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Sample records for involve liver muscle

  1. Effect of dietary fish oil on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Gröne, B; Rosenbaum, S; Most, E; Hillen, S; Becker, S; Erhardt, G; Reiner, G; Eder, K

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of fish oil as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences the expression of target genes of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and (SREBP)-2 involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism in the liver, and moreover activates the expression of target genes of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR)-α involved in TAG and fatty acid catabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. Twenty lactating sows were fed a control diet or a fish oil diet with either 50 g of a mixture of palm oil and soya bean oil (4:1, w/w) or fish oil per kg. The diet of the fish oil group contained 19.1 g of n-3 PUFA (mainly 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3) per 100 g of total fatty acids, while the diet of the control group contained 2.4 g of n-3 PUFA (mainly 18:3 n-3) per 100 g of total fatty acids. The fish oil group had reduced relative mRNA concentrations of various target genes of SREBP-1 involved in fatty acid and TAG synthesis in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). Relative mRNA concentrations of target genes of PPARα involved in fatty acid catabolism in both liver and muscle, and mRNA concentrations of target genes of SREBP-2 involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake were not influenced by fish oil supplementation. Concentrations of cholesterol and TAG in plasma, fat content of milk and weight gains of litters during the suckling period were not different between the two groups of sows. In conclusion, this study suggests that fish oil has only minor effects on hepatic lipid metabolism, which are non-critical with respect to milk production in sows.

  2. Skeletal muscle involvement in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Maddaloni, Valeria; Rea, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; McKenna, William J

    2013-12-01

    The link between heart and skeletal muscle disorders is based on similar molecular, anatomical and clinical features, which are shared by the 'primary' cardiomyopathies and 'primary' neuromuscular disorders. There are, however, some peculiarities that are typical of cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders. Skeletal muscle weakness presenting at any age may indicate a primary neuromuscular disorder (associated with creatine kinase elevation as in dystrophinopathies), a mitochondrial disease (particularly if encephalopathy, ocular myopathy, retinitis, neurosensorineural deafness, lactic acidosis are present), a storage disorder (progressive exercise intolerance, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa, as in Danon disease), or metabolic disorders (hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonaemia or other specific biochemical abnormalities). In such patients, skeletal muscle weakness usually precedes the cardiomyopathy and dominates the clinical picture. Nevertheless, skeletal involvement may be subtle, and the first clinical manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder may be the occurrence of heart failure, conduction disorders or ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiomyopathy. ECG and echocardiogram, and eventually, a more detailed cardiovascular evaluation may be required to identify early cardiac involvement. Paediatric and adult cardiologists should be proactive in screening for neuromuscular and related disorders to enable diagnosis in probands and evaluation of families with a focus on the identification of those at risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emboli who may require specific prophylactic treatments, for example, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and anticoagulation. PMID:24149064

  3. Muscle Mass Predicts Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    DiMartini, Andrea; Cruz, Ruy J.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Goodpaster, Bret; Fox, Kristen; Kim, Kevin H.; Fontes, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims For patients with end-stage liver disease commonly used indices of nutritional status (i.e. body weight and BMI) are often inflated due to fluid overload (i.e. ascites, peripheral edema) resulting in an underdiagnosis of malnutrition. As muscle is the largest protein reservoir in the body, an estimate of muscle mass may be a more reliable and valid estimate of nutritional status. Methods Therefore, we used pre-transplant computerized tomography data of 338 liver transplant (LTX) candidates to identify muscle and fat mass based on a specific abdominal transverse section commonly used in body composition analyses and investigated the contribution of this measure to specific post-LTX outcomes. Results We found the majority, 68%, of our patients could be defined as cachetic. For men muscle mass predicted many important post-transplant outcomes including intensive care unit (ICU) and total length of stay and days of intubation. Muscle mass was a significant predictor of survival and also predicted disposition to home vs another facility. For women muscle mass predicted lengths of ICU and total stay and days of intubation but the effect was modest. Muscle mass did not predict survival or disposition for women. Conclusions As pre-transplant muscle mass was associated with many important post-operative outcomes we discuss these findings in the context of possible pre-transplant interventions to either improve or sustain muscle mass before surgery. PMID:23960026

  4. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  5. Chronic exercise increases insulin binding in muscles but not liver

    SciTech Connect

    Bonen, A.; Clune, P.A.; Tan, M.H.

    1986-08-01

    It has been postulated that the improved glucose tolerance provoked by chronic exercise is primarily attributable to increased insulin binding in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the authors investigated the effects of progressively increased training (6 wk) on insulin binding by five hindlimb skeletal muscles and in liver. In the trained animals serum insulin levels at rest were lower either in a fed or fasted state and after an oral glucose tolerance test. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise bout sections of the liver, soleus (S), plantaris (P), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles were pooled from four to six rats. Insulin binding to plasma membranes increased in S, P, and EDL but not in WG or in liver. There were insulin binding differences among muscles. Comparison of rank orders of insulin binding data with published glucose transport data for the same muscles revealed that these parameters do not correspond well. In conclusion, insulin binding to muscle is shown to be heterogeneous and training can increase insulin binding to selected muscles but not liver.

  6. Differential isoform expression and selective muscle involvement in muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Sanna; Penttilä, Sini; Somervuo, Panu; Keto, Joni; Auvinen, Petri; Vihola, Anna; Huovinen, Sami; Pelin, Katarina; Raheem, Olayinka; Salenius, Juha; Suominen, Tiina; Hackman, Peter; Udd, Bjarne

    2015-10-01

    Despite the expression of the mutated gene in all muscles, selective muscles are involved in genetic muscular dystrophies. Different muscular dystrophies show characteristic patterns of fatty degenerative changes by muscle imaging, even to the extent that the patterns have been used for diagnostic purposes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms explaining the selective involvement of muscles are not known. To test the hypothesis that different muscles may express variable amounts of different isoforms of muscle genes, we applied a custom-designed exon microarray containing probes for 57 muscle-specific genes to assay the transcriptional profiles in sets of human adult lower limb skeletal muscles. Quantitative real-time PCR and whole transcriptome sequencing were used to further analyze the results. Our results demonstrate significant variations in isoform and gene expression levels in anatomically different muscles. Comparison of the known patterns of selective involvement of certain muscles in two autosomal dominant titinopathies and one autosomal dominant myosinopathy, with the isoform and gene expression results, shows a correlation between the specific muscles involved and significant differences in the level of expression of the affected gene and exons in these same muscles compared with some other selected muscles. Our results suggest that differential expression levels of muscle genes and isoforms are one determinant in the selectivity of muscle involvement in muscular dystrophies.

  7. [Severe liver involvement by Capillaria hepatica].

    PubMed

    Pannenbecker, J; Miller, T C; Müller, J; Jeschke, R

    1990-11-01

    Human hepatic capillariasis is a rare disease, which predominantly affects children aged 1 to 4 years and has a poor prognosis in extensive infections. This is the first case observed in Germany. The main symptoms are those of severe parasitosis: persistent high fever, hepatomegaly, and excessive hypereosinophilia. Diagnosis is confirmed by the finding of intracellular typical eggs in liver biopsy. There is a lack of established therapy; our 18 months old girl developed liver fibrosis. She survived under a prolonged treatment with high doses of Thiabendazole and two single doses of Ivermectine. Decortin was given to inhibit further granulomatous processes in the liver. PMID:2290436

  8. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  9. Neurogenic muscle involvement in myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhuis, Hans; Bethlem, Jaap

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made into the occurrence of muscular atrophy and muscular pathology in a series of 170 patients with myasthenia gravis. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) Of the 148 patients with generalized myasthenia gravis, 14 showed local muscular atrophies. Of 10 biopsies from atrophic muscles, eight showed neurogenic changes, with or without lymphocytic infiltrations. One biopsy showed lymphocytic infiltrations only, and one showed type II-fibre atrophy (Table 1). No relationship was demonstrable between the presence of clilnical muscular atrophy and age, sex, duration of the disease, severity of the disease, presence of a thymoma, or drug resistant ophthalmoplegia. (2) In this group of patients 61 biopsies were examined from 46 individuals; 40 of these biopsies were taken from the quadriceps muscle. A thymoma was present in 17 patients. Examination disclosed neurogenic changes in 17 biopsies, lymphocytic infiltrates in 21, and myositis in one biopsy (Table 2). A distinct correlation was established between the presence of a thymoma and lymphocytic infiltrates, but none was demonstrable between thymoma and neurogenic changes (Table 3). (3) An enzyme-histochemical study was carried out in 35 cases, including 12 with neurogenic changes. A normal differentiation of type I- and type II-fibres was observed in eight instances, type grouping of type II-fibres in three, and type II-fibre atrophy in two cases. (4) In 21 patients and 19 controls, the smallest mean diameter was determined in the quadriceps muscle. Both type I- and type II-fibres proved to have a smaller mean diameter in the female patients than in the controls. In the male patients this could not be proven. (5) Of the eight patients who had died without disorders of ventilation, 90 muscle specimens were examined postmortem. Four of these patients had a thymoma. Lymphocytic infiltrations, found in 32 biopsy specimens, were mostly observed in the presence of a thymoma. Neurogenic changes

  10. Chemokine receptor CCR2 involvement in skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Warren, Gordon L; Hulderman, Tracy; Mishra, Dawn; Gao, Xin; Millecchia, Lyndell; O'Farrell, Laura; Kuziel, William A; Simeonova, Petia P

    2005-03-01

    Chemokines, signaling through the CCR2 receptor, are highly expressed in injured skeletal muscle. Their target specificity depends on the cellular expression of the specific receptors. Here we demonstrate that, in freeze-injured muscle, CCR2 co-localized with Mac-3, a marker of activated macrophages as well as with myogenin, a marker of activated muscle precursor cells. The degeneration/regeneration process in skeletal muscle of CCR2-/- and wild-type mice was not significantly different at day 3. However in contrast to the regenerated muscle of the wild-type mice, the muscle from CCR2-/- mice was characterized by impaired regeneration, inflammation, and fibrotic response at day 14, increased fat infiltration, fibrosis, and calcification at day 21, and impaired strength recovery until at least 28 days post-injury. Consistently, the increased expression of Mac-1 and TNF-alpha was prolonged in the injured muscle of CCR2-/- mice. The expression pattern of the myogenic factors MyoD and myogenin was similar for both types of mice, while NCAM, which is associated with the initiation of fusion of muscle precursor cells, was more increased in the injured muscle of CCR2-/- mice. In conclusion, the study delineates that signaling through CCR2 is involved in muscle precursor cell activities necessary for complete and rapid regeneration of injured skeletal muscle. PMID:15601671

  11. Dissociated lower limb muscle involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Neil G; Lee, Michael; Bae, Jong Seok; Mioshi, Eneida; Lin, Cindy S-Y; Pfluger, Casey M; Henderson, Robert D; Vucic, Steve; Swash, Michael; Burke, David; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2015-06-01

    It has been suggested that corticomotoneuronal drive to ankle dorsiflexors is greater than to ankle plantar flexor muscles, despite the finding that plantar flexors are no less active than TA during walking and standing. The present study was undertaken to determine whether there was differential involvement of distal lower limb muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms of selective muscle involvement. Prospective studies were undertaken in 52 ALS patients, including clinical assessment, disease staging (revised ALS functional rating scale), Medical Research Council sum score, and a scale of upper motor neurone (UMN) dysfunction. Motor unit number estimates (MUNE) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) from ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors were used to provide objective measures. A novel 'split leg index' was calculated as follows: SLI = CMAPDF ÷ CMAPPF. In ALS, there was significantly greater reduction of MUNE and CMAP amplitude recorded from plantar flexors when compared to dorsiflexors, suggesting preferential involvement of plantar flexor muscles, underpinning a 'split leg' appearance. The SLI correlated with clinical plantar flexor strength (R= -0.56, p < 0.001). In no patient did the SLI suggest preferential dorsiflexor involvement. In subgroup analyses, mean SLI was greatest in lower limb-onset ALS. In conclusion, the present study has established dissociated involvement of muscles acting around the ankle in ALS. We suggest this reflects underlying differences in cortical, descending or local spinal modulation of these muscles. PMID:25845764

  12. [Legionnaire's disease with predominant liver involvement].

    PubMed

    Magro Molina, A; Plaza Poquet, V; Giner Galvañ, V

    2002-04-01

    Like other pneumonias due to atypical agents, pneumonia due to Legionela Pneumophila has no characteristic clinical facts, although fever and non-productive cough are almost constant and diarrhea with changes in mental status are common. Hyponatremia and moderate transient hypertransaminasemia are common too. Severe systemic affectation after hematogenous dissemination similar to those described with typical bacterial pneumonias is a prominent difference with other atypical agents, with high mortality rates in the absence of appropriate treatment. Etiological diagnosis is very difficult and it is normally achieved late in the course of the infection. Because of diagnostic difficulties and potential mortality in predisposed patients, empirical antibiotherapy has been extensively recommended. We present a patient affected by critical community-acquired pneumonia due to Legionela Pneumophila serogroup 1 with liver alteration as the main manifestation and good response to empirical antibiotherapy with claritromycine and rifampin. We recommended the empirical use of such therapy in those pneumonias without microbiological diagnosis and torpid evolution.

  13. Involvement of liver in diabetes mellitus: herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Thent, Z C; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease. PMID:25203338

  14. Pregnancy-induced insulin resistance in liver and skeletal muscles of the conscious rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Hauguel, S.; Gilbert, M.; Girard, J.

    1987-02-01

    Insulin sensitivity of maternal nonuterine tissues (liver and skeletal muscles) has been investigated in the conscious rabbit during late gestation (24 and 30 days). The specific effect of insulin on glucose production and utilization was evaluated with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique using two types of labelled microspheres (VXCo and TSn). The net balance of glucose across the hindlimb muscles was studied by means of the Fick principle in basal and insulin stimulated conditions (clamp study). The results show that an insulin-resistant state developed between days 24 and 30 of gestation in the rabbit and involves both glucose producing (liver) and utilizing (muscles) tissues. On day 30 of gestation, muscle glucose uptake was not significantly stimulated at a plasma insulin concentration of 700 U/ml determined by radioimmunoassay, whereas it was stimulated by 30-40% in nonpregnant and 24 day pregnant rabbits. At similar plasma insulin concentration, endogenous glucose production was suppressed by 85% in both nonpregnant and 24 day pregnant rabbits, whereas it was decreased by only 30% in 30 day pregnant rabbits. The present data suggest that hindlimb muscles of late pregnant rabbits are able to reduce their insulin-induced glucose utilization. This could contribute to meet the glucose requirements of pregnant uterus in late gestation.

  15. Relationships between organochlorine concentrations in liver and muscle of otters

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F. )

    1989-10-01

    The European otter (Lutra lutra) is now threatened or endangered over much of its European range. The decline, which has taken place mainly during the past three decades, has been attributed to the toxic effects of organochlorine residues, with emphasis being placed on dieldrin or PCBs. Few otters were analyzed for organochlorines during the main period of decline but there is not considerable interest in the species. Experiments with ranch mink (Mustela vison) have shown that reproductive failure occurs when PCB concentrations in thigh muscle approach 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} lipid. Because otters are closely related and have similar habits this value is becoming widely used to interpret the potential significance of PCB concentrations determined in otters. Furthermore, although the mink data refer to concentrations in muscle, interpretations of concentrations in otters have frequently been based on analyses of livers. Because of the diverse sources of material in Europe, only limited tissues may be made available for analysis, while costs may also prohibit the analysis of several tissues from a single carcass. The relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in muscle and liver tissues in otters has not been determined. This is the purpose of the present communication.

  16. Liver involvement of Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis in children

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xiaoping; Han, Tong; Zai, Hongyan; Long, Xueying; Wang, Xiaoyi; Li, Wenzheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Liver involvement is relatively frequent in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Its features remain poorly defined. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 14 hepatic LCH children in our hospital. The Clinicopathological and radiological features of this disease was discussed. Results: The rate of liver involvement in children LCH patients is 51.9%. Majority of the patients were disseminated cases. Hepatomegaly was clinically confirmed in 11 cases (78.6%). Liver function dysfunction was seen in nine (64.3%) children. The association of multi-modal imaging significantly yielded more diagnostic information. There are some imaging characteristics of this disease, CT and MRI could help to assess the staging, extent of the hepatic lesions. We found that liver involvement had a significant impact on survival. Patients treated with systemic chemotherapy earlier from time of diagnosis had a relatively better outcome. Conclusions: The rate of liver involvement in children LCH patients maybe much higher than that of expected. We suggest that clinical and biological liver evaluation and abdominal imaging must be performed regularly onwards to screen every LCH children patient from the time of the initial diagnosis. Patient should be treated with systemic chemotherapy earlier. PMID:26221247

  17. Signals and Cells Involved in Regulating Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Liang-I.; Mars, Wendy M.; Michalopoulos, George K.

    2012-01-01

    Liver regeneration is a complex phenomenon aimed at maintaining a constant liver mass in the event of injury resulting in loss of hepatic parenchyma. Partial hepatectomy is followed by a series of events involving multiple signaling pathways controlled by mitogenic growth factors (HGF, EGF) and their receptors (MET and EGFR). In addition multiple cytokines and other signaling molecules contribute to the orchestration of a signal which drives hepatocytes into DNA synthesis. The other cell types of the liver receive and transmit to hepatocytes complex signals so that, in the end of the regenerative process, complete hepatic tissue is assembled and regeneration is terminated at the proper time and at the right liver size. If hepatocytes fail to participate in this process, the biliary compartment is mobilized to generate populations of progenitor cells which transdifferentiate into hepatocytes and restore liver size. PMID:24710554

  18. Skeletal muscle imaging in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, pattern and asymmetry of individual muscle involvement.

    PubMed

    Rijken, N H M; van der Kooi, E L; Hendriks, J C M; van Asseldonk, R J G P; Padberg, G W; Geurts, A C H; van Engelen, B G M

    2014-12-01

    To better understand postural and movement disabilities, the pattern of total body muscle fat infiltration was analyzed in a large group of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Additionally, we studied whether residual D4Z4 repeat array length adjusted for age and gender could predict the degree of muscle involvement. Total body computed tomography scans of 70 patients were used to assess the degree of fat infiltration of 42 muscles from neck to ankle level on a semi-quantitative scale. Groups of muscles that highly correlated regarding fat infiltration were identified using factor analysis. Linear regression analysis was performed using muscle fat infiltration as the dependent variable and D4Z4 repeat length and age as independent variables. A pattern of muscle fat infiltration in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy could be constructed. Trunk muscles were most frequently affected. Of these, back extensors were more frequently affected than previously reported. Asymmetry in muscle involvement was seen in 45% of the muscles that were infiltrated with fat. The right-sided upper extremity showed significantly higher scores for fat infiltration compared to the left side, which could not be explained by handedness. It was possible to explain 29% of the fat infiltration based on D4Z4 repeat length, corrected for age and gender. Based on our results we conclude that frequent involvement of fat infiltration in back extensors, in addition to the abdominal muscles, emphasizes the extent of trunk involvement, which may have a profound impact on postural control even in otherwise mildly affected patients.

  19. Nerve and muscle involvement in mitochondrial disorders: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Michelangelo; Piazza, Selina; Volpi, Leda; Orsucci, Daniele; Calsolaro, Valeria; Caldarazzo Ienco, Elena; Carlesi, Cecilia; Rocchi, Anna; Petrozzi, Lucia; Calabrese, Rosanna; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2012-04-01

    Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in mitochondrial disorders (MD) has been previously reported. However, the exact prevalence of peripheral neuropathy and/or myopathy in MD is still unclear. In order to evaluate the prevalence of neuropathy and myopathy in MD, we performed sensory and motor nerve conduction studies (NCS) and concentric needle electromyography (EMG) in 44 unselected MD patients. NCS were abnormal in 36.4% of cases, and were consistent with a sensori-motor axonal multineuropathy (multifocal neuropathy), mainly affecting the lower limbs. EMG evidence of myopathy was present in 54.5% of patients, again mainly affecting the lower limbs. Nerve and muscle involvement was frequently subclinical. Peripheral nerve and muscle involvement is common in MD patients. Our study supports the variability of the clinical expression of MD. Further studies are needed to better understand the molecular basis underlying the phenotypic variability among MD patients. PMID:21751099

  20. Impact of muscle wasting on survival in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Kalafateli, Maria; Konstantakis, Christos; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos; Triantos, Christos

    2015-06-28

    Muscle wasting is defined as the progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass. Muscle depletion is a common feature of chronic liver disease found in approximately 40% of patients with cirrhosis. Its etiology is multifactorial subsequent to liver failure and its prevalence increases along with disease severity. Cross-sectional analytic morphometry using computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging are considered by consensus the gold standards to assess muscle size in cirrhosis for research purposes because they are not biased by fluid accumulation. Several studies have assessed the impact of muscle wasting on overall survival of patients in the waiting list for liver transplantation and there is a general agreement that decreased muscle size assessed by CT scan is an independent predictor for mortality in cirrhosis. It has been proposed that the addition of cross-sectional muscle area into the Model for End-stage Liver Disease can increase its prognostic performance. Nevertheless, the use of CT scan in assessing muscle size is inappropriate for routine clinical practice and an alternative cost-effective, easy to use and accurate tool should be developed. In conclusion, muscle wasting has a detrimental impact on survival of patients with cirrhosis and, thus, it remains to be elucidated if nutritional interventions and exercise could improve muscle wasting and, subsequently, survival in this setting. PMID:26139982

  1. Glucose and Fructose Have Sugar-Specific Effects in Both Liver and Skeletal Muscle In Vivo: A Role for Liver Fructokinase

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Novell, Josep M.; Ramió-Lluch, Laura; Orozco, Anna; Gómez-Foix, Anna M.; Guinovart, Joan J.; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined glucose and fructose effects on serine phosphorylation levels of a range of proteins in rat liver and muscle cells. For this, healthy adult rats were subjected to either oral glucose or fructose loads. A mini-array system was utilized to determine serine phosphorylation levels of liver and skeletal muscle proteins. A glucose oral load of 125 mg/100 g body weight (G 1/2) did not induce changes in phosphorylated serines of the proteins studied. Loading with 250 mg/100 g body weight of fructose (Fr), which induced similar glycemia levels as G 1/2, significantly increased serine phosphorylation of liver cyclin D3, PI3 kinase/p85, ERK-2, PTP2 and clusterin. The G 1/2 increased serine levels of the skeletal muscle proteins cyclin H, Cdk2, IRAK, total PKC, PTP1B, c-Raf 1, Ras and the β-subunit of the insulin receptor. The Fr induced a significant increase only in muscle serine phosphorylation of PI3 kinase/p85. The incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes with 10 mM glucose for 5 min significantly increased serine phosphorylation of 31 proteins. In contrast, incubation with 10 mM fructose produced less intense effects. Incubation with 10 mM glucose plus 75 µM fructose counteracted the effects of the incubation with glucose alone, except those on Raf-1 and Ras. Less marked effects were detected in cultured muscle cells incubated with 10 mM glucose or 10 mM glucose plus 75 µM fructose. Our results suggest that glucose and fructose act as specific functional modulators through a general mechanism that involves liver-generated signals, like micromolar fructosemia, which would inform peripheral tissues of the presence of either glucose- or fructose-derived metabolites. PMID:25330076

  2. Glucose and fructose have sugar-specific effects in both liver and skeletal muscle in vivo: a role for liver fructokinase.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Novell, Josep M; Ramió-Lluch, Laura; Orozco, Anna; Gómez-Foix, Anna M; Guinovart, Joan J; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    We examined glucose and fructose effects on serine phosphorylation levels of a range of proteins in rat liver and muscle cells. For this, healthy adult rats were subjected to either oral glucose or fructose loads. A mini-array system was utilized to determine serine phosphorylation levels of liver and skeletal muscle proteins. A glucose oral load of 125 mg/100 g body weight (G 1/2) did not induce changes in phosphorylated serines of the proteins studied. Loading with 250 mg/100 g body weight of fructose (Fr), which induced similar glycemia levels as G 1/2, significantly increased serine phosphorylation of liver cyclin D3, PI3 kinase/p85, ERK-2, PTP2 and clusterin. The G 1/2 increased serine levels of the skeletal muscle proteins cyclin H, Cdk2, IRAK, total PKC, PTP1B, c-Raf 1, Ras and the β-subunit of the insulin receptor. The Fr induced a significant increase only in muscle serine phosphorylation of PI3 kinase/p85. The incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes with 10 mM glucose for 5 min significantly increased serine phosphorylation of 31 proteins. In contrast, incubation with 10 mM fructose produced less intense effects. Incubation with 10 mM glucose plus 75 µM fructose counteracted the effects of the incubation with glucose alone, except those on Raf-1 and Ras. Less marked effects were detected in cultured muscle cells incubated with 10 mM glucose or 10 mM glucose plus 75 µM fructose. Our results suggest that glucose and fructose act as specific functional modulators through a general mechanism that involves liver-generated signals, like micromolar fructosemia, which would inform peripheral tissues of the presence of either glucose- or fructose-derived metabolites.

  3. Enzyme activities in plasma, kidney, liver, and muscle of five avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Murray, H.C.; Bunck, C.

    1985-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined in plasma, kidney, liver, and muscle from five species of captive birds. Few differences occurred in plasma activities between sexes but considerable differences occurred between species. All five enzymes were detected in each of the tissues sampled. Relative enzyme activities in liver, kidney, and muscle were similar for each species. CPK activity was much higher in muscle than in liver or kidney and, of the five enzymes studied, may be the best indicator of muscle damage. Most of the other enzymes were more evenly distributed among the three tissues, and no organ-specific enzyme could be identified for liver or kidney. Because of interspecific variations in plasma enzyme activities, it is important to establish baseline values for each species to ensure accurate interpretation of results.

  4. Sarcopenia and liver transplant: The relevance of too little muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Kallwitz, Eric R

    2015-10-21

    Loss of muscle mass and function is a common occurrence in both patients with decompensated cirrhosis and those undergoing liver transplantation. Sarcopenia is associated with morbidity and mortality before and after liver transplantation. The ability of skeletal muscle mass to recover after transplant is questionable, and long term adverse events associated with persistent sarcopenia have not been well studied. Limited data is available examining mechanisms by which decreased muscle mass might develop. It is not clear which interventions might reduce the prevalence of sarcopenia and associated health burdens. However, measures to either decrease portal hypertension or improve nutrition appear to have benefit. Research on sarcopenia in the liver transplant setting is hampered by differing methodology to quantify muscle mass and varied thresholds determining the presence of sarcopenia. One area highlighted in this review is the heterogeneity used when defining sarcopenia. The health consequences, clinical course and potential pathophysiologic mechanisms of sarcopenia in the setting of cirrhosis and liver transplantation are further discussed.

  5. Structural differences between liver- and muscle-derived insulin receptors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Burant, C.F.; Treutelaar, M.K.; Block, N.E.; Buse, M.G.

    1986-11-05

    The structure of insulin receptors, solubilized from rat skeletal muscle and liver, was studied. The ..cap alpha.. subunit was identified by specific cross-linking to A14 /sup 125/I-insulin with disuccinimidyl suberate. Muscle- and liver-derived ..cap alpha.. subunits migrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with a M/sub r/ of 131,000 and 135,000, respectively. There was no significant difference in insulin binding affinity. Treatment of cross-linked, immunoprecipitated receptors with either neuraminidase or endoglycosidase H decreased the M/sub r/ of muscle- and liver-derived ..cap alpha.. subunits but did not affect the difference in M/sub r/. Autophosphorylated ..beta.. subunits migrated with a M/sub r/ of 98,000 for muscle and 101,000 for liver. After partial V8 digestion of autophosphorylated, immunoprecipitated receptors the major phosphopeptide fragment migrated on SDS-PAGE at M/sub r/ 57,000 from muscle and 60,000 from liver. Glycosidase digestion of autophosphorylated receptors suggested that M/sub r/ heterogeneity was due in part to differences in the sialic acid content of ..beta.. subunits. Muscle and liver are the major target organs of insulin; the apparent heterogeneity of insulin receptor structure may be relevant to tissue-specific differences in insulin action.

  6. A fatal case of chikungunya virus infection with liver involvement.

    PubMed

    Chua, H H; Abdul Rashid, K; Law, W C; Hamizah, A; Chem, Y K; Khairul, A H; Chua, K B

    2010-03-01

    Recovery from chikungunya is previously considered universal and mortality due to the virus is rare and unusual. Findings from recent chikungunya outbreaks occurred in Reunion Island and India have since challenged the conventional view on the benign nature of the illness. Malaysia has experienced at least of 4 outbreaks of chikungunya since 1998. In the present on-going large outbreak due to chikungunya virus of Central/East African genotype, a previous healthy sixty six years gentleman without co-morbidity was noted to have severe systemic infection by the virus and involvement of his liver. He subsequently passed away due to cardiovascular collapse after 5 days of illness.

  7. Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome involving the liver.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C; Wong, T W; Yap, E H; Tan, H C; Lee, H W; Chu, Y K; Lee, P W

    1987-09-01

    A case of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome that originated in Malaysia is reported. The patient presented with clinical symptoms which were not typical of the disease as seen in endemic regions. Renal involvement, which is characteristic of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, was mild, and the predominant symptom was a persistently marked elevation of serum transaminase levels that was suggestive of hepatitis. Liver involvement has not been described in the Asian form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The patient developed a petechial skin rash and had severe thrombocytopenia. Serological confirmation of the diagnosis of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome was obtained by the demonstration of significant antibody rises to hantaviruses in the patient's acute- and convalescent-phase sera.

  8. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman W.

    1987-01-01

    New muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow embryonic skeletal myofibers which are able to differentiate into more adultlike myofibers. Studies on mechanical simulation of cultured muscle cell growth will now be more directly applicable to mechanically-induced growth in adult muscle, and lead to better models for understanding muscle tissue atrophy caused by disuse in the microgravity of space.

  9. Expression profile of IGF paralog genes in liver and muscle of a GH-transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nornberg, Bruna Felix; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between IGFs produced in the liver and skeletal muscle with muscle hypertrophy previously observed in a line of GH-transgenic zebrafish. In this sense, we evaluated the expression of genes related to the IGF system in liver and muscle of transgenics, as well as the main intracellular signaling pathways used by GH/IGF axis. Our results showed an increase in expression of igf1a, igf2a, and igf2b genes in the liver. Moreover, there was a decrease in the expression of igf1ra and an increase in muscle igf2r of transgenics, indicating a negative response of muscle tissue with respect to excess circulating IGFs. Muscle IGFs expression analyses revealed a significant increase only for igf2b, accompanied by a parallel induction of igfbp5a gene. The presence of IGFBP5a may potentiate the IGF2 action in muscle cells differentiation. Regarding JAK/STAT-related genes, we observed an alteration in the expression profile of both stat3 and stat5a in transgenic fish liver. No changes were observed in the muscle, suggesting that both tissues respond differently to GH-transgenesis. Western blotting analyses indicated an imbalance between the phosphorylation levels of the proliferative (MEK/ERK) and hypertrophic (PI3K/Akt) pathways, in favor of the latter. In summary, the results of this study suggest that the hypertrophy caused by GH-transgenesis in zebrafish may be due to circulating IGFs produced by the liver, with an important participation of muscle IGF2b. This group of IGFs appears to be favoring the hypertrophic intracellular pathway in muscle tissue of transgenic zebrafish.

  10. Expression profile of IGF paralog genes in liver and muscle of a GH-transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nornberg, Bruna Felix; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between IGFs produced in the liver and skeletal muscle with muscle hypertrophy previously observed in a line of GH-transgenic zebrafish. In this sense, we evaluated the expression of genes related to the IGF system in liver and muscle of transgenics, as well as the main intracellular signaling pathways used by GH/IGF axis. Our results showed an increase in expression of igf1a, igf2a, and igf2b genes in the liver. Moreover, there was a decrease in the expression of igf1ra and an increase in muscle igf2r of transgenics, indicating a negative response of muscle tissue with respect to excess circulating IGFs. Muscle IGFs expression analyses revealed a significant increase only for igf2b, accompanied by a parallel induction of igfbp5a gene. The presence of IGFBP5a may potentiate the IGF2 action in muscle cells differentiation. Regarding JAK/STAT-related genes, we observed an alteration in the expression profile of both stat3 and stat5a in transgenic fish liver. No changes were observed in the muscle, suggesting that both tissues respond differently to GH-transgenesis. Western blotting analyses indicated an imbalance between the phosphorylation levels of the proliferative (MEK/ERK) and hypertrophic (PI3K/Akt) pathways, in favor of the latter. In summary, the results of this study suggest that the hypertrophy caused by GH-transgenesis in zebrafish may be due to circulating IGFs produced by the liver, with an important participation of muscle IGF2b. This group of IGFs appears to be favoring the hypertrophic intracellular pathway in muscle tissue of transgenic zebrafish. PMID:26718079

  11. Metabolic effects of the iodothyronine functional analogue TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of high-fat diet fed overweight rats: an integrated proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Elena; Glinni, Daniela; Cioffi, Federica; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; de Lange, Pieter; Senese, Rosalba; Ceccarelli, Michele; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    A novel functional iodothyronine analogue, TRC150094, which has a much lower potency toward thyroid hormone receptor (α1/β1) activation than triiodothyronine, has been shown to be effective at reducing adiposity in rats simultaneously receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, by combining metabolic, functional and proteomic analysis, we studied how the hepatic and skeletal muscle phenotypes might respond to TRC150094 treatment in HFD-fed overweight rats. Drug treatment increased both the liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacities without altering mitochondrial efficiency. Coherently, in terms of individual respiratory in-gel activity, blue-native analysis revealed an increased activity of complex V in the liver and of complexes II and V in tibialis muscle in TCR150094-treated animals. Subsequently, the identification of differentially expressed proteins and the analysis of their interrelations gave an integrated view of the phenotypic/metabolic adaptations occurring in the liver and muscle proteomes during drug treatment. TRC150094 significantly altered the expression of several proteins involved in key liver metabolic pathways, including amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism. The canonical pathways most strongly influenced by TRC150094 in tibialis muscle included glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, amino acid, fructose and mannose metabolism, and cell signaling. The phenotypic/metabolic influence of TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of HFD-fed overweight rats suggests the potential clinical application of this iodothyronine analogue in ameliorating metabolic risk parameters altered by diet regimens.

  12. Total mercury in liver and muscle tissue of two coastal sharks from the northwest of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Banda, Rocío; Gomez-Alvarez, Agustín; Márquez-Farías, J Fernando; Cordoba-Figueroa, Marcial; Navarro-García, Gerardo; Medina-Juárez, Luis Angel

    2012-06-01

    Total mercury (THg) in liver and muscle of three costal sharks from Mexico were evaluated. The highest concentrations of THg in muscle tissue of juveniles were found in Sphyrna lewini (0.82 ± 0.33 mg kg(-1) wet basis). Rhizoprionodon longurio adults had the highest concentrations (0.92 ± 1.03 mg kg(-1)). THg concentrations in liver were low compared to those found in muscle tissue; higher levels were found in liver of juvenile S. lewini (0.250 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1)). Results showed that 35 % of muscle tissue samples are above the precautionary limit (0.50 mg kg(-1) of THg) and a 7 % exceeded the maximum limit for human consumption (1 mg kg(-1)).

  13. Mercury in muscle and liver of ten ray species from Northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Escobar-Sánchez, O; Patrón-Gómez, J; Moreno-Sánchez, X G; Murillo-Olmeda, A; Spanopoulos-Hernández, M; Corro-Espinosa, D

    2013-12-15

    We determined total mercury (Hg) distribution in muscle and liver of ten ray species and assessed health risk considering Hg levels in muscle and average consumption of rays in Mexico. Rays were collected from five sites in NW Mexico between March and November 2012. Hg concentrations ranged from 4.465 μg g(-1) in muscle of the longtail stingray Dasyatis longa to 0.036 μg g(-1) in liver of the diamond stingray Dasyatis dipterura. Considering all the individuals, Hg in muscle (1.612±1.322 μg g(-1)) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than in liver (0.745±0.616 μg g(-1)). Regarding local health risk assessment, none of the ray species may cause adverse effects on consumers. PMID:24074639

  14. Peripheral effects of the endocannabinoid system in energy homeostasis: adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Cristoforo; Ligresti, Alessia; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2011-09-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of lipid signalling ligands, their G-protein coupled receptors and the enzymes involved in ligand generation and metabolism. Increasingly, the ECS is emerging as a critical agent of energy metabolism regulation through its ability to modulate caloric intake centrally as well as nutrient transport, cellular metabolism and energy storage peripherally. Visceral obesity has been associated with an upregulation of ECS activity in several systems and inhibition of the ECS, either pharmacologically or genetically, results in decreased energy intake and increased metabolic output. This review aims to summarize the recent advances that have been made regarding our understanding of the role the ECS plays in crucial peripheral systems pertaining to energy homeostasis: adipose tissues, the liver and skeletal muscle.

  15. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    Muscle tissue culture techniques were developed to grow skeletal myofibers which differentiate into more adult-like myofibers. Mechanical simulation studies of these muscle cells in a newly developed mechanical cell simulator can now be performed to study growth processes in skeletal muscle. Conditions in the mechanical cell simulator were defined where mechanical activity can either prevent muscle wasting or stimulate muscle growth. The role of endogenous and exogenous growth factors in tension-induced muscle growth is being investigated under the defined conditions of tissue culture.

  16. Developmental changes of Insulin-like growth factors in the liver and muscle of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanli; Guo, Wei; Pu, Zhenyu; Li, Xueyuan; Lei, Xinyu; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factors ( IGFS: ) are synthesized in tissues and play an important role in embryonic development of avian via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. In the study, mRNA expression of IGFs were detected by real-time PCR in the muscle and liver from d 10 to 20 of chick embryo ( E10: to E20: ). Methylation of IGF1 promoter in the muscle was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing PCR as well as IGF2 promoter in the liver. These results showed that there was obviously IGF1 expression in liver at E19 and E20. The higher IGF1 expression in muscle was found during E15 to E18 with the peak on E17, and then declined. Correspondingly, the lowest methylation level of IGF1 promoter was detectable on the same embryonic d 17. Expression of IGF2 in muscle increased gradually during embryonic growth and showed higher level in the later stages (E17 to E20) when IGF1 expression began to decrease. IGF2 expression in liver reached the first peak on E14, then declined but gradually elevated from E17. IGF2 promoter methylation in liver showed gradual decline on d 12, 15, 17 and 19 of incubation, meanwhile IGF2 expression of liver increased gradually. These results suggested that IGF1 and IGF2 might separately be more important for muscle and liver growth in chick embryonic development. Variation of IGFs expression during the incubation might be concerned with the methylation of gene promoter. The profile of IGFs expression in chick embryonic tissues may be meaningful for understanding organ growth and embryonic development in chick. PMID:26944971

  17. Developmental changes of Insulin-like growth factors in the liver and muscle of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanli; Guo, Wei; Pu, Zhenyu; Li, Xueyuan; Lei, Xinyu; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factors ( IGFS: ) are synthesized in tissues and play an important role in embryonic development of avian via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. In the study, mRNA expression of IGFs were detected by real-time PCR in the muscle and liver from d 10 to 20 of chick embryo ( E10: to E20: ). Methylation of IGF1 promoter in the muscle was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing PCR as well as IGF2 promoter in the liver. These results showed that there was obviously IGF1 expression in liver at E19 and E20. The higher IGF1 expression in muscle was found during E15 to E18 with the peak on E17, and then declined. Correspondingly, the lowest methylation level of IGF1 promoter was detectable on the same embryonic d 17. Expression of IGF2 in muscle increased gradually during embryonic growth and showed higher level in the later stages (E17 to E20) when IGF1 expression began to decrease. IGF2 expression in liver reached the first peak on E14, then declined but gradually elevated from E17. IGF2 promoter methylation in liver showed gradual decline on d 12, 15, 17 and 19 of incubation, meanwhile IGF2 expression of liver increased gradually. These results suggested that IGF1 and IGF2 might separately be more important for muscle and liver growth in chick embryonic development. Variation of IGFs expression during the incubation might be concerned with the methylation of gene promoter. The profile of IGFs expression in chick embryonic tissues may be meaningful for understanding organ growth and embryonic development in chick.

  18. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  19. A muscle-liver-fat signalling axis is essential for central control of adaptive adipose remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Noriaki; Maruyama, Takako; Yoshikawa, Noritada; Matsumiya, Ryo; Ma, Yanxia; Ito, Naoki; Tasaka, Yuki; Kuribara-Souta, Akiko; Miyata, Keishi; Oike, Yuichi; Berger, Stefan; Schütz, Günther; Takeda, Shin’ichi; Tanaka, Hirotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has a pleiotropic role in organismal energy metabolism, for example, by storing protein as an energy source, or by excreting endocrine hormones. Muscle proteolysis is tightly controlled by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal signalling axis via a glucocorticoid-driven transcriptional programme. Here we unravel the physiological significance of this catabolic process using skeletal muscle-specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) knockout (GRmKO) mice. These mice have increased muscle mass but smaller adipose tissues. Metabolically, GRmKO mice show a drastic shift of energy utilization and storage in muscle, liver and adipose tissues. We demonstrate that the resulting depletion of plasma alanine serves as a cue to increase plasma levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and activates liver-fat communication, leading to the activation of lipolytic genes in adipose tissues. We propose that this skeletal muscle-liver-fat signalling axis may serve as a target for the development of therapies against various metabolic diseases, including obesity. PMID:25827749

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starry triggerfish (Abalistes stellaris) muscle using liver proteinase from albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga).

    PubMed

    Sripokar, P; Chaijan, M; Benjakul, S; Kishimura, H; Klomklao, S

    2016-02-01

    Proteinases from liver extract from albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were used to produce protein hydrolysate from starry triggerfish (Abalistes stellaris) muscle. Hydrolysis conditions for preparing protein hydrolysate from starry triggerfish muscle were optimized. Enzyme level, reaction time and fish muscle/buffer ratio significantly affected the hydrolysis (p < 0.05). Optimum conditions for triggerfish muscle hydrolysis were 5.5 % liver extract, 40 min reaction time and fish muscle/buffer ratio of 1:3 (w/v). The freeze-dried protein hydrolysate was characterized with respect to chemical composition, amino acid composition and color. The product contained 91.73 % protein, 2.04 % lipid and 6.48 % ash. The protein hydrolysate exhibited high amount of essential amino acids (45.62 %). It was light yellow in color (L (*) = 82.94, a (*) = 0.84, b (*) = 22.83). The results indicate that the extract from liver of albacore tuna could be used to produce fish protein hydrolysate and protein hydrolysate from starry triggerfish muscle may potentially serve as a good source of desirable peptide and amino acids. PMID:27162384

  1. Diagnosis of Liver Involvement in Primary Sjögren Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zeron, Pilar Brito; Retamozo, Soledad; Bové, Albert; Kostov, Belchin Adriyanov; Sisó, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Liver involvement was one of the first extraglandular manifestations to be reported in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS). In the 1990s, a study of liver involvement in patients with primary SS integrated the evaluation of clinical signs of liver disease, liver function and a complete panel of autoantibodies. Recent developments in the field of hepatic and viral diseases have significantly changed the diagnostic approach to liver involvement in SS. The most recent studies have shown that, after eliminating hepatotoxic drugs and fatty liver disease, the two main causes of liver disease in primary SS are chronic viral infections and autoimmune liver diseases. The differential diagnosis of liver disease in primary SS (viral vs autoimmune) is clinically important, since the two processes require different therapeutic approaches and have different prognoses. With respect to viral infections, chronic HCV infection is the main cause of liver involvement in SS patients from the Mediterranean area, while chronic HBV infection may be the main cause of liver involvement in SS patients from Asian countries. After eliminating viral hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) should be considered the main cause of liver disease in primary SS. PBC-related SS patients may have a broad spectrum of abnormalities of the liver, including having no clinical or analytical data suggestive of liver disease. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is the second most frequently found autoimmune liver disease to be associated with SS (all reported cases are type I), and nearly 10% of these patients have an AIH-PBC overlap. Finally, IgG4-related disease must be investigated in patients with SS presenting with sclerosing cholangitis, especially when autoimmune pancreatitis or retroperitoneal fibrosis are also present. PMID:26355632

  2. Characteristic MRI Findings of upper Limb Muscle Involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Sugie, Kazuma; Sugie, Miho; Taoka, Toshio; Tonomura, Yasuyo; Kumazawa, Aya; Izumi, Tesseki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Ueno, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the relation between muscle MRI findings and upper limb weakness with grip myotonia in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Seventeen patients with DM1 were evaluated by manual muscle strength testing and muscle MRI of the upper limbs. Many DM1 patients presenting with decreased grasping power frequently showed high intensity signals in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles on T1-weighted imaging. Patients presenting with upper limb weakness frequently also showed high intensity signals in the flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis muscles. Disturbances of the distal muscles of the upper limbs were predominant in all DM1 patients. Some DM1 patients with a prolonged disease duration showed involvement of not only distal muscles but also proximal muscles in the upper limbs. Muscle involvement of the upper limbs on MRI strongly correlated positively with the disease duration or the numbers of CTG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed description of the distribution and severity of affected muscles of the upper limbs on MRI in patients with DM1. We conclude that muscle MRI findings are very useful for identifying affected muscles and predicting the risk of muscle weakness in the upper limbs of DM1 patients. PMID:25919300

  3. Sarcopenia and liver transplant: The relevance of too little muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Kallwitz, Eric R

    2015-10-21

    Loss of muscle mass and function is a common occurrence in both patients with decompensated cirrhosis and those undergoing liver transplantation. Sarcopenia is associated with morbidity and mortality before and after liver transplantation. The ability of skeletal muscle mass to recover after transplant is questionable, and long term adverse events associated with persistent sarcopenia have not been well studied. Limited data is available examining mechanisms by which decreased muscle mass might develop. It is not clear which interventions might reduce the prevalence of sarcopenia and associated health burdens. However, measures to either decrease portal hypertension or improve nutrition appear to have benefit. Research on sarcopenia in the liver transplant setting is hampered by differing methodology to quantify muscle mass and varied thresholds determining the presence of sarcopenia. One area highlighted in this review is the heterogeneity used when defining sarcopenia. The health consequences, clinical course and potential pathophysiologic mechanisms of sarcopenia in the setting of cirrhosis and liver transplantation are further discussed. PMID:26494955

  4. Sarcopenia and liver transplant: The relevance of too little muscle mass

    PubMed Central

    Kallwitz, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass and function is a common occurrence in both patients with decompensated cirrhosis and those undergoing liver transplantation. Sarcopenia is associated with morbidity and mortality before and after liver transplantation. The ability of skeletal muscle mass to recover after transplant is questionable, and long term adverse events associated with persistent sarcopenia have not been well studied. Limited data is available examining mechanisms by which decreased muscle mass might develop. It is not clear which interventions might reduce the prevalence of sarcopenia and associated health burdens. However, measures to either decrease portal hypertension or improve nutrition appear to have benefit. Research on sarcopenia in the liver transplant setting is hampered by differing methodology to quantify muscle mass and varied thresholds determining the presence of sarcopenia. One area highlighted in this review is the heterogeneity used when defining sarcopenia. The health consequences, clinical course and potential pathophysiologic mechanisms of sarcopenia in the setting of cirrhosis and liver transplantation are further discussed. PMID:26494955

  5. [Inflammatory myopathy with initial respiratory muscles involvement and rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Hunter, Martín; Telias, Irene; Collado, Victoria; Sarano, Judith; Alvarez, Clarisa; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory myopathies comprise a heterogeneous group of subacute, chronic and sometimes acute acquired muscle diseases. The most common inflammatory myopathies seen in practice can be separated into four distinct subsets: polymyositis, dermatomyositis, necrotizing autoimmune myositis and inclusion body myositis. These disorders present as proximal and symmetric muscle weakness but rarely respiratory muscles may also be affected. We report the case of a 39 year-old female with inflammatory myopathy with acute respiratory failure due to alveolar hypoventilation secondary to respiratory muscle dysfunction that required mechanical ventilation. The treatment with steroids, methotrexate and intravenous immune globulin was successful as well as the implementation of non-invasive ventilation as an alternative to endotracheal intubation.

  6. [A case of myokymia-hyperhidrosis syndrome with muscle involvement].

    PubMed

    Ono, S; Tomono, H; Maeda, Y; Shimizu, N; Shimizu, N

    1989-01-01

    The present report deals with an unique case of myokymia-hyperhidrosis syndrome. A 46-year-old man developed generalized relatively slow, undulating movement of the muscles, excessive sweating, muscle cramps and easy fatigability since three years ago. On admission, he had generalized myokymia, abnormal movements consisting of slow, undulating and worm-like muscular contractions. There was no muscle atrophy or weakness, or sensory deficits. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished and no Babinski sign or other pathological reflexes were present. Muscle tone was in normal range. Neither fasciculation nor myotonia was found. Laboratory examinations revealed elevation of BMR with normal thyroid function. The value of anti-Ach receptor antibody was below 0.6nmol/l. EMG recordings showed (1) continuous spontaneous repetitive discharges of NMU at a frequency of 30-50Hz, with duration of 1-2 seconds and amplitude of about 1 mV, were demonstrated at rest and the findings were consistent with myokymia, (2) waxing phenomenon was observed on repetitive peripheral nerve stimuli, which didn't improve by the tension test, and (3) high amplitude, long duration and polyphasic NMU, a sign of denervation, were observed on voluntary contraction. Muscle biopsy specimens from the left quadriceps showed a number of internal nuclei. On electron microscopy, clustered mitochondria and filamentous bodies were very often found in subsarcolemma. From these observations, damage to peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junctions and muscles may be responsible for the generalized myokymia in our patient. PMID:2743686

  7. Supplementation with l-carnitine downregulates genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the skeletal muscle and liver of piglets.

    PubMed

    Keller, J; Ringseis, R; Koc, A; Lukas, I; Kluge, H; Eder, K

    2012-01-01

    Supplementation of carnitine has been shown to improve performance characteristics such as protein accretion in growing pigs. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Based on recent results from DNA microchip analysis, we hypothesized that carnitine supplementation leads to a downregulation of genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). The UPS is the most important system for protein breakdown in tissues, which in turn could be an explanation for increased protein accretion. To test this hypothesis, we fed sixteen male, four-week-old piglets either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with carnitine and determined the expression of several genes involved in the UPS in the liver and skeletal muscle. To further determine whether the effects of carnitine on the expression of genes of the UPS are mediated directly or indirectly, we also investigated the effect of carnitine on the expression of genes of the UPS in cultured C2C12 myotubes and HepG2 liver cells. In the liver of piglets fed the carnitine-supplemented diet, the relative mRNA levels of atrogin-1, E214k and Psma1 were lower than in those of the control piglets (P < 0.05). In skeletal muscle, the relative mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF1, E214k, Psma1 and ubiquitin were lower in piglets fed the carnitine-supplemented diet than that in control piglets (P < 0.05). Incubating C2C12 myotubes and HepG2 liver cells with increasing concentrations of carnitine had no effect on basal and/or hydrocortisone-stimulated mRNA levels of genes of the UPS. In conclusion, this study shows that dietary carnitine decreases the transcript levels of several genes involved in the UPS in skeletal muscle and liver of piglets, whereas carnitine has no effect on the transcript levels of these genes in cultivated HepG2 liver cells and C2C12 myotubes. These data suggest that the inhibitory effect of carnitine on the expression of genes of the UPS is mediated indirectly, probably via modulating

  8. Thermal Manipulation during Embryogenesis Has Long-Term Effects on Muscle and Liver Metabolism in Fast-Growing Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Loyau, Thomas; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Berri, Cécile; Crochet, Sabine; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Sannier, Mélanie; Chartrin, Pascal; Praud, Christophe; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rideau, Nicole; Couroussé, Nathalie; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Everaert, Nadia; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Yahav, Shlomo; Tesseraud, Sophie; Collin, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Fast-growing chickens have a limited ability to tolerate high temperatures. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis (TM) has previously been shown to lower chicken body temperature (Tb) at hatching and to improve thermotolerance until market age, possibly resulting from changes in metabolic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of TM (12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis vs. 37.8°C, 56% RH continuously) and of a subsequent heat challenge (32°C for 5 h at 34 d) on the mRNA expression of metabolic genes and cell signaling in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR in 8 chickens per treatment, characterized by low Tb in the TM groups and high Tb in the control groups. Data were analyzed using the general linear model of SAS considering TM and heat challenge within TM as main effects. TM had significant long-term effects on thyroid hormone metabolism by decreasing the muscle mRNA expression of deiodinase DIO3. Under standard rearing conditions, the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, such as transcription factor PGC-1α, was affected by TM in the muscle, whereas for other genes regulating mitochondrial function and muscle growth, TM seemed to mitigate the decrease induced by the heat challenge. TM increased DIO2 mRNA expression in the liver (only at 21°C) and reduced the citrate synthase activity involved in the Krebs cycle. The phosphorylation level of p38 Mitogen-activated-protein kinase regulating the cell stress response was higher in the muscle of TM groups compared to controls. In conclusion, markers of energy utilization and growth were either changed by TM in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver by thermal manipulation during incubation as a possible long-term adaptation limiting energy metabolism, or mitigated during heat challenge. PMID:25180913

  9. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has long-term effects on muscle and liver metabolism in fast-growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Loyau, Thomas; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Berri, Cécile; Crochet, Sabine; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Sannier, Mélanie; Chartrin, Pascal; Praud, Christophe; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rideau, Nicole; Couroussé, Nathalie; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Everaert, Nadia; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Yahav, Shlomo; Tesseraud, Sophie; Collin, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Fast-growing chickens have a limited ability to tolerate high temperatures. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis (TM) has previously been shown to lower chicken body temperature (Tb) at hatching and to improve thermotolerance until market age, possibly resulting from changes in metabolic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of TM (12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis vs. 37.8°C, 56% RH continuously) and of a subsequent heat challenge (32°C for 5 h at 34 d) on the mRNA expression of metabolic genes and cell signaling in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR in 8 chickens per treatment, characterized by low Tb in the TM groups and high Tb in the control groups. Data were analyzed using the general linear model of SAS considering TM and heat challenge within TM as main effects. TM had significant long-term effects on thyroid hormone metabolism by decreasing the muscle mRNA expression of deiodinase DIO3. Under standard rearing conditions, the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, such as transcription factor PGC-1α, was affected by TM in the muscle, whereas for other genes regulating mitochondrial function and muscle growth, TM seemed to mitigate the decrease induced by the heat challenge. TM increased DIO2 mRNA expression in the liver (only at 21°C) and reduced the citrate synthase activity involved in the Krebs cycle. The phosphorylation level of p38 Mitogen-activated-protein kinase regulating the cell stress response was higher in the muscle of TM groups compared to controls. In conclusion, markers of energy utilization and growth were either changed by TM in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver by thermal manipulation during incubation as a possible long-term adaptation limiting energy metabolism, or mitigated during heat challenge.

  10. Differential Muscle Involvement in Mice and Humans Affected by McArdle Disease.

    PubMed

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L; Brull, Astrid; Andreu, Antoni L; Vissing, John

    2016-05-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is caused by myophosphorylase deficiency, which leads to impaired glycogen breakdown. We investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects muscle physiology, morphology, and glucose metabolism in 20-week-old McArdle mice and compared the findings to those in McArdle disease patients. Muscle contractions in the McArdle mice were affected by structural degeneration due to glycogen accumulation, and glycolytic muscles fatigued prematurely, as occurs in the muscles of McArdle disease patients. Homozygous McArdle mice showed muscle fiber disarray, variations in fiber size, vacuoles, and some internal nuclei associated with cytosolic glycogen accumulation and ongoing regeneration; structural damage was seen only in a minority of human patients. Neither liver nor brain isoforms of glycogen phosphorylase were upregulated in muscles, thus providing no substitution for the missing muscle isoform. In the mice, the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were invariably more damaged than the quadriceps muscles. This may relate to a 7-fold higher level of myophosphorylase in TA compared to quadriceps in wild-type mice and suggests higher glucose turnover in the TA. Thus, despite differences, the mouse model of McArdle disease shares fundamental physiological and clinical features with the human disease and could be used for studies of pathogenesis and development of therapies. PMID:27030740

  11. Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

  12. Involvement of vessels and PDGFB in muscle splitting during chick limb development.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Samuel; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Relaix, Frédéric; Di Savino, Sandrine; García-Villalba, Pilar; Coumailleau, Pascal; Duprez, Delphine

    2007-07-01

    Muscle formation and vascular assembly during embryonic development are usually considered separately. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the vasculature and muscles during limb bud development. We show that endothelial cells are detected in limb regions before muscle cells and can organize themselves in space in the absence of muscles. In chick limbs, endothelial cells are detected in the future zones of muscle cleavage, delineating the cleavage pattern of muscle masses. We therefore perturbed vascular assembly in chick limbs by overexpressing VEGFA and demonstrated that ectopic blood vessels inhibit muscle formation, while promoting connective tissue. Conversely, local inhibition of vessel formation using a soluble form of VEGFR1 leads to muscle fusion. The endogenous location of endothelial cells in the future muscle cleavage zones and the inverse correlation between blood vessels and muscle suggests that vessels are involved in the muscle splitting process. We also identify the secreted factor PDGFB (expressed in endothelial cells) as a putative molecular candidate mediating the muscle-inhibiting and connective tissue-promoting functions of blood vessels. Finally, we propose that PDGFB promotes the production of extracellular matrix and attracts connective tissue cells to the future splitting site, allowing separation of the muscle masses during the splitting process.

  13. [Roentgenoradiological and ultrasonic diagnosis of liver and spleen involvement in patients with Hodgkin's disease].

    PubMed

    Balashov, A T; Mendeleev, I M

    1988-01-01

    A combined study including selective angiography of the liver and spleen, angioscintigraphy with 99mTc-TCK-5, polypositional scintigraphy with 99mTc-frosstimag-phytate, and ultrasonic scanning was conducted to detect specific liver and splenic involvement in 57 patients with Hodgkin's disease, CT was performed in 4 patients. A high diagnostic value of all methods was shown in macronodal liver involvement (node sizes over 3 cm); of ultrasonic scanning--in the detection of nodes in the liver (node sizes from 1 to 3 cm); of ultrasonic scanning, angiography and angioscintigraphy--in nodal splenic involvement. Signs of diffuse-infiltrative liver involvement detected in angiography and angioscintigraphy were described. The informative value of ultrasonic scanning and CT in this type of involvement was much lower.

  14. A Case Report of the Angiosarcoma Involving Epicranial Muscle and Fascia : Is the Occipitofrontalis Muscle Composed of Two Different Muscles?

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Hui Joong

    2016-01-01

    The occipitofrontalis muscle is generally regarded as one muscle composed of two muscle bellies joined through the galea aponeurotica. However, two muscle bellies have different embryological origin, anatomical function and innervations. We report a case of angiosarcoma of the scalp in a 63-year-old man whose MR showed that the superficial fascia overlying the occipital belly becomes the temporoparietal fascia and ends at the superior end of the frontal belly. Beneath the superficial fascia, the occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle becomes the galea aponeurotica and inserts into the underside of the frontal belly. The presented case report supported the concept of which the occipitofrontalis muscle appears to be composed of two anatomically different muscles.

  15. Muscle weakness during aging: a deficiency state involving declining angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Charles

    2015-09-01

    This essay begins by proposing that muscle weakness of old age from sarcopenia is due in large part to reduced capillary density in the muscles, as documented in 9 reports of aged persons and animals. Capillary density (CD) is determined by local levels of various angiogenic factors, which also decline in muscles with aging, as reported in 7 studies of old persons and animals. There are also numerous reports of reduced CD in the aged brain and other studies showing reduced CD in the kidney and heart of aged animals. Thus a waning angiogenesis throughout the body may be a natural occurrence in later years and may account significantly for the lesser ailments (physical and cognitive) of elderly people. Old age is regarded here as a deficiency state which may be corrected by therapeutic angiogenesis, much as a hormonal deficiency can be relieved by the appropriate hormone therapy. Such therapy could employ recombinant angiogenic factors which are now commercially available. PMID:26093038

  16. Expression and localization of augmenter of liver regeneration in human muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Polimeno, Lorenzo; Pesetti, Barbara; Giorgio, Floriana; Moretti, Biagio; Resta, Leonardo; Rossi, Roberta; Annoscia, Emanuele; Patella, Vittorio; Notarnicola, Angela; Mallamaci, Rosanna; Francavilla, Antonio

    2009-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) disorders and abnormal regulation of nuclear-derived proteins devoted to the cross-talk between the two cellular genomes have recently interested researchers in the field of neuromuscular diseases. We have identified, isolated and sequenced a new gene, augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) that stimulates in vivo hepatocyte proliferation and up-regulates mt-DNA expression and ATP production. ALR protein (Alrp) is mainly located, in rat, in the mitochondrial inter-membrane space and its mRNA is particularly abundant in brain, muscle, testis and liver, tissues whose activity is mostly dependent on mitochondrial metabolism. Studies on rat Alrp sequence revealed the presence of homologous amino-acid sections into proteins derived from mouse, human, Drosophyla, plants and even DNA viruses. In this article, we evaluated ALR expression in normal human muscular tissues, both as protein and as mRNA. The data, obtained by molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, demonstrated that: (i) Alrp and ALR mRNA are present in human muscular tissue; (ii) Alrp is particularly expressed in muscular fibres rich in mitochondria; (iii) Alrp is localized in the mitochondrial inter-membrane space or associated to mitochondrial cristae; and (iv) in subjects younger then 35 years of age, ALR mRNA expression is different between male and female subjects. In conclusion, the present data set Alrp, as a factor associated with mitochondria also in human tissue, call for future studies aimed at establishing Alrp as an important factor involved in the molecular events that trigger neuromuscular diseases.

