experiments demonstrated voluntary memory priming with three different approaches. In Experiment 1 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their elementary school years. In a subsequent memory task primed participants were asked to recall memories from any time period, and they produced significantly more memories from their elementary school years than unprimed participants. In Experiment 2 primed participants were asked to recall what they were doing when they had heard various news events occurring between 1998 and 2005. Subsequently these participants produced significantly more memories from this time period than unprimed participants. In Experiment 3 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their teenage years. Subsequently these participants were able to recall more memories from ages 13-15 than unprimed participants, where both had only 1 second to produce a memory. We argue that the results support the notion that episodic memories can activate one another and that some of them are organised according to lifetime periods. We further argue that the results have implications for the reminiscence bump and voluntary recall of the past.

  20. Rumination and specificity of autobiographical memory in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Romero, Nuria; Vazquez, Carmelo; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Low autobiographical memory specificity has been a commonly recurring phenomenon in depression. Difficulty in remembering specific details in autobiographical memory tests has been related to rumination, although the nature of this relation is not clear yet. In the present study, we evaluated differences in overgeneral memory patterns between dysphoric (n=65) and nondysphoric participants (n=74) using a free-recall method that may be more suitable for detecting overgeneral memory patterns than previously used methods. Furthermore, this study examined whether a specific maladaptive component of rumination (i.e., brooding response style) is particularly related to autobiographical memory patterns in depression. Our results showed that dysphoric participants reported less positive specific memories, and more extended and categoric memories than nondysphoric individuals. Furthermore, correlation analyses showed that the maladaptive component of rumination (i.e., brooding), but not the adaptive component of rumination (i.e., reflection), was specifically associated to the reduced autobiographical memory specificity found in dysphoric participants.

  1. Autobiographical memory decline in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    EL HAJ, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Autobiographical memory, or memory for personal experiences, allows individuals to define themselves and construct a meaningful life story. Decline of this ability, as observed in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), results in an impaired sense of self and identity. We present a critical review of theories and findings regarding cognitive and neuroanatomical underpinnings of autobiographical memory and its decline in AD and highlight studies on its clinical rehabilitation. We propose that autobiographical recall in AD is mainly characterized by loss of associated episodic information, which leads to de-contextualisation of autobiographical memories and a shift from reliving past events to a general sense of familiarity. This decline refers to retrograde, but also anterograde amnesia that affects newly acquired memories besides remote ones. One consequence of autobiographical memory decline in AD is decreased access to memories that shape self-consciousness, self-knowledge, and self-images, leading to a diminished sense of self and identity. The link between autobiographical decline and compromised sense of self in AD can also manifest itself as low correspondence and coherence between past memories and current goals and beliefs. By linking cognitive, neuroanatomical, and clinical aspects of autobiographical decline in AD, our review provides a theoretical foundation, which may lead to better rehabilitation strategies. PMID:26876367

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Autobiographical Memories in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD (N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group recorded fewer nontrauma memories, which were more overgeneral, more often from before the trauma or related to the trauma, were perceived as distant, and led to greater dwelling. Trauma memories were more vivid, recurrent, and present and led to greater suppression and dwelling. Within the PTSD group, the same features distinguished trauma and nontrauma memories. Results are discussed regarding theories of autobiographical memory and PTSD. PMID:28781928

  3. Autobiographical Memory Disturbances in Depression: A Novel Therapeutic Target?

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Cristiano A.; Carvalho, André F.; Alves, Gilberto S.; McIntyre, Roger S.; Hyphantis, Thomas N.; Cammarota, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by a dysfunctional processing of autobiographical memories. We review the following core domains of deficit: systematic biases favoring materials of negative emotional valence; diminished access and response to positive memories; a recollection of overgeneral memories in detriment of specific autobiographical memories; and the role of ruminative processes and avoidance when dealing with autobiographical memories. Furthermore, we review evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of neural circuits activated by the recollection of autobiographical memories in both healthy and depressive individuals. Disruptions in autobiographical memories predispose and portend onset and maintenance of depression. Thus, we discuss emerging therapeutics that target memory difficulties in those with depression. We review strategies for this clinical domain, including memory specificity training, method-of-loci, memory rescripting, and real-time fMRI neurofeedback training of amygdala activity in depression. We propose that the manipulation of the reconsolidation of autobiographical memories in depression might represent a novel yet largely unexplored, domain-specific, therapeutic opportunity for depression treatment. PMID:26380121

  4. Autobiographical Memory Disturbances in Depression: A Novel Therapeutic Target?

    PubMed

    Köhler, Cristiano A; Carvalho, André F; Alves, Gilberto S; McIntyre, Roger S; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Cammarota, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by a dysfunctional processing of autobiographical memories. We review the following core domains of deficit: systematic biases favoring materials of negative emotional valence; diminished access and response to positive memories; a recollection of overgeneral memories in detriment of specific autobiographical memories; and the role of ruminative processes and avoidance when dealing with autobiographical memories. Furthermore, we review evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of neural circuits activated by the recollection of autobiographical memories in both healthy and depressive individuals. Disruptions in autobiographical memories predispose and portend onset and maintenance of depression. Thus, we discuss emerging therapeutics that target memory difficulties in those with depression. We review strategies for this clinical domain, including memory specificity training, method-of-loci, memory rescripting, and real-time fMRI neurofeedback training of amygdala activity in depression. We propose that the manipulation of the reconsolidation of autobiographical memories in depression might represent a novel yet largely unexplored, domain-specific, therapeutic opportunity for depression treatment.

  5. Phenomenological characteristics of autobiographical memory in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Nandrino, Jean-Louis

    2017-10-01

    A body of research suggests compromise of autobiographical memory in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). The present paper extends this literature by investigating the subjective experience of autobiographical recall in the syndrome. Patients with KS and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories. After memory retrieval, participants were asked to rate phenomenological characteristics of their memories (i.e., reliving, back in time, remembering, realness, visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, emotion, rehearsal, importance, spatial recall and temporal recall). Analysis showed lower "Mean Phenomenological Experience" in the Korsakoff patients than in controls. However, the Korsakoff patients attributed relatively high emotional value and importance to their memories. Although our findings suggest compromised phenomenological reliving of autobiographical memory in patients with KS, affective characteristics such as emotion and importance are likely to play a main role in the subjective experience of the past in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity in bereaved Afghan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Neshat Doost, Hamid Taher; Yule, William; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Rezvani, Sayed Rohollah; Dyregrov, Atle; Jobson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of bereavement (father death due to war in Afghanistan) on autobiographical memory specificity in Afghan adolescents living in Iran. Participants consisted of bereaved (n=70) and non-bereaved (n=33) Afghan adolescents. The measures included Farsi versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test, Mood and Feeling Questionnaire, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Impact of Event Scale. Results indicated that the bereaved group retrieved a significantly lower proportion of specific memories and a significantly greater proportion of extended and categoric memories than the non-bereaved group. Additionally, depression symptoms and reduced autobiographical memory specificity were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that bereaved adolescents have impaired autobiographical memory specificity.

  7. The Neural Architecture of Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is regarded as a region of the brain that supports self-referential processes, including the integration of sensory information with self-knowledge and the retrieval of autobiographical information. I used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel procedure for eliciting autobiographical memories with excerpts of popular music dating to one's extended childhood to test the hypothesis that music and autobiographical memories are integrated in the MPFC. Dorsal regions of the MPFC (Brodmann area 8/9) were shown to respond parametrically to the degree of autobiographical salience experienced over the course of individual 30 s excerpts. Moreover, the dorsal MPFC also responded on a second, faster timescale corresponding to the signature movements of the musical excerpts through tonal space. These results suggest that the dorsal MPFC associates music and memories when we experience emotionally salient episodic memories that are triggered by familiar songs from our personal past. MPFC acted in concert with lateral prefrontal and posterior cortices both in terms of tonality tracking and overall responsiveness to familiar and autobiographically salient songs. These findings extend the results of previous autobiographical memory research by demonstrating the spontaneous activation of an autobiographical memory network in a naturalistic task with low retrieval demands. PMID:19240137

  8. The neural architecture of music-evoked autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Janata, Petr

    2009-11-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is regarded as a region of the brain that supports self-referential processes, including the integration of sensory information with self-knowledge and the retrieval of autobiographical information. I used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel procedure for eliciting autobiographical memories with excerpts of popular music dating to one's extended childhood to test the hypothesis that music and autobiographical memories are integrated in the MPFC. Dorsal regions of the MPFC (Brodmann area 8/9) were shown to respond parametrically to the degree of autobiographical salience experienced over the course of individual 30 s excerpts. Moreover, the dorsal MPFC also responded on a second, faster timescale corresponding to the signature movements of the musical excerpts through tonal space. These results suggest that the dorsal MPFC associates music and memories when we experience emotionally salient episodic memories that are triggered by familiar songs from our personal past. MPFC acted in concert with lateral prefrontal and posterior cortices both in terms of tonality tracking and overall responsiveness to familiar and autobiographically salient songs. These findings extend the results of previous autobiographical memory research by demonstrating the spontaneous activation of an autobiographical memory network in a naturalistic task with low retrieval demands.

  9. Reduced Specificity of Autobiographical Memory and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dalgleish, Tim; Williams, J. Mark G.; Golden, Ann-Marie J.; Perkins, Nicola; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barnard, Phillip J.; Yeung, Cecilia Au; Murphy, Victoria; Elward, Rachael; Tchanturia, Kate; Watkins, Edward

    2007-01-01

    It has been widely established that depressed mood states and clinical depression, as well as a range of other psychiatric disorders, are associated with a relative difficulty in accessing specific autobiographical information in response to emotion-related cue words on an Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; J. M. G. Williams & K. Broadbent, 1986). In 8 studies the authors examined the extent to which this relationship is a function of impaired executive control associated with these mood states and clinical disorders. Studies 1–4 demonstrated that performance on the AMT is associated with performance on measures of executive control, independent of depressed mood. Furthermore, Study 1 showed that executive control (as measured by verbal fluency) mediated the relationship between both depressed mood and a clinical diagnosis of eating disorder and AMT performance. Using a stratified sample in Study 5, the authors confirmed the positive association between depressed mood and impaired performance on the AMT. Studies 6–8 involved experimental manipulations of the parameters of the AMT designed to further indicate that reduced executive control is to a significant extent driving the relationship between depressed mood and AMT performance. The potential role of executive control in accounting for other aspects of the AMT literature is discussed. PMID:17324083

  10. Self-images and related autobiographical memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Berna, Fabrice; Conway, Martin A; Rathbone, Clare J; Vidailhet, Pierre; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2012-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness, which affects sense of identity. While the ability to have a coherent vision of the self (i.e., self-images) relies partly on its reciprocal relationships with autobiographical memories, little is known about how memories ground "self-images" in schizophrenia. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 25 controls were asked to give six autobiographical memories related to four self-statements they considered essential for defining their identity. Results showed that patients' self-images were more passive than those of controls. Autobiographical memories underlying self-images were less thematically linked to these self-images in patients. We also found evidence of a weakened sense of self and a deficient organization of autobiographical memories grounding the self in schizophrenia. These abnormalities may account for the poor cohesiveness of the self in schizophrenia.

  11. Development and testing of the autobiographical memory coding tool.

    PubMed

    Kovach, C R

    1993-04-01

    Development and testing of the autobiographical memory coding tool (AMCT) is detailed. The tool uses quantitative content analysis procedures to code interpretations of autobiographical memories as validating or lamenting. Development of a system of measuring autobiographical memories from transcribed reminiscence interviews involved defining the units of analysis, defining the categories and themes, constructing a codebook, assessing content validity, assessing reliability and making revisions. Thirty-nine transcripts of reminiscence interviews were used for tool development and testing. The AMCT contains a series of step-by-step guidelines for conducting the analysis and includes an autobiographical memory thematic dictionary and descriptions of range and variations in each theme to assist with coding data. Intercoder reliability estimates were 0.93, 0.93 and 0.95. Test-retest reliability was 1.00.

  12. Gamma phase-synchrony in autobiographical memory: Evidence from magnetoencephalography and severely deficient autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Fuentemilla, Lluís; Palombo, Daniela J; Levine, Brian

    2017-08-16

    The subjective sense of recollecting events from one's past is an essential feature of episodic memory, but the neural mechanisms supporting this capacity are poorly understood. We examined the role of large-scale patterns of neural synchrony using whole-head MEG recordings in healthy adults and S.M., who has severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM; Palombo et al., 2015), a syndrome in which autobiographical recollection is absent but other functions (including other mnemonic functions), are normal. MEG was conducted while participants listened to prospectively collected recordings documenting unique personal episodes (PE) that normally evoke rich recollection, as well as a condition including general semantic information that is non-specific in place or time (GS; Levine et al., 2004). We predicted that PE (and not GS) would be associated with changes in patterns of large-scale neural synchrony in comparison subjects. We found large-scale neural synchrony, specifically in the gamma frequency ranges (i.e., 27-45Hz), specific to PE and not GS. These synchrony differences between PE and GS were not apparent in S.M. Our findings provide empirical evidence for the supporting role of large-scale gamma neural synchrony underlying autobiographical recollection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Eye movement during retrieval of emotional autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Antoine, Pascal; Boucart, Muriel; Lenoble, Quentin

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades. Positive and negative retrieval triggered similar eye movement (i.e., similar number of fixations and saccades, fixation duration, duration of saccades, and amplitude of saccades). Interestingly, the participants reported higher visual imagery for emotional memories than for neutral memories. The findings demonstrate similarities and differences in eye movement during retrieval of neutral and emotional memories. Eye movement during autobiographical retrieval seems to be triggered by the creation of visual mental images as the latter are indexed by autobiographical reconstruction.

  14. [Autobiographical memory and self-disorders in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Berna, F; Potheegadoo, J; Allé, M C; Coutelle, R; Danion, J-M

    2017-02-01

    Disorders of self in schizophrenia have been considered as the core feature of the illness since its early clinical description. However, until recently, the understanding of these disorders referred mostly to philosophical considerations. The aim of this work is to examine how the various aspects of autobiographical memory deficits may be considered as possible cognitive mechanisms accounting for self-disorders in patients. We performed a theoretical review of the literature on autobiographical memory studies in schizophrenia. Our approach of cognitive psychopathology was grounded in the model of the Self-Memory System put forward by Conway (2005), which posits reciprocal relationships between autobiographical memory and the self. This model stresses the distinction between the working-self and the autobiographical memory knowledge base. The latter contains all autobiographical information stored in our life and is organized according to the specificity of this information. The role of the working-self is to maintain the coherence of the self and to control the access to autobiographical memories and corresponding memory details. The working-self supports an experiential or phenomenological dimension of the self, especially when a highly detailed autobiographical memory is retrieved, and a past event is re-experienced by the rememberer. The working-self also entails a conceptual part, the conceptual self, which contains self-knowledge and self-images. Our review showed that autobiographical memories of patients with schizophrenia are less specific and contain fewer phenomenological details than those of healthy participants. Patients also have difficulty assessing the subjective temporal distance of past events, and their ability to re-experience unique past personal events is affected as shown by a reduced conscious recollection and a smaller frequency of Field visual perspective during recall of autobiographical memories. This global alteration of all

  15. Investigating the structure of autobiographical memory using reaction times.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Simon; Burt, Christopher D B; Malinen, Sanna

    2009-07-01

    The study investigated the structure of autobiographical memory using reaction time measures. A total of 18 participants took photographs over their summer holidays and then reacted to pairs of these photographs displayed via a computer. They also subsequently sorted their photographs according to the autobiographical themes and events with which they were associated. When photographic sequence and the physical similarities in the photographs were controlled for by considering the results of "stranger" participants who were unfamiliar with the photographs, reaction times were significantly faster to pairs of photographs from the same theme or event. The results are consistent with currently held assumptions about the structure of autobiographical memory. Furthermore, the results suggest that reaction time measures may provide a valuable means by which aspects of autobiographical memory can be explored.

  16. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  17. Brain–Immune Interaction Accompanying Odor-Evoked Autobiographic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions. PMID:23977312

  18. Behavioral and neuroanatomical investigation of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM)

    PubMed Central

    LePort, Aurora K.R.; Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Dickinson-Anson, Heather; Fallon, James H.; Stark, Craig E.L.; Kruggel, Frithjof; Cahill, Larry; McGaugh, James L.

    2013-01-01

    A single case study recently documented one woman’s ability to recall accurately vast amounts of autobiographical information, spanning most of her lifetime, without the use of practiced mnemonics (Parker, Cahill, & McGaugh, 2006). The current study reports findings based on eleven participants expressing this same memory ability, now referred to as Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM). Participants were identified and subsequently characterized based on screening for memory of public events. They were then tested for personal autobiographical memories as well as for memory assessed by laboratory memory tests. Additionally, whole-brain structural MRI scans were obtained. Results indicated that HSAM participants performed significantly better at recalling public as well as personal autobiographical events as well as the days and dates on which these events occurred. However, their performance was comparable to age- and sex-matched controls on most standard laboratory memory tests. Neuroanatomical results identified nine structures as being morphologically different from those of control participants. The study of HSAM may provide new insights into the neurobiology of autobiographical memory. PMID:22652113

  19. The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The…

  20. The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The…

  1. Altered self-identity and autobiographical memory in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Allebone, James; Rayner, Genevieve; Siveges, Benjamin; Wilson, Sarah J

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that individuals with chronic epilepsy display differences in their self-identity. The mechanisms by which self-identity is altered, however, are not well understood. Neural networks supporting autobiographical memory retrieval in the mesial temporal (MT) lobe are thought to be fundamental to self-identity processes. Thus, we examined differences in self-identity and autobiographical memory in patients with either MT or non-mesial temporal (NMT) foci with early or late age of habitual seizure onset. Participants included 102 adults: 51 healthy individuals and 51 patients with drug-resistant focal seizures (19 MT, 32 NMT). We used the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to profile the identity development of participants, and examined how this related to memory function assessed using the Autobiographical Memory Test. Patients and controls had strikingly different self-identity profiles, with early onset MT patients showing the least identity development compared to controls and other patient groups. In contrast, late-onset NMT patients showed the highest level of identity development of the patient groups and closely resembled healthy controls (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). For all MT patients, poor autobiographical memory retrieval was correlated with altered self-identity (p < 0.001). No associations between autobiographical memory and self-identity were evident in the NMT group. Self-identity in epilepsy may be modulated by the extent to which seizure foci impinge on the autobiographical memory network and the timing of seizure onset. Early disruption to MT regions of the autobiographical memory network may constitute a neurocognitive mechanism by which self-identity is altered in chronic focal epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Olfactory LOVER: behavioral and neural correlates of autobiographical odor memory

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Maria; Willander, Johan; Karlsson, Kristina; Arshamian, Artin

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories (AMs) are personally experienced events that may be localized in time and space. In the present work we present an overview targeting memories evoked by the sense of smell. Overall, research indicates that autobiographical odor memory is different than memories evoked by our primary sensory systems; sight, and hearing. Here, observed differences from a behavioral and neuroanatomical perspective are presented. The key features of an olfactory evoked AM may be referred to the LOVER acronym-Limbic, Old, Vivid, Emotional, and Rare. PMID:24782810

  3. Going global: the functions of autobiographical memory in cultural context.

    PubMed

    Alea, Nicole; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Memory brings together research from around the globe, from Japanese, Chinese and East Indian cultures, to American and European societies, to the Caribbean, to Turkey and to Australia and New Zealand, which examines how and why people, from childhood to old age, remember the personal past in daily life. This journey highlights the important role of the cultural context in shaping the functional usages of autobiographical memory. We illuminate six major contributions of cross-cultural research to a broader and deeper understanding of the functions of autobiographical memory, and call attention to the filed that memory research must "go global."

  4. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex, adding value to autobiographical memories

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Jing; Horner, Aidan J.; Burgess, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been consistently implicated in autobiographical memory recall and decision making. Its function in decision making tasks is believed to relate to value representation, but its function in autobiographical memory recall is not yet clear. We hypothesised that the mPFC represents the subjective value of elements during autobiographical memory retrieval. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an autobiographical memory recall task, we found that the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was parametrically modulated by the affective values of items in participants’ memories when they were recalling and evaluating these items. An unrelated modulation by the participant’s familiarity with the items was also observed. During retrieval of the event, the BOLD signal in the same region was modulated by the personal significance and emotional intensity of the memory, which was correlated with the values of the items within them. These results support the idea that vmPFC processes self-relevant information, and suggest that it is involved in representing the personal emotional values of the elements comprising autobiographical memories. PMID:27338616

  5. Autobiographical memory in children with Idiopathic Generalised Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gascoigne, Michael B; Barton, Belinda; Webster, Richard; Gill, Deepak; Lah, Suncica

    2015-01-01

    Autobiographical memory involves the recall of both personal facts (semantic memory) and the re-experiencing of past personal events (episodic memory). The recall of autobiographical episodic details has been associated with a specific network, which involves the prefrontal and medial temporal lobes, in addition to posterior regions of the brain. Seizure activity has been previously shown to disrupt the consolidation of newly-learned information into long-term memory, but it is not yet known whether primary generalised seizures alone are also associated with deficits in the recall of autobiographical memories. Here we examined this recall in children who experience generalised rather than localisation-related seizures: children with Idiopathic Generalised Epilepsy (IGE). In this study, 18 children with IGE and 42 healthy controls of comparable age (6-16 years), sex and socio-economic status were administered the Children's Autobiographical Interview (CAI). Compared with controls, children with IGE recalled significantly fewer episodic details, even when retrieval prompts were provided. In contrast, no group difference was found for the recall of semantic autobiographic details. Within the IGE group, hierarchical regression analyses showed that patient age and earlier age of diagnosis were significantly related to the recall of episodic autobiographical details over different conditions of the CAI, explaining up to 37% of variance. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of autobiographical episodic memory deficits in patients with primary generalised seizures. As no evidence of localisation-related epilepsy is apparent in patients with IGE, our findings suggest that generalised seizures alone, especially when developed at an early age, could compromise memories for personally-experienced events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Shifting visual perspective during retrieval shapes autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Szpunar, Karl K; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-03-01

    The dynamic and flexible nature of memories is evident in our ability to adopt multiple visual perspectives. Although autobiographical memories are typically encoded from the visual perspective of our own eyes they can be retrieved from the perspective of an observer looking at our self. Here, we examined the neural mechanisms of shifting visual perspective during long-term memory retrieval and its influence on online and subsequent memories using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants generated specific autobiographical memories from the last five years and rated their visual perspective. In a separate fMRI session, they were asked to retrieve the memories across three repetitions while maintaining the same visual perspective as their initial rating or by shifting to an alternative perspective. Visual perspective shifting during autobiographical memory retrieval was supported by a linear decrease in neural recruitment across repetitions in the posterior parietal cortices. Additional analyses revealed that the precuneus, in particular, contributed to both online and subsequent changes in the phenomenology of memories. Our findings show that flexibly shifting egocentric perspective during autobiographical memory retrieval is supported by the precuneus, and suggest that this manipulation of mental imagery during retrieval has consequences for how memories are retrieved and later remembered.

  7. Computerized Scoring Algorithms for the Autobiographical Memory Test.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Martens, Kris; Salmon, Karen; Raes, Filip

    2017-04-03

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories is a hallmark of depressive cognition. Autobiographical memory (AM) specificity is typically measured by the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), in which respondents are asked to describe personal memories in response to emotional cue words. Due to this free descriptive responding format, the AMT relies on experts' hand scoring for subsequent statistical analyses. This manual coding potentially impedes research activities in big data analytics such as large epidemiological studies. Here, we propose computerized algorithms to automatically score AM specificity for the Dutch (adult participants) and English (youth participants) versions of the AMT by using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. The algorithms showed reliable performances in discriminating specific and nonspecific (e.g., overgeneralized) autobiographical memories in independent testing data sets (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > .90). Furthermore, outcome values of the algorithms (i.e., decision values of support vector machines) showed a gradient across similar (e.g., specific and extended memories) and different (e.g., specific memory and semantic associates) categories of AMT responses, suggesting that, for both adults and youth, the algorithms well capture the extent to which a memory has features of specific memories. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory and Depressive Disorder in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrielynck, Nathalie; Deplus, Sandrine; Philippot, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory seems to be a stable cognitive marker in depressed adults and may predict persistence of depression. This study investigated whether depressive disorders in children are associated with overgeneral memory. Sixty children (ages 9 to 13 years) participated; 15 were diagnosed with lifetime depressive disorder, 25…

  9. Patterns of Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda; Jukes, Kaylee; Goddard, Lorna

    2012-01-01

    Two studies are presented that explored the effects of experimental manipulations on the quality and accessibility of autobiographical memories in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relative to a typical comparison group matched for age, gender and IQ. Both studies found that the adults with ASD generated fewer specific memories than the…

  10. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory and Traumatic Events: An Evaluative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sally A.; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2007-01-01

    Does trauma exposure impair retrieval of autobiographical memories? Many theorists have suggested that the reduced ability to access specific memories of life events, termed overgenerality, is a protective mechanism helping attenuate painful emotions associated with trauma. The authors addressed this question by reviewing 24 studies that assessed…

  11. The effect of cue content on retrieval from autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Uzer, Tugba; Brown, Norman R

    2017-01-01

    It has long been argued that personal memories are usually generated in an effortful search process in word-cueing studies. However, recent research (Uzer, Lee, & Brown, 2012) shows that direct retrieval of autobiographical memories, in response to word cues, is common. This invites the question of whether direct retrieval phenomenon is generalizable beyond the standard laboratory paradigm. Here we investigated prevalence of direct retrieval of autobiographical memories cued by specific and individuated cues versus generic cues. In Experiment 1, participants retrieved memories in response to cues from their own life (e.g., the names of friends) and generic words (e.g., chair). In Experiment 2, participants provided their personal cues two or three months prior to coming to the lab (min: 75days; max: 100days). In each experiment, RT was measured and participants reported whether memories were directly retrieved or generated on each trial. Results showed that personal cues elicited a high rate of direct retrieval. Personal cues were more likely to elicit direct retrieval than generic word cues, and as a consequence, participants responded faster, on average, to the former than to the latter. These results challenge the constructive view of autobiographical memory and suggest that autobiographical memories consist of pre-stored event representations, which are largely governed by associative mechanisms. These demonstrations offer theoretically interesting questions such as why are we not overwhelmed with directly retrieved memories cued by everyday familiar surroundings?

  12. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory and Depressive Disorder in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrielynck, Nathalie; Deplus, Sandrine; Philippot, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory seems to be a stable cognitive marker in depressed adults and may predict persistence of depression. This study investigated whether depressive disorders in children are associated with overgeneral memory. Sixty children (ages 9 to 13 years) participated; 15 were diagnosed with lifetime depressive disorder, 25…

  13. Patterns of Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda; Jukes, Kaylee; Goddard, Lorna

    2012-01-01

    Two studies are presented that explored the effects of experimental manipulations on the quality and accessibility of autobiographical memories in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relative to a typical comparison group matched for age, gender and IQ. Both studies found that the adults with ASD generated fewer specific memories than the…

  14. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory and Traumatic Events: An Evaluative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sally A.; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2007-01-01

    Does trauma exposure impair retrieval of autobiographical memories? Many theorists have suggested that the reduced ability to access specific memories of life events, termed overgenerality, is a protective mechanism helping attenuate painful emotions associated with trauma. The authors addressed this question by reviewing 24 studies that assessed…

  15. How Semantic and Episodic Memory Contribute to Autobiographical Memory. Commentary on Burt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tendolkar, Indira

    2008-01-01

    In his article, Chris Burt focuses on the relationship between time and autobiographical memory. The question Burt puts forward is whether temporal markers in reports on autobiographic memories reflect specific temporal information or result from rather complex cognitive processing of time-relevant knowledge. The aspect of time is inherent to the…

  16. How Semantic and Episodic Memory Contribute to Autobiographical Memory. Commentary on Burt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tendolkar, Indira

    2008-01-01

    In his article, Chris Burt focuses on the relationship between time and autobiographical memory. The question Burt puts forward is whether temporal markers in reports on autobiographic memories reflect specific temporal information or result from rather complex cognitive processing of time-relevant knowledge. The aspect of time is inherent to the…

  17. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.

  18. Rumination and autobiographical memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ricarte, J J; Hernández, J V; Latorre, J M; Danion, J M; Berna, F

    2014-12-01

    Although patients with schizophrenia exhibit autobiographical memory impairment, which is considered to be a limiting factor in their daily life, the mechanisms underlying such impairment have been rarely studied. In the current study, we investigate whether rumination and, in particular, brooding, which is a form of maladaptive repetitive thinking, may be linked to the difficulty that patients with schizophrenia experience when attempting to access specific autobiographical memories. Our results indicate that patients reported less specific autobiographical memories compared to control participants. Patients also displayed a higher level of brooding and had more depressive symptoms. According to the CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007), depression and brooding were associated with memory specificity in control participants. In contrast, neither depression nor brooding was correlated with memory specificity in patients. These results suggest that depression and rumination may not be directly related to patients' difficulty to recall specific memories and that other factors, such as metacognitive deficits, must first be considered when seeking interventions aimed to improve autobiographical memory in patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Differential Effects of Arousal in Positive and Negative Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterized by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive v. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal, and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within and between subject levels. In addition, the within subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation. PMID:22873402

  20. The functions of autobiographical memory: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Harris, Celia B; Rasmussen, Anne S; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in cognitive psychology has emphasised the uses, or functions, of autobiographical memory. Theoretical and empirical approaches have focused on a three-function model: autobiographical memory serves self, directive, and social functions. In the reminiscence literature other taxonomies and additional functions have been postulated. We examined the relationships between functions proposed by these literatures, in order to broaden conceptualisations and make links between research traditions. In Study 1 we combined two measures of individual differences in the uses of autobiographical memory. Our results suggested four classes of memory functions, which we labelled Reflective, Generative, Ruminative, and Social. In Study 2 we tested relationships between our four functions and broader individual differences, and found conceptually consistent relationships. In Study 3 we found that memories cued by Generative and Social functions were more emotionally positive than were memories cued by Reflective and Ruminative functions. In Study 4 we found that reported use of Generative functions increased across the lifespan, while reported use of the other three functions decreased. Overall our findings suggest a broader view of autobiographical memory functions that links them to ways in which people make meaning of their selves, their environment, and their social world more generally.

  1. [Repeated measurement of memory with valenced test items: verbal memory, working memory and autobiographic memory].

    PubMed

    Kuffel, A; Terfehr, K; Uhlmann, C; Schreiner, J; Löwe, B; Spitzer, C; Wingenfeld, K

    2013-07-01

    A large number of questions in clinical and/or experimental neuropsychology require the multiple repetition of memory tests at relatively short intervals. Studies on the impact of the associated exercise and interference effects on the validity of the test results are rare. Moreover, hardly any neuropsychological instruments exist to date to record the memory performance with several parallel versions in which the emotional valence of the test material is also taken into consideration. The aim of the present study was to test whether a working memory test (WST, a digit-span task with neutral or negative distraction stimuli) devised by our workgroup can be used with repeated measurements. This question was also examined in parallel versions of a wordlist learning paradigm and an autobiographical memory test (AMT). Both tests contained stimuli with neutral, positive and negative valence. Twenty-four participants completed the memory testing including the working memory test and three versions of a wordlist and the AMT at intervals of a week apiece (measuring points 1. - 3.). The results reveal consistent performances across the three measuring points in the working and autobiographical memory test. The valence of the stimulus material did not influence the memory performance. In the delayed recall of the wordlist an improvement in memory performance over time was seen. The tests on working memory presented and the parallel versions for the declarative and autobiographical memory constitute informal economic instruments within the scope of the measurement repeatability designs. While the WST and AMT are appropriate for study designs with repeated measurements at relatively short intervals, longer intervals might seem more favourable for the use of wordlist learning paradigms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Short report: Influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Clare; Jobson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity. Chinese international and British undergraduate university students (N=64) completed the autobiographical memory test, Hopkins symptom checklist-25, twenty statements test, trauma history questionnaire, and impact of events scale-revised. The results indicated that the British group provided significantly more specific memories than the Chinese group. The high trauma exposure group provided significantly fewer specific autobiographical memories than the low trauma exposure group. The interaction was not significant. The findings suggest that even in cultures where specificity is not as evident in autobiographical remembering style, trauma exposure appears to exert similar influence on autobiographical memory specificity.

  3. The relationship between autobiographical memory, cognition, and emotion in older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Yong-Chun; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2017-09-12

    Over the past 30 years, the concept of "autobiographical memory" has been highlighted in numerous behavioral and neuroanatomical studies. Importantly, episodic autobiographical memory, an aspect of autobiographical memory, has been shown to decrease with age but can be improved by training. Autobiographical memory is deeply associated with the default mode network (especially posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex), which is particularly interesting in the context of better understanding the relationship between autobiographical memory, cognition, and emotion in older adults. This article provides an overview of the behavioral and neuroanatomical characteristics of autobiographical memory, as well as its relationship with the default mode network, cognition, emotion, and aging. This article also provides an overall review of autobiographical memory training.

  4. Autobiographical Memory Performance in Alzheimer's Disease Depends on Retrieval Frequency.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Reichert, Carolin; Melcher, Tobias; Leyhe, Thomas

    2016-04-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory disturbances primarily caused by pathogenic mechanisms affecting medial temporal lobe structures. As proposed by current theories of memory formation, this decrease is mediated by the age of the acquired knowledge. However, they cannot fully explain specific patterns of retrograde amnesia in AD. In the current study we examined an alternative approach and investigated whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia in AD is mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval or whether it depends on the mere age of knowledge. We compared recall of autobiographical incidents from three life periods in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), patients with early dementia of Alzheimer type (eDAT), and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Retrieval frequency was operationalized by a paired comparison analysis. In contrast to HC individuals, recall of autobiographical incidents was impaired in patients with aMCI and eDAT following Ribot's gradient, with a reduced memory loss for remote compared to more recent life events. However, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency on memory performance with frequently retrieved incidents memorized in more detail than less frequently retrieved episodes. Remote memories were recalled more often than recent ones. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved autobiographical memories generally become more independent of the hippocampal complex and might thus be better protected against early hippocampal damage related to AD. Hence, the extent of retrograde amnesia in AD appears mainly mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval, which could plausibly explain why cognitive activity can effectively delay the onset of memory decline in AD.

  5. Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Major Depression Treated With Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jelovac, Ana; OʼConnor, Stephanie; McCarron, Shane; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2016-03-01

    Autobiographical memory in major depression is characterized by reduced specificity, which reflects the tendency to summarize categories of events rather than recall specific instances of events situated in a time and place. This widely studied cognitive marker for depression has not been extensively examined in patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We conducted a retrospective chart review of a naturalistic cohort of patients receiving a course of brief-pulse predominantly bitemporal ECT for a major depressive episode. Patients completed the recent life section of the Kopelman Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) at pre-ECT baseline, end of treatment course, and 3-month follow-up as part of routine clinical practice. Mood was assessed using the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. We identified 48 patients (mean age, 61.6; female, 62.5%) meeting inclusion criteria. A total of 77.1% of patients responded to the ECT course, 29.7% subsequently relapsed. There were no significant changes over time on either AMI total score or semantic and episodic subscales. However, patients were markedly impaired on episodic autobiographical memory compared with the normative sample at all 3 assessment points, whereas personal semantic memory recall was normal. Specificity of episodic autobiographical memory at baseline did not predict response to ECT or likelihood of relapse. We found reduced specificity of episodic autobiographical memory in depressed patients before ECT, which persisted at long-term follow-up despite significant improvement in mood. The finding of no detectable retrograde amnesia likely reflects lack of sensitivity of the recent life section of the AMI to detect ECT-induced changes.

  6. Wearable Cameras Are Useful Tools to Investigate and Remediate Autobiographical Memory Impairment: A Systematic PRISMA Review.

    PubMed

    Allé, Mélissa C; Manning, Liliann; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Autobiographical memory, central in human cognition and every day functioning, enables past experienced events to be remembered. A variety of disorders affecting autobiographical memory are characterized by the difficulty of retrieving specific detailed memories of past personal events. Owing to the impact of autobiographical memory impairment on patients' daily life, it is necessary to better understand these deficits and develop relevant methods to improve autobiographical memory. The primary objective of the present systematic PRISMA review was to give an overview of the first empirical evidence of the potential of wearable cameras in autobiographical memory investigation in remediating autobiographical memory impairments. The peer-reviewed literature published since 2004 on the usefulness of wearable cameras in research protocols was explored in 3 databases (PUBMED, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar). Twenty-eight published studies that used a protocol involving wearable camera, either to explore wearable camera functioning and impact on daily life, or to investigate autobiographical memory processing or remediate autobiographical memory impairment, were included. This review analyzed the potential of wearable cameras for 1) investigating autobiographical memory processes in healthy volunteers without memory impairment and in clinical populations, and 2) remediating autobiographical memory in patients with various kinds of memory disorder. Mechanisms to account for the efficacy of wearable cameras are also discussed. The review concludes by discussing certain limitations inherent to using cameras, and new research perspectives. Finally, ethical issues raised by this new technology are considered.

  7. Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Sapotichne, Brenna; Klostermann, Susan; Battista, Deena; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of…

  8. Vection Modulates Emotional Valence of Autobiographical Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seno, Takeharu; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether illusory self-motion perception ("vection") induced by viewing upward and downward grating motion stimuli can alter the emotional valence of recollected autobiographical episodic memories. We found that participants recollected positive episodes more often while perceiving upward vection. However, when we tested a small moving…

  9. Conscious recollection in autobiographical memory: an investigation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo, Christine; Piolino, Pascale; Huron, Caroline; Riutort, Marielle; Peretti, Charles Siegfried; Eustache, Francis

    2005-09-01

    Whether or not conscious recollection in autobiographical memory is affected in schizophrenia is unknown. The aim of this study was to address this issue using an experiential approach. An autobiographical memory enquiry was used in combination with the Remember/Know procedure. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia and 22 normal subjects were asked to recall specific autobiographical memories from four lifetime periods and to indicate the subjective states of awareness associated with the recall of what happened, when and where. They gave Remember, Know or Guess responses according to whether they recalled these aspects of the event on the basis of conscious recollection, simply knowing, or guessing. Results showed that the frequency and consistency of Remember responses was significantly lower in patients than in comparison subjects. In contrast, the frequency of Know responses was not significantly different, whereas the frequency of patients' Guess responses was significantly enhanced. It is concluded that the frequency and consistency of conscious recollection in autobiographical memory is reduced in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Students' Autobiographical Memory of Participation in Multiple Sport Education Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the recollections of the Sport Education experiences of a cohort of students (15 boys and 19 girls) who had participated in seasons of basketball, soccer and badminton across grades six through eight (average age at data collection = 15.6 years). Using autobiographic memory theory techniques, the students completed surveys and…

  11. Asymptotic Learning of Alphanumeric Coding in Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Maryanne; Jones, Gregory V.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of autobiographical memory have shown that observed levels of incidental learning are often relatively low. Do low levels of retention result simply from a low learning rate, or is learning also asymptotic? To address this question, it is necessary to trace performance over a large number of learning opportunities, and this was carried out…

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  13. Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Sapotichne, Brenna; Klostermann, Susan; Battista, Deena; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of…

  14. Vection Modulates Emotional Valence of Autobiographical Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seno, Takeharu; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether illusory self-motion perception ("vection") induced by viewing upward and downward grating motion stimuli can alter the emotional valence of recollected autobiographical episodic memories. We found that participants recollected positive episodes more often while perceiving upward vection. However, when we tested a small moving…

  15. The Relations Among Abuse, Depression, and Adolescents' Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca J.; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included…

  16. Students' Autobiographical Memory of Participation in Multiple Sport Education Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the recollections of the Sport Education experiences of a cohort of students (15 boys and 19 girls) who had participated in seasons of basketball, soccer and badminton across grades six through eight (average age at data collection = 15.6 years). Using autobiographic memory theory techniques, the students completed surveys and…

  17. The Relations Among Abuse, Depression, and Adolescents' Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca J.; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included…

  18. Asymptotic Learning of Alphanumeric Coding in Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Maryanne; Jones, Gregory V.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of autobiographical memory have shown that observed levels of incidental learning are often relatively low. Do low levels of retention result simply from a low learning rate, or is learning also asymptotic? To address this question, it is necessary to trace performance over a large number of learning opportunities, and this was carried out…

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  20. Cue generation and memory construction in direct and generative autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Harris, Celia B; O'Connor, Akira R; Sutton, John

    2015-05-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory emphasise effortful, generative search processes in memory retrieval. However recent research suggests that memories are often retrieved directly, without effortful search. We investigated whether direct and generative retrieval differed in the characteristics of memories recalled, or only in terms of retrieval latency. Participants recalled autobiographical memories in response to cue words. For each memory, they reported whether it was retrieved directly or generatively, rated its visuo-spatial perspective, and judged its accompanying recollective experience. Our results indicated that direct retrieval was commonly reported and was faster than generative retrieval, replicating recent findings. The characteristics of directly retrieved memories differed from generatively retrieved memories: directly retrieved memories had higher field perspective ratings and lower observer perspective ratings. However, retrieval mode did not influence recollective experience. We discuss our findings in terms of cue generation and content construction, and the implication for reconstructive models of autobiographical memory.

  1. Factors that influence the generation of autobiographical memory conjunction errors

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Aleea L.; Monk-Fromont, Edwin; Schacter, Daniel L.; Addis, Donna Rose

    2015-01-01

    The constructive nature of memory is generally adaptive, allowing us to efficiently store, process and learn from life events, and simulate future scenarios to prepare ourselves for what may come. However, the cost of a flexibly constructive memory system is the occasional conjunction error, whereby the components of an event are authentic, but the combination of those components is false. Using a novel recombination paradigm, it was demonstrated that details from one autobiographical memory may be incorrectly incorporated into another, forming autobiographical memory conjunction errors that elude typical reality monitoring checks. The factors that contribute to the creation of these conjunction errors were examined across two experiments. Conjunction errors were more likely to occur when the corresponding details were partially rather than fully recombined, likely due to increased plausibility and ease of simulation of partially recombined scenarios. Brief periods of imagination increased conjunction error rates, in line with the imagination inflation effect. Subjective ratings suggest that this inflation is due to similarity of phenomenological experience between conjunction and authentic memories, consistent with a source monitoring perspective. Moreover, objective scoring of memory content indicates that increased perceptual detail may be particularly important for the formation of autobiographical memory conjunction errors. PMID:25611492

  2. A cognitive assessment of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    LePort, Aurora K R; Stark, Shauna M; McGaugh, James L; Stark, Craig E L

    2017-02-01

    Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) is characterised as the ability to accurately recall an exceptional number of experiences and their associated dates from events occurring throughout much of one's lifetime. The source of this ability has only begun to be explored. The present study explores whether other enhanced cognitive processes may be critical influences underlying HSAM abilities. We investigated whether enhanced abilities in the domains of verbal fluency, attention/inhibition, executive functioning, mnemonic discrimination, perception, visual working memory, or the processing of and memory for emotional details might contribute critically to HSAM. The results suggest that superior cognitive functioning is an unlikely basis of HSAM, as only modest advantages were found in only a few tests. In addition, we examined HSAM subjects' memory of the testing episodes. Interestingly, HSAM participants recalled details of their own experiences far better than those experiences that the experimenter shared with them. These findings provide additional evidence that HSAM involves, relatively selectively, recollection of personal, autobiographical material.

  3. Suppressing Unwanted Autobiographical Memories Reduces Their Automatic Influences: Evidence From Electrophysiology and an Implicit Autobiographical Memory Test.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress unwanted autobiographical memories in a memory-detection context involving a mock crime. Participants encoded sensorimotor-rich memories by enacting a lab-based crime (stealing a ring) and received instructions to suppress memory of the crime in order to evade guilt detection in a brain-wave-based concealed-information test. Aftereffects of suppression on automatic memory processes were measured in an autobiographical Implicit Association Test. Results showed that suppression attenuated brain-wave activity (the P300) associated with crime-relevant memory retrieval, which rendered waveforms from innocent and guilty participants indistinguishable. However, the two groups could nevertheless be discriminated via the late-posterior-negative slow wave, which may reflect the need to monitor response conflict arising between voluntary suppression and automatic recognition processes. Finally, extending recent findings that suppression can impair implicit memory processes, we provide novel evidence that suppression reduces automatic cognitive biases often associated with actual autobiographical memories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Specificity and detail in autobiographical memory: Same or different constructs?

    PubMed

    Kyung, Yoonhee; Yanes-Lukin, Paula; Roberts, John E

    2016-01-01

    Research on autobiographical memory has focused on whether memories are coded as specific (i.e., describe a single event that happened at a particular time and place). Although some theory and research suggests that the amount of detail in autobiographical memories reflects a similar underlying construct as memory specificity, past research has not investigated whether these variables converge. Therefore, the present study compared the proportion of specific memories and the amount of detail embedded in memory responses to cue words. Results demonstrated that memory detail and proportion of specific memories were not correlated with each other and showed different patterns of association with other conceptually relevant variables. When responses to neutral cue words were examined in multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, the proportion of specific memories uniquely predicted less depressive symptoms, low emotional avoidance, lower emotion reactivity, better executive control and lower rumination, whereas the amount of memory detail uniquely predicted the presence of depression diagnosis, as well as greater depressive symptoms, subjective stress, emotion reactivity and rumination. Findings suggest that the ability to retrieve specific memories and the tendency to retrieve detailed personal memories reflect different constructs that have different implications in the development of emotional distress.

  5. Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context.

  6. An "alternating instructions" version of the Autobiographical Memory Test for assessing autobiographical memory specificity in non-clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Dritschel, Barbara; Beltsos, Stamatis; McClintock, Shawn M; Beltosis, Stamatis

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research regarding how executive processes contribute to key cognitive deficits in depression, particularly impoverished retrieval of autobiographical memory. This study tested a novel version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), the "Alternating Instructions" AMT (AMT-AI), to determine how participants could flexibly retrieve specific and categoric autobiographical memories. The AMT-AI consisted of a standard AMT (AMT-S), a categoric version of the AMT (AMT-R), and a section of alternating instructions (AI) in which the rules required the participant to alternate between retrieval of categoric and specific memories. A total of 49 university students completed the AMT-AI, and self-report measures of depressive symptomatology and ruminative thinking. Results showed that the mean proportion of specific memories recalled on the AMT-AI was significantly lower than on the AMT-S. Also, reduced memory specificity on the AMT-AI, but not the AMT-S, was significantly negatively correlated with increased scores on measures of depressive symptomatology and ruminative thinking. Collectively the data suggested that the AMT-AI, relative to the traditional AMT, may be more sensitive to memory specificity in non-clinical populations. Future research is warranted to further determine the psychometric properties and utility of the AMT-AI.

  7. Autobiographical memory and structural brain changes in chronic phase TBI.

    PubMed

    Esopenko, Carrie; Levine, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a range of neuropsychological deficits, including attention, memory, and executive functioning attributable to diffuse axonal injury (DAI) with accompanying focal frontal and temporal damage. Although the memory deficit of TBI has been well characterized with laboratory tests, comparatively little research has examined retrograde autobiographical memory (AM) at the chronic phase of TBI, with no prior studies of unselected patients drawn directly from hospital admissions for trauma. Moreover, little is known about the effects of TBI on canonical episodic and non-episodic (e.g., semantic) AM processes. In the present study, we assessed the effects of chronic-phase TBI on AM in patients with focal and DAI spanning the range of TBI severity. Patients and socioeconomic- and age-matched controls were administered the Autobiographical Interview (AI) (Levine, Svoboda, Hay, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2002) a widely used method for dissociating episodic and semantic elements of AM, along with tests of neuropsychological and functional outcome. Measures of episodic and non-episodic AM were compared with regional brain volumes derived from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Severe TBI (but not mild or moderate TBI) was associated with reduced recall of episodic autobiographical details and increased recall of non-episodic details relative to healthy comparison participants. There were no significant associations between AM performance and neuropsychological or functional outcome measures. Within the full TBI sample, autobiographical episodic memory was associated with reduced volume distributed across temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions considered to be part of the brain's AM network. These results suggest that TBI-related distributed volume loss affects episodic autobiographical recollection.

  8. Individual differences and correlates of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) is a recently identified ability that has been difficult to explain with existing memory science. The present study measured HSAM participants' and age/gender-matched controls' on a number of behavioural measures to test three main hypotheses: imaginative absorption, emotional arousal, and sleep. HSAM participants were significantly higher than controls on the dispositions absorption and fantasy proneness. These two dispositions also were associated with a measure of HSAM ability within the hyperthymesia participants. The emotional-arousal hypothesis yielded only weak support. The sleep hypothesis was not supported in terms of quantity, but sleep quality may be a small factor worthy of further research. Other individual differences are also documented using a predominantly exploratory analysis. Speculative pathways describing how the tendencies to absorb and fantasise could lead to enhanced autobiographical memory are discussed.

  9. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Children of Depressed Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Woody, Mary L.; Burkhouse, Katie L.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine overgeneral autobiographical memory in a population at-risk for depression (i.e. children of depressed mothers). We predicted that children of depressed mothers would display less specific memories than children of nondepressed mothers and that these results would be observed among children with no prior history of depression themselves. Participants in this study were children (age 8–14; 50% girls, 83% Caucasian) of mothers with (n = 103) or without (n = 120) a history of major depressive disorder during the child’s life. Mothers’ and children’s diagnoses were confirmed with a diagnostic interview, and children completed the Autobiographical Memory Test and a measure of depressive symptoms. We found that children of depressed mothers, compared to children of nondepressed mothers, recalled less specific memories in response to negative cue words but not positive cue words. Importantly, these results were maintained even when we statistically controlled for the influence of children’s current depressive symptom levels and excluded children with currently depressed mothers. These results suggest that overgeneral autobiographical memory for negative events may serve as a marker of depression risk among high-risk children with no prior depression history. PMID:24580414

  10. Overgeneral autobiographical memory in children of depressed mothers.

    PubMed

    Woody, Mary L; Burkhouse, Katie L; Gibb, Brandon E

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine overgeneral autobiographical memory in a population at-risk for depression (i.e., children of depressed mothers). We predicted that children of depressed mothers would display less-specific memories than children of non-depressed mothers and that these results would be observed among children with no prior history of depression themselves. Participants in this study were children (age 8-14; 50% girls, 83% Caucasian) of mothers with (n = 103) or without (n = 120) a history of major depressive disorder during the child's life. Mothers' and children's diagnoses were confirmed with a diagnostic interview, and children completed the Autobiographical Memory Test and a measure of depressive symptoms. We found that children of depressed mothers, compared to children of non-depressed mothers, recalled less-specific memories in response to negative cue words but not positive cue words. Importantly, these results were maintained even when we statistically controlled for the influence of children's current depressive symptom levels and excluded children with currently depressed mothers. These results suggest that overgeneral autobiographical memory for negative events may serve as a marker of depression risk among high-risk children with no prior depression history.

  11. Differences in Brain Activation between the Retrieval of Specific and Categoric Autobiographical Memories: An EEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, Laura; Latorre, José M.; Aguilar, M. José; Ricarte, Jorge J.; Castillo, Alejandro; Catena, Andrés; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2017-01-01

    Difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories is known as overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). OGM has been related with clinical psychopathology (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, etc.). People presenting an OGM style usually recall more repetitive summary-type memories, so-called categoric memories, (e.g., "each time I…

  12. Oxytocin and enhancement of the positive valence of social affiliation memories: an autobiographical memory study.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Christopher; Orlando, Mark Anthony; Brown, Christopher A; Ellenbogen, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Intranasal oxytocin has been shown to alter self-perceptions of personality (e.g., more trusting, increased extraversion). To follow up these findings, we examined the acute effects of two doses of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU and 48 IU) on another form of self-referential cognition: autobiographical memory. Changes in autobiographical memory (personal memories for the past) could conceivably effect change in self-perception and consequently alter social behaviors. We predicted that oxytocin would increase the number of specific personal memories recalled, and promote the recall of positive social affiliation memories. Seventeen male participants self-administered a placebo or oxytocin (24 IU, 48 IU) using a nasal spray on three separate occasions in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, and within-subject experiment. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) 110 minutes later. Analyses revealed a quadratic dose-response curve for the effects of intranasal oxytocin on autobiographical memory recall. The 24 IU dose, relative to the 48 IU dose and placebo, increased the number of specific personal memories recalled and promoted the recall of social affiliation memories that were rated more positively. The lack of effect with the 48 IU dose could be due to saturation of the oxytocin receptors at higher doses. Changes in autobiographical memory may be one mechanism by which oxytocin alters prosocial worldviews.

  13. Autobiographical memory functioning among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children: The overgeneral memory effect

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Kristin; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Background This investigation addresses whether there are differences in the form and content of autobiographical memory recall as a function of maltreatment, and examines the roles of self-system functioning and psychopathology in autobiographical memory processes. Methods Autobiographical memory for positive and negative nontraumatic events was evaluated among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated school-aged children. Results Abused children’s memories were more overgeneral and contained more negative self-representations than did those of the nonmaltreated children. Negative self-representations and depression were significantly related to overgeneral memory, but did not mediate the relation between abuse and overgeneral memory. Conclusions The meaning of these findings for models of memory and for the development of overgenerality is emphasized. Moreover, the clinical implications of the current research are discussed. PMID:19490313

  14. [Post anoxia impairment of autobiographical memory and time estimation].

    PubMed

    Lebrun-Givois, C; Thomas-Antérion, C; Borg, C; Laurent, B

    2014-10-01

    A case of episodic amnesia with impairment of time perception is described; it illustrates the link between time perception and autobiographical memory. This woman suffered from a Sheehan syndrome with anoxia at the age of 36 and since that date has had a strong and isolated difficulty to estimate the date and duration of events in a range of weeks, months or years. Conversely, short duration time spans are correctly evaluated. The patient's complaints also involve episodic memory. She reports many events from her biography very imprecisely while the semantic autobiographical data are preserved. The patient has difficulty in recalling the date of public events and the period of celebrity of well-known people. That observation confirms the specificity of time organization for long periods and the link with the episodic memory where the context of the dating task is crucial. The results are discussed in reference to autobiographical memory that involves mental wandering in time-space and the constitution of self over a time continuum.

  15. When and why does abuse predict reduced autobiographical memory specificity?

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Sarah L; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to explore the conditions that elicit autobiographical memory problems in abuse victims and the mechanism that underlie them. In Study 1 older adolescents (n=80) with and without self-reported abuse histories completed a modified version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT-U); participants were given an unlimited amount of time to provide specific memories in response to cue words. Participants also completed measures of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), working memory, and attentional biases. This study found that abuse severity and PTSD symptoms were positively related to memory specificity on the AMT-U. In Study 2 older adolescents (n=78) with and without self-reported abuse histories completed the traditional (timed) version of the AMT. Participants also completed measures of working memory, attentional biases, self-reported coping, and psychopathological symptoms (i.e., depression and PTSD). In this study the opposite relationship was observed, such that abuse severity was related to poorer memory specificity, but this relationship was explained by disengagement coping and PTSD symptoms. This work suggests that poor memory specificity may represent a form of avoidance, but the application of avoidant mechanisms depends on the remembering context.

  16. Dissociating veridicality, consistency, and confidence in autobiographical and event memories for the Columbia shuttle disaster.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Emanuele; Bianco, Carmela; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2006-05-01

    A total of 449 students were tested for their event memories and autobiographical memories of hearing about the Columbia shuttle disaster of 1st February 2003. Four different groups were tested 2, 18, 27, or 51 days after the event. All participants were then re-tested after 5 months (second session) and again after 1 year (third session) from the first interview. Dissociations between consistency and confidence and between event and autobiographical memories were found. Consistency and confidence in event memories, but not in autobiographical memories, were affected by time. In contrast, repeated testing selectively enhanced autobiographical memories, in accordance with the narrative and rehearsal hypothesis of Neisser and Harsh (1992). For event memories, veridicality was inversely correlated to consistency, which in turn was inversely correlated to confidence, and mainly based on omissions. As regards veridicality, the analyses showed an increase of false memories at long time delays. Results are discussed with reference to recent studies contrasting autobiographical and event memories.

  17. Are Trauma Memories Disjointed from other Autobiographical Memories in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Kleim, Birgit; Wallott, Franziska; Ehlers, Anke

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that trauma memories are disjointed from other autobiographical material in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Assault survivors with (n = 25) and without PTSD (n = 49) completed an autobiographical memory retrieval task during script-driven imagery of (a) the assault and (b) an unrelated negative event. When listening to a taped imagery script of the worst moment of their assault, survivors with PTSD took longer to retrieve unrelated non-traumatic autobiographical information than those without PTSD, but not when listening to a taped script of the worst moment of another negative life event. The groups also did not differ in general retrieval latencies, neither at baseline nor after the imagery tasks. The findings are in line with suggestions that traumatic memories are less integrated with other autobiographical information in trauma survivors with PTSD than in those without PTSD. PMID:21241538

  18. Ecphory of Autobiographical Memories: an fMRI Study on Recent and Remote Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Steinvorth, Sarah; Corkin, Suzanne; Halgren, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Ecphory occurs when one recollects a past event cued by a trigger, such as a picture, odor, or name. It is a central component of autobiographical memory, which allows us to “travel mentally back in time” and re-experience specific events from our personal past. Using fMRI and focusing on the role of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, we investigated the brain bases of autobiographical memory and whether they change with the age of memories. Importantly, we used an ecphory task in which the remote character of the memories was ensured. The results showed that a large bilateral network supports autobiographical memory: temporal lobe, temporo-occipito-parietal junction, dorsal prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, retrosplenial cortex and surrounding areas, and MTL structures. This network, including MTL structures, changed little with the age of the memories. PMID:16257547

  19. It's all in the detail: intentional forgetting of autobiographical memories using the autobiographical think/no-think task.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Saima; Macleod, Malcolm D

    2013-03-01

    Using a novel autobiographical think/no-think procedure (ATNT; a modified version of the think/no-think task), 2 studies explored the extent to which we possess executive control over autobiographical memory. In Study 1, 30 never-depressed participants generated 12 positive and 12 negative autobiographical memories. Memories associated with cue-personal word pairings were learned to criterion. Participants were then asked to recall the memory associated with some of the cue-personal word pairs (i.e., think condition) or to avoid saying or thinking about the memory associated with others (i.e., no-think condition). In a subsequent test of recall, systematic forgetting effects emerged for no-think autobiographical memories compared to baseline that received neither no-think nor think instructions. These findings were extended and replicated in a second ATNT study (using a further 30 never-depressed participants), which showed that the forgetting of autobiographical memories in the no-think condition was unlikely to be a function of thought substitution or demand characteristics.

  20. Autonoetic Consciousness in Autobiographical Memories after Medial Temporal Lobe Resection

    PubMed Central

    Noulhiane, M.; Piolino, P.; Hasboun, D.; Clemenceau, S.; Baulac, M.; Samson, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate autonoetic consciousness associated with episodic autobiographical memory in patients who had undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection for intractable epilepsy. Autonoetic consciousness, defined as the conscious feeling of mentally travelling back in time to relive a specific event, was assessed using the Remember/Know (R/K) paradigm across different time periods as proposed in the autobiographical memory task developed by Piolino et al. (TEMPau task). Results revealed that the two patient groups (left and right temporal resection) gave reduced sense of reliving (R) responses and more familiarity (K) responses than healthy controls. This poor autonoetic consciousness was highlighted when patients were asked to justify their Remember responses by recalling sensory-perceptive, affective or spatiotemporal specific details across all life periods. These results support the bilateral MTL contribution to episodic autobiographical memory covering the entire lifespan, which is consistent with the multiple trace theory of MTL function [7,9]. This study also demonstrates the bilateral involvement of MTL structures in recalling specific details of personal events characterized by autonoetic consciousness. PMID:18413911

  1. Mother-Child Reminiscing and Autobiographical Memory Specificity among Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E.; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the…

  2. Autobiographical Memory and Depression in the Later Age: The Bump Is a Turning Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidron, Yori; Alon, Shirly

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study integrated previous findings of the distribution of autobiographical memories in the later age according to their age of occurrence, with the overgeneral memory bias predictive of depression. Twenty-five non-demented, Israeli participants between 65-89 years of age provided autobiographical memories to 4 groups of word cues…

  3. Autobiographical Memory and Depression in the Later Age: The Bump Is a Turning Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidron, Yori; Alon, Shirly

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study integrated previous findings of the distribution of autobiographical memories in the later age according to their age of occurrence, with the overgeneral memory bias predictive of depression. Twenty-five non-demented, Israeli participants between 65-89 years of age provided autobiographical memories to 4 groups of word cues…

  4. Mother-Child Reminiscing and Autobiographical Memory Specificity among Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E.; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the…

  5. Specificity in autobiographical memory narratives correlates with performance on the autobiographical memory test and prospectively predicts depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P

    2013-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the over-reliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N=55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  6. Specificity in autobiographical memory narratives correlates with performance on the Autobiographical Memory Test and prospectively predicts depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the overreliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N = 55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:23240988

  7. Visual perspective in autobiographical memories: reliability, consistency, and relationship to objective memory performance.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Visual perspective in autobiographical memories was examined in terms of reliability, consistency, and relationship to objective memory performance in a sample of 99 individuals. Autobiographical memories may be recalled from two visual perspectives--a field perspective in which individuals experience the memory through their own eyes, or an observer perspective in which individuals experience the memory from the viewpoint of an observer in which they can see themselves. Participants recalled nine word-cued memories that differed in emotional valence (positive, negative and neutral) and rated their memories on 18 scales. Results indicate that visual perspective was the most reliable memory characteristic overall and is consistently related to emotional intensity at the time of recall and amount of emotion experienced during the memory. Visual perspective is unrelated to memory for words, stories, abstract line drawings or faces.

  8. Similar autobiographical memory impairment in long-term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, S; Saur, R; Greve, B; Melms, A; Hautzinger, M; Fallgatter, A J; Leyhe, T

    2013-02-01

    Memory disturbance is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), but little is known about autobiographical memory deficits in the long-term course of different MS subtypes. Inflammatory activity and demyelination is pronounced in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) whereas, similar to Alzheimer's disease, neurodegeneration affecting autobiographical memory-associated areas is seen in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). In light of distinct disease mechanisms, we evaluated autobiographical memory in different MS subtypes and hypothesized similarities between elderly patients with SPMS and Alzheimer's disease. We used the Autobiographical Memory Interview to assess episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in 112 education- and gender-matched participants, including healthy controls and patients with RRMS, SPMS, amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and early Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Patients with SPMS, AD, and aMCI, but not with RRMS, exhibited a pattern of episodic autobiographical memory impairment that followed Ribot's Law; older memories were better preserved than more recent memories. In contrast to aMCI and AD, neither SPMS nor RRMS was associated with semantic autobiographical memory impairment. Our neuropsychological findings suggest that episodic autobiographical memory is affected in long-term patients with SPMS, possibly due to neurodegenerative processes in functional relevant brain regions.

  9. Music evoked autobiographical memory after severe acquired brain injury: preliminary findings from a case series.

    PubMed

    Baird, A; Samson, S

    2014-01-01

    Music evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) have been characterised in the healthy population, but not, to date, in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Our aim was to investigate music compared with verbal evoked autobiographical memories. Five patients with severe ABI and matched controls completed the experimental music (MEAM) task (a written questionnaire) while listening to 50 "Number 1 Songs of the Year" (from 1960 to 2010). Patients also completed the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) and a standard neuropsychological assessment. With the exception of Case 5, who reported no MEAMs and no autobiographical incidents on the AMI and who also had impaired pitch perception, the range of frequency and type of MEAMs in patients was broadly in keeping with their matched controls. The relative preservation of MEAMs in four cases was particularly noteworthy given their impaired verbal and/or visual anterograde memory, and in three cases, autobiographical memory impairment. The majority of MEAMs in both cases and matched controls were of a person/people or a period of life. In three patients music was more efficient at evoking autobiographical memories than the AMI verbal prompts. This is the first study of MEAMs after ABI. The findings suggest that music is an effective stimulus for eliciting autobiographical memories, and may be beneficial in the rehabilitation of autobiographical amnesia, but only in patients without a fundamental deficit in autobiographical recall memory and intact pitch perception.

  10. The impact of imprisonment on overgeneral autobiographical memory in former political prisoners.

    PubMed

    Kleim, Birgit; Griffith, James W; Gäbler, Ira; Schützwohl, Matthias; Maercker, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Traumatic experiences may dramatically influence later behavior and cognitive processing. This study investigated how trauma shapes the way that we remember personal experiences. Specifically, we investigated overgeneral autobiographical memory, which is the tendency to remember autobiographical events in an overgeneral rather than specific way. We administered the Autobiographical Memory Test (Williams & Broadbent,) to 86 survivors of political imprisonment 37 years after they had been released from imprisonment. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder were not significantly related to overgeneral autobiographical memory. Significant overgeneral autobiographical memory correlates included embitterment, r = -.28, and being released to former East Germany, d = 0.67. Survivors with social support, r = .30 were better able to recall specific memories. Certain trauma characteristics and the way the trauma is processed may thus influence how personal memories are later remembered. This study also furthers the understanding of memory processes in political prisoners, who are not commonly studied in psychological research.

  11. Examining the long-term stability of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Epstein, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a proposed trait-marker for vulnerability to depression, but relatively little work has examined its long-term stability. This study investigated the stability of OGM over several years in 271 late adolescents and young adults participating in a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders. The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) was administered twice, with test-retest intervals ranging from approximately 3 to 6 years. There was evidence of significant but modest stability in OGM over several years. Specifically, Spearman rank correlations (ρs) between the proportions of specific and categoric memories generated on the two AMTs were .31 and .32, respectively. We did not find evidence that the stability of OGM was moderated by the length of the test-retest interval. Furthermore, the stability coefficients for OGM for individuals with and without a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD) were relatively similar in magnitude and not significantly different from one another (ρs=.34 and .42 for the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those with a history of MDD; ρs=.31 for both the proportions of specific and categoric memories for those without a history of MDD). Implications for the conceptualisation of OGM are discussed.

  12. Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The role of Depressed Mood, Rumination, Working Memory and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults…

  13. Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The role of Depressed Mood, Rumination, Working Memory and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults…

  14. The Specificity of Autobiographical Memories in Early Adolescence: The Role of Mother-Child Communication and Attachment-Related Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmans, Guy; Dujardin, Adinda; Raes, Filip; Braet, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Although autobiographical memory specificity is an important developmental feature fostering adaptation throughout life, little is known about factors related to interindividual differences in autobiographical memory specificity. The current study investigated associations with early adolescents' communication with mother about their experiences…

  15. The Specificity of Autobiographical Memories in Early Adolescence: The Role of Mother-Child Communication and Attachment-Related Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosmans, Guy; Dujardin, Adinda; Raes, Filip; Braet, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Although autobiographical memory specificity is an important developmental feature fostering adaptation throughout life, little is known about factors related to interindividual differences in autobiographical memory specificity. The current study investigated associations with early adolescents' communication with mother about their experiences…

  16. Development and psychometric properties of a new measure for memory phenomenology: The Autobiographical Memory Characteristics Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Boyacioglu, Inci; Akfirat, Serap

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measure for the phenomenology of autobiographical memories. The psychometric properties of the Autobiographical Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (AMCQ) were tested in three studies: the factor structure of the AMCQ was examined for childhood memories in Study 1 (N = 305); for autobiographical memories related to romantic relationships in Study 2 (N = 197); and for self-defining memories in Study 3 (N = 262). The explanatory factor analyses performed for each memory type demonstrated the consistency of the AMCQ factor structure across all memory types; while a confirmatory factor analysis on the data garnered from all three studies supported the constructs for the autobiographical memory characteristics defined by the researchers. The AMCQ consists of 63 items and 14 factors, and the internal consistency values of all 14 scales were ranged between .66 and .97. The relationships between the AMCQ scales related to gender and individual emotions, as well as the intercorrelations among the scales, were consistent with both theoretical expectations and previous findings. The results of all the three studies indicated that this new instrument is a reliable and robust measure for memory phenomenology.

  17. Autobiographical memory decline in Alzheimer's disease, a theoretical and clinical overview.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    Autobiographical memory, or memory for personal experiences, allows individuals to define themselves and construct a meaningful life story. Decline of this ability, as observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), results in an impaired sense of self and identity. In our model (AMAD: Autobiographical Memory in Alzheimer's Disease), we present a critical review of theories and findings regarding cognitive and neuroanatomical underpinnings of autobiographical memory and its decline in AD and highlight studies on its clinical rehabilitation. We propose that autobiographical recall in AD is mainly characterized by loss of associated episodic information, which leads to de-contextualization of autobiographical memories and a shift from reliving past events to a general sense of familiarity. This decline refers to retrograde, but also anterograde amnesia that affects newly acquired memories besides remote ones. One consequence of autobiographical memory decline in AD is decreased access to memories that shape self-consciousness, self-knowledge, and self-images, leading to a diminished sense of self and identity. The link between autobiographical decline and compromised sense of self in AD can also manifest itself as low correspondence and coherence between past memories and current goals and beliefs. By linking cognitive, neuroanatomical, and clinical aspects of autobiographical decline in AD, our review provides a theoretical foundation, which may lead to better rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Autobiographical memory decline in Alzheimer’s disease, a theoretical and clinical overview

    PubMed Central

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Autobiographical memory, or memory for personal experiences, allows individuals to define themselves and construct a meaningful life story. Decline of this ability, as observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), results in an impaired sense of self and identity. In our model (AMAD: Autobiographical Memory in Alzheimer’s Disease), we present a critical review of theories and findings regarding cognitive and neuroanatomical underpinnings of autobiographical memory and its decline in AD and highlight studies on its clinical rehabilitation. We propose that autobiographical recall in AD is mainly characterized by loss of associated episodic information, which leads to de-contextualization of autobiographical memories and a shift from reliving past events to a general sense of familiarity. This decline refers to retrograde, but also anterograde amnesia that affects newly acquired memories besides remote ones. One consequence of autobiographical memory decline in AD is decreased access to memories that shape self-consciousness, self-knowledge, and self-images, leading to a diminished sense of self and identity. The link between autobiographical decline and compromised sense of self in AD can also manifest itself as low correspondence and coherence between past memories and current goals and beliefs. By linking cognitive, neuroanatomical, and clinical aspects of autobiographical decline in AD, our review provides a theoretical foundation, which may lead to better rehabilitation strategies. PMID:26169474

  19. Is sharing specific autobiographical memories a distinct form of self-disclosure?

    PubMed

    Beike, Denise R; Brandon, Nicole R; Cole, Holly E

    2016-04-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit a social function, meaning that recollecting and sharing memories of specific discrete events creates and maintains relationship intimacy. Eight studies with 1,271 participants tested whether sharing specific autobiographical memories in conversations increases feelings of closeness among conversation partners, relative to sharing other self-related information. The first 2 studies revealed that conversations in which specific autobiographical memories were shared were also accompanied by feelings of closeness among conversation partners. The next 5 studies experimentally introduced specific autobiographical memories versus general information about the self into conversations between mostly unacquainted pairs of participants. Discussing specific autobiographical memories led to greater closeness among conversation partners than discussing nonself-related topics, but no greater closeness than discussing other, more general self-related information. In the final study unacquainted pairs in whom feelings of closeness had been experimentally induced through shared humor were more likely to discuss specific autobiographical memories than unacquainted control participant pairs. We conclude that sharing specific autobiographical memories may express more than create relationship closeness, and discuss how relationship closeness may afford sharing of specific autobiographical memories by providing common ground, a social display, or a safety signal. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Field perspective deficit for positive memories characterizes autobiographical memory in euthymic depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Loretxu; Lemogne, Cédric; Foucher, Aurélie; Longin, Estelle; Vistoli, Damien; Allilaire, Jean-François; Fossati, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    Research on autobiographical memory (AM) and the ability to retrieve specific autobiographical events in euthymic depressed patients yielded divergent results. The main goal of the present study was to further explore episodic specificity of AM among fully remitted depressed patients. Twenty euthymic depressed patients and 20 matched healthy controls were given a semi-structured interview, which assesses episodic specificity of positive and negative autobiographical memories regarding event and details' specificity, autonoetic consciousness (remember/know procedure) and visual perspective (field/observer procedure). Results showed an impairment of episodic specificity of AM in euthymic depressed patients. This impairment was explained by a field perspective deficit for positive memories only. These results suggest that euthymic patients continue to exhibit discrepancy between their current self and their self for positive past behaviors, which maintains an unfavorable view of their current self. Specific cognitive interventions may improve the self-relevance of their positive memories.

  1. Autobiographical memory, future imagining, and the medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Dede, Adam J O; Wixted, John T; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2016-11-22

    In two experiments, patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and healthy controls produced detailed autobiographical narratives as they remembered past events (recent and remote) and imagined future events (near and distant). All recent events occurred after the onset of memory impairment. The first experiment aimed to replicate the methods of Race et al. [Race E, Keane MM, Verfaellie M (2011) J Neurosci 31(28):10262-10269]. Transcripts from that study were kindly made available for independent analysis, which largely reproduced the findings from that study. Our patients produced marginally fewer episodic details than controls. Patients from the earlier study were more impaired than our patients. Patients in both groups had difficulty in returning to their narratives after going on tangents, suggesting that anterograde memory impairment may have interfered with narrative construction. In experiment 2, the experimenter used supportive questioning to help keep participants on task and reduce the burden on anterograde memory. This procedure increased the number of details produced by all participants and rescued the performance of our patients for the distant past. Neither of the two patient groups had any special difficulty in producing spatial details. The findings suggest that constructing narratives about the remote past and the future does not depend on MTL structures, except to the extent that anterograde amnesia affects performance. The results further suggest that different findings about the status of autobiographical memory likely depend on differences in the location and extent of brain damage in different patient groups.

  2. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  3. Flexibility of Event Boundaries in Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Hohman, Timothy J.; Peynircioğlu, Zehra F.; Beason-Held, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Events have clear and consistent boundaries that are defined during perception in a manner that influences memory performance. The natural process of event segmentation shapes event definitions during perception, and appears to play a critical role in defining distinct episodic memories at encoding. However, the role of retrieval processes in modifying event definitions is not clear. We explored how such processes changed event boundary definitions at recall. In Experiment 1 we showed that distance from encoding is related to boundary flexibility. Participants were more likely to move self-reported event boundaries to include information reported beyond those boundaries when recalling more distant events compared to more recent events. In Experiment 2, we showed that age also influenced boundary flexibility. Older Age adults were more likely to move event boundaries than College Age adults, and the relationship between distance from encoding and boundary flexibility seen in Experiment 1 was present only in College Age and Middle Age adults. These results suggest that factors at retrieval have a direct impact on event definitions in memory and that, although episodic memories may be initially defined at encoding, these definitions are not necessarily maintained in long-term memory. PMID:22989194

  4. Autobiographical and episodic memory deficits in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wammes, Jeffrey D; Good, Tyler J; Fernandes, Myra A

    2017-02-01

    Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI. We first investigated whether there were observable episodic and autobiographical memory impairments associated with mTBI within an otherwise healthy young group. Next, because previous work had demonstrated some overlap in patterns of behavioral impairment in normally aging adults and younger adults with a history of mTBI (e.g. Ozen, Fernandes, Clark, & Roy, 2015), we sought to determine whether these groups displayed similar cognitive profiles. Lastly, we conducted an exploratory analysis to test whether having suffered an mTBI might exacerbate age-related cognitive decline. Results showed the expected age-related decline in episodic memory performance, coupled with a relative preservation of semantic memory in older adults. Importantly, this pattern was also present in younger adults with a history of remote mTBI. No differences were observed across older adult groups based on mTBI status. Logistic regression analyses, using each measure in our battery as a predictor, successfully classified mTBI status in younger participants with a high degree of specificity (79.5%). These results indicate that those who have had an mTBI demonstrate a distinct cognitive signature, characterized by impairment in episodic and autobiographical memory, coupled with a relative preservation of semantic memory.

  5. Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity Predicts Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Recent Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleim, Birgit; Ehlers, Anke

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors examined the relationship between reduced specificity in autobiographical memory retrieval and the development of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and specific phobia after injury in an assault. Assault survivors (N = 203) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (J. M. G.…

  6. The Factor Structure of the Autobiographical Memory Test in Recent Trauma Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James W.; Kleim, Birgit; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Ehlers, Anke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), which is widely used to measure overgeneral autobiographical memory in individuals with depression and a trauma history. Its factor structure and internal consistency have not been explored in a clinical sample. This study examined the…

  7. Rumination mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yansong; Yu, Xinnian; Yang, Bixiu; Zhang, Fuquan; Zou, Wenhua; Na, Aiguo; Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Guangzhong

    2017-03-21

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been identified as a risk factor for the onset and maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might explain overgeneral autobiographical memory phenomenon in depression. The purpose of this study was to test the mediation effects of rumination on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms. Specifically, the mediation effects of brooding and reflection subtypes of rumination were examined in patients with major depressive disorder. Eighty-seven patients with major depressive disorder completed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Bootstrap mediation analysis for simple and multiple mediation models through the PROCESS macro was applied. Simple mediation analysis showed that rumination significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses showed that brooding, but not reflection, significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Our results indicate that global rumination partly mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, the present results suggest that the mediating role of rumination in the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression is mainly due to the maladaptive brooding subtype of rumination.

  8. Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity Predicts Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Recent Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleim, Birgit; Ehlers, Anke

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors examined the relationship between reduced specificity in autobiographical memory retrieval and the development of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and specific phobia after injury in an assault. Assault survivors (N = 203) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (J. M. G.…

  9. Autobiographical memory compromise in individuals with alcohol use disorders: Towards implications for psychotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; El Haj, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    It has been found that Autobiographical memory (i.e., memory for personal experiences and facts about the self) are not properly maintained in people with alcohol-use disorders (AUD). The present paper offers a comprehensive overview of findings regarding the consequences of AUD on autobiographical memory. More specifically, we offer a theoretical model (the AMAUD Autobiographical Memory and Alcohol Use Disorders model) according to which chronic alcohol consumption compromises emotion regulation as well as executive control, which maintains the construction of autobiographical memory. Compromises in emotional regulation and executive functioning can be linked to a weak aspiration to construct detailed memories (i.e., autobiographical overgenerality), compromises of subjective reliving, anterograde amnesia, negative self-defining memories, and a difficulty to mentally project oneself forward in time to generate complex autobiographical representations and self-images. By gathering cognitive and clinical aspects of autobiographical decline in AUD, this model constitutes a theoretical foundation that may lead to a better understanding of this decline. Different clinical perspectives are proposed for developing personalized autobiographical memory rehabilitation programs for individuals with AUD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Factor Structure of the Autobiographical Memory Test in Recent Trauma Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James W.; Kleim, Birgit; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Ehlers, Anke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), which is widely used to measure overgeneral autobiographical memory in individuals with depression and a trauma history. Its factor structure and internal consistency have not been explored in a clinical sample. This study examined the…

  11. Are Autobiographical Memories Inherently Social? Evidence from an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilbers, Linda; Deuker, Lorena; Fell, Juergen; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    The story of our lifetime – our narrative self – is constructed from our autobiographical memories. A central claim of social psychology is that this narrative self is inherently social: When we construct our lives, we do so in a real or imagined interaction. This predicts that self-referential processes which are involved in recall of autobiographical memories overlap with processes involved in social interactions. Indeed, previous functional MRI studies indicate that regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are activated during autobiographical memory recall and virtual communication. However, no fMRI study has investigated recall of autobiographical memories in a real-life interaction. We developed a novel paradigm in which participants overtly reported self-related and other-related memories to an experimenter, whose non-verbal reactions were being filmed and online displayed to the participants in the scanner. We found that recall of autobiographical vs. non-autobiographical memories was associated with activation of the mPFC, as was recall in the social as compared to a non-social control condition; however, both contrasts involved different non-overlapping regions within the mPFC. These results indicate that self-referential processes involved in autobiographical memory recall are different from processes supporting social interactions, and argue against the hypothesis that autobiographical memories are inherently social. PMID:23028774

  12. Involuntary memories of emotional scenes: the effects of cue discriminability and emotion over time.

    PubMed

    Staugaard, Søren R; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-10-01

    Involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously--that is, with no preceding retrieval attempts. Such memories are frequent in daily life, in which they are predominantly positive and often triggered by situational features matching distinctive parts of the memory. However, individuals suffering from psychological disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, have stressful, repetitive, and unwanted involuntary memories about negative events in their past. These unwanted recollections are disturbing and debilitating. Although such intrusive involuntary memories are observed across a range of clinical disorders, there is no broadly agreed upon explanation of their underlying mechanisms and no successful experimental simulations of their retrieval. In a series of experiments, we experimentally manipulated the activation of involuntary episodic memories for emotional and neutral scenes and predicted their activation on the basis of manipulations carried out at encoding and retrieval. Our findings suggest that the interplay between cue discriminability at the time of retrieval and emotional arousal at the time of encoding are crucial for explaining intrusive memories following negative events. While cue distinctiveness is important directly following encoding of the scenes, emotional intensity influences retrieval after delays of 24 hr and 1 week. Voluntary remembering follows the same pattern as involuntary remembering. Our results suggest an explanatory model of intrusive involuntary memory for emotional events in clinical disorders.