  17. Expression and localization of augmenter of liver regeneration in human muscle tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Polimeno; Barbara, Pesetti; Floriana, Giorgio; Biagio, Moretti; Leonardo, Resta; Roberta, Rossi; Emanuele, Annoscia; Vittorio, Patella; Angela, Notarnicola; Rosanna, Mallamaci; Antonio, Francavilla

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) disorders and abnormal regulation of nuclear-derived proteins devoted to the cross-talk between the two cellular genomes have recently interested researchers in the field of neuromuscular diseases. We have identified, isolated and sequenced a new gene, augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) that stimulates in vivo hepatocyte proliferation and up-regulates mt-DNA expression and ATP production. ALR protein (Alrp) is mainly located, in rat, in the mitochondrial inter-membrane space and its mRNA is particularly abundant in brain, muscle, testis and liver, tissues whose activity is mostly dependent on mitochondrial metabolism. Studies on rat Alrp sequence revealed the presence of homologous amino-acid sections into proteins derived from mouse, human, Drosophyla, plants and even DNA viruses. In this article, we evaluated ALR expression in normal human muscular tissues, both as protein and as mRNA. The data, obtained by molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, demonstrated that: (i) Alrp and ALR mRNA are present in human muscular tissue; (ii) Alrp is particularly expressed in muscular fibres rich in mitochondria; (iii) Alrp is localized in the mitochondrial inter-membrane space or associated to mitochondrial cristae; and (iv) in subjects younger then 35 years of age, ALR mRNA expression is different between male and female subjects. In conclusion, the present data set Alrp, as a factor associated with mitochondria also in human tissue, call for future studies aimed at establishing Alrp as an important factor involved in the molecular events that trigger neuromuscular diseases. PMID:19659900

  18. Mitochondrial gene expression in the liver and muscle of high and low feed efficiency Japanese quail layers subjected to different environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Voltolini, D M; Del Vesco, A P; Gasparino, E; Guimarães, S E F; Oliveira Neto, A R; Batista, E; Ton, A P S

    2014-07-04

    We evaluated the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and cytochrome oxidase subunit III (COX III) mRNA expressions in the muscle and liver of Japanese quails presenting high and low feed efficiency (FE), and subjected them to three different environmental temperatures: comfort, heat stress (38°C), and cold stress (10°C). ANT mRNA expression was lower in the liver of heat-stressed animals. In the muscle, higher ANT and COX III mRNA expressions were observed in high-FE and cold-stressed animals. In the liver, much higher expression of COX III mRNA was observed in cold-stressed animals. These results suggest a possible correlation between the genes involved in energy production by the mitochondria and FE phenotypes, and that environmental temperature can affect the ANT and COX III mRNA expressions. Japanese quails presenting different FE levels respond differently to environmental stimuli.

  19. A maternal low protein diet has pronounced effects on mitochondrial gene expression in offspring liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance, and eventually type 2 diabetes in adult life. Gestational protein restriction in rodents gives rise to a low birth weight phenotype in the offspring. Results We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of mice subjected to gestational protein restriction (LP) or not (NP), with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% lower birth weight than NP offspring, with taurine preventing half the decrease. Microarray gene expression analysis of newborn mice revealed significant changes in 2012 genes in liver and 967 genes in skeletal muscle of LP offspring. Taurine prevented 30% and 46% of these expression changes, respectively. Mitochondrial genes, especially those involved with oxidative phosphorylation, were more abundantly changed than other genes. The mitochondrial genes were mainly upregulated in liver, but downregulated in skeletal muscle, despite no change in citrate synthase activity in either tissue. Taurine preferentially rescued genes concerned with fatty acid metabolism in liver and with oxidative phosphorylation and TCA cycle in skeletal muscle. A mitochondrial signature was seen in the liver of NP offspring with taurine supplementation, as gene sets for mitochondrial ribosome as well as lipid metabolism were over represented in 4-week-old offspring subjected to gestational taurine supplementation. Likewise, 11 mitochondrial genes were significantly upregulated by gestational taurine supplementation in 4-week-old NP offspring. Conclusions Gestational protein restriction resulted in lower birth weight associated with significant gene expression changes, which was different in liver and muscle of offspring. However, a major part of the birth weight decrease and the expression changes were prevented by maternal taurine supplementation, implying taurine is a key factor in determining expression

  20. Insulin resistance in uremia: Insulin receptor kinase activity in liver and muscle from chronic uremic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchin, F.; Ittoop, O.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F. )

    1988-04-01

    The authors have studied the structure and function of the partially purified insulin receptors from liver and skeletal muscle in a rat model of severe chronic uremia. {sup 125}I-insulin binding was higher in the liver from uremic rats when compared with ad libitum- and pair-fed controls. Furthermore, the ability of insulin to stimulate the autophosphorylation of the {beta}-subunit and insulin receptor kinase activity using Glu{sup 80}, Tyr{sup 20} as exogenous phosphoacceptor was increased in the liver of the uremic animals. The structural characteristics of the receptors, as determined by electrophoretic mobilities of affinity labeled {alpha}-subunit and the phosphorylated {beta}-subunit, were normal in uremia. {sup 125}I-insulin binding and insulin receptor kinase activity were similar in the skeletal muscle from uremic and pair- and ad libitum-fed animals. Thus the data are supportive of the hypothesis that in liver and muscle of chronic uremic rats, insulin resistance is due to a defect(s) distal to the insulin receptor kinase.

  1. The role of skeletal muscle in liver glutathione metabolism during acetaminophen overdose.

    PubMed

    Bilinsky, L M; Reed, M C; Nijhout, H F

    2015-07-01

    Marked alterations in systemic glutamate-glutamine metabolism characterize the catabolic state, in which there is an increased breakdown and decreased synthesis of skeletal muscle protein. Among these alterations are a greatly increased net release of glutamine (Gln) from skeletal muscle into blood plasma and a dramatic depletion of intramuscular Gln. Understanding the catabolic state is important because a number of pathological conditions with very different etiologies are characterized by its presence; these include major surgery, sepsis, trauma, and some cancers. Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is also accompanied by dramatic changes in systemic glutamate-glutamine metabolism including large drops in liver glutathione (for which glutamate is a precursor) and plasma Gln. We have constructed a mathematical model of glutamate and glutamine metabolism in rat which includes liver, blood plasma and skeletal muscle. We show that for the normal rat, the model solutions fit experimental data including the diurnal variation in liver glutathione (GSH). We show that for the rat chronically dosed with dexamethasone (an artificial glucocorticoid which induces a catabolic state) the model can be used to explain empirically observed facts such as the linear decline in intramuscular Gln and the drop in plasma glutamine. We show that for the Wistar rat undergoing APAP overdose the model reproduces the experimentally observed rebound of liver GSH to normal levels by the 24-h mark. We show that this rebound is achieved in part by the action of the cystine-glutamate antiporter, an amino acid transporter not normally expressed in liver but induced under conditions of oxidative stress. Finally, we explain why supplementation with Gln, a Glu precursor, assists in the preservation of liver GSH during APAP overdose despite the fact that under normal conditions only Cys is rate-limiting for GSH formation.

  2. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Koch, Franziska; Lamp, Ole; Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  3. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  4. Cessation of daily wheel running differentially alters fat oxidation capacity in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Laye, Matthew J; Rector, R Scott; Borengasser, Sarah J; Naples, Scott P; Uptergrove, Grace M; Ibdah, Jamal A; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with the increased risk of developing chronic metabolic diseases. To understand early alterations caused by physical inactivity, we utilize an animal model in which rats are transitioned from daily voluntary wheel running to a sedentary condition. In the hours and days following this transition, adipose tissue mass rapidly increases, due in part to increased lipogenesis. However, whether a concurrent decrease in fatty acid oxidative capacity (FAO) in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue occurs during this period is unknown. Following 6 wk of access to voluntary running wheels (average distance of approximately 6 km a night), rats were rapidly transitioned to a sedentary state by locking the wheels for 5 h (WL5) or 173 h (WL173). Complete ([(14)C]palmitate oxidation to (14)CO(2)) and incomplete ([(14)C]palmitate oxidation to (14)C-labeled acid soluble metabolites) was determined in isolated mitochondrial and whole homogenate preparations from skeletal muscle and liver and in isolated adipocytes. Strikingly, the elevated complete FAO in the red gastrocnemius at WL5 fell to that of rats that never ran (SED) by WL173. In contrast, hepatic FAO was elevated at WL173 above both WL5 and SED groups, while in isolated adipocytes, FAO remained higher in both running groups (WL5 and WL173) compared with the SED group. The alterations in muscle and liver fat oxidation were associated with changes in carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity and inhibition, but not significant changes in other mitochondrial enzyme activities. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1alpha mRNA levels that were higher in both skeletal muscle and liver at WL5 fell to SED levels at WL173. This study is the first to demonstrate that the transition from high to low daily physical activity causes rapid, tissue-specific changes in FAO.

  5. Atrazine exposure causes mitochondrial toxicity in liver and muscle cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Gandhi, Deepa; Devi, S. Saravana; Sakharkar, Amul; Kapley, Atya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Chronic exposure to atrazine and other pesticides is reported to cause metabolic disorders, yet information on effects of atrazine on expression of genes relevant to mitochondrial function is largely missing. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the expression of a battery of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in human liver (HepG2) and rat muscle (L6) cell lines due to short-term atrazine exposure. Materials and Methods: We have determined the EC50 values of atrazine for cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity (mitotoxicity) in terms of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in HepG2 and L6 cells. Further, the mRNA expression of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The EC50 value of atrazine for mitotoxicity in HepG2 and L6 cells was found to be about 0.162 and 0.089 mM, respectively. Mitochondrial toxicity was indicated by reduction in ATP content following atrazine exposure. Atrazine exposure resulted in down-regulation of many OXPHOS subunits expression and affected biogenesis factors’ expression. Most prominently, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expressions were up-regulated in HepG2 cells, whereas SIRT3 expression was alleviated in L6 cells, without significant changes in SOD levels. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and SIRT1 expression were significantly down-regulated in both cell lines. Conclusion: Results suggest that TFAM and SIRT1 could be involved in atrazine-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and further studies can be taken up to understand the mechanism of mitochondrial toxicity. Further study can also be taken up to explore the possibility of target genes as biomarkers of pesticide toxicity. PMID:27114639

  6. Prelamin A is involved in early steps of muscle differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Capanni, Cristina; Del Coco, Rosalba; Squarzoni, Stefano; Columbaro, Marta; Mattioli, Elisabetta; Rocchi, Anna; Scotlandi, Katia; Maraldi, Nadir; Foisner, Roland; Lattanzi, Giovanna

    2008-12-10

    Lamin A is a nuclear lamina constituent implicated in a number of human disorders including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Since increasing evidence suggests a role of the lamin A precursor in nuclear functions, we investigated the processing of prelamin A during differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts. We show that both protein levels and cellular localization of prelamin A are modulated during myoblast activation. Similar changes of lamin A-binding proteins emerin and LAP2{alpha} were observed. Furthermore, prelamin A was found in a complex with LAP2{alpha} in differentiating myoblasts. Prelamin A accumulation in cycling myoblasts by expressing unprocessable mutants affected LAP2{alpha} and PCNA amount and increased caveolin 3 mRNA and protein levels, while accumulation of prelamin A in differentiated muscle cells following treatment with a farnesyl transferase inhibitor appeared to inhibit caveolin 3 expression. Our data provide evidence for a critical role of the lamin A precursor in the early steps of muscle cell differentiation.

  7. The myokine decorin is regulated by contraction and involved in muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kanzleiter, Timo; Rath, Michaela; Görgens, Sven W; Jensen, Jørgen; Tangen, Daniel S; Kolnes, Anders J; Kolnes, Kristoffer J; Lee, Sindre; Eckel, Jürgen; Schürmann, Annette; Eckardt, Kristin

    2014-07-25

    The health-promoting effects of regular exercise are well known, and myokines may mediate some of these effects. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin has been described as a myokine for some time. However, its regulation and impact on skeletal muscle has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we report decorin to be differentially expressed and released in response to muscle contraction using different approaches. Decorin is released from contracting human myotubes, and circulating decorin levels are increased in response to acute resistance exercise in humans. Moreover, decorin expression in skeletal muscle is increased in humans and mice after chronic training. Because decorin directly binds myostatin, a potent inhibitor of muscle growth, we investigated a potential function of decorin in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. In vivo overexpression of decorin in murine skeletal muscle promoted expression of the pro-myogenic factor Mighty, which is negatively regulated by myostatin. We also found Myod1 and follistatin to be increased in response to decorin overexpression. Moreover, muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin1 and MuRF1, which are involved in atrophic pathways, were reduced by decorin overexpression. In summary, our findings suggest that decorin secreted from myotubes in response to exercise is involved in the regulation of muscle hypertrophy and hence could play a role in exercise-related restructuring processes of skeletal muscle. PMID:24996176

  8. [A case of distal myopathy with rimmed vacuole formation, progresses into proximal-dominant muscle involvement].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, K; Ohkoshi, N; Arasaki, K; Mizusawa, H; Kanazawa, I

    1992-09-01

    A case of 55-year-old male with distal myopathy with rimmed vacuole formation is reported. He first noticed dragging of his legs at the age of forty-three. Two years later, he was evaluated to have muscle wasting and weakness in lower legs. In another ten years, he became unable to stand or walk unaided. On physical examination, proximal limb muscles were more severely affected than distal limb muscles. Notably, muscle strength of the quadriceps femoris muscles were weak (MRC Scale 3/5), compared to hamstrings, tibialis anterior muscle and gastrocnemius muscle (4/5). Serum creatine kinase, electromyography, nerve conduction velocities were all compatible with this diagnosis. A computed tomography of the musculoskeletal system was consistent with physical findings. Muscle biopsy revealed many fibers with typical rimmed vacuoles (approximately 6% of fibers). Additionally, small amount of ragged-red fibers (0.5%) was noted. Histochemical reaction showed a focal deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase. This case suggests that during the longstanding course of the illness, proximal limb muscles may be more severely affected, and quadriceps femoris muscle may be predominantly involved.

  9. Systematic identification of genes involved in divergent skeletal muscle growth rates of broiler and layer chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qi; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Ying; Yang, Ning; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhu, Dahai

    2009-01-01

    Background The genetic closeness and divergent muscle growth rates of broilers and layers make them great models for myogenesis study. In order to discover the molecular mechanisms determining the divergent muscle growth rates and muscle mass control in different chicken lines, we systematically identified differentially expressed genes between broiler and layer skeletal muscle cells during different developmental stages by microarray hybridization experiment. Results Taken together, 543 differentially expressed genes were identified between broilers and layers across different developmental stages. We found that differential regulation of slow-type muscle gene expression, satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, protein degradation rate and genes in some metabolic pathways could give great contributions to the divergent muscle growth rates of the two chicken lines. Interestingly, the expression profiles of a few differentially expressed genes were positively or negatively correlated with the growth rates of broilers and layers, indicating that those genes may function in regulating muscle growth during development. Conclusion The multiple muscle cell growth regulatory processes identified by our study implied that complicated molecular networks involved in the regulation of chicken muscle growth. These findings will not only offer genetic information for identifying candidate genes for chicken breeding, but also provide new clues for deciphering mechanisms underlining muscle development in vertebrates. PMID:19232135

  10. Effects of shock waves on oxidative stress and some trace element levels of rat liver and diaphragm muscles.

    PubMed

    Gecit, İlhan; Kavak, Servet; Meral, Ismail; Güneş, Mustafa; Pirinççi, Necip; Sayir, Fuat; Demir, Halit; Ceylan, Kadir

    2012-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the short-term extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) exposure to kidney produces an oxidative stress and a change in some trace element levels in liver and diaphragm muscles of rats. Twelve male Wistar albino rats were divided randomly into two groups, each consisting of six rats. The animals in the first group did not receive any treatment and served as control group. The right-side kidneys of animals in group 2 were treated with two-thousand 18 kV shock waves while anesthetized with 50 mg kg(-1) ketamine. The localization of the right kidney was achieved after contrast medium injection through a tail vein under fluoroscopy control. The animals were killed 72 h after the ESWL treatment, and liver and diaphragm muscles were harvested for the determination of tissue oxidative stress and trace element levels. Although the malondialdehyde level increased, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities decreased in the livers and diaphragm muscles of ESWL-treated rats. Although glutathione level increased in liver, it decreased in diaphragm muscles of ESWL-treated animals. Fe, Mg and Mn levels decreased, and Cu and Pb levels increased in the livers of ESWL-treated animals. Fe and Cu levels increased, and Mg, Pb, Mn and Zn levels decreased in the diaphragm muscles of ESWL-treated animals. It also causes a decrease or increase in many mineral levels in liver and diaphragm muscles, which is an undesirable condition for the normal physiological function of tissues.

  11. Dietary (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Supplementation Counteracts Aging-Associated Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance and Fatty Liver in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hung-Wen; Chan, Yin-Ching; Wang, Ming-Fu; Wei, Chu-Chun; Chang, Sue-Joan

    2015-09-30

    Aging is accompanied by pathophysiological changes including insulin resistance and fatty liver. Dietary supplementation with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates fatty liver disease. We hypothesized that EGCG could effectively modulate aging-associated changes in glucose and lipid metabolism in senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) prone 8 (SAMP8). Higher levels of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid, inhibited Akt activity, and decreased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression were observed in SAMP8 mice compared to the normal aging group, SAM resistant 1 mice. EGCG supplementation for 12 weeks successfully decreased blood glucose and insulin levels via restoring Akt activity and GLUT4 expression and stimulating AMPKα activation in skeletal muscle. EGCG up-regulated genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and subsequently restored mitochondrial DNA copy number in skeletal muscle of SAMP8 mice. Decreased adipose triglyceride lipase and increased sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate responsive element binding protein at mRNA levels were observed in SAMP8 mice in accordance with hepatocellular ballooning and excess lipid accumulation. The pevention of hepatic lipid accumulation by EGCG was mainly attributed to down-regulation of mTOR and SREBP-1c-mediated lipid biosynthesis via suppression of the positive regulator, Akt, and activation of the negative regulator, AMPKα, in the liver. EGCG beneficially modulates glucose and lipid homeostasis in skeletal muscle and liver, leading to alleviation of aging-associated metabolic disorders.

  12. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. Human isoenzymes of adenylate kinase: isolation and physicochemical comparison of the crystalline human ATP-AMP transphosphorylases from muscle and liver.

    PubMed

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Frischat, A; Cress, M C; Hamada, M

    1983-02-10

    Procedures are described for the isolation, in crystalline form, of the adenylate kinases from autopsy samples of human muscle and from human liver. Weight average molecular weights were determined by sedimentation equilibrium to be 22,000 (+/- 700) and 25,450 (+/- 160) for the human muscle and liver isoenzymes, respectively. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, their molecular weights were estimated to be 21,700 and 26,500 for the muscle and liver enzymes, respectively. Both isoenzymes are accordingly monomeric proteins in their native state. Amino acid analyses are reported here for the normal human liver, calf liver, and rabbit liver adenylate kinases and compared with the normal human muscle, calf muscle, and rabbit muscle myokinases. The liver types as a group and the muscle types as a group show a great deal of homology, but some distinct differences are evident between the liver and muscle enzyme groups, especially in the number of residues of His, Pro, half-cystine, and the presence of tryptophan in the liver enzymes. The normal human liver adenylate kinase, as isolated in this report, has proved to be similar in its properties, if not identical, to the adenylate kinase isolated directly from human liver mitochondria (Hamada, M., Sumida, M., Okuda, H., Watanabe, T., Nojima, M., and Kuby, S. A. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13120-13128). Therefore, the liver-type adenylate kinase may be considered a mitochondrial type.

  13. Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, Steven D.; Elmore, Christopher J.; Bongers, Kale S.; Ebert, Scott M.; Fox, Daniel K.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness. PMID:22745735

  14. Isotretinoin-induced acute severe myopathy involving pelvic girdle muscles: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sameem, Farah; Semira

    2016-01-01

    Oral isotretinoin has been in widespread use for more than three decades. It causes numerous side effects; skin and mucous membrane being commonly involved. Musculoskeletal adverse effects are also known to occur, but pelvic girdle myopathy is rarely reported. We report myopathy involving pelvic girdle muscles in a young male who received oral isotretinoin for folliculitis decalvans. PMID:27721552

  15. Muscle involvement in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy with GMPPB deficiency (LGMD2T)

    PubMed Central

    Stojkovic, T.; Dahlqvist, J.R.; Bouchet-Seraphin, C.; Nectoux, J.; Leturcq, F.; Cossée, M.; Solé, G.; Thomsen, C.; Krag, T.O.; Vissing, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, muscle involvement assessed by MRI and levels of GMPPB and glycosylation of α-dystroglycan expression in muscle were examined in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2T. Methods: Six new patients with genetically verified mutations in GMPPB were studied. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 4 participants. Muscle strength and potential involvement of extramuscular organs were examined. Glycosylation of α-dystroglycan in muscle was studied, and GMPPB and α-dystroglycan expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Prevalence of LGMD2T was calculated from the total LGMD population in Denmark. GMPPB was sequenced in all unclassified cases. Results: Two patients carried 3 new mutations in GMPPB. The other 4 patients carried previously described pathogenic mutations in GMPPB. MRI showed that the paraspinal muscles were the most affected, followed by involvement of hamstrings. Our results showed a loss of glycosylation of α-dystroglycan as well as secondary loss of merosin expression on Western blotting. The prevalence of LGMD2T in the Danish cohort of patients with LGMD is 1.5%. Conclusions: The new findings of this study are (1) the consistent finding of a preferential affection of paraspinal and hamstring muscles in LGMD2T, (2) 3 new mutations in GMPPB, (3) variable loss of glycosylation tested with IIH6 and VIA4 antibodies, and (4) a prevalence of LGMD2T of 1.5% in a well-characterized Danish LGMD cohort. PMID:27766311

  16. Detection, accumulation, distribution, and depletion of furaltadone and nifursol residues in poultry muscle, liver, and gizzard.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Jorge; Freitas, Andreia; Moura, Sara; Mourão, José Luis; Noronha da Silveira, Maria Irene; Ramos, Fernando

    2011-11-23

    Nitrofurans were broadly used as an extremely effective veterinary antibiotic especially in pig and poultry production farms. Because of fears of the carcinogenic effects on humans, the nitrofurans were banned from use in livestock production in many countries, including the European Union. The present study examines the accumulation, distribution, and depletion of furaltadone and nifursol and of their tissue-bound metabolites [3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ) and 3,5-dinitro-salicylic acid hydrazine (DNSAH), respectively, in poultry edible tissues (muscle, liver, and gizzards) following administration to chickens of therapeutic and subtherapeutic concentrations of both compounds. Nitrofurans determination was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively, for feeds and for poultry tissues. Furaltadone and nifursol, in very low concentrations, were found in samples of muscle, liver, and chicken's gizzard collected from slaughtered animals after 5 weeks of treatment and no withdrawal time period. When a withdrawal time period of 3 weeks was respected, no detectable nitrofuran parent compounds was observed in all of the studied matrices. For AMOZ, concentrations of 270 μg/kg in meat, 80 μg/kg in liver, and 331 μg/kg in gizzard were determined after administration of a medicated feed with furaltadone (132 mg/kg), 3 weeks after withdrawal of treatment. For DNSAH, the concentration values obtained are much lower than those observed for AMOZ. For meat, liver, and gizzard, DNSAH concentrations of 2.5, 6.4, and 10.3 μg/kg, respectively, were determined, after administration of a medicated feed with nifursol (98 mg/kg), 3 weeks after withdrawal of treatment. The gizzard could be considered a selected matrix for nitrofuran residues evaluation in poultry, due to its capacity of retaining either nitrofuran parent compounds or metabolites in higher concentrations

  17. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in liver and muscle tissue from wild boar in Hesse, Germany.

    PubMed

    Stahl, T; Falk, S; Failing, K; Berger, J; Georgii, S; Brunn, H

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 15,000 tons of wild boar meats (Sus scrofa) are consumed per year in Germany. Boar meat therefore plays a definite role in regard to human diet. Because they are omnivores and because of their high body fat quotient, wild boar may accumulate large concentrations of persistent organic compounds, such as halogenated hydrocarbons, and could thus possibly serve as bioindicators for persistent xenobiotics. In addition, consumption of wild boar meat and liver could lead to increased contaminant levels in humans. Between 2007 and 2009, we tested a total of 529 livers and 506 muscle tissue samples from wild boar for the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOA concentrations ≤45 μg/kg and PFOS concentrations ≤1,780 μg/kg were detected in the liver samples. PFOA concentrations ≤7.4 μg/kg and PFOS concentrations ≤28.6 μg/kg were detected in muscle tissue. Our results show that PFOS may be detected in considerably greater concentrations than PFOA in organs and tissues, which is in agreement with results from other published studies. The comparisons between both organs for the same substance, as well as the comparisons between the substances within an organ, showed clear and statistically significant differences at P < 0.0001. Assuming a tolerable daily intake value of PFOA (1.5 μg/kg bw/d) and PFOS (0.15 μg/kg bw/d) as recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, the results of model calculations based on the maximum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS found in wild boar indicate that there should be no PFC-related health danger resulting from moderate consumption of wild boar meat or liver.

  18. Human skeletal muscle and erythrocyte proteins involved in acid-base homeostasis: adaptations to chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Juel, C; Lundby, C; Sander, M; Calbet, J A L; Hall, G van

    2003-04-15

    Chronic hypoxia is accompanied by changes in blood and skeletal muscle acid-base control. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanisms include altered protein expression of transport systems and the enzymes involved in lactate, HCO3- and H+ fluxes in skeletal muscle and erythrocytes. Immunoblotting was used to quantify densities of the transport systems and enzymes. Muscle and erythrocyte samples were obtained from eight Danish lowlanders at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks at 4100 m (Bolivia). For comparison, samples were obtained from eight Bolivian natives. In muscle membranes there were no changes in fibre-type distribution, lactate dehydrogenase isoforms, Na+,K+-pump subunits or in the lactate-H+ co-transporters MCT1 and MCT4. The Na+-H+ exchanger protein NHE1 was elevated by 39 % in natives compared to lowlanders. The Na+-HCO3- co-transporter density in muscle was elevated by 47-69 % after 2 and 8 weeks at altitude. The membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase (CA) IV in muscle increased in the lowlanders by 39 %, whereas CA XIV decreased by 23-47 %. Levels of cytosolic CA II and III in muscle and CA I and II in erythrocytes were unchanged. The erythrocyte lactate-H+ co-transporter MCT1 increased by 230-405 % in lowlanders and was 324 % higher in natives. The erythrocyte inorganic anion exchanger (Cl--HCO3- exchanger AE1) was increased by 149-228 %. In conclusion, chronic hypoxia induces dramatic changes in erythrocyte proteins, but only moderate changes in muscle proteins involved in acid-base control. Together, these changes suggest a hypoxia-induced increase in the capacity for lactate, HCO3- and H+ fluxes from muscle to blood and from blood to erythrocytes. PMID:12611920

  19. Muscle and liver-specific alterations in lipid and acylcarnitine metabolism after a single bout of exercise in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoene, Miriam; Li, Jia; Li, Yanjie; Runge, Heike; Zhao, Xinjie; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Lehmann, Rainer; Xu, Guowang; Weigert, Cora

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular lipid pools are highly dynamic and tissue-specific. Physical exercise is a strong physiologic modulator of lipid metabolism, but most studies focus on changes induced by long-term training. To assess the acute effects of endurance exercise, mice were subjected to one hour of treadmill running, and (13)C16-palmitate was applied to trace fatty acid incorporation in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle and liver. The amounts of carnitine, FFA, lysophospholipids and diacylglycerol and the post-exercise increase in acetylcarnitine were pronouncedly higher in soleus than in gastrocnemius. In the liver, exercise increased the content of lysophospholipids, plasmalogens and carnitine as well as transcript levels of the carnitine transporter. (13)C16-palmitate was detectable in several lipid and acylcarnitine species, with pronounced levels of tracer-derived palmitoylcarnitine in both muscles and a strikingly high incorporation into triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine in the liver. These data illustrate the high lipid storing activity of the liver immediately after exercise whereas in muscle, fatty acids are directed towards oxidation. The observed muscle-specific differences accentuate the need for single-muscle analyses as well as careful consideration of the particular muscle employed when studying lipid metabolism in mice. In addition, our results reveal that lysophospholipids and plasmalogens, potential lipid signalling molecules, are acutely regulated by physical exercise. PMID:26916151

  20. Muscle and liver-specific alterations in lipid and acylcarnitine metabolism after a single bout of exercise in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoene, Miriam; Li, Jia; Li, Yanjie; Runge, Heike; Zhao, Xinjie; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Lehmann, Rainer; Xu, Guowang; Weigert, Cora

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular lipid pools are highly dynamic and tissue-specific. Physical exercise is a strong physiologic modulator of lipid metabolism, but most studies focus on changes induced by long-term training. To assess the acute effects of endurance exercise, mice were subjected to one hour of treadmill running, and 13C16-palmitate was applied to trace fatty acid incorporation in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle and liver. The amounts of carnitine, FFA, lysophospholipids and diacylglycerol and the post-exercise increase in acetylcarnitine were pronouncedly higher in soleus than in gastrocnemius. In the liver, exercise increased the content of lysophospholipids, plasmalogens and carnitine as well as transcript levels of the carnitine transporter. 13C16-palmitate was detectable in several lipid and acylcarnitine species, with pronounced levels of tracer-derived palmitoylcarnitine in both muscles and a strikingly high incorporation into triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine in the liver. These data illustrate the high lipid storing activity of the liver immediately after exercise whereas in muscle, fatty acids are directed towards oxidation. The observed muscle-specific differences accentuate the need for single-muscle analyses as well as careful consideration of the particular muscle employed when studying lipid metabolism in mice. In addition, our results reveal that lysophospholipids and plasmalogens, potential lipid signalling molecules, are acutely regulated by physical exercise. PMID:26916151

  1. Molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of cyclosporin A and sirolimus on glucose and lipid metabolism in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in an in vivo rat model.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, A; Lopes, Pc; Sereno, J; Pedro, J; Espinoza, D O; Pereira, M J; Reis, F; Eriksson, J W; Carvalho, E

    2014-03-15

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) and sirolimus (SRL) are immunosuppressive agents (IAs) associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of six-week treatment of either CsA or SRL on glucose and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats. The results show that, compared with vehicle-treated rats, SRL-treated rats were significantly lighter starting at week 5. CsA or SRL caused glucose intolerance, increased storage of lipids in the liver and skeletal muscle, and decreased the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes. Furthermore, these agents significantly decreased genes involved in insulin action and glucose uptake, such as, IRS-1, Glut4 and Glut1, and increased genes and/or proteins involved in hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis, while decreasing them in adipose tissue. After either treatment PGC1α gene expression was down regulated in skeletal muscle, an important player in fatty acid oxidation. Moreover, there was an increase in IL-6 gene expression in adipose tissue in the SRL-treated rats, suggesting stimulation of lipolysis. The results of the present study suggest that CsA and SRL lead to metabolic alterations in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, which may contribute to the development of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance associated with immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:24462915

  2. Unraveling the Molecular Signatures of Oxidative Phosphorylation to Cope with the Nutritionally Changing Metabolic Capabilities of Liver and Muscle Tissues in Farmed Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation provides over 90% of the energy produced by aerobic organisms, therefore the regulation of mitochondrial activity is a major issue for coping with the changing environment and energy needs. In fish, there is a large body of evidence of adaptive changes in enzymatic activities of the OXPHOS pathway, but less is known at the transcriptional level and the first aim of the present study was to define the molecular identity of the actively transcribed subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain of a livestock animal, using gilthead sea bream as a model of farmed fish with a high added value for European aquaculture. Extensive BLAST searches in our transcriptomic database (www.nutrigroup-iats.org/seabreamdb) yielded 97 new sequences with a high coverage of catalytic, regulatory and assembly factors of Complex I to V. This was the basis for the development of a PCR array for the simultaneous profiling of 88 selected genes. This new genomic resource allowed the differential gene expression of liver and muscle tissues in a model of 10 fasting days. A consistent down-regulated response involving 72 genes was made by the liver, whereas an up-regulated response with 29 and 10 differentially expressed genes was found in white skeletal muscle and heart, respectively. This differential regulation was mostly mediated by nuclear-encoded genes (skeletal muscle) or both mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded genes (liver, heart), which is indicative of a complex and differential regulation of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, according to the changes in the lipogenic activity of liver and the oxidative capacity of glycolytic and highly oxidative muscle tissues. These insights contribute to the identification of the most responsive elements of OXPHOS in each tissue, which is of relevance for the appropriate gene targeting of nutritional and/or environmental metabolic disturbances in livestock animals. PMID:25875231

  3. Unraveling the molecular signatures of oxidative phosphorylation to cope with the nutritionally changing metabolic capabilities of liver and muscle tissues in farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation provides over 90% of the energy produced by aerobic organisms, therefore the regulation of mitochondrial activity is a major issue for coping with the changing environment and energy needs. In fish, there is a large body of evidence of adaptive changes in enzymatic activities of the OXPHOS pathway, but less is known at the transcriptional level and the first aim of the present study was to define the molecular identity of the actively transcribed subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain of a livestock animal, using gilthead sea bream as a model of farmed fish with a high added value for European aquaculture. Extensive BLAST searches in our transcriptomic database (www.nutrigroup-iats.org/seabreamdb) yielded 97 new sequences with a high coverage of catalytic, regulatory and assembly factors of Complex I to V. This was the basis for the development of a PCR array for the simultaneous profiling of 88 selected genes. This new genomic resource allowed the differential gene expression of liver and muscle tissues in a model of 10 fasting days. A consistent down-regulated response involving 72 genes was made by the liver, whereas an up-regulated response with 29 and 10 differentially expressed genes was found in white skeletal muscle and heart, respectively. This differential regulation was mostly mediated by nuclear-encoded genes (skeletal muscle) or both mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded genes (liver, heart), which is indicative of a complex and differential regulation of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, according to the changes in the lipogenic activity of liver and the oxidative capacity of glycolytic and highly oxidative muscle tissues. These insights contribute to the identification of the most responsive elements of OXPHOS in each tissue, which is of relevance for the appropriate gene targeting of nutritional and/or environmental metabolic disturbances in livestock animals.

  4. Determination of fenbendazole and oxfendazole in liver and muscle using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Blanchflower, W J; Cannavan, A; Kennedy, D G

    1994-06-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of the anthelmintics fenbendazole and oxfendazole in liver and muscle samples using liquid chromatography-thermospray mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The samples were homogenized with water, sonicated with methanol and centrifuged. The supernatants were washed with light petroleum and extracted with diethyl ether-ethyl acetate. The extracts were evaporated to dryness, dissolved in mobile phase and injected into the LC-MS system. Fenbendazole and oxfendazole were measured separately using two different mobile phases. Single-ion monitoring of the positive ion at m/z 300 was used for fenbendazole and of m/z 316 for oxfendazole. The detection limits for the assay were 0.05 microgram g-1 for fenbendazole and 0.1 microgram g-1 for oxfendazole. The mean recoveries were 91% for fenbendazole and 86% for oxfendazole. The assay has been used for statutory testing purposes and for measuring the levels of fenbendazole and oxfendazole in liver and muscle from sheep after dosing with a commercial anthelmintic containing fenbendazole.

  5. Differential accumulation of selenium among axial muscle, reproductive and liver tissues of four warmwater fish species

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, D.R.; Cofield, C.R.

    1984-06-01

    Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), white catfish (Ictalurus catus), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), collected from an electric power plant cooling reservoir and a municipal water supply reservoir near Roxboro, North Carolina, were analyzed for selenium concentrations in axial muscle, reproductive and liver tissues. Fishes from the municipal water reservoir had lower selenium concentrations (<0.2-2.1 ..mu..g/g - wet weight) than found in the cooling reservoir fishes (1.6-70.0 ..mu..g/g - wet weight) but similar distributions of concentrations among the tissues was evident. Selenium was differentially accumulated, with higher concentrations in liver tissues (0.7 - 70.0 ..mu..g/g - wet weight), followed by female productive tissues (0.7 - 25.0 ..mu..g/g - wet weight), axial muscle tissues (< 0.2 - 23.0 ..mu..g/g - wet weight) and male reproductive tissues (0.02 - 7.2 ..mu..g/g - wet weight).

  6. Organotins in fish muscle and liver from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea: Is the total ban successful?

    PubMed

    Filipkowska, Anna; Złoch, Ilona; Wawrzyniak-Wydrowska, Brygida; Kowalewska, Grażyna

    2016-10-15

    Muscle and liver tissues of nine fish species were analyzed to assess butyltin and phenyltin contamination. The samples were collected from three basins located in the Southern Baltic Sea coastal zone that each represent different potential for organotin pollution. Maximum total concentrations of butyltin compounds (BTs) in the fish muscles and livers were 715 and 1132ng Sn g(-1) d.w., respectively, whereas triphenyltin (TPhT) was not detected. In the muscle samples, the predominant compound in the sum of butyltins was tributyltin (TBT), while in the liver samples, tributyltin degradation products were found in the majority. The results demonstrate that 6-7years after the implementation of the total ban on harmful organotin use in antifouling paints, butyltins remain present in fishes from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. According to the HELCOM recommendation, eight samples exceeded the good environmental status boundary for tributyltin in seafood. PMID:27345706

  7. Total and organic mercury in liver, kidney and muscle of waterbirds from wetlands of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Aazami, J; Esmaili-Saria, A; Bahramifar, N; Savabieasfahani, M

    2012-07-01

    We measured and compared total and organic mercury in liver, kidney, and muscle of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and coot (Fulica atra) from the Caspian Sea wetlands in Iran. For the Great Cormorant organic mercury in liver, kidney and muscle comprised 82 %, 79 % and 58 % of total mercury. In the mallard same values were 46 %, 54 %, and 64 %. For coot total mercury was: 0.1 ± 0.0, 0.1 ± 0.01, 0.03 ± 0.01 in liver kidney and muscle respectively. We detected no organic mercury. In general older birds that feed on higher trophic levels can accumulate more mercury in their tissues. PMID:22527004

  8. Melatonin increases intracellular calcium in the liver, muscle, white adipose tissues and pancreas of diabetic obese rats.

    PubMed

    Agil, A; Elmahallawy, E K; Rodríguez-Ferrer, J M; Adem, A; Bastaki, S M; Al-Abbadi, I; Fino Solano, Y A; Navarro-Alarcón, M

    2015-08-01

    Melatonin, a widespread substance with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been found to act as an antidiabetic agent in animal models, regulating the release and action of insulin. However, the molecular bases of this antidiabetic action are unknown, limiting its application in humans. Several studies have recently shown that melatonin can modify calcium (Ca(2+)) in diabetic animals, and Ca(2+) has been reported to be involved in glucose homeostasis. The objective of the present study was to assess whether the antidiabetic effect of chronic melatonin at pharmacological doses is established via Ca(2+) regulation in different tissues in an animal model of obesity-related type 2 diabetes, using Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and their lean littermates, Zücker lean (ZL) rats. After the treatments, flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine Ca(2+) levels in the liver, muscle, main types of internal white adipose tissue, subcutaneous lumbar fat, pancreas, brain, and plasma. This study reports for the first time that chronic melatonin administration (10 mg per kg body weight per day for 6 weeks) increases Ca(2+) levels in muscle, liver, different adipose tissues, and pancreas in ZDF rats, although there were no significant changes in their brain or plasma Ca(2+) levels. We propose that this additional peripheral dual action mechanism underlies the improvement in insulin sensitivity and secretion previously documented in samples from the same animals. According to these results, indoleamine may be a potential candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with obesity.

  9. Skeletal muscle IL-6 and regulation of liver metabolism during high-fat diet and exercise training.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Jakob G; Joensen, Ella; Bertholdt, Lærke; Jessen, Henrik; van Hauen, Line; Hidalgo, Juan; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is released from skeletal muscle (SkM) during exercise and has been shown to affect hepatic metabolism. It is, however, unknown whether SkM IL-6 is involved in the regulation of exercise training-induced counteraction of changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver in response to high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Male SkM-specific IL-6 KO (MKO) and Floxed mice were subjected to Chow diet, HFD or HFD combined with exercise training (HFD ExTr) for 16 weeks. Hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) protein content decreased with both HFD and HFD ExTr in Floxed mice, but increased in IL-6 MKO mice on HFD In addition, the intrahepatic glucose concentration was in IL-6 MKO mice higher in HFD than chow. Within HFD ExTr mice, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) 36 kDa protein content was higher in IL-6 MKO than Floxed mice. Hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) 4 and PDK2 protein content was in Floxed mice lower in HFD ExTr than Chow. In addition, hepatic ACC1-phosphorylation was higher and ACC1 protein lower in HFD Together this suggests that SkM IL-6 regulates hepatic glucose metabolism, but does not seem to be of major importance for the regulation of oxidative capacity or lipogenesis in liver during HFD or HFD combined with exercise training. PMID:27185906

  10. Insulin immuno-neutralization in fed chickens: effects on liver and muscle transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jean; Milenkovic, Dragan; Godet, Estelle; Cabau, Cedric; Collin, Anne; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Rideau, Nicole; Tesseraud, Sophie; Derouet, Michel; Crochet, Sabine; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Gespach, Christian; Porter, Tom E; Duclos, Michel J; Dupont, Joëlle; Cogburn, Larry A

    2012-03-01

    Chickens mimic an insulin-resistance state by exhibiting several peculiarities with regard to plasma glucose level and its control by insulin. To gain insight into the role of insulin in the control of chicken transcriptome, liver and leg muscle transcriptomes were compared in fed controls and "diabetic" chickens, at 5 h after insulin immuno-neutralization, using 20.7K-chicken oligo-microarrays. At a level of false discovery rate <0.01, 1,573 and 1,225 signals were significantly modified by insulin privation in liver and muscle, respectively. Microarray data agreed reasonably well with qRT-PCR and some protein level measurements. Differentially expressed mRNAs with human ID were classified using Biorag analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Multiple metabolic pathways, structural proteins, transporters and proteins of intracellular trafficking, major signaling pathways, and elements of the transcriptional control machinery were largely represented in both tissues. At least 42 mRNAs have already been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, energy expenditure, or identified as sensors of metabolism in mice or humans. The contribution of the pathways presently identified to chicken physiology (particularly those not yet related to insulin) needs to be evaluated in future studies. Other challenges include the characterization of "unknown" mRNAs and the identification of the steps or networks, which disturbed tissue transcriptome so extensively, quickly after the turning off of the insulin signal. In conclusion, pleiotropic effects of insulin in chickens are further evidenced; major pathways controlled by insulin in mammals have been conserved despite the presence of unique features of insulin signaling in chicken muscle.

  11. Differential dose response of mTOR signaling to oral administration of leucine in skeletal muscle and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Fumiaki; Mochizuki, Shinji; Sugahara, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1) in the rat liver increased in proportion to the amount of leucine administered, ranging from 0.169 to 1.35 g/kg of body weight. In the skeletal muscle, phosphorylation of these factors reached a plateau at 0.675 g/kg of body weight. The sensitivity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling to leucine in the skeletal muscle appeared to be higher than that in the liver.

  12. Metabolic priorities during starvation: enzyme sparing in liver and white muscle of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Lapointe, Dominique; Bédard, Martin; Dutil, Jean-Denis

    2003-06-01

    Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, respond to starvation first by mobilising hepatic lipids, then muscle and hepatic glycogen and finally muscle proteins. The dual role of proteins as functional elements and energetic reserves should lead to a temporal hierarchy of mobilisation where the nature of a function dictates its conservation during starvation. We examined (1) whether lysosomal and anti-oxidant enzymes in liver and white muscle are spared during prolonged starvation, (2) whether the responses of these enzymes in muscle vary longitudinally. Hepatic contents of lysosomal proteases decreased with starvation, whereas those of catalase (CAT) increased and lysosomal enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) did not change. In white muscle, starvation decreased the specific activity of lysosomal enzymes of carbohydrate degradation and doubled that of cathepsin D (CaD). The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and acid phosphatase in muscle was unchanged with starvation. In white muscle neither lysosomal enzymes nor anti-oxidant enzymes varied significantly with sampling position. In cod muscle, antioxidant enzymes, CaD and acid phosphatase are spared during a period of starvation that decreases lysosomal enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and decreases glycolytic enzyme activities. In cod liver, the anti-oxidant enzymes, CAT and GST, were also spared during starvation. PMID:12781835

  13. Content of total iron, copper and manganese in liver of animals during hypokinesia, muscle activity and process of recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapovich, G. M.; Taneyeva, G. V.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the content of total iron, copper and manganese in the liver of animals is altered depending on the intensity and duration of their swimming. Hypodynamia for 7 days does not alter the concentration of iron, but sufficiently increases the content of copper and manganese. The barometric factor effectively influences the maintenance of constancy in the content of microelements accumulated in the liver after intensive muscle activity.

  14. Involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of muscle wasting during catabolic conditions.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ricardo José; Cagnin, Stefano; Chemello, Francesco; Silvestrin, Matteo; Musaro, Antonio; De Pitta, Cristiano; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Sandri, Marco

    2014-08-01

    Loss of muscle proteins and the consequent weakness has important clinical consequences in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, chronic heart failure, and in aging. In fact, excessive proteolysis causes cachexia, accelerates disease progression, and worsens life expectancy. Muscle atrophy involves a common pattern of transcriptional changes in a small subset of genes named atrophy-related genes or atrogenes. Whether microRNAs play a role in the atrophy program and muscle loss is debated. To understand the involvement of miRNAs in atrophy we performed miRNA expression profiling of mouse muscles under wasting conditions such as fasting, denervation, diabetes, and cancer cachexia. We found that the miRNA signature is peculiar of each catabolic condition. We then focused on denervation and we revealed that changes in transcripts and microRNAs expression did not occur simultaneously but were shifted. Indeed, whereas transcriptional control of the atrophy-related genes peaks at 3 days, changes of miRNA expression maximized at 7 days after denervation. Among the different miRNAs, microRNA-206 and -21 were the most induced in denervated muscles. We characterized their pattern of expression and defined their role in muscle homeostasis. Indeed, in vivo gain and loss of function experiments revealed that miRNA-206 and miRNA-21 were sufficient and required for atrophy program. In silico and in vivo approaches identified transcription factor YY1 and the translational initiator factor eIF4E3 as downstream targets of these miRNAs. Thus miRNAs are important for fine-tuning the atrophy program and their modulation can be a novel potential therapeutic approach to counteract muscle loss and weakness in catabolic conditions.

  15. Involvement of MicroRNAs in the Regulation of Muscle Wasting during Catabolic Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ricardo José; Cagnin, Stefano; Chemello, Francesco; Silvestrin, Matteo; Musaro, Antonio; De Pitta, Cristiano; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Sandri, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Loss of muscle proteins and the consequent weakness has important clinical consequences in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, chronic heart failure, and in aging. In fact, excessive proteolysis causes cachexia, accelerates disease progression, and worsens life expectancy. Muscle atrophy involves a common pattern of transcriptional changes in a small subset of genes named atrophy-related genes or atrogenes. Whether microRNAs play a role in the atrophy program and muscle loss is debated. To understand the involvement of miRNAs in atrophy we performed miRNA expression profiling of mouse muscles under wasting conditions such as fasting, denervation, diabetes, and cancer cachexia. We found that the miRNA signature is peculiar of each catabolic condition. We then focused on denervation and we revealed that changes in transcripts and microRNAs expression did not occur simultaneously but were shifted. Indeed, whereas transcriptional control of the atrophy-related genes peaks at 3 days, changes of miRNA expression maximized at 7 days after denervation. Among the different miRNAs, microRNA-206 and -21 were the most induced in denervated muscles. We characterized their pattern of expression and defined their role in muscle homeostasis. Indeed, in vivo gain and loss of function experiments revealed that miRNA-206 and miRNA-21 were sufficient and required for atrophy program. In silico and in vivo approaches identified transcription factor YY1 and the translational initiator factor eIF4E3 as downstream targets of these miRNAs. Thus miRNAs are important for fine-tuning the atrophy program and their modulation can be a novel potential therapeutic approach to counteract muscle loss and weakness in catabolic conditions. PMID:24891504

  16. Long-term stability of RNA in post-mortem bovine skeletal muscle, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Bojlul; Monahan, Frank J; Moloney, Aidan P; Schmidt, Olaf; MacHugh, David E; Sweeney, Torres

    2007-01-01

    Background Recovering high quality intact RNA from post-mortem tissue is of major concern for gene expression studies in animals and humans. Since the availability of post-mortem tissue is often associated with substantial delay, it is important that we understand the temporal variation in the stability of total RNA and of individual gene transcripts so as to be able to appropriately interpret the data generated from such studies. Hence, the objective of this experiment was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the integrity of total and messenger RNA extracted from bovine skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver stored at 4°C at a range of time points up to 22 days post-mortem. These conditions were designed to mimic the environment prevailing during the transport of beef from the abattoir to retail outlets. Results The 28S and 18S rRNA molecules of total RNA were intact for up to 24 h post-mortem in liver and adipose tissues and up to 8 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. The mRNA of housekeeping genes (GAPDH and ACTB) and two diet-related genes (RBP5 and SCD) were detectable up to 22 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. While the mRNA stability of the two housekeeping genes was different in skeletal muscle and liver, they were similar to each other in adipose tissue. After 22 days post-mortem, the relative abundance of RBP5 gene was increased in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissue and decreased in liver. During this period, the relative abundance of SCD gene also increased in skeletal muscle whereas it decreased in both adipose tissue and liver. Conclusion Stability of RNA in three tissues (skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver) subjected to long-term post-mortem storage at refrigeration temperature indicated that skeletal muscle can be a suitable tissue for recovering biologically useful RNA for gene expression studies even if the tissue is subjected to post-mortem storage for weeks, whereas adipose tissue and liver

  17. Organochlorine contaminants in the muscle, liver and brain of seabirds (Larus) from the coastal area of the Southern Baltic.

    PubMed

    Falkowska, Lucyna; Reindl, Andrzej R; Grajewska, Agnieszka; Lewandowska, Anita U

    2016-11-01

    The presence of persistent organic pollutants in the environment manifests itself most strongly in the marine trophic chain, where the highest link is comprised of seabirds. At the same time, seabirds are excellent indicators of contamination in their habitat. The present study concentrates on toxic substances: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and chlorinated organic pesticides (OCPs) accumulated in the livers, pectoral muscles and brains of dead gulls collected along the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea in the years 2010-12. The highest toxic equivalence was determined in the livers of Larus argentatus (TEQ(birds TEF)-28.3pgg(-1) ww) and Larus marinus (TEQ(birds TEF)-29.9pgg(-1) ww.). However, the toxic equivalence of muscles was lower and amounted to 3.9pgg(-1) ww. and 7.8pgg(-1) ww. respectively for the two species. The lowest toxic equivalence was found in the brains of birds, where only one, the most toxic, 2,3,7,8 TCDD congener was found (TEQ(birds TEF) 0.87pgg(-1) ww). The highest concentration of chloroorganic pesticides was determined in the brains of the birds (total OCP 167.8pgg(-1) ww.), lower concentrations were found in the livers (total OCP 92.1pgg(-1) ww.) and muscles (total OCP 43.1pgg(-1) ww.). With regard to pesticides, the highest proportion in the total OCP content was constituted by DDT and its isomers (liver 81%, muscles 77% and brain 55%). High concentrations of the studied pollutants in the livers of gulls found dead on the coast of the Southern Baltic could have been effected by levels of contamination in the birds' last meals, which resulted in a seven-fold increase of the liver's toxic equivalence and a two-fold increase in OCP concentration in relation to muscles.

  18. Organochlorine contaminants in the muscle, liver and brain of seabirds (Larus) from the coastal area of the Southern Baltic.

    PubMed

    Falkowska, Lucyna; Reindl, Andrzej R; Grajewska, Agnieszka; Lewandowska, Anita U

    2016-11-01

    The presence of persistent organic pollutants in the environment manifests itself most strongly in the marine trophic chain, where the highest link is comprised of seabirds. At the same time, seabirds are excellent indicators of contamination in their habitat. The present study concentrates on toxic substances: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and chlorinated organic pesticides (OCPs) accumulated in the livers, pectoral muscles and brains of dead gulls collected along the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea in the years 2010-12. The highest toxic equivalence was determined in the livers of Larus argentatus (TEQ(birds TEF)-28.3pgg(-1) ww) and Larus marinus (TEQ(birds TEF)-29.9pgg(-1) ww.). However, the toxic equivalence of muscles was lower and amounted to 3.9pgg(-1) ww. and 7.8pgg(-1) ww. respectively for the two species. The lowest toxic equivalence was found in the brains of birds, where only one, the most toxic, 2,3,7,8 TCDD congener was found (TEQ(birds TEF) 0.87pgg(-1) ww). The highest concentration of chloroorganic pesticides was determined in the brains of the birds (total OCP 167.8pgg(-1) ww.), lower concentrations were found in the livers (total OCP 92.1pgg(-1) ww.) and muscles (total OCP 43.1pgg(-1) ww.). With regard to pesticides, the highest proportion in the total OCP content was constituted by DDT and its isomers (liver 81%, muscles 77% and brain 55%). High concentrations of the studied pollutants in the livers of gulls found dead on the coast of the Southern Baltic could have been effected by levels of contamination in the birds' last meals, which resulted in a seven-fold increase of the liver's toxic equivalence and a two-fold increase in OCP concentration in relation to muscles. PMID:27414257

  19. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells, Mitochondria, and MicroRNAs: Their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of ALS.

    PubMed

    Tsitkanou, Stavroula; Della Gatta, Paul A; Russell, Aaron P

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a fatal motor neuron disorder. It results in progressive degeneration and death of upper and lower motor neurons, protein aggregation, severe muscle atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. Median survival with ALS is between 2 and 5 years from the onset of symptoms. ALS manifests as either familial ALS (FALS) (~10% of cases) or sporadic ALS (SALS), (~90% of cases). Mutations in the copper/zinc (CuZn) superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene account for ~20% of FALS cases and the mutant SOD1 mouse model has been used extensively to help understand the ALS pathology. As the precise mechanisms causing ALS are not well understood there is presently no cure. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron degradation may involve a cell non-autonomous phenomenon involving numerous cell types within various tissues. Skeletal muscle is now considered as an important tissue involved in the pathogenesis of ALS by activating a retrograde signaling cascade that degrades motor neurons. Skeletal muscle heath and function are regulated by numerous factors including satellite cells, mitochondria and microRNAs. Studies demonstrate that in ALS these factors show various levels of dysregulation within the skeletal muscle. This review provides an overview of their dysregulation in various ALS models as well as how they may contribute individually and/or synergistically to the ALS pathogenesis.

  20. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells, Mitochondria, and MicroRNAs: Their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Tsitkanou, Stavroula; Della Gatta, Paul A.; Russell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a fatal motor neuron disorder. It results in progressive degeneration and death of upper and lower motor neurons, protein aggregation, severe muscle atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. Median survival with ALS is between 2 and 5 years from the onset of symptoms. ALS manifests as either familial ALS (FALS) (~10% of cases) or sporadic ALS (SALS), (~90% of cases). Mutations in the copper/zinc (CuZn) superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene account for ~20% of FALS cases and the mutant SOD1 mouse model has been used extensively to help understand the ALS pathology. As the precise mechanisms causing ALS are not well understood there is presently no cure. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron degradation may involve a cell non-autonomous phenomenon involving numerous cell types within various tissues. Skeletal muscle is now considered as an important tissue involved in the pathogenesis of ALS by activating a retrograde signaling cascade that degrades motor neurons. Skeletal muscle heath and function are regulated by numerous factors including satellite cells, mitochondria and microRNAs. Studies demonstrate that in ALS these factors show various levels of dysregulation within the skeletal muscle. This review provides an overview of their dysregulation in various ALS models as well as how they may contribute individually and/or synergistically to the ALS pathogenesis. PMID:27679581

  1. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells, Mitochondria, and MicroRNAs: Their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of ALS.

    PubMed

    Tsitkanou, Stavroula; Della Gatta, Paul A; Russell, Aaron P

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a fatal motor neuron disorder. It results in progressive degeneration and death of upper and lower motor neurons, protein aggregation, severe muscle atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. Median survival with ALS is between 2 and 5 years from the onset of symptoms. ALS manifests as either familial ALS (FALS) (~10% of cases) or sporadic ALS (SALS), (~90% of cases). Mutations in the copper/zinc (CuZn) superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene account for ~20% of FALS cases and the mutant SOD1 mouse model has been used extensively to help understand the ALS pathology. As the precise mechanisms causing ALS are not well understood there is presently no cure. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron degradation may involve a cell non-autonomous phenomenon involving numerous cell types within various tissues. Skeletal muscle is now considered as an important tissue involved in the pathogenesis of ALS by activating a retrograde signaling cascade that degrades motor neurons. Skeletal muscle heath and function are regulated by numerous factors including satellite cells, mitochondria and microRNAs. Studies demonstrate that in ALS these factors show various levels of dysregulation within the skeletal muscle. This review provides an overview of their dysregulation in various ALS models as well as how they may contribute individually and/or synergistically to the ALS pathogenesis. PMID:27679581

  2. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells, Mitochondria, and MicroRNAs: Their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Tsitkanou, Stavroula; Della Gatta, Paul A.; Russell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a fatal motor neuron disorder. It results in progressive degeneration and death of upper and lower motor neurons, protein aggregation, severe muscle atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. Median survival with ALS is between 2 and 5 years from the onset of symptoms. ALS manifests as either familial ALS (FALS) (~10% of cases) or sporadic ALS (SALS), (~90% of cases). Mutations in the copper/zinc (CuZn) superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene account for ~20% of FALS cases and the mutant SOD1 mouse model has been used extensively to help understand the ALS pathology. As the precise mechanisms causing ALS are not well understood there is presently no cure. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron degradation may involve a cell non-autonomous phenomenon involving numerous cell types within various tissues. Skeletal muscle is now considered as an important tissue involved in the pathogenesis of ALS by activating a retrograde signaling cascade that degrades motor neurons. Skeletal muscle heath and function are regulated by numerous factors including satellite cells, mitochondria and microRNAs. Studies demonstrate that in ALS these factors show various levels of dysregulation within the skeletal muscle. This review provides an overview of their dysregulation in various ALS models as well as how they may contribute individually and/or synergistically to the ALS pathogenesis.

  3. Sucrose ingestion after exhaustive exercise accelerates liver, but not muscle glycogen repletion compared with glucose ingestion in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Cas J; Gonzalez, Javier T; Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Pete E; Taylor, Roy; Trenell, Michael I; Stevenson, Emma J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sucrose vs. glucose ingestion on postexercise liver and muscle glycogen repletion. Fifteen well-trained male cyclists completed two test days. Each test day started with glycogen-depleting exercise, followed by 5 h of recovery, during which subjects ingested 1.5 g·kg(-1)·h(-1) sucrose or glucose. Blood was sampled frequently and (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging were employed 0, 120, and 300 min postexercise to determine liver and muscle glycogen concentrations and liver volume. Results were as follows: Postexercise muscle glycogen concentrations increased significantly from 85 ± 27 (SD) vs. 86 ± 35 mmol/l to 140 ± 23 vs. 136 ± 26 mmol/l following sucrose and glucose ingestion, respectively (no differences between treatments: P = 0.673). Postexercise liver glycogen concentrations increased significantly from 183 ± 47 vs. 167 ± 65 mmol/l to 280 ± 72 vs. 234 ± 81 mmol/l following sucrose and glucose ingestion, respectively (time × treatment, P = 0.051). Liver volume increased significantly over the 300-min period after sucrose ingestion only (time × treatment, P = 0.001). As a result, total liver glycogen content increased during postexercise recovery to a greater extent in the sucrose treatment (from 53.6 ± 16.2 to 86.8 ± 29.0 g) compared with the glucose treatment (49.3 ± 25.5 to 65.7 ± 27.1 g; time × treatment, P < 0.001), equating to a 3.4 g/h (95% confidence interval: 1.6-5.1 g/h) greater repletion rate with sucrose vs. glucose ingestion. In conclusion, sucrose ingestion (1.5 g·kg(-1)·h(-1)) further accelerates postexercise liver, but not muscle glycogen repletion compared with glucose ingestion in trained athletes. PMID:27013608

  4. TMEM5-associated dystroglycanopathy presenting with CMD and mild limb-girdle muscle involvement.

    PubMed

    Astrea, Guja; Pezzini, Ilaria; Picillo, Ester; Pasquariello, Rosa; Moro, Francesca; Ergoli, Manuela; D'Ambrosio, Paola; D'Amico, Adele; Politano, Luisa; Santorelli, Filippo Maria

    2016-07-01

    The dystroglycanopathies, which are caused by reduced glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan, are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by variable brain and skeletal muscle involvement. Recently, mutations in TMEM5 have been described in severe dystroglycanopathies. We present the clinical, molecular and neuroimaging features of an Italian boy who had delayed developmental milestones with mild limb-girdle muscle involvement, bilateral frontotemporal polymicrogyria, moderate intellectual disability, and no cerebellar involvement. He also presented a cochlear dysplasia and harbored a reported mutation (p.A47Rfs*42) in TMEM5, detected using targeted next-generation sequencing. The relatively milder muscular phenotype and associated structural brain abnormalities distinguish this case from previously reported patients with severe dystroglycanopathies and expand the spectrum of TMEM5-associated disorders. PMID:27212206

  5. Obesity upregulates genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation in livers of diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Toshinari; Misu, Hirofumi; Matsuzawa-Nagata, Naoto; Sakurai, Masaru; Ota, Tsuguhito; Shimizu, Akiko; Kurita, Seiichiro; Takeshita, Yumie; Ando, Hitoshi; Honda, Masao; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2008-12-01

    Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. The altered expression of genes involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has been regarded as a key change in insulin-sensitive organs of patients with type 2 diabetes. This study explores possible molecular signatures of obesity and examines the clinical significance of OXPHOS gene expression in the livers of patients with type 2 diabetes. We analyzed gene expression in the livers of 21 patients with type 2 diabetes (10 obese and 11 nonobese patients; age, 53.0 +/- 2.1 years; BMI, 24.4 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose, 143.0 +/- 10.6 mg/dl) using a DNA chip. We screened 535 human pathways and extracted those metabolic pathways significantly altered by obesity. Genes involved in the OXPHOS pathway, together with glucose and lipid metabolism pathways, were coordinately upregulated in the liver in association with obesity. The mean centroid of OXPHOS gene expression was significantly correlated with insulin resistance indices and the hepatic expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and transcriptional factors and nuclear co-activators associated with energy homeostasis. In conclusion, obesity may affect the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes by upregulating genes involved in OXPHOS in association with insulin resistance markers and the expression of genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and ROS generation.

  6. Dielectric properties of muscle and liver from 500 MHz-40 GHz.

    PubMed

    Abdilla, Lourdes; Sammut, Charles; Mangion, Louis Zammit

    2013-06-01

    Dielectric properties are the most important parameters determining energy deposition when biological tissues are exposed to radio frequency and microwave fields. Energy absorption is determined by the specific absorption rate (SAR). SAR distributions can be computed accurately only if the complex relative permittivity of the target tissue is known to a sufficiently high accuracy, and currently there is a lack of data on the dielectric properties of biological tissues at high frequencies. In this study, tissue dielectric properties are measured using an open-ended coaxial probe technique from 500 MHz up to 40 GHz. We present dielectric data for ex vivo bovine and porcine muscle and liver tissues at 37 °C. One-pole Cole-Cole model is used to fit the measured data as a function of frequency and the dispersion parameters are presented. This data is supported by an accurate study on reference liquids such as methanol and ethanediol.