  13. Current psychometric and methodological issues in the measurement of overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James W; Sumner, Jennifer A; Raes, Filip; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Debeer, Elise; Hermans, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Autobiographical memory is a multifaceted construct that is related to psychopathology and other difficulties in functioning. Across many studies, a variety of methods have been used to study autobiographical memory. The relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) and psychopathology has been of particular interest, and many studies of this cognitive phenomenon rely on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) to assess it. In this paper, we examine several methodological approaches to studying autobiographical memory, and focus primarily on methodological and psychometric considerations in OGM research. We pay particular attention to what is known about the reliability, validity, and methodological variations of the AMT. The AMT has adequate psychometric properties, but there is great variability in methodology across studies that use it. Methodological recommendations and suggestions for future studies are presented.

  14. Disruptions in autobiographical memory processing in depression and the emergence of memory therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Tim; Werner-Seidler, Aliza

    2014-11-01

    Depression is characterized by distinct profiles of disturbance in ways autobiographical memories are represented, recalled, and maintained. We review four core domains of difficulty: systematic biases in favor of negative material; impoverished access and responses to positive memories; reduced access to the specific details of the personal past; and dysfunctional processes of rumination and avoidance around personal autobiographical material. These difficulties drive the onset and maintenance of depression; consequently, interventions targeted at these maladaptive processes have clinical potential. Memory therapeutics is the development of novel clinical techniques, translated from basic research, that target memory difficulties in those with emotional disorders. We discuss prototypical examples from this clinical domain including MEmory Specificity Training, positive memory elaboration, memory rescripting, and the method-of-loci (MoL).

  15. The effect of cortisol on autobiographical memory retrieval depends on remoteness and valence of memories.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Juliane; Weber, Juliane; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Düsenberg, Moritz; Wolf, Oliver T; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2017-02-01

    There is evidence that specificity of autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval is impaired by cortisol. However, it is unknown whether glucocorticoids differentially influence the retrieval of recent versus remote AMs. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of cortisol on AM retrieval, in terms of memory specificity, with respect to remoteness of the retrieved memories. A placebo controlled, double blind study was conducted. Thirty female and 24 male healthy participants (mean age 24.5, SD=3.7) received either placebo or 10mg hydrocortisone before completing an autobiographical memory test. Participants showed higher memory specificity for recent memories compared to remote ones. There was no main effect of cortisol on AM retrieval. However, interaction effects suggest that cortisol affects remote, but not recent memories, which seems to depend upon valence.

  16. The role of working memory capacity in autobiographical retrieval: individual differences in strategic search.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J; Brewer, Gene A

    2012-01-01

    Remembering previous experiences from one's personal past is a principal component of psychological well-being, personality, sense of self, decision making, and planning for the future. In the current study the ability to search for autobiographical information in memory was examined by having college students recall their Facebook friends. Individual differences in working memory capacity manifested itself in the search of autobiographical memory by way of the total number of friends remembered, the number of clusters of friends, size of clusters, and the speed with which participants could output their friends' names. Although working memory capacity was related to the ability to search autobiographical memory, participants did not differ in the manner in which they approached the search and used contextual cues to help query their memories. These results corroborate recent theorising, which suggests that working memory is a necessary component of self-generating contextual cues to strategically search memory for autobiographical information.

  17. Emotional intensity in episodic autobiographical memory and counterfactual thinking.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Matthew L; Parikh, Natasha; Stewart, Gregory W; De Brigard, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Episodic counterfactual thoughts-imagined alternative ways in which personal past events might have occurred-are frequently accompanied by intense emotions. Here, participants recollected positive and negative autobiographical memories and then generated better and worse episodic counterfactual events from those memories. Our results suggest that the projected emotional intensity during the simulated remembered/imagined event is significantly higher than but typically positively related to the emotional intensity while remembering/imagining the event. Furthermore, repeatedly simulating counterfactual events heightened the emotional intensity felt while simulating the counterfactual event. Finally, for both the emotional intensity accompanying the experience of remembering/imagining and the projected emotional intensity during the simulated remembered/imagined event, the emotional intensity of negative memories was greater than the emotional intensity of upward counterfactuals generated from them but lower than the emotional intensity of downward counterfactuals generated from them. These findings are discussed in relation to clinical work and functional theories of counterfactual thinking.

  18. Asymptotic learning of alphanumeric coding in autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Martin, Maryanne; Jones, Gregory V

    2007-02-01

    Studies of autobiographical memory have shown that observed levels of incidental learning are often relatively low. Do low levels of retention result simply from a low learning rate, or is learning also asymptotic? To address this question, it is necessary to trace performance over a large number of learning opportunities, and this was carried out in the context of the recent development of widespread texting behaviour. It was found that memory for the alphanumeric layout of a phone improved as a function of sending approximately the first 500 texts, but then the improvement stopped. The incidence of memory error was incompatible with a simple power-law relation but was modelled closely by an asymptotic relation. It is suggested that this pattern reflects a movement towards automaticity in the primary task which progressively closes down the possibility that incidental learning can occur.

  19. Amygdala Activity During Autobiographical Memory Recall in Depressed and Vulnerable Individuals: Association With Symptom Severity and Autobiographical Overgenerality.

    PubMed

    Young, Kymberly D; Siegle, Greg J; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, autobiographical memory recall is biased toward positive and away from negative events, while the opposite is found in depressed individuals. This study examined amygdala activity during autobiographical memory recall as a putative mechanism underlying biased memory recall and depressive symptoms in currently depressed adults and two vulnerable populations: individuals remitted from depression and otherwise healthy individuals at high familial risk of developing depression. Identification of such vulnerability factors could enable interception strategies that prevent depression onset. Sixty healthy control subjects, 45 unmedicated currently depressed individuals, 25 unmedicated remitted depressed individuals, and 30 individuals at high familial risk of developing depression underwent functional MRI while recalling autobiographical memories in response to emotionally valenced cue words. Amygdala reactivity and connectivity with anatomically defined amygdala regions were examined. During positive recall, depressed participants exhibited significantly decreased left amygdala activity and decreased connectivity with regions of the salience network compared with the other groups. During negative recall, control subjects had significantly decreased left amygdala activity compared with the other groups, while depressed participants exhibited increased amygdala connectivity with the salience network. In depressed participants, left amygdala activity during positive recall correlated significantly with depression severity (r values >-0.38) and percent of positive specific memories recalled (r values >0.59). The results suggest that left amygdala hyperactivity during negative autobiographical recall is a trait-like marker of depression, as both vulnerable groups showed activity similar to the depressed group, while amygdala hypoactivity during positive autobiographical recall is a state marker of depression manifesting in active disease. Treatments

  20. Narcissism, self-esteem, and the phenomenology of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lara L; Norville, Gregory A; Wright, A Michelle

    2016-09-16

    Across two studies, we investigated the influence of narcissism and self-esteem along with gender on phenomenological ratings across the four subscales of the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire (AMQ; impact, recollection, rehearsal, and belief). Memory cues varied in valence (positive vs. negative) and agency (agentic vs. communal). In Study 2, we used different memory cues reflecting these four Valence by Agency conditions and additionally investigated retrieval times for the autobiographical memories (AMs). Results were consistent with the agency model of narcissism [Campbell, W. K., Brunell, A. B., & Finkel, E. J. (2006). Narcissism, interpersonal self-regulation, and romantic relationships: An agency model approach. In E. J. Finkel & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Self and relationships: Connecting intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. New York, NY: Guilford], which characterises narcissists as being more concerned with agentic (self-focused) rather than communal (other-focused) positive self-relevant information. Narcissism predicted greater phenomenology across the four subscales for the positive-agentic memories (Study 1: clever; Study 2: attractive, talented) as well as faster memory retrieval times. Narcissism also predicted greater recollection and faster retrieval times for the negative-communal AMs (Study 1: rude; Study 2: annoying, dishonest). In contrast, self-esteem predicted greater phenomenology and faster retrieval times for the positive-communal AMs (Study 1: cooperative; Study 2: romantic, sympathetic). In both studies, results of LIWC analyses further differentiated between narcissism and self-esteem in the content (word usage) of the AMs.

  1. Predictors of age-related and individual variability in autobiographical memory in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2017-10-04

    Development of autobiographical memory is as a gradual process beginning in early childhood and continuing through late adolescence. Substantial attention has been paid to early childhood when first personal memories are formed; less attention has been focused on the flourishing of memories from the late preschool years onward. We addressed this void with a three-year cohort-sequential study of age-related changes in the length, completeness, and coherence of autobiographical narratives by children 4-10 years. We also examined the unique and combined variance in autobiographical narrative explained by children's own language, maternal narrative style, domain-general cognitive abilities, non-autobiographical story recall, and memory-specific skills. There was substantial growth in autobiographical narrative skill across the 4-10-year period. Non-autobiographical story recall was a strong concurrent and cross-lagged predictor for all autobiographical narrative measures. Memory-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities systematically predicted narrative completeness and coherence but not length. Children's language and maternal narrative style did not contribute additional variance when these predictors were considered. The findings highlight that age-related changes in autobiographical memory are the results of combined contributions of a variety of domain-general and domain-specific predictors.

  2. Does overgeneral autobiographical memory result from poor memory for task instructions?

    PubMed

    Yanes, Paula K; Roberts, John E; Carlos, Erica L

    2008-10-01

    Considerable previous research has shown that retrieval of overgeneral autobiographical memories (OGM) is elevated among individuals suffering from various emotional disorders and those with a history of trauma. Although previous theories suggest that OGM serves the function of regulating acute negative affect, it is also possible that OGM results from difficulties in keeping the instruction set for the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) in working memory, or what has been coined "secondary goal neglect" (Dalgleish, 2004). The present study tested whether OGM is associated with poor memory for the task's instruction set, and whether an instruction set reminder would improve memory specificity over repeated trials. Multilevel modelling data-analytic techniques demonstrated a significant relationship between poor recall of instruction set and probability of retrieving OGMs. Providing an instruction set reminder for the AMT relative to a control task's instruction set improved memory specificity immediately afterward.

  3. Autobiographical significance in past and future public semantic memory: a case-study.

    PubMed

    Manning, Liliann; Denkova, Ekaterina; Unterberger, Lydia

    2013-09-01

    Refined investigation of infrequent dissociations within remote memory, such as preservation of autobiographical episodic memory and selective impairment of public semantic memory could provide some insight on the interactions of long-term memory systems and their underlying brain correlates. Combining clinical neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods in the present study, we examined a patient surgically treated for temporal lobe epilepsy showing this rare pattern of dissociation. Specifically, we investigated along the two temporal directions, past and future, his autobiographical episodic memory, semantic memory for public events and famous people and their interaction through the concept of autobiographical significance (AS). The results showed impaired ability not only to recall past but also to imagine future public events in a context of preserved past and future personal episodic memory. Remarkably, impersonal future thinking was impaired regardless of AS, while the autobiographical-significant public past knowledge relied exclusively on the patient's spared autobiographical episodic memory. These results were corroborated by neuroimaging data showing the absence of brain activation for public knowledge devoid of personal significance and activation of the autobiographical memory cerebral network for personally significant public knowledge. Our findings suggest that AS did not 'restore' the code to access public semantic memory, but bypassed it by using personal memory sources successful only for past public recollections. Therefore, remembering impersonal and imagining public events seems to require the contribution of public semantic knowledge per se. The patient's cognitive profile suggested a reorganization of memory systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Autobiographical memory in adult offspring of traumatized parents with and without posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Charlotte E; Jelinek, Lena; Moritz, Steffen; Muhtz, Christoph; Berna, Fabrice

    2016-08-30

    The present study examined potential transgenerational effects of trauma on autobiographical memory in adult offspring of elderly participants with and without PTSD symptoms who were exposed to an early trauma during childhood. As traumatization is associated with reduced memory specificity for past events, we hypothesized that offspring of traumatized parents might be exposed to a less elaborative narrative style, which, in turn, might result in less specific autobiographical memories in the offspring. Results show that autobiographical memory specificity did not differ significantly between adult offspring of traumatized elderly participants with PTSD symptoms, without PTSD symptoms, and non-traumatized elderly participants.

  5. Effectiveness of follow-up reminiscence therapy on autobiographical memory in pathological ageing.

    PubMed

    Melendez, Juan C; Torres, Marta; Redondo, Rita; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sales, Alicia

    2017-08-01

    The objective is to examine the effects of reminiscence therapy (RT) on total, episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups, testing the effects of RT on different stages of autobiographical memory, and its effectiveness at follow-up. A sample composed of 43 aMCI (27 treatments, 16 controls) and 30 AD (15 treatments, 15 controls) subjects were evaluated with the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) test. The RT consisted of 10 sessions lasting 60 minutes each. Both groups, aMCI and AD, showed significant effects on overall autobiographical memory; aMCI showed significant main effects on episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in the treatment group, increasing scores in both cases. For AD, significant effects were observed on autobiographical episodic memory, showing an increase in the treatment group from Time 1 to follow-up; semantic memory showed a decrease in the control group from Time 1 to follow-up. Results show that RT implementation and follow-up are effective in increasing autobiographical memory in subjects with aMCI and AD. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Damage to the default mode network disrupts autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Philippi, Carissa L; Tranel, Daniel; Duff, Melissa; Rudrauf, David

    2015-03-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the default mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory (AM). Convergent evidence from a lesion approach would help clarify the role of the DMN in AM. In this study, we used a voxelwise lesion-deficit approach to test the hypothesis that regions of the DMN are necessary for AM. We also explored whether the neural correlates of semantic AM (SAM) and episodic AM (EAM) were overlapping or distinct. Using the Iowa Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire, we tested AM retrieval in 92 patients with focal, stable brain lesions. In support of our hypothesis, damage to regions within the DMN (medial prefrontal cortex, mPFC; posterior cingulate cortex, PCC; inferior parietal lobule, IPL; medial temporal lobe, MTL) was associated with AM impairments. Within areas of effective lesion coverage, the neural correlates of SAM and EAM were largely distinct, with limited areas of overlap in right IPL. Whereas SAM deficits were associated with left mPFC and MTL damage, EAM deficits were associated with right mPFC and MTL damage. These results provide novel neuropsychological evidence for the necessary role of parts of the DMN in AM. More broadly, the findings shed new light on how the DMN participates in self-referential processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Damage to the default mode network disrupts autobiographical memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Daniel; Duff, Melissa; Rudrauf, David

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the default mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory (AM). Convergent evidence from a lesion approach would help clarify the role of the DMN in AM. In this study, we used a voxelwise lesion-deficit approach to test the hypothesis that regions of the DMN are necessary for AM. We also explored whether the neural correlates of semantic AM (SAM) and episodic AM (EAM) were overlapping or distinct. Using the Iowa Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire, we tested AM retrieval in 92 patients with focal, stable brain lesions. In support of our hypothesis, damage to regions within the DMN (medial prefrontal cortex, mPFC; posterior cingulate cortex, PCC; inferior parietal lobule, IPL; medial temporal lobe, MTL) was associated with AM impairments. Within areas of effective lesion coverage, the neural correlates of SAM and EAM were largely distinct, with limited areas of overlap in right IPL. Whereas SAM deficits were associated with left mPFC and MTL damage, EAM deficits were associated with right mPFC and MTL damage. These results provide novel neuropsychological evidence for the necessary role of parts of the DMN in AM. More broadly, the findings shed new light on how the DMN participates in self-referential processing. PMID:24795444

  8. Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: implications for memory consolidation in sleep.

    PubMed

    Horton, Caroline L; Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that autobiographical memory (AM) activity across sleep and wake can provide insight into the nature of dreaming, and vice versa. Activated memories within the sleeping brain reflect one's personal life history (autobiography). They can appear in largely fragmentary forms and differ from conventional manifestations of episodic memory. Autobiographical memories in dreams can be sampled from non-REM as well as REM periods, which contain fewer episodic references and become more bizarre across the night. Salient fragmented memory features are activated in sleep and re-bound with fragments not necessarily emerging from the same memory, thus de-contextualizing those memories and manifesting as experiences that differ from waking conceptions. The constructive nature of autobiographical recall further encourages synthesis of these hyper-associated images into an episode via recalling and reporting dreams. We use a model of AM to account for the activation of memories in dreams as a reflection of sleep-dependent memory consolidation processes. We focus in particular on the hyperassociative nature of AM during sleep.

  9. Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: implications for memory consolidation in sleep

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Caroline L.; Malinowski, Josie E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that autobiographical memory (AM) activity across sleep and wake can provide insight into the nature of dreaming, and vice versa. Activated memories within the sleeping brain reflect one’s personal life history (autobiography). They can appear in largely fragmentary forms and differ from conventional manifestations of episodic memory. Autobiographical memories in dreams can be sampled from non-REM as well as REM periods, which contain fewer episodic references and become more bizarre across the night. Salient fragmented memory features are activated in sleep and re-bound with fragments not necessarily emerging from the same memory, thus de-contextualizing those memories and manifesting as experiences that differ from waking conceptions. The constructive nature of autobiographical recall further encourages synthesis of these hyper-associated images into an episode via recalling and reporting dreams. We use a model of AM to account for the activation of memories in dreams as a reflection of sleep-dependent memory consolidation processes. We focus in particular on the hyperassociative nature of AM during sleep. PMID:26191010

  10. The making of autobiographical memory: intersections of culture, narratives and identity.

    PubMed

    Fivush, Robyn; Habermas, Tilmann; Waters, Theodore E A; Zaman, Widaad

    2011-10-01

    Autobiographical memory is a uniquely human form of memory that integrates individual experiences of self with cultural frames for understanding identities and lives. In this review, we present a theoretical and empirical overview of the sociocultural development of autobiographical memory, detailing the emergence of autobiographical memory during the preschool years and the formation of a life narrative during adolescence. More specifically, we present evidence that individual differences in parental reminiscing style are related to children's developing autobiographical narratives. Parents who structure more elaborated coherent personal narratives with their young children have children who, by the end of the preschool years, provide more detailed and coherent personal narratives, and show a more differentiated and coherent sense of self. Narrative structuring of autobiographical remembering follows a protracted developmental course through adolescence, as individuals develop social cognitive skills for temporal understanding and causal reasoning that allows autobiographical memories to be integrated into an overarching life narrative that defines emerging identity. In addition, adolescents begin to use culturally available canonical biographical forms, life scripts, and master narratives to construct a life story and inform their own autobiographical narrative identity. This process continues to be socially constructed in local interactions; we present exploratory evidence that parents help adolescents structure life narratives during coconstructed reminiscing and that adolescents use parents and families as a source for their own autobiographical content and structure. Ultimately, we argue that autobiography is a critical developmental skill; narrating our personal past connects us to our selves, our families, our communities, and our cultures.

  11. Memory sources of dreams: the incorporation of autobiographical rather than episodic experiences.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Josie E; Horton, Caroline L

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to explore autobiographical memories (long-lasting memories about the self) and episodic memories (memories about discrete episodes or events) within dream content. We adapted earlier episodic memory study paradigms and reinvestigated the incorporation of episodic memory sources into dreams, operationalizing episodic memory as featuring autonoetic consciousness, which is the feeling of truly re-experiencing or reliving a past event. Participants (n = 32) recorded daily diaries and dream diaries, and reported on wake-dream relations for 2 weeks. Using a new scale, dreams were rated for their episodic richness, which categorized memory sources of dreams as being truly episodic (featuring autonoetic consciousness), autobiographical (containing segregated features of experiences that pertained to waking life) or otherwise. Only one dream (0.5%) was found to contain an episodic memory. However, the majority of dreams (>80%) were found to contain low to moderate incorporations of autobiographical memory features. These findings demonstrate the inactivity of intact episodic memories, and emphasize the activity of autobiographical memory and processing within dreams. Taken together, this suggests that memories for personal experiences are experienced fragmentarily and selectively during dreaming, perhaps in order to assimilate these memories into the autobiographical memory schema.

  12. Autobiographical memory and suggestibility in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Maggie; London, Kamala; Landa, Rebecca; Goodman, June

    2007-01-01

    Two paradigms were developed to examine autobiographical memory (ABM) and suggestibility in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children with ASD (N = 30) and typically developing chronological age-matched children (N = 38) ranging in age from 5 to 10 years were administered an ABM questionnaire. Children were asked about details of current and past personally experienced events. Children also participated in a staged event, and later were provided with true and false reminders about that event. Later, children again were interviewed about the staged event. The results from both paradigms revealed that children with ASD showed poorer ABM compared to controls. Generally, their ABM was marked by errors of omission rather than by errors of commission, and memory was particularly poor for early-life events. In addition, they were as suggestible as the typically developing children. The results are discussed in terms of applied and theoretical implications.

  13. Improvement of autobiographic memory recovery by means of sad music in Alzheimer's Disease type dementia.

    PubMed

    Meilán García, Juan José; Iodice, Rosario; Carro, Juan; Sánchez, José Antonio; Palmero, Francisco; Mateos, Ana María

    2012-06-01

    Autobiographic memory undergoes progressive deterioration during the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to analyze mechanisms which facilitate recovery of autobiographic memories. We used a repeatedly employed mechanism, music, with the addition of an emotional factor. Autobiographic memory provoked by a variety of sounds (music which was happy, sad, lacking emotion, ambient noise in a coffee bar and no sound) was analyzed in a sample of 25 patients with AD. Emotional music, especially sad music for remote memories, was found to be the most effective kind for recall of autobiographic experiences. The factor evoking the memory is not the music itself, but rather the emotion associated with it, and is useful for semantic rather than episodic memory.

  14. Behavioral profiles in frontal lobe epilepsy: Autobiographic memory versus mood impairment.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Genevieve; Jackson, Graeme D; Wilson, Sarah J

    2015-02-01

    Autobiographic memory encompasses the encoding and retrieval of episodes, people, and places encountered in everyday life. It can be impaired in both epilepsy and frontal lobe damage. Here, we performed an initial investigation of how autobiographic memory is impacted by chronic frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) together with its underlying pathology. We prospectively studied a series of nine consecutive patients with medically refractory FLE, relative to 24 matched healthy controls. Seven of the nine patients had frontal lobe structural abnormalities. Episodic and semantic autobiographic memory functioning was profiled, and factors associated with impaired autobiographic memory were identified among epileptologic, neuroimaging, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive variables including auditory-verbal and visual memory, and the executive function of cognitive control. Results showed that the FLE group experienced significantly higher rates of autobiographic memory and mood disturbance (p < 0.001), with detailed assessment of individual patients revealing two profiles of impairment, primarily characterized by cognitive or mood disturbance. Five of the patients (56%) exhibited significant episodic autobiographic memory deficits, whereas in three of these, knowledge of semantic autobiographic facts was preserved. Four of them also had reduced cognitive control. Mood disorder was largely unrelated to poor autobiographic memory. In contrast, the four cases with preserved autobiographic memory were notable for their past or current depressive symptoms. These findings provide preliminary data that frontal lobe seizure activity with its underlying pathology may selectively disrupt large-scale cognitive or affective networks, giving rise to different neurobehavioral profiles that may be used to inform clinical management. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, L L; Dallas, M

    1981-09-01

    Although the majority of research on human memory has concentrated on a person's ability to recall or recognize items as having been presented in a particular situation, the effects of memory are also revealed in a person's performance of a perceptual task. Prior experience with material can make that material more easily identified or comprehended in perceptually difficult situations. Unlike with standard retention tests, effects of prior experience on a perceptual task do not logically require that a person be aware that he or she is remembering. Indeed, amnesic patients purportedly show effects of practice in their subsequent performance of a perceptual or motor task even though they profess that they do not remember having engaged in that prior experience. The experiments that are reported were designed to explore the relationship between the more aware autobiographical form of memory that is measured by a recognition memory test and the less aware form of memory that is expressed in perceptual learning. Comparisons of effects on perceptual learning and recognition memory reveal two classes of variables. Variables such as the level of processing of words during study influenced recognition memory, although they had no effect on subsequent perceptual recognition. A study presentation of a word had as large an effect on its later perceptual recognition when recognition memory performance was very poor as it did when recognition memory performance was near perfect. In contrast, variables such as the number and the spacing of repetitions produced parallel effects on perceptual recognition and recognition memory. Following Mandler and others, it is suggested that there are two bases for recognition memory. If an item is readily perceived so that it seems to "jump out" from the page, a person is likely to judge that he or she has previously seen the item in the experimental situation. Variables that influence ease of perceptual recognition, then, can also have an

  16. Self-Regulatory Private Speech Relates to Children's Recall and Organization of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relations between 4- and 7-year-olds' (N=58) autobiographical memory and their use of self-regulatory private speech in a non-mnemonic context (a cognitive planning task). Children's use of self-regulatory private speech during the planning task was associated with longer autobiographical narratives which included specific rather…

  17. Reduced Specificity of Autobiographical Memory and Depression: The Role of Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgleish, Tim; Golden, Ann-Marie J.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Au Yeung, Cecilia; Murphy, Victoria; Tchanturia, Kate; Williams, J. Mark G.; Perkins, Nicola; Barnard, Phillip J.; Elward, Rachael; Watkins, Edward

    2007-01-01

    It has been widely established that depressed mood states and clinical depression, as well as a range of other psychiatric disorders, are associated with a relative difficulty in accessing specific autobiographical information in response to emotion-related cue words on an Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; J. M. G. Williams & K. Broadbent, 1986).…

  18. Autobiographical Memory and the Self in Time: Brain Lesion Effects, Functional Neuroanatomy, and Lifespan Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Autobiographical remembering reflects an advanced state of consciousness that mediates awareness of the self as continuous across time. In naturalistic autobiographical memory, self-aware recollection of temporally and spatially specific episodes and generic factual information (both public and personal) operate in tandem. Evidence from both…

  19. Self-Regulatory Private Speech Relates to Children's Recall and Organization of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Namlah, Abdulrahman S.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relations between 4- and 7-year-olds' (N=58) autobiographical memory and their use of self-regulatory private speech in a non-mnemonic context (a cognitive planning task). Children's use of self-regulatory private speech during the planning task was associated with longer autobiographical narratives which included specific rather…

  20. Reduced Specificity of Autobiographical Memory and Depression: The Role of Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgleish, Tim; Golden, Ann-Marie J.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Au Yeung, Cecilia; Murphy, Victoria; Tchanturia, Kate; Williams, J. Mark G.; Perkins, Nicola; Barnard, Phillip J.; Elward, Rachael; Watkins, Edward

    2007-01-01

    It has been widely established that depressed mood states and clinical depression, as well as a range of other psychiatric disorders, are associated with a relative difficulty in accessing specific autobiographical information in response to emotion-related cue words on an Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; J. M. G. Williams & K. Broadbent, 1986).…

  1. Autobiographical Memory and the Self in Time: Brain Lesion Effects, Functional Neuroanatomy, and Lifespan Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Autobiographical remembering reflects an advanced state of consciousness that mediates awareness of the self as continuous across time. In naturalistic autobiographical memory, self-aware recollection of temporally and spatially specific episodes and generic factual information (both public and personal) operate in tandem. Evidence from both…

  2. Functional neuroimaging of sex differences in autobiographical memory recall.

    PubMed

    Young, Kymberly D; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C

    2013-12-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is episodic memory for personally experienced events. The brain areas underlying AM retrieval are known to include several prefrontal cortical and medial temporal lobe regions. Sex differences in AM recall have been reported in several behavioral studies, but the functional anatomical correlates underlying such differences remain unclear. This study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of AM recall between healthy male and female participants (n = 20 per group). AM recall in response to positive, negative, and neutral cue words was compared to a semantic memory task involving the generation of examples from a category using emotionally valenced cues. Behaviorally, females recalled more negative and fewer positive AMs compared with males, while ratings of arousal, vividness, and memory age did not differ significantly between sexes. Males and females also did not differ significantly in their performance on control tasks. Neurophysiologically, females showed increased hemodynamic activity compared to males in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), dorsal anterior insula, and precuneus while recalling specific AMs (all valences combined); increased activity in the DLPFC, transverse temporal gyrus, and precuneus while recalling positive AMs; and increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, amygdala, and temporopolar cortex when recalling negative AMs. When comparing positive to negative AMs directly, males and females differed in their BOLD responses in the hippocampus and DLPFC. We propose that the differential hemodynamic changes may reflect sex-specific cognitive strategies during recall of AMs irrespective of the phenomenological properties of those memories. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Factors that influence the generation of autobiographical memory conjunction errors.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Aleea L; Monk-Fromont, Edwin; Schacter, Daniel L; Addis, Donna Rose

    2016-01-01

    The constructive nature of memory is generally adaptive, allowing us to efficiently store, process and learn from life events, and simulate future scenarios to prepare ourselves for what may come. However, the cost of a flexibly constructive memory system is the occasional conjunction error, whereby the components of an event are authentic, but the combination of those components is false. Using a novel recombination paradigm, it was demonstrated that details from one autobiographical memory (AM) may be incorrectly incorporated into another, forming AM conjunction errors that elude typical reality monitoring checks. The factors that contribute to the creation of these conjunction errors were examined across two experiments. Conjunction errors were more likely to occur when the corresponding details were partially rather than fully recombined, likely due to increased plausibility and ease of simulation of partially recombined scenarios. Brief periods of imagination increased conjunction error rates, in line with the imagination inflation effect. Subjective ratings suggest that this inflation is due to similarity of phenomenological experience between conjunction and authentic memories, consistent with a source monitoring perspective. Moreover, objective scoring of memory content indicates that increased perceptual detail may be particularly important for the formation of AM conjunction errors.

  4. Differential neural activity during search of specific and general autobiographical memories elicited by musical cues.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2011-07-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime period, general event, and event-specific). Sixteen young adults participated in a neuroimaging study in which they retrieved autobiographical memories associated with musical cues. These musical cues led to the retrieval of highly emotional memories that had low levels of prior retrieval. Retrieval of all autobiographical memory levels was associated with activity in regions in the autobiographical memory network, specifically the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and right medial temporal lobe. Owing to the use of music, memories from varying levels of specificity were retrieved, allowing for comparison of event memory and abstract personal knowledge, as well as comparison of specific and general event memory. Dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal regions were engaged during event retrieval relative to personal knowledge retrieval, and retrieval of specific event memories was associated with increased activity in the bilateral medial temporal lobe and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex relative to retrieval of general event memories. These results suggest that the initial search processes for memories of different specificity levels preferentially engage different components of the autobiographical memory network. The potential underlying causes of these neural differences are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories elicited by Musical Cues

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime period, general event, and event-specific). Sixteen young adults participated in a neuroimaging study in which they retrieved autobiographical memories associated with musical cues. These musical cues led to the retrieval of highly emotional memories that had low levels of prior retrieval. Retrieval of all autobiographical memory levels was associated with activity in regions in the autobiographical memory network, specifically the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and right medial temporal lobe. Owing to the use of music, memories from varying levels of specificity were retrieved, allowing for comparison of event memory and abstract personal knowledge, as well as comparison of specific and general event memory. Dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal regions were engaged during event retrieval relative to personal knowledge retrieval, and retrieval of specific event memories was associated with increased activity in the bilateral medial temporal lobe and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex relative to retrieval of general event memories. These results suggest that the initial search processes for memories of different specificity levels preferentially engage different components of the autobiographical memory network. The potential underlying causes of these neural differences are discussed. PMID:21600227

  6. Autobiographical memory of the recent past following frontal cortex or temporal lobe excisions.

    PubMed

    Thaiss, Laila; Petrides, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has raised questions regarding the necessity of the frontal cortex in autobiographical memory and the role that it plays in actively retrieving contextual information associated with personally relevant events. Autobiographical memory was studied in patients with unilateral excisions restricted to the frontal cortex or temporal lobe involving the amygdalo-hippocampal region and in normal controls using an event-sampling method. We examined accuracy of free recall, use of strategies during retrieval and memory for specific aspects of the autobiographical events, including temporal order. Patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired in autobiographical recall. By contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions exhibited normal autobiographical recall but were less likely to use temporal order spontaneously to organize event retrieval. Instruction to organize retrieval by temporal order failed to improve recall in temporal lobe patients and increased the incidence of plausible intrusion errors in left temporal patients. In contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions now surpassed control subjects in recall of autobiographical events. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy for the temporal order of diary events was not impaired in these patients. In a subsequent cued recall test, temporal lobe patients were impaired in their memory for the details of the diary events and their context. In conclusion, a basic impairment in autobiographical memory (including memory for temporal context) results from damage to the temporal lobe and not the frontal cortex. Patients with frontal excisions fail to use organizational strategies spontaneously to aid retrieval but can use these effectively if instructed to do so.

  7. Lost in distractors: Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity and dispersed activation spreading over distractors in working memory.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Moriya, Jun; Raes, Filip

    2017-07-01

    Studies on autobiographical memory retrieval highlight the prominence of rapid and direct access to a specific event memory. Because it has been believed that autobiographical memory retrieval mostly relies on an effortful generative process, there is little empirical evidence on the early stage of information processing that contributes to autobiographical memory specificity (AMS). Therefore, we investigated the associations between AMS and automatic activation of information stimulated by rapid presentation of emotional words. Study 1 involved a visual search task to assess activation of various distractors in working memory. Participants with reduced AMS showed a tendency to activate distractors that were not semantically associated with preceding cues. In Study 2, we manipulated the levels of AMS by using a computerized version of Memory Specificity Training (c-MeST) to observe the changes in the activation of distractors. Results showed that increases in AMS were associated with decreases in activation of cue-unassociated distractors. These findings suggest that reduced AMS can be characterized by dispersed activation spreading over semantically unassociated distractors in automatic information selection of working memory. Because we also found an association between depressive symptoms and AMS, the role of automatic information processing in the relation between reduced AMS and depression is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Autobiographical memory in semantic dementia: A longitudinal fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Eleanor A.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; Kopelman, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Whilst patients with semantic dementia (SD) are known to suffer from semantic memory and language impairments, there is less agreement about whether memory for personal everyday experiences, autobiographical memory, is compromised. In healthy individuals, functional MRI (fMRI) has helped to delineate a consistent and distributed brain network associated with autobiographical recollection. Here we examined how the progression of SD affected the brain's autobiographical memory network over time. We did this by testing autobiographical memory recall in a SD patient, AM, with fMRI on three occasions, each one year apart, during the course of his disease. At the outset, his autobiographical memory was intact. This was followed by a gradual loss in recollective quality that collapsed only late in the course of the disease. There was no evidence of a temporal gradient. Initially, AM's recollection was supported by the classic autobiographical memory network, including atrophied tissue in hippocampus and temporal neocortex. This was subsequently augmented by up-regulation of other parts of the memory system, namely ventromedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, right lateral temporal cortex, and precuneus. A final step-change in the areas engaged and the quality of recollection then preceded the collapse of autobiographical memory. Our findings inform theoretical debates about the role of the hippocampus and neocortical areas in supporting remote autobiographical memories. Furthermore, our results suggest it may be possible to define specific stages in SD-related memory decline, and that fMRI could complement MRI and neuropsychological measures in providing more precise prognostic and rehabilitative information for clinicians and carers. PMID:19720072

  9. Measuring the phenomenology of autobiographical memory: A short form of the Memory Experiences Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2016-01-01

    The Memory Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) is a theoretically driven and empirically validated 63-item self-report scale designed to measure 10 phenomenological qualities of autobiographical memories: Vividness, Coherence, Accessibility, Time Perspective, Sensory Details, Visual Perspective, Emotional Intensity, Sharing, Distancing and Valence. To develop a short form of the MEQ to use when time is limited, participants from two samples (N = 719; N = 352) retrieved autobiographical memories, rated the phenomenological experience of each memory and completed several scales measuring psychological distress. For each MEQ dimension, the number of items was reduced by one-half based on item content and item-total correlations. Each short-form scale had acceptable internal consistency (median alpha = .79), and, similar to the long-form version of the scales, the new short scales correlated with psychological distress in theoretically meaningful ways. The new short form of the MEQ has similar psychometric proprieties as the original long form and can be used when time is limited.

  10. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events: A comparison across different cueing methods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories of public events. We did so between-subjects, through two cueing methods administered within-subjects, the cue word method and the important memories method. For word-cued memories, we found a similar bump from ages 5 to 19 for both types of memories. However, the bump was more pronounced for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised by spikes in citations according to the years these events occurred. Follow-up analyses suggested that the bump in most important autobiographical memories was a function of the cultural life script. Our findings did not yield support for any of the dominant existing accounts of the bump as underlying the bump in word-cued memories.

  11. CA1 neurons in the human hippocampus are critical for autobiographical memory, mental time travel, and autonoetic consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Thorsten; Döhring, Juliane; Rohr, Axel; Jansen, Olav; Deuschl, Günther

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical memories in our lives are critically dependent on temporal lobe structures. However, the contribution of CA1 neurons in the human hippocampus to the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memory remains elusive. In patients with a rare acute transient global amnesia, highly focal lesions confined to the CA1 field of the hippocampus can be detected on MRI. We studied the effect of these lesions on autobiographical memory using a detailed autobiographical interview including the remember/know procedure. In 14 of 16 patients, focal lesions in the CA1 sector of the hippocampal cornu ammonis were detected. Autobiographical memory was significantly affected over all time periods, including memory for remote periods. Impairment of episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness exhibited a strong temporal gradient extending 30 to 40 y into the past. These results highlight the distinct and critical role of human hippocampal CA1 neurons in autobiographical memory retrieval and for re-experiencing detailed episodic memories. PMID:21987814

  12. Characteristics of Disorder-Related Autobiographical Memory in Acute Anorexia Nervosa Patients.

    PubMed

    Huber, Julia; Salatsch, Carmen; Ingenerf, Katrin; Schmid, Carolin; Maatouk, Imad; Weisbrod, Matthias; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    First studies revealed overgeneral autobiographical memories in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate frequency, generalization and valence of autobiographical memories in AN patients in response to eating disorder-related cue words. Autobiographical memory was examined in 21 AN patients and 21 healthy controls (HC) using a modified version of the Autobiographical Memory Test, incorporating body-related, food-related, perfectionism-related, depression-related and neutral cues. Anorexia nervosa patients recalled fewer and more general autobiographical memories compared with HC. For eating disorder-related cues as against neutral ones, AN patients compared with HC showed fewer memories for food-related and body-related cues, an elevated overgeneralization for food-related cues, while the valence of the retrieved memories was more negative in response to body-related cues. This study detects disorder-related autobiographical memory alterations in AN, which are intensified in response to symptom-related cues. The findings are discussed with regard to their maladaptive function in emotion regulation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Working memory capacity and overgeneral autobiographical memory in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ros, Laura; Latorre, José Miguel; Serrano, Juan Pedro

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to compare the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) performance of two healthy samples of younger and older adults and to analyse the relationship between overgeneral memory (OGM) and working memory executive processes (WMEP) using a structural equation modelling with latent variables. The AMT and sustained attention, short-term memory and working memory tasks were administered to a group of young adults (N = 50) and a group of older adults (N = 46). On the AMT, the older adults recalled a greater number of categorical memories (p = .000) and fewer specific memories (p = .000) than the young adults, confirming that OGM occurs in the normal population and increases with age. WMEP was measured by reading span and a working memory with sustained attention load task. Structural equation modelling reflects that WMEP shows a strong relationship with OGM: lower scores on WMEP reflect an OGM phenomenon characterized by higher categorical and lower specific memories.