  7. Molecular targets and pathways involved in liver metastasis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Krüger, Achim

    2015-08-01

    We here summarize the current view of molecular mechanisms involved in the dissemination process of colorectal cancer cells to the liver as deduced from preclinical models. We focus on molecular aspects of the current understanding of the biology of liver metastases formation and survival, both being crucial for identification and validation of possible therapeutic targets and review the latest findings elucidating some features of the liver as a metastatic niche. In more detail, we outline the role of proteases and of major pathways such asc-MET signaling and its modulation by factors such as MACC1 and TIMP1, as well as Notch and TGFβ signaling. The relevance of these signalling pathways during tumor-stroma interactions in this context will be addressed. In addition, the functional role and validation of targets such as PRL3, Trop-2, L1CAM, S100A4, S100P, CD133, LIPC, and APOBEC3G are summarized. PMID:26104118

  8. Illusion caused by vibration of muscle spindles reveals an involvement of muscle spindle inputs in regulating isometric contraction of masseter muscles.

    PubMed

    Tsukiboshi, Taisuke; Sato, Hajime; Tanaka, Yuto; Saito, Mitsuru; Toyoda, Hiroki; Morimoto, Toshifumi; Türker, Kemal Sitki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Kang, Youngnam

    2012-11-01

    Spindle Ia afferents may be differentially involved in voluntary isometric contraction, depending on the pattern of synaptic connections in spindle reflex pathways. We investigated how isometric contraction of masseter muscles is regulated through the activity of their muscle spindles that contain the largest number of intrafusal fibers among skeletal muscle spindles by examining the effects of vibration of muscle spindles on the voluntary isometric contraction. Subjects were instructed to hold the jaw at resting position by counteracting ramp loads applied on lower molar teeth. In response to the increasing-ramp load, the root mean square (RMS) of masseter EMG activity almost linearly increased under no vibration, while displaying a steep linear increase followed by a slower increase under vibration. The regression line of the relationship between the load and RMS was significantly steeper under vibration than under no vibration, suggesting that the subjects overestimated the ramp load and excessively counteracted it as reflected in the emergence of bite pressure. In response to the decreasing-ramp load applied following the increasing one, the RMS hardly decreased under vibration unlike under no vibration, leading to a generation of bite pressure even after the offset of the negative-ramp load until the vibration was ceased. Thus the subjects overestimated the increasing rate of the load while underestimating the decreasing rate of the load, due to the vibration-induced illusion of jaw opening. These observations suggest that spindle Ia/II inputs play crucial roles both in estimating the load and in controlling the isometric contraction of masseter muscles in the jaw-closed position.

  9. Identification of quantitative trait transcripts for growth traits in the large scales of liver and muscle samples.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xinwei; Yang, Hui; Yang, Bin; Chen, Congying; Huang, Lusheng

    2015-07-01

    Growth-related traits are economically important traits to the pig industry. Identification of causative gene and mutation responsible for growth-related QTL will facilitate the improvement of pig growth through marker-assisted selection. In this study, we applied whole genome gene expression and quantitative trait transcript (QTT) analyses in 497 liver and 586 longissimus dorsi muscle samples to identify candidate genes and dissect the genetic basis of pig growth in a white Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population. A total of 20,108 transcripts in liver and 23,728 transcripts in muscle with expression values were used for association analysis between gene expression level and phenotypic value. At the significance threshold of P < 0.0005, we identified a total of 169 and 168 QTTs for nine growth-related traits in liver and muscle, respectively. We also found that some QTTs were correlated to more than one trait. The QTTs identified here showed high tissue specificity. We did not identify any QTTs that were associated with one trait in both liver and muscle. Through an integrative genomic approach, we identified SDR16C5 as the important candidate gene in pig growth trait. These findings contribute to further identification of the causative genes for porcine growth traits and facilitate improvement of pig breeding.

  10. Involvement of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the parasympathetic vasodilatation of the rat masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Niioka, Takeharu; Ishii, Hisayoshi; Izumi, Hiroshi

    2009-10-01

    The parasympathetic vasodilatory fibres are known to innervate vessels in a rat masseter muscle via both cholinergic and non-cholinergic mechanisms. However, the non-cholinergic mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was convincingly shown to be involved in the parasympathetic vasodilatation in orofacial areas, such as submandibular glands and lower lip. However, very little is known about the rat masseter muscle. The present study was designed in the rat masseter muscle to assess (1) whether the parasympathetic nerve innervating vessels have VIP immunoreactivities, (2) whether intravenous administration of VIP induces the vasodilatation, and (3) effects of selective VIP receptor antagonist ([4Cl-d-Phe(6), Leu(17)] VIP) in the presence or absence of atropine on the parasympathetic vasodilatation. The VIP immunoreactivities were found at two sites of the parasympathetic otic ganglion and nerve fibres located around vessels. The intravenous administration of VIP induced the vasodilatation, and [4Cl-d-Phe(6), Leu(17)] VIP markedly decreased the vasodilatation evoked by VIP administration. The parasympathetic vasodilatation was not inhibited by [4Cl-d-Phe(6), Leu(17)] VIP. However, treatment with [4Cl-d-Phe(6), Leu(17)] VIP markedly decreased the parasympathetic vasodilatation when [4Cl-d-Phe(6), Leu(17)] VIP was administered together with atropine. These results suggest that (1) VIP exists in the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve innervating the vessels in the masseter muscle, (2) the intravenous administration of VIP induces the vasodilatation in the masseter muscle, and (3) VIP may be involved in the parasympathetic vasodilatation in the masseter muscle when muscarinic cholinergic receptors are deactivated by either atropine or the suppression of the ACh release.

  11. Identification, isolation and expansion of myoendothelial cells involved in leech muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Annalisa; Banfi, Serena; Gerosa, Laura; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Noonan, Douglas M; Valvassori, Roberto; de Eguileor, Magda

    2009-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle in vertebrates contains myoendothelial cells that express both myogenic and endothelial markers, and which are able to differentiate into myogenic cells to contribute to muscle regeneration. In spite of intensive research efforts, numerous questions remain regarding the role of cytokine signalling on myoendothelial cell differentiation and muscle regeneration. Here we used Hirudo medicinalis (Annelid, leech) as an emerging new model to study myoendothelial cells and muscle regeneration. Although the leech has relative anatomical simplicity, it shows a striking similarity with vertebrate responses and is a reliable model for studying a variety of basic events, such as tissue repair. Double immunohistochemical analysis were used to characterize myoendothelial cells in leeches and, by injecting in vivo the matrigel biopolymer supplemented with the cytokine Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), we were able to isolate this specific cell population expressing myogenic and endothelial markers. We then evaluated the effect of VEGF on these cells in vitro. Our data indicate that, similar to that proposed for vertebrates, myoendothelial cells of the leech directly participate in myogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, and that VEGF secretion is involved in the recruitment and expansion of these muscle progenitor cells. PMID:19876402

  12. Factors involved in strain-induced injury in skeletal muscles and outcomes of prolonged exposures.

    PubMed

    Stauber, William T

    2004-02-01

    Repetitive motion disorders can involve lengthening of skeletal muscles to perform braking actions to decelerate limbs under load often resulting in muscle strains and injury. Injury is a loss of isometric force (weakness) requiring days to recover. The capacity of skeletal muscle to tolerate repeated strains is dependent on multiple factors including individual variation. The most important factors producing muscle strain injury are the magnitude of the resisting force (peak-stretch force) and the number of strains. Other factors such as muscle length and fiber type contribute to the susceptibility to injury as well, but to a lesser degree. Strain injury can also lead to inflammation and pain. Chronic exposure to repeated strains can result in fibrosis that is not completely reversed after months of rest. Long rest times appear to be the only factor reported to prevent inflammation in rats following repeated strain injury. Further understanding of the mechanism for prevention of histopathologic changes by long rest times should provide a rationale for prevention of negative outcomes.

  13. Aerobic Conditioning Might Protect Against Liver and Muscle Injury Caused by Short-Term Military Training.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Daleprane, Julio B; Pitaluga-Filho, Mario V; de Oliveira, Cyntia F; Gonçalves, Mariana C; Passos, Magna C F

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical markers of muscle and liver injury and total antioxidant capacity in army cadets after a traditional army physical training program and to correlate these effects with aerobic conditioning. Male army cadets (n = 87; age, 20 ± 2 years) were evaluated 12 hours before the start of training (T0), 12 hours after a 30-km march (T1), and 48 hours after military training (T2). Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels were measured using an autoanalyzer. Total antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (Sc%). Seventy-four percent of army cadets were classified as having excellent aerobic conditioning (53.9 ± 3.0 ml · kg(-) · min(-1) predicted VO2max from the Cooper test). The median serum concentration of all enzymes increased 12 hours after marching (T1: CK 675%; ALT 59%; AST 336%; AST/ALT ratio 85%; p = 0.001) and 48 hours after the end of training (T2: CK 878%; ALT 256%; AST 418%; AST/ALT ratio 180%; p = 0.001). Sc% was higher in T2 (31.1 ± 9.8%; p = 0.01) than in T0 (3.4% change). Maximal oxygen consumption (ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) correlated negatively with CK (r = -0.25; p = 0.009) and ALT (r = -0.21; p = 0.03) serum levels, and positively with the change in Sc% (r = 0.22; p = 0.04) at T2. The results indicate that intense military training can cause liver and muscle injury and that aerobic conditioning can be considered as a protective factor for these injuries. PMID:26813633

  14. Mercury and arsenic in muscle and liver of the golden cownose ray, Rhinoptera steindachneri, Evermann and Jenkins, 1891, from the upper Gulf of California, México.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Mejía, E; Lares, M L; Sosa-Nishizaki, O

    2009-08-01

    Mercury and arsenic levels in muscle and liver of Rhinoptera steindachneri were determined in organisms collected in 2006. Element concentrations in both tissues were directly related to size. Maxima mean concentrations of Hg and As (0.41 and 59.9 microg g(-1) dry wt, respectively) were found in adults muscle. Mercury concentrations were significantly different between juveniles and adults in muscle and liver. For As concentrations, differences between juveniles and adults were found only in muscle. Mercury concentrations were higher in muscle of juveniles and adults. Arsenic concentrations were higher in liver of juveniles, and in muscle of adults. Maximum Hg concentration in muscle (0.65 microg g(-1) dry wt) was below the safe limit established by Mexican regulations for seafood.

  15. Systematic review of genetic association studies involving histologically confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kayleigh L; Miller, Michael H; Dillon, John F

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has an increasing prevalence in Western countries, affecting up to 20% of the population. Objective The aim of this project was to systematically review and summarise the genetic association studies that investigate possible genetic influences that confer susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Design The MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched to identify candidate gene studies on histologically diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results A total of 85 articles have been summarised and categorised on the basis of the general pathway each candidate gene is involved in, including lipid metabolism, lipoprotein processing, cholesterol synthesis, glucose homoeostasis, inflammatory response, protection against oxidative stress and whole body metabolism. Conclusions The main findings demonstrate a small but consistent association of PNPLA3 with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Genetic association studies have investigated general disease susceptibility, histological characteristics, severity and progression. However, further study is required to better elucidate the genetic factors influencing fatty liver disease. PMID:26462272

  16. Genetic, metabolic and environmental factors involved in the development of liver cirrhosis in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Roman, Sonia; Fierro, Nora A; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) is a chronic illness caused by inflammatory responses and progressive fibrosis. Globally, the most common causes of chronic liver disease include persistent alcohol abuse, followed by viral hepatitis infections and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, regardless of the etiological factors, the susceptibility and degree of liver damage may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms that are associated with distinct ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Consequently, metabolic genes are influenced by variable environmental lifestyle factors, such as diet, physical inactivity, and emotional stress, which are associated with regional differences among populations. This Topic Highlight will focus on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence the metabolism of alcohol and nutrients in the setting of distinct etiologies of liver disease. The interaction between genes and environment in the current-day admixed population, Mestizo and Native Mexican, will be described. Additionally, genes involved in immune regulation, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix deposition may modulate the degree of severity. In conclusion, LC is a complex disease. The onset, progression, and clinical outcome of LC among the Mexican population are influenced by specific genetic and environmental factors. Among these are an admixed genome with a heterogenic distribution of European, Amerindian and African ancestry; a high score of alcohol consumption; viral infections; a hepatopathogenic diet; and a high prevalence of obesity. The variance in risk factors among populations suggests that intervention strategies directed towards the prevention and management of LC should be tailored according to such population-based features. PMID:26556986

  17. Membrane effects of Vitamin E deficiency: bioenergetic and surface-charge-density studies of skeletal muscle and liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Quintanilha, A.T.; Packer, L.; Szyszlo Davies, J.M.; Racanelli, T.L.; Davies, K.J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Vitamin E (dl-..cap alpha..-tocopherol) deficiency in rats increased the sensitivity of liver and muscle mitochondria to damage during incubation at various temperatures, irradiation with visible light, or steady state respiration with substrates. In all cases, vitamin E deficient mitochondria exhibited increased lipid peroxidation, reduced transmembrane potential, decreased respiratory coupling, and lower rates of electron transport, compared to control mitochondria. Muscle mitochondria always showed greater negative inner membrane surface charge density, and were also more sensitive to damage than were liver mitochondria. Vitamin E deficient mitochondria also showed slightly more negative inner membrane surface charge density compared to controls. The relationship between greater negative surface potential and increased sensitivity to damage observed, provides for a new and sensitive method to further probe the role of surface charge in membrane structure and function. Implications of these new findings for the well known human muscle myopathies and those experimentally induced by Vitamin E deficiency in animals, are discussed.

  18. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted.

  19. Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle, Adipose Tissue and Liver from Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Living in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Alves, Susana P; Raundrup, Katrine; Cabo, Ângelo; Bessa, Rui J B; Almeida, André M

    2015-01-01

    Information about lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatos) edible tissues is very limited in comparison to other meat sources. Thus, this work aims to present the first in-depth characterization of the FA profile of meat, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver of muskoxen living in West Greenland. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the effect of sex in the FA composition of these edible tissues. Samples from muscle (Longissimus dorsi), subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver were collected from female and male muskoxen, which were delivered at the butchery in Kangerlussuaq (West Greenland) during the winter hunting season. The lipid content of muscle, adipose tissue and liver averaged 284, 846 and 173 mg/g of dry tissue, respectively. This large lipid contents confirms that in late winter, when forage availability is scarce, muskoxen from West Greenland still have high fat reserves, demonstrating that they are well adapted to seasonal feed restriction. A detailed characterization of FA and dimethylacetal composition of muskoxen muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver showed that there are little differences on FA composition between sexes. Nevertheless, the 18:1cis-9 was the most abundant FA in muscle and adipose tissue, reaching 43% of total FA in muscle. The high content of 18:1cis-9 suggests that it can be selectively stored in muskoxen tissues. Regarding the nutritional composition of muskoxen edible tissues, they are not a good source of polyunsaturated FA; however, they may contribute to a higher fat intake. Information about the FA composition of muskoxen meat and liver is scarce, so this work can contribute to the characterization of the nutritional fat properties of muskoxen edible tissues and can be also useful to update food composition databases.

  20. 1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children. Methods Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8–18 years. Results In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26252778

  1. Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle, Adipose Tissue and Liver from Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Living in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Alves, Susana P; Raundrup, Katrine; Cabo, Ângelo; Bessa, Rui J B; Almeida, André M

    2015-01-01

    Information about lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatos) edible tissues is very limited in comparison to other meat sources. Thus, this work aims to present the first in-depth characterization of the FA profile of meat, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver of muskoxen living in West Greenland. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the effect of sex in the FA composition of these edible tissues. Samples from muscle (Longissimus dorsi), subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver were collected from female and male muskoxen, which were delivered at the butchery in Kangerlussuaq (West Greenland) during the winter hunting season. The lipid content of muscle, adipose tissue and liver averaged 284, 846 and 173 mg/g of dry tissue, respectively. This large lipid contents confirms that in late winter, when forage availability is scarce, muskoxen from West Greenland still have high fat reserves, demonstrating that they are well adapted to seasonal feed restriction. A detailed characterization of FA and dimethylacetal composition of muskoxen muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver showed that there are little differences on FA composition between sexes. Nevertheless, the 18:1cis-9 was the most abundant FA in muscle and adipose tissue, reaching 43% of total FA in muscle. The high content of 18:1cis-9 suggests that it can be selectively stored in muskoxen tissues. Regarding the nutritional composition of muskoxen edible tissues, they are not a good source of polyunsaturated FA; however, they may contribute to a higher fat intake. Information about the FA composition of muskoxen meat and liver is scarce, so this work can contribute to the characterization of the nutritional fat properties of muskoxen edible tissues and can be also useful to update food composition databases. PMID:26678792

  2. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted. PMID:23724887

  3. Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle, Adipose Tissue and Liver from Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Living in West Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Raundrup, Katrine; Cabo, Ângelo; Bessa, Rui J. B.; Almeida, André M.

    2015-01-01

    Information about lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatos) edible tissues is very limited in comparison to other meat sources. Thus, this work aims to present the first in-depth characterization of the FA profile of meat, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver of muskoxen living in West Greenland. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the effect of sex in the FA composition of these edible tissues. Samples from muscle (Longissimus dorsi), subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver were collected from female and male muskoxen, which were delivered at the butchery in Kangerlussuaq (West Greenland) during the winter hunting season. The lipid content of muscle, adipose tissue and liver averaged 284, 846 and 173 mg/g of dry tissue, respectively. This large lipid contents confirms that in late winter, when forage availability is scarce, muskoxen from West Greenland still have high fat reserves, demonstrating that they are well adapted to seasonal feed restriction. A detailed characterization of FA and dimethylacetal composition of muskoxen muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver showed that there are little differences on FA composition between sexes. Nevertheless, the 18:1cis-9 was the most abundant FA in muscle and adipose tissue, reaching 43% of total FA in muscle. The high content of 18:1cis-9 suggests that it can be selectively stored in muskoxen tissues. Regarding the nutritional composition of muskoxen edible tissues, they are not a good source of polyunsaturated FA; however, they may contribute to a higher fat intake. Information about the FA composition of muskoxen meat and liver is scarce, so this work can contribute to the characterization of the nutritional fat properties of muskoxen edible tissues and can be also useful to update food composition databases. PMID:26678792

  4. The transcriptome of muscle and liver is responding differently to a combined trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant in cattle.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ramy; Giantin, Mery; Montesissa, Clara; Dacasto, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the transcriptomic signature of some anabolic steroids in cattle. Our main objective was to evaluate the effect of a combined trenbolone acetate (TBA, 200mg) and estradiol-17β (E2, 40 mg) implant (Revalor-XS®, REV) on the transcriptome of muscle (target tissue for anabolic steroids) and liver (main biotransformation site). Transcriptomic profiling was performed on 60 samples (30 per tissue) representing 2 groups of animals: REV (sustained release implant for 71 days, n=15), and a control group (CTR, n=15). The analyses (REV vs. CTR) evidenced the differential expression of 431 (down-regulated) and 503 transcripts (268 up-regulated and 235 down-regulated) in muscle and liver tissues, respectively. Functional annotation showed the enrichment of several ion transport systems (cation, metal ion and potassium ion transport) in muscle, while revealing the enrichment of carbohydrate, protein and glycoprotein metabolism and biosynthesis mechanisms in the liver. Both tissues had 20 genes commonly expressed in-between. Seven randomly-selected genes showed positive correlation with their corresponding microarray data upon a qPCR cross-validation step. In muscle, but not the liver, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the microarray data resulted in the separation of treated animals from the untreated ones (first 2 components=97.87%.). Overall, the identification of different genes, pathways and biological processes has illustrated the distinctive transcriptomic profile of muscle and liver in response to anabolic steroids. Moreover, it is becoming more clear that anabolic steroids are working through a complex interaction of numerous pathways and processes incorporating different tissues. PMID:26581765

  5. Protein and energy intakes affected amino acid concentrations in plasma, muscle, and liver, and cell signaling in the liver of growing dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Rius, A G; Weeks, H A; Cyriac, J; Akers, R M; Bequette, B J; Hanigan, M D

    2012-04-01

    The nutrient content of and feeding recommendations for milk replacers (MR) vary widely in North America, and acceleration of growth through manipulation of protein and energy intakes can reduce rearing costs of dairy operations. The effects of varying the protein and energy intake of MR on metabolite concentrations in plasma, liver, and muscle and the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase B (AKT) and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) cell signals in liver and muscle were assessed. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were fed 1 of 4 MR for 9 wk (n=6/treatment): (1) a 20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat MR fed at 441 g of dry matter (DM)/d (CON); (2) a high-protein, medium-fat MR (HPMF; 28% CP, 20% fat) fed at 951 g of DM/d; (3) a high-protein, high-fat MR (HPHF; 27% CP, 28% fat) fed at 951 g of DM/d; and (4) HPHF fed at 1,431 g of DM/d (HPHF+). Water and starter (20% CP, 1.43% fat) were offered ad libitum and calves were fed MR twice daily. Plasma samples were obtained at 1, 5, and 9 wk of age. Calves were not weaned and were slaughtered after the last blood sampling. Liver and muscle tissues were collected and analyzed for metabolite concentrations and cell signaling activity. Calves fed all treatments had lower plasma concentrations of Phe and Tyr, and a trend for lower Leu, but greater concentrations of Thr relative to calves fed CON. Calves fed all treatments had increased muscle concentrations of Met and muscle to plasma ratios of Phe, Tyr, and branched-chain amino acids compared with CON. All treatments increased liver to plasma ratios of Phe and Tyr but diminished the ratios of Met compared with CON. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B was not affected by treatment; however, relative to calves fed HPHF, HPMF and HPHF+ diets increased phosphorylation ratios of ribosomal protein S6 in the liver. Therefore, the changes in plasma and tissue concentrations and plasma to tissue ratios of amino acids were associated with enhanced growth rates. However, cell signaling

  6. Involvement of central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors on antinociceptive effect of tetrahydrocannabinol in muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Bagüés, Ana; Martín, M Isabel; Sánchez-Robles, Eva M

    2014-12-15

    Cannabinoid (CB) receptors have emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for pain management in recent years and the interest in the use of cannabinoids is gradually increasing, particularly in patients where conventional treatments fail. Muscle pain is a major clinical problem and new pharmacological approaches are being studied. Recently, we have demonstrated that cannabinoid synthetic agonists are useful to reduce muscular pain in two animal models, where the local administration is effective. Now, we want to know if tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabinoid natural derivative with therapeutic use in humans, is also effective in reducing acute muscle pain. The antinociceptive effect of THC by systemic (i.p.) and local (i.m.) administration was tested in two animal models of acute muscle pain, rat masseter and gastrocnemius, induced by hypertonic saline (HS) injection. The drugs used were the non-selective agonist THC and two selective cannabinoid antagonists, AM251 (CB1) and AM630 (CB2). THC, i.p. and i.m. administered, reduced the nociceptive behaviours induced by HS in both muscular pain models. The antinociceptive effect induced by the systemic administration of THC was mediated by CB1 receptors in the masseter muscle whereas in gastrocnemius both CB1 and CB2 receptors participated. When THC was administered locally, only CB2 receptors were involved in the antinociceptive effect in both muscles. This study suggests that THC could be a future pharmacological option in the treatment of muscle pain. The local administration of THC could be an interesting option to treat this type of pain avoiding the central adverse effects. PMID:25446925

  7. Contribution of abnormal muscle and liver glucose metabolism to postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J. )

    1990-11-01

    To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with (14C)glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM.

  8. Comparison of mercury concentrations in liver, muscle, whole bodies, and composites of fish from the Red River of the North

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Stauffer, Joseph C.

    1996-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from four sites and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from one site in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for total mercury content. In carp, mercury concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole bodies (0.11, 0.31, and 0.18 µg/g wet weight, respectively), between large and small size groups, but not location. Mercury distribution in channel catfish tissues differed from that in carp. Liver and muscle tissue had similar mean concentrations; each was higher than whole-body concentrations (0.16, 0.18, and 0.11 µg/g, respectively). Mercury concentrations were not significantly different between the two size groups of channel catfish. Weighted-mean mercury concentrations from seven individual fish agreed closely (usually within 10%) with concentrations determined on physical composites of the same fish. The ratio of mercury in whole bodies to mercury in muscle was similar for both carp and channel catfish. Historical data indicate that this ratio may be applicable to other species and locations. The ratio of mercury in livers to whole bodies and muscle differed between carp and channel catfish, which may reflect physiological differences between different trophic groups.

  9. A high-fructose diet induces changes in pp185 phosphorylation in muscle and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Ueno, M; Bezerra, R M; Silva, M S; Tavares, D Q; Carvalho, C R; Saad, M J

    2000-12-01

    Insulin stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity of its receptor resulting in the tyrosine phosphorylation of pp185, which contains insulin receptor substrates IRS-1 and IRS-2. These early steps in insulin action are essential for the metabolic effects of insulin. Feeding animals a high-fructose diet results in insulin resistance. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. In the present study, we determined the levels and phosphorylation status of the insulin receptor and pp185 (IRS-(1/2)) in liver and muscle of rats submitted to a high-fructose diet evaluated by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Feeding fructose (28 days) induced a discrete insulin resistance, as demonstrated by the insulin tolerance test. Plasma glucose and serum insulin and cholesterol levels of the two groups of rats, fructose-fed and control, were similar, whereas plasma triacylglycerol concentration was significantly increased in the rats submitted to the fructose diet (P<0.05). There were no changes in insulin receptor concentration in the liver or muscle of either group. However, insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation was reduced to 72 +/- 4% (P<0.05) in the liver of high-fructose rats. The IRS-1 protein levels were similar in both liver and muscle of the two groups of rats. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in insulin-induced pp185 (IRS-(1/2)) phosphorylation, to 83 +/- 5% (P<0.05) in liver and to 77 +/- 4% (P<0.05) in muscle of the high-fructose rats. These data suggest that changes in the early steps of insulin signal transduction may have an important role in the insulin resistance induced by high-fructose feeding.

  10. Determination of nifursol metabolites in poultry muscle and liver tissue. Development and validation of a confirmatory method.

    PubMed

    Mulder, P P J; Zuidema, T; Keestra, N G M; Kooij, P J F; Elbers, I J W; van Rhijn, J A

    2005-05-01

    A method is described for the identification and quantitative determination of 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid hydrazide (DSH), the marker residue of nifursol metabolites in poultry (turkey, broiler) muscle and liver tissue. The method is based on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of tissue-bound metabolites to free DSH and in situ derivatisation with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde to the corresponding nitrophenyl derivative NPDSH. A structural analogue of DSH, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid hydrazide (HBH) was synthesised to serve as an internal standard. The analytes were isolated from the matrix by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. Determination was performed by LC-MS/MS with negative electrospray ionisation. The [M - H](+) ions of NPDSH and NPHBH at m/z 374 were fragmented by collision induced dissociation (CID) producing transition ions at m/z 182, 183 and 226. The transition ions at m/z 182 and 226 were selected for monitoring of NPDSH while the transition ion at m/z 183 was selected for NPHBH. The method has been validated according to the EU criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 microg kg(-1) in muscle and liver tissue. A decision limit (CC(alpha)) was obtained of 0.04 and 0.025 microg kg(-1) in muscle and liver, respectively. Similarly a detection capability (CC(beta)) was obtained of 0.10 and 0.05 microg kg(-1) in muscle and liver, respectively. The introduction of HBH as an internal standard did not lead to a significant improvement of the quantitative performance of the method. In fact for liver better performance characteristics were obtained when the IS was not taken into account. Nevertheless, as a qualitative marker for recovery, HBH could still be very useful in the analysis of unknown samples. PMID:15852149

  11. Effects of short-term growth hormone treatment on liver and muscle transcriptomes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gahr, Scott A; Vallejo, Roger L; Weber, Gregory M; Shepherd, Brian S; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Rexroad, Caird E

    2008-02-19

    Although studies have established that exogenous growth hormone (GH) treatment stimulates growth in fish, its effects on target tissue gene expression are not well characterized. We assessed the effects of Posilac (Monsanto, St. Louis, MO), a recombinant bovine GH, on tissue transcript levels in rainbow trout selected from two high-growth rate and two low-growth rate families. Transcript abundance was measured in liver and muscle with the Genome Research in Atlantic Salmon Project (GRASP) 16K cDNA microarray. A selection of the genes identified as altered by the microarray and transcripts for insulin-like growth factors, growth hormone receptors (GHRs), and myostatins were measured by real-time PCR in the liver, muscle, brain, kidney, intestine, stomach, gill, and heart. In general, transcripts identified as differentially regulated in the muscle on the microarray showed similar directional changes of expression in the other nonhepatic tissues. A total of 114 and 66 transcripts were identified by microarray as differentially expressed with GH treatment across growth rate for muscle and liver, respectively. The largest proportion of these transcripts represented novel transcripts, followed by immune and metabolism-related genes. We have identified a number of genes related to lipid metabolism, supporting a modulation in lipid metabolism following GH treatment. Most notable among the growth-axis genes measured by real-time PCR were increases in GHR1 and -2 transcripts in liver and muscle. Our results indicate that short-term GH treatment activates the immune system, shifts the metabolic sectors, and modulates growth-regulating genes.

  12. Depletion of selenium in blood, liver and muscle from beef heifers previously fed forages containing high levels of selenium.

    PubMed

    Benes, Sharon E; Robinson, Peter H; Cun, Grace S

    2015-12-01

    Beef heifers which had grazed 'Jose' tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. 'Jose'; 10 heifers) and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. 'Rio'; 10 heifers) with high levels of Se (>2 mg/kg DM) due to growth in saline soils, accumulated high Se levels in blood, liver and muscle (Juchem et al., 2012). We determined the decrease in Se levels in blood, liver and muscle from these heifers, particularly the decrease of Se in muscle, in order to determine the maximum feeding length of a low Se diet (LSeD) required sustaining Se-enriched beef. Immediately after grazing, all heifers were fed a LSeD containing <0.30 mg/kg DM for 209 d. Blood, liver and muscle samples, as well as body weight (BW), were collected at the beginning and end of the LSeD feeding period and at intermediate times. After grazing, CWR and TWG heifers had similar BW, but TWG heifers had higher levels of Se in whole blood (1.19 versus 0.81 mg/L), liver (2.67 versus 2.12 mg/kg wet weight (WW)), and muscle tissue (0.87 versus 0.63 mg/kg WW) than CWR heifers. The Se levels decreased with exposure time to the LSeD and, at 82 d of feeding the LSeD, Se levels were 77 (liver), 49 (blood) and 31% (muscle) lower. The BW gains for both groups were ~0.5 kg/d during the first 82 d of feeding, but increased thereafter. Levels of Cu in serum (0.28 versus 0.50 mg/L) and liver (1.14 versus 22.9 mg/kg WW) were lower at the end of grazing in TWG heifers, and suggested a potential Cu deficiency. Grazing forages with high Se levels can result in Se-enriched beef, but a LSeD feeding period of <82 d is required to maintain enrichment.

  13. Depletion of selenium in blood, liver and muscle from beef heifers previously fed forages containing high levels of selenium.

    PubMed

    Benes, Sharon E; Robinson, Peter H; Cun, Grace S

    2015-12-01

    Beef heifers which had grazed 'Jose' tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. 'Jose'; 10 heifers) and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. 'Rio'; 10 heifers) with high levels of Se (>2 mg/kg DM) due to growth in saline soils, accumulated high Se levels in blood, liver and muscle (Juchem et al., 2012). We determined the decrease in Se levels in blood, liver and muscle from these heifers, particularly the decrease of Se in muscle, in order to determine the maximum feeding length of a low Se diet (LSeD) required sustaining Se-enriched beef. Immediately after grazing, all heifers were fed a LSeD containing <0.30 mg/kg DM for 209 d. Blood, liver and muscle samples, as well as body weight (BW), were collected at the beginning and end of the LSeD feeding period and at intermediate times. After grazing, CWR and TWG heifers had similar BW, but TWG heifers had higher levels of Se in whole blood (1.19 versus 0.81 mg/L), liver (2.67 versus 2.12 mg/kg wet weight (WW)), and muscle tissue (0.87 versus 0.63 mg/kg WW) than CWR heifers. The Se levels decreased with exposure time to the LSeD and, at 82 d of feeding the LSeD, Se levels were 77 (liver), 49 (blood) and 31% (muscle) lower. The BW gains for both groups were ~0.5 kg/d during the first 82 d of feeding, but increased thereafter. Levels of Cu in serum (0.28 versus 0.50 mg/L) and liver (1.14 versus 22.9 mg/kg WW) were lower at the end of grazing in TWG heifers, and suggested a potential Cu deficiency. Grazing forages with high Se levels can result in Se-enriched beef, but a LSeD feeding period of <82 d is required to maintain enrichment. PMID:26247689

  14. Proteomic changes involved in tenderization of bovine Longissimus dorsi muscle during prolonged ageing.

    PubMed

    Polati, Rita; Menini, Michele; Robotti, Elisa; Millioni, Renato; Marengo, Emilio; Novelli, Enrico; Balzan, Stefania; Cecconi, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    To study proteomic changes involved in tenderization of bovine Longissimus dorsi four Charolaise heifers and four Charolaise bull's muscles were sampled at slaughter after early and long ageing (2-4°C for 12 and 26days respectively). Descriptive sensory evaluation of samples were performed and their tenderness evaluated by Warner-Bratzler shear force test. Protein composition of fresh muscle and of meat aged was analysed by cartesian and polar 2-D electrophoresis. Student's t-test and Ranking-PCA analyses were performed to detect proteomic modulation, and the selected protein spots were identified by nano-HPLC-Chip MS/MS. This research has demonstrated that there are no differences between proteomic patterns of male and females Longissimus dorsi muscle, and that the extension of ageing beyond 12days, did not brings any concrete advantage in terms of sensory quality. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrated that meat maturation caused changes of the abundance of proteins involved in metabolic, structural, and stress related processes.

  15. Idiopathic neonatal iron storage involving the liver, pancreas, heart, and endocrine and exocrine glands.

    PubMed

    Goldfischer, S; Grotsky, H W; Chang, C H; Berman, E L; Richert, R R; Karmarkar, S D; Roskamp, J O; Morecki, R

    1981-01-01

    Autopsy studies of two infants, one a newborn, the other 4 months old, revealed massive amounts of iron in lysosomes of hepatocytes and pancreatic acinar cells. Iron, which had been transported across the placenta, accumulated in the same cell types as in adults with primary and secondary hemochromatosis. Hemosiderin was found in cardiac muscle cells, gastric and intestinal glands, and endocrine and exocrine organs including pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, islets of Langerhans, and sublingual and sweat glands. The liver was the most affected organ and the normal hepatic architecture was replaced by hepatocytes which were arranged in cluster, pseudoacinar structures, and multinucleated giant cells embedded in a collagen matrix. The islets of Langerhans were hyperplastic and hypertrophic. Ten similar cases, in five families, have been described; no patients liver longer than 4 months. Neonatal iron storage disease is clinically and pathologically distinct from Zellweger's cerebrohepatorenal syndrome and hypermethioninemia (tyrosinemia) neonatal diseases in which large stores of iron are present in hepatocytes. No abnormalities in serum iron, ferritin, or transferrin concentrations were detected in five parents of the affected children. PMID:7286889

  16. Nonlinear microscopy of lipid storage and fibrosis in muscle and liver tissues of mice fed high-fat diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackmann, Christian; Gabrielsson, Britt; Svedberg, Fredrik; Holmäng, Agneta; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Enejder, Annika

    2010-11-01

    Hallmarks of high-fat Western diet intake, such as excessive lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver as well as liver fibrosis, are investigated in tissues from mice using nonlinear microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), supported by conventional analysis methods. Two aspects are presented; intake of standard chow versus Western diet, and a comparison between two high-fat Western diets of different polyunsaturated lipid content. CARS microscopy images of intramyocellular lipid droplets in muscle tissue show an increased amount for Western diet compared to standard diet samples. Even stronger diet impact is found for liver samples, where combined CARS and SHG microscopy visualize clear differences in lipid content and collagen fiber development, the latter indicating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis induced at a relatively early stage for Western diet. Characteristic for NAFLD, the fibrous tissue-containing lipids accumulate in larger structures. This is also observed in CARS images of liver samples from two Western-type diets of different polyunsaturated lipid contents. In summary, nonlinear microscopy has strong potential (further promoted by technical advances toward clinical use) for detection and characterization of steatohepatitis already in its early stages.

  17. Involvement of IL-1 in the Maintenance of Masseter Muscle Activity and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Ko; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Koide, Masashi; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Hattori, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Makoto; Sugawara, Shunji; Kanzaki, Makoto; Endo, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise reportedly stimulates IL-1 production within working skeletal muscles, but its physiological significance remains unknown due to the existence of two distinct IL-1 isoforms, IL-1α and IL-1β. The regulatory complexities of these two isoforms, in terms of which cells in muscles produce them and their distinct/redundant biological actions, have yet to be elucidated. Taking advantage of our masticatory behavior (Restrained/Gnawing) model, we herein show that IL-1α/1β-double-knockout (IL-1-KO) mice exhibit compromised masseter muscle (MM) activity which is at least partially attributable to abnormalities of glucose handling (rapid glycogen depletion along with impaired glucose uptake) and dysfunction of IL-6 upregulation in working MMs. In wild-type mice, masticatory behavior clearly increased IL-1β mRNA expression but no incremental protein abundance was detectable in whole MM homogenates, whereas immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed that both IL-1α- and IL-1β-immunopositive cells were recruited around blood vessels in the perimysium of MMs after masticatory behavior. In addition to the aforementioned phenotype of IL-1-KO mice, we found the IL-6 mRNA and protein levels in MMs after masticatory behavior to be significantly lower in IL-1-KO than in WT. Thus, our findings confirm that the locally-increased IL-1 elicited by masticatory behavior, although present small in amounts, contributes to supporting MM activity by maintaining normal glucose homeostasis in these muscles. Our data also underscore the importance of IL-1-mediated local interplay between autocrine myokines including IL-6 and paracrine cytokines in active skeletal muscles. This interplay is directly involved in MM performance and fatigability, perhaps mediated through maintaining muscular glucose homeostasis. PMID:26599867

  18. Molecular characterization of argininosuccinate synthase and argininosuccinate lyase from the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, and their mRNA expression levels in the liver, kidney, brain and skeletal muscle during aestivation.

    PubMed

    Chng, You R; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Ching, Biyun; Chen, Xiu L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2014-10-01

    Argininosuccinate synthase (Ass) and argininosuccinate lyase (Asl) are involved in arginine synthesis for various purposes. The complete cDNA coding sequences of ass and asl from the liver of Protopterus annectens consisted of 1,296 and 1,398 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the deduced Ass and Asl of P. annectens had close relationship with that of the cartilaginous fish Callorhinchus milii. Besides being strongly expressed in the liver, ass and asl expression were detectable in many tissues/organs. In the liver, mRNA expression levels of ass and asl increased significantly during the induction phase of aestivation, probably to increase arginine production to support increased urea synthesis. The increases in ass and asl mRNA expression levels during the prolonged maintenance phase and early arousal phase of aestivation could reflect increased demand on arginine for nitric oxide (NO) production in the liver. In the kidney, there was a significant decrease in ass mRNA expression level after 6 months of aestivation, indicating possible decreases in the synthesis and supply of arginine to other tissues/organs. In the brain, changes in ass and asl mRNA expression levels during the three phases of aestivation could be related to the supply of arginine for NO synthesis in response to conditions that resemble ischaemia and ischaemia-reperfusion during the maintenance and arousal phase of aestivation, respectively. The decrease in ass mRNA expression level, accompanied with decreases in the concentrations of arginine and NO, in the skeletal muscle of aestivating P. annectens might ameliorate the potential of disuse muscle atrophy.

  19. Superficial and deep infiltrating congenital juvenile xanthogranuloma involving multiple skeletal muscles and associated with ulceration and generalized postinvolution atrophy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hye-Rim; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan

    2015-01-01

    We present a 2-day-old boy with a deep-seated giant juvenile xanthogranuloma infiltrating the skeletal muscles on his right lower limb. Unlike typical juvenile xanthogranuloma, the lesion has shown only partial spontaneous regression with large atrophic scar. However, despite the involvement multiple muscle on the right thigh, the patient has no evidence of orthopaedic sequelae.

  20. Diurnal variation in skeletal muscle and liver glycogen in humans with normal health and Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Mavin; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Peter E; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Taylor, Roy

    2015-05-01

    In health, food carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in muscle and liver, preventing a deleterious rise in osmotically active plasma glucose after eating. Glycogen concentrations increase sequentially after each meal to peak in the evening, and fall to fasting levels thereafter. Skeletal muscle accounts for the larger part of this diurnal buffering capacity with liver also contributing. The effectiveness of this diurnal mechanism has not been previously studied in Type 2 diabetes. We have quantified the changes in muscle and liver glycogen concentration with 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3.0 T before and after three meals consumed at 4 h intervals. We studied 40 (25 males; 15 females) well-controlled Type 2 diabetes subjects on metformin only (HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin) 6.4±0.07% or 47±0.8 mmol/mol) and 14 (8 males; 6 females) glucose-tolerant controls matched for age, weight and body mass index (BMI). Muscle glycogen concentration increased by 17% after day-long eating in the control group (68.1±4.8 to 79.7±4.2 mmol/l; P=0.006), and this change inversely correlated with homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] (r=-0.56; P=0.02). There was no change in muscle glycogen in the Type 2 diabetes group after day-long eating (68.3±2.6 to 67.1±2.0 mmol/mol; P=0.62). Liver glycogen rose similarly in normal control (325.9±25.0 to 388.1±30.3 mmol/l; P=0.005) and Type 2 diabetes groups (296.1±16.0 to 350.5±6.7 mmol/l; P<0.0001). In early Type 2 diabetes, the major physiological mechanism for skeletal muscle postprandial glycogen storage is completely inactive. This is directly related to insulin resistance, although liver glycogen storage is normal.

  1. Efficient transduction of liver and muscle after in utero injection of lentiviral vectors with different pseudotypes.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Tippi C; Kobinger, Gary P; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Radu, Antoneta; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Bouchard, Sarah; Wilson, James M; Verma, Inder M; Flake, Alan W

    2002-09-01

    In this study we investigate the efficacy of lentiviral vectors of different pseudotypes for gene transfer to tissues of the preimmune fetus. BALB/c fetuses at 14-15 days' gestation received lentiviral vectors carrying the transgene lacZ under the control of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter by intramuscular (i.m.) or intrahepatic (i.h.) injection. We pseudotyped the lentiviral vectors with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-G), with Mokola virus, or with Ebola virus envelope glycoproteins. We harvested the pups at time points between 5 days and 9 months following injection and performed a detailed histologic assessment. The efficiency and distribution of transduction after in utero administration was highly dependent upon the route of administration and the pseudotype of vector used. Biodistribution studies showed widespread distribution of vector sequences in multiple tissues, albeit at very low levels, and transduced cells were found in significant numbers only in liver, heart, and muscle. Overall, VSV-G was the most efficient in transducing hepatocytes, whereas Mokola and Ebola were more efficient in transducing myocytes. Transduction of cardiomyocytes was observed after both i.m. and i.h. injection of all three vectors. Our findings of long-term transduction of skeletal myocytes and cardiomyocytes after in utero administration suggest a novel strategy for the treatment of congenital muscular dystrophies. PMID:12231171

  2. Effect of endosulfan on acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in liver, kidney, and muscles of Channa gachua

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.M. )

    1990-03-01

    The widespread use of a great many toxic chemicals to eliminate unwanted plant or animal species has resulted in the contamination of most aquatic habitats with these substances on a regular basis. Endosulfan, a polycyclic chlorinated hydrocarbon of cyclodien group, is a well known organochlorine insecticide on the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in liver, kidney and muscles of a freshwater teleost, Channa gachua.

  3. Polyphenols decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity, increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and decreased gastrocnemius age-dependent autophagy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Caroline; Chabi, Beatrice; Fouret, Gilles; Py, Guillaume; Sairafi, Badie; Elong, Cecile; Gaillet, Sylvie; Cristol, Jean Paul; Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2012-09-01

    This study explored major systems of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and their consequences on oxidative stress, mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats, and evaluated the efficiency of 30-day oral supplementation with a moderate dose of a red grape polyphenol extract (RGPE) on these parameters. In the liver of aged rats, NADPH oxidase activity was increased and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities were altered, while xanthine oxidase activity remained unchanged. In muscles, only mitochondrial activity was modified with aging. The oral intake of RGPE decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity in the aged rats without affecting global oxidative stress, suggesting that NADPH oxidase was probably not the dominant detrimental source of production of O(2)·(-) in the liver. Interestingly, RGPE supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis and improved antioxidant status in the gastrocnemius of aged rats, while it had no significant effect in soleus. RGPE supplementation also decreased age-dependent autophagy in gastrocnemius of aged rats. These results extended existing findings on the beneficial effects of RGPE on mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats.

  4. Muscle and liver protein synthesis and degradation in growing rats fed a raw field bean (Vicia faba L.) diet.

    PubMed

    Goena, M; Santidrián, S; Cuevillas, F; Larralde, J

    1988-12-01

    Body weight gain, food intake, gastrocnemius muscle and liver weight, protein and RNA content, as well as the fractional rates of muscle and liver protein synthesis (ks, according to the method of constant infusion of L-[14C]tyrosine), growth (kg) and degradation (kd), along with RNA activity (g of protein synthesized per day/g RNA) of both organs, were determined in growing male rats fed ad libitum over a period of 10 days on 18.7% protein diets containing either casein (5% of methionine added) (control) or the raw legume field bean (Vicia faba L.) as the sole sources of protein. It has been found that as compared to control rats, those fed the raw legume diet exhibited a significant reduction in the rate of growth, muscle RNA, ks, kg, kd and RNA activity, and a significant increase in liver ks, kd and RNA activity. All differences were statistically significant at least at the 5% level. The possible nature of these findings is discussed.

  5. Regulation of succinate-fuelled mitochondrial respiration in liver and skeletal muscle of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jason C L; Chung, Dillon J; Cooper, Alex N; Staples, James F

    2013-05-01

    Hibernating ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) alternate between two distinct metabolic states throughout winter: torpor, during which metabolic rate (MR) and body temperature (Tb) are considerably suppressed, and interbout euthermia (IBE), during which MR and Tb briefly return to euthermic levels. Previous studies showed suppression of succinate-fuelled respiration during torpor in liver and skeletal muscle mitochondria; however, these studies used only a single, saturating succinate concentration. Therefore, they could not address whether mitochondrial metabolic suppression occurs under physiological substrate concentrations or whether differences in the kinetics of mitochondrial responses to changing substrate concentration might also contribute to mitochondrial metabolic regulation during torpor. The present study confirmed that succinate oxidation is reduced during torpor in liver and skeletal muscle at 37 and 10°C over a 100-fold range of succinate concentrations. At 37°C, this suppression resulted from inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which had a greater affinity for oxaloacetate (an SDH inhibitor) during torpor. At 10°C, SDH was not inhibited, suggesting that SDH inhibition initiates but does not maintain mitochondrial suppression during torpor. Moreover, in both liver and skeletal muscle, mitochondria from torpid animals maintained relatively higher respiration rates at low succinate concentrations, which reduces the extent of energy savings that can be achieved during torpor, but may also maintain mitochondrial oxidative capacity above some lower critical threshold, thereby preventing cellular and/or mitochondrial injury during torpor and facilitating rapid recruitment of oxidative capacity during arousal.

  6. Muscle or liver-specific Sirt3 deficiency induces hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins without affecting global metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J; Jeninga, Ellen H; Canto, Carles; Harach, Taoufiq; de Boer, Vincent C J; Andreux, Penelope; Moullan, Norman; Pirinen, Eija; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Houten, Sander M; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Sirt3 is a mitochondrial sirtuin, predominantly expressed in highly metabolic tissues. Germline ablation of Sirt3 has major metabolic consequences, including increased susceptibility to metabolic damage and oxidative stress after high fat feeding. In order to determine the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to these phenotypes, we generated muscle-specific Sirt3 (Sirt3(skm-/-)) and liver-specific Sirt3 (Sirt3(hep-/-)) knock-out mice. Despite a marked global hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins, Sirt3(skm-/-) and Sirt3(hep-/-) mice did not manifest any overt metabolic phenotype under either chow or high fat diet conditions. Similarly, there was no evidence for increased oxidative stress in muscle or liver when Sirt3 was ablated in a tissue-specific manner. These observations suggest that the mitochondrial hyperacetylation induced by Sirt3-deletion in a tissue specific manner is not necessarily linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and does not recapitulate the metabolic abnormalities observed in the germline Sirt3 knock-out mice. PMID:22645641

  7. Autophagy-lysosomal pathway is involved in lipid degradation in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Skop, V; Cahová, M; Papáčková, Z; Páleníčková, E; Daňková, H; Baranowski, M; Zabielski, P; Zdychová, J; Zídková, J; Kazdová, L

    2012-01-01

    We present data supporting the hypothesis that the lysosomal-autophagy pathway is involved in the degradation of intracellular triacylglycerols in the liver. In primary hepatocytes cultivated in the absence of exogenous fatty acids (FFA), both inhibition of autophagy flux (asparagine) or lysosomal activity (chloroquine) decreased secretion of VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) and formation of FFA oxidative products while the stimulation of autophagy by rapamycine increased some of these parameters. Effect of rapamycine was completely abolished by inactivation of lysosomes. Similarly, when autophagic activity was influenced by cultivating the hepatocytes in "starving" (amino-acid poor medium) or "fed" (serum-supplemented medium) conditions, VLDL secretion and FFA oxidation mirrored the changes in autophagy being higher in starvation and lower in fed state. Autophagy inhibition as well as lysosomal inactivation depressed FFA and DAG (diacylglycerol) formation in liver slices in vitro. In vivo, intensity of lysosomal lipid degradation depends on the formation of autophagolysosomes, i.e. structures bringing the substrate for degradation and lysosomal enzymes into contact. We demonstrated that lysosomal lipase (LAL) activity in liver autophagolysosomal fraction was up-regulated in fasting and down-regulated in fed state together with the increased translocation of LAL and LAMP2 proteins from lysosomal pool to this fraction. Changes in autophagy intensity (LC3-II/LC3-I ratio) followed a similar pattern. PMID:22480422

  8. Muscle synergies involved in shifting the center of pressure while making a first step.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2005-11-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to analyze multi-muscle synergies involved in making a step by a standing person. We hypothesized that leg and trunk muscles are organized into stable groups (muscle modes, M-modes) related to shifts of the center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions. Another hypothesis was that the magnitudes of the modes co-vary across repetitive trials to stabilize a certain magnitude of the COP shift in both directions. M-modes were defined using principal component analysis applied to indices of changes in the electromyographic (EMG) activity prior to releasing variable loads that were held by the subject using a pulley system. For the task of releasing the load behind the body three M-modes associated with a backward COP shift were defined. Four M-modes were defined for the task of releasing the load at the body side associated with a lateral COP shift. Multiple regression analysis was used to relate changes in the M-mode magnitudes to COP shifts. EMG changes prior to making a step were quantified over five 100 ms time windows before the lift-off of the stepping leg. Two components of the variance in the M-mode space computed across repetitions of a stepping task were quantified-a component that did not affect the average COP shift in a particular direction (variance within the UCM, V (UCM)), and a component that affected the COP shift (variance orthogonal to the UCM, V (ORT)). V (UCM) was significantly higher than V (ORT) for both directions of the COP shifts. This relation was observed for the M-modes in the stepping leg as well as in the support leg. The stepping leg showed a different time evolution of the ratio V (UCM)/V (ORT) such that the difference between the two variance components disappeared closer to the time of the lift-off. The findings corroborate both main hypotheses. The study supports a view that control of whole-body actions involves grouping the muscles

  9. Mechanism involved in trichloroethylene-induced liver cancer: Importance to environmental cleanup. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, R.J.; Thrall, B.D.; Sasser, L.B.; Miller, J.H.; Schultz, I.R.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop critical data for changing risk-based clean-up standards for trichloroethylene (TCE). The project is organized around two interrelated tasks: Task 1 addresses the tumorigenic and dosimetry issues for the metabolites of TCE that produce liver cancer in mice, dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA). Early work had suggested that TCA was primarily responsible for TCE-induced liver tumors, but several, more mechanistic observations suggest that DCA may play a prominent role. This task is aimed at determining the basis for the selection hypothesis and seeks to prove that this mode of action is responsible for TCE-induced tumors. This project will supply the basic dose-response data from which low-dose extrapolations would be made. Task 2 seeks specific evidence that TCA and DCA are capable of promoting the growth of spontaneously initiated cells from mouse liver, in vitro. The data provide the clearest evidence that both metabolites act by a mechanism of selection rather than mutation. These data are necessary to select between a linear (i.e. no threshold) and non-linear low-dose extrapolation model. As of May of 1998, this research has identified two plausible modes of action by which TCE produces liver tumors in mice. These modes of action do not require the compounds to be mutagenic. The bulk of the experimental evidence suggests that neither TCE nor the two hepatocarcinogenic metabolites of TCE are mutagenic. The results from the colony formation assay clearly establish that both of these metabolites cause colony growth from initiated cells that occur spontaneously in the liver of B 6 C 3 F 1 mice, although the phenotypes of the colonies differ in the same manner as tumors differ, in vivo. In the case of DCA, a second mechanism may occur at a lower dose involving the release of insulin. This observation is timely as it was recently reported that occupational exposures to trichloroethylene results in 2 to 4-fold

  10. Proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins in rat liver: exercise attenuated oxidative stress may be involved in fatty liver improvement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Duan, Zhigui; Hu, Hui; Li, Guolin; Yan, Siyu; Wu, Jinfeng; Wang, Jun; Yin, Dazhong; Xie, Qingji

    2013-05-01

    To screen target proteins of oxidative stress which mediate the effects of exercise on preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the methods for selecting carbonylated proteins were modified, and carbonylated proteins were profiled. The results showed that treadmill training reduced oxidative stress and the levels of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG). The changes in IHTG showed a significant positive correlation with oxidative stress as indicated by malondialdehyde level. Further results from proteomics illustrated that 17 functional proteins were susceptible to oxidative modification, and exercise protected three proteins from carbonylation. The latter three proteins may serve as both direct target proteins of oxidative stress and mediators contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise. In particular, a long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADL) which was a key enzyme in lipid metabolism was not carbonylated and with higher activities in exercise group. These findings indicate that this modified technique is practical and powerful in selecting carbonylated proteins. Long-term treadmill training is effective in ameliorating oxidative stress and preventing the accumulation of IHTG. Among the 17 target proteins of oxidative modification, three proteins contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. Preventing ACADL from carbonylation may be involved in the physiological mechanism of exercise-induced NAFLD improvement.

  11. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways.

  12. Ellagic acid: Pharmacological activities and molecular mechanisms involved in liver protection.

    PubMed

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Zazueta, Cecilia

    2015-07-01

    Traditional drugs or therapies rarely have effects on regression of chronic liver diseases, which result in many cases from sustained oxidative stress. In recent years, ellagic acid (EA) has gained attention due to its multiple biological activities and several molecular targets. This is the first review focused on the pharmacological properties and on the molecular mechanisms activated by EA in terms of liver protection. EA possesses antioxidant, antihepatotoxic, antisteatosic, anticholestatic, antifibrogenic, antihepatocarcinogenic and antiviral properties that improves the hepatic architectural and functions against toxic and pathological conditions. The molecular mechanisms that EA activates include the scavenging of free radicals, regulation of phase I and II enzymes, modulation of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines synthesis, the regulation of biochemical pathways involved in the synthesis and degradation of lipids as well as the maintenance of essential trace elements levels. EA also inhibits hepatic stellate cells and mast cells activation, the proliferation of transformed cells, as well as viral replication by increasing antioxidant response, induction of apoptosis, downregulation of genes involved in cell cycle and angiogenesis, and stimulation of cellular immune response. Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of EA as an innovative pharmacological strategy, the number of phase I and II trials in patients is scarce, precluding its clinical application. In these sense, the use of new delivery systems that enhances EA bioavailability would improve the results already obtained. Also it remains to be determined if treatment with urolithins instead of EA would represent a better strategy in hepatic disease treatment.

  13. Involvement of TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Liman; Cui, Xueling; Qi, Yan; Xie, Dongxue; Wu, Qian; Chen, Xinxin; Ge, Jingyan; Liu, Zhonghui

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is a major factor in pathogenesis of chronic hepatic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a liver toxicant, and CCl4-induced liver injury in mouse is a classical animal model of chemical liver injury. However, it is still unclear whether TGF-β1 is involved in the process of CCl4-induced acute chemical liver injury. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of TGF-β1 and its signaling molecule Smad3 in the acute liver injury induce by CCl4. The results showed that CCl4 induced acute liver injury in mice effectively confirmed by H&E staining of liver tissues, and levels of not only liver injury markers serum ALT and AST, but also serum TGF-β1 were elevated significantly in CCl4-treated mice, compared with the control mice treated with olive oil. Our data further revealed that TGF-β1 levels in hepatic tissue homogenate increased significantly, and type II receptor of TGF-β (TβRII) and signaling molecules Smad2, 3, mRNA expressions and Smad3 and phospho-Smad3 protein levels also increased obviously in livers of CCl4-treated mice. To clarify the effect of the elevated TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling on CCl4-induced acute liver injury, Smad3 in mouse liver was overexpressed in vivo by tail vein injection of Smad3-expressing plasmids. Upon CCl4 treatment, Smad3-overexpressing mice showed more severe liver injury identified by H&E staining of liver tissues and higher serum ALT and AST levels. Simultaneously, we found that Smad3-overexpressing mice treated with CCl4 showed more macrophages and neutrophils infiltration in liver and inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 levels increment in serum when compared with those in control mice treated with CCl4. Moreover, the results showed that the apoptosis of hepatocytes increased significantly, and apoptosis-associated proteins Bax, cytochrome C and the cleaved caspase 3 expressions were up-regulated in CCl4-treated Smad3-overexpressing mice as well. These results suggested that TGF

  14. Physiological pathways involved in nutritional muscle dystrophy and healing in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.

    PubMed

    Betancor, Mónica B; Izquierdo, Marisol; Terova, Genciana; Preziosa, Elena; Saleh, Reda; Montero, Daniel; Hernández-Cruz, Carmen María; Caballero, María José

    2013-02-01

    The potential muscle regeneration after nutritional dystrophy caused by high dietary DHA contents in fish and the physiological pathways involved are still unknown. To better understand this process, an experiment was conducted for 3 weeks in 14 day-old European sea bass larvae using different DHA ratios (1 or 5%). After this period, part of the larvae fed 5% DHA diet was switched to 1% DHA diet ("wash-out") for another 2 weeks. Larvae fed 5% DHA diet showed altered oxidative status as indicated by the highest TBARS values, antioxidant enzymes (AOE) expression and incidence of muscular lesions. Accordingly, "washed-out" larvae showed lower dry weight and α-TOH content. IGF-I gene expression was elevated in 5% DHA larvae at 35 dph, suggesting increased muscle mitogenesis that was corroborated by the increase in myosin heavy chain expression. It can be concluded that high dietary DHA contents alter the oxidative status and cause muscular lesions in European sea bass larvae, with morphological and molecular aspects of mammalians muscular degenerative disease.

  15. Molecular mechanisms involved in muscle wasting in cancer and ageing: cachexia versus sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Argilés, Josep M; Busquets, Sílvia; Felipe, Antonio; López-Soriano, Francisco J

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize and evaluate the different mechanisms and catabolic mediators involved in cancer cachexia and ageing sarcopenia since they may represent targets for future promising clinical investigations. Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by a marked weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. In fact, many patients who die with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia. The degree of cachexia is inversely correlated with the survival time of the patient and it always implies a poor prognosis. Unfortunately, at the clinical level, cachexia is not treated until the patient suffers from a considerable weight loss and wasting. At this point, the cachectic syndrome is almost irreversible. The cachectic state is often associated with the presence and growth of the tumour and leads to a malnutrition status due to the induction of anorexia. In recent years, age-related diseases and disabilities have become of major health interest and importance. This holds particularly for muscle wasting, also known as sarcopenia, that decreases the quality of life of the geriatric population, increasing morbidity and decreasing life expectancy. The cachectic factors (associated with both depletion of fat stores and muscular tissue) can be divided into two categories: of tumour origin and humoural factors. In conclusion, more research should be devoted to the understanding of muscle wasting mediators, both in cancer and ageing, in particular the identification of common mediators may prove as a good therapeutic strategies for both prevention and treatment of wasting both in disease and during healthy ageing.

  16. Metal levels in blood, muscle and liver of water snakes (Nerodia spp.) from New Jersey, Tennessee and South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Campbell, Kym Rouse; Murray, Stephanie; Campbell, Todd S; Gaines, Karen F; Jeitner, Christian; Shukla, Tara; Burke, Sean; Gochfeld, Michael

    2007-02-15

    Reptiles, particularly snakes, could serve as bioindicators of contamination because some are comparatively long-lived, exhibit different trophic levels, and are at the top of their food chains. We test the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the concentrations of heavy metals in the blood, muscle and liver of water snakes (Nerodia spp.) from rivers in New Jersey, Tennessee and South Carolina. While the former site is in an urban/suburban area, the latter two sites are relatively rural and are located on Department of Energy sites. For the snakes from New Jersey, there were significant differences in metal concentrations among tissues for all metals, the highest levels for arsenic and selenium were in liver and kidney, for cadmium were in the liver, for chromium and lead were in skin, and for mercury and manganese were in the muscle. Body length was not correlated with metal levels, and there were more significant correlations for skin with internal tissues than for blood with other tissues. There were more significant correlations for mercury than for other metals. In comparing metal levels among states, levels were generally higher for snakes collected from South Carolina. These data indicate that, since water snakes accumulate contaminants differentially as a function of location, they can be useful bioindicators of environmental exposure to contaminants. Moreover, because of their wide geographical distribution and use of varying trophic compartments, this genus can be useful for cross-site comparisons.

  17. Development-related expression patterns of protein-coding and miRNA genes involved in porcine muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, F J; Jin, L; Guo, Y Q; Liu, R; He, M N; Li, M Z; Li, X W

    2014-01-01

    Muscle growth and development is associated with remarkable changes in protein-coding and microRNA (miRNA) gene expression. To determine the expression patterns of genes and miRNAs related to muscle growth and development, we measured the expression levels of 25 protein-coding and 16 miRNA genes in skeletal and cardiac muscles throughout 5 developmental stages by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The Short Time-Series Expression Miner (STEM) software clustering results showed that growth-related genes were downregulated at all developmental stages in both the psoas major and longissimus dorsi muscles, indicating their involvement in early developmental stages. Furthermore, genes related to muscle atrophy, such as forkhead box 1 and muscle ring finger, showed unregulated expression with increasing age, suggesting a decrease in protein synthesis during the later stages of skeletal muscle development. We found that development of the cardiac muscle was a complex process in which growth-related genes were highly expressed during embryonic development, but they did not show uniform postnatal expression patterns. Moreover, the expression level of miR-499, which enhances the expression of the β-myosin heavy chain, was significantly different in the psoas major and longissimus dorsi muscles, suggesting the involvement of miR-499 in the determination of skeletal muscle fiber types. We also performed correlation analyses of messenger RNA and miRNA expression. We found negative relationships between miR-486 and forkhead box 1, and miR-133a and serum response factor at all developmental stages, suggesting that forkhead box 1 and serum response factor are potential targets of miR-486 and miR-133a, respectively.

  18. A form of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) lacking the transmembrane domains and the COOH-terminal end stimulates metabolism in muscle and liver cells.

    PubMed

    Segalés, Jessica; Paz, José C; Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Sala, David; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Noguera, Eduard; Pich, Sara; Palacín, Manuel; Enríquez, José Antonio; Zorzano, Antonio

    2013-11-15

    Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a protein that participates in mitochondrial fusion, is required to maintain normal mitochondrial metabolism in skeletal muscle and liver. Given that muscle Mfn2 is repressed in obese or type 2 diabetic subjects, this protein may have a potential pathophysiological role in these conditions. To evaluate whether the metabolic effects of Mfn2 can be dissociated from its function in mitochondrial dynamics, we studied a form of human Mfn2, lacking the two transmembrane domains and the COOH-terminal coiled coil (ΔMfn2). This form localized in mitochondria but did not alter mitochondrial morphology in cells or in skeletal muscle fibers. The expression of ΔMfn2 in mouse skeletal muscle stimulated glucose oxidation and enhanced respiratory control ratio, which occurred in the absence of changes in mitochondrial mass. ΔMfn2 did not stimulate mitochondrial respiration in Mfn2-deficient muscle cells. The expression of ΔMfn2 in mouse liver or in hepatoma cells stimulated gluconeogenesis. In addition, ΔMfn2 activated basal and maximal respiration both in muscle and liver cells. In all, we show that a form of Mfn2 lacking mitochondrial fusion activity stimulates mitochondrial function and enhances glucose metabolism in muscle and liver tissues. This study suggests that Mfn2 regulates metabolism independently of changes in mitochondrial morphology.

  19. A form of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) lacking the transmembrane domains and the COOH-terminal end stimulates metabolism in muscle and liver cells.

    PubMed

    Segalés, Jessica; Paz, José C; Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Sala, David; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Noguera, Eduard; Pich, Sara; Palacín, Manuel; Enríquez, José Antonio; Zorzano, Antonio

    2013-11-15

    Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a protein that participates in mitochondrial fusion, is required to maintain normal mitochondrial metabolism in skeletal muscle and liver. Given that muscle Mfn2 is repressed in obese or type 2 diabetic subjects, this protein may have a potential pathophysiological role in these conditions. To evaluate whether the metabolic effects of Mfn2 can be dissociated from its function in mitochondrial dynamics, we studied a form of human Mfn2, lacking the two transmembrane domains and the COOH-terminal coiled coil (ΔMfn2). This form localized in mitochondria but did not alter mitochondrial morphology in cells or in skeletal muscle fibers. The expression of ΔMfn2 in mouse skeletal muscle stimulated glucose oxidation and enhanced respiratory control ratio, which occurred in the absence of changes in mitochondrial mass. ΔMfn2 did not stimulate mitochondrial respiration in Mfn2-deficient muscle cells. The expression of ΔMfn2 in mouse liver or in hepatoma cells stimulated gluconeogenesis. In addition, ΔMfn2 activated basal and maximal respiration both in muscle and liver cells. In all, we show that a form of Mfn2 lacking mitochondrial fusion activity stimulates mitochondrial function and enhances glucose metabolism in muscle and liver tissues. This study suggests that Mfn2 regulates metabolism independently of changes in mitochondrial morphology. PMID:23941871

  20. Involvement of zinc in cell-free protein synthesizing systems from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S.E.; Wallwork, J.C.

    1986-03-05

    There are conflicting reports in the literature concerning the role of zinc in protein synthesis. This study presents evidence for the direct involvement of zinc in the translation of polypeptide chains in rats. Cell-free systems for incorporation of amino acids into acid-insoluble proteins were prepared from livers of three populations of rats: (1) rats fed ad libitum a diet containing 25 ppm zinc; (2) rats fed a diet containing less than 1 ppm zinc and (3) rats pair-fed a diet containing 25 ppm zinc. The diets contained 20% egg white and were enriched with biotin. Distilled deionized drinking water was given. The animals were maintained on the regimen for 45 days with precautions to limit zinc contamination. Group 2 showed typical signs of zinc deficiency, including decreased bone zinc. In vitro systems containing liver polysomes and a pH5 precipitate enzyme fraction indicated that the synthetic ability of systems isolated from zinc-deficient rats was considerably depressed, resulting in incorporation of amino acids 15 to 30% less than systems from pair-fed rats and 30 to 50% less than ad libitum-fed control animals. The results of crossover experiments performed by mixing polysome and enzyme fractions from the different groups indicated that the defect is due primarily to the pH precipitate enzyme fraction and not the polysomes.

  1. Differential Fmo3 Gene Expression in Various Liver Injury Models Involving Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rudraiah, Swetha; Moscovitz, Jamie E.; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Campion, Sarah N.; Slitt, Angela L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Manautou, José E.

    2015-01-01

    treatment in mice markedly increasedFmo3 gene expression. While BDL increased Fmo3 mRNA expression, protein level did not change. The discrepancy with Fmo3 induction in cholestatic models, ANIT and BDL, is not entirely clear. Results from Nrf2 KO mice with APAP suggest that the transcriptional regulation of Fmo3 during liver injury may not involve Nrf2. PMID:25193093

  2. Oromandibular Dystonia: A Case Report of the Lateral Pterygoid Muscle Involvement and Treatment with Botulinum Toxin A

    PubMed Central

    Alexoudi, Athanasia; Dalivigka, Zoi; Siatouni, Anna; Verentzioti, Anastasia; Gatzonis, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present case report is to punctuate the importance of individualized therapy procedures and the accurate diagnosis of the muscles involved in oromandibular dystonia and underline the role of electromyography (EMG). We report a woman who presented sustained jaw movement towards the left, severe difficulty in jaw opening and jaw protrusion. The patient was treated with injections of botulinum A toxin in lateral pterygoid, masseter, platysma, sternoclidomastoid, temporalis muscles with EMG guidance. She experienced an 80% reduction of her symptoms after the first injection. In jaw deviation dystonia symptoms impressively respond to botulinum toxin treatment of the pterygoid muscle. Individualized therapy procedures are necessitated. PMID:27777710

  3. Colon cancer metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes without liver or lung involvement: A case report.

    PubMed

    El-Halabi, Mustapha M; Chaaban, Said A; Meouchy, Joseph; Page, Seth; Salyers, William J

    2014-11-01

    Colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer in females and the third in males, worldwide. The most common sites of colon cancer metastasis are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, bone and brain. In this study, an extremely rare case of colon adenocarcinoma with extensive metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes without any other organ involvement is presented. A 44-year-old Caucasian male presented with abdominal pain, a change in bowel habits, melena and weight loss. Colonoscopy revealed a large friable, ulcerated, circumferential mass in the ascending colon. Biopsies were consistent with the diagnosis of invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, right colon resection was performed, and pathological analysis revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the right colon with extensive regional lymph node involvement. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis were performed preoperatively as part of routine staging for colon cancer. No liver or lung pathology was identified; however, multiple pathologically enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes were observed. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration of the largest mediastinal lymph node, which measured 5.2×3.5 cm on CT scans, was performed. The pathology was again consistent with the diagnosis of metastatic colorectal primary adenocarcinoma. At present, no optimum treatment has been identified for metastatic colon cancer to the mediastinal lymph nodes. The patient in the current case received chemotherapy with folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), as well as with bevacizumab. Initial follow-up CT scans of the chest revealed a positive response to treatment. Physicians, in particular, radiologists, must consider the mediastinum during the first evaluation and further follow-up of patients with colorectal carcinoma even in the absence of metastasis. PMID:25289100

  4. Involvement of sphingosine 1-phosphate (SIP)/S1P3 signaling in cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyong; Jiang, Xiangming; Yang, Lin; Liu, Xihong; Yue, Shi; Li, Liying

    2009-10-01

    Bioactive sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PRs) have been implicated in many critical cellular events, including inflammation, cancer, and angiogenesis. However, the role of S1P/S1PR signaling in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis has not been well documented. In this study, we found that S1P levels and S1P(3) receptor expression in liver tissue were markedly up-regulated in a mouse model of cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis. In addition, the S1P(3) receptor was also expressed in green fluorescent protein transgenic bone marrow (BM)-derived cells found in the damaged liver of transplanted chimeric mice that underwent bile duct ligation. Silencing of S1P(3) expression significantly inhibited S1P-induced BM cell migration in vitro. Furthermore, a selective S1P(3) receptor antagonist, suramin, markedly reduced the number of BM-derived cells during cholestasis. Interestingly, suramin administration clearly ameliorated bile duct ligation-induced hepatic fibrosis, as demonstrated by attenuated deposition of collagen type I and III, reduced smooth muscle alpha-actin expression, and decreased total hydroxyproline content. In conclusion, our data suggest that S1P/S1P(3) signaling plays an important role in cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis through mediating the homing of BM cells. Modulation of S1PR activity may therefore represent a new antifibrotic strategy.

  5. Three days of intermittent stretching after muscle disuse alters the proteins involved in force transmission in muscle fibers in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Gianelo, M C S; Polizzelo, J C; Chesca, D; Mattiello-Sverzut, A C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intermittent passive manual stretching on various proteins involved in force transmission in skeletal muscle. Female Wistar weanling rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: 2 control groups containing 21- and 30-day-old rats that received neither immobilization nor stretching, and 3 test groups that received 1) passive stretching over 3 days, 2) immobilization for 7 days and then passive stretching over 3 days, or 3) immobilization for 7 days. Maximal plantar flexion in the right hind limb was imposed, and the stretching protocol of 10 repetitions of 30 s stretches was applied. The soleus muscles were harvested and processed for HE and picrosirius staining; immunohistochemical analysis of collagen types I, III, IV, desmin, and vimentin; and immunofluorescence labeling of dystrophin and CD68. The numbers of desmin- and vimentin-positive cells were significantly decreased compared with those in the control following immobilization, regardless of whether stretching was applied (P<0.05). In addition, the semi-quantitative analysis showed that collagen type I was increased and type IV was decreased in the immobilized animals, regardless of whether the stretching protocol was applied. In conclusion, the largest changes in response to stretching were observed in muscles that had been previously immobilized, and the stretching protocol applied here did not mitigate the immobilization-induced muscle changes. Muscle disuse adversely affected several proteins involved in the transmission of forces between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Thus, the 3-day rehabilitation period tested here did not provide sufficient time for the muscles to recover from the disuse maladaptations in animals undergoing postnatal development. PMID:26648091

  6. Three days of intermittent stretching after muscle disuse alters the proteins involved in force transmission in muscle fibers in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Gianelo, M C S; Polizzelo, J C; Chesca, D; Mattiello-Sverzut, A C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intermittent passive manual stretching on various proteins involved in force transmission in skeletal muscle. Female Wistar weanling rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: 2 control groups containing 21- and 30-day-old rats that received neither immobilization nor stretching, and 3 test groups that received 1) passive stretching over 3 days, 2) immobilization for 7 days and then passive stretching over 3 days, or 3) immobilization for 7 days. Maximal plantar flexion in the right hind limb was imposed, and the stretching protocol of 10 repetitions of 30 s stretches was applied. The soleus muscles were harvested and processed for HE and picrosirius staining; immunohistochemical analysis of collagen types I, III, IV, desmin, and vimentin; and immunofluorescence labeling of dystrophin and CD68. The numbers of desmin- and vimentin-positive cells were significantly decreased compared with those in the control following immobilization, regardless of whether stretching was applied (P<0.05). In addition, the semi-quantitative analysis showed that collagen type I was increased and type IV was decreased in the immobilized animals, regardless of whether the stretching protocol was applied. In conclusion, the largest changes in response to stretching were observed in muscles that had been previously immobilized, and the stretching protocol applied here did not mitigate the immobilization-induced muscle changes. Muscle disuse adversely affected several proteins involved in the transmission of forces between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Thus, the 3-day rehabilitation period tested here did not provide sufficient time for the muscles to recover from the disuse maladaptations in animals undergoing postnatal development.

  7. Three days of intermittent stretching after muscle disuse alters the proteins involved in force transmission in muscle fibers in weanling rats

    PubMed Central

    Gianelo, M.C.S.; Polizzelo, J.C.; Chesca, D.; Mattiello-Sverzut, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intermittent passive manual stretching on various proteins involved in force transmission in skeletal muscle. Female Wistar weanling rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: 2 control groups containing 21- and 30-day-old rats that received neither immobilization nor stretching, and 3 test groups that received 1) passive stretching over 3 days, 2) immobilization for 7 days and then passive stretching over 3 days, or 3) immobilization for 7 days. Maximal plantar flexion in the right hind limb was imposed, and the stretching protocol of 10 repetitions of 30 s stretches was applied. The soleus muscles were harvested and processed for HE and picrosirius staining; immunohistochemical analysis of collagen types I, III, IV, desmin, and vimentin; and immunofluorescence labeling of dystrophin and CD68. The numbers of desmin- and vimentin-positive cells were significantly decreased compared with those in the control following immobilization, regardless of whether stretching was applied (P<0.05). In addition, the semi-quantitative analysis showed that collagen type I was increased and type IV was decreased in the immobilized animals, regardless of whether the stretching protocol was applied. In conclusion, the largest changes in response to stretching were observed in muscles that had been previously immobilized, and the stretching protocol applied here did not mitigate the immobilization-induced muscle changes. Muscle disuse adversely affected several proteins involved in the transmission of forces between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Thus, the 3-day rehabilitation period tested here did not provide sufficient time for the muscles to recover from the disuse maladaptations in animals undergoing postnatal development. PMID:26648091

  8. The Involving Roles of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Stem/Progenitor Cells (SPCs) to Liver Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hui; Ren, Li-Na; Wang, Tao; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Tang, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Liver regeneration is usually attributed to mature hepatocytes, which possess a remarkable potential to proliferate under mild to moderate injury. However, when the liver is severely damaged or hepatocyte proliferation is greatly inhibited, liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs) will contribute to the liver regeneration process. LSPCs in the developing liver have been extensively characterized, however, their contributing role to liver regeneration has not been completely understood. In addition to the restoration of the liver parenchymal tissue by hepatocytes or/and LSPCs, or in some cases bone marrow (BM) derived cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the wound healing after injury in terms of angiopoiesis by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) or/and sinusoidal endothelial progenitor cells (SEPCs) is another important aspect taking place during regeneration. To conclude, liver regeneration can be mainly divided into three distinct restoring levels according to the cause and severity of injury: hepatocyte dominant regeneration, LSPCs mediated regeneration, extrahepatic stem cells participative regeneration. In this review, we focus on the recent findings of liver regeneration, especially on those related to stem/progenitor cells (SPCs)-mediated regeneration and their potential clinical applications and challenges. PMID:27489499

  9. The Involving Roles of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Stem/Progenitor Cells (SPCs) to Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-hui; Ren, Li-na; Wang, Tao; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Tang, Li-jun

    2016-01-01

    Liver regeneration is usually attributed to mature hepatocytes, which possess a remarkable potential to proliferate under mild to moderate injury. However, when the liver is severely damaged or hepatocyte proliferation is greatly inhibited, liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs) will contribute to the liver regeneration process. LSPCs in the developing liver have been extensively characterized, however, their contributing role to liver regeneration has not been completely understood. In addition to the restoration of the liver parenchymal tissue by hepatocytes or/and LSPCs, or in some cases bone marrow (BM) derived cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the wound healing after injury in terms of angiopoiesis by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) or/and sinusoidal endothelial progenitor cells (SEPCs) is another important aspect taking place during regeneration. To conclude, liver regeneration can be mainly divided into three distinct restoring levels according to the cause and severity of injury: hepatocyte dominant regeneration, LSPCs mediated regeneration, extrahepatic stem cells participative regeneration. In this review, we focus on the recent findings of liver regeneration, especially on those related to stem/progenitor cells (SPCs)-mediated regeneration and their potential clinical applications and challenges. PMID:27489499

  10. Evidence for the involvement of the CXCL12 system in the adaptation of skeletal muscles to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Puchert, Malte; Adams, Volker; Linke, Axel; Engele, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its primary receptor, CXCR4, not only promote developmental myogenesis, but also muscle regeneration. CXCL12 chemoattracts CXCR4-positive satellite cells/blood-borne progenitors to the injured muscle, promotes myoblast fusion, partially with existing myofibers, and induces angiogenesis in regenerating muscles. Interestingly, the mechanisms underlying muscle regeneration are in part identical to those involved in muscular adaptation to intensive physical exercise. These similarities now prompted us to determine whether physical exercise would impact the CXCL12 system in skeletal muscle. We found that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are upregulated in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats that underwent a four-week period of constrained daily running exercise on a treadmill. Double-staining experiments confirmed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are predominantly expressed in MyHC-positive muscle fibers. Moreover, these training-dependent increases in CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression also occurred in rats with surgical coronary artery occlusion, implying that the muscular CXCL12 system is still active in skeletal myopathy resulting from chronic heart failure. Expression of the second CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, which presumably acts as a scavenger receptor in muscle, was not affected by training. Attempts to dissect the molecular events underlying the training-dependent effects of CXCL12 revealed that the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis activates anabolic mTOR-p70S6K signaling and prevents upregulation of the catabolic ubiquitin ligase MurF-1 in C2C12 myotubes, eventually increasing myotube diameters. Together, these findings point to a pivotal role of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis in exercise-induced muscle maintenance and/or growth. PMID:27237374

  11. Evidence for the involvement of the CXCL12 system in the adaptation of skeletal muscles to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Puchert, Malte; Adams, Volker; Linke, Axel; Engele, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its primary receptor, CXCR4, not only promote developmental myogenesis, but also muscle regeneration. CXCL12 chemoattracts CXCR4-positive satellite cells/blood-borne progenitors to the injured muscle, promotes myoblast fusion, partially with existing myofibers, and induces angiogenesis in regenerating muscles. Interestingly, the mechanisms underlying muscle regeneration are in part identical to those involved in muscular adaptation to intensive physical exercise. These similarities now prompted us to determine whether physical exercise would impact the CXCL12 system in skeletal muscle. We found that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are upregulated in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats that underwent a four-week period of constrained daily running exercise on a treadmill. Double-staining experiments confirmed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are predominantly expressed in MyHC-positive muscle fibers. Moreover, these training-dependent increases in CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression also occurred in rats with surgical coronary artery occlusion, implying that the muscular CXCL12 system is still active in skeletal myopathy resulting from chronic heart failure. Expression of the second CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, which presumably acts as a scavenger receptor in muscle, was not affected by training. Attempts to dissect the molecular events underlying the training-dependent effects of CXCL12 revealed that the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis activates anabolic mTOR-p70S6K signaling and prevents upregulation of the catabolic ubiquitin ligase MurF-1 in C2C12 myotubes, eventually increasing myotube diameters. Together, these findings point to a pivotal role of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis in exercise-induced muscle maintenance and/or growth.

  12. Motoneuronal and muscle synergies involved in cat hindlimb control during fictive and real locomotion: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Markin, Sergey N; Lemay, Michel A; Prilutsky, Boris I; Rybak, Ilya A

    2012-04-01

    We compared the activity profiles and synergies of spinal motoneurons recorded during fictive locomotion evoked in immobilized decerebrate cat preparations by midbrain stimulation to the activity profiles and synergies of the corresponding hindlimb muscles obtained during forward level walking in cats. The fictive locomotion data were collected in the Spinal Cord Research Centre, University of Manitoba, and provided by Dr. David McCrea; the real locomotion data were obtained in the laboratories of M. A. Lemay and B. I. Prilutsky. Scatterplot representation and minimum spanning tree clustering algorithm were used to identify the possible motoneuronal and muscle synergies operating during both fictive and real locomotion. We found a close similarity between the activity profiles and synergies of motoneurons innervating one-joint muscles during fictive locomotion and the profiles and synergies of the corresponding muscles during real locomotion. However, the activity patterns of proximal nerves controlling two-joint muscles, such as posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt) and rectus femoris (RF), were not uniform in fictive locomotion preparations and differed from the activity profiles of the corresponding two-joint muscles recorded during forward level walking. Moreover, the activity profiles of these nerves and the corresponding muscles were unique and could not be included in the synergies identified in fictive and real locomotion. We suggest that afferent feedback is involved in the regulation of locomotion via motoneuronal synergies controlled by the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) but may also directly affect the activity of motoneuronal pools serving two-joint muscles (e.g., PBSt and RF). These findings provide important insights into the organization of the spinal CPG in mammals, the motoneuronal and muscle synergies engaged during locomotion, and their afferent control.

  13. Metal levels in the liver, muscle, gill, intestine, and gonad of Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichi) with abnormal gonad.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Ahmet R; Yeltekin, Aslı

    2014-06-01

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that Lake Van--the biggest soda lake in the world--is polluted due to an increasing population. Studies have shown abnormalities in the Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichi), the sole fish species that inhabits the lake. Unlike the vitellogenic and mature oocytes in normal gonads, abnormal gonads show large amounts of connective tissue and young oocytes. In this study, metal levels (nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], cobalt [Co], iron [Fe], zinc [Zn], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], and manganese [Mn]) in the muscle, liver, gill, intestine, and gonad of Lake Van fish with normal and abnormal gonads were assessed. Further, the metal contents in the wastewater from the wastewater treatment facility situated near Lake Van in Van City were assessed. All the metal levels, except that of Zn, were high in the Lake Van environment (P<0.05). The highest metal content in the tissues was for Fe, while the lowest level was for Co. The Pb level was found to be very high in both fish groups. Cd was not found in the tissues of both fish groups. The levels of Fe, Cu, Pb, and Mn were not significant in the tissues of both normal and abnormal fish groups. Zn level was significantly high in the livers and gonads of fish with abnormal gonads, and Co level was significantly high only in the livers (P<0.05). Consequently, high levels of Zn in the liver and gonads and high levels of Co in the liver may be factors causing the abnormal gonads in the Lake Van fish.

  14. Pterostilbene improves glycaemic control in rats fed an obesogenic diet: Involvement of skeletal muscle and liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to determine whether pterostilbene improved glycaemic control in rats showing insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Rats were divided into 3 groups: control group and two groups treated with either 15 mg/kg/d (PT15) or 30 mg/kg/d of pterostilbene (PT30). HOMA-IR was decr...

  15. Bioconcentration of (15)N-tamoxifen at environmental concentration in liver, gonad and muscle of Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Orias, Frédéric; Simon, Laurent; Mialdea, Gladys; Clair, Angéline; Brosselin, Vanessa; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems. In addition to the direct ecotoxicological risk presented by certain PCs, others can accumulate inside organisms and along trophic webs, subsequently contaminating whole ecosystems. We studied the bioconcentration of a bioaccumulative PC already found several times in the environment: tamoxifen. To this end, we exposed Danio rerio for 21d to (15)N-tamoxifen concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10µg/L and used an analytic method based on stable isotopes to evaluate the tamoxifen content in these organisms. The evolution of the (15)N/(14)N ratio was thus measured in liver, muscle and gonads of exposed fish compared to control fish. We succeeded in quantifying (15)N-tamoxifen bioconcentrations at all the exposure concentrations tested. The highest bioconcentration factors of tamoxifen measured were 14,920 in muscle, 73,800 in liver and 85,600 in gonads of fish after 21d exposure at a nominal concentration of 10µg/L. However, these bioconcentration factors have to be considered as maximal values (BCFMAX). Indeed, despite its proven stability, tamoxifen can be potentially partially degraded during experiments. We now need to refine these results by using a direct analytic method (i.e. LC-MS/MS). PMID:26163873

  16. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    SciTech Connect

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  17. The kinin B1 receptor regulates muscle-specific E3 ligases expression and is involved in skeletal muscle mass control.

    PubMed

    Parreiras-E-Silva, Lucas T; Reis, Rosana I; Santos, Geisa A; Pires-Oliveira, Marcelo; Pesquero, João B; Gomes, Marcelo D; Godinho, Rosely O; Costa-Neto, Claudio M

    2014-08-01

    Regulation of muscle mass depends on the balance between synthesis and degradation of proteins, which is under the control of different signalling pathways regulated by hormonal, neural and nutritional stimuli. Such stimuli are altered in several pathologies, including COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), diabetes, AIDS and cancer (cachexia), as well as in some conditions such as immobilization and aging (sarcopenia), leading to muscle atrophy, which represents a significant contribution to patient morbidity. The KKS (kallikrein-kinin system) is composed of the enzymes kallikreins, which generate active peptides called kinins that activate two G-protein-coupled receptors, namely B1 and B2, which are expressed in a variety of tissues. The local modulation of the KKS may account for its participation in different diseases, such as those of the cardiovascular, renal and central nervous systems, cancer and many inflammatory processes, including pain. Owing to such pleiotropic actions of the KKS by local modulatory events and the probable fine-tuning of associated signalling cascades involved in skeletal muscle catabolic disorders [for example, NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt pathways], we hypothesized that KKS might contribute to the modulation of intracellular responses in atrophying skeletal muscle. Our results show that kinin B1 receptor activation induced a decrease in the diameter of C2C12 myotubes, activation of NF-κB, a decrease in Akt phosphorylation levels, and an increase in the mRNA levels of the ubiquitin E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 (muscle RING-finger protein-1). In vivo, we observed an increase in kinin B1 receptor mRNA levels in an androgen-sensitive model of muscle atrophy. In the same model, inhibition of the kinin B1 receptor with a selective antagonist resulted in an impairment of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expression and IκB (inhibitor of NF-κB) phosphorylation. Moreover, knockout of the kinin B1

  18. Determination of endocrine disrupting compounds in fish liver, brain, and muscle using focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid phase extraction as clean-up strategy.

    PubMed

    Ros, Oihana; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Prieto, Ailette

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new method for the simultaneous extraction of several endocrine disrupting compounds, including alkylphenols (APs), estrogen, bisphenol-A (BPA) and one phthalate metabolite (mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, MEHP) in fish liver, brain, and muscle. Parameters affecting the extraction (extraction solvent and temperature) and the clean-up (dispersive phase nature and amount) steps were evaluated. The extraction was performed by means of focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) using 10 mL of n-hexane:acetone (50:50, v/v) for 5 min at ~0 °C, and the clean-up was done by means of dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using 100 mg of ENVI-CARB and 100 mg of MgSO4 for the cleaning of brain and muscle extracts together with 100 mg of PSA in the case of liver extracts. Good apparent recoveries were obtained in the case of liver (62-132 %), brain (66-120 %), and muscle (74-129 %), relative standard deviation (RSD%) was always below 26 %, and the method detection limits (MDLs) were at low ng/g level. The developed method was applied to fish captured in Urdaibai estuary (Bay of Biscay) in December 2015, and the concentrations obtained were in the range MDL-1115 ng/g in brain, MDL-962 ng/g in muscle, and MDL-672 ng/g in liver. In general, the highest concentrations were measured in liver, followed by brain and muscle. In addition, diethylstilbestrol was only detected in fish brain. Graphical Abstract MS method scheme for the/MS method scheme for the determination of EDCs in fish liver, brain and muscle.

  19. Determination of endocrine disrupting compounds in fish liver, brain, and muscle using focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid phase extraction as clean-up strategy.

    PubMed

    Ros, Oihana; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Prieto, Ailette

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new method for the simultaneous extraction of several endocrine disrupting compounds, including alkylphenols (APs), estrogen, bisphenol-A (BPA) and one phthalate metabolite (mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, MEHP) in fish liver, brain, and muscle. Parameters affecting the extraction (extraction solvent and temperature) and the clean-up (dispersive phase nature and amount) steps were evaluated. The extraction was performed by means of focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) using 10 mL of n-hexane:acetone (50:50, v/v) for 5 min at ~0 °C, and the clean-up was done by means of dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using 100 mg of ENVI-CARB and 100 mg of MgSO4 for the cleaning of brain and muscle extracts together with 100 mg of PSA in the case of liver extracts. Good apparent recoveries were obtained in the case of liver (62-132 %), brain (66-120 %), and muscle (74-129 %), relative standard deviation (RSD%) was always below 26 %, and the method detection limits (MDLs) were at low ng/g level. The developed method was applied to fish captured in Urdaibai estuary (Bay of Biscay) in December 2015, and the concentrations obtained were in the range MDL-1115 ng/g in brain, MDL-962 ng/g in muscle, and MDL-672 ng/g in liver. In general, the highest concentrations were measured in liver, followed by brain and muscle. In addition, diethylstilbestrol was only detected in fish brain. Graphical Abstract MS method scheme for the/MS method scheme for the determination of EDCs in fish liver, brain and muscle. PMID:27342793

  20. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  1. Exercise Intensity Modulates Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion when Adjusted for Adipose, Liver and Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Steven K.; Rynders, Corey A.; Weltman, Judy Y.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise intensity on compensatory changes in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) when adjusted for adipose, liver and skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IR). Fifteen participants (8F, Age: 49.9±3.6yr; BMI: 31.0±1.5kg/m2; VO2peak: 23.2±1.2mg/kg/min) with prediabetes (ADA criteria, 75g OGTT and/or HbA1c) underwent a time-course matched Control, and isocaloric (200kcal) exercise at moderate (MIE; at lactate threshold (LT)), and high-intensity (HIE; 75% of difference between LT and VO2peak). A 75g OGTT was conducted 1 hour post-exercise/Control, and plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids were determined for calculations of skeletal muscle (1/Oral Minimal Model; SMIR), hepatic (HOMAIR), and adipose (ADIPOSEIR) IR. Insulin secretion rates were determined by deconvolution modeling for GSIS, and disposition index (DI; GSIS/IR; DISMIR, DIHOMAIR, DIADIPOSEIR) calculations. Compared to Control, exercise lowered SMIR independent of intensity (P<0.05), with HIE raising HOMAIR and ADIPOSEIR compared with Control (P<0.05). GSIS was not reduced following exercise, but DIHOMAIR and DIADIPOSEIR were lowered more following HIE compared with Control (P<0.05). However, DISMIR increased in an intensity based manner relative to Control (P<0.05), which corresponded with lower post-prandial blood glucose levels. Taken together, pancreatic insulin secretion adjusts in an exercise intensity dependent manner to match the level of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Further work is warranted to understand the mechanism by which exercise influences the cross-talk between tissues that regulate blood glucose in people with prediabetes. PMID:27111219

  2. Dura-evoked neck muscle activity involves purinergic and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dongyuan; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Sessle, Barry J

    2015-12-16

    We have previously demonstrated that noxious stimulation of craniofacial tissues including the frontal dura reflexly evokes significant increases in neck muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether purinergic receptor mechanisms may be involved in these EMG effects, and whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor processes modulate the purinergic mechanisms. Application of the P2X1, P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (but not vehicle) to the dural surface evoked a significant (P<0.05) increase in ipsilateral neck EMG activity that could be suppressed by dural or intrathecal application of the selective P2X1, P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) ATP (TNP-ATP) but not by vehicle; the intrathecal application of 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, an NMDA receptor antagonist, also significantly reduced the neck EMG activity evoked by dural application of α,β-methylene ATP. These data suggest that purinergic receptor mechanisms contribute to the increased neck activity that can be reflexly evoked by noxious stimulation of the frontal dura, and that NMDA as well as purinergic receptor mechanisms in the medulla may modulate these purinergic-related effects. PMID:26559728

  3. Genes involved in muscle lipid composition in 15 European Bos taurus breeds.

    PubMed

    Dunner, S; Sevane, N; Garcia, D; Levéziel, H; Williams, J L; Mangin, B; Valentini, A

    2013-08-01

    Consumers demand healthy and palatable meat, both factors being affected by fat composition. However, red meat has relatively high concentration of saturated fatty acids and low concentration of the beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids. To select animals prone to produce particular fat types, it is necessary to identify the genes influencing muscle lipid composition. This paper describes an association study in which a large panel of candidate genes involved in adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and energy homoeostasis was tested for effects on fat composition in 15 European cattle breeds. Sixteen genes were found to have significant effects on different lipid traits, and among these, CFL1 and MYOZ1 were found to have large effects on the ratio of 18:2/18:3, CRI1 on the amount of neutral adrenic acid (22:4 n-6), MMP1 on docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) and conjugated linoleic acid, PLTP on the ratio of n-6:n-3 and IGF2R on flavour. Several genes - ALDH2, CHRNE, CRHR2, DGAT1, IGFBP3, NEB, SOCS2, SUSP1, TCF12 and FOXO1 - also were found to be associated with both lipid and organoleptic traits although with smaller effect. The results presented here help in understanding the genetic and biochemical background underlying variations in fatty acid composition and flavour in beef.

  4. Validation of Mitochondrial Gene Delivery in Liver and Skeletal Muscle via Hydrodynamic Injection Using an Artificial Mitochondrial Reporter DNA Vector.

    PubMed

    Yasuzaki, Yukari; Yamada, Yuma; Ishikawa, Takuya; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2015-12-01

    For successful mitochondrial transgene expression, two independent processes, i.e., developing a mitochondrial gene delivery system and construction of DNA vector to achieve mitochondrial gene expression, are required. To date, very few studies dealing with mitochondrial gene delivery have been reported and, in most cases, transgene expression was not validated, because the construction of a reporter DNA vector for mitochondrial gene expression is the bottleneck. In this study, mitochondrial transgene expression by the in vivo mitochondrial gene delivery of an artificial mitochondrial reporter DNA vector via hydrodynamic injection is demonstrated. In the procedure, a large volume of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) is rapidly injected. We designed and constructed pHSP-mtLuc (CGG) as a mitochondrial reporter DNA vector that possesses a mitochondrial heavy strand promoter (HSP) and an artificial mitochondrial genome with the reporter NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase gene that records adjustments to the mitochondrial codon system. We delivered the pDNA into mouse liver mitochondria by hydrodynamic injection, and detected exogenous mRNA in the liver using reverse transcription PCR analysis. The hydrodynamic injection of pHSP-mtLuc (CGG) resulted in the expression of the Nluc luciferase protein in liver and skeletal muscle. Our mitochondrial transgene expression reporter system would contribute to mitochondrial gene therapy and further studies directed at mitochondrial molecular biology.

  5. In vivo and in vitro effects of growth hormone on the incorporation of ( UC)leucine into protein of liver and muscle of the eel

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, Y.; Ishioka, H.

    1985-08-01

    In vivo administration of ovine GH (2 micrograms/g body wt) increased ( UC)leucine incorporation into protein of the liver, skeletal muscle, and opercular muscle of hypophysectomized eels. Addition of ovine GH into the medium slightly increased ( UC)leucine incorporation into protein of liver slices during 5 hr in vitro incubation, but did not affect protein synthesis from ( UC)leucine in opercular muscle. In vivo pretreatment with ovine GH 48 hr prior to tissue preparation clearly increased ( UC)leucine incorporation into protein of liver slices in vitro. However, no statistically significant change was observed for in vitro incorporation of ( UC)leucine into protein of opercular muscle of hypophysectomized eels which had been previously treated with ovine GH. These results indicate that ovine GH has a protein anabolic action in the liver and muscle of the eel and that compared to mammals a rather long lag period is needed to elicit such protein anabolic actions of GH in these animals.

  6. Liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, W R; Lake, J R; Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Schladt, D P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Wainright, J L; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    The median waiting time for patients with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 18 days in 2012 to 9 days in 2014, after implementation of the Share 35 policy in June 2013. Similarly, mortality among candidates listed with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 366 per 100 waitlist years in 2012 to 315 in 2014. The number of new active candidates added to the pediatric liver transplant waiting list in 2014 was 655, down from a peak of 826 in 2005. The number of prevalent candidates (on the list on December 31 of the given year) continued to decline, 401 active and 173 inactive. The number of deceased donor pediatric liver transplants peaked at 542 in 2008 and was 478 in 2014. The number of living donor liver pediatric transplants was 52 in 2014; most were from donors closely related to the recipients. Graft survival continued to improve among pediatric recipients of deceased donor and living donor livers. PMID:26755264

  7. Reactive oxygen species and calcium signals in skeletal muscle: A crosstalk involved in both normal signaling and disease.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Alejandra; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) have been profusely studied as agents of potential damage to living cells and they have been related to a number of pathological processes. Increasing evidence points to a more positive role of ROS in cell signaling and the detailed mechanism that regulates the precise amount of ROS needed for cell functioning without the deleterious effects of excess ROS still needs to be resolved in detail. In skeletal muscle the main source of ROS during normal functioning appears to be NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), which is activated by electrical stimuli (or exercise) through a cascade of events that include ATP release through pannexin1 channels. NOX2 is a protein complex that assembles in the T-tubule membrane before activation and ROS production by NOX2 appears to be important for muscle adaptation through gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis as well as for improving glucose transport after insulin action. Excess ROS production (or diminished antioxidant defenses) plays a role in a number of pathological processes in skeletal muscle. Together with increased reactive nitrogen species, an increase in ROS appears to have a deleterious role in a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy as well as muscle wasting in other diseases such as aging sarcopenia and cancer cachexia. In addition, ROS is involved in obesity and muscle insulin resistance, both of which are causally related to type 2 diabetes. A detailed description of the fine-tuning of ROS (including all sources of ROS) in skeletal muscle in health and disease will significantly contribute to our knowledge of both muscle adaptation and muscle related pathologies.

  8. Reversible oxidation of vicinal-thiols motif in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulatory proteins is involved in muscle fatigue mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Pável; Tirado-Cortés, Aldo; Álvarez, Rocío; Ronjat, Michel; Amaya, Araceli; Ortega, Alicia

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism underlying fatigue in skeletal muscle (SM) related to the redox-potential hypothesis, ranges from a direct effect of oxygen reactive species, to a number of other free radical intermediates targeting specific amino acids in the Ca(2+)-regulatory proteins of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In the present study, we investigate the selective oxidation/reduction of the protein motif Cys-(Xn=2-6)-Cys, known as a vicinal thiol group (VTG), present in the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and in the Ca(2+)-channel ryanodine receptor (RyR) which are modified during muscle fatigue in SM. Selective oxidation of VTG with phenyl arsine oxide (PAO) increases fatigue in rat isolated SM and fatigue is prevented when muscle is previously incubated with a VTG selective reducing agent, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (British anti-Lewisite (BAL)). In isolated SR membranes, PAO [<0.1mM] modifies SERCA conformation and inhibits ATPase activity but does not affect Ca(2+)-release. However, PAO at [>0.1mM] inhibits SERCA and RyR activities in a reversible manner by selectively reducing them. Interestingly, as observed by differential scanning calorimetry, the conformation of SERCA from fatigued muscle changed in a similar manner as when SERCA VTG where oxidized. The addition of BAL to fatigued muscle restored the structural conformation and activity of SERCA with full recovery of muscle force production after fatigue. We conclude that VTG reversible oxidation of SR Ca(2+) regulatory proteins are involved in muscle contraction/relaxation and are a molecular mechanism to be considered for muscle fatigue.

  9. Reactive oxygen species and calcium signals in skeletal muscle: A crosstalk involved in both normal signaling and disease.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Alejandra; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) have been profusely studied as agents of potential damage to living cells and they have been related to a number of pathological processes. Increasing evidence points to a more positive role of ROS in cell signaling and the detailed mechanism that regulates the precise amount of ROS needed for cell functioning without the deleterious effects of excess ROS still needs to be resolved in detail. In skeletal muscle the main source of ROS during normal functioning appears to be NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), which is activated by electrical stimuli (or exercise) through a cascade of events that include ATP release through pannexin1 channels. NOX2 is a protein complex that assembles in the T-tubule membrane before activation and ROS production by NOX2 appears to be important for muscle adaptation through gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis as well as for improving glucose transport after insulin action. Excess ROS production (or diminished antioxidant defenses) plays a role in a number of pathological processes in skeletal muscle. Together with increased reactive nitrogen species, an increase in ROS appears to have a deleterious role in a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy as well as muscle wasting in other diseases such as aging sarcopenia and cancer cachexia. In addition, ROS is involved in obesity and muscle insulin resistance, both of which are causally related to type 2 diabetes. A detailed description of the fine-tuning of ROS (including all sources of ROS) in skeletal muscle in health and disease will significantly contribute to our knowledge of both muscle adaptation and muscle related pathologies. PMID:26965208

  10. Mitochondrial involvement in skeletal muscle insulin resistance: A case of imbalanced bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Affourtit, Charles

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obesity associates with mitochondrial dysfunction, but the causality of this association is controversial. This review evaluates mitochondrial models of nutrient-induced muscle insulin resistance. It transpires that all models predict that insulin resistance arises as a result of imbalanced cellular bioenergetics. The nature and precise origin of the proposed insulin-numbing molecules differ between models but all species only accumulate when metabolic fuel supply outweighs energy demand. This observation suggests that mitochondrial deficiency in muscle insulin resistance is not merely owing to intrinsic functional defects, but could instead be an adaptation to nutrient-induced changes in energy expenditure. Such adaptive effects are likely because muscle ATP supply is fully driven by energy demand. This market-economic control of myocellular bioenergetics offers a mechanism by which insulin-signalling deficiency can cause apparent mitochondrial dysfunction, as insulin resistance lowers skeletal muscle anabolism and thus dampens ATP demand and, consequently, oxidative ATP synthesis. PMID:27473535

  11. Effect of long-term optional ingestion of canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter on serum, muscle and liver cholesterol status in rats.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Farzad; Shahriari, Ali; Chahardah-Cheric, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of long-term optional intake of vegetable oils (canola, grape seed, corn) and yogurt butter on the serum, liver and muscle cholesterol status. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into five groups (n=5) as follows: control, canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and manually prepared yogurt butter. In each group, 24h two bottle choice (oil and water) tests were performed for 10 weeks. Serum cholesterol values showed a trend to decrease in grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter groups compared to the control. Optional intake of yogurt butter made a significant increase in HDL-C values (42.34+/-9.98 mg/dL) yet decrease in LDL-C values (11.68+/-2.06 mg/dL) compared to the corresponding control (19.07+/-3.51; 30.96+/-6.38 mg/dL, respectively). Furthermore, such findings were concomitant with a significant decrease in the liver TC levels (1.75+/-0.31 mg/g liver) and an increase in the muscle TC levels (1.85+/-0.32 mg/g liver) compared to the corresponding control (2.43+/-0.31; 0.94+/-0.14 mg/g liver, respectively). Optional intake of manually prepared yogurt butter has more beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein cholesterol values with some alterations in the liver and muscle cholesterol states than the vegetable oils.

  12. Single Muscle Immobilization Decreases Single-Fibre Myosin Heavy Chain Polymorphism: Possible Involvement of p38 and JNK MAP Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Derbré, Frédéric; Droguet, Mickaël; Léon, Karelle; Troadec, Samuel; Pennec, Jean-Pierre; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Rannou, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Muscle contractile phenotype is affected during immobilization. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms are the major determinant of the muscle contractile phenotype. We therefore sought to evaluate the effects of muscle immobilization on both the MHC composition at single-fibre level and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), a family of intracellular signaling pathways involved in the stress-induced muscle plasticity. Methods The distal tendon of female Wistar rat Peroneus Longus (PL) was cut and fixed to the adjacent bone at neutral muscle length. Four weeks after the surgery, immobilized and contralateral PL were dissociated and the isolated fibres were sampled to determine MHC composition. Protein kinase 38 (p38), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and c-Jun- NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylations were measured in 6- and 15-day immobilized and contralateral PL. Results MHC distribution in immobilized PL was as follows: I = 0%, IIa = 11.8 ± 2.8%, IIx = 53.0 ± 6.1%, IIb = 35.3 ± 7.3% and I = 6.1 ± 3.9%, IIa = 22.1 ± 3.4%, IIx = 46.6 ± 4.5%, IIb = 25.2 ± 6.6% in contralateral muscle. The MHC composition in immobilized muscle is consistent with a faster contractile phenotype according to the Hill’s model of the force-velocity relationship. Immobilized and contralateral muscles displayed a polymorphism index of 31.1% (95% CI 26.1–36.0) and 39.3% (95% CI 37.0–41.5), respectively. Significant increases in p38 and JNK phosphorylation were observed following 6 and 15 days of immobilization. Conclusions Single muscle immobilization at neutral length induces a shift of MHC composition toward a faster contractile phenotype and decreases the polymorphic profile of single fibres. Activation of p38 and JNK could be a potential mechanism involved in these contractile phenotype modifications during muscle immobilization. PMID:27383612

  13. DEPTOR-related mTOR suppression is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action in human liver cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Obara, Akio; Fujita, Yoshihito; Abudukadier, Abulizi; Fukushima, Toru; Oguri, Yasuo; Ogura, Masahito; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2015-05-15

    Metformin, one of the most commonly used drugs for patients with type 2 diabetes, recently has received much attention regarding its anti-cancer action. It is thought that the suppression of mTOR signaling is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action. Although liver cancer is one of the most responsive types of cancer for reduction of incidence by metformin, the molecular mechanism of the suppression of mTOR in liver remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling and cell proliferation using human liver cancer cells. Metformin suppressed phosphorylation of p70-S6 kinase, and ribosome protein S6, downstream targets of mTOR, and suppressed cell proliferation. We found that DEPTOR, an endogenous substrate of mTOR suppression, is involved in the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling and cell proliferation in human liver cancer cells. Metformin increases the protein levels of DEPTOR, intensifies binding to mTOR, and exerts a suppressing effect on mTOR signaling. This increasing effect of DEPTOR by metformin is regulated by the proteasome degradation system; the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling and cell proliferation is in a DEPTOR-dependent manner. Furthermore, metformin exerts a suppressing effect on proteasome activity, DEPTOR-related mTOR signaling, and cell proliferation in an AMPK-dependent manner. We conclude that DEPTOR-related mTOR suppression is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action in liver, and could be a novel target for anti-cancer therapy. - Highlights: • We elucidated a novel pathway of metformin's anti-cancer action in HCC cells. • DEPTOR is involved in the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling. • Metformin increases DEPTOR protein levels via suppression of proteasome activity. • DEPTOR-related mTOR suppression is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action.

  14. The High Level of Aberrant Splicing of ISCU in Slow-Twitch Muscle May Involve the Splicing Factor SRSF3

    PubMed Central

    Österman, Lennart; Lindsten, Hans; Holmberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by an intronic one-base mutation in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly (ISCU) gene, resulting in aberrant splicing. The incorrectly spliced transcripts contain a 100 or 86 bp intron sequence encoding a non-functional ISCU protein, which leads to defects in several Fe-S containing proteins in the respiratory chain and the TCA cycle. The symptoms in HML are restricted to skeletal muscle, and it has been proposed that this effect is due to higher levels of incorrectly spliced ISCU in skeletal muscle compared with other energy-demanding tissues. In this study, we confirm that skeletal muscle contains the highest levels of incorrect ISCU splice variants compared with heart, brain, liver and kidney using a transgenic mouse model expressing human HML mutated ISCU. We also show that incorrect splicing occurs to a significantly higher extent in the slow-twitch soleus muscle compared with the gastrocnemius and quadriceps. The splicing factor serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) was identified as a potential candidate for the slow fiber specific regulation of ISCU splicing since this factor was expressed at higher levels in the soleus compared to the gastrocnemius and quadriceps. We identified an interaction between SRSF3 and the ISCU transcript, and by overexpressing SRSF3 in human myoblasts we observed increased levels of incorrectly spliced ISCU, while knockdown of SRSF3 resulted in decreased levels. We therefore suggest that SRSF3 may participate in the regulation of the incorrect splicing of mutant ISCU and may, at least partially, explain the muscle-specific symptoms of HML. PMID:27783661

  15. Vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation to an osteogenic phenotype involves matrix metalloproteinase-2 modulation by homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingjiao; Lin, Jinghan; Ju, Ting; Chu, Lei; Zhang, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Arterial calcification is common in vascular diseases and involves conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to an osteoblast phenotype. Clinical studies suggest that the development of atherosclerosis can be promoted by homocysteine (HCY), but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we determined whether increases in HCY levels lead to an increase in VSMC calcification and differentiation, and examined the role of an extracellular matrix remodeler, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Rat VSMCs were exposed to calcification medium in the absence or presence of HCY (10, 100 or 200 μmol/L) or an MMP-2 inhibitor (10(-6) or 10(-5) mol/L). MTT assays were performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the MMP-2 inhibitor in calcification medium containing 200 μmol/L HCY. Calcification was assessed by measurements of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as von Kossa staining. Expression of osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and osteopontin, and MMP-2 was determined by immunoblotting. Calcification medium induced osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs. HCY promoted calcification, increased osteocalcin and BMP-2 expression, and decreased expression of osteopontin. MMP-2 expression was increased by HCY in a dose-dependent manner in VSMCs exposed to both control and calcification medium. The MMP-2 inhibitor decreased the calcium content and ALP activity, and attenuated the osteoblastic phenotype of VSMCs. Vascular calcification and osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs were positively regulated by HCY through increased/restored MMP-2 expression, increased expression of calcification proteins, and decreased anti-calcification protein levels. In summary, MMP-2 inhibition may be a protective strategy against VSMC calcification. PMID:25987498

  16. Involvement of catecholaminergic neurons in motor innervation of striated muscle in the mouse esophagus.

    PubMed

    van der Keylen, Piet; Garreis, Fabian; Steigleder, Ruth; Sommer, Daniel; Neuhuber, Winfried L; Wörl, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Enteric co-innervation is a peculiar innervation pattern of striated esophageal musculature. Both anatomical and functional data on enteric co-innervation related to various transmitters have been collected in different species, although its function remains enigmatic. However, it is unclear whether catecholaminergic components are involved in such a co-innervation. Thus, we examined to identify catecholaminergic neuronal elements and clarify their relationship to other innervation components in the esophagus, using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), α-bungarotoxin (α-BT) and PCR with primers for amplification of cDNA encoding TH and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH). TH-positive nerve fibers were abundant throughout the myenteric plexus and localized on about 14% of α-BT-labelled motor endplates differing from VAChT-positive vagal nerve terminals. TH-positive perikarya represented a subpopulation of only about 2.8% of all PGP 9.5-positive myenteric neurons. Analysis of mRNA showed both TH and DBH transcripts in the mouse esophagus. As ChAT-positive neurons in the compact formation of the nucleus ambiguus were negative for TH, the TH-positive nerve varicosities on motor endplates are presumably of enteric origin, although a sympathetic origin cannot be excluded. In the medulla oblongata, the cholinergic ambiguus neurons were densely supplied with TH-positive varicosities. Thus, catecholamines may modulate vagal motor innervation of esophageal-striated muscles not only at the peripheral level via enteric co-innervation but also at the central level via projections to the nucleus ambiguus. As Parkinson's disease, with a loss of central dopaminergic neurons, also affects the enteric nervous system and dysphagia is prevalent in patients with this disease, investigation of intrinsic catecholamines in the esophagus may

  17. Rejection Triggers Liver Transplant Tolerance: Involvements of Mesenchyme-Mediated Immune Control Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Miwa; Joyce, Daniel; Miller, Charles; Fung, John J.; Lu, Lina; Qian, Shiguang

    2015-01-01

    Liver tolerance was initially recognized by the spontaneous acceptance of liver allograft in many species. The underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. We have been inspired by an unexpected phenomenon that the liver transplant tolerance absolutely requires interferon (IFN)-γ, a rejection-associated inflammatory cytokine. In this study, we investigate the rejection of liver allografts deficient in IFN-γ receptor and reveal that the liver graft is equipped with machineries capable of counterattacking the host immune response through a mesenchyme-mediated immune control (MMIC) mechanism. MMIC is triggered by T effectors (Tef) cell-derived IFN-γ to drive the expression of B7-H1 on graft mesenchymal cells leading to Tef cell apoptosis. We describe the negative feedback loop between graft mesenchymal and Tef cells that ultimately results in liver transplant tolerance. Comparable elevations of T regulatory cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells are seen in both rejection and tolerance groups, and are not dependent on IFN-γ stimulation, suggesting a critical role of Tef cell elimination in tolerance induction. We identify potent MMIC activity in hepatic stellate cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. MMIC is unlikely exclusive to the liver, as spontaneous acceptance of kidney allografts has been reported, although less commonly, probably reflecting variance in MMIC activity. MMCI may represent an important homeostatic mechanism that supports peripheral tolerance, and could be a target for the prevention and treatment of transplant rejection. This study highlights that the graft is actively participant in the equipoise between tolerance and rejection and warrants more attention in the search for tolerance biomarkers. PMID:25998530

  18. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [{sup 3}H]glucose and 2-deoxy[{sup 14}C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats.

  19. Mercury and selenium concentrations in skeletal muscle, liver, and regions of the heart and kidney in bearded seals from Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Correa, Lucero; Castellini, J Margaret; Quakenbush, Lori T; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-10-01

    Mean concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) (mass and molar-based) were determined for 5 regions of the heart and 2 regions of the kidney of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) harvested in Alaska, USA, in 2010 and 2011. Mean [THg] and [TSe] of bearded seal liver and skeletal muscle tissues were used for intertissular comparison. The Se:Hg molar ratios were used to investigate elemental associations and potential antioxidant protection against Hg toxicosis. Age was an important factor in [THg] and Se:Hg molar ratios in heart and kidney. Small but statistically significant differences in mean [THg] occurred among some of the 5 heart regions (p < 0.05). Mean [THg] was highest in liver, 3.057 µg/g, and lowest in heart left ventricle, 0.017 µg/g. Mean [THg] ranked: liver > kidney cortex > kidney medulla > skeletal muscle > heart left ventricle (p < 0.001). Mean [TSe] was highest in liver, 3.848 µg/g, and lowest in heart left ventricle, 0.632 µg/g. Mean [TSe] ranked: liver > kidney cortex > kidney medulla > skeletal muscle > heart left ventricle (p < 0.001). The Se:Hg molar ratios were significantly greater than 1.0 in all tissues (p < 0.001) and represented baselines for normal [TSe] under relatively low [THg]. Mean Se:Hg molar ratios ranked: heart left ventricle > kidney medulla > kidney cortex (p < 0.001).

  20. Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for qualitative screening of neomycin in muscle, liver, kidney, eggs and milk.

    PubMed

    Solomun, B; Bilandzic, N; Varenina, I; Scortichini, G

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the qualitative screening analysis of neomycin in food of animal origin (muscle, liver, kidney, eggs and milk) at levels corresponding to the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) set for this substance. The method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. In this regard, the following parameters were determined: detection capability (CCβ), specificity, detection limit (LOD), quantification limit (LOQ), recovery, precision, linearity and ruggedness. LODs ranged from 5.7 microg kg(-1) in kidney to 29.3 microg kg(-1) in milk; LOQs ranged from 11.4 microg kg(-1) in kidney to 59.7 microkg(-1) in eggs. The recoveries from spiked samples at the MRL, half the MRL and double the MRL levels ranged from 65.8% to 122.8%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) between 5.9% and 28.6%. The CCβ value was less than the MRL for all examined matrices. Moderate variations of some critical factors in the sample pretreatment for muscle, milk and eggs were deliberately introduced for ruggedness evaluation and had a slight but not statistically significant effect on method performance. The proposed method is suitable for qualitative screening analysis of neomycin in the above-mentioned food in conformity with current European Union performance requirements.

  1. Involvement of Mouse Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Acifluorfen-Induced Liver Injury and Subsequent Tumor Development.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Inoue, Kaoru; Ichimura, Ryohei; Takahashi, Miwa; Kodama, Yukio; Shibutani, Makoto; Yoshida, Midori

    2016-06-01

    Acifluorfen (ACI), a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX) inhibitor herbicide, promotes the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), and induces tumors in the rodent liver. Porphyria is a risk factor for liver tumors in humans; however, the specific mechanisms through which ACI induces hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents are unclear. Here, we investigated the mode of action of ACI-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, focusing on constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), which is essential for the development of rodent liver tumors in response to certain cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducers. Dietary treatment with 2500 ppm ACI for up to 13 weeks increased Cyp2b10 expression in the livers of wild-type (WT) mice, but not in CAR-knockout (CARKO) mice. Microscopically, ACI treatment-induced cytotoxic changes, including hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation, and caused regenerative changes accompanied by prolonged increases in the numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive hepatocytes in WT mice. In contrast, these cytotoxic and regenerative changes in hepatocytes were significantly attenuated, but still observed, in CARKO mice. ACI treatment also increased liver PPIX levels similarly in both genotypes; however, no morphological evidence of porphyrin deposition was found in hepatocytes from either genotype. Treatment with 2500 ppm ACI for 26 weeks after initiation with diethylnitrosamine increased the incidence and multiplicities of altered foci and adenomas in hepatocytes from WT mice; these effects were significantly reduced in CARKO mice. These results indicated that prolonged cytotoxicity in the liver was a key factor for ACI-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, and that CAR played an important role in ACI-induced liver injury and tumor development in mice. PMID:26928356

  2. Severe muscle depletion in patients on the liver transplant wait list: its prevalence and independent prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Puneeta; Ney, Michael; Irwin, Ivana; Ma, Mang M; Gramlich, Leah; Bain, Vincent G; Esfandiari, Nina; Baracos, Vickie; Montano-Loza, Aldo J; Myers, Robert P

    2012-10-01

    As detected by cross-sectional imaging, severe muscle depletion, which is termed sarcopenia, holds promise for prognostication in patients with cirrhosis. Our aims were to describe the prevalence and predictors of sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis listed for liver transplantation (LT) and to determine its independent prognostic significance for the prediction of waiting-list mortality. Adults listed for LT who underwent abdominal computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging within 6 weeks of activation were retrospectively identified. The exclusions were hepatocellular carcinoma, acute liver failure, prior LT, and listing for multivisceral transplantation or living related LT. Sixty percent of the 142 eligible patients were male, the median age was 53 years, and the median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score at listing was 15. Forty-one percent were sarcopenic; sarcopenia was more prevalent in males versus females (54% versus 21%, P < 0.001) and increased with the Child-Pugh class (10% for class A, 34% for class B, and 54% for class C, P = 0.007). Male sex, the dry-weight body mass index (BMI), and Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis (but not the MELD score) were independent predictors of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio = 2.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-4.53) after adjustments for age and MELD scores. In conclusion, sarcopenia is associated with increased waiting-list mortality and is poorly predicted by subjective nutritional assessment tools such as BMI and subjective global assessment. If this is validated in larger studies, the objective assessment of sarcopenia holds promise for prognostication in this patient population. PMID:22740290

  3. Biochemical and physiological responses in liver and muscle of rainbow trout after long-term exposure to propiconazole.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zlabek, Vladimir; Li, Ping; Grabic, Roman; Velisek, Josef; Machova, Jana; Randak, Tomas

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the chronic toxic effects of PCZ, a triazole fungicide commonly present in surface and ground water, on morphological indices, ROS generation and RNA/DNA ratio in liver and white muscle of rainbow trout were investigated. Fish were exposed at sublethal concentrations of PCZ (0.2, 50 and 500 microg L(-1)) for 7, 20 and 30d. Compared with the control, there were significant lower CF and HSI in fish exposed at the highest concentration of PCZ. ROS levels in both tissues increased significantly at higher PCZ concentrations (50 and 500 microg L(-1)) after 20 d and above, as well as in muscle of fish exposed at lowest PCZ concentration (0.2 microg L(-1)) after 30 d. The hepatic antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) activities were induced significantly at higher concentrations (50, 500 microg L(-1)) of PCZ after 20 d and at 50 microg L(-1) after 30 d. Additional, hepatic SOD activity was significantly induced at 0.2 microg L(-1) after 30 d. Compared with the hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities in fish exposed to 50 microg L(-1) of PCZ, there was a decreasing trend in those exposed to 500 microg L(-1) after 30 d exposure. However, both the antioxidant enzymes activities were significantly inhibited in muscle of fish exposed to 500 microg L(-1) PCZ after 30 d. Moreover there was significant lower RNA/DNA ratio in both tissues after long-term exposure to higher concentration of PCZ. In short, environmental concentrations of PCZ could not induce obvious impacts on fish, but long-term exposure to higher concentrations of CBZ could affect seriously the health status of fish.