  14. [Comparison of the specificity of musically cued autobiographical memories].

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Yuri; Taka, Fumiaki; Sekiguchi, Takahiro

    2011-08-01

    This paper compared the specificity of recollections of autobiographical memories where musical cues for events were varied. We used music which was popular in the past as cues which were related to a larger number of past individual events (frequent events cues) and music which was typically only sung at graduation ceremonies as cues which were related to a smaller number of events (rare events cues). In the instructed retrieval condition, participants were told to listen to the music and to recall past events, whereas in incidental retrieval condition, the instruction was only to listen to the music. Then participants were asked to describe what they recalled while hearing the music. When frequent events musical cues were played, the specificities of the recalled events were higher in the instructed retrieval condition than in the incidental retrieval condition. In contrast, when rare events musical cues were played, there were no differences in the specificities of the recalled events.

  15. Significance of autobiographical episodes and spacing effects in incidental memory.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Participants were presented with target words on two occasions, and were asked each time to generate a memory of a past episode associated with the targets. Participants were also instructed to rate the importance (significance elaboration) or pleasantness of the pisode (pleasantness elaboration) in an orienting task, followed by an unexpect d recall test. Significance elaboration led to better recall than pleasantness elaboration, but only in the spaced presentation. The spaced presentation led to better tree recall than massed presentation with significance elaboration, but the difference between the two types of presentation was not observed with pleasantness elaboration. These results suggest that the significance of an episode is more critical than the pleasantness of an episode in determining the effectiveness of autobiographical elaboration in facilitating recall.

  16. Effects of Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements on Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew; Parkin, Adam; Dagnall, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Performing a sequence of fast saccadic horizontal eye movements has been shown to facilitate performance on a range of cognitive tasks, including the retrieval of episodic memories. One explanation for these effects is based on the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements increase hemispheric interaction, and that such interactions are important for particular types of memory. The aim of the current research was to assess the effect of horizontal saccadic eye movements on the retrieval of both episodic autobiographical memory (event/incident based memory) and semantic autobiographical memory (fact based memory) over recent and more distant time periods. It was found that saccadic eye movements facilitated the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories (over all time periods) but not semantic autobiographical memories. In addition, eye movements did not enhance the retrieval of non-autobiographical semantic memory. This finding illustrates a dissociation between the episodic and semantic characteristics of personal memory and is considered within the context of hemispheric contributions to episodic memory performance. PMID:24133435

  17. Why Am I Remembering This Now? Predicting the Occurrence of Involuntary (Spontaneous) Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Staugaard, Soren Rislov; Sorensen, Louise Maria Torp

    2013-01-01

    Involuntary episodic memories are memories of events that come to mind spontaneously, that is, with no preceding retrieval attempts. They are common in daily life and observed in a range of clinical disorders in the form of negative, intrusive recollections or flashbacks. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Here we report a…

  18. Why Am I Remembering This Now? Predicting the Occurrence of Involuntary (Spontaneous) Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Staugaard, Soren Rislov; Sorensen, Louise Maria Torp

    2013-01-01

    Involuntary episodic memories are memories of events that come to mind spontaneously, that is, with no preceding retrieval attempts. They are common in daily life and observed in a range of clinical disorders in the form of negative, intrusive recollections or flashbacks. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Here we report a…

  19. Episodic, but not semantic, autobiographical memory is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Troyer, Angela K.; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2008-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by decline in anterograde memory as measured by the ability to learn and remember new information. We investigated whether retrograde memory for autobiographical information was affected by aMCI. Eighteen control (age 66–84 years) and 17 aMCI (age 66–84 years) participants described a personal event from each of five periods across the lifespan. These events were transcribed and scored according to procedures that separate episodic (specific happenings) from semantic (general knowledge) elements of autobiographical memory. Although both groups generated protocols of similar length, the composition of autobiographical recall differentiated the groups. The aMCI group protocols were characterized by reduced episodic and increased semantic information relative to the control group. Both groups showed a similar pattern of recall across time periods, with no evidence that the aMCI group had more difficulty recalling recent, rather than remote, life events. These results indicate that episodic and semantic autobiographical memories are differentially affected by the early brain changes associated with aMCI. Reduced autobiographical episodic memories in aMCI may be the result of medial-temporal-lobe dysfunction, consistent with multiple trace theory, or alternatively, could be related to dysfunction of a wider related network of neocortical structures. In contrast, the preservation of autobiographical semantic memories in aMCI suggests neural systems, such as lateral temporal cortex, that support these memories, may remain relatively intact. PMID:18675285

  20. Childhood traumatic events and adolescent overgeneral autobiographical memory: Findings in a UK cohort

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Overgeneral autobiographical memory has repeatedly been identified as a risk factor for adolescent and adult psychopathology but the factors that cause such over-generality remain unclear. This study examined the association between childhood exposure to traumatic events and early adolescent overgeneral autobiographical memory in a large population sample. Methods Thirteen-year-olds, n = 5,792, participating in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (ALSPAC) completed a written version of the Autobiographical Memory Test. Performance on this task was examined in relation to experience of traumatic events, using data recorded by caregivers close to the time of exposure. Results Results indicated that experiencing a severe event in middle childhood increased the likelihood of an adolescent falling into the lowest quartile for autobiographical memory specificity (retrieving 0 or 1 specific memory) at age 13 by approximately 60%. The association persisted after controlling for a range of potential socio-demographic confounders. Limitations Data on the traumatic event exposures was limited by the relatively restricted range of traumas examined, and the lack of contextual details surrounding both the traumatic event exposures themselves and the severity of children's post-traumatic stress reactions. Conclusions This is the largest study to date of the association between childhood trauma exposure and overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescence. Findings suggest a modest association between exposure to traumatic events and later overgeneral autobiographical memory, a psychological variable that has been linked to vulnerability to clinical depression. PMID:24657714

  1. Childhood traumatic events and adolescent overgeneral autobiographical memory: findings in a U.K. cohort.

    PubMed

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J Mark G

    2014-09-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory has repeatedly been identified as a risk factor for adolescent and adult psychopathology but the factors that cause such over-generality remain unclear. This study examined the association between childhood exposure to traumatic events and early adolescent overgeneral autobiographical memory in a large population sample. Thirteen-year-olds, n = 5,792, participating in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (ALSPAC) completed a written version of the Autobiographical Memory Test. Performance on this task was examined in relation to experience of traumatic events, using data recorded by caregivers close to the time of exposure. Results indicated that experiencing a severe event in middle childhood increased the likelihood of an adolescent falling into the lowest quartile for autobiographical memory specificity (retrieving 0 or 1 specific memory) at age 13 by approximately 60%. The association persisted after controlling for a range of potential socio-demographic confounders. Data on the traumatic event exposures was limited by the relatively restricted range of traumas examined, and the lack of contextual details surrounding both the traumatic event exposures themselves and the severity of children's post-traumatic stress reactions. This is the largest study to date of the association between childhood trauma exposure and overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescence. Findings suggest a modest association between exposure to traumatic events and later overgeneral autobiographical memory, a psychological variable that has been linked to vulnerability to clinical depression. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing unwanted trauma memories by imaginal exposure or autobiographical memory elaboration: An analogue study of memory processes

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Mauchnik, Jana; Handley, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Unwanted memories of traumatic events are a core symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. A range of interventions including imaginal exposure and elaboration of the trauma memory in its autobiographical context are effective in reducing such unwanted memories. This study explored whether priming for stimuli that occur in the context of trauma and evaluative conditioning may play a role in the therapeutic effects of these procedures. Healthy volunteers (N = 122) watched analogue traumatic and neutral picture stories. They were then randomly allocated to 20 min of either imaginal exposure, autobiographical memory elaboration, or a control condition designed to prevent further processing of the picture stories. A blurred picture identification task showed that neutral objects that preceded traumatic pictures in the stories were subsequently more readily identified than those that had preceded neutral stories, indicating enhanced priming. There was also an evaluative conditioning effect in that participants disliked neutral objects that had preceded traumatic pictures more. Autobiographical memory elaboration reduced the enhanced priming effect. Both interventions reduced the evaluative conditioning effect. Imaginal exposure and autobiographical memory elaboration both reduced the frequency of subsequent unwanted memories of the picture stories. PMID:21227404

  3. Dose-dependent effects of hydrocortisone infusion on autobiographical memory recall

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kymberly; Drevets, Wayne C.; Schulkin, Jay; Erickson, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol has been shown to impair episodic memory performance. The present study examined the effect of two doses of hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol) administration on autobiographical memory retrieval. Healthy volunteers (n=66) were studied on two separate visits, during which they received placebo and either moderate-dose (0.15 mg/kg IV; n=33) or high-dose (0.45 mg/kg IV; n=33) hydrocortisone infusion. From 75 to 150 min post-infusion subjects performed an Autobiographical Memory Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). The high-dose hydrocortisone administration reduced the percent of specific memories recalled (p = 0.04), increased the percent of categorical (nonspecific) memories recalled, and slowed response times for categorical memories (p <0.001), compared to placebo performance (p < 0.001). Under moderate-dose hydrocortisone the autobiographical memory performance did not change significantly with respect to percent of specific or categorical memories recalled or reaction times. Performance on the CVLT was not affected by hydrocortisone. These findings suggest that cortisol affects accessibility of autobiographical memories in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, administration of hydrocortisone at doses analogous to those achieved under severe psychosocial stress impaired the specificity and speed of retrieval of autobiographical memories. PMID:21942435

  4. Dose-dependent effects of hydrocortisone infusion on autobiographical memory recall.

    PubMed

    Young, Kymberly; Drevets, Wayne C; Schulkin, Jay; Erickson, Kristine

    2011-10-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol has been shown to impair episodic memory performance. The present study examined the effect of two doses of hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol) administration on autobiographical memory retrieval. Healthy volunteers (n = 66) were studied on two separate visits, during which they received placebo and either moderate-dose (0.15 mg/kg IV; n = 33) or high-dose (0.45 mg/kg IV; n = 33) hydrocortisone infusion. From 75 to 150 min post-infusion subjects performed an Autobiographical Memory Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). The high-dose hydrocortisone administration reduced the percent of specific memories recalled (p = .04), increased the percent of categorical (nonspecific) memories recalled (p < .001), and slowed response times for categorical memories (p < .001), compared with placebo performance. Under moderate-dose hydrocortisone the autobiographical memory performance did not change significantly with respect to percent of specific or categorical memories recalled or reaction times. Performance on the CVLT was not affected by hydrocortisone. These findings suggest that cortisol affects accessibility of autobiographical memories in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, administration of hydrocortisone at doses analogous to those achieved under severe psychosocial stress impaired the specificity and speed of retrieval of autobiographical memories.

  5. Autobiographical memory impairment in obstructive sleep apnea patients with and without depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, V Vien; Trinder, John; Jackson, Melinda L

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with memory impairments, and higher rates of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder compared with community estimates. Autobiographical memory overgenerality, a behaviour characterized by difficulty recalling specific memories from one's own life, is recognized as a marker of depression. Previous studies have demonstrated the predictive quality of specific autobiographical memory recall on the course of depression in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. However, it remains unclear whether impaired autobiographical memory is simply a feature of depression, or whether it is also impaired in patients with obstructive sleep apnea without depression. This study aimed to investigate whether autobiographical memory impairments can be observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, independent of the severity of depressive symptoms. Twenty-one patients with obstructive sleep apnea symptomatic for depressive symptoms (mean age = 43.43 years, SD = 9.97), 17 patients with obstructive sleep apnea asymptomatic for depressive symptoms (mean age = 40.65 years, SD = 9.39), and 20 healthy controls without sleep-disordered breathing (mean age = 32.80 years, SD = 6.69) completed an Autobiographical Memory Test. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea symptomatic for depressive symptoms recalled significantly fewer specific memories when compared with healthy controls (P = 0.010). No difference in the recall of specific autobiographical memory was observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with obstructive sleep apnea. With regard to valence, symptomatic patients with obstructive sleep apnea recalled significantly fewer negative specific memories when compared with controls (P = 0.010). Impairment in specific autobiographical memory recall can be observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, regardless of the severity of depressive symptoms; however, this effect may not be as prominent in younger

  6. Neural correlates of autobiographical memory retrieval in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Pathman, Thanujeni; Inman, Cory; Campanella, Carolina; Hamann, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is a critically important form of memory for life events that undergoes substantial developmental changes from childhood to adulthood. Relatively little is known regarding the functional neural correlates of AM retrieval in children as assessed with fMRI, and how they may differ from adults. We investigated this question with 14 children ages 8-11 years and 14 adults ages 19-30 years, contrasting AM retrieval with semantic memory (SM) retrieval. During scanning, participants were cued by verbal prompts to retrieve previously selected recent AMs or to verify semantic properties of words. As predicted, both groups showed AM retrieval-related increased activation in regions implicated in prior studies, including bilateral hippocampus, and prefrontal, posterior cingulate, and parietal cortices. Adults showed greater activation in the hippocampal/parahippocampal region as well as prefrontal and parietal cortex, relative to children; age-related differences were most prominent in the first 8 sec versus the second 8 sec of AM retrieval and when AM retrieval was contrasted with semantic retrieval. This study is the first to characterise similarities and differences during AM retrieval in children and adults using fMRI.

  7. Growing Up with Asperger's Syndrome: Developmental Trajectory of Autobiographical Memory.

    PubMed

    Bon, Laetitia; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) and social cognition share common properties and both are affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). So far, most of the scant research in ASD has concerned adults, systematically reporting impairment of the episodic component. The only study to be conducted with children concluded that they have poorer personal semantic knowledge than typical developing children. The present study explores the development of both components of AM in an 8-year-old boy diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome, based on three examinations in 2007, 2008, and 2010. On each occasion, he underwent a general neuropsychological assessment including theory of mind (ToM) tasks, and a specially designed AM task allowing us to test both the semantic and the episodic components for three lifetime periods (current year, previous year, and earlier years). We observed difficulties in strategic retrieval and ToM, with a significant improvement between the second and third examinations. Regarding AM, different patterns of performance were noted in all three examinations: (1) relative preservation of current year personal knowledge, but impairment for the previous and earlier years, and (2) impairment of episodic memory for the current and previous year, but performances similar to those of controls for the earlier years. The first pattern can be explained by abnormal forgetting and by the semanticization mechanism, which needs verbal communication and social interaction to be efficient. The second pattern suggests that the development of episodic memory only reached the stage of "event memory." This term refers to memory for personal events lacking in details or spatiotemporal specificity, and is usually observed in children younger than five. We conclude that the abnormal functioning of social cognition in ASD, encompassing social, and personal points of view, has an impact on both components of AM.

  8. Externalising the autobiographical self: sharing personal memories online facilitated memory retention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Lee, Dasom; Hou, Yubo

    2017-07-01

    Internet technology provides a new means of recalling and sharing personal memories in the digital age. What is the mnemonic consequence of posting personal memories online? Theories of transactive memory and autobiographical memory would make contrasting predictions. In the present study, college students completed a daily diary for a week, listing at the end of each day all the events that happened to them on that day. They also reported whether they posted any of the events online. Participants received a surprise memory test after the completion of the diary recording and then another test a week later. At both tests, events posted online were significantly more likely than those not posted online to be recalled. It appears that sharing memories online may provide unique opportunities for rehearsal and meaning-making that facilitate memory retention.

  9. Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Slow breathing and emotions associated with odor-induced autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, Yuri; Sugiyama, Haruko; Katayama, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Homma, Ikuo

    2012-05-01

    An important feature of olfactory perception is its dependence on respiratory activity. By inspiration, olfactory information ascends directly to olfactory-related limbic structures. Therefore, every breath with odor molecules activates these limbic areas associated with emotional experience and memory retrieval. We tested whether odors associated with autobiographical memories can trigger pleasant emotional experiences and whether respiration changes during stimulation with these odors. During presentation of odors related to autobiographical memories and control odors, we measured minute ventilation, tidal volume, respiratory frequency, O2 consumption, and end tidal CO2 concentration. Findings showed that autobiographical memory retrieval was associated with increasing tidal volume and decreasing respiratory frequency more than during presentation of control odors. Subjective feelings such as emotional arousal during retrieval of the memory, arousal level of the memory itself, or pleasantness and familiarity toward the odor evoked by autobiographical memory were more specific emotional responses compared with those related to control odors. In addition, high trait anxiety subjects responded with a stronger feeling of being taken back in time and had high arousal levels with tidal volume increases. We discussed assumptions regarding how deep and slow breathing is related to pleasantness and comfortableness of an autobiographical memory.

  11. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  12. Autobiographical Memory in Semantic Dementia: A Longitudinal fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Eleanor A.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; Kopelman, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Whilst patients with semantic dementia (SD) are known to suffer from semantic memory and language impairments, there is less agreement about whether memory for personal everyday experiences, autobiographical memory, is compromised. In healthy individuals, functional MRI (fMRI) has helped to delineate a consistent and distributed brain network…

  13. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    Episodic and semantic autobiographical memories were examined in a group of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a control group matched for age, gender and IQ. Results demonstrated a personal episodic memory deficit in the ASD group in the absence of a personal semantic memory deficit, suggesting a deficit dissociation between these…

  14. Brief Report: Self-Defining and Everyday Autobiographical Memories in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been attributed to a failure in using the self as an effective memory organisational system. To explore this hypothesis, we compared self-defining and everyday memories in adults with and without ASD. Results demonstrated that both groups were able to distinguish between…

  15. Episodic Autobiographical Memories over the Course of Time: Cognitive, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The critical attributes of episodic memory are self, autonoetic consciousness and subjectively sensed time. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical overview of our already published researches into the nature of episodic memory over the course of time. We have developed a new method of assessing "autobiographical" memory (TEMPau task),…

  16. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  17. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    Episodic and semantic autobiographical memories were examined in a group of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a control group matched for age, gender and IQ. Results demonstrated a personal episodic memory deficit in the ASD group in the absence of a personal semantic memory deficit, suggesting a deficit dissociation between these…

  18. Brief Report: Self-Defining and Everyday Autobiographical Memories in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been attributed to a failure in using the self as an effective memory organisational system. To explore this hypothesis, we compared self-defining and everyday memories in adults with and without ASD. Results demonstrated that both groups were able to distinguish between…

  19. Episodic Autobiographical Memories over the Course of Time: Cognitive, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The critical attributes of episodic memory are self, autonoetic consciousness and subjectively sensed time. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical overview of our already published researches into the nature of episodic memory over the course of time. We have developed a new method of assessing "autobiographical" memory (TEMPau task),…

  20. Autobiographical Memory in Semantic Dementia: A Longitudinal fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Eleanor A.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; Kopelman, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Whilst patients with semantic dementia (SD) are known to suffer from semantic memory and language impairments, there is less agreement about whether memory for personal everyday experiences, autobiographical memory, is compromised. In healthy individuals, functional MRI (fMRI) has helped to delineate a consistent and distributed brain network…

  1. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  2. Autobiographical memory in multiple sclerosis patients: assessment and cognitive facilitation.

    PubMed

    Ernst, A; Blanc, F; Voltzenlogel, V; de Seze, J; Chauvin, B; Manning, L

    2013-01-01

    The multifocal nature of lesions in multiple sclerosis hints at the occurrence of autobiographical memory (AbM) impairment. However, the dearth of studies on AbM in multiple sclerosis is noticeable, notwithstanding the importance of AbM in everyday life. In the first section of this study, 25 multiple sclerosis patients and 35 controls underwent a detailed episodic AbM assessment. Results obtained by means of ANOVA suggested an AbM retrieval deficit in every patient. That pattern of performance paved the way for the second section of the study, in which we followed up 10 out of the 25 patients. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of a cognitive facilitation programme designed to alleviate AbM retrieval deficits, based on the key role of mental visual imagery on AbM. Statistical group analyses by means of ANOVA and individual analyses using the χ(2) test showed significant differences in AbM test results, in post-facilitation relative to pre-facilitation training, in all 10 patients. Moreover, the patients' comments showed that the positive effects were transferred in their daily life functioning. We would like to suggest that the facilitation programme efficiently enhanced the process of self-centred mental visual imagery, which might have compensated for poor retrieval of personal memories by providing better access to visual details and detailed visual scenes of personal recollections.

  3. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases.

  4. Being American, being Asian: the bicultural self and autobiographical memory in Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi

    2008-05-01

    Studies of autobiographical memory have shown that the degree to which individuals focus on themselves vs. social relations in their memories varies markedly across cultures. Do the differences result from differing cultural self-views (i.e., an autonomous vs. a relational sense of self), as often suggested in the literature? Experimental evidence is required to answer this question. In the present study, Asian American participants (N=118) were primed to focus on their American or Asian self prior to recalling important autobiographical events, and participants in a control group described things in nature prior to the memory recall. Those whose American self was activated recalled more self-focused and less socially oriented memories than those whose Asian self was made salient, with the control group falling in between. The findings shed light on the mechanism underlying cultural influences on autobiographical remembering. They further highlight the dynamic nature of the memory-self interplay in cultural contexts.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the episodic autobiographic memory interview for Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Guilherme R; Oliveira, Daniel S; Foss, Maria P; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M

    2015-08-01

    Episodic memory enables the storage of personal events with specific temporal and spatial details, and their retrieval through a sensory experience, usually visual, which is called autonoetic consciousness. While, in Brazil, several scales for the evaluation of anterograde episodic memory have been validated, there is not yet an instrument to assess the episodic autobiographical memory. The aim of this study is thus to make a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Episodic Autobiographic Memory Interview (EAMI) for Brazilian Portuguese. Altogether, 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 10 healthy controls (CTs) were evaluated. EAMI scores for AD patients were lower than those of CTs, and these scores also correlated positively with the Remember-Know coefficient. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated a good inter-rater reliability. The Portuguese version of EAMI showed a good reliability and validity, which suggests that it is a useful tool for evaluation of autobiographical memory in Brazilian patients.

  6. Direct and generative retrieval of autobiographical memories: The roles of visual imagery and executive processes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rachel J; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Dean, Graham M

    2017-03-01

    Two experiments used a dual task methodology to investigate the role of visual imagery and executive resources in the retrieval of specific autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, dynamic visual noise led to a reduction in the number of specific memories retrieved in response to both high and low imageability cues, but did not affect retrieval times. In Experiment 2, irrelevant pictures reduced the number of specific memories but only in response to low imageability cues. Irrelevant pictures also increased response times to both high and low imageability cues. The findings are in line with previous work suggesting that disrupting executive resources may impair generative, but not direct, retrieval of autobiographical memories. In contrast, visual distractor tasks appear to impair access to specific autobiographical memories via both the direct and generative retrieval routes, thereby highlighting the potential role of visual imagery in both pathways.

  7. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  8. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  9. Retrieval of Recent Autobiographical Memories is Associated with Slow-Wave Sleep in Early AD

    PubMed Central

    Rauchs, Géraldine; Piolino, Pascale; Bertran, Françoise; de La Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memory is commonly impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, little is known about the very recent past which is though highly important in daily life adaptation. In addition, the impact of sleep disturbances, also frequently reported in AD, on the consolidation, and retrieval of autobiographical memories remains to be assessed. Using an adaptation of the TEMPau task, we investigated the neural substrates of autobiographical memory for recent events and the potential relationship with sleep in 14 patients with mild AD. On day 1, autobiographical memory was explored across three periods: remote (18–30 years), the last 2 years and the last month. After testing, sleep was recorded using polysomnography. The next day, AD patients benefited a resting-state 18FDG-PET scan and a second exploration of autobiographical memory, focusing on the very recent past (today and yesterday). Total recall and episodic recall scores were obtained. In addition, for all events recalled, Remember responses justified by specific factual, spatial, and temporal details were measured using the Remember/Know paradigm. Retrieval of autobiographical memories was impaired in AD, but recall of young adulthood and very recent events was relatively better compared to the two intermediate periods. Recall of recent events (experienced the day and the day preceding the assessment) was correlated with brain glucose consumption in the precuneus and retrosplenial cortex, the calcarine region, the angular gyrus, and lateral temporal areas. AD patients also provided more Justified Remember responses for events experienced the previous-day than for those experienced the day of the assessment. Moreover, Justified Remember responses obtained for events experienced before sleep were positively correlated with the amount of slow-wave sleep. These data provide the first evidence of an association between the ability to retrieve recent autobiographical memories and sleep in mild AD

  10. Field visual perspective during autobiographical memory recall is less frequent among patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Potheegadoo, Jevita; Berna, Fabrice; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2013-10-01

    There is growing interest in clinical research regarding the visual perspective adopted during memory retrieval, because it reflects individuals' self-attitude towards their memories of past personal events. Several autobiographical memory deficits, including low specificity of personal memories, have been identified in schizophrenia, but visual perspective during autobiographical memory retrieval has not yet been investigated in patients. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the visual perspective with which patients visualize themselves when recalling autobiographical memories and to assess the specificity of their memories which is a major determinant of visual perspective. Thirty patients with schizophrenia and 30 matched controls recalled personal events from 4 life periods. After each recall, they were asked to report their visual perspective (Field or Observer) associated with the event. The specificity of their memories was assessed by independent raters. Our results showed that patients reported significantly fewer Field perspectives than comparison participants. Patients' memories, whether recalled with Field or Observer perspectives, were less specific and less detailed. Our results indicate that patients with schizophrenia adopt Field perspectives less frequently than comparison participants, and that this may contribute to a weakened sense of the individual of being an actor of his past events, and hence to a reduced sense of self. They suggest that this may be related to low specificity of memories and that all the important aspects involved in re-experiencing autobiographical events are impaired in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Autobiographical memory in adults with autism spectrum disorder: the role of depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults matched for age, gender and IQ. Results demonstrated that the adults with ASD reported higher levels of depressed mood and rumination than the typical adults, and also received lower scores on measures of theory of mind and working memory. Correlational analysis suggested that theory of mind and working memory were associated with autobiographical memory performance in the adults with ASD, but no significant relationships were observed between autobiographical memory, depressed mood and rumination in this group. To explore these patterns further, two cases of adults with a dual diagnosis of ASD and depression are discussed. These participants present a profile in line with the idea that depressed mood and rumination do not have the same influence on autobiographical memory in adults with ASD as they do in typical adults.

  12. An ‘alternating instructions’ version of the Autobiographical Memory Test for assessing autobiographical memory specificity in non-clinical populations

    PubMed Central

    Dritschel, Barbara; Beltosis, Stamatis; McClintock, Shawn M.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research regarding how executive processes contribute to key cognitive deficits in depression, particularly impoverished retrieval of autobiographical memory. This study tested a novel version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), the ‘Alternating Instructions’ AMT (AMT-AI), to determine how participants could flexibly retrieve specific and categoric autobiographical memories. The AMT-AI consisted of a standard AMT (AMT-S), a categoric version of the AMT (AMT-R) and a section of alternating instructions (AI) in which the rules required the participant to alternate between retrieval of categoric and specific memories. Forty-nine university students completed the AMT-AI, and self-report measures of depressive symptomatology and ruminative thinking. Results showed that the mean proportion of specific memories recalled on the AMT-AI was significantly lower than on the AMT-S. Also, reduced memory specificity on the AMT-AI, but not the AMT-S, was significantly negatively correlated with increased scores on measures of depressive symptomatology and ruminative thinking. Collectively the data suggested that the AMT-AI, relative to the traditional AMT, may be more sensitive to memory specificity in non-clinical populations. Future research is warranted to further determine the psychometric properties and utility of the AMT-AI. PMID:24215524

  13. Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of Depression Vulnerability in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Sapotichne, Brenna; Klostermann, Susan; Battista, Deena; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (AM), the tendency to recall categories of events when asked to provide specific instances from one's life, is purported to be a marker of depression vulnerability that develops in childhood. Although early adolescence is a period of risk for depression onset especially among girls, prospective examination of this putative risk factor is lacking. The current study examined the prospective associations between AM recall and depressive symptomatology in an enriched community sample of predominantly African American girls. Girls (n=195) were interviewed about depressive symptoms at ages 11 and 12 years, and AM recall was assessed at age 11. The findings showed that overgeneral retrieval to positive, but not negative, cue words predicted subsequent depressive symptoms after controlling for age 11 symptoms, race, poverty, and Verbal IQ. A moderating effect of race was also shown, whereby overgeneral AM bias predicted depressive symptoms more strongly among European American girls. The findings are discussed in relation to the broader literature on depression affective biases. PMID:21391022

  14. Mother-child reminiscing at risk: Maternal attachment, elaboration, and child autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Christina G; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K

    2016-03-01

    Mother-child reminiscing, the process by which mothers and their children discuss past events and emotional experiences, has been robustly linked with child outcomes, including autobiographical memory. To advance previous work linking elaborative maternal reminiscing with child autobiographical memory specificity, the ability to generate and retrieve specific memories from one's past, it is essential to make distinctions among aspects of elaboration and to consider how maternal risk factors may influence the reminiscing context. The current study evaluated (a) an interaction between emotional and structural elaboration predicting child autobiographical memory specificity and (b) the potential moderating role of maternal adult attachment. Participants consisted of 95 preschool-aged children and their mothers. The sample was predominantly low income and racially diverse. Dyads completed a reminiscing task that was coded for emotional and structural elaboration. Mothers completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR-R) to assess attachment-related avoidance and anxiety, and children completed the Autobiographical Memory Test-Preschool Version (AMT-PV) to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that the association between structural reminiscing and child memory specificity was moderated by emotional elements of reminiscing. At high levels of emotional elaboration, mothers with high levels of structural elaboration had children with more specific memory than mothers with low levels of structural elaboration. Moreover, emotional elaboration (a) predicted less specific child memory without high structural support and (b) negatively predicted child specificity at high levels of maternal attachment avoidance and anxiety, a profile associated with fearful avoidance. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  15. A matter of focus: Detailed memory in the intentional autobiographical recall of older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua, Alaitz; Koutstaal, Wilma

    2015-05-01

    The intricately interwoven role of detailed autobiographical memory in our daily lives and in our imaginative envisioning of the future is increasingly recognized. But how is the detail-rich nature of autobiographical memory best assessed and, in particular, how can possible aging-related differences in autobiographical memory specificity be most effectively evaluated? This study examined whether a modified interview, involving fewer and time-matched events for older and younger adults, yielded age-related outcomes similar to those that have been previously reported. As in earlier studies, modest age-related changes in the specificity of autobiographical recall were observed, yet the largest most robust effect for both age groups was the substantial proportion of specific details retrieved. Both age groups rated recent memories as significantly less important and as less emotional than more temporally distant events. Our findings counter conceptions of older adults' autobiographical memories as invariably less episodically rich than those of younger adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A case of hyperthymesia: Rethinking the role of the amygdala in autobiographical memory

    PubMed Central

    Ally, Brandon A.; Hussey, Erin P.; Donahue, Manus J.

    2012-01-01

    Much controversy has been focused on the extent to which the amygdala belongs to the autobiographical memory core network. Early evidence suggested the amygdala played a vital role in emotional processing, likely helping to encode emotionally charged stimuli. However, recent work has highlighted the amygdala’s role in social and self-referential processing, leading to speculation that the amygdala likely supports the encoding and retrieval of autobiographical memory. Here, cognitive as well as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected from an extremely rare individual with near-perfect autobiographical memory, or hyperthymesia. Right amygdala hypertrophy (approximately 20%) and enhanced amygdala-to-hippocampus connectivity (> 10 standard deviations) was observed in this volunteer relative to controls. Based on these findings and previous literature, we speculate that the amygdala likely charges autobiographical memories with emotional, social, and self-relevance. In heightened memory, this system may be hyperactive, allowing for many types of autobiographical information, including emotionally benign, to be more efficiently processed as self-relevant for encoding and storage. PMID:22519463

  17. Subjective vs. Documented Reality: A Case Study of Long-Term Real-Life Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Avi; Furman, Orit; Navon, Inbal; Dudai, Yadin

    2009-01-01

    A young woman was filmed during 2 d of her ordinary life. A few months and then again a few years later she was tested for the memory of her experiences in those days while undergoing fMRI scanning. As time passed, she came to accept more false details as true. After months, activity of a network considered to subserve autobiographical memory was…

  18. A Preliminary Study of Gender Differences in Autobiographical Memory in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Dritschel, Barbara; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memory was assessed in 24 children (12 male, 12 female, aged between 8 and 16 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a comparison group of 24 typically developing (TD) children matched for age, IQ, gender and receptive language. Results suggested that a deficit in specific memory retrieval in the ASD group was more…

  19. Being American, Being Asian: The Bicultural Self and Autobiographical Memory in Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Studies of autobiographical memory have shown that the degree to which individuals focus on themselves vs. social relations in their memories varies markedly across cultures. Do the differences result from differing cultural self-views (i.e., an autonomous vs. a relational sense of self), as often suggested in the literature? Experimental evidence…

  20. Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

  1. Autobiographical memory for the differential diagnosis of cognitive pathology in aging.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, Juan C; Redondo, Rita; Torres, Marta; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sales, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    The present study distinguishes three memory stages across the lifespan, and aims to compare episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in healthy older adults, with amnesic mild cognitive impairment, and with Alzheimer's disease. This information can offer evidence about the way semantic and episodic autobiographical memory work, and how the disease affects them. The sample was composed of 56 people, all aged over 60 years; 15 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 12 with Alzheimer's disease and 29 healthy older people. Participants were evaluated with the Autobiographical Memory Interview. A mixed anova showed significant main effects of memory and time-period, and significant interactions of memory × group, time-period × group and memory × time × group. Assessment of autobiographical memory provides information to differentiate amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients from Alzheimer's disease patients. Although the decline in episodic memory starts with the onset of the disease, semantic memory is maintained until moderate stages of dementia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16:1220-1225. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Subjective vs. Documented Reality: A Case Study of Long-Term Real-Life Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Avi; Furman, Orit; Navon, Inbal; Dudai, Yadin

    2009-01-01

    A young woman was filmed during 2 d of her ordinary life. A few months and then again a few years later she was tested for the memory of her experiences in those days while undergoing fMRI scanning. As time passed, she came to accept more false details as true. After months, activity of a network considered to subserve autobiographical memory was…

  3. Autobiographical Memory Phenomenology and Content Mediate Attachment Style and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Gillath, Omri

    2009-01-01

    In 2 studies, the present research tested the phenomenology and content of autobiographical memory as distinct mediators between attachment avoidance and anxiety and depressive symptoms. In Study 1, participants (N = 454) completed measures of attachment and depressive symptoms in 1 session and retrieved and rated 2 self-defining memories of…

  4. A Preliminary Study of Gender Differences in Autobiographical Memory in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Dritschel, Barbara; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memory was assessed in 24 children (12 male, 12 female, aged between 8 and 16 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a comparison group of 24 typically developing (TD) children matched for age, IQ, gender and receptive language. Results suggested that a deficit in specific memory retrieval in the ASD group was more…

  5. Being American, Being Asian: The Bicultural Self and Autobiographical Memory in Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Studies of autobiographical memory have shown that the degree to which individuals focus on themselves vs. social relations in their memories varies markedly across cultures. Do the differences result from differing cultural self-views (i.e., an autonomous vs. a relational sense of self), as often suggested in the literature? Experimental evidence…

  6. Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

  7. Narration and Vividness as Measures of Event-Specificity in Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Kristin L.; Moskovitz, Damian J.; Steiner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The event specificity of autobiographical memories refers to the degree to which retold memories include specific details about a unique personal experience from a variety of representational systems supported by different brain areas. This article proposes 2 text measures as indicators of event specificity: (a) a measure of temporal sequence in…

  8. Autobiographical Memory Phenomenology and Content Mediate Attachment Style and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Gillath, Omri

    2009-01-01

    In 2 studies, the present research tested the phenomenology and content of autobiographical memory as distinct mediators between attachment avoidance and anxiety and depressive symptoms. In Study 1, participants (N = 454) completed measures of attachment and depressive symptoms in 1 session and retrieved and rated 2 self-defining memories of…

  9. Narration and Vividness as Measures of Event-Specificity in Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Kristin L.; Moskovitz, Damian J.; Steiner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The event specificity of autobiographical memories refers to the degree to which retold memories include specific details about a unique personal experience from a variety of representational systems supported by different brain areas. This article proposes 2 text measures as indicators of event specificity: (a) a measure of temporal sequence in…

  10. Personal semantic and episodic autobiographical memories in Korsakoff syndrome: A comparison of interview methods.

    PubMed

    Rensen, Yvonne C M; Kessels, Roy P C; Migo, Ellen M; Wester, Arie J; Eling, Paul A T M; Kopelman, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    The temporal gradient in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome has been of particular interest in the literature, as many studies have found evidence for a steep temporal gradient, but others have observed more uniform remote memory impairment across all past time periods. Inconsistencies might be the result of the nature of remote memory impairment under study (i.e., nonpersonal or autobiographical memory) and of methodological differences in the examination of remote memory loss. The aim of this study was to examine whether differences between autobiographical memory interview (AMI) and autobiographical interview (AI) procedures influence the presence of a temporal gradient in semantic and episodic autobiographical memory in Korsakoff patients. The procedure used in the present study combined the AMI and AI into one study session. We compared the performance of 20 patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and 27 healthy controls. First, participants were asked to recall knowledge from different life periods. Second, participants were asked to recall memories from five life periods. Thirdly, participants were asked to rate their subjective experience of each event recalled on a 5-point scale. Finally, we analyzed the findings in terms of all the memories recalled versus the first memory from each life-period only. Both the AMI and the AI showed a temporally graded retrograde amnesia in the Korsakoff patients for personal semantic and episodic autobiographical memories. The pattern of amnesia in Korsakoff patients was not affected by examining only one event per life-period. Subjective ratings of recalled memories were largely comparable between the groups. The findings were generally consistent across the AMI and AI. Varying the number of events did not affect the pattern of the gradient. Hence, the temporal gradient in Korsakoff patients is not an artefact of either the AMI or the AI method.

  11. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  12. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  13. Memories of significant episodes in child psychotherapy: an autobiographical memory approach.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Gerhard; Boalt Boethius, Siv; Svirsky, Liv; Carlberg, Gunnar

    2006-06-01

    In this study, child psychotherapists (N=31) were asked to retrieve emotionally valenced therapy episodes by using an autobiographical memory approach, with cue words to elicit specific therapy episodes (e.g. irritated, ashamed, loving, and elated). One group of teachers for the disabled (N=10) and one group of music therapists (N=9) were also tested and served as comparison groups. Results showed that all participants were able to retrieve memories of episodes. When asked to rate each memory, negative memories were returned to less often, and overall positive memories were rated as more easy to recall and more vivid. Memories derived from positive cue words were also judged to have a more positive compared with negative importance for outcome. Surprisingly, memories derived from the cue word irritated were seen as having more positive than negative importance for outcome. Finally, we checked memory specificity for each memory derived. A high degree of specificity was found overall (72-88%). In conclusion, cue words might be a useful way to generate specific memories of therapy episodes in future research.

  14. Describe yourself to improve your autobiographical memory: A study in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether retrieval of information related to conceptual self (i.e., self-images that encompass general factual and evaluative knowledge of one's identity) would improve autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants with AD and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories after providing statements to the question "Who am I? and after a control condition consisting of reading a general text. Autobiographical recall was analyzed with respect to specificity (general vs specific event), context recall (information describing the "when, where, and who" as well as affective states), and reliving (the subjective experience of recall). AD participants showed higher specificity, context recall and reliving after the "Who am I?" statements than after the text reading, and controls showed higher context recall after the former than after the latter condition. These findings highlight the relationship between self and autobiographical memory in AD and demonstrate how retrieval of information related to conceptual self may influence autobiographical memory in the disease.

  15. What versus where: Investigating how autobiographical memory retrieval differs when accessed with thematic versus spatial information.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Signy; Chu, Sonja

    2017-09-01

    Autobiographical memory research has investigated how cueing distinct aspects of a past event can trigger different recollective experiences. This research has stimulated theories about how autobiographical knowledge is accessed and organized. Here, we test the idea that thematic information organizes multiple autobiographical events whereas spatial information organizes individual past episodes by investigating how retrieval guided by these two forms of information differs. We used a novel autobiographical fluency task in which participants accessed multiple memory exemplars to event theme and spatial (location) cues followed by a narrative description task in which they described the memories generated to these cues. Participants recalled significantly more memory exemplars to event theme than to spatial cues; however, spatial cues prompted faster access to past memories. Results from the narrative description task revealed that memories retrieved via event theme cues compared to spatial cues had a higher number of overall details, but those recalled to the spatial cues were recollected with a greater concentration on episodic details than those retrieved via event theme cues. These results provide evidence that thematic information organizes and integrates multiple memories whereas spatial information prompts the retrieval of specific episodic content from a past event.

  16. Cortical dynamics of emotional autobiographical memory retrieval differ between women and men.

    PubMed

    Manns, Joseph R; Varga, Nicole L; Trimper, John B; Bauer, Patricia J

    2017-07-14

    Retrieval of autobiographical memories entails periods of search, access, and elaboration. Women's reports of their memories feature more detail and emotional content relative to men's. A key question is how these gender differences relate to unfolding changes in cortical activity during retrieval. We recorded EEG activity from 32 scalp electrodes as women and men were cued to retrieve positive, negative, and neutral autobiographical memories. Alpha (9-12Hz) oscillations were prominent at all EEG channels. Alpha coherence between channels was calculated as a measure of ms-level cortical synchrony. Across participants and memory types, a frontal cluster showed pronounced decreases in coherence with other channels during the first second of autobiographical retrieval. In the following second, a left parietal-centered cluster showed increased coherence with other channels. This effect strengthened and spread in the third second of retrieval, perhaps reflecting trace elaboration and/or evaluation of the memory. Although women and men gave similar subjective ratings of their memories, the second-by-second pattern of alpha coherence during autobiographical retrieval differed by gender and memory type. Specifically, women sustained the increased pattern of left-parietal coherence throughout the trial, whereas for men, alpha coherence in this cluster returned to baseline by second two for neutral memories and by second three for emotional memories. Examination of the temporal dynamics of cortical oscillations provides novel insight into autobiographical memory retrieval processes and to gendered retrieval in particular, suggesting that women may persist with elaboration and/or evaluation to a greater extent than men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two years later - Revisiting autobiographical memory representations in vmPFC and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bonnici, Heidi M; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2017-05-11

    A long-standing question in memory neuroscience concerns how and where autobiographical memories of personal experiences are represented in the brain. In a previous high resolution multivoxel pattern analysis fMRI study, we examined two week old (recent) and ten year old (remote) autobiographical memories (Bonnici et al., 2012, J. Neurosci. 32:16982-16991). We found that remote memories were particularly well represented in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) compared to recent memories. Moreover, while both types of memory were represented within anterior and posterior hippocampus, remote memories were more easily distinguished in the posterior portion. These findings suggested that a change of some kind had occurred between two weeks and ten years in terms of where autobiographical memories were represented in the brain. In order to examine this further, here participants from the original study returned two years later and recalled the memories again. We found that there was no difference in the detectability of memory representations within vmPFC for the now 2 year old and 12 year old memories, and this was also the case for the posterior hippocampus. Direct comparison of the two week old memories (original study) with themselves two years later (present study) confirmed that their representation within vmPFC had become more evident. Overall, this within-subjects longitudinal fMRI study extends our understanding of autobiographical memory representations by allowing us to narrow the window within which their consolidation is likely to occur. We conclude that after a memory is initially encoded, its representation within vmPFC has stablised by, at most, two years later. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of a specific cueing method for improving autobiographical memory recall in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Potheegadoo, Jevita; Cordier, Adrian; Berna, Fabrice; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memory deficits in schizophrenia have a significant impact on patients' daily life. Our study was aimed at testing the effectiveness of a specific cueing (SC) method for improving autobiographical memory recall in patients with schizophrenia, particularly the phenomenological details of their memories. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 25 comparison participants took part in the study. They recalled 6 specific autobiographical events which occurred during 3 different life periods. After each memory recall, participants were given a general cue which allowed them to add further information to their narration. The SC was then applied by means of a series of specific questions to elicit more precise memory detail. The overall memory specificity as well as the number and richness of 5 categories of memory detail (perceptual/sensory, temporal, contextual, emotional, and cognitive) were assessed before and after the SC phase. Before SC, patients' memories were less specific and less detailed. SC had a beneficial effect on patients' memory recall. The overall memory specificity of patients improved. The gain in the number and richness of memory details was comparable between patients and comparison participants. The difference between groups in terms of the number of memory details was not significant. Richness of details was still lower in patients, except for emotional and cognitive details, which were similarly rich in both groups. The cueing method reduces the autobiographical memory impairment of patients with schizophrenia and paves the way for developing specific cognitive remediation therapies to help patients in their daily life. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Rumination and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Adolescents: An Integration of Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Samantha L.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence, rates of depression dramatically increase and girls become twice as likely as boys to develop depression. Research suggests that overgeneral autobiographical memory and rumination are vulnerability factors for depressive symptoms in adolescence that may be triggered by stressful life events. The current longitudinal study included 160 early adolescents (Mage = 12.44 years, 60.0 % African American, 40.0 % Caucasian, and 56.2 % female). At baseline, adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms, rumination, and specificity of autobiographical memories. Approximately 9 months later, the adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms and stressful life events that had occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that girls with more overgeneral autobiographical memories in combination with higher levels of rumination were most vulnerable to experiencing increases in depressive symptoms following stressful life events. Additionally, retrieving more specific autobiographical memories appeared to buffer against the impact of negative life events on depressive symptoms among both boys and girls. Memory specificity may play a protective role in depression risk, suggesting that memory specificity training interventions may prove beneficial for adolescents. PMID:24449170

  20. How can individual differences in autobiographical memory distributions of older adults be explained?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Tabea; Zimprich, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The reminiscence bump phenomenon has frequently been reported for the recall of autobiographical memories. The present study complements previous research by examining individual differences in the distribution of word-cued autobiographical memories. More importantly, we introduce predictor variables that might account for individual differences in the mean (location) and the standard deviation (scale) of individual memory distributions. All variables were derived from different theoretical accounts for the reminiscence bump phenomenon. We used a mixed location-scale logitnormal model, to analyse the 4602 autobiographical memories reported by 118 older participants. Results show reliable individual differences in the location and the scale. After controlling for age and gender, individual proportions of first-time experiences and individual proportions of positive memories, as well as the ratings on Openness to new Experiences and Self-Concept Clarity accounted for 29% of individual differences in location and 42% of individual differences in scale of autobiographical memory distributions. Results dovetail with a life-story account for the reminiscence bump which integrates central components of previous accounts.

  1. Effects of task instruction on autobiographical memory specificity in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Rubin, David C; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    Older adults tend to retrieve autobiographical information that is overly general (i.e., not restricted to a single event, termed the overgenerality effect) relative to young adults' specific memories. A vast majority of studies that have reported overgenerality effects explicitly instruct participants to retrieve specific memories, thereby requiring participants to maintain task goals, inhibit inappropriate responses, and control their memory search. Since these processes are impaired in healthy ageing, it is important to determine whether such task instructions influence the magnitude of the overgenerality effect in older adults. In the current study participants retrieved autobiographical memories during presentation of musical clips. Task instructions were manipulated to separate age-related differences in the specificity of underlying memory representations from age-related differences in following task instructions. Whereas young adults modulated memory specificity based on task demands, older adults did not. These findings suggest that reported rates of overgenerality in older adults' memories might include age-related differences in memory representation, as well as differences in task compliance. Such findings provide a better understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms involved in age-related changes in autobiographical memory and may also be valuable for future research examining effects of overgeneral memory on general well-being.

  2. Autobiographical memory specificity in response to verbal and pictorial cues in clinical depression.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Nathan; Dritschel, Barbara; Matthews, Keith; O'Carroll, Ronan

    2016-06-01

    Depressed individuals have been consistently shown to exhibit problems in accessing specific memories of events from their past and instead tend to retrieve categorical summaries of events. The majority of studies examining autobiographical memory changes associated with psychopathology have tended to use word cues, but only one study to date has used images (with PTSD patients). to determine if using images to cue autobiographical memories would reduce the memory specificity deficit exhibited by patients with depression in comparison to healthy controls. Twenty-five clinically depressed patients and twenty-five healthy controls were assessed on two versions of the autobiographical memory test; cued with emotional words and images. Depressed patients retrieved significantly fewer specific memories, and a greater number of categorical, than did the controls. Controls retrieved a greater proportion of specific memories to images compared to words, whereas depressed patients retrieved a similar proportion of specific memories to both images and words. no information about the presence and severity of past trauma was collected. results suggest that the overgeneral memory style in depression generalises from verbal to pictorial cues. This is important because retrieval to images may provide a more ecologically valid test of everyday memory experiences than word-cued retrieval.. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Task Instruction on Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Rubin, David C.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults tend to retrieve autobiographical information that is overly general (i.e. not restricted to a single event, termed the overgenerality effect) relative to young adults’ specific memories. A vast majority of studies that have reported overgenerality effects explicitly instruct participants to retrieve specific memories, thereby requiring participants to maintain task goals, inhibit inappropriate responses, and control their memory search. Since these processes are impaired in healthy aging, it is important to determine whether such task instructions influence the magnitude of the overgenerality effect in older adults. In the current study, participants retrieved autobiographical memories during presentation of musical clips. Task instructions were manipulated to separate age-related differences in the specificity of underlying memory representations from age-related differences in following task instructions. Whereas young adults modulated memory specificity based on task demands, older adults did not. These findings suggest that reported rates of overgenerality in older adults’ memories may include age-related differences in memory representation, as well as differences in task compliance. Such findings provide a better understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms involved in age-related changes in autobiographical memory and may also be valuable for future research examining effects of overgeneral memory on general well-being. PMID:23915176

  4. The role of autobiographical memory networks in the experience of negative emotions: how our remembered past elicits our current feelings.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Frederick L; Koestner, Richard; Lecours, Serge; Beaulieu-Pelletier, Genevieve; Bois, Katy

    2011-12-01

    The present research examined the role of autobiographical memory networks on negative emotional experiences. Results from 2 studies found support for an active but also discriminant role of autobiographical memories and their related networked memories on negative emotions. In addition, in line with self-determination theory, thwarting of the psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness was found to be the critical component of autobiographical memory affecting negative emotional experiences. Study 1 revealed that need thwarting in a specific autobiographical memory network related to the theme of loss was positively associated with depressive negative emotions, but not with other negative emotions. Study 2 showed within a prospective design a differential predictive validity between 2 autobiographical memory networks (an anger-related vs. a guilt-related memory) on situational anger reactivity with respect to unfair treatment. All of these results held after controlling for neuroticism (Studies 1 and 2), self-control (Study 2), and for the valence (Study 1) and emotions (Study 2) found in the measured autobiographical memory network. These findings highlight the ongoing emotional significance of representations of need thwarting in autobiographical memory networks.

  5. Overgeneralized autobiographical memory and future thinking in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam D; Root, James C; Romano, Tracy A; Chang, Luke J; Bryant, Richard A; Hirst, William

    2013-03-01

    Studies show that individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) tend to recall autobiographical memories with decreased episodic specificity. A growing body of research has demonstrated that the mechanisms involved in recalling autobiographical memories overlap considerably with those involved in imagining the future. Although shared autobiographical deficits in remembering the past and imagining the future have been observed in other clinical populations, this has yet to be examined in PTSD. This study examined whether, compared to combat trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD, those with combat-related PTSD would be more likely to generate overgeneralized autobiographical memories and imagined future events. Operation Enduring/Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with and without PTSD were presented with neutral word cues and were instructed to generate memories or imagine future autobiographical events. Responses were digitally recorded and were coded for level of episodic specificity and content related to combat trauma. Individuals with PTSD were more likely to generate overgeneral autobiographical memories and future events than individuals without PTSD, and were more likely to incorporate content associated with combat when remembering the past or thinking about the future. Limitations of the study include a cross-sectional design, precluding causality; the lack of a non-trauma exposed group, relatively small sample, and almost all-male gender of participants, limiting the generalizability to other populations. These findings suggest that individuals with PTSD show similar deficits when generating personal past and future events, which may represent a previously unexamined mechanism involved in the maintenance of PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. True and false autobiographical memories in schizophrenia: preliminary results of a diary study.

    PubMed

    Pernot-Marino, Elodie; Schuster, Caroline; Hedelin, Guy; Berna, Fabrice; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2010-08-30

    The frequency of true and false autobiographical memories and associated states of conscious awareness, i.e., conscious recollection and simply knowing, as well as the respective roles of affective and cognitive processes in autobiographical memory construction, were assessed in eight patients with schizophrenia and eight control participants. A diary study methodology was used in combination with the Remember/Know procedure. The results showed a higher frequency of Know responses associated with the retrieval of both true and false memories in patients than in control participants. Whereas control participants rated higher at retrieval than at encoding the distinctiveness and personal importance of events, as well as the extent to which events furthered current personal plans, patients exhibited an opposite pattern of ratings, with ratings being lower at retrieval than at encoding. These preliminary results show a high frequency of simply knowing associated with the retrieval of true and false autobiographical memories in patients with schizophrenia and provide evidence for the interest of the diary study methodology for studying autobiographical memory in schizophrenia.

  7. Neurocognitive mechanisms of real-world autobiographical memory retrieval: insights from studies using wearable camera technology.

    PubMed

    Chow, Tiffany E; Rissman, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, investigation into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of autobiographical memory has been aided by the use of experimental paradigms incorporating wearable camera technology. By effortlessly capturing first-person images of one's life events, these cameras provide a rich set of naturalistic stimuli that can later be used to trigger the recall of specific episodes. Here, we chronicle the development and progression of such studies in behavioral and neuroimaging examinations of both clinical and nonclinical adult populations. Experiments examining the effects of periodic review of first-person images of life events have documented enhancements of autobiographical memory retrieval. Such benefits are most pronounced in patients with memory impairments, but there is mounting evidence that cognitively healthy individuals may benefit as well. Findings from functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments using wearable camera stimuli as retrieval probes have produced results that, although largely consistent with the broader episodic memory literature, have significantly extended prior findings concerning the underlying mnemonic processes and the neural representation of autobiographical information. Taken together, wearable camera technology provides a unique opportunity for studies of autobiographical memory to more closely approximate real-world conditions, thus offering enhanced ecological validity and opening up new avenues for experimental work. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Executive function and emotional focus in autobiographical memory specificity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Holland, Carol A; Ridout, Nathan; Walford, Edward; Geraghty, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the role of executive function in retrieval of specific autobiographical memories in older adults with regard to control of emotion during retrieval. Older and younger adults retrieved memories of specific events in response to emotionally positive, negative and neutral word cues. Contributions of inhibitory and updating elements of executive function to variance in autobiographical specificity were assessed to determine processes involved in the commonly found age-related reduction in specificity. A negative relationship between age and specificity was only found in retrieval to neutral cues. Alternative explanations of this age preservation of specificity of emotional recall are explored, within the context of control of emotion in the self-memory system and preserved emotional processing and positivity effect in older adults. The pattern of relationships suggests updating, rather than inhibition, as the source of age-related reduction in specificity, but that emotional processing (particularly of positively valenced memories) is not influenced by age-related variance in executive control. The tendency of older adults to focus on positive material may thus act as a buffer against detrimental effects of reduced executive function capacity on autobiographical retrieval, representing a possible target for interventions to improve specificity of autobiographical memory retrieval in older adults.

  9. Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory: Quality and Quantity of Retention Over Time

    PubMed Central

    LePort, Aurora K. R.; Stark, Shauna M.; McGaugh, James L.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who have Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) are able to recall, with considerable accuracy, details of daily experiences that occurred over many previous decades. The present study parametrically investigates the quantity and quality of details of autobiographical memories acquired 1-week, 1-month, 1-year, and 10-years prior in HSAMs and controls. In addition, we tested the consistency of details provided at the 1-week delay by testing the subjects 1 month later with a surprise assessment. At the 1-week delay, HSAMs and controls recalled an equivalent number of events. In contrast, HSAM recall performance was superior at more remote delays, with remarkable consistency following a 1-month delay. Further, we revealed a relationship between the consistency of recall and HSAMs’ obsessive–compulsive tendencies. These data suggest that HSAMs experience normal encoding, yet enhanced consolidation and later recall of autobiographical events. PMID:26834661

  10. "The Castle of Remembrance": New insights from a cognitive training programme for autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lalanne, Jennifer; Gallarda, Thierry; Piolino, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Autobiographical memory deficits are prominent from the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and result in a loss of personal identity. Nevertheless, standardised methods of autobiographical memory stimulation for the neuropsychological rehabilitation of patients with AD remain underdeveloped. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a new cognitive training programme for autobiographical memory (REMau) on both the episodic and semantic components of autobiographical memory performance across lifetime periods, as well as on mood. Pre/post evaluations were conducted on two groups of patients with early to moderate AD, assigned to one of two different training activities: either the REMau or a cognitive training programme focused on collective semantic memory. Statistical comparisons showed significant improvement of episodic and semantic autobiographical memory performance in the REMau group, which was more pronounced for the semantic component, as well as improved mood. By contrast, deleterious pre/post differences were observed in the other group. Most interestingly, this study showed that the REMau programme boosted autobiographical memory from the reminiscence bump period, which is considered crucial for the construction and maintenance of personal identity. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these results for the reduction of autobiographical memory deficits in AD.

  11. The survey of autobiographical memory (SAM): a novel measure of trait mnemonics in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Daniela J; Williams, Lynne J; Abdi, Hervé; Levine, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Compared to the abundance of laboratory-based memory tasks, few measures exist to assess self-reported memory function. This need is particularly important for naturalistic mnemonic capacities, such as autobiographical memory (recall of events and facts from one's past), because it is difficult to reliably assess in the laboratory. Furthermore, naturalistic mnemonic capacities may show stable individual differences that evade the constraints of laboratory testing. The Survey of Autobiographical Memory (SAM) was designed to assess such trait mnemonics, or the dimensional characterization of self-reported mnemonic characteristics. The SAM comprises items assessing self-reported episodic autobiographical, semantic, and spatial memory, as well as future prospection. In a large sample of healthy young adults, the latent dimensional structure of the SAM was characterized with multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). This analysis revealed dimensions corresponding to general mnemonic abilities (i.e., good vs poor memory across subtypes), spatial memory, and future prospection. While episodic and semantic items did not separate in this data-driven analysis, these categories did show expected dissociations in relation to depression history and to laboratory-based measures of recollection. Remote spatial memory as assessed by the SAM showed the expected advantage for males over females. Spatial memory was also related to autobiographical memory performance. Brief versions of the SAM are provided for efficient research applications. Individual differences in memory function are likely related to other health-related factors, including personality, psychopathology, dementia risk, brain structure and function, and genotype. In conjunction with laboratory or performance based assessments, the SAM can provide a useful measure of naturalistic self-report trait mnemonics for probing these relationships.

  12. Assessing autobiographical memory: the web-based autobiographical Implicit Association Test.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2017-04-01

    By assessing the association strength with TRUE and FALSE, the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) [Sartori, G., Agosta, S., Zogmaister, C., Ferrara, S. D., & Castiello, U. (2008). How to accurately detect autobiographical events. Psychological Science, 19, 772-780. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02156.x ] aims to determine which of two contrasting statements is true. To efficiently run well-powered aIAT experiments, we propose a web-based aIAT (web-aIAT). Experiment 1 (n = 522) is a web-based replication study of the first published aIAT study [Sartori, G., Agosta, S., Zogmaister, C., Ferrara, S. D., & Castiello, U. (2008). How to accurately detect autobiographical events. Psychological Science, 19, 772-780. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02156.x ; Experiment 1]. We conclude that the replication was successful as the web-based aIAT could accurately detect which of two playing cards participants chose (AUC = .88; Hit rate = 81%). In Experiment 2 (n = 424), we investigated whether the use of affirmative versus negative sentences may partly explain the variability in aIAT accuracy findings. The aIAT could detect the chosen card when using affirmative (AUC = .90; Hit rate = 81%), but not when using negative sentences (AUC = .60; Hit rate = 53%). The web-based aIAT seems to be a valuable tool to facilitate aIAT research and may help to further identify moderators of the test's accuracy.

  13. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and chronic interpersonal stress as predictors of the course of depression in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research.

  14. Autobiographical memory functions of nostalgia in comparison to rumination and counterfactual thinking: similarity and uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-07-01

    We compared and contrasted nostalgia with rumination and counterfactual thinking in terms of their autobiographical memory functions. Specifically, we assessed individual differences in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking, which we then linked to self-reported functions or uses of autobiographical memory (Self-Regard, Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Intimacy Maintenance, Conversation, Teach/Inform, and Bitterness Revival). We tested which memory functions are shared and which are uniquely linked to nostalgia. The commonality among nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking resides in their shared positive associations with all memory functions: individuals who evinced a stronger propensity towards past-oriented thought (as manifested in nostalgia, rumination, and counterfactual thinking) reported greater overall recruitment of memories in the service of present functioning. The uniqueness of nostalgia resides in its comparatively strong positive associations with Intimacy Maintenance, Teach/Inform, and Self-Regard and weak association with Bitterness Revival. In all, nostalgia possesses a more positive functional signature than do rumination and counterfactual thinking.

  15. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory and Chronic Interpersonal Stress as Predictors of the Course of Depression in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Griffith, James W.; Mineka, Susan; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of depression in adolescents. As part of a larger longitudinal study of risk for emotional disorders, 55 adolescents with a past history of major depressive disorder or minor depressive disorder completed the Autobiographical Memory Test. Fewer specific memories predicted the subsequent onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) over a 16-month follow-up period, even when covarying baseline depressive symptoms. This main effect was qualified by an interaction between specific memories and chronic interpersonal stress: Fewer specific memories predicted greater risk of MDE onset over follow-up at high (but not low) levels of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, our findings suggest that OGM, in interaction with chronic interpersonal stress, predicts the course of depression among adolescents, and highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal stress in OGM research. PMID:21432666

  16. Childhood amnesia in the making: different distributions of autobiographical memories in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2014-04-01

    Within the memory literature, a robust finding is of childhood amnesia: a relative paucity among adults for autobiographical or personal memories from the first 3 to 4 years of life, and from the first 7 years, a smaller number of memories than would be expected based on normal forgetting. Childhood amnesia is observed in spite of strong evidence that during the period eventually obscured by the amnesia, children construct and preserve autobiographical memories. Why early memories seemingly are lost to recollection is an unanswered question. In the present research, we examined the issue by using the cue word technique to chart the distributions of autobiographical memories in samples of children ages 7 to 11 years and samples of young and middle-aged adults. Among adults, the distributions were best fit by the power function, whereas among children, the exponential function provided a better fit to the distributions of memories. The findings suggest that a major source of childhood amnesia is a constant rate of forgetting in childhood, seemingly resulting from failed consolidation, the outcome of which is a smaller pool of memories available for later retrieval.

  17. Autobiographical memory specificity in patients with tinnitus versus patients with depression and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Gerhard; Hesser, Hugo; Cima, Rilana F F; Weise, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Several studies show that patients with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder respond with fewer specific autobiographical memories in a cued memory task (i.e. the autobiographical memory test; AMT) compared to healthy controls. One previous study found this phenomenon among tinnitus patients as well (Andersson, Ingerholt, & Jansson, 2003). The aim of this study was to replicate the previous study with an additional control group of depressed patients and memory errors as measured with the AMT as an additional outcome. We included 20 normal hearing tinnitus patients, 20 healthy controls and 20 persons diagnosed with clinical depression. The AMT was administered together with self-report measures of depression, anxiety and tinnitus distress. Both the tinnitus and depression groups differed from the healthy control group in that they reported fewer specific autobiographical memories. There were, however, differences between the tinnitus and depression groups in terms of the errors made on the AMT. The depression group had more overgeneral memories than the normal control group, whereas the tinnitus group did not differ from the control group on this memory error. The tinnitus group had more semantic associations and non-memories than the other two groups, suggesting that executive functioning may play a role for the tinnitus group when completing the AMT. Clinical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Exploration of verbal and non-verbal semantic knowledge and autobiographical memories starting from popular songs in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Basaglia-Pappas, S; Laterza, M; Borg, C; Richard-Mornas, A; Favre, E; Thomas-Antérion, C

    2013-05-01

    In mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), a deficit in episodic memory, particularly autobiographical memory, is clearly established. Several recent studies have also shown impaired semantic memory from the onset of the disease. Musical memory capacities may be especially preserved and listening to music might encourage autobiographical recall. The aim of this study was to explore recall of popular songs in AD. We tested 12 patients with mild AD and 12 control subjects. We created a tool made up of old French popular songs: POP 10. This tool is a questionnaire composed of several subtests: melodic free recall, chorus free recall, melodic recognition, chorus recognition, semantic knowledge, autobiographical recall about the song, and autobiographical recall about the interpreter. We used non-parametric tests, the Mann-Whitney test (M-W), the Friedman test, and the a posteriori Wilcoxon test. Results of AD patients were rather similar to those of control participants for melodic memory. Concerning chorus memory (except recognition), semantic knowledge, and autobiographical recall about the interpreter, results of AD patients were significantly weaker than those of control participants. The most important result concerned autobiographical recall about the song: we found no impairment-related differences between the two groups. Our findings demonstrate that popular songs can be excellent stimuli for reminiscence, such as the ability to produce an autobiographical memory related to a song. Thus, we confirm that musical semantic knowledge associated with a song may be relatively preserved in the early stages of AD. This leads to new possibilities for cognitive stimulation.

  19. Breast Cancer Affects Both the Hippocampus Volume and the Episodic Autobiographical Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Bergouignan, Loretxu; Lefranc, Jean Pierre; Chupin, Marie; Morel, Nastassja; Spano, Jean Philippe; Fossati, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies show the hippocampus is a crucial node in the neural network supporting episodic autobiographical memory retrieval. Stress-related psychiatric disorders, namely Major Depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), are related to reduced hippocampus volume. However, this is not the case for remitted breast cancer patients with co-morbid stress-related psychiatric disorders. This exception may be due to the fact that, consequently to the cancer experience as such, this population might already be characterized by a reduced hippocampus with an episodic autobiographical memory deficit. Methodology We scanned, with a 3T Siemens TRIO, 16 patients who had lived through a “standard experience of breast cancer” (breast cancer and a standard treatment in remission since 18 month) in the absence of any associated stress-related psychiatric or neurological disorder and 21 matched controls. We then assessed their episodic autobiographical memory retrieval ability. Principal Findings Remitted breast cancer patients had both a significantly smaller hippocampus and a significant deficit in episodic autobiographical memory retrieval. The hippocampus atrophy was characterized by a smaller posterior hippocampus. The posterior hippocampus volume was intimately related to the ability to retrieve negative memories and to the past experience of breast cancer or not. Conclusions/Significance These results provide two main findings: (1) we identify a new population with a specific reduction in posterior hippocampus volume that is independent of any psychiatric or neurological pathology; (2) we show the intimate relation of the posterior hippocampus to the ability to retrieve episodic autobiographical memories. These are significant findings as it is the first demonstration that indicates considerable long-term effects of living through the experience of breast cancer and shows very specific hippocampal atrophy with a functional deficit without any

  20. Autobiographical memory, the sense of recollection and executive functions after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Béatrice; Manning, Liliane; North, Pierre; Jokic, Corinne; Eustache, Francis

    2007-02-01

    Residual disorders of autobiographical memory long after trauma resulting from head injury are rarely assessed, even though they may affect social adjustment and the resumption of daily life. We conducted a thorough study of autobiographical memory in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, examined at least one year post-trauma. Twenty-five patients were submitted to a novel and controlled autobiographical procedure specially designed to measure episodic memories (i.e., unique, specific in time and space, and detailed) from their entire life span with two kinds of self-remembering experience. The ability to mentally travel back through time and re-experience the source of acquisition, i.e. autonoetic consciousness, was assessed via the "Remember/Know" paradigm and a checking procedure of sense of remembering. Self-perspective in visual imagery, which is also critically involved in episodic recollection, was assessed by the "Field/Observer perspective" paradigm. In addition, the patients underwent a battery of standardized neuropsychological tests to assess episodic and semantic memory, orientation and executive functions. The results showed that the patients, compared with healthy controls, were significantly impaired in recalling episodic autobiographical memories. This impairment was not related to the life period tested or the patients' ages nor the intellectual impairment. Deficits involved disturbances in sense of remembering, visual imagery self-perspective and recollection of spatiotemporal details. Stepwise-regression analyses carried out in the TBI patients revealed a significant relationship between an abnormal sense of remembering and executive dysfunction covering both anterograde and retrograde components. The novel assessment used in this study provides the first detailed evidence of a more fine-grained deficit of autobiographical memory in TBI patients. Indeed, the results suggest that these patients, long after trauma, present autonoetic

  1. On Telling the Whole Story: Facts and Interpretations in Autobiographical Memory Narratives from Childhood through Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This article examines age differences from childhood through middle adolescence in the extent to which children include factual and interpretive information in constructing autobiographical memory narratives. Factual information is defined as observable or perceptible information available to all individuals who experience a given event, while…

  2. Long-Term Autobiographical Memory for Legal Involvement: Individual and Sociocontextual Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, Jodi A.; Alexander, Kristen Weede; Goodman, Gail S.; Ghetti, Simona; Edelstein, Robin S.; Redlich, Allison

    2010-01-01

    We examined adults' long-term autobiographical memory for a dramatic life event-participating as a child victim in a criminal prosecution because of alleged sexual abuse. The study is unique in several ways, including that we had extensive documentation concerning the sexual abuse allegations, the children's involvement in their legal case, and…

  3. Autobiographical Elaboration Reduces Memory Distortion: Cognitive Operations and the Distinctiveness Heuristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Ian M.; Gallo, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval monitoring enhances episodic memory accuracy. For instance, false recognition is reduced when participants base their decisions on more distinctive recollections, a retrieval monitoring process called the distinctiveness heuristic. The experiments reported here tested the hypothesis that autobiographical elaboration during study (i.e.,…

  4. Examination of the Effects of Self-Modeling on Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margiano, Suzanne G.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; DeWees, Kayla

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this preliminary study is to explore the effectiveness of self-modeling in altering maladaptive behavior in children through the mediating effect of modifying their autobiographical memories of their dysfunctional behaviors. We proposed that the alteration of inappropriate classroom behaviors afforded by the self-modeling…

  5. Mothers' Autobiographical Memory and Book Narratives with Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role that mothers' scaffolding plays in the autobiographical memory (AM) and storybook narratives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Seven 4-5-year-old children and their mothers co-constructed narratives in both contexts. We also compared children's narratives with mothers to their narratives with an…

  6. Examining Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…

  7. Emotion Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory across the Preschool Years: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children,…

  8. Self-disorders in individuals with attenuated psychotic symptoms: Contribution of a dysfunction of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S; Schröder, Johanna; Martin, Brice; Cermolacce, Michel; Allé, Mélissa C; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-05-30

    Patients with schizophrenia and people with subclinical psychotic symptoms have difficulties getting a clear and stable representation of their self. The cognitive mechanisms involved in this reduced clarity of self-concept remain poorly understood. The present study examined whether an altered way of thinking or reasoning about one's past may account for the reduced clarity of self-concept in individuals with attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS). An online study comprising 667 participants examined the capacity to give a meaning to past events and to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand him/herself. Our results showed that in this sample, individuals with APS (n=49) have a lower clarity of self-concept and a higher tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory than controls subjects (n=147). A mediation analysis performed on the full sample revealed that the relation between APS and clarity of self-concept was mediated by a tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory. Our results suggest that the weakness of self-concept, which increases with the intensity of psychotic symptoms, may be related to an altered function of autobiographical memory, so that examining past events may fail to sustain a stable and clear representation of the self when psychotic symptoms increase.

  9. Determinants of Autobiographical Memory in Patients with Unilateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy or Excisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Laurent, Marie; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2009-01-01

    Patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy from hippocampal origin and patients with unilateral surgical excision of an epileptic focus located in the medial temporal lobe were compared to healthy controls on a version of the Autobiographical Interview (AI) adapted to assess memory for event-specific and generic personal episodes. For both…

  10. Determinants of Autobiographical Memory in Patients with Unilateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy or Excisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Laurent, Marie; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2009-01-01

    Patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy from hippocampal origin and patients with unilateral surgical excision of an epileptic focus located in the medial temporal lobe were compared to healthy controls on a version of the Autobiographical Interview (AI) adapted to assess memory for event-specific and generic personal episodes. For both…

  11. Examination of the Effects of Self-Modeling on Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margiano, Suzanne G.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; DeWees, Kayla

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this preliminary study is to explore the effectiveness of self-modeling in altering maladaptive behavior in children through the mediating effect of modifying their autobiographical memories of their dysfunctional behaviors. We proposed that the alteration of inappropriate classroom behaviors afforded by the self-modeling…

  12. On Telling the Whole Story: Facts and Interpretations in Autobiographical Memory Narratives from Childhood through Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This article examines age differences from childhood through middle adolescence in the extent to which children include factual and interpretive information in constructing autobiographical memory narratives. Factual information is defined as observable or perceptible information available to all individuals who experience a given event, while…

  13. Emotion Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory across the Preschool Years: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children,…

  14. Mothers' Autobiographical Memory and Book Narratives with Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role that mothers' scaffolding plays in the autobiographical memory (AM) and storybook narratives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Seven 4-5-year-old children and their mothers co-constructed narratives in both contexts. We also compared children's narratives with mothers to their narratives with an…

  15. Examining Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was…

  16. Long-Term Autobiographical Memory for Legal Involvement: Individual and Sociocontextual Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quas, Jodi A.; Alexander, Kristen Weede; Goodman, Gail S.; Ghetti, Simona; Edelstein, Robin S.; Redlich, Allison

    2010-01-01

    We examined adults' long-term autobiographical memory for a dramatic life event-participating as a child victim in a criminal prosecution because of alleged sexual abuse. The study is unique in several ways, including that we had extensive documentation concerning the sexual abuse allegations, the children's involvement in their legal case, and…

  17. Autobiographical Elaboration Reduces Memory Distortion: Cognitive Operations and the Distinctiveness Heuristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Ian M.; Gallo, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval monitoring enhances episodic memory accuracy. For instance, false recognition is reduced when participants base their decisions on more distinctive recollections, a retrieval monitoring process called the distinctiveness heuristic. The experiments reported here tested the hypothesis that autobiographical elaboration during study (i.e.,…

  18. Remembering your past: The effects of concussion on autobiographical memory recall.

    PubMed

    Barry, Nicole C; Tomes, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    To date, research focusing on long-term memory functioning post concussion is limited. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of concussion on long-term episodic autobiographical memory, once acute postconcussive symptoms have abated. Individuals with and without a history of concussion were asked to recall autobiographical memories from different life periods. The details, self-reported vividness, ease of recall, and completeness of these memories were assessed. Results indicated that although both control and previously concussed participants were equally able to recall autobiographical memories from all life periods, the transcribed memories of previously concussed participants were less detailed, were less complex, and revealed less active involvement in recollection. Specifically, memories of control participants contained more words and a higher proportion of pronouns, personal pronouns, cognitive process words, perceptual process words, and past-tense words. Deficits were found regardless of the frequency or recency of concussion. Concussion information, limitations, and implications of the current findings are discussed.

  19. Improving specific autobiographical memory in older adults: impacts on mood, social problem solving, and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Fiona; Ridout, Nathan; Mushtaq, Faizah; Holland, Carol

    2017-08-21

    Older adults have difficulty recalling specific autobiographical events. This over-general memory style is a vulnerability factor for depression. Two groups receiving interventions that have previously been successful at reducing over-general memory in depressed populations were compared to a control group. Participants were healthy older adults aged ≥70 years: memory specificity training (MEST; n = 22), life review (n = 22), and control group (n = 22). There were significant improvements in autobiographical memory specificity in the MEST and life review groups at post-training, relative to the control group, suggesting that over-general memory can be reduced in older adults. Change in social problem solving ability and functional limitations were related to change in autobiographical memory specificity, supporting the suggested role of specific retrieval in generating solutions to social problems and maintaining independence. Qualitative analysis of participants' feedback revealed that life review may be more appropriate for older adults, possibly because it involves integrating specific memories into a positive narrative.

  20. The effects of autobiographic sexual memory recall on the sexual response of sexually functional men.

    PubMed

    van Lankveld, Jacques; Martin, Alec; Hubben, Dave; Creutz, Nikky; Verboon, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In this experimental study, we investigated how recalling positive, negative, and affectively neutral autobiographic sexual experiences in their personal history affected the current sexual response of sexually functional male volunteers. Based on an attentional-capacity account of sexual arousal, we predicted that affectively charged autobiographic sexual memory recall, both with negative and positive valence, would negatively impact genital arousal, compared to recalling affectively neutral sexual experiences. We expected that subjective sexual arousal would not be differentially affected by emotional memory valence. We measured subjective and genital response to erotic video fragments in sexually functional volunteers (N = 24) in a within-subjects, repeated-measures design. For the memory manipulation, participants received instructions to visualize and mentally re-experience positive, negative, and neutral sexual episodes from autobiographic memory. Memory instructions were found to result in the expected affective states. As predicted, compared to recalling neutral memory, mean genital response was significantly lower during recalling positive and negative memory. However, contrary to prediction, subjective sexual arousal was affected, when multilevel analysis was performed, including a time effect. The implications of the findings were discussed with respect to the advancement of theory and therapeutic intervention.

  1. Time Frame Affects Vantage Point in Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory: Evidence from Response Latencies.

    PubMed

    Karylowski, Jerzy J; Mrozinski, Blazej

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal) vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective) were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective). Yet, in the case of self-representations retrieved from memories of a more distant past, judgments regarding observable self-aspects were faster. Those results occurred for both self-representations retrieved from episodic memory and for representations retrieved from the semantic memory. In addition, regardless of the effect of time, greater accessibility of unobservable (vs. observable) self-aspects was associated with the episodic rather than semantic autobiographical memory. Those results were modified by neither declared trait's self-descriptiveness (yes vs. no responses) nor by its desirability (highly desirable vs. moderately desirable traits). Implications for compatibility between how self and others are represented and for the role of self in social perception are discussed.

  2. The working memory Ponzo illusion: Involuntary integration of visuospatial information stored in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mowei; Xu, Haokui; Zhang, Haihang; Shui, Rende; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Jifan

    2015-08-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) has been traditionally viewed as a mental structure subsequent to visual perception that stores the final output of perceptual processing. However, VWM has recently been emphasized as a critical component of online perception, providing storage for the intermediate perceptual representations produced during visual processing. This interactive view holds the core assumption that VWM is not the terminus of perceptual processing; the stored visual information rather continues to undergo perceptual processing if necessary. The current study tests this assumption, demonstrating an example of involuntary integration of the VWM content, by creating the Ponzo illusion in VWM: when the Ponzo illusion figure was divided into its individual components and sequentially encoded into VWM, the temporally separated components were involuntarily integrated, leading to the distorted length perception of the two horizontal lines. This VWM Ponzo illusion was replicated when the figure components were presented in different combinations and presentation order. The magnitude of the illusion was significantly correlated between VWM and perceptual versions of the Ponzo illusion. These results suggest that the information integration underling the VWM Ponzo illusion is constrained by the laws of visual perception and similarly affected by the common individual factors that govern its perception. Thus, our findings provide compelling evidence that VWM functions as a buffer serving perceptual processes at early stages.