  4. Ingestion of glucose or sucrose prevents liver but not muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Fuchs, Cas J; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Pete E; Taylor, Roy; Stevenson, Emma J; Trenell, Michael I; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to define the effect of glucose ingestion compared with sucrose ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Fourteen cyclists completed two 3-h bouts of cycling at 50% of peak power output while ingesting either glucose or sucrose at a rate of 1.7 g/min (102 g/h). Four cyclists performed an additional third test for reference in which only water was consumed. We employed (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine liver and muscle glycogen concentrations before and after exercise. Expired breath was sampled during exercise to estimate whole body substrate use. After glucose and sucrose ingestion, liver glycogen levels did not show a significant decline after exercise (from 325 ± 168 to 345 ± 205 and 321 ± 177 to 348 ± 170 mmol/l, respectively; P > 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Muscle glycogen concentrations declined (from 101 ± 49 to 60 ± 34 and 114 ± 48 to 67 ± 34 mmol/l, respectively; P < 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Whole body carbohydrate utilization was greater with sucrose (2.03 ± 0.43 g/min) vs. glucose (1.66 ± 0.36 g/min; P < 0.05) ingestion. Both liver (from 454 ± 33 to 283 ± 82 mmol/l; P < 0.05) and muscle (from 111 ± 46 to 67 ± 31 mmol/l; P < 0.01) glycogen concentrations declined during exercise when only water was ingested. Both glucose and sucrose ingestion prevent liver glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Sucrose ingestion does not preserve liver glycogen concentrations more than glucose ingestion. However, sucrose ingestion does increase whole body carbohydrate utilization compared with glucose ingestion. This trial was registered at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110836. PMID:26487008

  5. Ingestion of glucose or sucrose prevents liver but not muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Fuchs, Cas J; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Pete E; Taylor, Roy; Stevenson, Emma J; Trenell, Michael I; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to define the effect of glucose ingestion compared with sucrose ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Fourteen cyclists completed two 3-h bouts of cycling at 50% of peak power output while ingesting either glucose or sucrose at a rate of 1.7 g/min (102 g/h). Four cyclists performed an additional third test for reference in which only water was consumed. We employed (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine liver and muscle glycogen concentrations before and after exercise. Expired breath was sampled during exercise to estimate whole body substrate use. After glucose and sucrose ingestion, liver glycogen levels did not show a significant decline after exercise (from 325 ± 168 to 345 ± 205 and 321 ± 177 to 348 ± 170 mmol/l, respectively; P > 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Muscle glycogen concentrations declined (from 101 ± 49 to 60 ± 34 and 114 ± 48 to 67 ± 34 mmol/l, respectively; P < 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Whole body carbohydrate utilization was greater with sucrose (2.03 ± 0.43 g/min) vs. glucose (1.66 ± 0.36 g/min; P < 0.05) ingestion. Both liver (from 454 ± 33 to 283 ± 82 mmol/l; P < 0.05) and muscle (from 111 ± 46 to 67 ± 31 mmol/l; P < 0.01) glycogen concentrations declined during exercise when only water was ingested. Both glucose and sucrose ingestion prevent liver glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Sucrose ingestion does not preserve liver glycogen concentrations more than glucose ingestion. However, sucrose ingestion does increase whole body carbohydrate utilization compared with glucose ingestion. This trial was registered at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110836.

  6. IL-36-Induced Toxicity in Neonatal Mice Involves TNF-α Production by Liver Myeloid Cells.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Jennifer; Mastelic-Gavillet, Beatris; Woldt, Estelle; Troccaz, Sabina; Rodriguez, Emiliana; Palmer, Gaby; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Gabay, Cem

    2016-09-15

    Human and mouse neonates exhibit limited vaccine responses characterized by predominant Th2 and limited Th1 responses. Because IL-36 exerts a synergic adjuvant effect with IL-12, enhancing Th1 polarization in adult (AD) mice, we administered IL-36β to neonatal (1-wk old) and AD control mice at the time of immunization with tetanus toxoid adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (TT/Alum). Unexpectedly, the combination of IL-36β with TT/Alum, which was well tolerated in AD mice, proved toxic and even lethal in neonates. This neonatal toxicity was associated with high Il36r mRNA expression in neonatal liver, resulting in increased cytokine production. Liver Il36r mRNA expression decreased with the termination of fetal liver hematopoiesis, and this decrease correlated with a complete protection from TT/Alum/IL-36β-induced mortality. The combination of IL-36β and TT/Alum induced the rapid production of TNF-α and IFN-γ by liver myeloid and lymphoid cells, respectively. These responses were less marked when IL-36β was used alone, with no adverse effect. The toxicity of IL-36β + TT/Alum was abrogated by the administration of a neutralizing anti-TNF-α Ab, confirming causality. In conclusion, liver myeloid cells in neonatal mice are an important source of proinflammatory cytokines that may lead to TNF-α-mediated toxicity and even lethality. PMID:27527592

  7. Identification of Annexin A4 as a hepatopancreas factor involved in liver cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danhua; Golubkov, Vladislav S.; Han, Wenlong; Correa, Ricardo G.; Zhou, Ying; Lee, Sunyoung; Strongin, Alex Y.; Dong, P. Duc Si

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into liver and pancreas development, we investigated the target of 2F11, a monoclonal antibody of unknown antigen, widely used in zebrafish studies for labeling hepatopancreatic ducts. Utilizing mass spectrometry and in vivo assays, we determined the molecular target of 2F11 to be Annexin A4 (Anxa4), a calcium binding protein. We further found that in both zebrafish and mouse endoderm, Anxa4 is broadly expressed in the developing liver and pancreas, and later becomes more restricted to the hepatopancreatic ducts and pancreatic islets, including the insulin producing β-cells. Although Anxa4 is a known target of several monogenic diabetes genes and its elevated expression is associated with chemoresistance in malignancy, its in vivo role is largely unexplored. Knockdown of Anxa4 in zebrafish leads to elevated expression of caspase 8 and Δ113p53, and liver bud specific activation of Caspase 3 and apoptosis. Mosaic knockdown reveal that Anxa4 is required cell-autonomously in the liver bud for cell survival. This finding is further corroborated with mosaic anxa4 knockout studies using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Collectively, we identify Anxa4 as a new, evolutionarily conserved hepatopancreatic factor that is required in zebrafish for liver progenitor viability, through inhibition of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. A role for Anxa4 in cell survival may have implications for the mechanism of diabetic β-cell apoptosis and cancer cell chemoresistance. PMID:25176043

  8. Copper-induced immunotoxicity involves cell cycle arrest and cell death in the liver.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Tarun; Mitra, Soham; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2015-04-01

    Inorganic copper, such as that in drinking water and copper supplements, largely bypasses the liver and enters the free copper pool of the blood directly and that promote immunosuppression. According to our previous in vivo report, we evaluate the details of the apoptotic mechanism in liver, we have investigated how copper regulates apoptotic pathways in liver. We have analyzed different protein expression by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry expression. We have also have measured mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, Annexin V assay, ROS, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) population in hepatocyte cells by flow cytometry. Copper-treated mice evidenced immunotoxicity as indicated by dose-related, distinct histomorphological changes in liver. Flow cytometric analyses revealed a dose-related increase in the percentages of hepatocyte cells in the Sub-G0/G1 state, further confirmed by Annexin V binding assay. In addition, the copper treatments altered the expression of apoptotic markers, further ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes promote intrinsic pathway of apoptosis that was p53 independent. Apart from the role of inflammation, our findings also have identified the role of other partially responsible apoptotic molecules p73 that differentially changed due to copper treatment. Our study demonstrates how apoptotic pathways regulate copper-induced immunosuppression in liver.

  9. Involvement of mTOR in Type 2 CRF Receptor Inhibition of Insulin Signaling in Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hongxia; Li, Haochen; Grande, Rebecca; Lira, Vitor; Yan, Zhen; Harris, Thurl E; Li, Chien

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRFR2) is expressed in skeletal muscle and stimulation of the receptor has been shown to inhibit the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in muscle cells. Currently, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this process. In this study, we first showed that both in vivo and in vitro CRFR2 expression in muscle was closely correlated with insulin sensitivity, with elevated receptor levels observed in insulin resistant muscle cells. Stimulation of CRFR2 by urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a CRFR2-selective ligand, in C2C12 myotubes greatly attenuated insulin-induced glucose uptake. The inhibitory effect of CRFR2 signaling required cAMP production and is involved the mammalian target of rapamycine pathway, as rapamycin reversed the inhibitory effect of CRFR2 stimulation on insulin-induced glucose uptake. Moreover, stimulation of CRFR2 failed to inhibit glucose uptake in muscle cells induced by platelet-derived growth factor, which, similar to insulin, signals through Akt-mediated pathway but is independently of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins to promote glucose uptake. This result argues that CRFR2 signaling modulates insulin's action likely at the levels of IRS. Consistent with this notion, Ucn 2 reduced insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and treatment with rapamycin reversed the inhibitory effect of Ucn 2 on IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of CRFR2 signaling on insulin action is mediated by cAMP in a mammalian target of rapamycine-dependent manner, and IRS-1 is a key nodal point where CRFR2 signaling modulates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle cells.

  10. Laser microdissection-based expression analysis of key genes involved in muscle regeneration in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Mario; Sarria, Yaris; Ruiz-Roig, Claudia; Munell, Francina; Roig-Quilis, Manuel

    2007-10-01

    We have used the mdx mice strain (C57BL/10ScSn-mdx) as an experimental subject for the study of reiterative skeletal muscle necrosis-regeneration with basement membrane preservation. In young mdx muscle, by means of Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, different types of degenerative-regenerative groups (DRG) can be recognized and assigned to a defined muscle regeneration phase. To evaluate the expression of known key-regulatory genes in muscle regeneration, we have applied Laser Capture Microdissection technique to obtain tissue from different DRGs encompassing the complete skeletal muscle regenerative process. The expression of MyoD, Myf-5 and Myogenin showed a rapid increase in the first two days post-necrosis, which were followed by MRF4 expression, when newly regenerating fibers started to appear (3-5days post-necrosis). MHCd mRNA levels, undetectable in mature non-injured fibers, increased progressively from the first day post-necrosis and reached its maximum level of expression in DRGs showing basophilic regenerating fibers. TGFbeta-1 mRNA expression showed a prompt and strong increase following fiber necrosis that persisted during the inflammatory phase, and progressively decreased when new regenerating fibers began to appear. In contrast, IGF-2 mRNA expression decreased during the first days post-necrosis but was followed by a progressive rise in its expression coinciding with the appearance of the newly formed myofibers, reaching the maximum expression levels in DRGs composed of medium caliber basophilic regenerating myofibers (5-7 days post-necrosis). mdx degenerative-regenerative group typing, in conjunction with laser microdissection-based gene expression analysis, opens up a new approach to the molecular study of skeletal muscle regeneration.

  11. Fluoride-induced oxidative stress is involved in the morphological damage and dysfunction of liver in female mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bian-hua; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Jeffrey; Zhang, Ji-liang; Li, Jian; Wang, Hong-wei

    2015-11-01

    Fluoride (F), one of the most toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, is known to exert hepatotoxicity. The contribution of oxidative stress to the F tolerance of liver remains largely unknown. In this study, the morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of liver were observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Oxidative-stress participations was analysed and the mRNA expression levels of catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GSH-Px1), nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were investigated by real-time PCR. Changes in liver-function parameters were also detected. Results showed that the reactive content of reactive oxygen species increased significantly, whereas SOD and GSH-Px activities, as well as total anti-oxidising capability (T-AOC), decreased significantly, with increased nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in liver and serum after 70days of F treatment. The mRNA expression levels of Cat, GSH-Px1, and SOD were significantly downregulated, whereas NOS2 mRNA expression level was up upregulated, after F treatment for 70days. Light microscopy also revealed that hepatocytes were fused into pieces; cell boundaries were unclear, and nuclei were lightly stained. TEM further showed that hepatocytes were characterised by vague nuclear and mitochondrial membranes, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and aggravated vacuolar degeneration. Activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as the level of total bilirubin in serum increased. Overall, these results indicated that F interfered with the balance of antioxidase activity and morphological changes in liver, which were involved in mouse liver dysfunction. PMID:26295688

  12. Fluoride-induced oxidative stress is involved in the morphological damage and dysfunction of liver in female mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bian-hua; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Jeffrey; Zhang, Ji-liang; Li, Jian; Wang, Hong-wei

    2015-11-01

    Fluoride (F), one of the most toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, is known to exert hepatotoxicity. The contribution of oxidative stress to the F tolerance of liver remains largely unknown. In this study, the morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of liver were observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Oxidative-stress participations was analysed and the mRNA expression levels of catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GSH-Px1), nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were investigated by real-time PCR. Changes in liver-function parameters were also detected. Results showed that the reactive content of reactive oxygen species increased significantly, whereas SOD and GSH-Px activities, as well as total anti-oxidising capability (T-AOC), decreased significantly, with increased nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in liver and serum after 70days of F treatment. The mRNA expression levels of Cat, GSH-Px1, and SOD were significantly downregulated, whereas NOS2 mRNA expression level was up upregulated, after F treatment for 70days. Light microscopy also revealed that hepatocytes were fused into pieces; cell boundaries were unclear, and nuclei were lightly stained. TEM further showed that hepatocytes were characterised by vague nuclear and mitochondrial membranes, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and aggravated vacuolar degeneration. Activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as the level of total bilirubin in serum increased. Overall, these results indicated that F interfered with the balance of antioxidase activity and morphological changes in liver, which were involved in mouse liver dysfunction.

  13. Proinflammatory Liver and Antiinflammatory Intestinal Mediators Involved in Portal Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Maria Angeles; Vara, Elena; Garcia, Cruz; Palma, Maria Dolores; Arias, Jorge L.; Nava, Maria Paz; Arias, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    Proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, and NO) and antiinflammatory (IL-10, CO) levels were assayed in serum, liver, and small bowel in order to verify a hypothetic inflammatory etiopathogeny of portal hypertension that could be the cause of its evolutive heterogeneity. Male Wistar rats were divided into one control group (n = 11) and one group with a triple stenosing ligation of the portal vein (n = 23) after 28 days of evolution. In one subgroup of portal hypertensive rats, portal pressure, collateral venous circulation, mesenteric vasculopathy, and liver and spleen weights were determined. In the remaining rats with portal hypertension TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 were quantified in liver and ileum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NO synthase activity was studied in liver and ileum. CO and NO were measured in portal and systemic blood by spectrophotometry and Griess reaction, respectively. Portal hypertensive rats with mayor spleen weight show hepatomegaly and mayor development of collateral circulation. Ileum release of IL-10 (0.30 ± 0.12 versus 0.14 ± 0.02 pmol/mg protein; P < .01) is associated with a liver production of both proinflammatory mediators (TNF-α: 2 ± 0.21 versus 1.32 ± 0.60 pmol/mg protein; P < .05, IL-1β: 19.17 ± 2.87 versus 5.96 ± 1.84 pmol/mg protein; P = .005, and NO: 132.10 ± 34.72 versus 61.05 ± 8.30 nmol/mL; P = .005) and an antiinflammatory mediator (CO: 6.49 ± 2.99 versus 3.03 ± 1.59 pmol/mL; P = .005). In short-term prehepatic portal hypertension a gut-liver inflammatory loop, which could be fundamental in the regulation both of the portal pressure and of its complications, could be proposed. PMID:16030393

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in heart and liver injury in iron-loaded rats.

    PubMed

    Lou, Li-Xia; Geng, Bin; Chen, Yu; Yu, Fang; Zhao, Jing; Tang, Chao-Shu

    2009-07-01

    1. Iron overload contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases and directly induces tissue injury. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between heart and liver injury induced by iron overload and cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to explore the molecular mechanism of iron overload-induced cellular injury. 2. Iron overload in rats was generated by intraperitoneal injection of iron-dextran chronically (30 mg/kg per day for 9 weeks) or acutely (300 mg/kg once). Tissue injury was assessed by determining serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the heart and liver. The ER stress response was analysed by expression of glucose-response protein 78 (GRP78) and activation of caspase 12. 3. In chronic iron-loaded rats, iron levels in the heart and liver were higher, by approximately 2- and 7.8-fold, respectively (P < 0.01), compared with control. Serum LDH, ALT and AST activity, as well as MDA content, GRP78 expression and caspase 12 activity in the heart and liver, were upregulated in chronically iron-loaded rats. In acute iron-loaded rats, iron content in the heart and liver was 51% and 63% higher than in controls (both P < 0.01). Serum LDH, ALT and AST activity, MDA content in the heart and liver and levels of ER stress markers were all increased in acute iron-loaded rats. N-Acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg, s.c.) lowered the levels of these parameters in acute iron-loaded rats. 4. The results of the present study indicate that ER stress may play an important role in iron-induced tissue injury and that reactive oxygen species may mediate the ER stress response in the pathogenesis of iron-overload cellular injury. PMID:19594550

  15. Scavenger receptors on sinusoidal liver endothelial cells are involved in the uptake of aldehyde-modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Duryee, Michael J; Freeman, Thomas L; Willis, Monte S; Hunter, Carlos D; Hamilton, Bartlett C; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Tuma, Dean J; Klassen, Lynell W; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2005-11-01

    Scavenger receptors on sinusoidal liver endothelial cells (SECs) eliminate potentially harmful modified proteins circulating through the liver. It was shown recently that aldehyde-modified proteins bind to scavenger receptors and are associated with the development/progression of alcoholic liver diseases. For these studies, rat livers were perfused in situ with 125I-formaldehyde-bovine serum albumin (f-Alb) or 125I-malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-bovine serum albumin (MAA-Alb) in the presence of known scavenger receptor ligands as inhibitors. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and scavenger receptor Type A (SRA) knock-out mice were used to assess the role of these receptors in mediating immune responses. The degradation of 125I-f-Alb or 125I-MAA-Alb in whole livers and isolated SECs can be inhibited by known scavenger receptor ligands, including f-Alb, maleylated bovine albumin, and fucoidan. 125I-f-Alb could not be completely inhibited by MAA-Alb. In contrast, 125I-MAA-Alb was only partially inhibited with advanced glycosylated endproduct albumin. RT-PCR data show the presence of a number of scavenger receptors on SECs that may be responsible for the binding of MAA-modified proteins. SRA seems to be one of these receptors involved in the effects mediated by MAA-modified proteins. In a study using SRA knockout mice, it was shown that a decreased antibody response to MAA-Alb resulted. By RT-PCR, CD36, LOX-1, and SR-AI are the scavenger receptors most likely involved in the degradation of MAA-Alb.

  16. Scavenger receptors on sinusoidal liver endothelial cells are involved in the uptake of aldehyde-modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Duryee, Michael J; Freeman, Thomas L; Willis, Monte S; Hunter, Carlos D; Hamilton, Bartlett C; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Tuma, Dean J; Klassen, Lynell W; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2005-11-01

    Scavenger receptors on sinusoidal liver endothelial cells (SECs) eliminate potentially harmful modified proteins circulating through the liver. It was shown recently that aldehyde-modified proteins bind to scavenger receptors and are associated with the development/progression of alcoholic liver diseases. For these studies, rat livers were perfused in situ with 125I-formaldehyde-bovine serum albumin (f-Alb) or 125I-malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-bovine serum albumin (MAA-Alb) in the presence of known scavenger receptor ligands as inhibitors. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and scavenger receptor Type A (SRA) knock-out mice were used to assess the role of these receptors in mediating immune responses. The degradation of 125I-f-Alb or 125I-MAA-Alb in whole livers and isolated SECs can be inhibited by known scavenger receptor ligands, including f-Alb, maleylated bovine albumin, and fucoidan. 125I-f-Alb could not be completely inhibited by MAA-Alb. In contrast, 125I-MAA-Alb was only partially inhibited with advanced glycosylated endproduct albumin. RT-PCR data show the presence of a number of scavenger receptors on SECs that may be responsible for the binding of MAA-modified proteins. SRA seems to be one of these receptors involved in the effects mediated by MAA-modified proteins. In a study using SRA knockout mice, it was shown that a decreased antibody response to MAA-Alb resulted. By RT-PCR, CD36, LOX-1, and SR-AI are the scavenger receptors most likely involved in the degradation of MAA-Alb. PMID:16105988

  17. Nrf2 is involved in maintaining hepatocyte identity during liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuhong; Lee, Joonyong; Nambiar, Shashank Manohar; Hu, Min; Rui, Wenjuan; Bao, Qi; Chan, Jefferson Y; Dai, Guoli

    2014-01-01

    Nrf2, a central regulator of the cellular defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, participates in modulating hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. It is not clear, however, whether Nrf2 regulates hepatocyte growth, an important cellular mechanism to regain the lost liver mass after partial hepatectomy (PH). To determine this, various analyses were performed in wild-type and Nrf2-null mice following PH. We found that, at 60 h post-PH, the vast majority of hepatocytes lacking Nrf2 reduced their sizes, activated hepatic progenitor markers (CD133, TWEAK receptor, and trefoil factor family 3), depleted HNF4α protein, and downregulated the expression of a group of genes critical for their functions. Thus, the identity of hepatocytes deficient in Nrf2 was transiently but massively impaired in response to liver mass loss. This event was associated with the coupling of protein depletion of hepatic HNF4α, a master regulator of hepatocyte differentiation, and concomitant inactivation of hepatic Akt1 and p70S6K, critical hepatocyte growth signaling molecules. We conclude that Nrf2 participates in maintaining newly regenerated hepatocytes in a fully differentiated state by ensuring proper regulation of HNF4α, Akt1, and p70S6K during liver regeneration.

  18. Nrf2 Is Involved in Maintaining Hepatocyte Identity during Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuhong; Lee, Joonyong; Nambiar, Shashank Manohar; Hu, Min; Rui, Wenjuan; Bao, Qi; Chan, Jefferson Y.; Dai, Guoli

    2014-01-01

    Nrf2, a central regulator of the cellular defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, participates in modulating hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. It is not clear, however, whether Nrf2 regulates hepatocyte growth, an important cellular mechanism to regain the lost liver mass after partial hepatectomy (PH). To determine this, various analyses were performed in wild-type and Nrf2-null mice following PH. We found that, at 60 h post-PH, the vast majority of hepatocytes lacking Nrf2 reduced their sizes, activated hepatic progenitor markers (CD133, TWEAK receptor, and trefoil factor family 3), depleted HNF4α protein, and downregulated the expression of a group of genes critical for their functions. Thus, the identity of hepatocytes deficient in Nrf2 was transiently but massively impaired in response to liver mass loss. This event was associated with the coupling of protein depletion of hepatic HNF4α, a master regulator of hepatocyte differentiation, and concomitant inactivation of hepatic Akt1 and p70S6K, critical hepatocyte growth signaling molecules. We conclude that Nrf2 participates in maintaining newly regenerated hepatocytes in a fully differentiated state by ensuring proper regulation of HNF4α, Akt1, and p70S6K during liver regeneration. PMID:25222179

  19. Ethinyl estradiol-induced cell proliferation in rat liver. Involvement of specific populations of hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mayol, X; Neal, G E; Davies, R; Romero, A; Domingo, J

    1992-12-01

    Hepatocyte proliferation was analyzed in vivo during the time course of continuous administration to rats of the liver tumor promoter ethinyl estradiol (EE) at 10 p.p.m. in the diet. EE-induced acute liver hyperplasia was detected in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats as an increased mitotic index of hepatocytes after 2 days of treatment. 5'-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling showed that proliferating hepatocytes were randomly distributed throughout the hepatic lobule. Subsequently, and still during the first few days of continuous EE treatment, hepatocyte proliferation decreased to control levels, and a transient increase in the incidence of apoptosis in the liver was detected. Although consistent with the concept of liver growth regression after mitogen-induced hyperplasia, these results differ from others reported to date in that, in our experiments, the cessation of cell proliferation and the subsequent growth regression occurred without withdrawal of EE in our experiments. After returning to control levels, hepatocellular proliferation again increased between 3 and 6 months of chronic treatment and remained activated during the following months of continuous treatment, as seen by accumulative BrdU labeling. Proliferating hepatocytes were predominantly located in zone 2 of the hepatic lobule at this time, surrounding a periportal zone of vacuolated hepatocytes, which were also induced by the treatment. Moreover, hyperplasia of basophilic hepatocytes was also seen around some portal spaces. In another set of experiments, chronic EE-induced activation was characterized by flow cytometry on hepatocytes isolated from male Fischer rats. Ploidy analysis of hepatocyte cell suspensions showed that the normal polyploid pattern of hepatocytes was altered by EE, the proportion of diploid hepatocytes rising considerably. The results also showed that these diploid cells were the most susceptible hepatocyte population to EE-induced proliferation, as shown by a combination of

  20. Acute Exercise Improves Insulin Clearance and Increases the Expression of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in the Liver and Skeletal Muscle of Swiss Mice.

    PubMed

    Kurauti, Mirian A; Freitas-Dias, Ricardo; Ferreira, Sandra M; Vettorazzi, Jean F; Nardelli, Tarlliza R; Araujo, Hygor N; Santos, Gustavo J; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Rezende, Luiz F; Costa-Júnior, José M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression are not yet fully elucidated. Here, we have explored the effect of acute exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression in lean mice. Male Swiss mice were subjected to a single bout of exercise on a speed/angle controlled treadmill for 3-h at approximately 60-70% of maximum oxygen consumption. As expected, acute exercise reduced glycemia and insulinemia, and increased insulin tolerance. The activity of AMPK-ACC, but not of IR-Akt, pathway was increased in the liver and skeletal muscle of trained mice. In an apparent contrast to the reduced insulinemia, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in isolated islets of these mice. However, insulin clearance was increased after acute exercise and was accompanied by increased expression of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), in the liver and skeletal muscle. Finally, C2C12, but not HEPG2 cells, incubated at different concentrations of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) for 3-h, showed increased expression of IDE. In conclusion, acute exercise increases insulin clearance, probably due to an augmentation of IDE expression in the liver and skeletal muscle. The elevated IDE expression, in the skeletal muscle, seems to be mediated by activation of AMPK-ACC pathway, in response to exercise. We believe that the increase in the IDE expression, comprise a safety measure to maintain glycemia at or close to physiological levels, turning physical exercise more effective and safe. PMID:27467214

  1. Exercise-Induced Changes in Caveolin-1, Depletion of Mitochondrial Cholesterol, and the Inhibition of Mitochondrial Swelling in Rat Skeletal Muscle but Not in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Flis, Damian Jozef; Olek, Robert Antoni; Kaczor, Jan Jacek; Rodziewicz, Ewa; Halon, Malgorzata; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Wozniak, Michal; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw

    2016-01-01

    The reduction in cholesterol in mitochondria, observed after exercise, is related to the inhibition of mitochondrial swelling. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) plays an essential role in the regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism and is required by various signalling pathways. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged swimming on the mitochondrial Cav-1 concentration; additionally, we identified the results of these changes as they relate to the induction of changes in the mitochondrial swelling and cholesterol in rat skeletal muscle and liver. Male Wistar rats were divided into a sedentary control group and an exercise group. The exercised rats swam for 3 hours and were burdened with an additional 3% of their body weight. After the cessation of exercise, their quadriceps femoris muscles and livers were immediately removed for experimentation. The exercise protocol caused an increase in the Cav-1 concentration in crude muscle mitochondria; this was related to a reduction in the cholesterol level and an inhibition of mitochondrial swelling. There were no changes in rat livers, with the exception of increased markers of oxidative stress in mitochondria. These data indicate the possible role of Cav-1 in the adaptive change in the rat muscle mitochondria following exercise. PMID:26839631

  2. Acute Exercise Improves Insulin Clearance and Increases the Expression of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in the Liver and Skeletal Muscle of Swiss Mice.

    PubMed

    Kurauti, Mirian A; Freitas-Dias, Ricardo; Ferreira, Sandra M; Vettorazzi, Jean F; Nardelli, Tarlliza R; Araujo, Hygor N; Santos, Gustavo J; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Rezende, Luiz F; Costa-Júnior, José M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression are not yet fully elucidated. Here, we have explored the effect of acute exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression in lean mice. Male Swiss mice were subjected to a single bout of exercise on a speed/angle controlled treadmill for 3-h at approximately 60-70% of maximum oxygen consumption. As expected, acute exercise reduced glycemia and insulinemia, and increased insulin tolerance. The activity of AMPK-ACC, but not of IR-Akt, pathway was increased in the liver and skeletal muscle of trained mice. In an apparent contrast to the reduced insulinemia, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in isolated islets of these mice. However, insulin clearance was increased after acute exercise and was accompanied by increased expression of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), in the liver and skeletal muscle. Finally, C2C12, but not HEPG2 cells, incubated at different concentrations of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) for 3-h, showed increased expression of IDE. In conclusion, acute exercise increases insulin clearance, probably due to an augmentation of IDE expression in the liver and skeletal muscle. The elevated IDE expression, in the skeletal muscle, seems to be mediated by activation of AMPK-ACC pathway, in response to exercise. We believe that the increase in the IDE expression, comprise a safety measure to maintain glycemia at or close to physiological levels, turning physical exercise more effective and safe.

  3. Acute Exercise Improves Insulin Clearance and Increases the Expression of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in the Liver and Skeletal Muscle of Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sandra M.; Vettorazzi, Jean F.; Nardelli, Tarlliza R.; Araujo, Hygor N.; Santos, Gustavo J.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Boschero, Antonio C.; Rezende, Luiz F.; Costa-Júnior, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression are not yet fully elucidated. Here, we have explored the effect of acute exercise on insulin clearance and IDE expression in lean mice. Male Swiss mice were subjected to a single bout of exercise on a speed/angle controlled treadmill for 3-h at approximately 60–70% of maximum oxygen consumption. As expected, acute exercise reduced glycemia and insulinemia, and increased insulin tolerance. The activity of AMPK-ACC, but not of IR-Akt, pathway was increased in the liver and skeletal muscle of trained mice. In an apparent contrast to the reduced insulinemia, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in isolated islets of these mice. However, insulin clearance was increased after acute exercise and was accompanied by increased expression of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), in the liver and skeletal muscle. Finally, C2C12, but not HEPG2 cells, incubated at different concentrations of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) for 3-h, showed increased expression of IDE. In conclusion, acute exercise increases insulin clearance, probably due to an augmentation of IDE expression in the liver and skeletal muscle. The elevated IDE expression, in the skeletal muscle, seems to be mediated by activation of AMPK-ACC pathway, in response to exercise. We believe that the increase in the IDE expression, comprise a safety measure to maintain glycemia at or close to physiological levels, turning physical exercise more effective and safe. PMID:27467214

  4. Minor-but-Complex Liver Resection: An Alternative to Major Resections for Colorectal Liver Metastases Involving the Hepato-Caval Confluence

    PubMed Central

    Urbani, Lucio; Masi, Gianluca; Puccini, Marco; Colombatto, Piero; Vivaldi, Caterina; Balestri, Riccardo; Marioni, Antonio; Prosperi, Valerio; Forfori, Francesco; Licitra, Gabriella; Leoni, Chiara; Paolicchi, Adriana; Boraschi, Piero; Lunardi, Alessandro; Tascini, Carlo; Castagna, Maura; Buccianti, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Major hepatectomy (MH) is often considered the only possible approach for colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) at the hepato-caval confluence (CC), but it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. With the aim to reduce MH, we developed the “minor-but-complex” (MbC) technique, which consists in the resection of less than 3 adjacent liver segments with exposure of the CC and preservation of hepatic outflow until spontaneous maturation of peripheral intrahepatic shunts between main hepatic veins. We have evaluated applicability and outcome of MbC resections for the treatment of CRLM involving the CC. In this retrospective cohort study, all consecutive liver resections (LR) performed for CRLM located in segments 1, 7, 8, or 4a were classified as MINOR – removal of <3 adjacent segments; MbC – removal of <3 adjacent segments with CC exposure; and MH – removal of ≥3 adjacent segments. The rate of avoided MH was obtained by the difference between the rate of potentially MH (PMH) plus potentially inoperable cases and the rate of the MH performed. Taking into account that postoperative mortality is mainly related to the amount of resected liver, MbC was compared with minor resections for safety, complexity, and outcome. Of the 59 LR analyzed, 29 (49.1%) were deemed PMH and 4 (6.8%) potentially inoperable. Eventually, MH was performed only in 8 (13.5%) with a decrease rate of 42.4%. Minor LR was performed in 23 (39.0%) and MbC LR in 28 (47.5%) patients. Among MbC cases, 32.1% had previous liver treatments, 39.3% required vascular reconstruction (no reconstructed vessel thrombosis occurred before maturation of peripheral intrahepatic shunts between main hepatic veins), and 7.1% had grade IIIb–IV complications, their median hospital stay was 9 days and 90-day mortality was 0%. After a median follow-up of 22.2 months, oncological results were comparable with those of minor resections. MbC hepatectomy lowers the need for MH and allows for the

  5. Minor-but-Complex Liver Resection: An Alternative to Major Resections for Colorectal Liver Metastases Involving the Hepato-Caval Confluence.

    PubMed

    Urbani, Lucio; Masi, Gianluca; Puccini, Marco; Colombatto, Piero; Vivaldi, Caterina; Balestri, Riccardo; Marioni, Antonio; Prosperi, Valerio; Forfori, Francesco; Licitra, Gabriella; Leoni, Chiara; Paolicchi, Adriana; Boraschi, Piero; Lunardi, Alessandro; Tascini, Carlo; Castagna, Maura; Buccianti, Piero

    2015-07-01

    Major hepatectomy (MH) is often considered the only possible approach for colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) at the hepato-caval confluence (CC), but it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. With the aim to reduce MH, we developed the "minor-but-complex" (MbC) technique, which consists in the resection of less than 3 adjacent liver segments with exposure of the CC and preservation of hepatic outflow until spontaneous maturation of peripheral intrahepatic shunts between main hepatic veins. We have evaluated applicability and outcome of MbC resections for the treatment of CRLM involving the CC. In this retrospective cohort study, all consecutive liver resections (LR) performed for CRLM located in segments 1, 7, 8, or 4a were classified as MINOR - removal of <3 adjacent segments; MbC - removal of <3 adjacent segments with CC exposure; and MH - removal of ≥ 3 adjacent segments. The rate of avoided MH was obtained by the difference between the rate of potentially MH (PMH) plus potentially inoperable cases and the rate of the MH performed. Taking into account that postoperative mortality is mainly related to the amount of resected liver, MbC was compared with minor resections for safety, complexity, and outcome. Of the 59 LR analyzed, 29 (49.1%) were deemed PMH and 4 (6.8%) potentially inoperable. Eventually, MH was performed only in 8 (13.5%) with a decrease rate of 42.4%. Minor LR was performed in 23 (39.0%) and MbC LR in 28 (47.5%) patients. Among MbC cases, 32.1% had previous liver treatments, 39.3% required vascular reconstruction (no reconstructed vessel thrombosis occurred before maturation of peripheral intrahepatic shunts between main hepatic veins), and 7.1% had grade IIIb-IV complications, their median hospital stay was 9 days and 90-day mortality was 0%. After a median follow-up of 22.2 months, oncological results were comparable with those of minor resections. MbC hepatectomy lowers the need for MH and allows for the resection of potentially

  6. Effect of Intermittent Hypoxia and Rimonabant on Glucose Metabolism in Rats: Involvement of Expression of GLUT4 in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoya; Yu, Qin; Yue, Hongmei; Zeng, Shuang; Cui, Fenfen

    2015-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its main feature, chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, is closely associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Rimonabant can regulate glucose metabolism and improve IR. The present study aimed to assess the effect of IH and rimonabant on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and to explore the possible mechanisms. Material/Methods Thirty-two rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: Control group, subjected to intermittent air only; IH group, subjected to IH only; IH+NS group, subjected to IH and treated with normal saline; and IH+Rim group, subjected to IH and treated with 10 mg/kg/day of rimonabant. All rats were killed after 28 days of exposure. Then, the blood and skeletal muscle were collected. We measured fasting blood glucose levels, fasting blood insulin levels, and the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in both mRNA and protein levels in skeletal muscle. Results IH can slow weight gain, increase serum insulin level, and reduce insulin sensitivity in rats. The expressions of GLUT4 mRNA, total GLUT4, and plasma membrane protein of GLUT4 (PM GLUT4) in skeletal muscle were decreased. Rimonabant treatment was demonstrated to improve weight gain and insulin sensitivity of the rats induced by IH. Rimonabant significantly upregulated the expression of GLUT4 mRNA, PM GLUT4, and total GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that IH can cause IR and reduced expression of GLUT4 in both mRNA and protein levels in skeletal muscle of rats. Rimonabant treatment can improve IH – induced IR, and the upregulation of GLUT4 expression may be involved in this process. PMID:26503060

  7. Alteration of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in aged skeletal muscle involves modification of adenine nucleotide translocator.

    PubMed

    Gouspillou, Gilles; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Rouland, Richard; Calmettes, Guillaume; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Deschodt-Arsac, Véronique; Diolez, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    The process of skeletal muscle aging is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and functionality. The underlying mechanisms are highly complex and remain unclear. This study was designed to further investigate the consequences of aging on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in rat gastrocnemius muscle, by comparing young (6 months) and aged (21 months) rats. Maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity was clearly reduced in older rats, while mitochondrial efficiency was unaffected. Inner membrane properties were unaffected in aged rats since proton leak kinetics were identical to young rats. Application of top-down control analysis revealed a dysfunction of the phosphorylation module in older rats, responsible for a dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation under low activities close to in vivo ATP turnover. This dysregulation is responsible for an impaired mitochondrial response toward changes in cellular ATP demand, leading to a decreased membrane potential which may in turn affect ROS production and ion homeostasis. Based on our data, we propose that modification of ANT properties with aging could partly explain these mitochondrial dysfunctions.

  8. Striated muscle involvement in experimental oral infection by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, María Inés; Sanjuan, Norberto A

    2013-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most frequent causes of oral infection in humans, especially during early childhood. Several experimental models have been developed to study the pathogenesis of this virus but all of them employed adult animals. In this work, we developed an experimental model that uses mice younger than 4 days old, to more closely resemble human infection. Mice were infected subcutaneously with the prototype strain McIntyre of Herpes simplex-1, and the progression of infection was studied by immunoperoxidase. All animals died within 24-72 h post-infection, while viral antigens were found in the oral epithelium, nerves and brain. The most striking result was the finding of viral antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells belonging to striated muscles. Organotypic cultures of striated muscles were performed, and viral replication was observed in them by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and viral isolation. We conclude that the infection of striated muscles is present from the onset of oral infection and, eventually, could explain some clinical observations in humans.

  9. Entamoeba histolytica: inflammatory process during amoebic liver abscess formation involves cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages and trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Alarcón, A; Moguel-Torres, M; Mata-Leyva, O; Cuellar-Nevárez, G; Siqueiros-Cendón, T; Erosa, G; Ramos-Martínez, E; Talamás-Rohana, P; Sánchez-Ramírez, B

    2006-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) isoform is induced by Entamoeba histolytica in macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells during amoebic liver abscess (ALA) formation in hamsters. Trophozoites present in the lesion were also positive for COX-2 signal. However, no cross reactivity of the anti-COX-2 antibody with protein extract of cultivated trophozoites was found. To clarify if trophozoites are involved in PGE(2) production during ALA development, COX-2 expression was detected by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR in liver tissue from intrahepatically infected hamsters. COX-2 mRNA was in polymorphonuclear cells since 4h postinfection, and subsequently, local macrophages expressed COX-2 mRNA in a similar way. Additionally, a positive signal for COX-2 mRNA expression was detected in E. histolytica trophozoites, suggesting that, in vivo, parasite COX expression may be an important mechanism to promote inflammation.

  10. Hepatic failure and liver cell damage in acute Wilson's disease involve CD95 (APO-1/Fas) mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Strand, S; Hofmann, W J; Grambihler, A; Hug, H; Volkmann, M; Otto, G; Wesch, H; Mariani, S M; Hack, V; Stremmel, W; Krammer, P H; Galle, P R

    1998-05-01

    Wilson's disease can result in fulminant liver failure due to hepatic copper overload. The CD95 system mediates apoptosis and has been demonstrated to be involved in liver disease. In this study CD95 mediated apoptosis was investigated in patients with fulminant hepatic failure in the course of Wilson's disease and in an in vitro model of copper treated human hepatoma cells. In patients, hepatic expression of CD95 and CD95L mRNA and apoptosis were detected. Copper overload in vitro resulted in hepatocytic apoptosis which could be reduced with a neutralizing anti-CD95L antibody. Copper treatment of hepatocytes results in activation of the CD95 system and induction of apoptosis which is operative during the course of hepatic failure in acute Wilson's disease.

  11. Exogenous hepatitis B virus envelope proteins induce endoplasmic reticulum stress: involvement of cannabinoid axis in liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Montalbano, Roberta; Honrath, Birgit; Wissniowski, Thaddeus Till; Elxnat, Moritz; Roth, Silvia; Ocker, Matthias; Quint, Karl; Churin, Yuri; Roederfeld, Martin; Schroeder, Dirk; Glebe, Dieter; Roeb, Elke; Fazio, Pietro Di

    2016-01-01

    HBV represents the most common chronic viral infection and major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its exact role in liver tumorigenesis is unclear. Massive storage of the small (SHBs), middle (MHBs) and large surface (LHBs) HBV envelope proteins leads to cell stress and sustained inflammatory responses. Cannabinoid (CB) system is involved in the pathogenesis of liver diseases, stimulating acute and chronic inflammation, liver damage and fibrogenesis; it triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. The aim of our work was to investigate the activation of ER stress pathway after ectopic HBV envelope proteins expression, in liver cancer cells, and the role exerted by CB receptors. PCR, immunofluorescence and western blotting showed that exogenous LHBs and MHBs induce a clear ER stress response in Huh-7 cells expressing CB1 receptor. Up-regulation of the chaperone BiP/GRP78 (Binding Immunoglobulin Protein/Glucose-Regulated Protein 78) and of the transcription factor CHOP/GADD153 (C/EBP Homologous Protein/Growth Arrest and DNA Damage inducible gene 153), phosphorylation of PERK (PKR-like ER Kinase) and eIF2α (Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α) and splicing of XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) was observed. CB1−/− HepG2 cells did not show any ER stress activation. Inhibition of CB1 receptor counteracted BiP expression in transfected Huh-7 and in HBV+ PLC/PRF/5 cells; whereas no effect was observed in HBV− HLF cells. These results suggest that HBV envelope proteins are able to induce the ER stress pathway. CB1 expression is directly correlated with ER stress function. Further investigations are needed to clarify the involvement of cannabinoid in HCC progression after HBV infection. PMID:26967385

  12. Effects of gestation and transition diets, piglet birth weight, and fasting time on depletion of glycogen pools in liver and 3 muscles of newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Theil, P K; Cordero, G; Henckel, P; Puggaard, L; Oksbjerg, N; Sørensen, M T

    2011-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to assess the effects of maternal nutrition in late gestation on glycogen pools of newborn piglets of different birth weights and to assess how rapidly the glycogen pools in the liver and 3 muscles are mobilized during fasting. Until d 108 of gestation, 48 sows were fed a gestation standard diet (GSD) with low dietary fiber (DF, 17.1%), or 1 of 3 diets with high DF (32.3 to 40.4%) consisting of pectin residue (GPR), potato pulp (GPP), or sugar-beet pulp (GSP). From d 108 until farrowing, sows were fed 1 of 6 transition diets with low or high dietary fat: one group received a standard diet (TSD; control) containing 3% animal fat, another group received the TSD diet + 2.5 g/d of hydroxy-methyl butyrate as topdressing (THB), and 4 other groups received diets with 8% added fat from coconut oil (TCO), sunflower oil (TSO), fish oil (TFO), or 4% octanoic acid + 4% fish oil (TOA). Two piglets per litter (the second and fifth born) were blood sampled, and 1 was killed immediately after birth, whereas the other, depending on the litter, was killed after 12, 24, or 28.5 to 36 h (mean 32.5 h) of fasting. Samples of liver, LM, M. semimembranousus (SM), and M. diaphragm (DP) were collected and analyzed for glycogen concentration. No dietary effects (P > 0.20) on glycogen concentrations in liver, LM, SM, or DP were observed. The weight of the liver was affected by gestation diet (P < 0.05) and was greater in GSD and GSP piglets (36.7 and 36.3 g) than in GPR piglets (32.6 g), and intermediate (33.6 g) in GPP piglets. Liver weight, estimated muscle mass, and glycogen pools (P < 0.001) were affected by birth weight, whereas glycogen concentrations in liver and LM, SM, and DP muscles were not (P > 0.05). Liver weight; glycogen concentrations in liver, LM, SM, and DP; and glycogen pools in liver and muscles decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing duration of fasting, and at 32.5 h of fasting, glycogen concentration was reduced by 80% in liver, 64% in DP, 46

  13. Genetic variability of transcript abundance in pig peri-mortem skeletal muscle: eQTL localized genes involved in stress response, cell death, muscle disorders and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetics of transcript-level variation is an exciting field that has recently given rise to many studies. Genetical genomics studies have mainly focused on cell lines, blood cells or adipose tissues, from human clinical samples or mice inbred lines. Few eQTL studies have focused on animal tissues sampled from outbred populations to reflect natural genetic variation of gene expression levels in animals. In this work, we analyzed gene expression in a whole tissue, pig skeletal muscle sampled from individuals from a half sib F2 family shortly after slaughtering. Results QTL detection on transcriptome measurements was performed on a family structured population. The analysis identified 335 eQTLs affecting the expression of 272 transcripts. The ontologic annotation of these eQTLs revealed an over-representation of genes encoding proteins involved in processes that are expected to be induced during muscle development and metabolism, cell morphology, assembly and organization and also in stress response and apoptosis. A gene functional network approach was used to evidence existing biological relationships between all the genes whose expression levels are influenced by eQTLs. eQTLs localization revealed a significant clustered organization of about half the genes located on segments of chromosome 1, 2, 10, 13, 16, and 18. Finally, the combined expression and genetic approaches pointed to putative cis-drivers of gene expression programs in skeletal muscle as COQ4 (SSC1), LOC100513192 (SSC18) where both the gene transcription unit and the eQTL affecting its expression level were shown to be localized in the same genomic region. This suggests cis-causing genetic polymorphims affecting gene expression levels, with (e.g. COQ4) or without (e.g. LOC100513192) potential pleiotropic effects that affect the expression of other genes (cluster of trans-eQTLs). Conclusion Genetic analysis of transcription levels revealed dependence among molecular phenotypes as being

  14. Molecular characterization of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 1 from the liver, and effects of aestivation on its expressions and homocysteine concentrations in the liver, kidney and muscle, of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jasmine L Y; Woo, Jia M; Hiong, Kum C; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2015-05-01

    Homocysteine accumulation has numerous deleterious effects, and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyses the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine and betaine. This study aimed to determine homocysteine concentrations, and mRNA expression levels and protein abundances of bhmt1/Bhmt1 in the liver, kidney and muscle of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, during the induction (6 days), maintenance (6 months) or arousal (3 days after arousal) phase of aestivation. The homocysteine concentration decreased significantly in the liver of P. annectens after 6 days or 6 months of aestivation, but it returned to the control level upon arousal. By contrast, homocysteine concentrations in the kidney and muscle remained unchanged during the three phases of aestivation. The complete coding cDNA sequence of bhmt1 from P. annectens consisted of 1236 bp, coding for 412 amino acids. The Bhmt1 from P. annectens had a close phylogenetic relationship with those from tetrapods and Callorhinchus milii. The expression of bhmt1 was detected in multiple organs/tissues of P. annectens, and this is the first report on the expression of bhmt1/Bhmt1 in animal skeletal muscle. The mRNA and protein expression levels of bhmt1/Bhmt1 were up-regulated in the liver of P. annectens during the induction and maintenance phases of aestivation, possibly to regulate the hepatic homocysteine concentration. The significant increase in hepatic Bhmt1 protein abundance during the arousal phase could be a response to increased cellular methylation for the purpose of tissue reconstruction. Unlike the liver, Bhmt1 expression in the kidney and muscle of P. annectens was regulated translationally, and its up-regulation could be crucial to prevent homocysteine accumulation.

  15. Natural-abundance sup 13 C NMR study of glycogen repletion in human liver and muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Jue, T.; Rothman, D.L.; Tavitian, B.A.; Shulman, R.G. )

    1989-03-01

    Optimizing the surface-coil design and spectral-acquisition parameters has led to the observation of the {sup 13}C NMR natural abundance glycogen signal in man at 2.1 T. Both the human muscle and hepatic glycogen signals can be detected definitively with a time resolution of {approx}13 min. A {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C concentric surface coil was used. The {sup 1}H outer coil was 11 cm in diameter; the {sup 13}C inner coil was 8 cm in diameter. The coils were tuned to 89.3 MHz and 22.4 MHz, respectively. The {sup 1}H coil was used for optimizing field homogeneity (shimming) the magnet and for single-frequency decoupling of the C{sub 1} glycogen signal. Total power deposition from both the transmitter pulse and the continuous wave decoupling did not exceed the Food and Drug Administration guideline of 8 W/kg of tissue. Experiments were done for which healthy subjects returned to the magnets at different times for {sup 13}C NMR measurement. The spectral difference between experiments was within the noise in the C{sub 1} glycogen region. Because of the spectral reproducibility and the signal sensitivity, hepatic glycogen repletion can be followed. Four hours postprandial, hepatic glycogen increases by 3.8 times from the basal fasted state. The hepatic glycogen data correspond directly to previous biopsy results and support the use of {sup 13}C NMR as a noninvasive probe of human metabolism.

  16. GLUT-4 translocation in skeletal muscle studied with a cell-free assay: involvement of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, S; Nielsen, J N; Bourgoin, S; Klip, A; Franco, M; Richter, E A

    2001-09-01

    GLUT-4-containing membranes immunoprecipitated from insulin-stimulated rat skeletal muscle produce the phospholipase D (PLD) product phosphatidic acid. In vitro stimulation of PLD in crude membrane with ammonium sulfate (5 mM) resulted in transfer of GLUT-4 (3.0-fold vs. control) as well as transferrin receptor proteins from large to small membrane structures. The in vitro GLUT-4 transfer could be blocked by neomycin (a PLD inhibitor), and neomycin also reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport in intact incubated soleus muscles. Furthermore, protein kinase B(beta) (PKB(beta)) was found to associate with the GLUT-4 protein and was transferred to small vesicles in response to ammonium sulfate in vitro. Finally, addition of cytosolic proteins, prepared from basal skeletal muscle, and GTP nucleotides to an enriched GLUT-4 membrane fraction resulted in in vitro transfer of GLUT-4 to small membranes (6.8-fold vs. unstimulated control). The cytosol and nucleotide-induced GLUT-4 transfer could be blocked by neomycin and N-ethylmaleimide. In conclusion, we have developed a cell-free assay that demonstrates in vitro GLUT-4 transfer. This transfer may suggest release of GLUT-4-containing vesicles from donor GLUT-4 membranes involving PLD activity and binding of PKB(beta) to GLUT-4.

  17. Mercury in liver, kidney, feather and muscle of seabirds from major wetlands of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Aazami, J; Esmaili-Sari, A; Bahramifar, N; Ghasempouri, M; Savabieasfahani, M

    2011-06-01

    Concentration of mercury in tissues of the great cormorant (n = 18), mallard (n = 18), and coot (n = 15) of the Caspian Sea were determined. Liver mercury in the great cormorant, mallard, and coot were (5.7 ± 0.91; 0.3 ± 0.02; 0.09 ± 0.02). Kidney levels were (3.6 ± 2.24; 0.26 ± 0.03; 0.08 ± 0.02); feather (8.7 ± 0.8; 1.04 ± 0.16; 0.23 ± 0.15) and muscle were (2.26 ± 2.04; 0.11 ± 0.01; 0.03 ± 0.02) respectively. Mercury Tolerable Daily Intake limit is set at 5 μg g(-1). But even at levels that are currently considered "tolerable", mercury poisoning can occur in children and young who consume polluted game meat regularly. PMID:21499943

  18. Duration of transport and holding in lairage at constant postprandial delay to slaughter--effects on fatty liver and breast muscle quality in mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, X; Bouillier-Oudot, M; Molette, C; Bernadet, M D; Manse, H

    2011-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of preslaughter transport (30 vs. 150 min) and holding of mule ducks in lairage in their transport crates (15 vs. 120 min) on the quality of the meat and fatty liver. A total of 120 birds were allocated in a 2 × 2 factorial design with a constant postprandial delay to slaughter (8 h), to avoid the confounding between the effects of the experimental treatments and those of fasting duration. Under such conditions, extending the transport or holding duration did not induce a loss in preslaughter live weight or liver weight. Similarly, breast muscle glycogen stores were not affected by the treatments, nor was the kinetics of postmortem pH decline affected. The mechanical resistance of raw meat obtained by the compression test significantly increased with holding duration. The gross chemical composition of the livers did not differ significantly among the preslaughter treatments. Residual blood in the liver, as indicated by heme pigment concentration, was enhanced with a longer transport, but this effect was more pronounced after the longest holding duration, as shown by a significant interaction. This, however, did not significantly affect the incidence of appearance defects or the commercial grading of the livers. The percentage of fat loss during the cooking of canned livers was significantly reduced when the transport duration was increased. This effect could not be explained on the basis of the current knowledge for determining the technological quality of fatty liver. The identification of biological markers of liver quality is currently underway in our laboratory. Further investigations studying the differential expression of these biological markers according to preslaughter conditions would provide a better understanding of the effect of transport duration on liver processing yield.

  19. Effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid uptake in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Sharon; Jonkers, Richard A M; Groen, Albert K; Nicolay, Klaas; van Loon, Luc J C; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2015-11-15

    Insulin resistance is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation. Physical activity improves insulin sensitivity, but the impact of exercise on lipid handling in insulin-resistant tissues remains to be elucidated. The present study characterizes the effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid partitioning in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats by use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). After baseline measurements, rats were randomized to exercise or no-exercise groups. A subset of animals was subjected to MRS directly after 1 h of treadmill running for measurement of total intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content (n=7 lean and diabetic rats). The other animals were administered 13C-labeled lipids orally after treadmill visit (with or without exercise) followed by MRS measurements after 4 and 24 h to determine the 13C enrichment of IHCL and IMCL (n=8 per group). Total IHCL and IMCL content were fivefold higher in diabetic vs. lean rats (P<0.001). Exercise did not significantly affect IHCL content but reduced IMCL by 25±7 and 33±4% in lean and diabetic rats (P<0.05), respectively. Uptake of dietary lipids in liver and muscle was 2.3-fold greater in diabetic vs. lean rats (P<0.05). Prior exercise did not significantly modulate dietary lipid uptake into muscle, but in liver of both lean and diabetic rats, lipid uptake was 44% reduced after acute exercise (P<0.05). In conclusion, IMCL but not IHCL represents a viable substrate source during exercise in both lean and diabetic rats, and exercise differentially affects dietary lipid uptake in muscle and liver. PMID:26419590

  20. Single-laboratory validation of a modified liquid chromatographic method with UV detection for determination of trenbolone residues in bovine liver and muscle.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, James D; Reid, JoAnn; Neiser, Constance D; Fesser, Adrian C E

    2003-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic testosterone analog registered for use in a number of countries as a growth-promoting hormone, applied as an implant in the ears of feedlot cattle. The method is intended for the detection and quantitation of trace amounts of alpha- and beta-trenbolone in bovine tissues (muscle, liver) by liquid chromatography (LC) with UV detection and eliminates the use of the structural analog, 19-nortestosterone, as an internal standard. Trenbolone residues are extracted from tissues that have been homogenized in sodium acetate with a 3-phase liquid-liquid extraction by adding a mixture of water-acetonitrile-dichloromethanehexane, with trenbolone residues preferentially partitioned into the middle acetonitrile layer. The extract is passed through solid-phase extraction cartridges (both C18 and silica gel) using, respectively, methanol-water and acetone-toluene as eluents. Reversed-phase high-performance LC separation is performed, an octadecyl-bonded column with methanol-acetonitrile-water used as mobile phase for sample analysis. The limit of detection is 0.2 ng/g in muscle tissue and 0.6 ng/g in liver tissue, with coefficients of variation of 3.5-12.1% for alpha- and beta-trenbolone at concentrations from 0.2 to 4.0 ng/g fortified in muscle and 3.3-26.0% from liver fortified at 0.6-10.0 ng/g. Absolute recoveries of 40-130% were observed, but the use of fortified matrix curves eliminated recovery correction. Critical control points were identified in a pH adjustment step and an evaporation step during method validation, which included ruggedness testing. Analysis of incurred tissues (bovine liver and muscle) stored at -20 degrees C for over 25 weeks did not identify any significant loss of residues. PMID:14632391

  1. Effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid uptake in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Sharon; Jonkers, Richard A M; Groen, Albert K; Nicolay, Klaas; van Loon, Luc J C; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2015-11-15

    Insulin resistance is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation. Physical activity improves insulin sensitivity, but the impact of exercise on lipid handling in insulin-resistant tissues remains to be elucidated. The present study characterizes the effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid partitioning in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats by use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). After baseline measurements, rats were randomized to exercise or no-exercise groups. A subset of animals was subjected to MRS directly after 1 h of treadmill running for measurement of total intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content (n=7 lean and diabetic rats). The other animals were administered 13C-labeled lipids orally after treadmill visit (with or without exercise) followed by MRS measurements after 4 and 24 h to determine the 13C enrichment of IHCL and IMCL (n=8 per group). Total IHCL and IMCL content were fivefold higher in diabetic vs. lean rats (P<0.001). Exercise did not significantly affect IHCL content but reduced IMCL by 25±7 and 33±4% in lean and diabetic rats (P<0.05), respectively. Uptake of dietary lipids in liver and muscle was 2.3-fold greater in diabetic vs. lean rats (P<0.05). Prior exercise did not significantly modulate dietary lipid uptake into muscle, but in liver of both lean and diabetic rats, lipid uptake was 44% reduced after acute exercise (P<0.05). In conclusion, IMCL but not IHCL represents a viable substrate source during exercise in both lean and diabetic rats, and exercise differentially affects dietary lipid uptake in muscle and liver.

  2. Levels of mercury and organohalogen compounds in the muscle and liver of kidako moray eels (Gymnothorax kidako) caught off the southern region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Minoshima, Yasuhiko; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Ogasawara, Hideki; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the levels of total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (M-Hg) and Cd in the muscle and liver of kidako moray eels (Gymnothorax kidako) of different body lengths caught off Kochi Prefecture in southern Japan. Furthermore, we analyzed the levels of organohalogen compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), trans-nonachlor and 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1-2'-bipyrrole (Q1) and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in the muscle of eels. The concentrations of T-Hg and M-Hg in the muscle (edible part) were 0.31±0.08 µg/wet g and 0.25±0.06 µg/wet g (n=26), respectively, and those in large eels exceeded the Japanese legislated levels of T-Hg (0.4 µg/wet g) and M-Hg (0.3 µg/wet g) in fish and shellfish, respectively. The T-Hg and M-Hg concentrations in the liver were markedly higher than those in the muscle, respectively. The ratios of M-Hg to T-Hg in the muscle and liver were about 80 and 60%, respectively, and those ratios tended to decrease with increased body length. The Cd concentrations in the liver tended to increase proportionally with body length, while that in the muscle was trace (around or below 0.03 µg/wet g). The concentrations of PCBs, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor in the muscle tended to increase proportionally with body length, while that of Q1 did not. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in the kidako moray eel were markedly higher than those in offshore habit predators reported elsewhere, which may reflect the inshore habitat of this eels.

  3. Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Carboxylic Acids in Liver, Muscle and Adipose Tissues of Black-Footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) from Midway Island, North Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shaogang; Wang, Jun; Leong, Gladys; Woodward, Lee Ann; Letcher, Robert J.; Li, Qing X.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP) is a gyre of marine plastic debris in the North Pacific Ocean, and nearby is Midway Atoll which is a focal point for ecological damage. This study investigated 13 C4-C16 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four (C4, C6, C8 and C10) perfluorinated sulfonates and perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexane sulfonate [collectively perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)] in black-footed albatross tissues (collected in 2011) from Midway Atoll. Of the 18 PFCAs and PFSAs monitored, most were detectable in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues. The concentrations of PFCAs and PFSAs were higher than those in most seabirds from the arctic environment, but lower than those in most of fish-eating water birds collected in the U.S. mainland. The concentrations of the PFAAs in the albatross livers were 7-fold higher than those in Laysan albatross liver samples from the same location reported in 1994. The concentration ranges of PFOS were 22.91-70.48, 3.01-6.59 and 0.53-8.35 ng g-1 wet weight (ww), respectively, in the liver, muscle and adipose. In the liver samples PFOS was dominant, followed by longer chain PFUdA (8.04-18.70 ng g-1 ww), PFTrDA, and then PFNA, PFDA and PFDoA. Short chain PFBA, PFPeA, PFBS and C16 PFODA were below limit of quantification. C8-C13 PFCAs showed much higher composition compared to those found in other wildlife where PFOS typically predominated. The concentrations of PFUdA in all 8 individual albatross muscle samples were even higher than those of PFOS. This phenomenon may be attributable to GPGP as a pollution source as well as PFAA physicochemical properties. PMID:26037817

  4. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylic acids in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) from Midway Island, North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaogang; Wang, Jun; Leong, Gladys; Woodward, Lee Ann; Letcher, Robert J; Li, Qing X

    2015-11-01

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP) is a gyre of marine plastic debris in the North Pacific Ocean, and nearby is Midway Atoll which is a focal point for ecological damage. This study investigated 13 C4-C16 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four (C4, C6, C8 and C10) perfluorinated sulfonates and perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexane sulfonate [collectively perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)] in black-footed albatross tissues (collected in 2011) from Midway Atoll. Of the 18 PFCAs and PFSAs monitored, most were detectable in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues. The concentrations of PFCAs and PFSAs were higher than those in most seabirds from the arctic environment, but lower than those in most of fish-eating water birds collected in the U.S. mainland. The concentrations of the PFAAs in the albatross livers were 7-fold higher than those in Laysan albatross liver samples from the same location reported in 1994. The concentration ranges of PFOS were 22.91-70.48, 3.01-6.59 and 0.53-8.35 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively, in the liver, muscle and adipose. In the liver samples PFOS was dominant, followed by longer chain PFUdA (8.04-18.70 ng g(-1) ww), PFTrDA, and then PFNA, PFDA and PFDoA. Short chain PFBA, PFPeA, PFBS and PFODA were below limit of quantification. C8-C13 PFCAs showed much higher composition compared to those found in other wildlife where PFOS typically predominated. The concentrations of PFUdA in all 8 individual albatross muscle samples were even higher than those of PFOS. This phenomenon may be attributable to GPGP as a pollution source as well as PFAA physicochemical properties. PMID:26037817

  5. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylic acids in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) from Midway Island, North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaogang; Wang, Jun; Leong, Gladys; Woodward, Lee Ann; Letcher, Robert J; Li, Qing X

    2015-11-01

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP) is a gyre of marine plastic debris in the North Pacific Ocean, and nearby is Midway Atoll which is a focal point for ecological damage. This study investigated 13 C4-C16 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four (C4, C6, C8 and C10) perfluorinated sulfonates and perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexane sulfonate [collectively perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)] in black-footed albatross tissues (collected in 2011) from Midway Atoll. Of the 18 PFCAs and PFSAs monitored, most were detectable in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues. The concentrations of PFCAs and PFSAs were higher than those in most seabirds from the arctic environment, but lower than those in most of fish-eating water birds collected in the U.S. mainland. The concentrations of the PFAAs in the albatross livers were 7-fold higher than those in Laysan albatross liver samples from the same location reported in 1994. The concentration ranges of PFOS were 22.91-70.48, 3.01-6.59 and 0.53-8.35 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively, in the liver, muscle and adipose. In the liver samples PFOS was dominant, followed by longer chain PFUdA (8.04-18.70 ng g(-1) ww), PFTrDA, and then PFNA, PFDA and PFDoA. Short chain PFBA, PFPeA, PFBS and PFODA were below limit of quantification. C8-C13 PFCAs showed much higher composition compared to those found in other wildlife where PFOS typically predominated. The concentrations of PFUdA in all 8 individual albatross muscle samples were even higher than those of PFOS. This phenomenon may be attributable to GPGP as a pollution source as well as PFAA physicochemical properties.

  6. Fatty-acid profiles of white muscle and liver in stream-maturing steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from early migration to kelt emigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penney, Zachary L.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The profiles of specific fatty acids (FA) in white muscle and liver of fasting steelhead troutOncorhynchus mykiss were evaluated at three periods during their prespawning migration and at kelt emigration in the Snake–Columbia River of Washington, Oregon and Idaho, to improve the understanding of energy change. Twenty-seven FAs were identified; depletion of 10 of these was positively correlated in liver and white muscle of prespawning O. mykiss. To observe relative changes in FA content more accurately over sampling intervals, the lipid fraction of tissues was used to normalize the quantity of individual FA to an equivalent tissue wet mass. Saturated and monounsaturated FAs were depleted between upstream migration in September and kelt emigration in June, whereas polyunsaturated FAs were more conserved. Liver was depleted of FAs more rapidly than muscle. Three FAs were detected across all sampling intervals: 16:0, 18:1 and 22:6n3, which are probably structurally important to membranes. When structurally important FAs of O. mykiss are depleted to provide energy, physiological performance and survival may be affected.

  7. Effects of stock or purified diet on rat liver enzymes involved in the synthesis of dimethyl selenide.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, H S; Ganther, H E

    1976-11-01

    Rats fed either a stock deit or a purified diet based on casein were tested for their ability to convert 75Se-sodium selenite to volatile selenium (dimethyl selenide) in vivo. This conversion was also studied in liver and kidney in vitro. When injected with a subacute dose of selenite (2 mg Se/kg), rats previously fed stock diet volatilized more than twice as much of the dose compared to rats fed the purified diet, confirming earlier findings. Parallel dietary effects were also observed in vitro using subcellular fractions incubated with 75Se-selenite, glutathione, TPNH, and S-adenosylmethionine. The 9-000 X g supernate prepared from rats fed stock diet synthesized dimethyl selenide at approximately twice the rate of that prepared from rats fed purified diet. A fourfold higher activity was observed with liver microsomal fractions from rats fed the stock diet, whereas cytosol was slightly more active in rats fed the purified diet. Kidney fractions showed analogous changes with diet, although the activity of kidney microsomal fraction was very low. Only minor differences in the levels of glutathione reductase, nonspecific disulfide reducatse, and non-protein thiols were observed in liver and kidney from rats fed the two diets. Considering the effects of diet on the various enzymes known from our previous studies to be involved in dimethyl selenide synthesis, it was concluded that the enhanced ability of rats fed stock diet to synthesize dimethyl selenide results from the induction of a liver microsomal enzyme, apparently a Se-methyltransferase, caused by unknown substances in the stock diet.

  8. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mesnier, Aurélia; Champion, Serge; Louis, Laurence; Sauzet, Christophe; May, Phealay; Portugal, Henri; Benbrahim, Karim; Abraldes, Joelle; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Josephe; Peiretti, Franck; Piccerelle, Philippe; Nalbone, Gilles; Villard, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw) to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB), PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB), or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon) in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  9. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mesnier, Aurélia; Champion, Serge; Louis, Laurence; Sauzet, Christophe; May, Phealay; Portugal, Henri; Benbrahim, Karim; Abraldes, Joelle; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Josephe; Peiretti, Franck; Piccerelle, Philippe; Nalbone, Gilles; Villard, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw) to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB), PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB), or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon) in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved. PMID:26086818

  10. Exendin-4 agonist and exendin(9-39)amide antagonist of the GLP-1(7-36)amide effects in liver and muscle.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, A I; Morales, M; Delgado, E; López-Delgado, M I; Clemente, F; Luque, M A; Malaisse, W J; Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    1997-05-01

    The GLP-1 structurally related peptides exendin-4 and exendin(9-39)amide were found to act, in rat liver and skeletal muscle, as agonist and antagonist, respectively, of the GLP-1(7-36)amide effects on glucose metabolism. Thus, like GLP-1(7-36)amide, exendin-4 increased glycogen synthase a activity and glucose incorporation into glycogen in both tissues and also stimulated exogenous D-glucose utilization and oxidation in muscle. These effects of GLP-1(7-36)amide and exendin-4 were inhibited by exendin(9-39)amide. Our findings provide further support to the proposed use of GLP-1, or exendin-4, as a tool in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Thus, in addition to the well-known insulinotropic action of the peptides, they act both in liver and in muscle in a manner most suitable for restoration of glucose homeostasis, with emphasis on their positive effects upon glycogen synthesis in the two tissues and on the stimulation of exogenous glucose catabolism in muscle.

  11. Involvement of phospholipase D in store-operated calcium influx in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Walter, M; Tepel, M; Nofer, J R; Neusser, M; Assmann, G; Zidek, W

    2000-08-11

    In non-excitable cells, sustained intracellular Ca2+ increase critically depends on influx of extracellular Ca2+. Such Ca2+ influx is thought to occur by a 'store-operated' mechanism, i.e. the signal for Ca2+ entry is believed to result from the initial release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive intracellular stores. Here we show that the depletion of cellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin or bradykinin is functionally linked to a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase D (PLD) activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and that phosphatidic acid formed via PLD enhances sustained calcium entry in this cell type. These results suggest a regulatory role for PLD in store-operated Ca2+ entry in VSMC.

  12. Involvement of various organs in the initial plasma clearance of differently glycosylated rat liver secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, V; Heinrich, P C; vom Berg, D; Steube, K; Andus, T; Tran-Thi, T A; Decker, K; Gerok, W

    1988-05-01

    The initial plasma clearance and organ distribution of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and alpha 2-macroglobulin carrying different types of oligosaccharide, side chains was studied in rats. The differently glycosylated proteins were synthesized by rat hepatocytes in culture in the presence of tunicamycin (unglycosylated form), swainsonine (hybrid type), or 1-deoxymannojirimycin (high-mannose type). Deglycosylated glycoproteins (Asn-GlcNAc) were obtained by endoglucosaminidase H treatment of high-mannose-type glycoproteins. Ten minutes after intravenous injection 3% of complex type, 26% of hybrid type, 84% of high-mannose type. 64% of unglycosylated and 80% of deglycosylated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein disappeared from the plasma. The respective values for alpha 2-macroglobulin were 26%, 42%, 59% and 67%. When the clearance of total hepatic secretory proteins was examined, major differences between glycosylated and unglycosylated (glyco)proteins were found, particularly in the case of low-molecular-mass polypeptides. Whereas complex-type alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and alpha 2-macroglobulin showed no accumulation in various organs, hybrid-type alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and alpha 2-macroglobulin were present in spleen and liver. High-mannose-type alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and alpha 2-macroglobulin also accumulated mainly in spleen and liver. Spleen had the highest specific activity; liver, due to its larger organ mass, represented the major organ for the uptake of high-mannose-type glycoproteins. Competition experiments with mannan and GlcNAc-bovine-serum-albumin showed a mannose/GlcNAc receptor-mediated removal. Whereas unglycosylated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was taken up by the kidney, unglycosylated alpha 2-macroglobulin was found in the spleen. Deglycosylated glycoproteins (Asn-GlcNAc) were removed from the plasma via two different mechanisms: firstly, clearance by the kidney similar to the unglycosylated glycoproteins; secondly, clearance by a mannose/GlcNAc receptor

  13. Effects of long-term football training on the expression profile of genes involved in muscle oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, A; Martone, D; Randers, M B; Labruna, G; Mancini, A; Nielsen, J J; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; Buono, P

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether long-term recreational football training affects the expression of health-related biochemical and molecular markers in healthy untrained subjects. Five untrained healthy men trained for 1 h 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks and 1.3 times/week for another 52 weeks. Blood samples and a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis were collected at T0 (pre intervention) and at T1 (post intervention). Gene expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA extracted from muscle biopsies. The expression levels of the genes principally involved in energy metabolism (PPARγ, adiponectin, AMPKα1/α2, TFAM, NAMPT, PGC1α and SIRT1) were measured at T0 and T1. Up-regulation of PPARγ (p < 0.0005), AMPKα1 (p < 0.01), AMPKα2 (p < 0.0005) and adiponectin was observed at T1 vs T0. Increases were also found in the expression of TFAM (p < 0.001), NAMPT (p < 0.01), PGC1α (p < 0.01) and SIRT1 (p < 0.01), which are directly or indirectly involved in the glucose and lipid oxidative metabolism. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that fat percentage was independently associated with NAMPT, PPARγ and adiponectin expression. In conclusion, long-term recreational football training could be a useful tool to improve the expression of muscle molecular biomarkers that are correlated to oxidative metabolism in healthy males.

  14. Effects of dietary coconut oil on fatty acid oxidation capacity of the liver, the heart and skeletal muscles in the preruminant calf.

    PubMed

    Piot, C; Hocquette, J F; Veerkamp, J H; Durand, D; Bauchart, D

    1999-10-01

    The oxidative capacity of the liver, the heart and skeletal muscles for fatty acids were investigated in preruminant calves fed for 19 d on a milk-replacer containing either coconut oil (CO, rich in 12:0) or tallow (rich in 16:0 and 18:1). Weights of the total body and tissues did not differ significantly between the two groups of animals but plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were lower in the CO group. Feeding on the CO diet induced an 18-fold increase in the hepatic concentration of triacylglycerols. Rates of total and peroxisomal oxidation of [1-14C]laurate, [1-14C]palmitate and [1-14C]oleate were measured in fresh tissue homogenates. Higher rates of total oxidation in liver homogenate and of peroxisomal oxidation in liver, heart and rectus abdominis muscle homogenates were observed with laurate used as substrate. Furthermore, the relative contribution of peroxisomes to total oxidation was 1.9-fold higher in the liver and in the heart with laurate than with oleate or palmitate. Finally, the peroxisomal oxidation rate of oleate was 1.5-fold higher in the hearts of calves fed on the CO diet. Whatever the tissue, citrate synthase (CS, EC 4.1.3.7) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX, EC 1.9.3.1) activities were similar between the two groups of calves but the COX: CS activity ratio was lower in the liver of the CO group. In conclusion, laurate is better catabolized by peroxisomes than long-chain fatty acids, especially in the liver. Elongation of lauric acid after partial oxidation might explain the hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation in calves fed on the CO diet. PMID:10655979

  15. Ectopic lipid storage in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not mediated by impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Irwin, Andrew; Sprung, Victoria S; Jones, Helen; Pugh, Christopher J A; Daousi, Christina; Adams, Valerie L; Bimson, William E; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Richardson, Paul; Umpleby, A Margot; Wilding, John P; Kemp, Graham J

    2014-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by lipid deposition within the liver [intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL)], is associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MS). It has been suggested that impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial function may contribute to ectopic lipid deposition, and the associated MS, by altering post-prandial energy storage. To test this hypothesis, we performed a cross-sectional study of 17 patients with NAFLD [mean±S.D.; age, 45±11 years; body mass index (BMI), 31.6±3.4 kg/m2] and 18 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (age, 44±11 years; BMI, 30.5±5.2 kg/m2). We determined body composition by MRI, IHCL and intramyocellular (soleus and tibialis anterior) lipids (IMCLs) by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function by dynamic phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) of quadriceps muscle. Although matched for BMI and total adiposity, after statistical adjustment for gender, patients with NAFLD (defined by IHCL ≥ 5.5%) had higher IHCLs (25±16% compared with 2±2%; P<0.0005) and a higher prevalence of the MS (76% compared with 28%) compared with healthy controls. Despite this, the visceral fat/subcutaneous fat ratio, IMCLs and muscle mitochondrial function were similar between the NAFLD and control groups, with no significant difference in the rate constants of post-exercise phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery (1.55±0.4 compared with 1.51±0.4 min-1), a measure of muscle mitochondrial function. In conclusion, impaired muscle mitochondrial function does not seem to underlie ectopic lipid deposition, or the accompanying features of the MS, in patients with NAFLD. PMID:24738611

  16. Integrated analysis of the involvement of nitric oxide synthesis in mitochondrial proliferation, mitochondrial deficiency and apoptosis in skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Gabriela Silva; Godinho, Rosely Oliveira; Kiyomoto, Beatriz Hitomi; Gamba, Juliana; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Schmidt, Beny; Tengan, Célia Harumi

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling messenger involved in different mitochondrial processes but only few studies explored the participation of NO in mitochondrial abnormalities found in patients with genetic mitochondrial deficiencies. In this study we verified whether NO synthase (NOS) activity was altered in different types of mitochondrial abnormalities and whether changes in mitochondrial function and NOS activity could be associated with the induction of apoptosis. We performed a quantitative and integrated analysis of NOS activity in individual muscle fibres of patients with mitochondrial diseases, considering mitochondrial function (cytochrome-c-oxidase activity), mitochondrial content, mitochondrial DNA mutation and presence of apoptotic nuclei. Our results indicated that sarcolemmal NOS activity was increased in muscle fibres with mitochondrial proliferation, supporting the relevance of neuronal NOS in the mitochondrial biogenesis process. Sarcoplasmic NOS activity was reduced in cytochrome-c-oxidase deficient fibres, probably as a consequence of the involvement of NO in the regulation of the respiratory chain. Alterations in NOS activity or mitochondrial abnormalities were not predisposing factors to apoptotic nuclei. Taken together, our results show that NO can be considered a potential molecular target for strategies to increase mitochondrial content and indicate that this approach may not be associated with increased apoptotic events. PMID:26856437

  17. A Study on Spectrum of Hepatobiliary Dysfunctions and Pattern of Liver Involvement in Dengue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chattaraj, Sayan; Hajra, Adrija; Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Ganesan, Vijayan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most common arthropod-borne viral (arboviral) disease in humans is dengue. It is transmitted by female Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes are widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. Study of dengue infection and its complications are rare from countries like India. Aim In this prospective observational cross-sectional study, we intended to assess the frequency and degree of hepatobiliary dysfunction in adult patients with dengue infection presenting to a tertiary-care medical facility. Materials and Methods The details of all patients with serologically proved dengue fever admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India from July 2014 to June 2015 were prospectively reviewed. We collected data including routine blood count, Liver Function Test (LFT), Prothrombin Time (PT), Activated Partial Prothrombin Time (APTT), abdominal ultrasonography from 110 patients. Results The maximum number of cases were seen in the age group between 46 years and 61 years and of all cases 55.5% were male and 44.5% were female. Pain abdomen and vomiting were the commonest presenting complaints next to fever which was present in all the cases. Elevated liver enzymes, abnormal values of PT and APTT, thrombocytopenia were observed more commonly in Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS). Gall bladder wall thickening, thrombocytopenia were seen more commonly in both DSS and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Plasma leakage such as ascites and pleural effusion on USG were seen more frequently in patients with DHF (76.9% and 73.1%) followed by DSS (72% and 68%) and DF (33.9% and 32.2%). Conclusion Hepatobiliary derangement is seen more commonly in severe case of dengue infection. Early recognition of these parameters can also be used as a predictor for assessing the disease severity. PMID:27437266

  18. Involvement of Interleukin-17A-Induced Hypercontractility of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Cells in Persistent Gut Motor Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Akiho, Hirotada; Tokita, Yohei; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Kazuko; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Tsuchiya, Naoko; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Ihara, Eikichi; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim The etiology of post-inflammatory gastrointestinal (GI) motility dysfunction, after resolution of acute symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and intestinal infection, is largely unknown, however, a possible involvement of T cells is suggested. Methods Using the mouse model of T cell activation-induced enteritis, we investigated whether enhancement of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction by interleukin (IL)-17A is involved in postinflammatory GI hypermotility. Results Activation of CD3 induces temporal enteritis with GI hypomotility in the midst of, and hypermotility after resolution of, intestinal inflammation. Prolonged upregulation of IL-17A was prominent and IL-17A injection directly enhanced GI transit and contractility of intestinal strips. Postinflammatory hypermotility was not observed in IL-17A-deficient mice. Incubation of a muscle strip and SMCs with IL-17A in vitro resulted in enhanced contractility with increased phosphorylation of Ser19 in myosin light chain 2 (p-MLC), a surrogate marker as well as a critical mechanistic factor of SMC contractility. Using primary cultured murine and human intestinal SMCs, IκBζ- and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated downregulation of the regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4), which suppresses muscarinic signaling of contraction by promoting inactivation/desensitization of Gαq/11 protein, has been suggested to be involved in IL-17A-induced hypercontractility. The opposite effect of L-1β was mediated by IκBζ and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Conclusions We propose and discuss the possible involvement of IL-17A and its downstream signaling cascade in SMCs in diarrheal hypermotility in various GI disorders. PMID:24796324

  19. Evidence for involvement of multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 in aflatoxin B sup 1 metabolism in human liver

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, L.M.; Wolf, C.R. ); Neal, G.E.; Judah, D.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Liver cancer is a major cause of premature death in many areas of Africa and Asia and its incidence is strongly correlated with exposure to aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}). Because AFB{sub 1} requires metabolic activation to achieve a biological response, there is a need for detailed knowledge of the mechanism of activation to assess individual risk. The authors carried out an extensive study using a total of 19 human liver samples to determine the individual variability in the metabolism of the toxin to mutagenic or detoxification products and to identify the specific cytochrome P-450 forms involved in these processes. Metabolism to the toxic 8,9-epoxide or to products mutagenic in the Ames test was found to exhibit very large individual variation. These data demonstrate that, although P450IIIA probably plays an important role in AFB{sub 1} activation, several other cytochrome P-450 forms have the capacity to activate the toxin. Similar considerations apply to detoxifying metabolism to aflatoxin Q{sub 1} and aflatoxin M{sub 1}. The levels of expression of many of the forms of cytochrome P-450 involved in AFB{sub 1} metabolism are known to be highly sensitive to environmental factors. This indicates that such factors will be an important determinant in individual susceptibility to the tumorigenic action of AFB{sub 1}.

  20. Expression profile of mitrogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling genes in the skeletal muscle & liver of rat with type 2 diabetes: Role in disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoli; Deng, Libin; Xiong, Huangui; Li, Guilin; Lin, Jiari; Liu, Shuangmei; Xie, Jinyan; Liu, Jun; Kong, Fanjun; Tu, Guihua; Peng, Haiying; Liang, Shangdong

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized as hyperglycaemia caused by defects in insulin secretion, and it affects target tissues, such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Therefore, analyzing the changes of gene expression profiles in these tissues is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of T2D. We, therefore, measured the gene transcript alterations in liver and skeletal muscle of rat with induced T2D, to detect differentially expressed genes in liver and skeletal muscle and perform gene-annotation enrichment analysis. Methods: In the present study, skeletal muscle and liver tissue from 10 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and 10 control rats were analyzed using gene expression microarrays. KEGG pathways enriched by differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by WebGestalt Expander and GATHER software. DEGs were validated by the method of real-time PCR and western blot. Results: From the 9,929 expressed genes across the genome, 1,305 and 997 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P<0.01) were identified in comparisons of skeletal muscle and liver, respectively. Large numbers of DEGs (200) were common in both comparisons, which was clearly more than the predicted number (131 genes, P<0.001). For further interpretation of the gene expression data, three over-representation analysis softwares (WebGestalt, Expander and GATHER) were used. All the tools detected one KEGG pathway (MAPK signaling) and two GO (gene ontology) biological processes (response to stress and cell death), with enrichment of DEGs in both tissues. In addition, PPI (protein-protein interaction) networks constructed using human homologues not only revealed the tendency of DEGs to form a highly connected module, but also suggested a “hub” role of p38-MAPK-related genes (such as MAPK14) in the pathogenesis of T2D. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results indicated the considerably aberrant MAPK signaling in both insulin-sensitive tissues of T2D rat

  1. Effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, breed and dietary vitamin E on the fatty acids of lamb muscle, liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Demirel, G; Wachira, A M; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Wood, J D; Enser, M

    2004-04-01

    The effect of feeding n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of muscle, adipose tissue and liver of lambs was investigated. Groups of eight ram lambs per breed, SuffolkxLleyn (24 kg live weight) and Scottish Blackface (18 kg live weight), were each fed one of six diets containing one of three fat sources (50 g fatty acids/kg DM; Megalac((R)) (calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate; Volac Ltd, Royston, Herts., UK) and formaldehyde-treated whole linseed (Trouw Nutrition UK, Northwich, Ches., UK) either alone or with fish oil (1:1, w/w) and either 100 or 500 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM. Feed was offered ad libitum until slaughter at approximately half breed mature live weight. The type of dietary fat had no effect on intake, growth rate or feed conversion ratio. The 3.0-fold higher concentration of 18 : 3n-3 in the linseed compared with the Megalac((R)) diet approximately doubled (P<0.001) the concentration in the neutral and polar lipid fractions of musculus semimembranosus and liver, and in adipose tissue it increased 2.5-fold. Feeding protected linseed also increased (P<0.001) concentrations of 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 5n-3 in muscle polar lipids and both lipid fractions of liver. The linseed-fish oil raised the 20 : 5n-3 concentrations above those for the linseed diet and also increased 22 : 6n-3. Scottish Blackface lambs had lower concentrations of 18 : 3n-3 in all lipids compared with Suffolk x Lleyn lambs, but more 20 : 5n-3 in the polar lipids of muscle and liver. High levels of dietary vitamin E were associated with small decreases in the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids and increases in PUFA. Linseed raised the PUFA : saturated fatty acid ratios in liver and adipose tissue but not in muscle, and improved the n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio, as did the linseed-fish oil. Different combinations of dietary fatty acids and better protection against rumen biohydrogenation are required to improve muscle PUFA : saturated fatty acids ratios.

  2. Obesity resistant mechanisms in the Lean polygenic mouse model as indicated by liver transcriptome and expression of selected genes in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Divergently selected Lean and Fat mouse lines represent unique models for a polygenic form of resistance and susceptibility to obesity development. Previous research on these lines focused mainly on obesity-susceptible factors in the Fat line. This study aimed to examine the molecular basis of obesity-resistant mechanisms in the Lean line by analyzing various fat depots and organs, the liver transcriptome of selected metabolic pathways, plasma and lipid homeostasis and expression of selected skeletal muscle genes. Results Expression profiling using our custom Steroltalk v2 microarray demonstrated that Lean mice exhibit a higher hepatic expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes compared to the Fat line, although this was not reflected in elevation of total plasma or liver cholesterol. However, FPLC analysis showed that protective HDL cholesterol was elevated in Lean mice. A significant difference between the strains was also found in bile acid metabolism. Lean mice had a higher expression of Cyp8b1, a regulatory enzyme of bile acid synthesis, and the Abcb11 bile acid transporter gene responsible for export of acids to the bile. Additionally, a higher content of blood circulating bile acids was observed in Lean mice. Elevated HDL and upregulation of some bile acids synthesis and transport genes suggests enhanced reverse cholesterol transport in the Lean line - the flux of cholesterol out of the body is higher which is compensated by upregulation of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis. Increased skeletal muscle Il6 and Dio2 mRNA levels as well as increased activity of muscle succinic acid dehydrogenase (SDH) in the Lean mice demonstrates for the first time that changes in muscle energy metabolism play important role in the Lean line phenotype determination and corroborate our previous findings of increased physical activity and thermogenesis in this line. Finally, differential expression of Abcb11 and Dio2 identifies novel strong positional candidate

  3. Estrogen effects on human airway smooth muscle involve cAMP and protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Elizabeth A; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2012-11-15

    Clinically observed differences in airway reactivity and asthma exacerbations in women at different life stages suggest a role for sex steroids in modulating airway function although their targets and mechanisms of action are still being explored. We have previously shown that clinically relevant concentrations of exogenous estrogen acutely decrease intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human airway smooth muscle (ASM), thereby facilitating bronchodilation. In this study, we hypothesized that estrogens modulate cyclic nucleotide regulation, resulting in decreased [Ca(2+)](i) in human ASM. In Fura-2-loaded human ASM cells, 1 nM 17β-estradiol (E(2)) potentiated the inhibitory effect of the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) agonist isoproterenol (ISO; 100 nM) on histamine-mediated Ca(2+) entry. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) activity (KT5720; 100 nM) attenuated E(2) effects on [Ca(2+)](i). Acute treatment with E(2) increased cAMP levels in ASM cells comparable to that of ISO (100 pM). In acetylcholine-contracted airways from female guinea pigs or female humans, E(2) potentiated ISO-induced relaxation. These novel data suggest that, in human ASM, physiologically relevant concentrations of estrogens act via estrogen receptors (ERs) and the cAMP pathway to nongenomically reduce [Ca(2+)](i), thus promoting bronchodilation. Activation of ERs may be a novel adjunct therapeutic avenue in reactive airway diseases in combination with established cAMP-activating therapies such as β(2)-agonists.

  4. AMPK, a metabolic sensor, is involved in isoeugenol-induced glucose uptake in muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nami; Lee, Jung Ok; Lee, Hye Jeong; Lee, Yong Woo; Kim, Hyung Ip; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sun Hwa; Lee, Chul Su; Ryoo, Sun Woo; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Isoeugenol exerts various beneficial effects on human health. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. In this study, we observed that isoeugenol activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased glucose uptake in rat L6 myotubes. Isoeugenol-induced increase in intracellular calcium concentration and glucose uptake was inhibited by STO-609, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). Isoeugenol also increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-α (PKCα). Chelation of calcium with BAPTA-AM blocked isoeugenol-induced AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. Isoeugenol stimulated p38MAPK phosphorylation that was inhibited after pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Isoeugenol also increased glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression and its translocation to the plasma membrane. GLUT4 translocation was not observed after the inhibition of AMPK and CaMKK. In addition, isoeugenol activated the Akt substrate 160 (AS160) pathway, which is downstream of the p38MAPK pathway. Knockdown of the gene encoding AS160 inhibited isoeugenol-induced glucose uptake. Together, these results indicate that isoeugenol exerts beneficial health effects by activating the AMPK/p38MAPK/AS160 pathways in skeletal muscle. PMID:26585419

  5. AMPK, a metabolic sensor, is involved in isoeugenol-induced glucose uptake in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nami; Lee, Jung Ok; Lee, Hye Jeong; Lee, Yong Woo; Kim, Hyung Ip; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sun Hwa; Lee, Chul Su; Ryoo, Sun Woo; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2016-02-01

    Isoeugenol exerts various beneficial effects on human health. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. In this study, we observed that isoeugenol activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased glucose uptake in rat L6 myotubes. Isoeugenol-induced increase in intracellular calcium concentration and glucose uptake was inhibited by STO-609, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). Isoeugenol also increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-α (PKCα). Chelation of calcium with BAPTA-AM blocked isoeugenol-induced AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. Isoeugenol stimulated p38MAPK phosphorylation that was inhibited after pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Isoeugenol also increased glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression and its translocation to the plasma membrane. GLUT4 translocation was not observed after the inhibition of AMPK and CaMKK. In addition, isoeugenol activated the Akt substrate 160 (AS160) pathway, which is downstream of the p38MAPK pathway. Knockdown of the gene encoding AS160 inhibited isoeugenol-induced glucose uptake. Together, these results indicate that isoeugenol exerts beneficial health effects by activating the AMPK/p38MAPK/AS160 pathways in skeletal muscle.

  6. Effects of tanshinone IIA on the hepatotoxicity and gene expression involved in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hu-Quan; Kim, Youn-Su; Choi, You-Jin; Kim, Youn-Chul; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Ryu, Shi-Yong; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2008-05-01

    Tanshinone IIA is one of the most abundant constituents of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE which exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions in many experimental disease models. In the present study, we demonstrated that the standardized fraction of S. miltiorrhiza (Sm-SF) was able to protect RAW 264.7 cells from ethanol-and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of superoxide radical, activation of NADPH oxidase and subsequently death of the cells. Among four main components of Sm-SF, tanshinone IIA was the most potent in protecting cells from LPS-and ethanol-induced cytotoxicity. LPS or ethanol induced the expression of CD14, iNOS, and SCD1 and decreased RXR-alpha, which was completely reversed by tanshinone IIA. In H4IIEC3 cells, 10 microM tanshinone IIA effectively blocked ethanol-induced fat accumulation as evidenced by Nile Red binding assay. These results indicate that tanshinone IIA may have potential to inhibit alcoholic liver disease by reducing LPS-and ethanol-induced Kupffer cell sensitization, inhibiting synthesis of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, inhibiting fatty acid synthesis and stimulating fatty acid oxidation. PMID:18481025

  7. Liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers: localization of collagen types I, III, and IV, α-smooth muscle actin, and elastic fibers.

    PubMed

    Mak, Ki M; Chu, Edward; Lau, K H Vincent; Kwong, Allison J

    2012-07-01

    We have shown a high prevalence of liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers with diverse causes of death by Sirius red stain; however, the various collagen types in these samples have yet to be evaluated. To further characterize the histopathology of the fibrotic lesions in the livers of these elderly cadavers, this study used immunohistochemistry and histochemistry to identify the principal collagens produced in liver fibrosis, fibrogenic cells and elastic fibers. Collagen I and III immunoreactions were found to colocalize in collagen fibers of fibrotic central veins, perisinusoidal fibrotic foci, portal tract stroma, and fibrous septa. α-Smooth muscle actin-expressing perisinusoidal hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as well as perivenular, portal, and septal myofibroblasts, were closely associated with collagen fibers, reflecting their fibrogenic functions. HSCs and myofibroblasts were also noted to express collagen IV, which may contribute to production of basal lamina-like structures. In fibrotic livers, the sinusoidal lining showed variable immunostaining for collagen IV. Collagen IV immunostaining revealed vascular proliferation and atypical ductular reaction at the portal-septal parenchymal borders, as well as capillary-like vessels in the lobular parenchyma. While elastic fibers were absent in the space of Disse, they were found to codistribute with collagens in portal tracts, fibrous septa and central veins. Our combined assessment of collagen types, HSCs, myofibroblasts, and elastic fibers is significant in understanding the histopathology of fibrosis in the aging liver.

  8. Dietary methionine availability affects the main factors involved in muscle protein turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Belghit, Ikram; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Geurden, Inge; Dias, Karine; Surget, Anne; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Panserat, Stéphane; Seiliez, Iban

    2014-08-28

    Methionine is a limiting essential amino acid in most plant-based ingredients of fish feed. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of dietary methionine concentrations on several main factors involved in the regulation of mRNA translation and the two major proteolytic pathways (ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal) in the white muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The fish were fed for 6 weeks one of the three isonitrogenous diets providing three different methionine concentrations (deficient (DEF), adequate (ADQ) and excess (EXC)). At the end of the experiment, the fish fed the DEF diet had a significantly lower body weight and feed efficiency compared with those fed the EXC and ADQ diets. This reduction in the growth of fish fed the DEF diet was accompanied by a decrease in the activation of the translation initiation factors ribosomal protein S6 and eIF2α. The levels of the main autophagy-related markers (LC3-II and beclin 1) as well as the expression of several autophagy genes (atg4b, atg12 l, Uvrag, SQSTM1, Mul1 and Bnip3) were higher in the white muscle of fish fed the DEF diet. Similarly, the mRNA levels of several proteasome-related genes (Fbx32, MuRF2, MuRF3, ZNF216 and Trim32) were significantly up-regulated by methionine limitation. Together, these results extend our understanding of mechanisms regulating the reduction of muscle growth induced by dietary methionine deficiency, providing valuable information on the biomarkers of the effects of low-fishmeal diets.

  9. Extraocular Muscle Atrophy and Central Nervous System Involvement in Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia

    PubMed Central

    Yu-Wai-Man, Cynthia; Smith, Fiona E.; Firbank, Michael J.; Guthrie, Grant; Guthrie, Stuart; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Griffiths, Philip G.; Blamire, Andrew M.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a classical mitochondrial ocular disorder characterised by bilateral progressive ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. These ocular features can develop either in isolation or in association with other prominent neurological deficits (CPEO+). Molecularly, CPEO can be classified into two distinct genetic subgroups depending on whether patients harbour single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions or multiple mtDNA deletions secondary to a nuclear mutation disrupting mtDNA replication or repair. The aim of this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was to investigate whether the ophthalmoplegia in CPEO is primarily myopathic in origin or whether there is evidence of contributory supranuclear pathway dysfunction. Methods Ten age-matched normal controls and twenty patients with CPEO were recruited nine patients with single, large-scale mtDNA deletions and eleven patients with multiple mtDNA deletions secondary to mutations in POLG, PEO1, OPA1, and RRM2B. All subjects underwent a standardised brain and orbital MRI protocol, together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in two voxels located within the parietal white matter and the brainstem. Results There was evidence of significant extraocular muscle atrophy in patients with single or multiple mtDNA deletions compared with controls. There was no significant difference in metabolite concentrations between the patient and control groups in both the parietal white matter and brainstem voxels. Volumetric brain measurements revealed marked cortical and cerebellar atrophy among patients with CPEO+ phenotypes. Conclusion The results of this study support a primary myopathic aetiology for the progressive limitation of eye movements that develops in CPEO. PMID:24086434

  10. Vasopressin-stimulated Ca2+ spiking in vascular smooth muscle cells involves phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Shiels, A J; Maszak, G; Byron, K L

    2001-06-01

    Physiological concentrations of [Arg(8)]vasopressin (AVP; 10-500 pM) stimulate oscillations of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ spikes) in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We previously reported that this effect of AVP was blocked by a putative phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). In the present study, the products of PLA2, arachidonic acid (AA), and lysophospholipids were found to be ineffective in stimulating Ca2+ spiking, and inhibitors of AA metabolism did not prevent AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor the release of AA and phosphatidic acid (PA), which are the products of PLA2 and phospholipase D (PLD), respectively. AVP (100 pM) stimulated both AA and PA formation, but only PA formation was inhibited by ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). Exogenous PLD (type VII; 2.5 U/ml) stimulated Ca2+ spiking equivalent to the effect of 100 pM AVP. AVP stimulated transphosphatidylation of 1-butanol (a PLD-catalyzed reaction) but not 2-butanol, and 1-butanol (but not 2-butanol) completely prevented AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition, which completely prevents AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking, did not inhibit AVP-stimulated phosphatidylbutanol formation. These results suggest that AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking depends on activation of PLD rather than PLA2 and that PKC activation may be downstream of PLD in the signaling cascade.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in grass, yak muscle, liver, and milk in Ruoergai high altitude prairie, the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Gai, Nan; Tang, Hua; Chen, Shu; Chen, Dazhou; Lu, Guohui; Yang, Yongliang

    2014-09-01

    In highland pastures, where no agricultural and industrial activities exist, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are believed to be mainly coming from water-soil-grass system which is subject to air-water and air-soil exchanges and atmospheric precipitation. Samples of grass and yak muscle, liver, and milk were measured for OCPs and PCBs in the summer and winter of 2011. The total concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans, HCB, and PCBs in grass samples were in the range of 0.53-2.45, 1.6-6.0, 1.10-4.38, 0.30-1.24, 0.65-2.04 ng g(-1) dw (dry weight), with the means 1.38, 2.86, 2.06, 0.73, and 1.19 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. The mean concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in yak muscle were 1.65 and 0.55 ng g(-1) fw (fresh weight), respectively; no significant seasonal differences. The average total concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, HCB, endosulfans, and PCBs in yak milk were 4.46, 0.59, 1.00, 0.27, and 0.097 ng g(-1) fat, respectively. Among the POPs investigated, β-HCH and HCB were dominant in yak muscle and liver, whereas β-HCH dominated the yak milk. Consistent with the results of other studies, PCB 153, 138, and 180 were detected in yak milk that is in accordance with the case reported for farmed cow milk in China and other countries. A human health risk was conducted based on the intake of OCPs via consumptions of the yak muscle and milk. Since the daily intake of HCHs and DDTs was lower than WHO or USEPA's acceptable daily intake or minimal risk level, showing that the consumptions of the yak muscle and milk would not pose any immediate risk to local people.

  12. Possible involvement of the novel CPI-17 protein in protein kinase C signal transduction of rabbit arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Eto, M; Lee, M R; Morita, F; Yazawa, M; Kitazawa, T

    1998-01-01

    CPI-17 has recently been identified as a novel protein in vascular smooth muscle. In vitro, its phosphorylation and thiophosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) specifically inhibits the type 1 class of protein phosphatases, including myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase. Both of the phosphorylated CPI-17 states dose-dependently potentiated submaximal contractions at constant [Ca2+] in β-escin-permeabilized and Triton X-100-demembranated arterial smooth muscle, but produced no effect in intact and less intensely permeabilized (α-toxin) tissue. Thiophosphorylated CPI-17 (tp-CPI) induced large contractions even under Ca2+-free conditions and decreased Ca2+ EC50 by more than an order of magnitude. Unphosphorylated CPI-17 produced minimal but significant effects. tp-CPI substantially increased the steady-state MLC phosphorylation to Ca2+ ratios in β-escin preparations. tp-CPI affected the kinetics of contraction and relaxation and of MLC phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in such a manner that indicates its major physiological effect is to inhibit MLC phosphatase. Results from use of specific inhibitors in concurrence with tp-CPI repudiate the involvement of general G proteins, rho A or PKC itself in the Ca2+ sensitization by tp-CPI. Our results indicate that phosphorylation of CPI-17 by PKC stimulates binding of CPI-17 to and subsequent inhibition of MLC phosphatase. This implies that CPI-17 accounts largely for the heretofore unknown signalling pathway between PKC and inhibited MLC phosphatase. PMID:9518739

  13. A Case of Pulmonary Paragonimiasis with Involvement of the Abdominal Muscle in a 9-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ah-Rum; Lee, Hae-Ran; Lee, Kwan-Sub; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2011-01-01

    In Korea, many people enjoy eating raw or underkooked freshwater crayfish and crabs which unfortunately may cause paragonimiasis. Here, we describe a case of pulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis in a 9-year-old girl, who presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, especially in the right flank and the right inguinal area, with anorexia. A chest radiograph revealed pleural effusion in both lungs, and her abdominal sonography indicated an inflammatory lesion in the right psoas muscle. Peripheral blood analysis of the patient showed hypereosinophilia (66.0%) and an elevated total serum IgE level (>2,500 IU/ml). The pleural effusion tested by ELISA were also positive for antibodies against paragonimiasis. Her dietary history stated that she had ingested raw freshwater crab, 4 months previously. The diagnosis was pulmonary paragonimiasis accompanied by abdominal muscle involvement. She was improved after 5 cycles of praziquantel treatment and 2 times of pleural effusion drainage. In conclusion, herein, we report a case of pulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis in a girl who presented with abdominal pain and tenderness in the inguinal area. PMID:22355209

  14. Embryonic liver fordin is involved in glucose glycolysis of hepatic stellate cell by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wei; Ye, Jin; Wang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of embryonic liver fordin (ELF) in liver fibrosis by regulating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) glucose glycolysis. METHODS The expression of ELF and the glucose glycolysis-related proteins were evaluated in activated HSCs. siRNA was used to silence ELF expression in activated HSCs in vitro and the subsequent changes in PI3K/Akt signaling and glucose glycolysis-related proteins were observed. RESULTS The expression of ELF increased remarkably in HSCs of the fibrosis mouse model and HSCs that were cultured for 3 wk in vitro. Glucose glycolysis-related proteins showed an obvious increase in the activated HSCs, such as phosphofructokinase, platelet and glucose transporter 1. ELF-siRNA, which perfectly silenced the expression of ELF in activated HSCs, led to the induction of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Moreover, pAkt, which is an important downstream factor in PI3K/Akt signaling, showed a significant change in response to the ELF silencing. The expression of glucose glycolysis-related proteins and ECM components decreased remarkably when the PI3K/Akt signaling was blocked by Ly294002 in the activated HSCs. CONCLUSION ELF is involved in HSC glucose glycolysis by regulating PI3K/Akt signaling. PMID:27784964

  15. Spatial and seasonal variations of trace elements concentrations in liver and muscle of round Sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) and Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) along the Senegalese coast.

    PubMed

    Diop, Mamadou; Howsam, Michael; Diop, Cheikh; Cazier, Fabrice; Goossens, Jean F; Diouf, Amadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of 11 elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se,V and Zn) were quantified in liver and muscle from two commercially important fish species from the Senegalese coast. The fish, a small pelagic species (the round sardinella) and a benthic species (the Senegalese sole) were collected from five sites during the dry and wet seasons in 2013. For both species, elements were more concentrated in liver than in muscle. There was no clear seasonal pattern in concentration of elements, however inter-site differences were observed. We found significant differences in element concentrations between the two studied species, likely associated with their behavior, feeding and habitat use. The concentrations of Cd, Fe, and Pb were significantly higher in sardinella whereas concentration of As, Cu, Cr, Mn and Se were highest in sole. The concentration of cadmium was particularly high in the liver of sardinella (from 0.9 to 56 mg kg(-1), with a mean ± sd of 17.2 ± 11.5 mg kg(-1)) and may be related to anthropogenic pressure such as the phosphate industry but also to the upwelling current which brings dissolved elements to the surface that are taken up by plankton. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb were below the limit values established by the European Community and pose no threat to public health.

  16. Damage to Liver and Skeletal Muscles in Marathon Runners During a 100 km Run With Regard to Age and Running Speed

    PubMed Central

    Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Żychowska, Małgorzata; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Konieczna, Anna; Kortas, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) whether damage to liver and skeletal muscles occurs during a 100 km run; (2) whether the metabolic response to extreme exertion is related to the age or running speed of the participant; (3) whether it is possible to determine the optimal running speed and distance for long-distance runners’ health by examining biochemical parameters in venous blood. Fourteen experienced male amateur ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age groups, took part in a 100 km run. Blood samples for liver and skeletal muscle damage indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run, after 25, 50, 75 and 100 km, and 24 hours after termination of the run. A considerable increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was observed with the distance covered (p < 0.05), which continued during recovery. An increase in the mean values of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.05) was observed with each sequential course. The biggest differences between the age groups were found for the activity of liver enzymes and LDH after completing 75 km as well as after 24 hours of recovery. It can be concluded that the response to extreme exertion deteriorates with age in terms of the active movement apparatus. PMID:25964813

  17. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation of human and veterinary antibiotics in bile, plasma, liver and muscle tissues of wild fish from a highly urbanized region.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Wang-Rong; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Su, Hao-Chang; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Pan, Chang-Gui; Huang, Guo-Yong; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the bioaccumulation of antibiotics in bile, plasma, liver and muscle tissues of wild fish from four rivers in the Pearl River Delta region. In total, 12 antibiotics were present in at least one type of fish tissues from nine wild fish species in the four rivers. The mean values of log bioaccumulation factors (log BAFs) for the detected antibiotics in fish bile, plasma, liver, and muscle tissues were at the range of 2.06-4.08, 1.85-3.47, 1.41-3.51, and 0.48-2.70, respectively. As the digestion tissues, fish bile, plasma, and liver showed strong bioaccumulation ability for some antibiotics, indicating a different bioaccumulation pattern from hydrophobic organic contaminants. Human health risk assessment based on potential fish consumption indicates that these antibiotics do not appear to pose an appreciable risk to human health. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report of bioaccumulation patterns of antibiotics in wild fish bile and plasma.

  18. Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Bruno; Estadella, Debora; Hachul, Ana Cláudia Losinskas; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet); soybean oil (S); lard (L); and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H). We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver. PMID:24027356

  19. Mercury concentration in muscle, bellyfat and liver from Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus consumed in Lake Albert fishing communities in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Tamale; Francis, Ejobi; Charles, Muyanja; Naigaga, Irene; Jessica, Nakavuma; Micheal, Ocaido; Drago, Kato Charles; Celsus, Sente

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Without surveillance studies on mercury (Hg) levels in predominant fish species and parts eaten in a fishing community, the FAO/WHO guidelines might be surpassed, hence health risk. A monitoring study in a developing country with 29 Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and 34 Lates niloticus (Nile perch) from landing sites provided muscle, bellyfat and liver samples for Mercury detection using Inductive Couple Plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The study shows that fish eaten in the fishing community are small with fewer risks from mercury. Tilapia accumulated more mercury in muscle and liver than Nile perch. Fish consumed has mercury levels higher than FAO/WHO guidelines, and the bellyfat of Nile perch bioaccumulated more mercury than Tilapia. Based on the above, it is clear that some fish species should not be eaten by the vulnerable groups due to levels of Hg found in the muscle and bellyfat. This research will serve as a base for future studies, sensitization campaigns and policy design on mercury uptake through fish in fishing communities of developing countries. PMID:27774497

  20. Circulating ghrelin and leptin concentrations and growth hormone secretagogue receptor abundance in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of beef cattle exhibiting differences in composition of gain.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J S; Wertz-Lutz, A E; Pritchard, R H; Weaver, A D; Keisler, D H; Bruns, K

    2011-12-01

    Data from species other than cattle indicate that ghrelin and GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) could play a key role in fat deposition, energy homeostasis, or glucose metabolism by directly affecting liver and adipose tissue metabolism. Beef steers (n = 72) were used to test the hypothesis that plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations and abundance of the GHS-R in liver, muscle, and adipose tissues differ in steers exhibiting differences in composition of gain. At trial initiation (d 0), 8 steers were slaughtered for initial carcass composition. The remaining 64 steers were stratified by BW, allotted to pen, and treatment was assigned randomly to pen. Steers were not implanted with anabolic steroids. Treatments were 1) a low-energy (LE) diet fed during the growing period (0 to 111 d) followed by a high-energy (HE) diet during the finishing period (112 to 209 d; LE-HE) or 2) the HE diet for the duration of the trial (1 to 209 d; HE-HE). Eight steers per treatment were slaughtered on d 88, 111, 160, and 209. Carcass ninth, tenth, and eleventh rib sections were dissected for chemical composition and regression equations were developed to predict compositional gain. Liver, muscle, and subcutaneous adipose tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen for subsequent Western blotting for GHS-R. Replicate blood samples collected before each slaughter were assayed for ghrelin and leptin concentrations. When compared at a common compositional fat end-point, the rate of carcass fat accretion (g·kg of shrunk BW(-1)) was greater (P < 0.001) in HE-HE steers whereas the rate of carcass protein accretion (g·kg of shrunk BW(-1)) was less (P < 0.001) compared with LE-HE steers. When compared at a common compositional fat end-point, plasma leptin, ghrelin, and insulin concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for HE-HE compared with LE-HE steers. Abundance of the GHS-R, to which ghrelin binds, increased over time in liver and adipose tissue but did not differ as a result of treatment

  1. Cholinergic activation of the murine trachealis muscle via non-vesicular acetylcholine release involving low-affinity choline transporters.

    PubMed

    Nassenstein, Christina; Wiegand, Silke; Lips, Katrin S; Li, Guanfeng; Klein, Jochen; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    In addition to quantal, vesicular release of acetylcholine (ACh), there is also non-quantal release at the motor endplate which is insufficient to evoke postsynaptic responses unless acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is inhibited. We here addressed potential non-quantal release in the mouse trachea by organ bath experiments and (immuno)histochemical methods. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) of nerve terminals elicited tracheal constriction that is largely due to ACh release. Classical enzyme histochemistry demonstrated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in nerve fibers in the muscle and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in the smooth muscle cells. Acute inhibition of both esterases by eserine significantly raised tracheal tone which was fully sensitive to atropine. This effect was reduced, but not abolished, in AChE, but not in BChE gene-deficient mice. The eserine-induced increase in tracheal tone was unaffected by vesamicol (10(-5)M), an inhibitor of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and by corticosterone (10(-4)M), an inhibitor of organic cation transporters. Hemicholinium-3, in low concentrations an inhibitor of the high-affinity choline transporter-1 (CHT1), completely abrogated the eserine effects when applied in high concentrations (10(-4)M) pointing towards an involvement of low-affinity choline transporters. To evaluate the cellular sources of non-quantal ACh release in the trachea, expression of low-affinity choline transporter-like family (CTL1-5) was evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Even though these transporters were largely abundant in the epithelium, denudation of airway epithelial cells had no effect on eserine-induced tracheal contraction, indicating a non-quantal release of ACh from non-epithelial sources in the airways. These data provide evidence for an epithelium-independent non-vesicular, non-quantal ACh release in the mouse trachea involving low-affinity choline transporters. PMID:26278668

  2. Identification of the rat liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of the calcium channel blocker dipfluzine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shi, Xiaowei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weili; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the specific cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of dipfluzine hydrochloride using the combination of a chemical inhibition study, a correlation analysis and a panel of recombinant rat CYP450 enzymes. The incubation of Dip with rat liver microsomes yielded four metabolites, which were identified by liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results from the assays involving eight selective inhibitors indicated that CYP3A and CYP2A1 contributed most to the metabolism of Dip, followed by CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2; however, CYP2B1, CYP2C6 and CYP2D1 did not contribute to the formation of the metabolites. The results of the correlation analysis and the assays involving the recombinant CYP450 enzymes further confirmed the above results and concluded that CYP3A2 contributed more than CYP3A1. The results will be valuable in understanding drug-drug interactions when Dip is coadministered with other drugs.

  3. Cardiac troponin testing in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis-spectrum disorders: biomarkers to distinguish between primary cardiac involvement and low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael; Lilleker, James B; Herrick, Ariane L; Chinoy, Hector

    2015-05-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, an under-recognised manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)-spectrum disorders, is associated with significant mortality. Within these two conditions, traditional skeletal muscle enzyme testing may not effectively distinguish between skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement, especially in patients with subclinical cardiac disease. Accurate biomarkers are thus required to screen for cardiac disease, to better inform both therapeutic decision-making and treatment response. The widespread uptake of cardiac troponin testing has revolutionised the management of acute coronary syndromes. While cardiac troponin I (cTnI) appears specific to the myocardium, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is also expressed by skeletal muscle, including regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There is increasing interest about the role of cardiac troponins as a putative biomarker of primary cardiac involvement in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders. Herewith we discuss subclinical cardiac disease in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders, the respective roles of cTnI and cTnT testing, and the re-expression of cTnT within regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There remains wide variation in access to cardiac troponin testing nationally and internationally. We propose two pragmatic clinical pathways using cardiac troponins, preferably measuring concomitant cTnT followed by confirmatory (cardiac) cTnI to screen patients for subclinical cardiac disease and/or low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity, and also an agenda for future research.

  4. Cardiac Troponin Testing in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies and Systemic Sclerosis-Spectrum Disorders: Biomarkers to Distinguish between Primary Cardiac Involvement and Low Grade Skeletal Muscle Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael; Lilleker, James B; Herrick, Ariane L; Chinoy, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, an under-recognised manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)-spectrum disorders, is associated with significant mortality. Within these two conditions, traditional skeletal muscle enzyme testing may not effectively distinguish between skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement, especially in patients with subclinical cardiac disease. Accurate biomarkers are thus required to screen for cardiac disease, to better inform both therapeutic decision-making and treatment response. The widespread uptake of cardiac troponin testing has revolutionised the management of acute coronary syndromes. Whereas cardiac troponin I (cTnI) appears specific to the myocardium, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is also expressed by skeletal muscle, including regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There is increasing interest about the role of cardiac troponins as a putative biomarker of primary cardiac involvement in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders. Herewith we discuss subclinical cardiac disease in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders, the respective roles of cTnI and cTnT testing, and the re-expression of cTnT within regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There remains wide variation in access to cardiac troponin testing nationally and internationally. We propose two pragmatic clinical pathways using cardiac troponins, preferably measuring concomitant cTnT followed by confirmatory (cardiac) cTnI to screen patients for subclinical cardiac disease and/or low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity, and also an agenda for future research, and also an agenda for future research. PMID:25732174

  5. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation increases lipid deposition in the liver and muscle of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) through changes in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Luo, Zhi; Zhuo, Mei-Qing; Pan, Ya-Xiong; Song, Yu-Feng; Hu, Wei; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2014-09-14

    Carnitine has been reported to improve growth performance and reduce body lipid content in fish. Thus, we hypothesised that carnitine supplementation can improve growth performance and reduce lipid content in the liver and muscle of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), a commonly cultured freshwater fish in inland China, and tested this hypothesis in the present study. Diets containing l-carnitine at three different concentrations of 47 mg/kg (control, without extra carnitine addition), 331 mg/kg (low carnitine) and 3495 mg/kg (high carnitine) diet were fed to yellow catfish for 8 weeks. The low-carnitine diet significantly improved weight gain (WG) and reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR). In contrast, the high-carnitine diet did not affect WG and FCR. Compared with the control diet, the low-carnitine and high-carnitine diets increased lipid and carnitine contents in the liver and muscle. The increased lipid content in the liver could be attributed to the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of SREBP, PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and ACCa and the increased activities of lipogenic enzymes (such as FAS, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) and to the down-regulation of the mRNA levels of the lipolytic gene CPT1A. The increased lipid content in muscle could be attributed to the down-regulation of the mRNA levels of the lipolytic genes CPT1A and ATGL and the increased activity of lipoprotein lipase. In conclusion, in contrast to our hypothesis, dietary carnitine supplementation increased body lipid content in yellow catfish. PMID:24933091

  6. Chronic subordination stress selectively downregulates the insulin signaling pathway in liver and skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue of male mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanghez, Valentina; Cubuk, Cankut; Sebastián-Leon, Patricia; Carobbio, Stefania; Dopazo, Joaquin; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic stress has been associated with obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. We developed a model of chronic psychosocial stress (CPS) in which subordinate mice are vulnerable to obesity and the metabolic-like syndrome while dominant mice exhibit a healthy metabolic phenotype. Here we tested the hypothesis that the metabolic difference between subordinate and dominant mice is associated with changes in functional pathways relevant for insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid homeostasis. Male mice were exposed to CPS for four weeks and fed either a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). We first measured, by real-time PCR candidate genes, in the liver, skeletal muscle, and the perigonadal white adipose tissue (pWAT). Subsequently, we used a probabilistic analysis approach to analyze different ways in which signals can be transmitted across the pathways in each tissue. Results showed that subordinate mice displayed a drastic downregulation of the insulin pathway in liver and muscle, indicative of insulin resistance, already on standard diet. Conversely, pWAT showed molecular changes suggestive of facilitated fat deposition in an otherwise insulin-sensitive tissue. The molecular changes in subordinate mice fed a standard diet were greater compared to HFD-fed controls. Finally, dominant mice maintained a substantially normal metabolic and molecular phenotype even when fed a HFD. Overall, our data demonstrate that subordination stress is a potent stimulus for the downregulation of the insulin signaling pathway in liver and muscle and a major risk factor for the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26946982

  7. Possible involvement of IGF-1 signaling on compensatory growth of the infraspinatus muscle induced by the supraspinatus tendon detachment of rat shoulder.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Lesmana, Ronny; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Shitara, Hitoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Takatsuru, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Takagishi, Kenji; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    A rotator cuff tear (RCT) is a common musculoskeletal disorder among elderly people. RCT is often treated conservatively for functional compensation by the remaining muscles. However, the mode of such compensation after RCT has not yet been fully understood. Here, we used the RCT rat model to investigate the compensatory process in the remaining muscles. The involvement of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/Akt signaling which potentially contributes to the muscle growth was also examined. The RCT made by transecting the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon resulted in atrophy of the SSP muscle. The remaining infraspinatus (ISP) muscle weight increased rapidly after a transient decrease (3 days), which could be induced by posttraumatic immobilization. The IGF-1 mRNA levels increased transiently at 7 days followed by a gradual increase thereafter in the ISP muscle, and those of IGF-1 receptor mRNA significantly increased after 3 days. IGF-1 protein levels biphasically increased (3 and 14 days), then gradually decreased thereafter. The IGF-1 protein levels tended to show a negative correlation with IGF-1 mRNA levels. These levels also showed a negative correlation with the ISP muscle weight, indicating that the increase in IGF-1 secretion may contribute to the ISP muscle growth. The pAkt/Akt protein ratio decreased transiently by 14 days, but recovered later. The IGF-1 protein levels were negatively correlated with the pAkt/Akt ratio. These results indicate that transection of the SSP tendon activates IGF-1/Akt signaling in the remaining ISP muscle for structural compensation. Thus, the remaining muscles after RCT can be a target for rehabilitation through the activation of IGF-1/Akt signaling. PMID:24744876

  8. Simultaneous determination of perfluorinated compounds and their potential precursors in mussel tissue and fish muscle tissue and liver samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, I; Bizkarguenaga, E; Prieto, A; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O

    2015-03-27

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination in fish liver and muscle tissue and mussel samples of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including three perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFSAs), seven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), three perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), and 10 potential precursors, including four polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), four fluorotelomer saturated acids (FTCAs) and two fluorotelomer unsaturated acids (FTUCAs), was developed in the present work. Different clean-up strategies by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a mix-mode weak anion exchanger (WAX), reverse phase Envi-Carb or a combination of them was optimized and evaluated for the clean-up of focused ultrasonic solid-liquid (FUSLE) extracts before the analysis by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mix-mode WAX coupled in-line to Envi-Carb was finally selected since it rendered the cleanest extracts and minimum matrix effect. The FUSLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS methodology was validated in terms of recovery, precision and method detection limits (MDLs). Apparent recovery values in the 65-116%, 59-119% and 67-126% range and MDLs in the 0.1-2.7 ng/g, 0.1-3.8 ng/g and 0.2-3.1ng/g range were obtained for liver, mussel and fish muscle tissue samples, respectively. The method developed was applied to the analysis of grey mullet liver (Chelon labrosus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples from the Basque Coast (North of Spain) and Yellowfin tuna muscle tissue (Thunnus albacares) samples from the Indian Ocean. To the best of our knowledge this is the first method that describes the simultaneous determination of 14 PFCs and 10 potential precursors in fish liver, fish muscle tissue and mussel samples. Besides, this is the first time that 8:2 monosubstituted polyfluorodecyl phosphate (8:2 monoPAP) and 8:2 disubstituted polyfluorodecyl phosphate (8:2 diPAP) were detected in mussel and tuna samples

  9. Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Nicola A; Lillycrop, Karen A; Fielding, Barbara; Torrens, Christopher; Hanson, Mark A; Burdge, Graham C

    2015-10-01

    Stimulation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) α1-adrenoceptors induces myosin phosphorylation and vasoconstriction via mobilisation of intracellular calcium and production of specific eicosanoids. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in VSM cells is involved, although the precise mechanism is not known. To address this, we characterised PUFA biosynthesis in VSM cells and determined its role in intracellular calcium release and eicosanoid production. Murine VSM cells converted 18:2n-6 to longer chain PUFA including 22:5n-6. Δ6 (D6d) and Δ5 (D5d) desaturase, and elongase (Elovl) 5 were expressed. Elovl2 was not detected in human, mouse or rat VSM cells, or in rat or mouse aortae, but tit was not associated with hypermethylation of its promoter. D6d or D5d inhibition reduced 18:3n-6 and 20:4n-6 synthesis, respectively, and induced concentration-related decrease in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release, and in PGE2 and PGF2α secretion. Together these findings suggest that PUFA biosynthesis in VSM cells is involved in calcium release associated with vasoconstriction.

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Nicola A; Lillycrop, Karen A; Fielding, Barbara; Torrens, Christopher; Hanson, Mark A; Burdge, Graham C

    2015-10-01

    Stimulation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) α1-adrenoceptors induces myosin phosphorylation and vasoconstriction via mobilisation of intracellular calcium and production of specific eicosanoids. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in VSM cells is involved, although the precise mechanism is not known. To address this, we characterised PUFA biosynthesis in VSM cells and determined its role in intracellular calcium release and eicosanoid production. Murine VSM cells converted 18:2n-6 to longer chain PUFA including 22:5n-6. Δ6 (D6d) and Δ5 (D5d) desaturase, and elongase (Elovl) 5 were expressed. Elovl2 was not detected in human, mouse or rat VSM cells, or in rat or mouse aortae, but tit was not associated with hypermethylation of its promoter. D6d or D5d inhibition reduced 18:3n-6 and 20:4n-6 synthesis, respectively, and induced concentration-related decrease in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release, and in PGE2 and PGF2α secretion. Together these findings suggest that PUFA biosynthesis in VSM cells is involved in calcium release associated with vasoconstriction. PMID:26324193

  11. Novel p53 target genes secreted by the liver are involved in non-cell-autonomous regulation.

    PubMed

    Charni, M; Molchadsky, A; Goldstein, I; Solomon, H; Tal, P; Goldfinger, N; Yang, P; Porat, Z; Lozano, G; Rotter, V

    2016-03-01

    The tumor-suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that prevents cancer development and is involved in regulation of various physiological processes. This is mediated both by induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and by controlling the expression of a plethora of target genes, including secreted proteins. It has been demonstrated that p53 may exert its effect in non-cell-autonomous manner by modulating the expression of genes that encode for secreted factors. In this study, we utilized our microarray data to identify and characterize novel p53 target genes expressed in human liver cells and associated with steroid hormones processing and transfer. We identified the steroid hormones binding factors, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and cytochrome P450 family 21 subfamily A polypeptide 2, as novel p53 target genes. Their expression and secretion was increased following p53 activation in various hepatic cells. We observed that p53 wild-type mice exhibited higher levels of CBG compared with their p53 null counterparts. We demonstrated that the induction of the steroid hormones binding factors can be mediated by binding to specific p53 responsive elements within their promoters. In addition, utilizing conditioned medium experiments we have shown that p53-dependent induction of SHBG secretion from liver cells enhances apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Moreover, depletion of SHBG abolished the induction of breast cancer cells death. The newly identified p53 target genes suggest a novel non-cell-autonomous tumor-suppressive regulation mediated by p53 that is central for maintaining organism homeostasis.