  3. Autobiographical memory in semantic dementia: new insights from two patients using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Viard, Armelle; Desgranges, Béatrice; Matuszewski, Vanessa; Lebreton, Karine; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2013-11-01

    Episodic autobiographical memory (EAM) consists of personal events embedded within a specific spatiotemporal context. Patients with semantic dementia (SD) generally show preserved recent EAMs, but a controversy remains concerning their ability to retrieve remote ones. Only one fMRI study examined remote autobiographical memory in SD through a longitudinal case study (Maguire, Kumaran, Hassabis, & Kopelman, 2010). Here, we propose a cross-sectional study to test the hippocampo-neocortical up-regulation hypothesis, through a multimodal approach (gray matter volume, activation, connectivity analyses), directly comparing recent and remote autobiographical memory retrieval and collecting data to asses phenomelogical re-experiencing. EAM retrieval recruits a distributed network of brain regions, notably the hippocampus which is shown to be atrophied in SD, although some studies report no hippocampal atrophy in SD. Using fMRI, we examined recent and remote EAM retrieval in two SD patients with different profiles of hippocampal atrophy, compared to 12 healthy elders (HE). JPL presented severe bilateral hippocampal atrophy, while EP showed sparing of both hippocampi. Behaviourally, JPL was impaired at retrieving EAMs from both life periods and showed poorer use of visual mental imagery than HE, while EP retrieved memories which were as episodic as those of HE for both periods and relied on greater use of visual mental imagery than HE. Neuroimaging results showed that, for JPL, hyperactivations of the residual hippocampal tissue and of frontal, lateral temporal, occipital and parietal cortices did not efficiently compensate his autobiographical memory deficit. EP however presented hyperactivations in similar neocortical regions which appeared to be more efficient in compensating for atrophy elsewhere, since EP's EAM retrieval was preserved. Functional connectivity analyses focusing on the hippocampus showed how the residual hippocampal activity was connected to other brain

  4. A pancultural perspective on the fading affect bias in autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Timothy D; Batteson, Tamzin J; Bohn, Annette; Crawford, Matthew T; Ferguson, Georgie V; Schrauf, Robert W; Vogl, Rodney J; Walker, W Richard

    2015-01-01

    The fading affect bias (FAB) refers to the negative affect associated with autobiographical events fading faster than the positive affect associated with such events, a reliable and valid valence effect established by researchers in the USA. The present study examined the idea that the FAB is a ubiquitous emotion regulating phenomenon in autobiographical memory that is present in people from a variety of cultures. We tested for evidence of the FAB by sampling more than 2400 autobiographical event descriptions from 562 participants in 10 cultures around the world. Using variations on a common method, each sample evidenced a FAB: positive affect faded slower than negative affect did. Results suggest that in tandem with local norms and customs, the FAB may foster recovery from negative life events and promote the retention of the positive emotions, within and outside of the USA. We discuss these findings in the context of Keltner and Haidt's levels of analysis theory of emotion and culture.

  5. Examining the mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory: capture and rumination, and impaired executive control.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan

    2011-02-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is an important cognitive phenomenon in depression, but questions remain regarding the underlying mechanisms. The CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007) proposes three mechanisms that may contribute to OGM, but little work has examined the possible additive and/or interactive effects among them. We examined two mechanisms of CaR-FA-X: capture and rumination, and impaired executive control. We analysed data from undergraduates (N=109) scoring high or low on rumination who were presented with cues of high and low self-relevance on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). Executive control was operationalised as performance on both the Stroop Colour-Word Task and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). Hierarchical generalised linear modelling was used to predict whether participants would generate a specific memory on a trial of the AMT. Higher COWAT scores, lower rumination, and greater cue self-relevance predicted a higher probability of a specific memory. There was also a rumination×cue self-relevance interaction: Higher (vs lower) rumination was associated with a lower probability of a specific memory primarily for low self-relevant cues. We found no evidence of interactions between these mechanisms. Findings are interpreted with respect to current autobiographical memory models. Future directions for OGM mechanism research are discussed.

  6. Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity Predicts Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Recent Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kleim, Birgit; Ehlers, Anke

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors examined the relationship between reduced specificity in autobiographical memory retrieval and the development of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and specific phobia after injury in an assault. Assault survivors (N = 203) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (J. M. G. Williams & K. Broadbent, 1986) at 2 weeks after the trauma as well as structured clinical interviews at 2 weeks and 6 months. Participants with acute stress disorder or major depression at 2 weeks, but not those with phobia, retrieved fewer specific autobiographical memories than those without the respective disorder. Reduced memory specificity at 2 weeks also predicted subsequent PTSD and major depression at 6 months over and above what could be predicted from initial diagnoses and symptom severity. Moderator analyses showed that low memory specificity predicted later depression in participants with prior episodes of major depression but not in those without prior depression. Mediation analyses suggested that rumination partly mediated and perceived permanent change fully mediated the effects of low memory specificity on posttrauma psychopathology at follow-up. PMID:18377120

  7. The Socialization of Children's Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children's Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…

  8. The Socialization of Children's Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children's Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…

  9. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-08-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined 'most important' autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61-70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump is largely driven by constructive, schematic factors at retrieval, thereby challenging most existing theoretical accounts.

  10. Sharing specific "We" autobiographical memories in close relationships: the role of contact frequency.

    PubMed

    Beike, Denise R; Cole, Holly E; Merrick, Carmen R

    2017-04-10

    Sharing memories in conversations with close others is posited to be part of the social function of autobiographical memory. The present research focused on the sharing of a particular type of memory: Specific memories about one-time co-experienced events, which we termed Specific We memories. Two studies with 595 total participants examined the factors that lead to and/or are influenced by the sharing of Specific We memories. In Study 1, participants reported on their most recent conversation. Specific We memories were reportedly discussed most often in conversations with others who were close and with whom the participant had frequent communication. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned either to increase or to simply record the frequency of communication with a close other (parent). Increases in the frequency of reported sharing of Specific We memories as well as closeness to the parent resulted. Mediation analyses of both studies revealed causal relationships among reported sharing of Specific We memories and closeness. We discuss the relevance of these results for understanding the social function of autobiographical memory.

  11. Effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on autobiographical memory specificity in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Noboru; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) is a characteristic memory bias observed in depression. To corroborate the capture hypothesis in the CaRFAX (capture and rumination, functional avoidance, executive capacity and control) model, we investigated the effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on rAMS using an adapted Autobiographical Memory Test conducted with a nonclinical population. Hierarchical linear modelling indicated that the main effects of depression and self-relevant cues elicited rAMS. Moreover, the three-way interaction among valence, self-relevance, and depression scores was significant. A simple slope test revealed that dysphoric participants experienced rAMS in response to highly self-relevant positive cues and low self-relevant negative cues. These results partially supported the capture hypothesis in nonclinical dysphoria. It is important to consider cue valence in future studies examining the capture hypothesis.

  12. Living in history: how war, terrorism, and natural disaster affect the organization of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Brown, Norman R; Lee, Peter J; Krslak, Mirna; Conrad, Frederick G; G B Hansen, Tia; Havelka, Jelena; Reddon, John R

    2009-04-01

    Memories of war, terrorism, and natural disaster play a critical role in the construction of group identity and the persistence of group conflict. Here, we argue that personal memory and knowledge of the collective past become entwined only when public events have a direct, forceful, and prolonged impact on a population. Support for this position comes from a cross-national study in which participants thought aloud as they dated mundane autobiographical events. We found that Bosnians often mentioned their civil war and that Izmit Turks made frequent reference to the 1999 earthquake in their country. In contrast, public events were rarely mentioned by Serbs, Montenegrins, Ankara Turks, Canadians, Danes, or Israelis. Surprisingly, historical references were absent from (post-September 11) protocols collected in New York City and elsewhere in the United States. Taken together, these findings indicate that it is personal significance, not historical importance, that determines whether public events play a role in organizing autobiographical memory.

  13. Factor structure of overall autobiographical memory usage: the directive, self and social functions revisited.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Anne S; Habermas, Tilmann

    2011-08-01

    According to theory, autobiographical memory serves three broad functions of overall usage: directive, self, and social. However, there is evidence to suggest that the tripartite model may be better conceptualised in terms of a four-factor model with two social functions. In the present study we examined the two models in Danish and German samples, using the Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005), which measures the overall usage of the three functions generalised across concrete memories. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model and rejected the theoretical three-factor model in both samples. The results are discussed in relation to cultural differences in overall autobiographical memory usage as well as sharing versus non-sharing aspects of social remembering.

  14. A longitudinal study of processes predicting the specificity of autobiographical memory in the adolescent offspring of depressed parents.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Adhip; Rice, Frances

    2012-07-01

    Deficits in specific autobiographical memory retrieval are closely associated with depression. The ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories develops throughout childhood and adolescence and is associated with adolescent depression within and across time. Studying young samples before they first experience depression provides an approach for testing processes that underlie reduced autobiographical memory specificity. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal association of rumination and executive function with autobiographical memory specificity in a sample of adolescents at elevated risk for future depression. A total of 259 adolescents (aged between 10 and 18 years) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Measures of rumination, executive function, and depressive symptoms were obtained at baseline. The interaction between rumination and executive function predicted autobiographical memory specificity over time. Whereas rumination in the context of low executive function predicted reduced specificity, this was not the case in the context of high executive function. The interaction between rumination and executive function was independent of the effects of age, gender, IQ, baseline levels of memory specificity, and depressive symptoms.

  15. A preliminary investigation of the effect of hypomanic personality on the specificity and speed of autobiographical memory recall

    PubMed Central

    Delduca, Claire M.; Jones, Steven H.; Barnard, Philip

    2009-01-01

    There is some evidence that patients with bipolar disorder recall more overgeneral than specific autobiographical memories, a pattern widely reported in depression. However, there are also theoretical arguments (Barnard, Watkins, & Ramponi, 2006) suggesting that experiential processing should predominate during mania/hypomania, with an associated prediction of an increase in specific rather than overgeneral memories. This hypothesis was explicitly tested using the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). The specificity and speed of autobiographical recollection was compared for those with high or low levels of hypomanic personality as indexed by the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS). High HPS scorers recalled specific autobiographical memories in response to unpleasant cues more frequently and faster than low scorers. These results provide partial support for the hypothesis, but only for unpleasant cues. PMID:19927258

  16. Involuntary (spontaneous) mental time travel into the past and future.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Jacobsen, Anne Staerk

    2008-12-01

    Mental time travel (MTT) is the ability to mentally project oneself backward in time to relive past experiences and forward in time to pre-live possible future experiences. Previous work has focused on MTT in its voluntary (controlled) form. Here, we introduce the notion of involuntary (spontaneous) MTT. We examined involuntary versus voluntary and past versus future MTT in a diary study. We found that involuntary future event representations-defined as representations of possible personal future events that come to mind with no preceding search attempts-were as common as involuntary autobiographical memories and similar to them regarding cuing and subjective qualities. Future MTT involved more positive and idyllic representations than past MTT. MTT into the distant future/past involved more representations of cultural life script events than MTT into the immediate past/future. The findings are discussed in relation to cultural learning and MTT considered as a higher mental process.

  17. [Effects of recollecting autobiographical memories on the emotional well-being of older adults].

    PubMed

    Westerhof, G J; Lamers, S M A; de Vries, D R S L

    2010-02-01

    This experiment examined the effect of different ways of recollecting autobiographical memories on emotional well-being. Participants between 65 and 80 years old (N = 70) were instructed to write about a memory from their life when they were 15 to 30 years old. They were asked to do this in a narrative way about a positive memory, in a narrative way about a negative memory or in an interpretative way about a negative memory. We also examined whether spontaneous reminiscence types in everyday life moderate the effects of the experimental manipulation on emotional well-being. Narrating positive memories is more favourable for negative affect than narrating or interpreting negative memories. There is no moderating role for everyday reminiscence types, even though these are related to emotional well-being. Manipulated and spontaneous reminiscence are therefore different. This is a favourable finding for reminiscence interventions, because they can stimulate positive memories, no matter how older people are used to memorize their past.

  18. Trauma and autobiographical memory: contents and determinants of earliest memories among war-affected Palestinian children.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-03-23

    The contents of earliest memories (EM), as part of autobiographical memory, continue to fascinate scientists and therapists. However, research is scarce on the determinants of EM, especially among children. This study aims, first, to identify contents of EM of children living in war conditions, and, second, to analyse child gender, traumatic events and mental health as determinants of the contents of EM. The participants were 240 Palestinian schoolchildren from the Gaza Strip (10-12 years, M = 11.35, SD = 0.57; 49.4% girls). They responded to an open-ended EM question, and reported their trauma exposures (war trauma, losses and current traumatic events), posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms and psychosocial well-being, indicating mental health. The EM coding involved nature, social orientation, emotional tone and specificity. Results showed, first, that 43% reported playing or visiting a nice place as EM, and about a third (30%) traumatic events or accidents (30%) or miscellaneous events (27%). The individual and social orientation were almost equally common, the emotional tone mainly neutral (45.5%), and 60% remembered a specific event. Second, boys remembered more EM involving traumatic events or accidents, and girls more social events. Third, war trauma was associated with less positive emotional tone and with more specific memories.

  19. Visual imagery deficits, impaired strategic retrieval, or memory loss: disentangling the nature of an amnesic person's autobiographical memory deficit.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, R Shayna; McKinnon, Margaret C; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions about the duration of hippocampal contributions to our autobiographical record of personal episodes have come under intense scrutiny in recent years. Interpretation is complicated by such factors as extent and site of lesions as well as test sensitivity. We describe the case of an amnesic person, K.C., with large, bilateral hippocampal lesions who figured prominently in the development of theories of remote memory due to his severely impoverished autobiographical memory extending across his entire lifetime. However, the presence of lesions in higher-order visual cortex raises the possibility that K.C.'s retrograde autobiographical amnesia is mediated by loss of long-term visual images, whereas widespread frontal lesions suggest that his impairment may relate to deficits in strategic retrieval rather than storage. Normal performance on an extensive battery of visual imagery tests refutes the imagery loss interpretation. To test for deficits in strategic retrieval, we used a more formal autobiographical memory test requiring generation of personal events under varying levels of retrieval support. However, even with rigorous contextual prompting, K.C. produced few pre-injury recollections; all were schematic, lacking the richness of detail produced by control participants, raising doubt that his deficit is one of retrieval. Findings are discussed in the context of theories concerning the duration of hippocampal-neocortical interactions in supporting autobiographical re-experiencing. The approach we used to investigate the effects of different lesions on memory provides a framework for dealing with other patients who present with an interesting functional deficit whose neuroanatomical source is difficult to specify due to widespread lesions.

  20. Severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) in healthy adults: A new mnemonic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Daniela J; Alain, Claude; Söderlund, Hedvig; Khuu, Wayne; Levine, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Recollection of previously experienced events is a key element of human memory that entails recovery of spatial, perceptual, and mental state details. While deficits in this capacity in association with brain disease have serious functional consequences, little is known about individual differences in autobiographical memory (AM) in healthy individuals. Recently, healthy adults with highly superior autobiographical capacities have been identified (e.g., LePort, A.K., Mattfeld, A.T., Dickinson-Anson, H., Fallon, J.H., Stark, C.E., Kruggel, F., McGaugh, J.L., 2012. Behavioral and neuroanatomical investigation of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM). Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 98(1), 78-92. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2012.05.002). Here we report data from three healthy, high functioning adults with the reverse pattern: lifelong severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) with otherwise preserved cognitive function. Their self-reported selective inability to vividly recollect personally experienced events from a first-person perspective was corroborated by absence of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) biomarkers associated with naturalistic and laboratory episodic recollection, as well as by behavioral evidence of impaired episodic retrieval, particularly for visual information. Yet learning and memory were otherwise intact, as long as these tasks could be accomplished by non-episodic processes. Thus these individuals function normally in day-to-day life, even though their past is experienced in the absence of recollection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting Retrograde Autobiographical Memory Changes Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Relationships between Individual, Treatment, and Early Clinical Factors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Donel M; Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-06-19

    Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side effects should be particularly considered for

  2. Predicting Retrograde Autobiographical Memory Changes Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Relationships between Individual, Treatment, and Early Clinical Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Methods: Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview – Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results: Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview – Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Conclusions: Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side

  3. Age influences the relation between subjective valence ratings and emotional word use during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn H; DiGirolamo, Marissa A; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Recent research reveals an age-related increase in positive autobiographical memory retrieval using a number of positivity measures, including valence ratings and positive word use. It is currently unclear whether the positivity shift in each of these measures co-occurs, or if age uniquely influences multiple components of autobiographical memory retrieval. The current study examined the correspondence between valence ratings and emotional word use in young and older adults' autobiographical memories. Positive word use in narratives was associated with valence ratings only in young adults' narratives. Older adults' narratives contained a consistent level of positive word use regardless of valence rating, suggesting that positive words and concepts may be chronically accessible to older adults during memory retrieval, regardless of subjective valence. Although a relation between negative word use in narratives and negative valence ratings was apparent in both young and older adults, it was stronger in older adults' narratives. These findings confirm that older adults do vary their word use in accordance with subjective valence, but they do so in a way that is different from young adults. The results also point to a potential dissociation between age-related changes in subjective valence and in positive word use.

  4. Psychometric properties of the written version of the autobiographical memory test in a japanese community sample.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Mori, Masaki; Nishiguchi, Yuki; Moriya, Jun; Raes, Filip

    2017-02-01

    The autobiographical memory test (AMT) is a widely used measure to assess the specificity of autobiographical memories. Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity (AMS) or increased overgeneralization of memories is considered as a cognitive hallmark of depression. Therefore, reduced AMS is the subject of much psychopathological research, and is a promising target for psychological interventions. Although considerable evidence has been gathered on the clinical relevance of reduced AMS over the past decades, studies on AMS have been mainly conducted in Western populations, and few have been conducted in Asian populations. This could be because of the unknown psychometric properties of the AMT given cultural and language differences. Therefore, the present study examined the psychometric properties of the AMT in a Japanese community sample (N=1240). Our data replicated that (a) the AMT has a uni-factorial structure; (b) AMS has a small but statistically significant negative correlation with depressive symptoms; (c) AMS shows a significant declining trend as a function of age, which influences the magnitude of the association between AMS and depressive symptoms in older adults. These findings suggest that the AMT has robust psychometric properties across different languages and cultural backgrounds.

  5. Pauses During Autobiographical Discourse Reflect Episodic Memory Processes in Early Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pistono, Aurélie; Jucla, Mélanie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Lemesle, Béatrice; Calvet, Benjamin; Köpke, Barbara; Puel, Michèle; Pariente, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    There is a large body of research on discourse production in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some studies have focused on pause production, revealing that patients make extensive use of pauses during speech. This has been attributed to lexical retrieval difficulties, but pausing may also reflect other forms of cognitive impairment as it increases with cognitive load. The aim of the present study was to analyze autobiographical discourse impairment in AD from a broad perspective, looking at pausing behavior (frequency, duration, and location). Our first objective was to characterize discourse changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD. Our second objective was to determine the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of these changes. Fifteen patients with MCI due to AD and 15 matched cognitively normal controls underwent an ecological episodic memory task, a full neuropsychological assessment, and a 3D T1-weighted MRI scans. Autobiographical discourse collected from the ecological episodic memory task was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed, focusing on pausing. Intergroup comparisons showed that although patients did not produce more pauses than controls overall, they did make more between-utterance pauses. The number of these specific pauses was positively correlated with patients' episodic memory performance. Furthermore, neuroimaging analysis showed that, in the patient group, their use was negatively correlated with frontopolar area (BA 10) grey matter density. This region may therefore play an important role in the planning of autobiographical discourse production. These findings demonstrate that pauses in early AD may reflect a compensatory mechanism for improving mental time travel and memory retrieval.

  6. Olfactory cues are more effective than visual cues in experimentally triggering autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Maaike J; Bender, Michael

    2017-10-02

    Folk wisdom often refers to odours as potent triggers for autobiographical memory, akin to the Proust phenomenon that describes Proust's sudden recollection of a childhood memory when tasting a madeleine dipped into tea. Despite an increasing number of empirical studies on the effects of odours on cognition, conclusive evidence is still missing. We set out to examine the effectiveness of childhood and non-childhood odours as retrieval cues for autobiographical memories in a lab experiment. A total of 170 participants were presented with pilot-tested retrieval cues (either odours or images) to recall childhood memories and were then asked to rate the vividness, detail, and emotional intensity of these memories. Results showed that participants indeed reported richer memories when presented with childhood-related odours than childhood-related images or childhood-unrelated odours or images. An exploratory analysis of memory content with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count did not reveal differences in affective content. The findings of this study support the notion that odours are particularly potent in eliciting rich memories and open up numerous avenues for further exploration.

  7. Knowledge of memory functions in European and Asian American adults and children: the relation to autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.

  8. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts changes in depression in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Van Daele, Tom; Griffith, James W; Van den Bergh, Omer; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) predicts the course of symptoms of depression and anxiety in a community sample, after 5, 6, 12 and 18 months. Participants (N=156) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) at baseline and were subsequently reassessed using the DASS-21 at four time points over a period of 18 months. Using latent growth curve modelling, we found that OGM was associated with a linear increase in depression. We were unable to detect changes over time in anxiety. OGM may be an important marker to identify people at risk for depression in the future, but more research is needed with anxiety.

  9. Rumination and depression in Chinese university students: The mediating role of overgeneral autobiographical memory

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Tianzhu; He, Yini; Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Xiao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we examined the mediator effects of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) on the relationship between rumination and depression in 323 Chinese university students. Method 323 undergraduates completed the questionnaires measuring OGM (Autobiographical Memory Test), rumination (Ruminative Response Scale) and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Results Results using structural equation modeling showed that OGM partially-mediated the relationship between rumination and depression (χ2 = 88.61, p < .01; RMSEA = .051; SRMR = .040; and CFI = .91). Bootstrap methods were used to assess the magnitude of the indirect effects. The results of the bootstrap estimation procedure and subsequent analyses indicated that the indirect effects of OGM on the relationship between rumination and depressive symptoms were significant. Conclusion The results indicated that rumination and depression were partially mediated by OGM. PMID:25977594

  10. Remembering and forecasting: The relation between autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Bohn, Annette

    2010-04-01

    Episodic future thinking is a projection of the self into the future to mentally preexperience an event. Previous work has shown striking similarities between autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking in response to various experimental manipulations. This has nurtured the idea of a shared neurocognitive system underlying both processes. Here, undergraduates generated autobiographical memories and future event representations in response to cue words and requests for important events and rated their characteristics. Important and word-cued events differed markedly on almost all measures. Past, as compared with future, events were rated as more sensorially vivid and less relevant to life story and identity. However, in contrast to previous work, these main effects were qualified by a number of interactions, suggesting important functional differences between the two temporal directions. For both temporal directions, sensory imagery dropped, whereas self-narrative importance and reference to normative cultural life script events increased with increasing temporal distance.

  11. Recent Advances in Understanding the Reminiscence Bump: The Importance of Cues in Guiding Recall from Autobiographical Memory.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Jonathan; Rubin, David C

    2016-04-01

    The reminiscence bump is the increased proportion of autobiographical memories from youth and early adulthood observed in adults over 40. It is one of the most robust findings in autobiographical memory research. Although described as a single period of increased memories, a recent meta-analysis which reported the beginning and ending ages of the bump from individual studies found that different classes of cues produce distinct bumps that vary in size and temporal location. The bump obtained in response to cue words is both smaller and located earlier in the lifespan than the bump obtained when important memories are requested. The bump obtained in response to odor cues is even earlier. This variation in the size and location of the reminiscence bump argues for theories based primarily on retrieval rather than encoding and retention, which most current theories stress. Furthermore, it points to the need to develop theories of autobiographical memory that account for this flexibility in the memories retrieved.

  12. Recent Advances in Understanding the Reminiscence Bump: The Importance of Cues in Guiding Recall from Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Jonathan; Rubin, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the increased proportion of autobiographical memories from youth and early adulthood observed in adults over 40. It is one of the most robust findings in autobiographical memory research. Although described as a single period of increased memories, a recent meta-analysis which reported the beginning and ending ages of the bump from individual studies found that different classes of cues produce distinct bumps that vary in size and temporal location. The bump obtained in response to cue words is both smaller and located earlier in the lifespan than the bump obtained when important memories are requested. The bump obtained in response to odor cues is even earlier. This variation in the size and location of the reminiscence bump argues for theories based primarily on retrieval rather than encoding and retention, which most current theories stress. Furthermore, it points to the need to develop theories of autobiographical memory that account for this flexibility in the memories retrieved. PMID:27141156

  13. Personality traits, autobiographical memory and knowledge of self and others: A comparative study in young people with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sally; Howlin, Patricia; Russell, Ailsa

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between dissociable components of autobiographical memory (e.g. semantic personality traits and episodic memory retrieval) and other cognitive skills that are proposed to enable one to develop a sense of self (e.g. introspection) have not previously been explored for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study compared autobiographical memory (semantic and episodic) and knowledge of self (internal/external self-knowledge and introspection/mentalising abilities) in children (aged 11-18 years) with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and typically developing controls (total N = 48). Novel and standard tasks were employed. Compared to typically developing controls, young people with autism spectrum disorder had autobiographical memory difficulties that were characterised by a reduction in the retrieval of semantic personality traits, with more initial prompts required to facilitate episodic memory retrieval and fewer episodic memories containing emotional and sensory information. Knowledge of the self and others was also impaired, with reduced introspection and poorer mentalising abilities. Young people with autism spectrum disorder were also identified as presenting with an atypical relationship between autobiographical memory and self-knowledge, which was significantly different from typically developing controls. Test performance is discussed in relation to the functions of autobiographical memory, with consideration of how these cognitive difficulties may contribute to clinical practices and the social and behavioural characteristics of autism spectrum disorder.

  14. Autobiographical memory retrieval and hippocampal activation as a function of repetition and the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Nadel, Lynn; Campbell, Jenna; Ryan, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Multiple trace theory (MTT) predicts that hippocampal memory traces expand and strengthen as a function of repeated memory retrievals. We tested this hypothesis utilizing fMRI, comparing the effect of memory retrieval versus the mere passage of time on hippocampal activation. While undergoing fMRI scanning, participants retrieved remote autobiographical memories that had been previously retrieved either one month earlier, two days earlier, or multiple times during the preceding month. Behavioral analyses revealed that the number and consistency of memory details retrieved increased with multiple retrievals but not with the passage of time. While all three retrieval conditions activated a similar set of brain regions normally associated with autobiographical memory retrieval including medial temporal lobe structures, hippocampal activation did not change as a function of either multiple retrievals or the passage of time. However, activation in other brain regions, including the precuneus, lateral prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, lateral temporal lobe, and perirhinal cortex increased after multiple retrievals, but was not influenced by the passage of time. These results have important implications for existing theories of long-term memory consolidation.

  15. Development of episodic and autobiographical memory: The importance of remembering forgetting.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J

    2015-12-01

    Some memories of the events of our lives have a long shelf-life-they remain accessible to recollection even after long delays. Yet many other of our experiences are forgotten, sometimes very soon after they take place. In spite of the prevalence of forgetting, theories of the development of episodic and autobiographical memory largely ignore it as a potential source of variance in explanation of age-related variability in long-term recall. They focus instead on what may be viewed as positive developmental changes, that is, changes that result in improvements in the quality of memory representations that are formed. The purpose of this review is to highlight the role of forgetting as an important variable in understanding the development of episodic and autobiographical memory. Forgetting processes are implicated as a source of variability in long-term recall due to the protracted course of development of the neural substrate responsible for transformation of fleeting experiences into memory traces that can be integrated into long-term stores and retrieved at later points in time. It is logical to assume that while the substrate is developing, neural processing is relatively inefficient and ineffective, resulting in loss of information from memory (i.e., forgetting). For this reason, focus on developmental increases in the quality of representations of past events and experiences will tell only a part of the story of how memory develops. A more complete account is afforded when we also consider changes in forgetting.

  16. Intrinsic Default Mode Network Connectivity Predicts Spontaneous Verbal Descriptions of Autobiographical Memories during Social Processing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Fei; Bossmann, Julia; Schiffhauer, Birte; Jordan, Matthew; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2013-01-01

    Neural systems activated in a coordinated way during rest, known as the default mode network (DMN), also support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval and social processing/mentalizing. However, little is known about how individual variability in reliance on personal memories during social processing relates to individual differences in DMN functioning during rest (intrinsic functional connectivity). Here we examined 18 participants’ spontaneous descriptions of autobiographical memories during a 2 h, private, open-ended interview in which they reacted to a series of true stories about real people’s social situations and responded to the prompt, “how does this person’s story make you feel?” We classified these descriptions as either containing factual information (“semantic” AMs) or more elaborate descriptions of emotionally meaningful events (“episodic” AMs). We also collected resting state fMRI scans from the participants and related individual differences in frequency of described AMs to participants’ intrinsic functional connectivity within regions of the DMN. We found that producing more descriptions of either memory type correlated with stronger intrinsic connectivity in the parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. Additionally, episodic AM descriptions correlated with connectivity in the bilateral hippocampi and medial prefrontal cortex, and semantic memory descriptions correlated with connectivity in right inferior lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in individuals who naturally invoke more memories during social processing, brain regions involved in memory retrieval and self/social processing are more strongly coupled to the DMN during rest. PMID:23316178

  17. Development of episodic and autobiographical memory: The importance of remembering forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Some memories of the events of our lives have a long shelf-life—they remain accessible to recollection even after long delays. Yet many other of our experiences are forgotten, sometimes very soon after they take place. In spite of the prevalence of forgetting, theories of the development of episodic and autobiographical memory largely ignore it as a potential source of variance in explanation of age-related variability in long-term recall. They focus instead on what may be viewed as positive developmental changes, that is, changes that result in improvements in the quality of memory representations that are formed. The purpose of this review is to highlight the role of forgetting as an important variable in understanding the development of episodic and autobiographical memory. Forgetting processes are implicated as a source of variability in long-term recall due to the protracted course of development of the neural substrate responsible for transformation of fleeting experiences into memory traces that can be integrated into long-term stores and retrieved at later points in time. It is logical to assume that while the substrate is developing, neural processing is relatively inefficient and ineffective, resulting in loss of information from memory (i.e., forgetting). For this reason, focus on developmental increases in the quality of representations of past events and experiences will tell only a part of the story of how memory develops. A more complete account is afforded when we also consider changes in forgetting. PMID:26644633

  18. Brooding Is Related to Neural Alterations during Autobiographical Memory Retrieval in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Sophia; Brassen, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Brooding rumination is considered a central aspect of depression in midlife. As older people tend to review their past, rumination tendency might be particularly crucial in late life since it might hinder older adults to adequately evaluate previous events. We scanned 22 non-depressed older adults with varying degrees of brooding tendency with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while they performed the construction and elaboration of autobiographical memories. Behavioral findings demonstrate that brooders reported lower mood states, needed more time for memory construction and rated their memories as less detailed and less positive. On the neural level, brooding tendency was related to increased amygdala activation during the search for specific memories and reduced engagement of cortical networks during elaboration. Moreover, coupling patterns of the subgenual cingulate cortex with the hippocampus (HC) and the amygdala predicted details and less positive valence of memories in brooders. Our findings support the hypothesis that ruminative thinking interferes with the search for specific memories while facilitating the uncontrolled retrieval of negatively biased self-schemes. The observed neurobehavioral dysfunctions might put older people with brooding tendency at high risk for becoming depressed when reviewing their past. Training of autobiographical memory ability might therefore be a promising approach to increase resilience against depression in late-life. PMID:27695414

  19. Autobiographical Memory Retrieval and Hippocampal Activation as a Function of Repetition and the Passage of Time

    PubMed Central

    Nadel, Lynn; Campbell, Jenna; Ryan, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Multiple trace theory (MTT) predicts that hippocampal memory traces expand and strengthen as a function of repeated memory retrievals. We tested this hypothesis utilizing fMRI, comparing the effect of memory retrieval versus the mere passage of time on hippocampal activation. While undergoing fMRI scanning, participants retrieved remote autobiographical memories that had been previously retrieved either one month earlier, two days earlier, or multiple times during the preceding month. Behavioral analyses revealed that the number and consistency of memory details retrieved increased with multiple retrievals but not with the passage of time. While all three retrieval conditions activated a similar set of brain regions normally associated with autobiographical memory retrieval including medial temporal lobe structures, hippocampal activation did not change as a function of either multiple retrievals or the passage of time. However, activation in other brain regions, including the precuneus, lateral prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, lateral temporal lobe, and perirhinal cortex increased after multiple retrievals, but was not influenced by the passage of time. These results have important implications for existing theories of long-term memory consolidation. PMID:18274617

  20. Threat of death and autobiographical memory: a study of passengers from Flight AT236

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Margaret C.; Palombo, Daniela J.; Nazarov, Anthony; Kumar, Namita; Khuu, Wayne; Levine, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated autobiographical memory in a group of passengers onboard a trans-Atlantic flight that nearly ditched at sea. The consistency of traumatic exposure across passengers, some of whom developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), provided a unique opportunity to assess verified memory for life-threatening trauma. Using the Autobiographical Interview, which separates episodic from non-episodic details, passengers and healthy controls (HCs) recalled three events: the airline disaster (or a highly negative event for HCs), the September 11, 2001 attacks, and a non-emotional event. All passengers showed robust mnemonic enhancement for episodic details of the airline disaster. Although neither richness nor accuracy of traumatic recollection was related to PTSD, production of non-episodic details for traumatic and non-traumatic events was elevated in PTSD passengers. These findings indicate a robust mnemonic enhancement for trauma that is not specific to PTSD. Rather, PTSD is associated with altered cognitive control operations that affect autobiographical memory in general. PMID:26167422

  1. Investigating the enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Cunningham, Conal J; Walsh, J Bernard; Coakley, Davis; Lawlor, Brian A; Robertson, Ian H; Coen, Robert F

    2006-01-01

    The enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory recall in mild Alzheimer's disease individuals (n = 10; Mini-Mental State Examination score >17/30) and healthy elderly matched individuals (n = 10; Mini-Mental State Examination score 25-30) was investigated. Using a repeated-measures design, each participant was seen on two occasions: once in music condition (Vivaldi's 'Spring' movement from 'The Four Seasons') and once in silence condition, with order counterbalanced. Considerable improvement was found for Alzheimer individuals' recall on the Autobiographical Memory Interview in the music condition, with an interaction for condition by group (p < 0.005). There were no differences in terms of overall arousal using galvanic skin response recordings or attentional errors during the Sustained Attention to Response Task. A significant reduction in state anxiety was found on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory in the music condition (p < 0.001), suggesting anxiety reduction as a potential mechanism underlying the enhancing effect of music on autobiographical memory recall.

  2. The effects of gender on the retrieval of episodic and semantic components of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Amanda; Desrocher, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that women exhibit greater episodic memory specificity than men, little attention has been paid to gender differences in the production of episodic details during autobiographical recall under conditions of high and low retrieval support. Similarly the role of gender on the production of semantic details used to support autobiographical memory recollections of specific events has been largely unexplored. In the present study an undergraduate sample of 50 men and 50 women were assessed using the Autobiographical Interview (Levine, Svoboda, Hay, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2002). Women recalled more episodic information compared to men in the high retrieval support condition, whereas no gender differences were found in the low retrieval support condition. In addition, women produced more repetitions compared to men in the high retrieval support condition. No gender differences were found in the production of semantic details. These results are interpreted in terms of gender differences in encoding and reminiscence practices. This research adds to the literature on gender differences in memory recall and suggests that gender is an important variable in explaining individual differences in AM recall.

  3. Topographical, autobiographical and semantic memory in a patient with bilateral mesial temporal and retrosplenial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hepner, Ilana J; Mohamed, Armin; Fulham, Michael J; Miller, Laurie A

    2007-04-01

    According to Consolidation Theory (Squire, 1992, Psychological Review, 99, 195; Squire & Alvarez, 1995, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 5, 169), the mesial temporal lobes have a time-limited role in the maintenance, storage and retrieval of retrograde declarative memories, such that they are not necessary for recalling remote memories. In contrast, proponents of the Multiple Trace Theory (Fuji, Moscovitch, & Nadel, 2000, Handbook of neuropsychology, 2nd ed., p 223, Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier; Nadel & Moscovitch, 1999, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7, 217) posit that the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is necessary for remembering detailed autobiographical and topographical material from all time periods. A third theory of hippocampal function, the Cognitive Map Theory (O'Keefe & Nadel, 1978, The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford: Clarendon), states that the hippocampus is involved in the processing of allocentric spatial representations. The precise role of the MTL in remote memory has been difficult to elucidate, as the majority of studies present cases with widespread brain damage that often occurred many years prior to testing. We investigated retrograde autobiographical, semantic and topographical memories in a subject (SG) who had recently sustained infarctions confined to the MTL and retrosplenial region bilaterally. Inconsistent with the predictions of Cognitive Map Theory, memory for spatial maps that were learned in the past was preserved. Additional testing indicated that SG suffered from a landmark agnosia, which affected remotely and recently acquired information equally. SG was also poor at imagining which direction he would have to turn his body to move from one landmark to another. In accordance with Consolidation Theory, SG performed similarly to control subjects for remote time periods on various measures of retrograde autobiographical memory and demonstrated intact knowledge regarding famous faces and vocabulary terms that were acquired in

  4. Does retrieval frequency account for the pattern of autobiographical memory loss in early Alzheimer's disease patients?

    PubMed

    De Simone, Maria Stefania; Fadda, Lucia; Perri, Roberta; Aloisi, Marta; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2016-01-08

    Episodic autobiographical memory (ABM) has been found to be impaired from the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous works have focused on how ABM decreases over the lifespan, but no study has deeply investigated whether the extent of episodic autobiographical amnesia is mediated by the retrieval frequency of the episodic trace itself. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the frequency of trace retrieval has an effect on the quality of autobiographical incidents recall and whether the extent of this contribution changes over time. For this purpose, the episodic component of ABM was assessed in patients in the early stage of AD through a questionnaire which allowed evaluating memory of past personal incidents as a function of both their age of acquisition and retrieval frequency. We found that both AD patients and healthy controls took advantage of greater retrieval frequency across all time segments, because of their better memory performance on frequently retrieved episodes than less frequently retrieved ones. Although in the AD group the retrieval frequency effect (i.e., higher scores on the episodes rated as more frequently retrieved) was found in all time segments, the extent of its beneficial effect on memory performance was temporally-graded and inversely related to the time course. Our findings provide new evidence that the combined action of both age of memory and retrieval frequency could provide a valuable framework for predicting patterns of ABM loss, at least in early AD patients. In line with the Multiple Trace Theory, we speculated that retrieval frequency protects episodic trace recall against hippocampal damage by reinforcing the neural representation of personal context-rich memories, which consequently are easier to access and recall. Furthermore, the age of memory should change the amplitude of this beneficial effect as a function of the remoteness of the trace.

  5. In search of autobiographical memories: A PET study in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Piolino, Pascale; Chételat, Gaël; Matuszewski, Vanessa; Landeau, Brigitte; Mézenge, Florence; Viader, Fausto; de la Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2007-09-20

    Patients suffering from frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fv-FTD) undergo autobiographical amnesia encompassing all time periods. We previously demonstrated in a group of 20 fv-FTD patients that this impairment involved deficits in executive function and semantic memory for all periods as well as new episodic learning and behavioural changes for the most recent period covering the last 12 months [Matuszewski, V., Piolino, P., de la Sayette, V., Lalevée, C., Pélerin, A., Dupuy, B., et al. (2006). Retrieval mechanisms for autobiographical memories: Insights from the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia, Neuropsychologia, 44, 2386-2397]. The aim of the present study was to unravel the neural bases of this impairment by mapping in a subgroup of patients correlations between resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET and measures of autobiographical memory (AM) using the TEMPau task which is designed to gauge personal event recollection across five life time periods. Like in our previous report, the group of patients was impaired regardless of time periods compared to healthy subjects providing generic memories instead of event specific sensory-perceptual-affective details, i.e., episodic memories. New data showed that the patients were also impaired in sense of reliving and self-perspective during retrieval. The cognitivo-metabolic correlations between the AM score and resting normalized FDG-Uptake were computed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and controlling for age and dementia severity. They revealed that AM deficits were mainly subserved by the dysfunction of left-sided orbitofrontal and also temporal neocortical areas whatever the period. Additional analysis showed that specific memories were associated with left orbitofrontal areas whereas generic memories were mainly associated with the left temporal pole. This study supports the view that fv-FTD patients undergo a breakdown of generative processes which relies

  6. Music, emotion, and autobiographical memory: they're playing your song.

    PubMed

    Schulkind, M D; Hennis, L K; Rubin, D C

    1999-11-01

    Very long-term memory for popular music was investigated. Older and younger adults listened to 20-sec excerpts of popular songs drawn from across the 20th century. The subjects gave emotionality and preference ratings and tried to name the title, artist, and year of popularity for each excerpt. They also performed a cued memory test for the lyrics. The older adults' emotionality ratings were highest for songs from their youth; they remembered more about these songs, as well. However, the stimuli failed to cue many autobiographical memories of specific events. Further analyses revealed that the older adults were less likely than the younger adults to retrieve multiple attributes of a song together (i.e., title and artist) and that there was a significant positive correlation between emotion and memory, especially for the older adults. These results have implications for research on long-term memory, as well as on the relationship between emotion and memory.