  12. Novel p53 target genes secreted by the liver are involved in non-cell-autonomous regulation

    PubMed Central

    Charni, M; Molchadsky, A; Goldstein, I; Solomon, H; Tal, P; Goldfinger, N; Yang, P; Porat, Z; Lozano, G; Rotter, V

    2016-01-01

    The tumor-suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that prevents cancer development and is involved in regulation of various physiological processes. This is mediated both by induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and by controlling the expression of a plethora of target genes, including secreted proteins. It has been demonstrated that p53 may exert its effect in non-cell-autonomous manner by modulating the expression of genes that encode for secreted factors. In this study, we utilized our microarray data to identify and characterize novel p53 target genes expressed in human liver cells and associated with steroid hormones processing and transfer. We identified the steroid hormones binding factors, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and cytochrome P450 family 21 subfamily A polypeptide 2, as novel p53 target genes. Their expression and secretion was increased following p53 activation in various hepatic cells. We observed that p53 wild-type mice exhibited higher levels of CBG compared with their p53 null counterparts. We demonstrated that the induction of the steroid hormones binding factors can be mediated by binding to specific p53 responsive elements within their promoters. In addition, utilizing conditioned medium experiments we have shown that p53-dependent induction of SHBG secretion from liver cells enhances apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Moreover, depletion of SHBG abolished the induction of breast cancer cells death. The newly identified p53 target genes suggest a novel non-cell-autonomous tumor-suppressive regulation mediated by p53 that is central for maintaining organism homeostasis. PMID:26358154

  13. Neuronal and smooth muscle receptors involved in the PACAP- and VIP-induced relaxations of the pig urinary bladder neck

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M; Barahona, M V; Recio, P; Benedito, S; Martínez, A C; Rivera, L; García-Sacristán, A; Prieto, D; Orensanz, L M

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: As pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP 38)- and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are widely distributed in the urinary tract, the current study investigated the receptors and mechanisms involved in relaxations induced by these peptides in the pig bladder neck. Experimental approach: Urothelium-denuded strips were suspended in organ baths for isometric force recordings and the relaxations to VIP and PACAP analogues were investigated. Key results: VIP, PACAP 38, PACAP 27 and [Ala11,22,28]-VIP produced similar relaxations. Inhibition of neuronal voltage-gated Ca2+ channels reduced relaxations to PACAP 38 and increased those induced by VIP. Blockade of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents (CSPA), nitric oxide (NO)-synthase or guanylate cyclase reduced the PACAP 38 relaxations but failed to modify the VIP responses. Inhibition of VIP/PACAP receptors and of voltage-gated K+ channels reduced PACAP 38 and VIP relaxations, which were not modified by the K+ channel blockers iberiotoxin, charybdotoxin, apamin or glibenclamide. The phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor rolipram and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin produced potent relaxations. Blockade of protein kinase A (PKA) reduced PACAP 38- and VIP-induced relaxations. Conclusions and implications: PACAP 38 and VIP relax the pig urinary bladder neck through muscle VPAC2 receptors linked to the cAMP-PKA pathway and involve activation of voltage-gated K+ channels. Facilitatory PAC1 receptors located at CSPA and coupled to NO release, and inhibitory VPAC receptors at motor endings are also involved in the relaxations to PACAP 38 and VIP, respectively. VIP/PACAP receptor antagonists could be useful in the therapy of urinary incontinence produced by intrinsic sphincter deficiency. PMID:16847435

  14. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes in liver and muscle of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: V. B. Fedorov, Inst. of Arctic Biology, Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (e-mail: fnvf@uaf.edu). The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. The article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Vadim B.; Goropashnaya, Anna V.; Tøien, Øivind; Stewart, Nathan C.; Gracey, Andrew Y.; Chang, Celia; Qin, Shizhen; Pertea, Geo; Quackenbush, John; Showe, Louise C.; Showe, Michael K.; Boyer, Bert B.; Barnes, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale gene expression screen using the 3,200 cDNA probe microarray developed specifically for Ursus americanus to detect expression differences in liver and skeletal muscle that occur during winter hibernation compared with animals sampled during summer. The expression of 12 genes, including RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), that are mostly involved in protein biosynthesis, was induced during hibernation in both liver and muscle. The Gene Ontology and Gene Set Enrichment analysis consistently showed a highly significant enrichment of the protein biosynthesis category by overexpressed genes in both liver and skeletal muscle during hibernation. Coordinated induction in transcriptional level of genes involved in protein biosynthesis is a distinctive feature of the transcriptome in hibernating black bears. This finding implies induction of translation and suggests an adaptive mechanism that contributes to a unique ability to reduce muscle atrophy over prolonged periods of immobility during hibernation. Comparing expression profiles in bears to small mammalian hibernators shows a general trend during hibernation of transcriptional changes that include induction of genes involved in lipid metabolism and carbohydrate synthesis as well as depression of genes involved in the urea cycle and detoxification function in liver. PMID:19240299

  15. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 341 KB)​​​​. Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is a ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that involves ...

  16. Mechanisms involved in 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Dawit A P; Lira, Eduardo C; Baviera, Amanda M; Cao, Peirang; Zanon, Neusa M; Arany, Zoltan; Bedard, Nathalie; Tanksale, Preeti; Wing, Simon S; Lecker, Stewart H; Kettelhut, Isis C; Navegantes, Luiz C C

    2009-12-01

    Although it is well known that catecholamines inhibit skeletal muscle protein degradation, the molecular underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of beta(2)-adrenoceptors (AR) and cAMP in regulating the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in skeletal muscle. We report that increased levels of cAMP in isolated muscles, promoted by the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine was accompanied by decreased activity of the UPS, levels of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, and expression of atrogin-1, a key ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in muscle atrophy. In cultured myotubes, atrogin-1 induction after dexamethasone treatment was completely prevented by isobutylmethylxanthine. Furthermore, administration of clenbuterol, a selective beta(2)-agonist, to mice increased muscle cAMP levels and suppressed the fasting-induced expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, atrogin-1 mRNA being much more responsive to clenbuterol. Moreover, clenbuterol increased the phosphorylation of muscle Akt and Foxo3a in fasted rats. Similar responses were observed in muscles exposed to dibutyryl-cAMP. The stimulatory effect of clenbuterol on cAMP and Akt was abolished in muscles from beta(2)-AR knockout mice. The suppressive effect of beta(2)-agonist on atrogin-1 was not mediated by PGC-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha known to be induced by beta(2)-agonists and previously shown to inhibit atrogin-1 expression), because food-deprived PGC-1alpha knockout mice were still sensitive to clenbuterol. These findings suggest that the cAMP increase induced by stimulation of beta(2)-AR in skeletal muscles from fasted mice is possibly the mechanism by which catecholamines suppress atrogin-1 and the UPS, this effect being mediated via phosphorylation of Akt and thus inactivation of Foxo3.

  17. Myosin Heavy Chain Gene Expression in Developing Neonatal Skeletal Muscle: Involvement of the Nerve, Gravity, and Thyroid State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; Adams, G.; Haddad, F.; Zeng, M.; Qin, A.; Qin, L.; McCue, S.; Bodell, P.

    1999-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene family encodes at least six MHC proteins (herein designated as neonatal, embryonic, slow type I (beta), and fast IIa, IIx, and IIb) that are expressed in skeletal muscle in a muscle-specific and developmentally-regulated fashion. At birth, both antigravity (e.g. soleus) and locomotor (e.g., plantaris) skeletal muscles are undifferentiated relative to the adult MHC phenotype such that the neonatal and embryonic MHC isoforms account for 80 - 90% of the MHC pool in a fast locomotor muscle; whereas, the embryonic and slow, type I isoforms account for approx. 90% of the pool in a typical antigravity muscle. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of an intact nerve, gravity and thyroid hormone (T3), as well as certain interactions of these interventions, on MHC gene expression in developing neonatal skeletal muscles of rodents.

  18. Determination of the Mercury Fraction Linked to Protein of Muscle and Liver Tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) from the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, José C S; Cavecci, Bruna; Queiroz, João V; Braga, Camila P; Padilha, Cilene C F; Leite, Aline L; Figueiredo, Wllyane S; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Zara, Luiz F; Padilha, Pedro M

    2015-11-01

    This study used metalloproteomic techniques to characterize mercury (Hg)-bound proteins in the muscle and liver tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) collected at the Jirau Hydroelectric Power Plant in Madeira River Basin, Brazil. The proteome of the muscle and liver tissue was obtained after two steps of fractional precipitation and separating the proteins by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Hg was identified and quantified in the protein spots by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization in an ultrasound bath. Hg with a molecular weight <20 kDa and a concentration between 13.30 and 33.40 mg g(-1) was found in the protein spots. These protein spots were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after trypsin digestion. From a total of 12 analyzed spots, seven proteins showing Hg biomarker characteristics were identified: parvalbumin and its isoforms, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, zinc (Zn) finger and BTB domain-containing protein 24, and dual-specificity protein phosphatase 22-B.

  19. Determination of the Mercury Fraction Linked to Protein of Muscle and Liver Tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) from the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, José C S; Cavecci, Bruna; Queiroz, João V; Braga, Camila P; Padilha, Cilene C F; Leite, Aline L; Figueiredo, Wllyane S; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Zara, Luiz F; Padilha, Pedro M

    2015-11-01

    This study used metalloproteomic techniques to characterize mercury (Hg)-bound proteins in the muscle and liver tissue of Tucunaré (Cichla spp.) collected at the Jirau Hydroelectric Power Plant in Madeira River Basin, Brazil. The proteome of the muscle and liver tissue was obtained after two steps of fractional precipitation and separating the proteins by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Hg was identified and quantified in the protein spots by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization in an ultrasound bath. Hg with a molecular weight <20 kDa and a concentration between 13.30 and 33.40 mg g(-1) was found in the protein spots. These protein spots were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after trypsin digestion. From a total of 12 analyzed spots, seven proteins showing Hg biomarker characteristics were identified: parvalbumin and its isoforms, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a, zinc (Zn) finger and BTB domain-containing protein 24, and dual-specificity protein phosphatase 22-B. PMID:25981407

  20. Involvement of the Antioxidant Effect and Anti-inflammatory Response in Butyrate-Inhibited Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Omana P.; Ranganna, Kasturi; Milton, Shirlette G.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms by altering the expression and, in turn, functions of target genes have potential to modify cellular processes that are characteristics of atherosclerosis, including inflammation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis/cell death. Butyrate, a natural epigenetic modifier and a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), is an inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a critical event in atherogenesis. Here, we examined whether glutathione peroxidases (GPxs), a family of antioxidant enzymes, are modulated by butyrate, contributing to its antiproliferation action on VSMC through the regulation of the inflammatory response by using western blotting, immunostaining methods and activity assay. Treatment of VSMC with butyrate not only upregulates glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 3 and GPx4, but also increases the overall catalytic activity of GPx supporting involvement of antioxidant effect in butyrate arrested VSMC proliferation. Moreover, analysis of the redox-sensitive NF-κB transcription factor system, the target of GPx, reveals that butyrate causes downregulation of IKKα, IKKβ, IkBα and NF-κBp65 expression and prevents NF-κBp65 phosphorylation at serine536 causing inhibition of the expression NF-κB target inflammatory genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, VCAM-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Overall, these observations suggest a link between the antioxidant effect and anti-inflammatory response in butyrate-arrested VSMC proliferation, accentuating the atheroprotective and therapeutic potential of natural products, like butyrate, in vascular proliferative diseases. PMID:25390157

  1. Potential involvement of chemicals in liver cancer progression: an alternative toxicological approach combining biomarkers and innovative technologies.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Ludovic; Zucchini-Pascal, Nathalie; de Sousa, Georges; Luzy, Anne-Pascale; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides as well as many other environmental pollutants are considered as risk factors for the initiation and the progression of cancer. In order to evaluate the in vitro effects of chemicals present in the diet, we began by combining viability, real-time cellular impedance and high throughput screening data to identify a concentration "zone of interest" for the six xenobiotics selected: endosulfan, dioxin, carbaryl, carbendazim, p'p'DDE and hydroquinone. We identified a single concentration of each pollutant allowing a modulation of the impedance in the absence of vital changes (nuclear integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death). Based on the number of observed modulations known to be involved in hepatic homeostasis dysfunction that may lead to cancer progression such as cell cycle and apoptosis regulators, EMT biomarkers and signal transduction pathways, we then ranked the pollutants in terms of their toxicity. Endosulfan, was able to strongly modulate all the studied cellular processes in HepG2 cells, followed by dioxin, then carbendazim. While p,p'DDE, carbaryl and hydroquinone seemed to affect fewer functions, their effects nevertheless warrant close scrutiny. Our in vitro data indicate that these xenobiotics may contribute to the evolution and worsening of hepatocarcinoma, whether via the induction of the EMT process and/or via the deregulation of liver key processes such as cell cycle and resistance to apoptosis.

  2. Cysteine Peptidases, Secreted by Trichomonas gallinae, Are Involved in the Cytopathogenic Effects on a Permanent Chicken Liver Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Aziza; Nöbauer, Katharina; Patzl, Martina; Berger, Evelyn; Hess, Michael; Bilic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonas gallinae, the aetiological agent of avian trichomonosis, was shown to secrete soluble factors involved in cytopathogenic effect on a permanent chicken liver (LMH) cell culture. The present study focused on the characterization of these molecules. The addition of specific peptidase inhibitors to the cell-free filtrate partially inhibited the monolayer destruction, which implied the presence of peptidases in the filtrate and their involvement in the cytopathogenic effect. One-dimensional substrate (gelatin) SDS-PAGE confirmed the proteolytic character of the filtrate by demonstrating the proteolytic activity within the molecular weight range from 38 to 110 kDa. In addition, the proteolytic activity was specifically inhibited by addition of TLCK and E-64 cysteine peptidase inhibitors implying their cysteine peptidase nature. Furthermore, variations in the intensity and the number of proteolytic bands were observed between cell-free filtrates of low and high passages of the same T. gallinae clonal culture. Two-dimensional substrate gel electrophoresis of concentrated T. gallinae cell-free filtrate identified at least six proteolytic spots. The mass spectrometric analysis of spots from 2-D gels identified the presence of at least two different Clan CA, family C1, cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidases in the cell-free filtrate of T. gallinae. In parallel, a PCR approach using degenerated primers based on the conserved amino acid sequence region of cysteine peptidases from Trichomonas vaginalis identified the coding sequences for four different Clan CA, family C1, cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidases. Finally, this is the first report analyzing molecules secreted by T. gallinae and demonstrating the ubiquity of peptidases secreted by this protozoon. PMID:22649527

  3. Identification of cytochrome P450 isoform involved in the metabolism of YM992, a novel selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, K; Mera, A; Watanabe, T; Higuchi, S; Chiba, K

    2000-05-01

    1. In vitro studies were conducted to identify the hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform involved in the metabolism of YM992, ((S)-2-[[(fluoro-4-indanyl)oxy]methyl]morpholine monohydrochloride), a novel serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, in human liver microsomes. 2. Microsomes prepared from yeast expressing CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 effectively metabolized YM992. A significant correlation was observed between the rate of YM992 metabolism and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, CYP1A1/2 specific activity, in liver microsomes from 16 individual donors (r2 = 0.628, p < 0.001). Alpha-naphtoflavone and isosafrole, CYP1A1/2 inhibitors, suppressed the metabolism of YM992 in human liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner. 3. The metabolism of YM992 in human liver microsomes was inhibited by approximately 95% by antibodies which recognize both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 whereas antibodies specific for CYP1A1 did not show inhibitory effects. 4. The same major metabolites, M6 and M7, were generated from YM992 after incubation with human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP1A2. 5. These results suggest that the metabolism of YM992 in human liver microsomes is mainly catalysed by CYP1A2, and that YM992 might increase plasma concentration of concomitant drugs metabolized by CYP1A2 due to competitive inhibition.

  4. The TWEAK-Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK-Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 was significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK-Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24680686

  5. β2-Adrenoceptor is involved in connective tissue remodeling in regenerating muscles by decreasing the activity of MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Silva, Meiricris T; Nascimento, Tábata L; Pereira, Marcelo G; Siqueira, Adriane S; Brum, Patrícia C; Jaeger, Ruy G; Miyabara, Elen H

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the role of β2-adrenoceptors in the connective tissue remodeling of regenerating muscles from β2-adrenoceptor knockout (β2KO) mice. Tibialis anterior muscles from β2KO mice were cryolesioned and analyzed after 3, 10, and 21 days. Regenerating muscles from β2KO mice showed a significant increase in the area density of the connective tissue and in the amount of collagen at 10 days compared with wild-type (WT) mice. A greater increase occurred in the expression levels of collagen I, III, and IV in regenerating muscles from β2KO mice evaluated at 10 days compared with WT mice; this increase continued at 21 days, except for collagen III. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) activity increased to a similar extent in regenerating muscles from both β2KO and WT mice at 3 and 10 days. This was also the case for MMP-9 activity in regenerating muscles from both β2KO and WT mice at 3 days; however, at 10 days post-cryolesion, this activity returned to baseline levels only in WT mice. MMP-3 activity was unaltered in regenerating muscles at 10 days. mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α increased in regenerating muscles from WT and β2KO mice at 3 days and, at 10 days post-cryolesion, returned to baseline only in WT mice. mRNA levels of interleukin-6 increased in muscles from WT mice at 3 days post-cryolesion and returned to baseline at 10 days post-cryolesion but were unchanged in β2KO mice. Our results suggest that the β2-adrenoceptor contributes to collagen remodeling during muscle regeneration by decreasing MMP-9 activity. PMID:26896238

  6. β2-Adrenoceptor is involved in connective tissue remodeling in regenerating muscles by decreasing the activity of MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Silva, Meiricris T; Nascimento, Tábata L; Pereira, Marcelo G; Siqueira, Adriane S; Brum, Patrícia C; Jaeger, Ruy G; Miyabara, Elen H

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the role of β2-adrenoceptors in the connective tissue remodeling of regenerating muscles from β2-adrenoceptor knockout (β2KO) mice. Tibialis anterior muscles from β2KO mice were cryolesioned and analyzed after 3, 10, and 21 days. Regenerating muscles from β2KO mice showed a significant increase in the area density of the connective tissue and in the amount of collagen at 10 days compared with wild-type (WT) mice. A greater increase occurred in the expression levels of collagen I, III, and IV in regenerating muscles from β2KO mice evaluated at 10 days compared with WT mice; this increase continued at 21 days, except for collagen III. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) activity increased to a similar extent in regenerating muscles from both β2KO and WT mice at 3 and 10 days. This was also the case for MMP-9 activity in regenerating muscles from both β2KO and WT mice at 3 days; however, at 10 days post-cryolesion, this activity returned to baseline levels only in WT mice. MMP-3 activity was unaltered in regenerating muscles at 10 days. mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α increased in regenerating muscles from WT and β2KO mice at 3 days and, at 10 days post-cryolesion, returned to baseline only in WT mice. mRNA levels of interleukin-6 increased in muscles from WT mice at 3 days post-cryolesion and returned to baseline at 10 days post-cryolesion but were unchanged in β2KO mice. Our results suggest that the β2-adrenoceptor contributes to collagen remodeling during muscle regeneration by decreasing MMP-9 activity.

  7. Two Rare Cases Involving the Spread of Tuberculosis: A Tuberculous Abscess of the Chest Wall Invading the Liver by Way of the Diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lening; Han, Chunshan; Han, Zhenguo; Yang, Bin; Gao, Haicheng; Shi, Jingwei; Xin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    We herein report two separate cases in which a tuberculous abscess of the chest wall invaded the liver by penetrating through the diaphragm. After confirming the presence of tuberculous lesions in the chest wall and liver, both patients received preoperative anti-tuberculosis (TB) medications for two weeks; after which, the lesions were surgically removed. Following surgery, both patients fully recovered and were asymptomatic, but continued to receive routine postoperative care involving anti-TB medications. Neither patient showed recurrence of TB during a 15-month follow-up period. PMID:27523001

  8. MicroRNA-122 is involved in oxidative stress in isoniazid-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, L; Zhang, Z R; Zhang, J L; Zhu, X B; He, L; Shi, Z; Gao, L; Li, Y; Hu, B; Feng, F M

    2015-10-27

    Many studies have shown that the pathogenesis of liver injury includes oxidative stress. MicroRNA-122 may be a marker for the early diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury. However, the relationship between microRNA-122 and oxidative stress in anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury remains unknown. We measured changes in tissue microRNA-122 levels and indices of oxidative stress during liver injury in mice after administration of isoniazid, a first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. We quantified microRNA-122 expression and indices of oxidative stress at 7 time points, including 1, 3, and 5 days and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The tissue microRNA-122 levels and oxidative stress significantly changed at 3 and 5 days, suggesting that isoniazid-induced liver injury reduces oxidative stress and microRNA-122 expression compared to in the control group (P < 0.05). Notably, over the time course of isoniazid-induced liver injury, mitochondrial ribosome protein S11 gene, the target of microRNA-122, began to change at 5 days (P < 0.05). The tissue microRNA-122 profile may affect oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial ribosome protein S11 gene during isoniazid-induced liver injury, which may contribute to the response mechanisms of microRNA-122 and oxidative stress.

  9. Elevated expression of transforming growth factor β3 in carbon tetrachloride-treated rat liver and involvement of retinoid signaling.

    PubMed

    Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Morii, Mayako; Yoshikawa, Kiwamu; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Satoyoshi, Kiyofumi; Miura, Mitsutaka; Imai, Katsuyuki; Hebiguchi, Tatsuzo; Habuchi, Tomonori; Senoo, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF) β is a pro-fibrotic cytokine. While three isoforms (TGF-β1, 2 and 3) are known, the functional differences between them are obscure. To investigate the roles of TGF-β isoforms during liver fibrogenesis, male Wistar rats were administrated carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) subcutaneously twice a week for two months. Livers were excised and sectioned for histochemical examinations. These livers were also used to quantitate the expression of genes associated with fibrogenesis, including TGF-β isoforms, as well as those associated with retinoid metabolism. Expression levels of Tgfb1 and Tgfb3 were up-regulated in CCl4-treated rat livers while that of Tgfb2 was not changed. The mRNAs for lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (Lrat) and retinoic acid hydroxylase, Cyp26a1, were also elevated. By immunohistochemical staining, TGF-β3 protein was found to be localized mainly in liver parenchymal cells (hepatocytes). These results indicate that retinoid mobilization likely takes place within the rat's liver following CCl4 treatment, and suggest the possibility that the expression of Tgfb mRNA is regulated by retinoic acid receptors. Reporter analyses of a region of the Tgfb3 gene were performed using the rat liver parenchymal cell line, RLC-16, and a positively responsive region was identified within its intron.

  10. Ca(2+)-induced folding and aggregation of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calsequestrin. The involvement of the trifluoperazine-binding site.

    PubMed

    He, Z; Dunker, A K; Wesson, C R; Trumble, W R

    1993-11-25

    Calsequestrin is an intermediate affinity, high capacity Ca(2+)-binding protein found in the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of both skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Previous sequence analysis suggested that calsequestrin may contain a hydrophobic binding site for the drug trifluoperazine, a site shared by the calmodulin family and shown to play a role in calmodulin/calmodulin receptor interaction. Previous studies showed that, upon Ca2+ binding, calsequestrin undergoes a conformational change, burying the trifluoperazine-binding site, folding into a more compact structure that is trypsin-resistant, and increasing the negative ellipticity of the circular dichroism spectrum. In this study, the structural and functional roles of the trifluoperazine-binding site in the Ca(2+)-induced conformational change of calsequestrin are further studied using the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine and melittin. If trifluoperazine or melittin is added to calsequestrin prior to Ca2+ addition, then Ca(2+)-induced folding is inhibited as determined by the changes in circular dichroism spectra and protein sensitivity to trypsin digestion. If, however, Ca2+ is added prior to trifluoperazine or melittin, calsequestrin remains resistant to trypsin digestion, just as if the calmodulin antagonists are not present, suggesting that the conformational change is not affected. Aggregates of calsequestrin that exhibit high Ca2+ binding capacity have previously been shown to occur at high Ca2+ and calsequestrin concentrations. By preventing a prerequisite folding step, trifluoperazine or melittin also prevents the Ca(2+)-induced aggregation of calsequestrin, thus decreasing the maximal Ca2+ binding by calsequestrin. These data suggest that the trifluoperazine-binding site is critically involved in the Ca(2+)-induced intramolecular folding step required for the intermolecular interactions leading to high capacity Ca(2+)-binding by calsequestrin.

  11. The Ang II-induced growth of vascular smooth muscle cells involves a phospholipase D-mediated signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Freeman, E J

    2000-02-15

    Angiotensin (Ang) II acts as a mitogen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) via the activation of multiple signaling cascades, including phospholipase C, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. However, increasing evidence supports signal-activated phospholipases A(2) and D (PLD) as additional mechanisms. Stimulation of PLD results in phosphatidic acid (PA) formation, and PA has been linked to cell growth. However, the direct involvement of PA or its metabolite diacylglycerol (DAG) in Ang II-induced growth is unclear. PLD activity was measured in cultured rat VSMC prelabeled with [(3)H]oleic acid, while the incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine was used to monitor growth. We have previously reported the Ang II-dependent, AT(1)-coupled stimulation of PLD and growth in VSMC. Here, we show that Ang II (100 nM) and exogenous PLD (0.1-100 units/mL; Streptomyces chromofuscus) stimulated thymidine incorporation (43-208% above control). PA (100 nM-1 microM) also increased thymidine incorporation to 135% of control. Propranolol (100 nM-10 microM), which inhibits PA phosphohydrolase, blocked the growth stimulated by Ang II, PLD, or PA by as much as 95%, an effect not shared by other beta-adrenergic antagonists. Propranolol also increased the production of PA in the presence of Ang II by 320% and reduced DAG and arachidonic acid (AA) accumulation. The DAG lipase inhibitor RHC-80267 (1-10 microM) increased Ang II-induced DAG production, while attenuating thymidine incorporation and release of AA. Thus, it appears that activation of PLD, formation of PA, conversion of PA to DAG, and metabolism of DAG comprise an important signaling cascade in Ang II-induced growth of VSMC.

  12. Distinct α2 Na,K-ATPase membrane pools are differently involved in early skeletal muscle remodeling during disuse

    PubMed Central

    Kravtsova, Violetta V.; Petrov, Alexey M.; Matchkov, Vladimir V.; Bouzinova, Elena V.; Vasiliev, Alexander N.; Benziane, Boubacar; Zefirov, Andrey L.; Chibalin, Alexander V.; Heiny, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is essential for the contractile function of skeletal muscle, which expresses the α1 and α2 subunit isoforms of Na,K-ATPase. The α2 isozyme is predominant in adult skeletal muscles and makes a greater contribution in working compared with noncontracting muscles. Hindlimb suspension (HS) is a widely used model of muscle disuse that leads to progressive atrophy of postural skeletal muscles. This study examines the consequences of acute (6–12 h) HS on the functioning of the Na,K-ATPase α1 and α2 isozymes in rat soleus (disused) and diaphragm (contracting) muscles. Acute disuse dynamically and isoform-specifically regulates the electrogenic activity, protein, and mRNA content of Na,K-ATPase α2 isozyme in rat soleus muscle. Earlier disuse-induced remodeling events also include phospholemman phosphorylation as well as its increased abundance and association with α2 Na,K-ATPase. The loss of α2 Na,K-ATPase activity results in reduced electrogenic pump transport and depolarized resting membrane potential. The decreased α2 Na,K-ATPase activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme activity rather than by altered protein and mRNA content, localization in the sarcolemma, or functional interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The loss of extrajunctional α2 Na,K-ATPase activity depends strongly on muscle use, and even the increased protein and mRNA content as well as enhanced α2 Na,K-ATPase abundance at this membrane region after 12 h of HS cannot counteract this sustained inhibition. In contrast, additional factors may regulate the subset of junctional α2 Na,K-ATPase pool that is able to recover during HS. Notably, acute, low-intensity muscle workload restores functioning of both α2 Na,K-ATPase pools. These results demonstrate that the α2 Na,K-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle is dynamically and acutely regulated by muscle use and provide the first evidence that the junctional and extrajunctional pools of the α2 Na,K-ATPase are regulated

  13. (Pro)renin receptor in skeletal muscle is involved in the development of insulin resistance associated with postinfarct heart failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Arata; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Sobirin, Mochamad Ali; Ono, Taisuke; Takahashi, Masashige; Suga, Tadashi; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Yokota, Takashi; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-15

    We previously reported that insulin resistance was induced by the impairment of insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle from heart failure (HF) via NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent oxidative stress. (Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is involved in the activation of local renin-angiotensin system and subsequent oxidative stress. We thus examined whether (P)RR inhibitor, handle region peptide (HRP), could ameliorate insulin resistance in HF after myocardial infarction (MI) by improving oxidative stress and insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle. C57BL6J mice were divided into four groups: sham operated (Sham, n = 10), Sham treated with HRP (Sham+HRP, 0.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), n = 10), MI operated (MI, n = 10), and MI treated with HRP (MI+HRP, 0.1 mg/kg/day, n = 10). After 4 wk, MI mice showed left ventricular dysfunction, which was not affected by HRP. (P)RR was upregulated in the skeletal muscle after MI (149% of sham, P < 0.05). The decrease in plasma glucose after insulin load was smaller in MI than in Sham (21 ± 2 vs. 44 ± 3%, P < 0.05), and was greater in MI+HRP (38 ± 2%, P < 0.05) than in MI. Insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of Akt and glucose transporter 4 translocation were decreased in the skeletal muscle from MI by 48 and 49% of Sham, both of which were ameliorated in MI+HRP. Superoxide production and NAD(P)H oxidase activities were increased in MI, which was inhibited in MI+HRP. HRP ameliorated insulin resistance associated with HF by improving insulin signaling via the inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase-induced superoxide production in the skeletal muscle. The (P)RR pathway is involved in the development of insulin resistance, at least in part, via the impairment of insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle from HF.

  14. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization involves IGF1 signaling: implications in ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-10-01

    One of the most fundamental biological processes in living organisms that are affected by environmental fluctuations is growth. In fish, skeletal muscle accounts for the largest proportion of body mass, and the growth of this tissue is mainly controlled by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. By using the carp (Cyprinus carpio), a fish that inhabits extreme conditions during winter and summer, we assessed the skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization and the relation of IGF signaling with protein synthesis and ribosomal biogenesis. The expression of igf1 in muscle decreased during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the expression for both paralogues of igf2 did not change significantly between seasons. The expression of igf1 receptor a (igf1ra), but not of igf1rb, was down-regulated in muscle during the winter as compared to the summer. A decrease in protein contents and protein phosphorylation for IGF signaling molecules in muscle was observed in winter-acclimatized carp. This was related with a decreased expression in muscle for markers of myogenesis (myoblast determination factor (myod), myogenic factor 5 (myf5), and myogenin (myog)); protein synthesis (myosin heavy chain (mhc) and myosin light chain (mlc3 and mlc1b)); and ribosomal biogenesis (pre-rRNA and ribosomal proteins). IGF signaling, and key markers of ribosomal biogenesis, protein synthesis, and myogenesis were affected by seasonal acclimatization, with differential regulation in gene expression and signaling pathway activation observed in muscle between both seasons. This suggests that these molecules are responsible for the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp.

  15. Diabetic muscle infarction: two cases: one with recurrent and bilateral lesions and one with usual unilateral involvement.

    PubMed

    Arroyave, Jorge A; Aljure, Dahyana Cadavid; Cañas, Carlos A; Vélez, Juan D; Abadía, Fabio Bonilla

    2013-04-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes. We describe 2 cases of diabetic muscle infarction, each one of them with a particular form of clinical presentation: recurrence, bilateral engagement, and unilateral compromise. Both cases had history of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. The diagnosis was based on clinical, imaging, and anatomopathological features. The treatment was with a close control of diabetes mellitus, analgesics, short-term immobilization, and physical therapy.

  16. Gas gangrene caused by clostridium perfringens involving the liver, spleen, and heart in a man 20 years after an orthotopic liver transplant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kitterer, Daniel; Braun, Niko; Jehs, Margit C; Schulte, Bernhard; Alscher, M Dominik; Latus, Joerg

    2014-04-01

    Despite advances in immunosuppression and liver transplant in the past, mortality and morbidity caused by infections remain major problems. We present a 71-year-old man who was admitted to our internal intensive care unit with septicemia. Upon admission, he had poorly localized epigastric pain and fever of 2 days ' duration. Twenty years earlier, he had undergone an orthotopic liver transplant. Testing revealed a high C-reactive protein level, elevated liver enzymes, and an acute kidney injury. A computer tomography scan showed 2 circular, non--rim-enhancing, totally emphysematous intrahepatic lesions. Additionally, gas could be seen in the portal veins mainly, as well as in the biliary system, in the right auricle, and the splenic veins. To the best of our knowledge, he showed no malignant lesion or predisposing trauma. Empirically, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics was begun, and the patient was transferred to the operating suite. When surgery began, blood cultures revealed the presence of gram-positive bacilli, which were identified as Clostridium perfringens. Seven hours after the surgery, the patient developed asystole and died. In septic patients presenting with severe hemolysis, Clostridium perfringens infection must be considered in the absence of a malignant lesion or a predisposing trauma; a previous episode of gastroenteritis might be a predisposing trauma by impairing the barrier of the intestinal flora, leading to Clostridium perfringens infection.

  17. Circulating tissue antigens. I. Tissue antigens in serum of patients with diseases involving injury of the liver and of other organs

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, E.

    1974-01-01

    Circulating tissue antigens (CTA) were investigated in 143 patients with disorders involving injury of the liver and of other organs and in forty-eight normal subjects by immunodiffusion techniques using rabbit anti-human liver serum containing antibodies to a liver-specific antigen and to tissue antigens of wide organ distribution. Analysis of serum samples by double immunodiffusion showed up to three CTA in the following cases: fifteen out of eighteen, viral hepatitis (VH), two out of thirteen, other infectious diseases, two out of ten, alcoholic cirrhosis, seven out of twenty-one, congestive heart failure (CHF), four out of fourteen, myocardial infarction, ten out of twenty-one, trauma, two out of thirteen, carcinoma and three out of thirty-three, miscellaneous diseases. Forty-eight normal subjects showed no CTA. Immunoelectrophoresis of most of the positive cases showed two to three CTA, while a few cases showed four to six. Absorption tests with organ extracts demonstrated that in most patients, CTA were substances shared by several organs. However, in two cases of VH, in two cases of CHF with liver necrosis and in two cases of trauma to the liver, one of the CTA was shown to be liver specific. The CTA were susceptible to digestion by pronase and were found to be relatively thermolabile. Positive sera showed higher glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase activities than the negative sera. These preliminary data suggest that further investigation on CTA in disease involving tissue injury and necrosis may be rewarding. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4219874

  18. Liver protein profiles in insulin receptor-knockout mice reveal novel molecules involved in the diabetes pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Capuani, Barbara; Della-Morte, David; Donadel, Giulia; Caratelli, Sara; Bova, Luca; Pastore, Donatella; De Canio, Michele; D'Aguanno, Simona; Coppola, Andrea; Pacifici, Francesca; Arriga, Roberto; Bellia, Alfonso; Ferrelli, Francesca; Tesauro, Manfredi; Federici, Massimo; Neri, Anna; Bernardini, Sergio; Sbraccia, Paolo; Di Daniele, Nicola; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Orlandi, Augusto; Urbani, Andrea; Lauro, Davide

    2015-05-01

    Liver has a principal role in glucose regulation and lipids homeostasis. It is under a complex control by substrates such as hormones, nutrients, and neuronal impulses. Insulin promotes glycogen synthesis, lipogenesis, and lipoprotein synthesis and inhibits gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and VLDL secretion by modifying the expression and enzymatic activity of specific molecules. To understand the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to metabolic liver disease, we analyzed liver protein patterns expressed in a mouse model of diabetes by proteomic approaches. We used insulin receptor-knockout (IR(-/-)) and heterozygous (IR(+/-)) mice as a murine model of liver metabolic dysfunction associated with diabetic ketoacidosis and insulin resistance. We evaluated liver fatty acid levels by microscopic examination and protein expression profiles by orthogonal experimental strategies using protein 2-DE MALDI-TOF/TOF and peptic nLC-MS/MS shotgun profiling. Identified proteins were then loaded into Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to find possible molecular networks. Twenty-eight proteins identified by 2-DE analysis and 24 identified by nLC-MS/MS shotgun were differentially expressed among the three genotypes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a central role of high-mobility group box 1/2 and huntigtin never reported before in association with metabolic and related liver disease. A different modulation of these proteins in both blood and hepatic tissue further suggests their role in these processes. These results provide new insight into pathophysiology of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis and could be useful in identifying novel biomarkers to predict risk for diabetes and its complications.

  19. AAV2/8 vectors purified from culture medium with a simple and rapid protocol transduce murine liver, muscle, and retina efficiently.

    PubMed

    Doria, Monica; Ferrara, Antonella; Auricchio, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    During the production of some adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes, a large amount of vectors is found in the medium of producing cells. For their purification, previous protocols used tangential flow filtration (TFF) of the medium followed by iodixanol gradient centrifugation. Taking advantage of the higher purity of the medium than the cell-derived material as the source of AAV, we tested a simple method that combines production of large culture medium volumes containing AAV from cell stacks with medium clarification+TFF without further time-consuming and nonscalable centrifugation. To test this, we selected AAV2/8, which is emerging as a favored serotype for transduction of liver, muscle, and retina and abundantly found in the extracellular medium. We show that yields and in vitro infectivity of AAV2/8 vectors produced from the culture medium using this method are higher than those of vectors purified from the same cell lysate using a conventional CsCl2 gradient ultracentrifugation-based method, although purity appears inferior. In addition, we found that the transduction efficiency of AAV2/8 purified from medium was similar to that of AAV2/8 purified from the same cell lysate in the murine liver, muscle, and retina. Considering that the purification protocol from the medium we describe requires 3 hr as opposed to the 63 hr of a conventional two-round CsCl2-gradient ultracentrifugation+desalting, we conclude that TFF of the medium containing AAV2/8 represents a quick and scalable method to purify research-grade vectors for use in animal models.

  20. Expression of the inhibitory Ly49E receptor is not critically involved in the immune response against cutaneous, pulmonary or liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Filtjens, Jessica; Keirsse, Jiri; Van Ammel, Els; Taveirne, Sylvie; Van Acker, Aline; Kerre, Tessa; Taghon, Tom; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Plum, Jean; Van Ginderachter, Jo A.; Leclercq, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) lymphocytes are part of the innate immune system and are important in immune protection against tumourigenesis. NK cells display a broad repertoire of activating and inhibitory cell surface receptors that regulate NK cell activity. The Ly49 family of NK receptors is composed of several members that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) or MHC-I-related molecules. Ly49E is a unique inhibitory member, being triggered by the non-MHC-I-related protein urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in contrast to the known MHC-I-triggering of the other inhibitory Ly49 receptors. Ly49E also has an uncommon expression pattern on NK cells, including high expression on liver DX5− NK cells. Furthermore, Ly49E is the only Ly49 member expressed by epidermal γδ T cells. As γδ T cells and/or NK cells have been shown to be involved in the regulation of cutaneous, pulmonary and liver malignancies, and as uPA is involved in tumourigenesis, we investigated the role of the inhibitory Ly49E receptor in the anti-tumour immune response. We demonstrate that, although Ly49E is highly expressed on epidermal γδ T cells and liver NK cells, this receptor does not play a major role in the control of skin tumour formation or in lung and liver tumour development. PMID:27469529

  1. Metabolites and JAK/STAT pathway were involved in the liver and spleen damage in male Wistar rats fed with mequindox.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Huang, Xian-Ju; Ihsan, Awais; Liu, Zhao-Ying; Huang, Ling-Li; Zhang, Hua-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhou, Wen; Liu, Qin; Xue, Xi-Juan; Yuan, Zong-Hui

    2011-02-27

    Mequindox (MEQ) is a novel synthetic quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides antibacterial agent and growth promoter in animal husbandry. This study was to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS), the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) and inflammatory cytokines were involved in toxicities of MEQ. Our data demonstrated that high dose of MEQ (275 mg/kg) apparently led to tissue impairment combined with imbalance of redox in liver. In liver and spleen samples, hydroxylation metabolites and desoxymequindox were detected, directly confirming the potential link of N→O group reduction metabolism with its organ toxicity. Moreover, up-regulation of JAK/STAT, SOCS family, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were also observed in the high-dose group. Meanwhile, significant changes of oxidative stress indices in liver were observed in the high-dose group. As for NADPH subunit, the mRNA levels of many subunits were significantly up-regulated at low doses but down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner in liver and spleen, suggesting an involvement of NADPH in MEQ metabolism and ROS generation. In conclusion, we reported the dose-dependent long-term toxicity as well as the discussion of the potential mechanism and pathways of MEQ, which raised further awareness of its toxicity following with the dose change.

  2. Expression of the inhibitory Ly49E receptor is not critically involved in the immune response against cutaneous, pulmonary or liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Filtjens, Jessica; Keirsse, Jiri; Van Ammel, Els; Taveirne, Sylvie; Van Acker, Aline; Kerre, Tessa; Taghon, Tom; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Plum, Jean; Van Ginderachter, Jo A; Leclercq, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) lymphocytes are part of the innate immune system and are important in immune protection against tumourigenesis. NK cells display a broad repertoire of activating and inhibitory cell surface receptors that regulate NK cell activity. The Ly49 family of NK receptors is composed of several members that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) or MHC-I-related molecules. Ly49E is a unique inhibitory member, being triggered by the non-MHC-I-related protein urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in contrast to the known MHC-I-triggering of the other inhibitory Ly49 receptors. Ly49E also has an uncommon expression pattern on NK cells, including high expression on liver DX5(-) NK cells. Furthermore, Ly49E is the only Ly49 member expressed by epidermal γδ T cells. As γδ T cells and/or NK cells have been shown to be involved in the regulation of cutaneous, pulmonary and liver malignancies, and as uPA is involved in tumourigenesis, we investigated the role of the inhibitory Ly49E receptor in the anti-tumour immune response. We demonstrate that, although Ly49E is highly expressed on epidermal γδ T cells and liver NK cells, this receptor does not play a major role in the control of skin tumour formation or in lung and liver tumour development. PMID:27469529

  3. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C19 is involved in R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Yoshio; Uno, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Norie; Fujino, Hideki; Shukuya, Mitsunori; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Makiko; Utoh, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2012-12-15

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used as primate models in preclinical studies. However, some differences are occasionally seen between monkeys and humans in the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes. R- and S-warfarin are model substrates for stereoselective oxidation in humans. In this current research, the activities of monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey cytochrome P450 enzymes were analyzed with respect to R- and S-warfarin 6- and 7-hydroxylation. Monkey liver microsomes efficiently mediated both R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation, in contrast to human liver microsomes, which preferentially catalyzed S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation. R-Warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities in monkey liver microsomes were not inhibited by α-naphthoflavone or ketoconazole, and were roughly correlated with P450 2C19 levels and flurbiprofen 4-hydroxylation activities in microsomes from 20 monkey livers. In contrast, S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities were not correlated with the four marker drug oxidation activities used. Among the 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes tested, P450 2C19 had the highest activities for R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylations. Monkey P450 3A4 and 3A5 slowly mediated R- and S-warfarin 6-hydroxylations. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C19 had high V(max) and low K(m) values for R-warfarin 7-hydroxylation, comparable to those for monkey liver microsomes. Monkey P450 2C19 also mediated S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation with V(max) and V(max)/K(m) values comparable to those for recombinant human P450 2C9. R-warfarin could dock favorably into monkey P450 2C19 modeled. These results collectively suggest high activities for monkey liver P450 2C19 toward R- and S-warfarin 6- and 7-hydroxylation in contrast to the saturation kinetics of human P450 2C9-mediated S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation.

  4. Connective tissue cells, but not muscle cells, are involved in establishing the proximo-distal outcome of limb regeneration in the axolotl.

    PubMed

    Nacu, Eugen; Glausch, Mareen; Le, Huy Quang; Damanik, Febriyani Fiain Rochel; Schuez, Maritta; Knapp, Dunja; Khattak, Shahryar; Richter, Tobias; Tanaka, Elly M

    2013-02-01

    During salamander limb regeneration, only the structures distal to the amputation plane are regenerated, a property known as the rule of distal transformation. Multiple cell types are involved in limb regeneration; therefore, determining which cell types participate in distal transformation is important for understanding how the proximo-distal outcome of regeneration is achieved. We show that connective tissue-derived blastema cells obey the rule of distal transformation. They also have nuclear MEIS, which can act as an upper arm identity regulator, only upon upper arm amputation. By contrast, myogenic cells do not obey the rule of distal transformation and display nuclear MEIS upon amputation at any proximo-distal level. These results indicate that connective tissue cells, but not myogenic cells, are involved in establishing the proximo-distal outcome of regeneration and are likely to guide muscle patterning. Moreover, we show that, similarly to limb development, muscle patterning in regeneration is influenced by β-catenin signalling.

  5. Cadmium concentration in liver and muscle of silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) in the tip of Baja California south, México.

    PubMed

    Terrazas-López, Rafael; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Anguiano-Zamora, Marlene; Sujitha, S B; Jonathan, M P

    2016-06-15

    Cadmium concentrations were determined in the tissues of muscle and liver of Carcharhinus falciformis (silky shark) sampled in Todos Santos, Baja California South, Mexico. This is one of the main shark species for human consumption in Mexico. Results indicate that accumulation of Cd varied in both sexes, based on its metabolism, sex, maturity and other biological characteristics. High Cd values were observed in the liver of adults of male (529.61μgg(-1)) and female (457.43μgg(-1)), whereas, in muscular tissues it was low (0.37μgg(-1)) than the prescribed permissible limits for seafood (0.5μgg(-1)). Substantial correlations were observed between body length and Cd values in adults except young male due to faster growth rate and its metabolism. The study indicated the impact of environmental conditions in the accumulation of Cd and its risk to the food web structure in the marine environment and health hazard for humans. PMID:27016957

  6. Cadmium concentration in liver and muscle of silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) in the tip of Baja California south, México.

    PubMed

    Terrazas-López, Rafael; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Anguiano-Zamora, Marlene; Sujitha, S B; Jonathan, M P

    2016-06-15

    Cadmium concentrations were determined in the tissues of muscle and liver of Carcharhinus falciformis (silky shark) sampled in Todos Santos, Baja California South, Mexico. This is one of the main shark species for human consumption in Mexico. Results indicate that accumulation of Cd varied in both sexes, based on its metabolism, sex, maturity and other biological characteristics. High Cd values were observed in the liver of adults of male (529.61μgg(-1)) and female (457.43μgg(-1)), whereas, in muscular tissues it was low (0.37μgg(-1)) than the prescribed permissible limits for seafood (0.5μgg(-1)). Substantial correlations were observed between body length and Cd values in adults except young male due to faster growth rate and its metabolism. The study indicated the impact of environmental conditions in the accumulation of Cd and its risk to the food web structure in the marine environment and health hazard for humans.

  7. A high omega 3 fatty acid diet alters fatty acid composition of heart, liver, kidney, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in swine.

    PubMed

    Otten, W; Wirth, C; Iaizzo, P A; Eichinger, H M

    1993-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles and total lipid contents of two skeletal muscles, adipose tissue, heart, liver and kidney of swine fed a diet rich in omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids (i.e., 5% fish oil) was investigated. These values were compared to those determined for animals which were fed an equal caloric diet low in n-3 fatty acids (i.e., 5% coconut oil). All supplementations were given over a 13-week period. The lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol, trans-esterified and the relative fatty acid methyl-esters concentrations were determined using capillary gas chromatography. The fish oil diet significantly enhanced the relative amounts of n-3 fatty acids (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in all tissues examined. In the heart, liver and kidney, the increases in n-3 fatty acids were compensated by decreases primarily in arachidonic acid, but in the other tissues the contents of lauric and myristic acids were also reduced. In general, the n-3 fatty acid contents were 40-165% higher in the animals fed the fish oil. Supplementation of n-3 fatty acids in swine induced a significant incorporation of these fatty acids throughout the body, however the extent of this incorporation differed between tissues perhaps due to tissue-specific metabolic pathways. PMID:8373137

  8. Maximal enzyme activities, and myoglobin and glutathione concentrations in heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda; Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Stewart, J M; Woods, A K; Blakely, J A

    2005-07-01

    We measured the enzymes of glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, beta-oxidation and electron transport in the heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Additionally, we measured the amount of myoglobin in skeletal and heart muscle as well as the concentration of glutathione in heart. The picture that emerges is of an aerobically well-endowed animal with constrained anaerobic capacity as indicated by small activities of glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase. Lipid metabolism and amino acid transamination, as well as gluconeogenesis, are predominant in processing carbon resources and probably reflect the large contribution lipid and protein make to the diet of this carnivore. The citrate synthase activity is the largest of any reported value for vertebrate heart (250 U/g). The additional, very active cytochrome c oxidase activity (220 U/g) and large myoglobin concentrations (8 mg/g) in heart are clearly the underpinnings of the rapid metabolic rates reported for small insectivores. The potential for generation of reactive oxygen species must be great since the total glutathione concentration (165 mumol/g) is 300-fold greater in shrew hearts than in hearts of rats. PMID:15914053

  9. Testosterone induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells via extrinsic apoptotic pathway with mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species involvement.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Rheure Alves Moreira; Neves, Karla Bianca; Pestana, Cezar Rangel; Queiroz, André Lima; Zanotto, Camila Ziliotto; Chignalia, Andréia Z; Valim, Yara Maria; Silveira, Leonardo R; Curti, Carlos; Tostes, Rita C

    2014-06-01

    Testosterone exerts both beneficial and harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Considering that testosterone induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ROS activate cell death signaling pathways, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via mitochondria-dependent ROS generation. Potential mechanisms were addressed. Cultured VSMCs were stimulated with testosterone (10(-7) mol/l) or vehicle (2-12 h) in the presence of flutamide (10(-5) mol/l), CCCP (10(-6) mol/l), mimetic manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP; 3 × 10(-5) mol/l), Z-Ile-Glu(O-ME)-Thr-Asp(O-Me) fluoromethyl ketone (Z-IETD-FMK; 10(-5) mol/l), or vehicle. ROS were determined with lucigenin and dichlorodihydrofluorescein; apoptosis, with annexin V and calcein; O2 consumption, with a Clark-type electrode, and procaspases, caspases, cytochrome c, Bax, and Bcl-2 levels by immunoblotting. Testosterone induced ROS generation (relative light units/mg protein, 2 h; 162.6 ± 16 vs. 100) and procaspase-3 activation [arbitrary units, (AU), 6 h; 166.2 ± 19 vs. 100]. CCCP, MnTMPyP, and flutamide abolished these effects. Testosterone increased annexin-V fluorescence (AU, 197.6 ± 21.5 vs. 100) and decreased calcein fluorescence (AU, 34.4 ± 6.4 vs. 100), and O2 consumption (nmol O2/min, 18.6 ± 2.0 vs. 34.4 ± 3.9). Testosterone also reduced Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio but not cytochrome-c release from mitochondria. Moreover, testosterone (6 h) induced cleavage of procaspase 8 (AU, 161.1 ± 13.5 vs. 100) and increased gene expression of Fas ligand (2(ΔΔCt), 3.6 ± 1.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.5), and TNF-α (1.7 ± 0.4 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1). CCCP, MnTMPyP, and flutamide abolished these effects. These data indicate that testosterone induces apoptosis in VSMCs via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway with the involvement of androgen receptor activation and mitochondria-generated ROS.

  10. Regulation of myofibrillar accumulation in chick muscle cultures - Evidence for the involvement of calcium and lysosomes in non-uniform turnover of contractile proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Geri; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of calcium on the synthesis and the degradation of individual myofibrillar proteins were investigated using primary chick-leg skeletal muscle cultures labeled with S-35-methionine (for protein accumulation experiments) or Ca(2+)-45 (for calcium efflux experiments). It was found that the turnover of individual contractile proteins is regulated nonuniformly by a calcium-dependent mechanism involving lysosomes. The results also indicate that contractile proteins are released from the myofibril before their breakdown to amino acids.

  11. Forms of n-3 (ALA, C18:3n-3 or DHA, C22:6n-3) Fatty Acids Affect Carcass Yield, Blood Lipids, Muscle n-3 Fatty Acids and Liver Gene Expression in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Lewandowski, Paul A; Fahri, Fahri T; Burnett, Viv F; Dunshea, Frank R; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2015-11-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P < 0.001). DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P < 0.01). Flax treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle ALA concentration, while DHA treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P < 0.05). The FlaxDHA diet had additive effects, including higher FADS1 and ACOX1 mRNA than for the Flax or DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently.

  12. Forms of n-3 (ALA, C18:3n-3 or DHA, C22:6n-3) Fatty Acids Affect Carcass Yield, Blood Lipids, Muscle n-3 Fatty Acids and Liver Gene Expression in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Lewandowski, Paul A; Fahri, Fahri T; Burnett, Viv F; Dunshea, Frank R; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2015-11-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P < 0.001). DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P < 0.01). Flax treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle ALA concentration, while DHA treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P < 0.05). The FlaxDHA diet had additive effects, including higher FADS1 and ACOX1 mRNA than for the Flax or DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently. PMID:26395388

  13. Involvement of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the acidosis-induced efflux of ATP from rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jie; Le, Gengyun; Ballard, Heather J

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of acidosis on the efflux of ATP from skeletal muscle. Infusion of lactic acid to the perfused hindlimb muscles of anaesthetised rats produced dose-dependent decreases in pH and increases in the interstitial ATP of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle: 10 mm lactic acid reduced the venous pH from 7.22 ± 0.04 to 6.97 ± 0.02 and increased interstitial ATP from 38 ± 8 to 67 ± 11 nm. The increase in interstitial ATP was well-correlated with the decrease in pH (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05). Blockade of cellular uptake of lactic acid using α-cyano-hydroxycinnamic acid abolished the lactic acid-induced ATP release, whilst infusion of sodium lactate failed to depress pH or increase interstitial ATP, suggesting that intracellular pH depression, rather than lactate, stimulated the ATP efflux. Incubation of cultured skeletal myoblasts with 10 mm lactic acid significantly increased the accumulation of ATP in the bathing medium from 0.46 ± 0.06 to 0.76 ± 0.08 μm, confirming the skeletal muscle cells as the source of the released ATP. Acidosis-induced ATP efflux from the perfused muscle was abolished by CFTRinh-172, a specific inhibitor of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), or glibenclamide, an inhibitor of both KATP channels and CFTR, but it was not affected by atractyloside, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial ATP transporter. Silencing of the CFTR gene using an siRNA abolished the acidosis-induced increase in ATP release from cultured myoblasts. CFTR expression on skeletal muscle cells was confirmed using immunostaining in the intact muscle and Western blotting in the cultured cells. These data suggest that depression of the intracellular pH of skeletal muscle cells stimulates ATP efflux, and that CFTR plays an important role in the release mechanism. PMID:20819945

  14. Liver transplantation☆

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M.; Mennini, G.; Lai, Q.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Drudi, F.M.; Pugliese, F.; Berloco, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) involves the substitution of a diseased native liver with a normal liver (or part of one) taken from a deceased or living donor. Considered an experimental procedure through the 1980s, OLT is now regarded as the treatment of choice for a number of otherwise irreversible forms of acute and chronic liver disease. The first human liver transplantation was performed in the United States in 1963 by Prof. T.E. Starzl of the University of Colorado. The first OLT to be performed in Italy was done in 1982 by Prof. R. Cortesini. The procedure was successfully performed at the Policlinico Umberto I of the University of Rome (La Sapienza). The paper reports the indications for liver transplantation, donor selection and organ allocation in our experience, surgical technique, immunosuppression, complications and results of liver transplantation in our center. PMID:23396075

  15. Low intensity training of mdx mice reduces carbonylation and increases expression levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Hyzewicz, Janek; Tanihata, Jun; Kuraoka, Mutsuki; Ito, Naoki; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2015-05-01

    High intensity training induces muscle damage in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, an animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, low intensity training (LIT) rescues the mdx phenotype and even reduces the level of protein carbonylation, a marker of oxidative damage. Until now, beneficial effects of LIT were mainly assessed at the physiological level. We investigated the effects of LIT at the molecular level on 8-week-old wild-type and mdx muscle using 2D Western blot and protein-protein interaction analysis. We found that the fast isoforms of troponin T and myosin binding protein C as well as glycogen phosphorylase were overcarbonylated and downregulated in mdx muscle. Some of the mitochondrial enzymes of the citric acid cycle were overcarbonylated, whereas some proteins of the respiratory chain were downregulated. Of functional importance, ATP synthase was only partially assembled, as revealed by Blue Native PAGE analysis. LIT decreased the carbonylation level and increased the expression of fast isoforms of troponin T and of myosin binding protein C, and glycogen phosphorylase. In addition, it increased the expression of aconitate hydratase and NADH dehydrogenase, and fully restored the ATP synthase complex. Our study demonstrates that the benefits of LIT are associated with lowered oxidative damage as revealed by carbonylation and higher expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction. Potentially, these results will help to design therapies for DMD based on exercise mimicking drugs. PMID:25660994

  16. Low intensity training of mdx mice reduces carbonylation and increases expression levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Hyzewicz, Janek; Tanihata, Jun; Kuraoka, Mutsuki; Ito, Naoki; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2015-05-01

    High intensity training induces muscle damage in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, an animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, low intensity training (LIT) rescues the mdx phenotype and even reduces the level of protein carbonylation, a marker of oxidative damage. Until now, beneficial effects of LIT were mainly assessed at the physiological level. We investigated the effects of LIT at the molecular level on 8-week-old wild-type and mdx muscle using 2D Western blot and protein-protein interaction analysis. We found that the fast isoforms of troponin T and myosin binding protein C as well as glycogen phosphorylase were overcarbonylated and downregulated in mdx muscle. Some of the mitochondrial enzymes of the citric acid cycle were overcarbonylated, whereas some proteins of the respiratory chain were downregulated. Of functional importance, ATP synthase was only partially assembled, as revealed by Blue Native PAGE analysis. LIT decreased the carbonylation level and increased the expression of fast isoforms of troponin T and of myosin binding protein C, and glycogen phosphorylase. In addition, it increased the expression of aconitate hydratase and NADH dehydrogenase, and fully restored the ATP synthase complex. Our study demonstrates that the benefits of LIT are associated with lowered oxidative damage as revealed by carbonylation and higher expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism and muscle contraction. Potentially, these results will help to design therapies for DMD based on exercise mimicking drugs.

  17. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerates ethanol-induced liver injury in mice: involvement of intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Yantao; Sun, Xinguo; Song, Zhenyuan; McClain, Craig J; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcoholics have a lower dietary zinc intake compared to health controls. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction between dietary zinc deficiency and ethanol consumption in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6N mice were subjected to 8-week feeding of 4 experimental liquid diets: (1) zinc adequate diet, (2) zinc adequate diet plus ethanol, (3) zinc deficient diet, and (4) zinc deficient diet plus ethanol. Ethanol exposure with adequate dietary zinc resulted in liver damage as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase level and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Dietary zinc deficiency alone increased hepatic lipid contents, but did not induce hepatic inflammation. Dietary zinc deficiency showed synergistic effects on ethanol-induced liver damage. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol effects on hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Dietary zinc deficiency worsened ethanol-induced imbalance between hepatic pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and hepatic expression of cell death receptors. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol-induced reduction of plasma leptin, although it did not affect ethanol-induced reduction of white adipose tissue mass. Dietary zinc deficiency also deteriorated ethanol-induced gut permeability increase and plasma endotoxin elevation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary zinc deficiency is a risk factor in alcoholic liver disease, and multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors may mediate the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency.

  18. Differential regulation of insulin receptor substrates-1 and -2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase isoforms in liver and muscle of the obese diabetic (ob/ob) mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Kerouz, N J; Hörsch, D; Pons, S; Kahn, C R

    1997-01-01

    Intracellular insulin signaling involves a series of alternative and complementary pathways created by the multiple substrates of the insulin receptor (IRS) and the various isoforms of SH2 domain signaling molecules that can interact with these substrates. In this study, we have evaluated the roles of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in signaling to the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase pathway in the ob/ob mouse, a model of the insulin resistance of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We find that the levels of expression of both IRS-1 and IRS-2 are decreased approximately 50% in muscle, whereas in liver the decrease is significantly greater for IRS-2 (72%) than for IRS-1 (29%). This results in differential decreases in IRS-1 and IRS-2 phosphorylation, docking of the p85alpha regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase, and activation of this enzyme in these two insulin target tissues. In ob/ob liver there is also a change in expression of the alternatively spliced isoforms of the regulatory subunits for PI 3-kinase that was detected at the protein and mRNA level. This resulted in a 45% decrease in the p85alpha form of PI 3-kinase, a ninefold increase in the AS53/p55alpha, and a twofold increase in p50alpha isoforms. Thus, there are multiple alterations in the early steps of insulin signaling in the ob/ob mouse, with differential regulation of IRS-1 and IRS-2, various PI 3-kinase regulatory isoforms, and a lack of compensation for the decrease in insulin signaling by any of the known alternative pathways at these levels. PMID:9399964

  19. Kinetic characteristics of norcocaine N-hydroxylation in mouse and human liver microsomes: involvement of CYP enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pellinen, P; Kulmala, L; Konttila, J; Auriola, S; Pasanen, M; Juvonen, R

    2000-11-01

    The first step in the oxidative metabolism of cocaine is N-demethylation to norcocaine, which is further N-hydroxylated to more toxic N-hydroxynorcocaine. In this study we examined the kinetics of norcocaine N-hydroxylation mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in mouse and human liver microsomes. N-hydroxynorcocaine was identified by analytical HPLC-MS after incubation of norcocaine with mouse liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. In mouse liver microsomes, there was no apparent difference in Km values for norcocaine N-hydroxylation between male and female microsomes, while the Vmax rate was approximately two times higher in female than in male microsomes (34+/-10 v. 16+/-4 pmol/min per mg protein). The Km value for norcocaine N-hydroxylation in human liver microsomes was approximately three times higher than that observed in comparable incubations using mouse liver microsomes, whereas the Vmax rate was ten times lower. Both cocaine and norcocaine induced type I difference spectra upon interaction with CYP in mouse liver microsomes. In contrast, in human microsomes both type I and type II spectra were recorded. In the 0.01 to 1 mM concentration range, cocaine and norcocaine inhibited mouse microsomal testosterone 6alpha-, 7alpha- and 16alpha-hydroxylation reactions by 20% to 30%. Testosterone 6beta- and 15alpha-hydroxylations were blocked by 60% and 50%, respectively, by 1 mM norcocaine, while only 40% inhibition was obtained with 1 mM cocaine. Coumarin 7-hydroxylation and pentoxyresorufin O-deethylation were inhibited by 50% by 1 and 0.4 mM norcocaine, respectively. In contrast, 10 and 2 mM cocaine, respectively, were needed to obtain the same degrees of inhibition. In human liver microsomes, 1 mM norcocaine and cocaine blocked testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase by 60% and 40%, respectively. Coumarin 7-hydroxylation was inhibited by only 30% by norcocaine (5.4 mM) and cocaine (10 mM). Norcocaine N-hydroxylation in mouse and human liver microsomes was blocked by 30

  20. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C9 is involved in caffeine 7-N-demethylation to form theophylline.