  7. More than a feeling: Emotional cues impact the access and experience of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Signy; Donahue, Julia

    2017-02-27

    Remembering is impacted by several factors of retrieval, including the emotional content of a memory cue. Here we tested how musical retrieval cues that differed on two dimensions of emotion-valence (positive and negative) and arousal (high and low)-impacted the following aspects of autobiographical memory recall: the response time to access a past personal event, the experience of remembering (ratings of memory vividness), the emotional content of a cued memory (ratings of event arousal and valence), and the type of event recalled (ratings of event energy, socialness, and uniqueness). We further explored how cue presentation affected autobiographical memory retrieval by administering cues of similar arousal and valence levels in a blocked fashion to one half of the tested participants, and randomly to the other half. We report three main findings. First, memories were accessed most quickly in response to musical cues that were highly arousing and positive in emotion. Second, we observed a relation between a cue and the elicited memory's emotional valence but not arousal; however, both the cue valence and arousal related to the nature of the recalled event. Specifically, high cue arousal led to lower memory vividness and uniqueness ratings, but cues with both high arousal and positive valence were associated with memories rated as more social and energetic. Finally, cue presentation impacted both how quickly and specifically memories were accessed and how cue valence affected the memory vividness ratings. The implications of these findings for views of how emotion directs the access to memories and the experience of remembering are discussed.

  8. "Owning" the personal past: Adolescents' and adults' autobiographical narratives and ratings of memories of recent and distant events.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Larkina, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Adults and adolescents are characterised as having different perspectives on their personal or autobiographical memories. Adults are recognised as having vivid recollections of past events and as appreciating the meaning and significance of their autobiographical memories. In development, these qualities are noted as absent as late as adolescence. To evaluate the assumption of developmental differences, we directly compared autobiographical memories of adults and adolescents drawn from each of several periods in the past, using measures of narrative quality (coded independently) and participants' own subjective ratings of their memories. Adults' narratives of events from the previous year and for the "most significant" event of their lives were coded as more thematically coherent relative to those of adolescents'; the groups did not differ on thematic coherence of narratives of early-life events (ages 1-5 and 6-10 years). The ratings that adults and adolescents provided of their autobiographical memories were similar overall; differences were more apparent for early-life events than for more recent events and indicated stronger mnemonic experiences among adolescents than adults. The pattern of findings suggests that whereas adults have more sophisticated narrative tools for describing the significance of events and their relation to the corpus of autobiographical memories, adolescents as well as adults have vivid recollective experiences as well as personal and subjective perspective on the events of their lives and their memories thereof.

  9. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tomadesso, Clémence; Perrotin, Audrey; Mutlu, Justine; Mézenge, Florence; Landeau, Brigitte; Egret, Stéphanie; de la Sayette, Vincent; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old) and recent (the ten last years) autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD. PMID:26106572

  10. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tomadesso, Clémence; Perrotin, Audrey; Mutlu, Justine; Mézenge, Florence; Landeau, Brigitte; Egret, Stéphanie; de la Sayette, Vincent; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old) and recent (the ten last years) autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD.

  11. Overgeneral autobiographical memory as a predictor of the course of depression: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Griffith, James W; Mineka, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a robust phenomenon in depression, but the extent to which OGM predicts the course of depression is not well-established. This meta-analysis synthesized data from 15 studies to examine the degree to which OGM 1) correlates with depressive symptoms at follow-up, and 2) predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up over and above initial depressive symptoms. Although the effects are small, specific and categoric/overgeneral memories generated during the Autobiographical Memory Test significantly predicted the course of depression. Fewer specific memories and more categoric/overgeneral memories were associated with higher follow-up depressive symptoms, and predicted higher follow-up symptoms over and above initial symptoms. Potential moderators were also examined. The age and clinical depression status of participants, as well as the length of follow-up between the two depressive symptom assessments, significantly moderated the predictive relationship between OGM and the course of depression. The predictive relationship between specific memories and follow-up depressive symptoms became greater with increasing age and a shorter length of follow-up, and the predictive relationship was stronger for participants with clinical depression diagnoses than for nonclinical participants. These findings highlight OGM as a predictor of the course of depression, and future studies should investigate the mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  12. The effects of imagery on problem-solving ability and autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Ashley A; Astell, Arlene; Dritschel, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    Williams et al. (2006) found that increased imageability of cue words during an autobiographical memory task increased specificity of autobiographical memory (ABM) and improved subsequent social problem-solving (SPS). This study explored whether imagery during SPS improved SPS skill, perceived SPS ability, and the specificity of ABMs retrieved in the process of SPS in dysphoric students. Additionally, this study hypothesised that both memory specificity and perceived SPS ability would positively correlate with SPS skill. Dysphoric and non-dysphoric students solved hypothetical social problems on a modified version of the Means-End Problem-Solving task with a verbal or an imagery focus. Participants also completed a questionnaire about ABMs retrieved during SPS and rated their perceived effectiveness of their solutions. Contrary to Williams et al. (2006), the imagery focus did not improve SPS skill or influence perceived effectiveness. Additionally, in contrast to the hypothesis, the imagery group retrieved more overgeneral memories. Finally, ABM specificity did not correlate with SPS skill. However, dysphoric participants perceived specific memories to be significantly less helpful to SPS whereas non-dysphoric participants perceived specific memories to be helpful potentially supporting work on overgeneral ABM and functional avoidance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory as a Predictor of the Course of Depression: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Griffith, James W.; Mineka, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a robust phenomenon in depression, but the extent to which OGM predicts the course of depression is not well-established. This meta-analysis synthesized data from 15 studies to examine the degree to which OGM 1) correlates with depressive symptoms at follow-up, and 2) predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up over and above initial depressive symptoms. Although the effects are small, specific and categoric/overgeneral memories generated during the Autobiographical Memory Test significantly predicted the course of depression. Fewer specific memories and more categoric/overgeneral memories were associated with higher follow-up depressive symptoms, and predicted higher follow-up symptoms over and above initial symptoms. Potential moderators were also examined. The age and clinical depression status of participants, as well as the length of follow-up between the two depressive symptom assessments, significantly moderated the predictive relationship between OGM and the course of depression. The predictive relationship between specific memories and follow-up depressive symptoms became greater with increasing age and a shorter length of follow-up, and the predictive relationship was stronger for participants with clinical depression diagnoses than for nonclinical participants. These findings highlight OGM as a predictor of the course of depression, and future studies should investigate the mechanisms underlying this relationship. PMID:20399418

  14. Sex Differences in the Neural Correlates of Specific and General Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Compère, Laurie; Sperduti, Marco; Gallarda, Thierry; Anssens, Adèle; Lion, Stéphanie; Delhommeau, Marion; Martinelli, Pénélope; Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) underlies the formation and temporal continuity over time of personal identity. The few studies on sex-related differences in AM suggest that men and women adopt different cognitive or emotional strategies when retrieving AMs. However, none of the previous works has taken into account the distinction between episodic autobiographical memory (EAM), consisting in the retrieval of specific events by means of mental time travel, and semantic autobiographical memory (SAM), which stores general personal events. Thus, it remains unclear whether differences in these strategies depend on the nature of the memory content to be retrieved. In the present study we employed functional MRI to examine brain activity underlying potential sex differences in EAM and SAM retrieval focusing on the differences in strategies related to the emotional aspects of memories while controlling for basic cognitive strategies. On the behavioral level, there was no significant sex difference in memory performances or subjective feature ratings of either type of AM. Activations common to men and women during AM retrieval were observed in a typical bilateral network comprising medial and lateral temporal regions, precuneus, occipital cortex as well as prefrontal cortex. Contrast analyses revealed that there was no difference between men and women in the EAM condition. In the SAM condition, women showed an increased activity, compared to men, in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal and precentral gyrus. Overall, these findings suggest that differential neural activations reflect sex-specific strategies related to emotional aspects of AMs, particularly regarding SAM. We propose that this pattern of activation during SAM retrieval reflects the cognitive cost linked to emotion regulation strategies recruited by women compared to men. These sex-related differences have interesting implications for understanding psychiatric disorders with differential sex

  15. Are There Multiple Kinds of Episodic Memory? An fMRI Investigation Comparing Autobiographical and Recognition Memory Tasks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Yu; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2017-03-08

    What brain regions underlie retrieval from episodic memory? The bulk of research addressing this question with fMRI has relied upon recognition memory for materials encoded within the laboratory. Another, less dominant tradition has used autobiographical methods, whereby people recall events from their lifetime, often after being cued with words or pictures. The current study addresses how the neural substrates of successful memory retrieval differed as a function of the targeted memory when the experimental parameters were held constant in the two conditions (except for instructions). Human participants studied a set of scenes and then took two types of memory test while undergoing fMRI scanning. In one condition (the picture memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it was recollected from the prior study episode. In a second condition (the life memory test), participants reported for each scene (32 studied, 64 nonstudied) whether it reminded them of a specific event from their preexperimental lifetime. An examination of successful retrieval (yes responses) for recently studied scenes for the two test types revealed pronounced differences; that is, autobiographical retrieval instantiated with the life memory test preferentially activated the default mode network, whereas hits in the picture memory test preferentially engaged the parietal memory network as well as portions of the frontoparietal control network. When experimental cueing parameters are held constant, the neural underpinnings of successful memory retrieval differ when remembering life events and recently learned events.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memory is often discussed as a solitary construct. However, experimental traditions examining episodic memory use very different approaches, and these are rarely compared to one another. When the neural correlates associated with each approach have been directly contrasted, results have varied considerably and

  16. Accelerated long-term forgetting and autobiographical memory disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy: One entity or two?

    PubMed

    Lemesle, B; Planton, M; Pagès, B; Pariente, J

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a type of epilepsy that often has a negative impact on patients' memory. Despite the importance of patients' complaints in this regard, the difficulties described by these patients are often not easy to demonstrate through a standard neuropsychological assessment. Accelerated long-term forgetting and autobiographical memory disorders are the two main memory impairments reported in the literature in patients with TLE. However, the methods used by different authors to evaluate long-term memory and autobiographical memory are heterogeneous. This heterogeneity can lead to differences in the observed results as well as how they are interpreted. Yet, despite the methodological differences, objectification of such memory deficits appears to be both specific and robust within this patient population. Analysis of the literature shows that accelerated long-term forgetting and autobiographical memory disorders share the same clinical characteristics. This leads to the assumption that they are, in fact, only one entity and that their evaluation may be done through a single procedure. Our proposal is to place this evaluation within the context of memory consolidation disorders. With such a perspective, evaluation of accelerated forgetting in autobiographical memory should consist of identifying a disorder in the formation and/or recovery of new memory traces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Creating non-believed memories for recent autobiographical events.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew; Nash, Robert A; Fincham, Gabrielle; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that many people spontaneously report vivid memories of events that they do not believe to have occurred [1]. In the present experiment we tested for the first time whether, after powerful false memories have been created, debriefing might leave behind nonbelieved memories for the fake events. In Session 1 participants imitated simple actions, and in Session 2 they saw doctored video-recordings containing clips that falsely suggested they had performed additional (fake) actions. As in earlier studies, this procedure created powerful false memories. In Session 3, participants were debriefed and told that specific actions in the video were not truly performed. Beliefs and memories for all critical actions were tested before and after the debriefing. Results showed that debriefing undermined participants' beliefs in fake actions, but left behind residual memory-like content. These results indicate that debriefing can leave behind vivid false memories which are no longer believed, and thus we demonstrate for the first time that the memory of an event can be experimentally dissociated from the belief in the event's occurrence. These results also confirm that belief in and memory for an event can be independently-occurring constructs.

  18. Creating Non-Believed Memories for Recent Autobiographical Events

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew; Nash, Robert A.; Fincham, Gabrielle; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that many people spontaneously report vivid memories of events that they do not believe to have occurred [1]. In the present experiment we tested for the first time whether, after powerful false memories have been created, debriefing might leave behind nonbelieved memories for the fake events. In Session 1 participants imitated simple actions, and in Session 2 they saw doctored video-recordings containing clips that falsely suggested they had performed additional (fake) actions. As in earlier studies, this procedure created powerful false memories. In Session 3, participants were debriefed and told that specific actions in the video were not truly performed. Beliefs and memories for all critical actions were tested before and after the debriefing. Results showed that debriefing undermined participants' beliefs in fake actions, but left behind residual memory-like content. These results indicate that debriefing can leave behind vivid false memories which are no longer believed, and thus we demonstrate for the first time that the memory of an event can be experimentally dissociated from the belief in the event's occurrence. These results also confirm that belief in and memory for an event can be independently-occurring constructs. PMID:22427927

  19. From mind wandering to involuntary retrieval: Age-related differences in spontaneous cognitive processes

    PubMed Central

    Maillet, David; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of studies that have investigated the effects of healthy aging on cognition have focused on age-related differences in voluntary and deliberately engaged cognitive processes. Yet many forms of cognition occur spontaneously, without any deliberate attempt at engaging them. In this article we review studies that have assessed age-related differences in four such types of spontaneous thought processes: mind-wandering, involuntary autobiographical memory, intrusive thoughts, and spontaneous prospective memory retrieval. These studies suggest that older adults exhibit a reduction in frequency of both mind-wandering and involuntary autobiographical memory, whereas findings regarding intrusive thoughts have been more mixed. Additionally, there is some preliminary evidence that spontaneous prospective memory retrieval may be relatively preserved in aging. We consider the roles of age-related differences in cognitive resources, motivation, current concerns and emotional regulation in accounting for these findings. We also consider age-related differences in the neural correlates of spontaneous cognitive processes. PMID:26617263

  20. Two routes toward optimism: how agentic and communal themes in autobiographical memories guide optimism for the future.

    PubMed

    Austin, Adrienne; Costabile, Kristi

    2017-03-30

    Autobiographical memories are particularly adaptive because they function not only to preserve the past, but also to direct our future thoughts and behaviours. Two studies were conducted to examine how communal and agentic themes of positive autobiographical memories differentially predicted the route from autobiographical memories to optimism for the future. Across two studies, results revealed that the degree to which participants focused on communal themes in their autobiographical memories predicted their experience of nostalgia. In turn, the experience of nostalgia increased participants' levels of self-esteem and in turn, optimism for the future. By contrast, the degree to which participants focused on agentic themes in their memories predicted self-esteem and optimism, operating outside the experience of nostalgia. These effects remained even after controlling for self-focused attention. Together, these studies provide greater understanding of the interrelations among autobiographical memory, self-concept, and time, and demonstrate how agency and communion operate to influence perceptions of one's future when thinking about the past.

  1. [Reminiscence with different types of autobiographical memories: Effects on the reduction of depressive symptomatology in old age].

    PubMed

    Afonso, Rosa; Bueno, Belén

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of the type of autobiographical memories reported by an individual reminiscence program to explain the decrease of depressive symptomatology found in elderly Portuguese people. A quasi-experimental design was used with pre- and post-test evaluations of the type of autobiographical memories. In this study, participants were 90 people over 65 years old with depressive symptoms, no antidepressive medication, and no signs of dementia. The participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: experimental group (exposed to the program), control group or placebo-control group. The results of the study indicated that, in the participants of the experimental group, along with significant improvements in depressive symptomatology, significant increase in the number of specific autobiographical memories and positive autobiographical memories was recorded. The study also stresses the strong negative associations between depressive symptomatology and the specificity of the memories and their positive nature. The recovery and reconstruction of specific positive and negative autobiographical memories, using the reminiscence program, may be inherent to the reminiscence program developed that explain its efficiency as a therapeutic tool for psychological intervention aimed at the reduction of depressive symptomatology in old age.

  2. Creating Memories for False Autobiographical Events in Childhood: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Brewin, Chris R; Andrews, Bernice

    2017-01-01

    Using a framework that distinguishes autobiographical belief, recollective experience, and confidence in memory, we review three major paradigms used to suggest false childhood events to adults: imagination inflation, false feedback and memory implantation. Imagination inflation and false feedback studies increase the belief that a suggested event occurred by a small amount such that events are still thought unlikely to have happened. In memory implantation studies, some recollective experience for the suggested events is induced on average in 47% of participants, but only in 15% are these experiences likely to be rated as full memories. We conclude that susceptibility to false memories of childhood events appears more limited than has been suggested. The data emphasise the complex judgements involved in distinguishing real from imaginary recollections and caution against accepting investigator-based ratings as necessarily corresponding to participants' self-reports. Recommendations are made for presenting the results of these studies in courtroom settings.

  3. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.

  4. Coping with Emotions Past: The Neural Bases of Regulating Affect Associated with Negative Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Kross, Ethan; Davidson, Matthew; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the ability to adaptively reflect on negative autobiographical experiences without ruminating is critical to mental health, to our knowledge no research has directly examined the neural systems underlying this process. Methods Sixteen participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as they focused on negative autobiographical memories using cognitive strategies designed to facilitate (feel strategy) versus undermine (analyze and accept strategies) rumination. Results Two key findings were obtained. First, consistent with prior emotion regulation research using image-based stimuli, left prefrontal activity was observed during the implementation of all three strategies. Second, activity in a network of regions involved in self-referential processing and emotion, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, was highest in response to the feel strategy and lowest for the accept strategy. This pattern of activation mirrored participants’ self-reports of negative affect when engaging in each strategy. Conclusions These findings shed light on the brain regions that distinguish adaptive versus maladaptive forms of reflecting on negative autobiographical memories and offer a novel, ecologically valid route to exploring the neural bases of emotion regulation using fMRI. PMID:19058792

  5. Coping with emotions past: the neural bases of regulating affect associated with negative autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Kross, Ethan; Davidson, Matthew; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin

    2009-03-01

    Although the ability to adaptively reflect on negative autobiographical experiences without ruminating is critical to mental health, to our knowledge no research has directly examined the neural systems underlying this process. Sixteen participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as they focused on negative autobiographical memories using cognitive strategies designed to facilitate (feel strategy) versus undermine (analyze and accept strategies) rumination. Two key findings were obtained. First, consistent with prior emotion regulation research using image-based stimuli, left prefrontal activity was observed during the implementation of all three strategies. Second, activity in a network of regions involved in self-referential processing and emotion, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex, was highest in response to the feel strategy and lowest for the accept strategy. This pattern of activation mirrored participants' self-reports of negative affect when engaging in each strategy. These findings shed light on the brain regions that distinguish adaptive versus maladaptive forms of reflecting on negative autobiographical memories and offer a novel, ecologically valid route to exploring the neural bases of emotion regulation using fMRI.

  6. Autobiographical Memory and ECT: Don’t Throw Out the Baby

    PubMed Central

    Sackeim, Harold A.

    2014-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia for autobiographical information is the most critical side effect of ECT. Much, if not most, modern research demonstrating long-term autobiographical amnesia following ECT has used either the Columbia University Autobiographical Memory Interview (CUAMI) or the short form of this scale (CUAMI-SF). Semkovska and McLoughlin claimed that studies using these instruments should be dismissed and the findings ignored due to a lack of normative data, as well as concerns about the reliability and validity of these instruments. In this commentary, the development and use of these scales is reviewed. It is shown that Semkovska and McLoughlin’s critique is factually incorrect, as normative data were simultaneously collected in virtually all studies using these instruments. Furthermore, there is substantial evidence supporting the reliability and validity of these scales. Indeed, these instruments are the only neuropsychological tests repeatedly shown to covary with patient self-evaluations of ECT’s effects on memory, and have repeatedly demonstrated long-term differences in the magnitude of amnesia as a function of ECT technique. Findings with the CUAMI and CUAMI-SF provide key evidence regarding ECT’s cognitive side effect profile. It is inaccurate and inadvisable to continue to deny that ECT can exert long-term adverse effects in this domain. PMID:24755727

  7. Autobiographical memory and psychological distress in a sample of upper-limb amputees.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Montebarocci, Ornella; Rossi, Nicolino; Cutti, Andrea G; Sutin, Angelina R

    2014-01-01

    Amputation is a traumatic and life-changing event that can take years to adjust to. The present study (a) examines psychological adjustment in a specific trauma-exposed sample, (b) compares the phenomenology (e.g., vividness) of amputation-related memories to more recent memories, and (c) tests whether memory phenomenology is associated with psychological distress. A total of 24 upper-limb amputees recalled two autobiographical memories--an amputation-related memory and a recent memory--and rated the phenomenological qualities of each memory, including Vividness, Coherence, Emotional Intensity, Visual Perspective, and Distancing. Participants also completed self-rated measures of psychological distress and personality. The sample was generally well adjusted; participants showed no relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression, and personality scores were similar to the general population. There were no significant differences in phenomenology between the two types of memories recalled. Even though amputation-related memories were, on average, almost 20 years older than the recent memories, they retained their intense phenomenology. Despite the intensity of the memory, none of the phenomenological dimensions were associated with psychological distress. It is worth to further define which dimensions of phenomenology characterize memories of traumatic events, and their association with individuals' psychological reactions.

  8. Age differences in autobiographical memory across the adult lifespan: older adults report stronger phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2017-06-06

    As an individual's life story evolves across adulthood, the subjective experience (phenomenology) of autobiographical memory likely changes. In addition to age at retrieval, both the recency of the memory and the age when a memory is formed may be particularly important to its phenomenology. The present work examines the effect of three temporal factors on phenomenology ratings: (a) age of the participant, (b) age at the event reported in the memory, and (c) memory age (recency). A large sample of Americans (N = 1120), stratified by chronological age, recalled and rated two meaningful memories, a Turning Point and an Early Childhood Memory. Ratings of phenomenology (e.g., vividness of turning points) were higher among older adults compared to younger adults. Memories of events from the reminiscence bump were more positive in valence than events from other time periods but did not differ on other phenomenological dimensions; recent memories had stronger phenomenology than remote memories. In contrast to phenomenology, narrative content was generally unrelated to participant age, age at the event, or memory age. Overall, the findings indicate age-related differences in how meaningful memories are re-experienced.

  9. Autobiographical memories of vomiting in people with a specific phobia of vomiting (emetophobia).

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Murphy, Philip; Ellison, Nell; Kanakam, Natalie; Costa, Ana

    2013-03-01

    Vomiting is an almost universal phenomenon, but little is known about the aetiology of a specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV). The associations with vomiting during childhood and autobiographical memories may have relevance for our understanding of the development of SPOV and its treatment. Two groups: (a) a group with SPOV (n = 94) and (b) a control group (n = 90) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing their lifetime memories of both their own vomiting and others vomiting. People with SPOV recalled the memories of their own and others vomiting experiences from an earlier age and rated them as significantly more distressing than the control group. There was no difference between the groups in the number of memories of their own vomiting recalled before the age at which vomiting became a problem. However, the SPOV group recalled more memories of others vomiting before the onset of the problem. After the age at which the phobia became a problem they recalled less memories of their own vomiting and more memories of others vomiting than the control group. They recalled significantly more memories of vomiting associated with inter-personal events, health or emotional or unrelated life events. Avoidance and hyper-vigilance for others vomiting after the onset of the phobia may have slightly reduced the risk of vomiting. There is some evidence for associative learning in SPOV with aversive consequences of vomiting and an unrelated life event. It suggests a model of autobiographical memories of vomiting that have lost a time perspective and context, which are being reactivated with cues for vomiting. The limitations of the study are those of memory biases in both groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Factor Structure of the Autobiographical Memory Test in Recent Trauma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, James W.; Kleim, Birgit; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Ehlers, Anke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), which is widely used to measure overgeneral autobiographical memory in individuals with depression and a trauma history. Its factor structure and internal consistency have not been explored in a clinical sample. This study examined the psychometric properties of the AMT in a sample of recent trauma survivors (N = 194), who completed the AMT 2 weeks after a trauma. Participants were also assessed with structured clinical interviews for current acute stress disorder and current and past major depressive disorder. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory were used to analyze the AMT in the whole sample. The factor structure of the AMT was also compared for (a) individuals with and without lifetime major depressive disorder and (b) individuals with current (posttrauma) major depressive disorder and/or acute stress disorder versus those with neither disorder. In all of these analyses, the AMT with cues of positive and negative valence had a 1-factor structure, which replicates work in nonclinical samples. Based on analyses of the whole sample, scores from the AMT had a reliability estimate of .72, and standard error of measurement was lowest for people who scored low on memory specificity. In conclusion, the AMT measures 1 factor of memory specificity in a clinical sample and can yield reliable scores for memory specificity. More psychometric studies of the AMT are needed to replicate these results with similar and other clinical populations. PMID:22149328

  11. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts higher prospective levels of depressive symptoms and intrusions in borderline patients.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Kris; Pieters, Guido; Claes, Laurence; Berens, Ann; Raes, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), the tendency to retrieve categories of events from autobiographical memory instead of single events, is found to be a reliable predictor for future mood disturbances and post-traumatic symptom severity. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report co-morbid episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we investigated whether OGM would predict depression severity and (post-traumatic) stress symptoms in BPD patients. At admission (N = 54) and at six-month follow-up (N ≥ 31), BPD patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), and the Impact of Event Scale. OGM at baseline predicted (a) higher levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up and (b) more intrusions related to a stressful event over and above baseline levels of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, and intrusions, respectively. No association was found between memory specificity and event-related avoidance at follow-up. Despite previous findings suggesting that OGM in BPD is less robust than in MDD and PTSD, our results suggest that memory specificity in BPD patients may have some relevance for the course of depressive and stress symptomatology in BPD.

  12. The influence of eating psychopathology on autobiographical memory specificity and social problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Nathan; Matharu, Munveen; Sanders, Elizabeth; Wallis, Deborah J

    2015-08-30

    The primary aim was to examine the influence of subclinical disordered eating on autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) and social problem solving (SPS). A further aim was to establish if AMS mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. A non-clinical sample of 52 females completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT), where they were asked to retrieve specific memories of events from their past in response to cue words, and the means-end problem-solving task (MEPS), where they were asked to generate means of solving a series of social problems. Participants also completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. After controlling for mood, high scores on the EDI subscales, particularly Drive-for-Thinness, were associated with the retrieval of fewer specific and a greater proportion of categorical memories on the AMT and with the generation of fewer and less effective means on the MEPS. Memory specificity fully mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology and SPS. These findings have implications for individuals exhibiting high levels of disordered eating, as poor AMS and SPS are likely to impact negatively on their psychological wellbeing and everyday social functioning and could represent a risk factor for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The self in autobiographical memory: effects of self-salience on narrative content and structure.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Hudson, Judith A

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary models of autobiographical memory attribute a prominent role to the conceptualisation of the self. In an attempt to better understand the impact of the self as an organising feature of autobiographical memory, narratives of personal episodes were elicited, either after a questionnaire about the self (self-prime condition) or after a distractor task (control condition). Participants also wrote a narrative of a turning-point memory, which is by definition a self-focused narrative. Narratives were divided into propositions and analysed for the types of statements used. As predicted, when writing self-focused turning-point narratives participants included more statements relating to the meaning of an event and connecting it to the self, and fewer statements focusing on the who, what, where, and when of the narrative. Narratives written after the self-prime also demonstrated characteristics that were similar to turning-point narratives, although not on all measures. This shift in narrative focus in turning-point and self-primed memory narratives indicates an increased attempt to fulfil goals of coherence rather than correspondence (Conway, 2005). These findings lend insight into the nature of the relationship between the semantic conceptualisation of the self, and the process of retrieving event-specific knowledge in episodic memory.

  14. Autobiographical memories of childhood and sources of subjectivity in parents' perceptions of infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Erika M; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; McAdams, Dan P; Wong, Maria S; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined whether autobiographical memories from parents' own childhoods, prebirth expectations, and personality traits contributed to their perceptions of their infants' temperament. It also investigated whether mothers and fathers differed in the extent to which these three sources of subjectivity predicted their perceptions. During the third trimester of pregnancy, expectant mothers and fathers in 96 families completed assessments of their personality traits and expectations for their children's temperament, as well as provided characteristic memories of their relationships with their own caregivers as children. Memories were then coded for themes of growth versus safety and compared to parents' ratings of perceived child temperament 15 months later. Analyses revealed that, for both parents, prebirth expectations predicted perceptions of positive temperament behaviors. Moreover, fathers who described childhoods characterized by exploration and opportunities for growth also perceived their children as displaying more positive temperamental behaviors, whereas those who described greater safety focus in memories and who had higher levels of negative affectivity reported more negative temperamental behaviors. These findings suggest that mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their children are differently related to psychological variables, including autobiographical memories. In turn, it is possible that these subjective perceptions may affect the parenting environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The factor structure of the Autobiographical Memory Test in recent trauma survivors.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James W; Kleim, Birgit; Sumner, Jennifer A; Ehlers, Anke

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), which is widely used to measure overgeneral autobiographical memory in individuals with depression and a trauma history. Its factor structure and internal consistency have not been explored in a clinical sample. This study examined the psychometric properties of the AMT in a sample of recent trauma survivors (N = 194), who completed the AMT 2 weeks after a trauma. Participants were also assessed with structured clinical interviews for current acute stress disorder and current and past major depressive disorder. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory were used to analyze the AMT in the whole sample. The factor structure of the AMT was also compared for (a) individuals with and without lifetime major depressive disorder and (b) individuals with current (posttrauma) major depressive disorder and/or acute stress disorder versus those with neither disorder. In all of these analyses, the AMT with cues of positive and negative valence had a 1-factor structure, which replicates work in nonclinical samples. Based on analyses of the whole sample, scores from the AMT had a reliability estimate of .72, and standard error of measurement was lowest for people who scored low on memory specificity. In conclusion, the AMT measures 1 factor of memory specificity in a clinical sample and can yield reliable scores for memory specificity. More psychometric studies of the AMT are needed to replicate these results with similar and other clinical populations.

  16. Assessment of Behavioural Markers of Autonoetic Consciousness during Episodic Autobiographical Memory Retrieval: A Preliminary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Irish, M.; Lawlor, B. A.; O'Mara, S. M.; Coen, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    There is ongoing theoretical debate regarding episodic memory and how it can be accurately measured, in particular if the focus should be content-based recall of episodic details or something more experiential involving the subjective capacity to mentally travel back in time and “re-live” aspects of the original event. The autonoetic subscale of the Episodic Autobiographical Memory Interview (EAMI) is presented here as a new test instrument that attempts to redress theoretical and methodological shortcomings in autobiographical memory assessment. The EAMI merges a phenomenological detail-based approach with an assessment of autonoetic consciousness, departing considerably from traditional Remember/Know paradigms used within this field. We present findings from an initial pilot study investigating the potential markers of autonoetic consciousness that may accompany episodic retrieval. Key behavioural indices of autonoetic consciousness, notably those of viewer perspective, visual imagery, and emotional re-experiencing, emerged as being inextricably bound with the level of phenomenological detail recalled and the overall re-living judgment. The autonoetic subscale of the EAMI permits conceptually refined assessment of episodic personal memories and the accompanying subjective experience of mental re-living, characteristic of episodic memory. PMID:18413908

  17. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior.

  18. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  19. A short cut to the past: Cueing via concrete objects improves autobiographical memory retrieval in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Marie; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-07-01

    Older adults diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have difficulties accessing autobiographical memories. However, this deficit tends to spare memories dated to earlier parts of their lives, and may partially reflect retrieval deficits rather than complete memory loss. Introducing a novel paradigm, the present study examines whether autobiographical memory recall can be improved in AD by manipulating the sensory richness, concreteness and cultural dating of the memory cues. Specifically, we examine whether concrete everyday objects historically dated to the participants' youth (e.g., a skipping rope), relative to verbal cues (i.e., the verbal signifiers for the objects) facilitate access to autobiographical memories. The study includes 49 AD patients, and 50 healthy, older matched control participants, all tested on word versus object-cued recall. Both groups recalled significantly more memories, when cued by objects relative to words, but the advantage was significantly larger in the AD group. In both groups, memory descriptions were longer and significantly more episodic in nature in response to object-cued recall. Together these findings suggest that the multimodal nature of the object cues (i.e. vision, olfaction, audition, somatic sensation) along with specific cue characteristics, such as time reference, texture, shape, may constrain the retrieval search, potentially minimizing executive function demands, and hence strategic processing requirements, thus easing access to autobiographical memories in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. To think or not to think, that is the question: individual differences in suppression and rebound effects in autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Saima; MacLeod, Malcolm D

    2014-01-01

    Two studies explored the effects of forget instructions on autobiographical memory at immediate test and following delays of either 12-13 months, or 3-4 months. Using the Autobiographical Think/No-Think procedure (cf., Noreen & MacLeod, 2013), 24 never-depressed participants (Study 1) first generated 12 positive and 12 negative autobiographical memories and associated cues. Participants were then asked to recall the memory associated with some of the cues (i.e., 'think' condition), or to avoid saying or thinking about the memory associated with other cues (i.e., 'no-think' condition). Participants were then asked to recall the memories associated with all the cues at immediate test and following a delay of 12-13 months. Participants were found to be successful at forgetting both positive and negative autobiographical memories following 'no-think' instructions at immediate test but this forgetting effect did not persist following a 12-13 month delay. This pattern of remembering and forgetting was replicated in a second study (using 27 never-depressed participants) following a 3-4 month delay. Participants who had been less successful at forgetting 'no-think' memories at immediate test, were more likely to show rebound effects for those memories following a delay compared to memories which received neither 'think' nor 'no-think' instructions. Individual differences in inhibitory control and the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions of 'no-think' instructions are considered. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Functions of autobiographical memory in Taiwanese and American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsiao-Wen; Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole; Cheng, Ching-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses cultural and person-level factors contributing to emerging adult's use of memory to serve adaptive functions. The focus is on three functions: self-continuity, social-bonding and directing-behaviour. Taiwanese (N = 85, 52 women) and American (N = 95, 51 women) emerging adults completed the Thinking about Life Experiences scale, and measures of trait personality, self-concept clarity and future time perspective. Findings show that individuals from both cultures use memory to serve these three functions, but Taiwanese individuals use memory more frequently than Americans to maintain self-continuity. Culture also interacted with person-level factors: in Taiwan, but not America, memory is more frequently used to create self-continuity in individuals high in conscientiousness. Across cultures, having lower self-concept clarity was related to greater use of memory to create self-continuity. Findings are discussed in terms of how memory serves functions in context and specific aspects of the Taiwanese and American cultural context that may predict the functional use of memory in emerging adulthood.

  2. When the “I” Looks at the “Me”: Autobiographical Memory, Visual Perspective, and the Self

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Robins, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical model of the self processes involved in autobiographical memories and proposes competing hypotheses for the role of visual perspective in autobiographical memory retrieval. Autobiographical memories can be retrieved from either the 1st person perspective, in which individuals see the event through their own eyes, or from the 3rd person perspective, in which individuals see themselves and the event from the perspective of an external observer. A growing body of research suggests that the visual perspective from which a memory is retrieved has important implications for a person's thoughts, feelings, and goals, and is integrally related to a host of self-evaluative processes. We review the relevant research literature, present our theoretical model, and outline directions for future research. PMID:18848783

  3. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  4. Living in history and living by the cultural life script: How older Germans date their autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Annette; Habermas, Tilmann

    2016-01-01

    This study examines predictions from two theories on the organisation of autobiographical memory: Cultural Life Script Theory which conceptualises the organisation of autobiographical memory by cultural schemata, and Transition Theory which proposes that people organise their memories in relation to personal events that changed the fabric of their daily lives, or in relation to negative collective public transitions, called the Living-in-History effect. Predictions from both theories were tested in forty-eight-old Germans from Berlin and Northern Germany. We tested whether the Living-in-History effect exists for both negative (the Second World War) and positive (Fall of Berlin Wall) collectively experienced events, and whether cultural life script events serve as a prominent strategy to date personal memories. Results showed a powerful, long-lasting Living-in History effect for the negative, but not the positive event. Berlin participants dated 26% of their memories in relation to the Second World War. Supporting cultural life script theory, life script events were frequently used to date personal memories. This provides evidence that people use a combination of culturally transmitted knowledge and knowledge based on personal experience to navigate through their autobiographical memories, and that experiencing war has a lasting impact on the organisation of autobiographical memories across the life span.

  5. The use of fractal dimension calculation algorithm to determine the nature of autobiographical memories distribution across the life span

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitina, Olga V.; Nourkova, Veronica V.

    In the given research we offer the technique for the calculation of the density of events which people retrieve from autobiographical memory. We wanted to prove a non-uniformity nature of memories distribution in the course of time and were interested with the law of distribution of these events during life course.

  6. Personality Traits, Autobiographical Memory and Knowledge of Self and Others: A Comparative Study in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally; Howlin, Patricia; Russell, Ailsa

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between dissociable components of autobiographical memory (e.g. semantic personality traits and episodic memory retrieval) and other cognitive skills that are proposed to enable one to develop a sense of self (e.g. introspection) have not previously been explored for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study compared…

  7. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  8. [Overgeneralization of autobiographical memory strategies in cannabis users and multiple psychoactive substance consumers].

    PubMed

    Gandolphe, M-C; Nandrino, J-L

    2011-04-01

    Psychoactive substance consumption induces cognitive impairments in terms of episodic memory and attentional and executive function deficits. This study aims to investigate whether the recall of autobiographical memories is disturbed in substance consumers, and in particular whether those patients tend to evoke memories at a general level rather than at a specific level when confronted by an emotional cue word. Furthermore, we aim to verify whether adopting a more general memory retrieving style is a dynamic phenomenon and if it depends on the type of substance consumed. The participants of this research were 51 cannabis users, including 17 occasional cannabis users, 17 cannabis abusers and 17 individuals addicted to cannabis. They were compared to 18 multiple substance-dependent individuals and to 38 nondependent individuals. Participants were subjected to the Williams and Scott (1988) [39] autobiographical memory test. After an assessment of the mode of substance consumption, several clinical dimensions were measured, such as depression (BDI), anxiety (STAI Y A and B), alexithymia (TAS 20) and episodic memory (RLS-15). The results show that the percentage of general positive and negative memories recalled increases progressively as the consumption takes on the characteristics of addictive behavior, while we observe no deficit in episodic memory. The level of alexithymia evolved in parallel with the percentage of general memories. These results are not dependent on the type of substance used and can not be explained by the level of depression. Overgeneralization is a phenomenon observable in psychoactive substance consumers, whatever the type of substances used, which sets in progressively as the dependence develops. Our results show that overgeneralization is not only due to an impairment of mnesic abilities, implying that this phenomenon could be underlined by several mechanisms. The role of overgeneralization as a functional avoidance established in attempt to

  9. The Psychometric Properties of the Autobiographical Memory Test in Preschool-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Marta; Ros, Laura; Mateo, Alonso; Ricarte, Jorge Javier; Latorre, Jose Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is the most commonly used tool to assess the phenomenon of overgeneral memory. The AMT has mainly been used in adult populations, but its use in preschool children is less common. The need to create an appropriate instrument to study the memory specificity in preschool years led us to develop an AMT version adapted for early childhood. The AMT-Preschool (AMT-P) was administered to a sample of preschool children aged between 3 and 6 (N = 364). The results suggest that the AMT-P functions differently in preschoolers depending on age. With children older than 53 months, results suggest that the AMT-P is appropriate for assessing overgenerality. Nevertheless, with younger children age, the task is more difficult. These results concur with previous research suggesting that the ability to recall specific memories is consolidated from the age of 4½.

  10. Remembering All That and Then Some: Recollection of Autobiographical Memories after a One-Year Delay

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jenna; Nadel, Lynn; Duke, Devin; Ryan, Lee

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that repeated retrievals of remote autobiographical memories over the course of one month led to an overall increase in reported detail (Nadel, Campbell & Ryan, 2007). The current study examined the retrieval of those same memories one year later in order to determine whether the level of detail remained stable or whether the memories returned to their original state. Participants reported even more details than they had recalled at least one year earlier, including new details that were reported for the first time. This finding was consistent across both multiple and single retrieval conditions suggesting that the critical factor leading to the increase in recall was the passage of time. These findings provide evidence for long-term effects of repeated retrieval on memory content. PMID:21678157

  11. Pauses During Autobiographical Discourse Reflect Episodic Memory Processes in Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pistono, Aurélie; Jucla, Mélanie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Lemesle, Béatrice; Calvet, Benjamin; Köpke, Barbara; Puel, Michèle; Pariente, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    There is a large body of research on discourse production in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Some studies have focused on pause production, revealing that patients make extensive use of pauses during speech. This has been attributed to lexical retrieval difficulties, but pausing may also reflect other forms of cognitive impairment as it increases with cognitive load. The aim of the present study was to analyze autobiographical discourse impairment in AD from a broad perspective, looking at pausing behavior (frequency, duration, and location). Our first objective was to characterize discourse changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD. Our second objective was to determine the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of these changes. Fifteen patients with MCI due to AD and 15 matched cognitively normal controls underwent an ecological episodic memory task, a full neuropsychological assessment, and a 3D T1-weighted MRI scans. Autobiographical discourse collected from the ecological episodic memory task was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed, focusing on pausing. Intergroup comparisons showed that although patients did not produce more pauses than controls overall, they did make more between-utterance pauses. The number of these specific pauses was positively correlated with patients’ episodic memory performance. Furthermore, neuroimaging analysis showed that, in the patient group, their use was negatively correlated with frontopolar area (BA 10) grey matter density. This region may therefore play an important role in the planning of autobiographical discourse production. These findings demonstrate that pauses in early AD may reflect a compensatory mechanism for improving mental time travel and memory retrieval. PMID:26757034

  12. The role of involuntary aware memory in the implicit stem and fragment completion tasks: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, S

    2001-03-01

    In this article I argue that an awareness of the study episode that arises involuntarily during an implicit stem/fragment completion test can under some conditions lead to enhanced repetition priming effects, even though subjects are not engaged in intentional retrieval. I review findings that are consistent with this possibility, which include the effects of depth of processing, and of typography match and new association priming following deep encoding. A theoretical account of involuntary aware memory couched within Moscovitch's (1995b) memory systems framework which suggests that the medial-temporal lobe/hippocampal (MTL/H) complex functions as a memory module is outlined. A putative mechanism is proposed in which involuntary aware memory of a studied item enhances the size of repetition priming effects by guiding its selection in preference to the competitors.

  13. Depressive symptoms moderate the effects of a self-discrepancy induction on overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Smets, Jorien; Griffith, James W; Wessel, Ineke; Walschaerts, Dominique; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    According to the CaRFAX model, rumination is one of the key underlying mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The association between rumination and OGM is well established in clinical populations, but this relationship is not robust in nonclinical samples. A series of null findings is reported in the current paper. Additionally we followed up on recent findings suggesting that a state of rumination needs to be active in order to detect a relationship between trait-rumination and OGM. Secondary school students (N= 123) completed questionnaires assessing trait-rumination and depressive symptoms as well as two autobiographical memory tests (AMTs), one before and one after a self-discrepancy induction. This induction should trigger state-rumination, which would subsequently promote the retrieval of general rather than specific memories. Trait-rumination failed to predict increases in OGM. We did find, however, that higher BDI-II scores were positively related to an increase in OGM following the induction. This adds to the growing body of evidence that OGM reactivity might be more important than baseline memory specificity.

  14. The short and long of it: Neural correlates of temporal-order memory for autobiographical events

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Peggy St.; Rubin, David C.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies of temporal-order memory have investigated memory for laboratory stimuli that are causally unrelated and poor in sensory detail. In contrast, the present functional MRI (fMRI) study investigated temporal-order memory for autobiographical events that were causally interconnected and rich in sensory detail. Participants took photographs at many campus locations over a period of several hours, and the following day they were scanned while making temporal-order judgments to pairs of photographs from different locations. By manipulating the temporal lag between the two locations in each trial, we compared the neural correlates associated with reconstruction processes, which we hypothesized depended on recollection and contribute mainly to short lags, and distance processes, which we hypothesized to depend on familiarity and contribute mainly to longer lags. Consistent with our hypotheses, parametric fMRI analyses linked shorter lags to activations in regions previously associated with recollection (left prefrontal, parahippocampal, precuneus, and visual cortices) and longer lags with regions previously associated with familiarity (right prefrontal cortex). The hemispheric asymmetry in prefrontal cortex activity fits very well with evidence and theories regarding the contributions of left vs. right prefrontal cortex to memory (recollection vs. familiarity processes) and cognition (systematic vs. heuristic processes). In sum, using a novel photo-paradigm this study provided the first evidence regarding the neural correlates of temporal-order for autobiographical events. PMID:18284345

  15. [Main interventions for rehabilitation of autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease from early to severe stage: a review and new perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lalanne, Jennifer; Piolino, Pascale

    2013-09-01

    Given the limitations of pharmacological treatments in Alzheimer's disease, many non-drug therapies have emerged in recent decades and are often offered in complement of pharmacological treatments. The cognitive rehabilitation interventions focused on memory are usual in Alzheimer's disease. Memory deficits are prominent from the early stages of the disease and cause detriment to patient autonomy in daily life. In particular, problems of identity and autobiographical memory, although still often overlooked in the patients' general neuropsychological profile, appear right away. Because of their more insidious negative influence, specific treatments are still underdeveloped. Rehabilitation of autobiographical memory is complex because it requires taking into account its multiple components, both semantic and episodic, but also understanding its links with personal identity. Thus, this article provides an overview of existing cognitive rehabilitation interventions of anterograde and retrograde autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease. We specify the contribution of new technologies to improve the consolidation of recent events memory and of a rehabilitation program of autobiographical memory - REMau -, derived from the TEMPau task, which takes into account the constructive nature of episodic memories via the personal semantic through different periods of life. The main aim is to examine what are the objectives, benefits and limitations of these interventions and to estimate how they can meet the more general problem of deficiency in personal identity. As identity is constructed on the basis of past experience, but is modulated by new experiences, our current challenge is to associate combined treatments of anterograde and retrograde memory based on the interaction between autobiographical memory and the self.

  16. [Mood-congruent effect in self-relevant information processing: a study using an autobiographical memory recall task].

    PubMed

    Itoh, M

    2000-10-01

    The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.

  17. Do Overgeneral Autobiographical Memories Predict Increased Psychopathological Symptoms in Community Youth? A 3-Year Longitudinal Investigation.

    PubMed

    Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Salmon, Karen; Jose, Paul E

    2017-03-03

    Research suggests that an overgeneral autobiographical memory style (i.e., retrieval of general memories when instructed to retrieve a specific episodic memory) represents a vulnerability marker for depression. Although adolescence is a period of high risk for the emergence of depression, little research has investigated the associations among overgeneral memory, psychopathology, and risk factors longitudinally in a community sample in this age group. We, therefore, investigated overgeneral memory, psychopathology (depression and anxiety), and rumination (an established risk factor for psychopathology) longitudinally in 269 typically-developing youth (125 females, 144 males) across 3 annual assessment points. We sought to determine whether 1) overgeneral memory would predict psychopathology across the entire sample, and 2) whether associations would vary as a function of longitudinal rumination growth. Across the entire sample, overgeneral memory did not predict psychopathology. For youth who reported elevated, and increasing, patterns of rumination over time, transient relationships between overgeneral memory and subsequent increases in anxiety were found. We conclude that overgeneral memory may represent a vulnerability marker for adverse psychological outcomes only for youth at risk for psychopathology.

  18. Modification of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity in autobiographical memory: a sLORETA study.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Brunetti, Riccardo; Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of scalp EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity during the autobiographical memory test (AM-T) and during the retrieval of an autobiographical event (the high school final examination, Task 2). Seventeen healthy volunteers were enrolled (9 women and 8 men, mean age 23.4 ± 2.8 years, range 19-30). EEG was recorded at baseline and while performing the autobiographical memory (AM) tasks, by means of 19 surface electrodes and a nasopharyngeal electrode. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized LOw Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectra and lagged EEG coherence were compared between EEG acquired during the memory tasks and baseline recording. The frequency bands considered were as follows: delta (0.5-4 Hz); theta (4.5-7.5 Hz); alpha (8-12.5 Hz); beta1 (13-17.5 Hz); beta2 (18-30 Hz); gamma (30.5-60 Hz). During AM-T, we observed a significant delta power increase in left frontal and midline cortices (T = 3.554; p < 0.05) and increased EEG connectivity in delta band in prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and for gamma bands in the left temporo-parietal regions (T = 4.154; p < 0.05). In Task 2, we measured an increased power in the gamma band located in the left posterior midline areas (T = 3.960; p < 0.05) and a significant increase in delta band connectivity in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas, and in the gamma band involving right temporo-parietal areas (T = 4.579; p < 0.05). These results indicate that AM retrieval engages in a complex network which is mediated by both low- (delta) and high-frequency (gamma) EEG bands.

  19. Visual hallucinations of autobiographic memory and asomatognosia: a case of epilepsy due to brain cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Kerik, Nora Estela; Diaz Meneses, Iván; Pérez-Gay, Fernanda Juárez

    2015-01-01

    The current study describes the case of a woman with symptomatic epilepsy due to brain cysticercosis acquired during childhood. During her adolescence, she developed seizures characterized by metamorphopsia, hallucinations of autobiographic memory and, finally, asomatognosia. Magnetic brain imaging showed a calcified lesion in the right occipitotemporal cortex, and positron emission tomography imaging confirmed the presence of interictal hypometabolism in two regions: the right parietal cortex and the right lateral and posterior temporal cortex. We discuss the link between these brain areas and the symptoms described under the concepts of epileptogenic lesion, epileptogenic zone, functional deficit zone, and symptomatogenic zone.

  20. Supporting autobiographical memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease using smart phones.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Gianluca; Brivio, Eleonora; Sautter, Scott W

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 5.1 million Americans suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). A symptom of AD is the gradual loss of autobiographical memory. Support services have been shown to slow such loss, thereby improving the quality of life of patients and their caregivers. In this case study, a subject in Stage 4 of AD on the Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) scale carried a smart phone with a lanyard for 4 weeks. The smart phone was programmed to take pictures at 5-minute intervals for 12 hours during the day. The pictures were collected, combined in a video slide show, saved to a DVD, and mailed to the subject on a weekly basis. The subject and his caregiver had to view the DVD. In order to evaluate the subject's memory before and after viewing the DVD, a test concerning the most important events of the week was developed. The subject and his caregiver had to answer a satisfaction questionnaire as well. The results of this case study confirmed that the DVD helped the subject recall recent events significantly better and that carrying the smart phone was not considered intrusive to daily routines. This manuscript illustrates how smart phone technology can assist in exercising autobiographical memory.

  1. Brief report: Overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L; Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11-18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse.

  2. Life scripts for emotionally charged autobiographical memories: A cultural explanation of the reminiscence bump.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shamsul; Hasking, Penelope A

    2010-10-01

    Two studies examined the ability of the life script account to explain the reminiscence bump for emotionally charged autobiographical memories among Malaysian participants. In Study 1 volunteers, aged 50-90 years, participated in a two-phased task. In the first phase, participants estimated the timing of 11 life events (both positive and negative) that may occur in a prototypical life course within their own culture. Two weeks later the participants retrieved the same set of events from their lives and reported how old they were when those events occurred. In the second study 92 undergraduate students produced life scripts for the same 11 events. The findings revealed reminiscence bumps in both life script and retrieval curves for the memories judged happiest, most important, most in love, and most jealous. A reminiscence bump was also noted for success, although this was later in the lifespan than other reminiscence bumps. It was suggested that the life scripts can be used as an alternative account for the reminiscence bump, for highly positive and occasionally for negative autobiographical memories.

  3. Cue self-relevance affects autobiographical memory specificity in individuals with a history of major depression

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Catherine; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    Previously depressed and never-depressed individuals identified personal characteristics (self-guides) defining their ideal, ought, and feared selves. One week later they completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). For each participant the number of AMT cues that reflected self-guide content was determined to produce an index of AMT cue self-relevance. Individuals who had never been depressed showed no significant relationship between cue self-relevance and specificity. In contrast, in previously depressed participants there was a highly significant negative correlation between cue self-relevance and specificity—the greater the number of AMT cues that reflected self-guide content, the fewer specific memories participants recalled. It is suggested that in individuals with a history of depression, cues reflecting self-guide content are more likely to prompt a shift to processing of information within the long-term self (Conway, Singer, & Tagini, 2004), increasing the likelihood that self-related semantic information will be provided in response to cues on the autobiographical memory test. PMID:17454667

  4. [Evaluation of Significant Autobiographical Memories Scale: Design and structural validation at an exploratory level].

    PubMed

    Lolich, María; Azzollini, Susana

    2016-11-01

    Personal memories are multimodal cognitive representations. Nowadays, psychometric instruments which aim to assess signifcant memories phenomenological features are scarce. Consequently, the Evaluation of Signifcant Autobiographical Memories Scale was constructed and structural validated at an exploratory level. A total of 404 individuals from Buenos Aires city (Argentina) participated in the research. Initially, an expert judgment and a pilot study administration were carried out. Next, a homogeneity and a principal components analysis were implemented. To assess the scale reliability, Cronbach's alphas coefficients were analyzed. The fnal version has 30 Likert response items gathered in 8 dimensions. Satisfactory psychometric proprieties were obtained - internal consistency of .892 and a total explained variance of 65.78%. The scale provides two main scores regarding the total quantity and intensity of the phenomenological components as well as a partial score per each dimension. It is stated that the test will prove to be useful in the research feld as well as in the clinical area.

  5. Gender-Specific Differences in the Relationship between Autobiographical Memory and Intertemporal Choice in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seinstra, Maayke; Grzymek, Katharina; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older adults grows, their economic choices will have increasing impact on society. Research on the effects of aging on intertemporal decisions shows inconsistent, often opposing results, indicating that yet unexplored factors might play an essential role in guiding one's choices. Recent studies suggest that episodic future thinking, which is based on the same neural network involved in episodic memory functions, leads to reductions in discounting of future rewards. As episodic memory functioning declines with normal aging, but to greatly variable degrees, individual differences in delay discounting might be due to individual differences in the vitality of this memory system in older adults. We investigated this hypothesis, using a sample of healthy older adults who completed an intertemporal choice task as well as two episodic memory tasks. We found no clear evidence for a relationship between episodic memory performance and delay discounting in older adults. However, when additionally considering gender differences, we found an interaction effect of gender and autobiographical memory on delay discounting: while men with higher memory scores showed less delay discounting, women with higher memory scores tended to discount the future more. We speculate that this gender effect might stem from the gender-specific use of different modal representation formats (i.e. temporal or visual) during assessment of intertemporal choice options. PMID:26335426

  6. Different Temporal Patterns of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories across the Lifespan in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Nathalie; Rousseau, François; Noblet, Vincent; Botzung, Anne; Després, Olivier; Cretin, Benjamin; Kremer, Stéphane; Blanc, Frédéric; Manning, Liliann

    2015-01-01

    We compared specific (i.e., associated with a unique time and space) and general (i.e., extended or repeated events) autobiographical memories (AbM) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The comparison aims at investigating the relationship between these two components of AbM across the lifespan and the volume of cerebral regions of interest within the temporal lobe. We hypothesized that the ability to elicit specific memories would correlate with hippocampal volume, whereas evoking general memories would be related to lateral temporal lobe. AbM was assessed using the modified Crovitz test in 18 patients with early AD and 18 matched controls. The proportions of total memories—supposed to reflect the ability to produce general memories—and specific memories retrieved were compared between AD patients and controls. Correlations to MRI volumes of temporal cortex were tested. We found different temporal patterns for specific and general memories in AD patients, with (i) relatively spared general memories, according to a temporal gradient that preserved remote memories, predominantly associated with right lateral temporal cortex volume. (ii) Conversely, the retrieval of specific AbMs was impaired for all life periods and correlated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. Our results highlight a shift from an initially episodic to a semantic nature of AbMs during AD, where the abstracted form of memories remains. PMID:26175549

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Autobiographical Memory Studies in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Berna, Fabrice; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Aouadi, Ismail; Ricarte, Jorge Javier; Allé, Mélissa C; Coutelle, Romain; Boyer, Laurent; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine Vanessa; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses and reviews on cognitive disorders in schizophrenia have shown that the most robust and common cognitive deficits are found in episodic memory and executive functions. More complex memory domains, such as autobiographical memory (AM), are also impaired in schizophrenia, but such impairments are reported less often despite their negative impact on patients' outcome. In contrast to episodic memory, assessed in laboratory tasks, memories of past personal events are much more complex and directly relate to the self. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, 571 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and 503 comparison subjects. It found moderate-to-large effect sizes with regard to the 3 parameters commonly used to assess AM: memory specificity (g = -0.97), richness of detail (g = -1.40), and conscious recollection (g = -0.62). These effect sizes were in the same range as those found in other memory domains in schizophrenia; for this reason, we propose that defective memories of personal past events should be regarded as a major cognitive impairment in this illness.

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Autobiographical Memory Studies in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Fabrice; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Aouadi, Ismail; Ricarte, Jorge Javier; Allé, Mélissa C.; Coutelle, Romain; Boyer, Laurent; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine Vanessa; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses and reviews on cognitive disorders in schizophrenia have shown that the most robust and common cognitive deficits are found in episodic memory and executive functions. More complex memory domains, such as autobiographical memory (AM), are also impaired in schizophrenia, but such impairments are reported less often despite their negative impact on patients’ outcome. In contrast to episodic memory, assessed in laboratory tasks, memories of past personal events are much more complex and directly relate to the self. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, 571 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and 503 comparison subjects. It found moderate-to-large effect sizes with regard to the 3 parameters commonly used to assess AM: memory specificity (g = −0.97), richness of detail (g = −1.40), and conscious recollection (g = −0.62). These effect sizes were in the same range as those found in other memory domains in schizophrenia; for this reason, we propose that defective memories of personal past events should be regarded as a major cognitive impairment in this illness. PMID:26209548

  9. Anosognosia, autobiographical memory and self knowledge in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robin G; Mograbi, Daniel C

    2013-06-01

    This article explores the relationship between lack of awareness of neuropsychological deficit, also termed anosognosia, and loss of self knowledge in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, it considers the hypothesis that anosognosia in AD can in part be explained by a loss of mnemonic ability in which knowledge about self-ability is degraded. To ground this hypothesis, we review evidence suggesting failure to update personal knowledge concerning task efficacy, loss of recollection with relative amplification of semanticization processes and loss of an updated representation of the self. We present a theoretical formulation as to how the features of memory impairment in AD may contribute to anosognosia, incorporating these notions in a reformulation of the Cognitive Awareness Model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  10. Visual imagery in autobiographical memory: The role of repeated retrieval in shifting perspective

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Andrew C.; Rice, Heather J.; Wooldridge, Cynthia L.; Rubin, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent memories are generally recalled from a first-person perspective whereas older memories are often recalled from a third-person perspective. We investigated how repeated retrieval affects the availability of visual information, and whether it could explain the observed shift in perspective with time. In Experiment 1, participants performed mini-events and nominated memories of recent autobiographical events in response to cue words. Next, they described their memory for each event and rated its phenomenological characteristics. Over the following three weeks, they repeatedly retrieved half of the mini-event and cue-word memories. No instructions were given about how to retrieve the memories. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to adopt either a first- or third-person perspective during retrieval. One month later, participants retrieved all of the memories and again provided phenomenology ratings. When first-person visual details from the event were repeatedly retrieved, this information was retained better and the shift in perspective was slowed. PMID:27064539

  11. Visual imagery in autobiographical memory: The role of repeated retrieval in shifting perspective.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew C; Rice, Heather J; Wooldridge, Cynthia L; Rubin, David C

    2016-05-01

    Recent memories are generally recalled from a first-person perspective whereas older memories are often recalled from a third-person perspective. We investigated how repeated retrieval affects the availability of visual information, and whether it could explain the observed shift in perspective with time. In Experiment 1, participants performed mini-events and nominated memories of recent autobiographical events in response to cue words. Next, they described their memory for each event and rated its phenomenological characteristics. Over the following three weeks, they repeatedly retrieved half of the mini-event and cue-word memories. No instructions were given about how to retrieve the memories. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to adopt either a first- or third-person perspective during retrieval. One month later, participants retrieved all of the memories and again provided phenomenology ratings. When first-person visual details from the event were repeatedly retrieved, this information was retained better and the shift in perspective was slowed.

  12. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context.

  13. The relationship between implicit and explicit motives, goal pursuit, and autobiographical memory content during a diary study

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Michael; Woike, Barbara A.; Burke, Christopher T.; Dow, Emily A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This online diary study investigated how motives interact with goal pursuit to predict daily autobiographical experiences. Participants (N =141) completed measures of implicit and explicit achievement, provided daily memories and reports of their goal pursuit during a three-week diary period. A stronger implicit achievement motive at the onset of the study was associated with more agentic (and fewer communal) autobiographical content. Goal progress was linked with using more agentic words, while goal attainability was related to using more communal words. Interactions between motives and goal pursuit on autobiographical memory suggests a trade-off: Favorable goal pursuit conditions may prompt people not motivated for achievement to shift their focus from agentic to communal themes, while individuals motivated for achievement maintain their priorities. PMID:22754030

  14. Gender, experimenter gender and medium of report influence the content of autobiographical memory report.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Denney, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of context in autobiographical memory narratives, specifically as it pertains to gender among emerging adults. Male and female participants reported stressful events in their lives in the presence of an experimenter, and were randomly assigned either to report events verbally or type them, and to report in the presence of a male or female experimenter. Narratives were coded for factual and interpretive content. Results revealed that men verbally reporting to women reported longer narratives than all other groups. Women's narrative length did not vary by medium of report or conversational partner, but women used proportionally fewer internal state phrases when verbally reporting to men than when reporting to women. Women also used proportionally fewer evaluative statements in verbal reports than in typed narratives. Of these important interactions among context, gender, and experimenter gender, some findings, such as men's longer narratives and women's reduced internal states, were counter to expectations. These findings highlight the importance of methodological influences in autobiographical memory studies, in regard to both the context generated by experimental methods, and how gender differences are understood.

  15. Autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Katrine W; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking share a common neurocognitive basis. Although previous research has shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can impair the ability to remember the personal past, episodic future thinking has not previously been systematically examined within this population. In this study, we examined the ability to remember events in the personal past and the ability to imagine possible events in the personal future in a sample of moderate-to-severe TBI patients. We present data on nine patients and nine healthy controls, who were asked to report a series of events that had happened to them in the past and a series of events that might happen to them in the future. Transcriptions were scored according to a reliable system for categorizing internal (episodic) and external (semantic) information. For each event described, participants also completed two modified Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire items to assess self-reported phenomenal qualities associated with remembering and imagining. In addition, TBI patients underwent neuropsychological assessment. Results revealed that TBI patients recalled/imagined proportionally fewer episodic event-specific details for both past and future events compared to healthy controls (η²(p) = 0.78). In contrast, there were no group differences in ratings of phenomenal characteristics. These results are discussed in relation to theories suggesting that remembering and imagining the future are the expression of the same underlying neurocognitive system.

  16. Functional cerebral changes in multiple sclerosis patients during an autobiographical memory test.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Alexandra; Noblet, Vincent; Denkova, Ekaterina; Blanc, Frédéric; de Seze, Jérôme; Gounot, Daniel; Manning, Liliann

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the functional underpinnings of autobiographical memory (AM) impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To that end, 18 patients and 18 controls underwent the autobiographical interview (AI). Subsequently, the 36 participants underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session designed to assess the construction and elaboration of AMs. A categorical control task was also presented. Patients were trained in the fMRI procedure to optimise the procedural aspects accompanying the task itself. Although the patients obtained significantly poorer AI scores (p < .001), their performance on the easier AM fMRI task was efficiently carried out, allowing relevant comparisons with healthy controls. Relatively to healthy controls, the patients showed increased and bilateral cerebral activations (p < .005) during the construction and elaboration phases. The prefrontal, temporal and posterior cerebral region activations were located within the core network sustaining AM, with the bilateral prefrontal region being centrally involved. The parametric neural responses to the difficulty of access and amount of details of memories were also significantly different for the two groups, with the right hippocampal region showing a particularly increased recruitment (p < .005). The findings suggested the presence of functional cerebral changes during AM performance and supported the presence of AM retrieval deficit in MS patients.

  17. Sticking out and fitting in: culture-specific predictors of 3-year-olds' autobiographical memories during joint reminiscing.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Lisa; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between mother-child interaction styles with 19 months and children's autobiographical memory with 3 years of age in two cultural contexts: New Delhi, India (n = 25) and Berlin, Germany (n = 33). Results demonstrate similarities as well as culture specificities. In both contexts, maternal elaborations during reminiscing were related to children's memory contributions. Over time, maternal support for toddlers' self-expression during free play at 19 months predicted their children's memory elaborations at 3 years in the Berlin context. In the Delhi context, toddlers' willingness to carry out their mothers' requests at 19 months predicted their memory elaborations at 3 years. These results suggest different motivational bases underlying children's autobiographical memory contributions during mother-child reminiscing related to different cultural orientations.

  18. Imagery Rescripting: The Impact of Conceptual and Perceptual Changes on Aversive Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Slofstra, Christien; Nauta, Maaike H.; Holmes, Emily A.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is a process by which aversive autobiographical memories are rendered less unpleasant or emotional. ImRs is thought only to be effective if a change in the meaning-relevant (semantic) content of the mental image is produced, according to a cognitive hypothesis of ImRs. We propose an additional hypothesis: that ImRs can also be effective by the manipulation of perceptual features of the memory, without explicitly targeting meaning-relevant content. Methods In two experiments using a within-subjects design (both N = 48, community samples), both Conceptual-ImRs—focusing on changing meaning-relevant content—and Perceptual-ImRs—focusing on changing perceptual features—were compared to Recall-only of aversive autobiographical image-based memories. An active control condition, Recall + Attentional Breathing (Recall+AB) was added in the first experiment. In the second experiment, a Positive-ImRs condition was added—changing the aversive image into a positive image that was unrelated to the aversive autobiographical memory. Effects on the aversive memory’s unpleasantness, vividness and emotionality were investigated. Results In Experiment 1, compared to Recall-only, both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in unpleasantness, and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality of memories. In Experiment 2, the effects on unpleasantness were not replicated, and both Conceptual-ImRs and Perceptual-ImRs led to greater decreases in emotionality, compared to Recall-only, as did Positive-ImRs. There were no effects on vividness, and the ImRs conditions did not differ significantly from Recall+AB. Conclusions Results suggest that, in addition to traditional forms of ImRs, targeting the meaning-relevant content of an image during ImRs, relatively simple techniques focusing on perceptual aspects or positive imagery might also yield benefits. Findings require replication and extension to clinical

  19. Personal semantics: Is it distinct from episodic and semantic memory? An electrophysiological study of memory for autobiographical facts and repeated events in honor of Shlomo Bentin.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2016-03-01

    Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory.

  20. The neural correlates of specific versus general autobiographical memory construction and elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Addis, Donna Rose; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the neural correlates of specific (i.e., unique to time and place) and general (i.e., extended in or repeated over time) autobiographical memories (AMs) during their initial construction and later elaboration phases. The construction and elaboration of specific and general events engaged a widely distributed set of regions previously associated with AM recall. Specific (vs. general) event construction preferentially engaged prefrontal and medial temporal lobe regions known to be critical for memory search and retrieval processes. General event elaboration was differentiated from specific event elaboration by extensive right-lateralized prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity. Interaction analyses confirmed that PFC activity was disproportionately engaged by specific AMs during construction, and general AMs during elaboration; a similar pattern was evident in regions of the left lateral temporal lobe. These neural differences between specific and general AM construction and elaboration were largely unrelated to reported differences in the level of detail recalled about each type of event. PMID:21803063

  1. The effect of self-reported habitual sleep quality and sleep length on autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Murre, Jaap M J; Kristo, Gert; Janssen, Steve M J

    2014-01-01

    A large number of studies have recently shown effects of sleep on memory consolidation. In this study the effects of the sleep quality and sleep length on the retention of autobiographical memories are examined, using an Internet-based diary technique (Kristo, Janssen, & Murre, 2009). Each of over 600 participants recorded one recent personal event and was contacted after a retention interval that ranged from 2 to 46 days. Recall of the content, time, and details of the event were scored and related to sleep quality and sleep length as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that poor sleep quality, but not short sleep length, was associated with significantly lower recall at the longer retention periods (30-46 days), but not at the shorter ones (2-15 days), although the difference in recall between good and poor sleepers was small.

  2. Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories

    PubMed Central

    Nelis, Sabine; Debeer, Elise; Holmes, Emily A.; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are retrieved as images from either a field perspective or an observer perspective. The observer perspective is thought to dull emotion. Positive affect is blunted in depressed mood. Consequently, are positive events recalled from an observer perspective in depressed mood? We investigated the relationship between memory vantage perspective and depressive symptoms in a student sample. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) and assessed the perspective accompanying each memory. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008) were administered. The results showed a small positive association between depressive symptoms and the use of an observer perspective for positive autobiographical memories, but not for negative memories. Furthermore, comparing a subgroup with clinically significant symptom levels (dysphoric students) with non-dysphoric individuals revealed that dysphoric students used an observer perspective more for positive memories compared with negative memories. This was not the case for non-dysphoric students. The observer perspective in dysphorics was associated with a dampening cognitive style in response to positive experiences. PMID:23083015

  3. Functional Neuroimaging of Emotionally Intense Autobiographical Memories in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    St. Jacques, Peggy L.; Botzung, Anne; Miles, Amanda; Rubin, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects regions that support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval, such as the hippocampus, amygdala and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, it is not well understood how PTSD may impact the neural mechanisms of memory retrieval for the personal past. We used a generic cue method combined with parametric modulation analysis and functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms affected by PTSD symptoms during the retrieval of a large sample of emotionally intense AMs. There were three main results. First, the PTSD group showed greater recruitment of the amygdala/hippocampus during the construction of negative versus positive emotionally intense AMs, when compared to controls. Second, across both the construction and elaboration phases of retrieval the PTSD group showed greater recruitment of the ventral medial PFC for negatively intense memories, but less recruitment for positively intense memories. Third, the PTSD group showed greater functional coupling between the ventral medial PFC and the amygdala for negatively intense memories, but less coupling for positively intense memories. In sum, the fMRI data suggest that there was greater recruitment and coupling of emotional brain regions during the retrieval of negatively intense AMs in the PTSD group when compared to controls. PMID:21109253

  4. Forgetting our personal past: socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Stone, Charles B; Barnier, Amanda J; Sutton, John; Hirst, William

    2013-11-01

    People often talk to others about their personal past. These discussions are inherently selective. Selective retrieval of memories in the course of a conversation may induce forgetting of unmentioned but related memories for both speakers and listeners (Cuc, Koppel, & Hirst, 2007). Cuc et al. (2007) defined the forgetting on the part of the speaker as within-individual retrieval-induced forgetting (WI-RIF) and the forgetting on the part of the listener as socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting (SS-RIF). However, if the forgetting associated with WI-RIF and SS-RIF is to be taken seriously as a mechanism that shapes both individual and shared memories, this mechanism must be demonstrated with meaningful material and in ecologically valid groups. In our first 2 experiments we extended SS-RIF from unemotional, experimenter-contrived material to the emotional and unemotional autobiographical memories of strangers (Experiment 1) and intimate couples (Experiment 2) when merely overhearing the speaker selectively practice memories. We then extended these results to the context of a free-flowing conversation (Experiments 3 and 4). In all 4 experiments we found WI-RIF and SS-RIF regardless of the emotional valence or individual ownership of the memories. We discuss our findings in terms of the role of conversational silence in shaping both our personal and shared pasts.

  5. Posterior versus frontal theta activity indexes approach motivation during affective autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Walden, K; Pornpattananangkul, N; Curlee, A; McAdams, D P; Nusslock, R

    2015-03-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz - Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:171-187, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicated that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity, thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult), and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach- and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. These results have implications for (a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, (b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and (c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger.

  6. Posterior versus Frontal Theta Activity Indexes Approach Motivation during Affective Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Keegan; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Curlee, Alexandria; McAdams, Dan P.; Nusslock, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz-Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity (PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicates that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported Behavioral Approach System (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult) and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. Results have implications for a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger. PMID:25245178

  7. Autobiographical Memory Deficits in Alcohol-Dependent Patients with Short- and Long-Term Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; El Haj, Mohamad; Torre, Julie; Naye, Delphine; Douchet, Helyette; Danel, Thierry; Cottençin, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) enables the storage and retrieval of life experiences that allow individuals to build their sense of identity. Several AM impairments have been described in patients with alcohol abuse disorders without assessing whether such deficits can be recovered. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify whether the semantic (SAM) and episodic (EAM) dimensions of AM are affected in individuals with alcohol dependence after short-term abstinence (STA) or long-term abstinence (LTA). A second aim of this study was to examine the factors that could disrupt the efficiency of semantic and episodic AM (the impact of depression severity, cognitive functions, recent or early traumatic events, and drinking history variables). After clinical and cognitive evaluations (alcohol consumption, depression, anxiety, IQ, memory performance), AM was assessed with the Autobiographical Memory Interview in patients with recent (between 4 and 6 weeks) and longer (at least 6 months) abstinence. Participants were asked to retrieve the number and nature of traumatic or painful life experiences in recent or early life periods (using the Childhood Traumatic Events Scale). The 2 abstinent groups had lower global EAM and SAM scores than the control group. These scores were comparable for both abstinent groups. For childhood events, no significant differences were observed in SAM for both groups compared with control participants. For early adulthood and recent events, both STA and LTA groups had lower scores on both SAM and EAM. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between the length of substance consumption and SAM scores. This study highlighted a specific AM disorder in both episodic and semantic dimensions. These deficits remained after 6 months of abstinence. This AM impairment may be explained by compromised encoding and consolidation of memories during bouts of drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. A quasi-experimental study of a reminiscence program focused on autobiographical memory in institutionalized older adults with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Teresa Silveira; Afonso, Rosa Marina Lopes Brás Martins; Ribeiro, Óscar Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Working with past memories through reminiscence interventions has been practiced for several decades with successful outcomes on mental health in older adults. Few studies however have focused on autobiographical memory recall in older individuals with cognitive impairment. This study aims to analyze the impact of an individual reminiscence program in a group of older persons with cognitive decline living in nursing homes on the dimensions of cognition, autobiographical memory, mood, behavior and anxiety. A two-group pre-test and post-test design with single blinded assessment was conducted. Forty-one participants were randomized to an experimental group (n=20) and a control group (n=21). The first group attended five weekly individual reminiscence sessions. Changes in the outcome measures were examined for cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment; Autobiographical Memory Test), behavior (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Subscale Non-Cog) and emotional status (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia; Geriatric Depression Scale, and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory). Participants attending reminiscence sessions exhibited better outcomes compared to the control group in cognition, anxiety and depression (p<0.001), and presented a higher number of retrieved autobiographical events, specificity of evoked memories and positive valence of events (p<0.001), and also presented lower latency time for recalling events, and lower negative recalled events (p<0.01). This study supports the potential value of reminiscence therapy in improving the recall of autobiographical memory. Reminiscence therapy can be helpful to maintain or improve cognitive function, decrease anxiety and manage depressive symptoms and altered behavior, but further investigation is needed to clarify long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Grey and White Matter Correlates of Recent and Remote Autobiographical Memory Retrieval – Insights from the Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Muireann; Hornberger, Michael; El Wahsh, Shadi; Lam, Bonnie Y. K.; Lah, Suncica; Miller, Laurie; Hsieh, Sharpley; Hodges, John R.; Piguet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to remember self-referential past events relies on the integrity of a distributed neural network. Controversy exists, however, regarding the involvement of specific brain structures for the retrieval of recently experienced versus more distant events. Here, we explored how characteristic patterns of atrophy in neurodegenerative disorders differentially disrupt remote versus recent autobiographical memory. Eleven behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, 10 semantic dementia, 15 Alzheimer's disease patients and 14 healthy older Controls completed the Autobiographical Interview. All patient groups displayed significant remote memory impairments relative to Controls. Similarly, recent period retrieval was significantly compromised in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease, yet semantic dementia patients scored in line with Controls. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses, for all participants combined, were conducted to investigate grey and white matter correlates of remote and recent autobiographical memory retrieval. Neural correlates common to both recent and remote time periods were identified, including the hippocampus, medial prefrontal, and frontopolar cortices, and the forceps minor and left hippocampal portion of the cingulum bundle. Regions exclusively implicated in each time period were also identified. The integrity of the anterior temporal cortices was related to the retrieval of remote memories, whereas the posterior cingulate cortex emerged as a structure significantly associated with recent autobiographical memory retrieval. This study represents the first investigation of the grey and white matter correlates of remote and recent autobiographical memory retrieval in neurodegenerative disorders. Our findings demonstrate the importance of core brain structures, including the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, irrespective of time period, and point towards the contribution of

  10. Grey and white matter correlates of recent and remote autobiographical memory retrieval--insights from the dementias.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Hornberger, Michael; El Wahsh, Shadi; Lam, Bonnie Y K; Lah, Suncica; Miller, Laurie; Hsieh, Sharpley; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to remember self-referential past events relies on the integrity of a distributed neural network. Controversy exists, however, regarding the involvement of specific brain structures for the retrieval of recently experienced versus more distant events. Here, we explored how characteristic patterns of atrophy in neurodegenerative disorders differentially disrupt remote versus recent autobiographical memory. Eleven behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, 10 semantic dementia, 15 Alzheimer's disease patients and 14 healthy older Controls completed the Autobiographical Interview. All patient groups displayed significant remote memory impairments relative to Controls. Similarly, recent period retrieval was significantly compromised in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease, yet semantic dementia patients scored in line with Controls. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses, for all participants combined, were conducted to investigate grey and white matter correlates of remote and recent autobiographical memory retrieval. Neural correlates common to both recent and remote time periods were identified, including the hippocampus, medial prefrontal, and frontopolar cortices, and the forceps minor and left hippocampal portion of the cingulum bundle. Regions exclusively implicated in each time period were also identified. The integrity of the anterior temporal cortices was related to the retrieval of remote memories, whereas the posterior cingulate cortex emerged as a structure significantly associated with recent autobiographical memory retrieval. This study represents the first investigation of the grey and white matter correlates of remote and recent autobiographical memory retrieval in neurodegenerative disorders. Our findings demonstrate the importance of core brain structures, including the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, irrespective of time period, and point towards the contribution of

  11. A Validity Study of the Working Group's Autobiographical Memory Test for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyo, Geunyeong; Ala, Tom; Kyrouac, Gregory A.; Verhulst, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of the Working Group's Autobiographical Memory Test as a dementia screening tool for individuals with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities (ID). Twenty-one participants with Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT) and moderate to severe ID and 42 controls with similar levels of ID…

  12. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory, Emotional Maltreatment, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Evidence of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment…

  13. Parents' Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…

  14. A Validity Study of the Working Group's Autobiographical Memory Test for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyo, Geunyeong; Ala, Tom; Kyrouac, Gregory A.; Verhulst, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of the Working Group's Autobiographical Memory Test as a dementia screening tool for individuals with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities (ID). Twenty-one participants with Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT) and moderate to severe ID and 42 controls with similar levels of ID…

  15. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory, Emotional Maltreatment, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Evidence of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment…

  16. Parents' Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…

  17. From mind-pops to hallucinations? A study of involuntary semantic memories in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Elua, Ia; Laws, Keith R; Kvavilashvili, Lia

    2012-04-30

    Involuntary semantic memories or mind-pops consist of isolated fragments of one's semantic knowledge (e.g., a word or a sentence, proper name, image or a melody) that come to mind unexpectedly, without any deliberate attempt to recall them. They can be experienced as alien and uncontrollable, and may share some phenomenological similarities with hallucinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nature and frequency