    PubMed

    Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Uno, Yasuhiro; Onose, Yui; Hosaka, Shinya; Fujino, Hideki; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a phenotyping substrate for human cytochrome P450 1A2. 3-N-Demethylation of caffeine is the main human metabolic pathway, whereas monkeys extensively mediate the 7-N-demethylation of caffeine to form pharmacological active theophylline. Roles of monkey P450 enzymes in theophylline formation from caffeine were investigated using individual monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes, and the results were compared with those for human P450 enzymes. Caffeine 7-N-demethylation activity in microsomes from 20 monkey livers was not strongly inhibited by α-naphthoflavone, quinidine or ketoconazole, and was roughly correlated with diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activities. Monkey P450 2C9 had the highest activity for caffeine 7-N-demethylation. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C9 had a high Vmax/Km value for caffeine 7-N-demethylation, comparable to low Km value for monkey liver microsomes. Caffeine could dock favorably with monkey P450 2C9 modeled for 7-N-demethylation and with human P450 1A2 for 3-N-demethylation. The primary metabolite theophylline was oxidized to 8-hydroxytheophylline in similar ways by liver microsomes and by recombinant P450s in both humans and monkeys. These results collectively suggest a high activity for monkey liver P450 2C9 toward caffeine 7-N-demethylation, whereas, in humans, P450 1A2-mediated caffeine 3-N-demethylation is dominant.

  1. Procollagen C-Proteinase Enhancer 1 (PCPE-1) as a Plasma Marker of Muscle and Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Eyal; Safrin, Mary; Ziv, Hana; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Kessler, Efrat

    2016-01-01

    Current non-invasive diagnostic methods of fibrosis are limited in their ability to identify early and intermediate stages of fibrosis and assess the efficacy of therapy. New biomarkers of fibrosis are therefore constantly sought for, leading us to evaluate procollagen C-proteinase enhancer 1 (PCPE-1), a fibrosis-related extracellular matrix glycoprotein, as a plasma marker of fibrosis. A sandwich ELISA that permitted accurate measurements of PCPE-1 concentrations in mouse plasma was established. Tissue fibrosis was assessed using histochemical, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting analyses for type I collagen and PCPE-1. The normal plasma concentration of PCPE-1 in 6 weeks to 4 months old mice was ~200 ng/ml (189.5 ± 11.3 to 206.8 ± 13.8 ng/ml). PCPE-1 plasma concentrations in four and 8.5 months old mdx mice displaying fibrotic diaphragms increased 27 and 40% respectively relatively to age-matched control mice, an increase comparable to that of the N-propeptide of procollagen type III (PIIINP), a known blood marker of fibrosis. PCPE-1 plasma levels in mice with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis increased 34 to 50% relatively to respective controls and reflected the severity of the disease, namely increased gradually during the progression of fibrosis and went down to basal levels during recovery, in parallel to changes in the liver content of collagen I and PCPE-1. The results favor PCPE-1 as a potential new clinically valuable fibrosis biomarker. PMID:27458976

  2. Constitutive active/androstane receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, and cytotoxicity are involved in oxadiazon-induced liver tumor development in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Inoue, Kaoru; Ichimura, Ryohei; Takahashi, Miwa; Kodama, Yukio; Yoshida, Midori

    2016-02-01

    Oxadiazon (OX) is a protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicide that induces porphyria and liver tumors in rodents. Although porphyria is generally considered to be a risk factor for liver tumor development, the mechanisms through which OX mediates tumor development are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the mechanisms of tumor development by focusing on constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR), which is essential for the development of tumors in response to several chemicals. After 1, 4, or 13 weeks of dietary treatment with 1000 ppm OX, hepatic Cyp2b10 expression was induced in wild-type (WT) mice. However, this effect was blocked in CAR-knockout (CARKO) mice. Hepatic Cyp4a10 expression, indicative of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation, and cytotoxic changes in hepatocytes were also observed in both groups of mice. After initiation by diethylnitrosamine, 26-week treatment with OX resulted in an increase in proliferative lesions, including foci and adenomas, in both genotypes, and the incidence and multiplicity of proliferative lesions in CARKO mice were higher than those in control mice but lower than those in WT mice. These results suggested that CAR, PPARα activation, and cytotoxicity were involved in the development of liver tumors. Moreover, porphyrin was not apparently involved in OX-induced tumor development.

  3. Different mechanisms are involved in DNA damage, bacterial mutagenicity and cytotoxicity induced by 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in suspensions of rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Holme, J A; Søderlund, E J; Brunborg, G; Omichinski, J G; Bekkedal, K; Trygg, B; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1989-01-01

    1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) induced DNA damage, measured by an automated alkaline elution method, in suspensions of rat liver parenchymal cells at low concentrations (1-10 microM). At much higher concentrations (0.5-2.5 mM), DBCP was metabolized to products that were mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA100 co-incubated with the liver cells. At these higher concentrations a marked depletion of cellular glutathione was seen and at 2.5 mM DBCP was cytotoxic. Perdeuterated DBCP (D5-DBCP) caused less DNA damage in the liver cells than DBCP, most likely because of decrease in cytochrome P-450 dependent metabolism. A more pronounced decrease in mutagenicity occurred with D5-DBCP compared to DBCP, whereas the two compounds were equally cytotoxic. Preincubation of the liver cells with diethylmaleate or buthionine sulfoximine, to lower cellular levels of glutathione, decreased DBCP induced DNA damage. The decrease in DNA damage was proportional to the decrease in cellular glutathione levels. In contrast, diethylmaleate enhanced DBCP-induced bacterial mutagenicity and cellular cytotoxicity. The cytotoxic effect could be partly blocked by addition of ascorbate. From the data presented we suggest that: (i) cytochrome P-450 dependent oxidation as well as glutathione conjugation are involved in DBCP induced DNA damage, (ii) cytochrome P-450 dependent oxidation leads to formation of products mutagenic to bacteria and (iii) the cytotoxicity induced by DBCP in the liver cells in vitro is caused by oxidative damage following glutathione depletion and/or direct membrane damage. PMID:2642751

  4. From Nutrient to MicroRNA: a Novel Insight into Cell Signaling Involved in Skeletal Muscle Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a remarkably complicated organ comprising many different cell types, and it plays an important role in lifelong metabolic health. Nutrients, as an external regulator, potently regulate skeletal muscle development through various internal regulatory factors, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and microRNAs (miRNAs). As a nutrient sensor, mTOR, integrates nutrient availability to regulate myogenesis and directly or indirectly influences microRNA expression. MiRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs mediating gene silencing, are implicated in myogenesis and muscle-related diseases. Meanwhile, growing evidence has emerged supporting the notion that the expression of myogenic miRNAs could be regulated by nutrients in an epigenetic mechanism. Therefore, this review presents a novel insight into the cell signaling network underlying nutrient-mTOR-miRNA pathway regulation of skeletal myogenesis and summarizes the epigenetic modifications in myogenic differentiation, which will provide valuable information for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:27766039

  5. Mechanism of angiotensin II-induced arachidonic acid metabolite release in aortic smooth muscle cells: involvement of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, J; Kozawa, O; Suzuki, A; Watanabe-Tomita, Y; Oiso, Y; Uematsu, T

    1997-02-01

    In a previous study, we have shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) activates phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D due to Ang II-induced Ca2+ influx from extracellular space in subcultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. In the present study, we have investigated the role of phospholipase D in Ang II-induced arachidonic acid (AA) metabolite release and prostacyclin synthesis in subcultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Ang II significantly stimulated AA metabolite release in a concentration-dependent manner in the range between 1 nmol/I and 0.1 mumol/I. D.L.-Propranolol hydrochloride (propranolol), an inhibitor of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced release of AA metabolites. The Ang II-induced AA metabolite release was reduced by chelating extracellular Ca2+ with EGTA. Genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases, significantly suppressed the Ang II-induced AA metabolite release. 1,6-Bis-(cyclohexyloximinocarbonylamino)-hexane (RHC-80267), a potent and selective inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced AA metabolite release. Both propranolol and RHC-80267 inhibited the Ang II-induced synthesis of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin. The synthesis was suppressed by genistein. These results strongly suggest that the AA metabolite release induced by Ang II is mediated, at least in part, through phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase D activation in aortic smooth muscle cells.

  6. Coexposure of lead- and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in rats: involvement of nitric oxide-initiated oxidative stress and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Yie; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Chen, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Bei-Chang

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lead (Pb) and the involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and oxidative stress in Pb-plus-LPS (Pb/LPS)-induced liver damage in rats. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-alpha, nitric oxide (NO), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in rats treated with Pb and/or LPS. Pb ranging from 0 to 15 mg/kg dose dependently increased AST, ALT, NO, or LPO in LPS-treated rats. Pretreatment with iNOS inhibitor 1400W reduced NO, LPO, TNF-alpha, AST, and ALT in Pb/LPS-treated rats. Thus, Pb increased LPS-induced liver damage, which might be associated with increased NO-initiated oxidative stress and TNF-alpha in rats.

  7. Abdominal cystic lymphangiomatosis: report of a case involving the liver and spleen and illustration of two cases with origin in the greater omentum and root of the mesentery.

    PubMed

    McQuown, D S; Fishbein, M C; Moran, E T; Hoffman, R B

    1975-12-01

    B-scan ultrasonic examination of a 10-year-old Mexican-American female with multiple avascular hepatic and splenic defects on both isotopic and angiographic evaluation revealed numerous cystic lesions, a few of which contained numerous internal echoes. Subsequent pathological examination revealed lymphangiomatosis of the liver and spleen. Some of the cysts contained caseous material as predicted only by the ultrasonic examination. Cystic lymphangiomatosis of the spleen is a rare condition and only a few cases of involvement of both the spleen and liver have reported. This is the first such case evaluated by ultrasound. Two cases are also illustrated of cystic lymphangiomatosis with origin in the greater omentum and root of the mesentery.

  8. Rapid subcellular fractionation of the rat liver endocytic compartments involved in transcytosis of polymeric immunoglobulin A and endocytosis of asialofetuin.

    PubMed Central

    Branch, W J; Mullock, B M; Luzio, J P

    1987-01-01

    The distributions of two endocytosed radiolabelled ligands (polymeric immunoglobulin A and asialofetuin) in rat liver endocytic compartments were investigated by using rapid subcellular fractionation of post-mitochondrial supernatants on vertical density gradients of Ficoll or Nycodenz. Two endocytic compartments were identified, both ligands being initially associated with a light endocytic-vesicle fraction on Ficoll gradients, asialofetuin then accumulating in denser endosomes before transfer to lysosomes for degradation. PMID:2444213

  9. Chlorogenic acid prevents acetaminophen-induced liver injury: the involvement of CYP450 metabolic enzymes and some antioxidant signals.

    PubMed

    Pang, Chun; Sheng, Yu-chen; Jiang, Ping; Wei, Hai; Ji, Li-li

    2015-07-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenolic compound, is abundant in fruits, dietary vegetables, and some medicinal herbs. This study investigated the prevention of CGA against acetaminophen (AP)-induced hepatotoxicity and its engaged mechanisms. CGA reversed the decreased cell viability induced by AP in L-02 cells in vitro. In addition, CGA reduced the AP-induced increased serum levels of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) in vivo. The effect of CGA on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymatic (CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4) activities showed that CGA caused very little inhibition on CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 enzymatic activities, but not CYP3A4. The measurement of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) levels showed that CGA prevented AP-induced liver oxidative stress injury. Further, CGA increased the AP-induced decreased mRNA expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, epoxide hydrolase (Ephx) 2, and polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K (Polr2k), and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In summary, CGA ameliorates the AP-induced liver injury probably by slightly inhibiting CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 enzymatic properties. In addition, cellular important antioxidant signals such as Prx1, 2, 3, 5, 6, Ephx2, Polr2k, and Nrf2 also contributed to the protection of CGA against AP-induced oxidative stress injury. PMID:26160718

  10. Mechanisms involved in ketone body release by rat liver cells: influence of pH and bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Fafournoux, P.; Demigne, C.; Remesy, C.

    1987-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the intra- and extracellular concentration gradient of ketone bodies across the hepatic cell membrane, ketone bodies released by liver cells, and the effects of changes in acid-base status on these processes. Ketone bodies appeared to be released by liver cells against a concentration gradient both in vivo and in vitro. In vitro, a decrease in external pH and bicarbonate gradient measured with ( UC)- and (TH)-labelled compounds, and efflux rates. Analysis of the distribution ratio of ketone bodies as a function of pH across the cell membrane indicates that additional factors must be invoked to account for the observed distribution ratios. These data along with measurement of ketone body efflux are consistent with the existence of a system promoting the efflux of ketone bodies from liver cells, which is trans-stimulated by external bicarbonate. In vivo, ketogenesis was also inhibited by acidosis, and slightly enhanced by bicarbonate infusion, although this was not solely due to effects on transfer across the cell membrane. The study indicates that the hepatic release of ketone bodies might be auto-limited by ketoacidosis.

  11. Chlorogenic acid prevents acetaminophen-induced liver injury: the involvement of CYP450 metabolic enzymes and some antioxidant signals*

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chun; Sheng, Yu-chen; Jiang, Ping; Wei, Hai; Ji, Li-li

    2015-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenolic compound, is abundant in fruits, dietary vegetables, and some medicinal herbs. This study investigated the prevention of CGA against acetaminophen (AP)-induced hepatotoxicity and its engaged mechanisms. CGA reversed the decreased cell viability induced by AP in L-02 cells in vitro. In addition, CGA reduced the AP-induced increased serum levels of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) in vivo. The effect of CGA on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymatic (CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4) activities showed that CGA caused very little inhibition on CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 enzymatic activities, but not CYP3A4. The measurement of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) levels showed that CGA prevented AP-induced liver oxidative stress injury. Further, CGA increased the AP-induced decreased mRNA expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, epoxide hydrolase (Ephx) 2, and polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K (Polr2k), and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In summary, CGA ameliorates the AP-induced liver injury probably by slightly inhibiting CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 enzymatic properties. In addition, cellular important antioxidant signals such as Prx1, 2, 3, 5, 6, Ephx2, Polr2k, and Nrf2 also contributed to the protection of CGA against AP-induced oxidative stress injury. PMID:26160718

  12. Involvement of senescence marker protein-30 in glucose metabolism disorder and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Ishigami, Akihito

    2016-03-01

    Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) was found to decrease in the liver, kidneys and lungs of mice during aging. SMP30 is a pleiotropic protein that acts to protect cells from apoptosis by enhancing plasma membrane Ca(2+) -pump activity and is bona fide gluconolactonase (EC 3.1.1.17) that participates in the penultimate step of the vitamin C biosynthetic pathway. For the past several years, we have obtained strong evidence showing the close relationship between SMP30, glucose metabolism disorder and non-alchoholic fatty liver disease in experiments with SMP30 knockout mice. Emerging proof links the following abnormalities: (i) the reduction of SMP30 by aging and/or excessive dietary fat or genetic deficiency causes a loss of Ca(2+) pumping activity, which impairs acute insulin release in pancreatic β-cells, initiates inflammatory responses with oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in non-alchoholic steatohepatitis, exacerbates renal tubule damage, and introduces tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy; (ii) vitamin C insufficiency also impairs acute insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by a mechanism distinct from that of the SMP30 deficiency; and (iii) the increased oxidative stress by concomitant deficiencies of SMP30, superoxide dismutase 1 and vitamin C similarly causes hepatic steatosis. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of SMP30 in glucose metabolism disorder and non-alchoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27018279

  13. Exercise training in ovariectomized rats stimulates estrogenic-like effects on expression of genes involved in lipid accumulation and subclinical inflammation in liver.

    PubMed

    Pighon, Abdolnaser; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Jankowski, Marek; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc

    2011-05-01

    We hypothesized that the reduction in liver fat accumulation known to occur with exercise training in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats is associated with reduced expression of genes involved in lipogenesis while favoring the expression of transcription factors regulating lipid oxidation. We also tested the hypothesis that liver fat accumulation in Ovx rats is associated with an increased gene expression of several inflammatory biomarkers and that exercise training would attenuate this response. Sprague-Dawley female rats (14 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 4 groups of sedentary sham-operated (Sham), Ovx, Ovx with 17β-estradiol (E2) supplementation using a pellet (0.72 mg; 0.012 mg/d) with a biodegradable carrier binder, and Ovx trained with endurance exercise. Endurance exercise training consisted of continuous running on a motor-driven rodent treadmill 5 times per week for 5 weeks. Fat accumulation in liver as well as in adipose fat depots was higher (P < .01) in Ovx than in Sham rats. This response was prevented in Ovx animals with 17β-estradiol supplementation and with endurance exercise training. Liver gene expressions of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1-c, stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 (and its protein content), carbohydrate response element binding protein, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase were increased with estrogen withdrawal (P < .01). These responses were corrected with E2 supplementation alone as well as with training alone. Conversely, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α messenger RNA levels were lower (P < .01) after estrogen removal compared with Sham rats. The lower hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α messenger RNA levels in Ovx rats were reincreased by E2 replacement or by exercise training. Gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines including inhibitor-κB kinase β and interleukin-6, as well as protein content of nuclear factor-κB, was higher (P < .01) in Ovx than in Sham animals. E2

  14. Infantile dilated X-linked cardiomyopathy, G4.5 mutations, altered lipids, and ultrastructural malformations of mitochondria in heart, liver, and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bissler, John J; Tsoras, Monica; Göring, Harald H H; Hug, Peter; Chuck, Gail; Tombragel, Esther; McGraw, Catherine; Schlotman, James; Ralston, Michael A; Hug, George

    2002-03-01

    Mutations in the Xq28 gene G4.5 lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Differential splicing of G4.5 results in a family of proteins called "tafazzins" with homology to acyltransferases. These enzymes assemble fatty acids into membrane lipids. We sequenced G4.5 in two kindreds with X-linked DCM and in two unrelated men, one with idiopathic DCM and the other with DCM of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. We examined the ultrastructure of heart, liver, and muscle biopsy specimens in these three DCM types; we used gas chromatography to compare fatty acid composition in heart, liver, and muscle autopsy specimens of two patients of kindred 1 with that of controls. In X-linked DCM, G4.5 had a stop codon (E188X), a nonsense mutation, in kindred 1 and an amino acid substitution (G240R), a missense mutation, in kindred 2. In the two men with isolated DCM, G4.5 was not mutated. Ultrastructural mitochondrial malformations were present in the biopsy tissues of the patients with DCM. Cardiac biopsy specimens of both kindreds with X-linked DCM exhibited greatly enlarged mitochondria with large bundles of stacked, compacted, disarrayed cristae that differed from those of the two types of isolated DCM. Autopsy tissue of patients with X-linked DCM had decreased unsaturated and increased saturated fatty acid concentrations. Seven of 13 published G4.5 missense mutations, including the one presented here, occur in acyltransferase motifs. Impaired acyltransferase function could result in increased fatty acid saturation that would decrease membrane fluidity. Mitochondrial membrane proliferation may be an attempt to compensate for impaired function of acyltransferase. Cardiac ultrastructure separates X-linked DCM with G4.5 mutations from the two types of isolated DCM without G4.5 mutations. Electron microscopy of promptly fixed myocardial biopsy specimens has a role in defining the differential diagnosis of DCM. Mutational analysis of the G4.5 gene also serves this purpose.

  15. Evaluation of trace element levels in muscles, liver and gonad of fish species from São Francisco River of the Paraná Brazilian state by using SR-TXRF technique.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Módenes, A N; Palácio, S M; Szymanski, N; Welter, R A; Rizzutto, M A; Borba, C E; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2010-12-01

    This study is focused on the analysis of an accumulation of inorganic elements in muscles, liver and gonad of seven fish species from São Francisco River located in the Paraná state of Brazil. Concentrations of the elements were determined using the SR-TXRF technique. In the muscles of fish species, negative length dependent relationships were observed for chromium and zinc ion absorption. The obtained results showed that accumulated Cr ions values are above the limits defined in the Brazilian legislative norm on food. PMID:20828660

  16. Evaluation of trace element levels in muscles, liver and gonad of fish species from São Francisco River of the Paraná Brazilian state by using SR-TXRF technique.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Módenes, A N; Palácio, S M; Szymanski, N; Welter, R A; Rizzutto, M A; Borba, C E; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2010-12-01

    This study is focused on the analysis of an accumulation of inorganic elements in muscles, liver and gonad of seven fish species from São Francisco River located in the Paraná state of Brazil. Concentrations of the elements were determined using the SR-TXRF technique. In the muscles of fish species, negative length dependent relationships were observed for chromium and zinc ion absorption. The obtained results showed that accumulated Cr ions values are above the limits defined in the Brazilian legislative norm on food.

  17. Metal Concentrations in the Liver and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Muscle of Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) Culled off Ishigaki Island, Japan: Changes with Growth

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kato, Yoshihisa; Fujii, Yukiko; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations in liver samples as well as the Hg concentration and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) in muscle samples from silvertip sharks (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) in Japan. Muscular and hepatic Hg concentrations increased with increased body length. However, these increases were more prominent in the liver than in the muscle samples, and appeared to occur after maturation. Hepatic Zn and Cu concentrations decreased during the growth stage, and then increased concomitantly thereafter with increases in Cd burden. Hepatic Fe concentration from males increased proportionally with increases in body length, whereas no increase was observed in samples from females, probably due to the mother-to-embryo transfer of Fe. The δ13C values tended to decrease with increases in body length, whereas no decrease in the δ15N values was observed. PMID:26859569

  18. Metal Concentrations in the Liver and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Muscle of Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) Culled off Ishigaki Island, Japan: Changes with Growth.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kato, Yoshihisa; Fujii, Yukiko; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations in liver samples as well as the Hg concentration and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) in muscle samples from silvertip sharks (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) in Japan. Muscular and hepatic Hg concentrations increased with increased body length. However, these increases were more prominent in the liver than in the muscle samples, and appeared to occur after maturation. Hepatic Zn and Cu concentrations decreased during the growth stage, and then increased concomitantly thereafter with increases in Cd burden. Hepatic Fe concentration from males increased proportionally with increases in body length, whereas no increase was observed in samples from females, probably due to the mother-to-embryo transfer of Fe. The δ13C values tended to decrease with increases in body length, whereas no decrease in the δ15N values was observed. PMID:26859569

  19. Metal Concentrations in the Liver and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Muscle of Silvertip Shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) Culled off Ishigaki Island, Japan: Changes with Growth.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kato, Yoshihisa; Fujii, Yukiko; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe concentrations in liver samples as well as the Hg concentration and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) in muscle samples from silvertip sharks (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) in Japan. Muscular and hepatic Hg concentrations increased with increased body length. However, these increases were more prominent in the liver than in the muscle samples, and appeared to occur after maturation. Hepatic Zn and Cu concentrations decreased during the growth stage, and then increased concomitantly thereafter with increases in Cd burden. Hepatic Fe concentration from males increased proportionally with increases in body length, whereas no increase was observed in samples from females, probably due to the mother-to-embryo transfer of Fe. The δ13C values tended to decrease with increases in body length, whereas no decrease in the δ15N values was observed.

  20. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  1. The alternative splicing program of differentiated smooth muscle cells involves concerted non-productive splicing of post-transcriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Llorian, Miriam; Gooding, Clare; Bellora, Nicolas; Hallegger, Martina; Buckroyd, Adrian; Wang, Xiao; Rajgor, Dipen; Kayikci, Melis; Feltham, Jack; Ule, Jernej; Eyras, Eduardo; Smith, Christopher W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a key component of gene expression programs that drive cellular differentiation. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are important in the function of a number of physiological systems; however, investigation of SMC AS has been restricted to a handful of events. We profiled transcriptome changes in mouse de-differentiating SMCs and observed changes in hundreds of AS events. Exons included in differentiated cells were characterized by particularly weak splice sites and by upstream binding sites for Polypyrimidine Tract Binding protein (PTBP1). Consistent with this, knockdown experiments showed that that PTBP1 represses many smooth muscle specific exons. We also observed coordinated splicing changes predicted to downregulate the expression of core components of U1 and U2 snRNPs, splicing regulators and other post-transcriptional factors in differentiated cells. The levels of cognate proteins were lower or similar in differentiated compared to undifferentiated cells. However, levels of snRNAs did not follow the expression of splicing proteins, and in the case of U1 snRNP we saw reciprocal changes in the levels of U1 snRNA and U1 snRNP proteins. Our results suggest that the AS program in differentiated SMCs is orchestrated by the combined influence of auxiliary RNA binding proteins, such as PTBP1, along with altered activity and stoichiometry of the core splicing machinery. PMID:27317697

  2. Neonatal multiorgan failure due to ACAD9 mutation and complex I deficiency with mitochondrial hyperplasia in liver, cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle, and renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Nancy; Wang, Xinjian; Peng, Yanyan; Valencia, C Alexander; Khuchua, Zaza; Hata, Jessica; Witte, David; Huang, Taosheng; Bove, Kevin E

    2016-03-01

    Complex I deficiency causes Leigh syndrome, fatal infant lactic acidosis, and neonatal cardiomyopathy. Mutations in more than 100 nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA genes miscode for complex I subunits or assembly factors. ACAD9 is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase with a novel function in assembly of complex I; biallelic mutations cause progressive encephalomyopathy, recurrent Reye syndrome, and fatal cardiomyopathy. We describe the first autopsy in fatal neonatal lethal lactic acidosis due to mutations in ACAD9 that reduced complex I activity. We identified mitochondrial hyperplasia in cardiac myocytes, diaphragm muscle, and liver and renal tubules in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using immunohistochemistry for mitochondrial antigens. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in the ACAD9 gene: c.187G>T (p.E63*) and c.941T>C (p.L314P). The nonsense mutation causes late infantile lethality; the missense variant is novel. Autopsy-derived fibroblasts had reduced complex I activity (53% of control) with normal activity in complexes II to IV, similar to reported cases of ACAD9 deficiency.

  3. Determination of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol, and florfenicol amine in poultry and porcine muscle and liver by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Cun; Li, Jiancheng; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang

    2009-05-15

    A sensitive and reliable method using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol (CAP), thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF), and florfenicol amine (FFA) at trace levels in muscle and liver. Before extraction with ethyl acetate, CAP-d(5) was added to tissue samples as internal standard. The organic extracts were frozen to remove lipid and further purified by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with hexane and solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB cartridges. The target compounds were derivatized with BSTFA+1% TMCS prior to GC-NCI/MS determination in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The recovery values ranged from 78.5 to 105.5%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) <17%. The limits of detections (LODs) of 0.1 microg/kg for CAP and 0.5 microg/kg for TAP, FF, and FFA were obtain. Incurred sample and samples from local market were successfully analyzed using this method. PMID:19395324

  4. The influence of dietary fat source on liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial modifications and lifespan changes in calorie-restricted mice

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, José Manuel; López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Chen, Yana; Khraiwesh, Husam; González-Reyes, José Antonio; del Río, Lucía Fernández; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; del Río, Mercedes; Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Ariza, Julia; de Cabo, Rafael; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Hagopian, Kevork; Burón, María Isabel; Ramsey, Jon Jay

    2015-01-01

    The Membrane Theory of Aging proposes that lifespan is inversely related to the level of unsaturation in membrane phospholipids. Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends lifespan in many model organisms, which may be related to alterations in membrane phospholipids fatty acids. During the last few years our research focused on studying how altering the predominant fat source affects the outcome of CR in mice. We have established four dietary groups: one control group fed 95% of a pre-determined ad libitum intake (in order to prevent obesity), and three CR groups fed 40% less than ad libitum intake. Lipid source for the control and one of the CR groups was soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFA) whereas the two remaining CR groups were fed diets containing fish oil (high in n-3 PUFA), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids). Dietary intervention periods ranged from 1 to 18 months. We performed a longitudinal lifespan study and a cross-sectional study set up to evaluate several mitochondrial parameters which included fatty acid composition, H+ leak, activities of electron transport chain enzymes, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and mitochondrial apoptotic signaling in liver and skeletal muscle. These approaches applied to different cohorts of mice have independently indicated that lard as a fat source often maximizes the effects of 40% CR on mice. These effects could be due to significant increases of monounsaturated fatty acids levels, in accordance with the Membrane Theory of Aging. PMID:25860863

  5. Simultaneous determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in muscles, liver, eggs and milk by MLC with a monolithic column and time-programmed UV detection: application to baby food and formulae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tylosin and Josamycin are macrolide antibiotics. They are used in the treatment of pneumonia, arthritis and mastitis in cattle, and mycoplasma infections in poultry. The incorrect use of antibiotics has lead to the presence of antibiotic residues in foods. The residues cause toxic effects on consumers. Results A simple and sensitive method was optimized and validated for the analysis of tylosin and josamycin residues in food samples. Analytical separation was performed in less than 10 min using a RP C18 monolithic column with time-programmed UV detection at 287 nm and 232 nm and a micellar solution of 0.17 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 14% methanol and 0.3% triethylamine in 0.02 M phosphoric acid buffered at pH 4 as the mobile phase. The method was fully validated in accordance with ICH guidelines. The micellar method was successfully applied to quantitatively determine tylosin and josamycin residues in spiked chicken muscles, chicken liver, bovine muscles, liver, milk and eggs. It was also extended to the determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in chicken-based baby food and baby formulae. The compounds were separated by a monolithic column which, on account of its particular structure, could bear higher flow rates than usually found for this kind of analysis. High extraction efficiency for tylosin and josamycin was obtained without matrix interference in the extraction process and in the subsequent chromatographic determination. No organic solvent was used during the pretreatment step. Hence, it is considered an interesting technique for “green” chemistry. Conclusion The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in spiked chicken muscles, chicken liver, bovine muscles, liver, milk and eggs. It was also extended to the determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in chicken-based baby food and baby formulae. PMID:24976860

  6. Acyl Coenzyme A Thioesterase Them5/Acot15 Is Involved in Cardiolipin Remodeling and Fatty Liver Development

    PubMed Central

    Gut, Heinz; Hynx, Debby; Marcellin, David; Bleck, Christopher K. E.; Genoud, Christel; Cron, Peter; Keusch, Jeremy J.; Dummler, Bettina; Esposti, Mauro Degli

    2012-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesterases hydrolyze thioester bonds in acyl-CoA metabolites. The majority of mammalian thioesterases are α/β-hydrolases and have been studied extensively. A second class of Hotdog-fold enzymes has been less well described. Here, we present a structural and functional analysis of a new mammalian mitochondrial thioesterase, Them5. Them5 and its paralog, Them4, adopt the classical Hotdog-fold structure and form homodimers in crystals. In vitro, Them5 shows strong thioesterase activity with long-chain acyl-CoAs. Loss of Them5 specifically alters the remodeling process of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin. Them5−/− mice show deregulation of lipid metabolism and the development of fatty liver, exacerbated by a high-fat diet. Consequently, mitochondrial morphology is affected, and functions such as respiration and β-oxidation are impaired. The novel mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase Them5 has a critical and specific role in the cardiolipin remodeling process, connecting it to the development of fatty liver and related conditions. PMID:22586271

  7. Acyl coenzyme A thioesterase Them5/Acot15 is involved in cardiolipin remodeling and fatty liver development.

    PubMed

    Zhuravleva, Elena; Gut, Heinz; Hynx, Debby; Marcellin, David; Bleck, Christopher K E; Genoud, Christel; Cron, Peter; Keusch, Jeremy J; Dummler, Bettina; Esposti, Mauro Degli; Hemmings, Brian A

    2012-07-01

    Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesterases hydrolyze thioester bonds in acyl-CoA metabolites. The majority of mammalian thioesterases are α/β-hydrolases and have been studied extensively. A second class of Hotdog-fold enzymes has been less well described. Here, we present a structural and functional analysis of a new mammalian mitochondrial thioesterase, Them5. Them5 and its paralog, Them4, adopt the classical Hotdog-fold structure and form homodimers in crystals. In vitro, Them5 shows strong thioesterase activity with long-chain acyl-CoAs. Loss of Them5 specifically alters the remodeling process of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin. Them5(-/-) mice show deregulation of lipid metabolism and the development of fatty liver, exacerbated by a high-fat diet. Consequently, mitochondrial morphology is affected, and functions such as respiration and β-oxidation are impaired. The novel mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase Them5 has a critical and specific role in the cardiolipin remodeling process, connecting it to the development of fatty liver and related conditions. PMID:22586271

  8. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... AST). This enzyme, which plays a role in processing proteins, is found in the liver, heart, muscles, ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glutathione S-transferase from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver that is involved in the detoxification of 4-hydroxynonenal.

    PubMed

    Doi, Adriana M; Pham, Robert T; Hughes, Erin M; Barber, David S; Gallagher, Evan P

    2004-06-01

    We are currently investigating the role of detoxification pathways in protecting against the sublethal effects of chemicals in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). To this end, previous work in our laboratory indicated a remarkable ability of bass liver glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) to detoxify 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), a common mutagenic and cytotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde produced during the peroxidation of lipids. In the current study, we observed that GST-mediated 4HNE conjugation in bass liver follows high efficiency single-enzyme Michaelis-Menten kinetics, suggesting that an individual GST isoform is involved in 4HNE detoxification. Using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), a full-length GST cDNA of 957 base pairs (bp) in length, containing an open reading frame of 678 bp and encoding a polypeptide of 225 amino acids, has been cloned. Interestingly, a search of the BLAST protein database revealed the presence of homologous GST proteins in the plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), European flounder (Platichthys flesus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), but not in other fish species. Furthermore, the bass GST protein exhibited little homology with the mammalian GSTA4 subclass of proteins which rapidly metabolize 4HNE. The recombinant 6 x His-tagged expressed GST protein showed high catalytic activity towards 4HNE, while showing moderate or low activity toward other class specific GST substrates. HPLC-GST subunit analysis, followed by sequencing, demonstrated that the isolated bass liver GST subunit constitutes the major GST protein in bass liver, with a molecular mass of 26.4 kDa. In summary, the presence of a highly expressed GST isozyme in bass and several evolutionarily divergent fish species indicates the conservation of an important and distinct detoxification protein that protects against oxidative damage in certain aquatic organisms.

  10. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of SCH 530348 (Vorapaxar), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Anima; Lu, Xiaowen; Penner, Natalia; Gao, Lan; Ramanathan, Ragu; Chowdhury, Swapan K; Kishnani, Narendra S; Alton, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    Vorapaxar (SCH 530348), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist, is being developed as an antiplatelet agent for patients with established vascular disease. The objective of this study was to identify the human liver cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) responsible for the metabolism of SCH 530348. Human liver microsomes metabolized SCH 530348 to M19, an amine metabolite formed via carbamate cleavage, and M20 (monohydroxy-SCH 530348). Recombinant human CYP3A4 exhibited the most activity (11.5% profiled radioactivity) for the formation of M19, followed by markedly less substrate conversion with CYP1A1 and CYP2C19. Trace levels of M19, a major excreted human metabolite, were detected with CYP1A2, CYP3A5, and CYP4F3A. Formation of M19 by human liver microsomes was inhibited 89% by ketoconazole (IC(50), 0.73 μM), 34% by tranylcypromine, and 89% by anti-CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. There was a significant correlation between the rate of M19 formation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation (r = 0.75) or M19 formation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation (r = 0.92). The results of screening, inhibition, and correlation studies confirmed that CYP3A4 is the major P450 enzyme responsible for M19 formation from SCH 530348. In contrast, formation of M20, a major circulating human metabolite at steady state, was primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP2J2. M20 is pharmacologically equipotent to SCH 530348, whereas M19 is an inactive metabolite. Formation of M20 by human liver microsomes was inhibited 89% by ketoconazole, 75% by astemizole (a CYP2J2 inhibitor), and 43% by CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP2J2 are both involved in the formation of M20 metabolite. PMID:20926621

  11. A low absolute number of expanded transcripts is involved in myotonic dystrophy type 1 manifestation in muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gudde, Anke E. E. G.; González-Barriga, Anchel; van den Broek, Walther J. A. A.; Wieringa, Bé; Wansink, Derick G.

    2016-01-01

    Muscular manifestation of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), a common inheritable degenerative multisystem disorder, is mainly caused by expression of RNA from a (CTG·CAG)n-expanded DM1 locus. Here, we report on comparative profiling of expression of normal and expanded endogenous or transgenic transcripts in skeletal muscle cells and biopsies from DM1 mouse models and patients in order to help us in understanding the role of this RNA-mediated toxicity. In tissue of HSALR mice, the most intensely used ‘muscle-only’ model in the DM1 field, RNA from the α-actin (CTG)250 transgene was at least 1000-fold more abundant than that from the Dmpk gene, or the DMPK gene in humans. Conversely, the DMPK transgene in another line, DM500/DMSXL mice, was expressed ∼10-fold lower than the endogenous gene. Temporal regulation of expanded RNA expression differed between models. Onset of expression occurred remarkably late in HSALR myoblasts during in vitro myogenesis whereas Dmpk or DMPK (trans)genes were expressed throughout proliferation and differentiation phases. Importantly, quantification of absolute transcript numbers revealed that normal and expanded Dmpk/DMPK transcripts in mouse models and DM1 patients are low-abundance RNA species. Northern blotting, reverse transcriptase–quantitative polymerase chain reaction, RNA-sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses showed that they occur at an absolute number between one and a few dozen molecules per cell. Our findings refine the current RNA dominance theory for DM1 pathophysiology, as anomalous factor binding to expanded transcripts and formation of soluble or insoluble ribonucleoprotein aggregates must be nucleated by only few expanded DMPK transcripts and therefore be a small numbers game. PMID:26908607

  12. A low absolute number of expanded transcripts is involved in myotonic dystrophy type 1 manifestation in muscle.

    PubMed

    Gudde, Anke E E G; González-Barriga, Anchel; van den Broek, Walther J A A; Wieringa, Bé; Wansink, Derick G

    2016-04-15

    Muscular manifestation of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), a common inheritable degenerative multisystem disorder, is mainly caused by expression of RNA from a (CTG·CAG)n-expanded DM1 locus. Here, we report on comparative profiling of expression of normal and expanded endogenous or transgenic transcripts in skeletal muscle cells and biopsies from DM1 mouse models and patients in order to help us in understanding the role of this RNA-mediated toxicity. In tissue of HSA(LR) mice, the most intensely used 'muscle-only' model in the DM1 field, RNA from the α-actin (CTG)250 transgene was at least 1000-fold more abundant than that from the Dmpk gene, or the DMPK gene in humans. Conversely, the DMPK transgene in another line, DM500/DMSXL mice, was expressed ∼10-fold lower than the endogenous gene. Temporal regulation of expanded RNA expression differed between models. Onset of expression occurred remarkably late in HSA(LR) myoblasts during in vitro myogenesis whereas Dmpk or DMPK (trans)genes were expressed throughout proliferation and differentiation phases. Importantly, quantification of absolute transcript numbers revealed that normal and expanded Dmpk/DMPK transcripts in mouse models and DM1 patients are low-abundance RNA species. Northern blotting, reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, RNA-sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses showed that they occur at an absolute number between one and a few dozen molecules per cell. Our findings refine the current RNA dominance theory for DM1 pathophysiology, as anomalous factor binding to expanded transcripts and formation of soluble or insoluble ribonucleoprotein aggregates must be nucleated by only few expanded DMPK transcripts and therefore be a small numbers game. PMID:26908607

  13. Expression pattern in retinal photoreceptors of POMGnT1, a protein involved in muscle-eye-brain disease

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mary Luz; Haro, Carmen; Campello, Laura; Cruces, Jesús; Martín-Nieto, José

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The POMGNT1 gene, encoding protein O-linked-mannose β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1, is associated with muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB) and other dystroglycanopathies. This gene’s lack of function or expression causes hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) in the muscle and the central nervous system, including the brain and the retina. The ocular symptoms of patients with MEB include retinal degeneration and detachment, glaucoma, and abnormal electroretinogram. Nevertheless, the POMGnT1 expression pattern in the healthy mammalian retina has not yet been investigated. In this work, we address the expression of the POMGNT1 gene in the healthy retina of a variety of mammals and characterize the distribution pattern of this gene in the adult mouse retina and the 661W photoreceptor cell line. Methods Using reverse transcription (RT)–PCR and immunoblotting, we studied POMGNT1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in various mammalian species, from rodents to humans. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy analyses were performed to characterize the distribution profile of its protein product in mouse retinal sections and in 661W cultured cells. The intranuclear distribution of POMT1 and POMT2, the two enzymes preceding POMGnT1 in the α-DG O-mannosyl glycosylation pathway, was also analyzed. Results POMGNT1 mRNA and its encoded protein were expressed in the neural retina of all mammals studied. POMGnT1 was located in the cytoplasmic fraction in the mouse retina and concentrated in the myoid portion of the photoreceptor inner segments, where the protein colocalized with GM130, a Golgi complex marker. The presence of POMGnT1 in the Golgi complex was also evident in 661W cells. However, and in contrast to retinal tissue, POMGnT1 additionally accumulated in the nucleus of the 661W photoreceptors. Colocalization was found within this organelle between POMGnT1 and POMT1/2, the latter associated with euchromatic regions of the nucleus. Conclusions

  14. Integrative Analyses of miRNA-mRNA Interactions Reveal let-7b, miR-128 and MAPK Pathway Involvement in Muscle Mass Loss in Sex-Linked Dwarf Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wen; Lin, Shumao; Li, Guihuan; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    The sex-linked dwarf (SLD) chicken is an ideal model system for understanding growth hormone (GH)-action and growth hormone receptor (GHR) function because of its recessive mutation in the GHR gene. Skeletal muscle mass is reduced in the SLD chicken with a smaller muscle fiber diameter. Our previous study has presented the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of the SLD chicken and normal chicken between embryo day 14 and seven weeks of age. However, the molecular mechanism of GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss is still unclear, and the key molecules and pathways underlying the GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss also remain to be illustrated. Here, by functional network analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs between the SLD and normal chickens, we revealed that let-7b, miR-128 and the MAPK pathway might play key roles in the GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss, and that the reduced cell division and growth are potential cellular processes during the SLD chicken skeletal muscle development. Additionally, we also found some genes and miRNAs involved in chicken skeletal muscle development, through the MAPK, PI3K-Akt, Wnt and Insulin signaling pathways. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying muscle mass loss in the SLD chickens, and some regulatory networks that are crucial for chicken skeletal muscle development. PMID:26927061

  15. Effects of Luteolin on Liver, Kidney and Brain in Pentylentetrazol-Induced Seizures: Involvement of Metalloproteinases and NOS Activities

    PubMed Central

    Birman, Hüsniye; Dar, Kadriye Akgün; Kapucu, Ayşegül; Acar, Samet; Üzüm, Gülay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Flavonoids are an important group of recognized antioxidants in plants. Luteolin (LUT) is a natural flavonoid in the plant kingdom. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of the LUT in the liver, kidney and brain of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure and the relationship between nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, eNOS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9). Materials and Methods: LUT (10 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally during two weeks prior to seizure induction. A single dose PTZ 80 mg/kg i.p. was administered and seizures were observed and evaluated with regard to latency, frequency and stage for one hour. Results: Seizure frequen cy after PTZ administration was significantly decreased in LUT pretreated rats (p<0.05). An increase of immunhistochemical reactions of iNOS and MMP2, but a decrease of eNOS activity, were observed in rat hippocampus and peripheral tissues during the PTZ induced seizures. LUT pretreatment reversed the iNOS and MMP2 activity to the control levels and significantly increased the eNOS activity (p<0.001). Conclusion: LUT seems to have an effective role in reducing the seizure frequency and a protective role on peripheral organ injury in animal models of seizure. The protective effect of LUT in seizures and the seizure induced peripheral tissue damage warrant further investigations. PMID:25206993

  16. The antitumor effect of TIG3 in liver cancer cells is involved in ERK1/2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Liao, Degui; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhong, Yun; Liu, Shiming; Yang, Hui; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-08-01

    Tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG3) was first characterized in tazarotene-treated human keratinocytes and identified as a retinoic acid responder gene, an important mediator of antitumor effects by retinoids. In this study, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of TIG3 on the growth of liver cancer and explore its underlying mechanism. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells were transfected with plasmid GV141 carrying full-length TIG3 complementary DNA (cDNA). The effects of TIG3 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration were determined in vitro. The suppressor effect of TIG3 on tumor growth was evaluated in vivo in a nude mouse HCC model. We observed that TIG3 expression is decreased in the Hep3B cell line as well as primary HCC tumors, and TIG3 expression inversely correlates with Ki-67 expression. Overexpression of TIG3 suppresses tumor growth in HCC both in vitro and in vivo via ERK1/2 inhibition by promoting apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation and migration. These findings identify TIG3 as an attractive therapeutic target for HCC.

  17. Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George K.

    2009-01-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a very complex and well-orchestrated phenomenon. It is carried out by the participation of all mature liver cell types. The process is associated with signaling cascades involving growth factors, cytokines, matrix remodeling, and several feedbacks of stimulation and inhibition of growth related signals. Liver manages to restore any lost mass and adjust its size to that of the organism, while at the same time providing full support for body homeostasis during the entire regenerative process. In situations when hepatocytes or biliary cells are blocked from regeneration, these cell types can function as facultative stem cells for each other. PMID:17559071

  18. Growth sensitivity in the epiphyseal growth plate, liver and muscle of SD rats is significantly enhanced by treatment with a fermented soybean product (cheonggukjang) through stimulation of growth hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Sik; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Young Ju; Kwak, Mun Hwa; Lee, Hong Gu; Kim, Hye Sung; Lee, Hee Seob; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2014-01-01

    Cheonggukjang (CKJ), a fermented soybean product, has been reported to have beneficial effects on various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and immune diseases. To investigate whether CKJ induces growth sensitivity in mammals, alterations of key parameters related to their growth were analyzed. Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats were treated with a high concentration of CKJ (H‑CKJ) or a low concentration of CKJ (L‑CKJ) for 10 days, and compared with vehicle-treated rats. The CKJ contained a high concentration of total flavonoids, phenolic compounds, daidzein and genistein, compared with the non-fermented soybean product. Body weight was higher in the H‑CKJ‑treated group compared with that in the vehicle‑ and L‑CKJ‑treated groups, whereas the weights of three organs (the brain, liver and kidney) were higher in the L‑CKJ‑treated group compared with the remaining two groups. However, no significant differences in femur length and weight were detected between the CKJ‑ and vehicle‑treated groups. The thickness of the epiphyseal growth plate in proximal femoral epiphysis was broadest in the H‑CKJ‑treated group compared with the vehicle- and L‑CKJ‑treated groups. Furthermore, the level of growth hormone (GH) was highest in the serum of the L‑CKJ‑treated group, although that of the H‑CKJ‑treated group was lower compared with that in the L‑CKJ group. Moreover, the expression levels of the GH receptor increased in the liver tissue, but not in the muscle tissue, of the L‑CKJ‑ and H‑CKJ‑treated groups. In the downstream signaling pathway of the GH receptor, the phosphorylation levels of Akt and Erk were differentially regulated between the liver and muscle. These results suggest that CKJ extract may enhance the sensitivity of the femur, liver and muscle epiphyseal growth plate in SD rats, through the upregulation of GH secretion.

  19. A Four-Compartment Metabolomics Analysis of the Liver, Muscle, Serum, and Urine Response to Polytrauma with Hemorrhagic Shock following Carbohydrate Prefeed

    PubMed Central

    Witowski, Nancy; Lusczek, Elizabeth; Determan, Charles; Lexcen, Daniel; Mulier, Kristine; Ostrowski, Beverly; Beilman, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hemorrhagic shock accompanied by injury represents a major physiologic stress. Fasted animals are often used to study hemorrhagic shock (with injury). A fasted state is not guaranteed in the general human population. The objective of this study was to determine if fed animals would exhibit a different metabolic profile in response to hemorrhagic shock with trauma when compared to fasted animals. Methods Proton (1H) NMR spectroscopy was used to determine concentrations of metabolites from four different compartments (liver, muscle, serum, urine) taken at defined time points throughout shock/injury and resuscitation. PLS-DA was performed and VIP lists established for baseline, shock and resuscitation (10 metabolites for each compartment at each time interval) on metabolomics data from surviving animals. Results Fed status prior to the occurrence of hemorrhagic shock with injury alters the metabolic course of this trauma and potentially affects mortality. The death rate for CPF animals is higher than FS animals (47 vs 28%). The majority of deaths occur post-resuscitation suggesting reperfusion injury. The metabolomics response to shock reflects priorities evident at baseline. FS animals raise the baseline degree of proteolysis to provide additional amino acids for energy production while CPF animals rely on both glucose and, to a lesser extent, amino acids. During early resuscitation levels of metabolites associated with energy production drop, suggesting diminished demand. Conclusions Feeding status prior to the occurrence of hemorrhagic shock with injury alters the metabolic course of this trauma and potentially affects mortality. The response to shock reflects metabolic priorities at baseline. PMID:25875111

  20. Diagnostic value of anti-smooth muscle antibodies and liver enzymes in differentiation of extrahepatic biliary atresia and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rafeey, Mandana; Saboktakin, Lida; Hasani, Jamshid Shoa; Naghashi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) and two liver markers (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) for differentiating between patients with extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (INH). Materials and Methods: During April 2010–2011, all infants at 2 weeks of age who were diagnosed with cholestasis and admitted to Children's Hospital of Tabriz were enrolled. Based on the results of physical examination, laboratory, imaging and pathological studies, neonates were divided into two groups (EHBA and INH). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to define sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy for ASMA, GGT and ALP. Results: Thirty neonates with cholestasis (18 with EHBA and 12 with INH) and mean age of 54.66 ± 25.86 days were enrolled. Total and direct bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and ASMA titres were highly not significant (P > 0.05) in patients with INH. GGT (P = 0.008) and ALP (P = 0.01) had statistically significant differences that were higher in patients with EHBA. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, accuracy, LR+ and LR− of SMA in differentiating cases with BA were 66.7%, 75%, 80% 60%, 70%, 2.68 and 0.44, respectively. For GGT, the values were 88.9%, 66.7%, 80%, 80%, 79.1%, 3.08 and 0.31, respectively. Finally, for ALP, the values were 77.8%, 75%, 82.4%, 69.2%, 80%, 2.66 and 0.24, respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that ASMA may be a useful biomarker for differentiation of EHBA from INH. Further studies with larger samples are recommended for confirming the results of this study. PMID:27251654

  1. Development and validation of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the screening of tylosin and tilmicosin in muscle, liver, milk, honey and eggs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dapeng; Ye, Shengqiang; Wang, Yulian; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-01-11

    Incorrect use of tylosin and tilmicosin could result in allergy and select resistance. To monitor the illegal use of these antibiotics in animals, a monoclonal-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) has been established. Several haptens were synthesized and conjugated to carrier protein. Female Balb/c mice were inoculated with the four different conjugates to produce monoclonal antibodies according to the schemes of immunization. Aftercell fusion and culture several times, nine hybridoma cell lines were isolated. Only one, 3C4 that has isotype IgG2a, was selected for detailed study. The cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody 3C4 to tylosin and tilmicosin was 100% and 51% respectively. The standard curves based on the tylosin and tilmicosin matrix calibration ranged from 2.5 to 40 μg L(-1), with an IC(50) value of 6.1 μg L(-1) and 12.1 μg L(-1), respectively. The limits of detection of the ic-ELISA ranged from 5.1 μg kg(-1) to 13.8 μg kg(-1) in edible animal tissues. The recoveries were 74.1% to 120.7% with less than 18.6% of the coefficient of variation when tylosin and tilmicosin were spiked in various biological matrices with the concentrations of 25.0-200.0 μg kg(-1). Good correlations between the results of the ic-ELISA and high performance liquid chromatography were observed in the incurred tissues. These results suggest that the ic-ELISA is a sensitive, accurate and low-cost method that would be a useful tool for the screening of the residues of tylosin and tilmicosin in muscle, liver, milk, honey and eggs.

  2. Soluble epoxide hydrolase is involved in the development of atherosclerosis and arterial neointima formation by regulating smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingjie; Huo, Leijun; He, Jinlong; Ding, Wenshuang; Su, Hang; Tian, Dongping; Welch, Carrie; Hammock, Bruce D; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes EETs to less active diols, thus diminishing their biological activity. sEH inhibitors can suppress the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in animal models. However, the regulation of sEH in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and role of sEH in patients with atherosclerosis have not been evaluated. We hypothesize that sEH in VSMCs plays a pivotal role in atherosclerosis and injury-induced neointima formation. In this study, sEH expression in human autopsy atherosclerotic plaque was determined by immunohistochemistry. In cultured rat and human VSMCs, the phenotypic switching marker and sEH expression induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) were examined by Western blot analysis. Carotid-artery balloon injury was performed after adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sEH or oral administration of a potent sEH inhibitor in Sprague-Dawley rats. sEH was highly expressed in VSMCs of the intima and media within human atherosclerotic plaque. In vitro, PDGF-BB upregulated the expression in VSMCs after transcription and promoted cell proliferation and migration; the latter effect could be largely attenuated by an sEH inhibitor. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sEH could mimic the effect of PDGF-BB and induce VSMC proliferation and migration. In vivo, the sEH inhibitor led to a significant decrease in injury-induced neointima formation in a rat carotid-artery injury model. These data establish the effect of sEH expression on atherosclerotic progression and vascular remodeling after injury, thus identifying a novel integrative role for sEH in VSMC phenotypic modulation and migration. Blocking sEH activity may be a potential therapeutic approach for ameliorating vascular occlusive disease.

  3. Early onset of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome with severe liver involvement in a patient with a complex rearrangement of ABHD5 promoter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background α/β-hydrolase domain-containing protein 5 (ABHD5) plays an important role in the triacylglycerols (TAG) hydrolysis. Indeed, ABHD5 is the co-activator of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), that catalyses the initial step of TAG hydrolysis. Mutations in ABHD5 gene are associated with the onset of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS), a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder, characterized by non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE), hepatomegaly and liver steatosis. Case presentation We describe here a 5-years-old Brazilian child who presented with NCIE at birth and diffuse micro and macro-vesicular steatosis on liver biopsy since she was 2 years old. Molecular analysis of coding sequence and putative 5′ regulatory region of ABHD5 gene was performed. A homozygous novel deletion, affecting the promoter region and the exon 1, was identified, confirming the suspected diagnosis of CDS for this patient. RT-PCR analysis showed that the genomic rearrangement completely abolished the ABHD5 gene expression in the patient, while only a partial loss of expression was detected in her parents. This is the first report describing the identification of a large deletion encompassing the promoter region of ABHD5 gene. The total loss of ABHD5 expression may explain the early onset of CDS and the severe liver involvement. After molecular diagnosis, the patient started a special diet, poor in fatty acids with medium chain triglycerides (MCT), and showed hepatic and dermatologic improvement in spite of severe molecular defect. Conclusions This case report extends the spectrum of disease-causing ABHD5 mutations in CDS providing evidence for a novel pathogenic mechanism for this rare disorder. Moreover, our preliminary data show that early diagnosis and prompt treatment of neutral lipid accumulation might be useful for CD patients. PMID:24628803

  4. FXR-dependent and -independent interaction of glucocorticoids with the regulatory pathways involved in the control of bile acid handling by the liver.

    PubMed

    Rosales, R; Romero, M R; Vaquero, J; Monte, M J; Requena, P; Martinez-Augustin, O; Sanchez de Medina, F; Marin, J J G

    2013-03-15

    Treatment with glucocorticoids (GCs) may cause adverse effects, including cholestasis. The ability of dexamethasone, prednisolone and budesonide to affect the liver handling of bile acids (BAs) has been investigated. In rats treated with GCs for 4 days, altered serum and bile BA levels, changed conjugation pattern, and delayed and decreased ability to conjugate/secrete exogenously administered deoxycholate, were found using HPLC-MS/MS. RT-QPCR analyses revealed that GC treatment also induced a down-regulation of liver nuclear receptors (Fxr, Gr and Shp), transporters (Ntcp, Mrp4 and Bcrp) and enzymes (Cyp7a1 and Baat), whereas Bsep, Mrp2 and Cyp27a1 were up-regulated. Human HepG2 and Alexander cell lines were used as in vitro models of liver cells with and without constitutive FXR expression, respectively. In HepG2 cells, GCs induced a decreased expression of FXR and SHP, and inhibited the regulatory effect of GW4064 on FXR-target genes. In Alexander cells, only when they were transfected with FXR+RXR, GW4064 caused up-regulation of SHP and OSTβ, and a down-regulation of CYP27A1. GCs had the opposite effect on these genes, both in the absence and in the presence of FXR expression. Co-transfection of Alexander cells with IR-1-Luc and FXR+RXR revealed that GCs did not inhibit but moderately enhanced FXR activity. Moreover, GCs have a synergistic effect on GW4064-induced FXR activation, whereas chenodeoxycholate and GW4064 have an additive effect. In conclusion, GCs are able to directly or indirectly activate FXR but they also antagonize, through FXR-independent mechanisms, the expression of FXR and FXR target genes involved in the hepatic handling of BAs.

  5. Autophagy and gap junctional intercellular communication inhibition are involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis in rat liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Hui; Zhuo, Liling; Han, Tao; Hu, Di; Yang, Xiaokang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Gu, Jianhong; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Liu, Zongping

    2015-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to induce hepatotoxicity, yet the underlying mechanism of how this occurs is not fully understood. In this study, Cd-induced apoptosis was demonstrated in rat liver cells (BRL 3A) with apoptotic nuclear morphological changes and a decrease in cell index (CI) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The role of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and autophagy in Cd-induced apoptosis was investigated. Cd significantly induced GJIC inhibition as well as downregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43). The prototypical gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disodium (CBX) exacerbated the Cd-induced decrease in CI. Cd treatment was also found to cause autophagy, with an increase in mRNA expression of autophagy-related genes Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion from cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. The autophagic inducer rapamycin (RAP) prevented the Cd-induced CI decrease, while the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) caused a further reduction in CI. In addition, CBX promoted Cd-induced autophagy, as well as changes in expression of Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1 and LC3. CQ was found to block the Cd-induced decrease in Cx43 and GJIC inhibition, whereas RAP had opposite effect. These results demonstrate that autophagy plays a protective role during Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells during 6 h of experiment, while autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition which has a negative effect on cellular fate. - Highlights: • GJIC and autophagy is crucial for biological processes. • Cd exposure causes GJIC inhibition and autophagy increase in BRL 3A cells. • Autophagy protects Cd induced BRL 3A cells apoptosis at an early stage. • Autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition. • GJIC plays an important role in autophagy induced cell death or survival.

  6. Identification and characterization of oxymetazoline glucuronidation in human liver microsomes: evidence for the involvement of UGT1A9.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Mukesh K; Uttamsingh, Vinita; Gan, Liang-Shang; Leduc, Barbara; Williams, David A

    2011-02-01

    The incubation of oxymetazoline, a nonprescription nasal decongestant, with human liver microsomes (HLMs) supplemented with uridine-5-diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) generated glucuronide metabolite as observed by LC/MS/MS. The uridine glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) responsible for the O-glucuronidation of oxymetazoline remain thus far unidentified. The glucuronide formed in HLMs was identified by LC/MS/MS and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR to be the β-O-glucuronide of oxymetazoline. UGT screening with expressed UGTs identified UGT1A9 as the single UGT isoform catalyzing O-glucuronidation of oxymetazoline. Oxymetazoline O-glucuronidation by using HLMs was best fitted to the allosteric sigmoidal model. The derived S(50) and V(max) values were 2.42 ± 0.40 mM and 8.69 ± 0.58 pmole/(min mg of protein), respectively, and maximum clearance (CL(max)) was 3.61 L/min/mg. Oxymetazoline O-glucuronidation by using expressed UGT1A9 was best fitted to the substrate inhibition model. The derived K(m) and V(max) values were 2.53 ± 1.03 mM and 54.18 ± 16.92 pmole/(min mg of protein), respectively, and intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) was 21.41 L/(min mg). Our studies indicate that oxymetazoline is not glucuronidated at its nanomolar intranasal dose and thus is eliminated unchanged, because UGT1A9 would only contribute to its elimination at the toxic plasma concentrations.

  7. Evidence for the involvement of CYP1A2 in the metabolism of bromodichloromethane in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Allis, John W; Anderson, Brian P; Zhao, Guangyu; Ross, Tracey M; Pegram, Rex A

    2002-07-01

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) is a drinking water disinfectant by-product that has been implicated in liver, kidney and intestinal cancers in rodents and in intestinal tumors and low birth weight effects in humans. BDCM is also hepatotoxic and requires metabolic activation for both toxicity and carcinogenicity. We have recently reported that CYP1A2 may participate in that metabolism and we now report experiments to support that implication. Induction of CYP1A2 in male F344 rats without inducing CYP2E1 or CYP2B1/2, using TCDD, increased the hepatotoxicity of BDCM when compared to earlier work conducted under similar protocols. Inhibition of CYP1A2, with isosafrole, reduced the metabolism and toxicity of BDCM in the previously induced rats. In addition, specific activities and Western blots for these CYP isoenzymes were measured 24 h after exposure. Activity data show that only CYP1A2 was inhibited by isosafrole; isosafrole forms a complex with CYP1A2 that persists for more than 24 h. Western blot results generally agree with the activity data except that isosafrole induced the protein for all isoenzymes measured. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, developed previously, estimated that BDCM metabolism was complete about 7 h after gavage dosing. It is noteworthy that the reduction in CYP1A2 activity was still measurable despite the production of additional CYP1A2 protein during the period of approximately 18 h after BDCM metabolism was complete. These results demonstrate that CYP1A2 does metabolize BDCM and does contribute to hepatotoxicity under certain conditions.

  8. Diagnostic yield of the analysis of the pattern of electrical activity of muscle and of individual motor unit potentials in neurogenic involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A; Scheel, U; Buchthal, F

    1977-01-01

    The pattern of electrical activity and the properties of individual motor unit potentials were analysed in the flexor muscles of the forearm of 15 patients with motor neurone disease and 15 patients with a lesion of the brachial plexus. The best diagnostic yield from the pattern of electrical activity was obtained when the force was 30% of maximum: The number of spikes (turns/15 s) was diminished in 70% of the patients; none showed the increase in turns characteristic of myopathy. The decrease in the number of turns was often associated with an increased incidence of long time intervals between turns and with an increased amplitude between turns. The mean duration of individual motor unit potentials was prolonged in 78% of the patients; none showed the decrease in mean duration characteristic of myopathy. Prolongation of the mean duration of motor unit potentials produced by cooling of normal muscle, led to a decrease in the number of turns. This suggested that the diminished number of turns in neurogenic involvement was due mainly to the prolonged duration of motor unit potentials. PMID:903769

  9. Colchicine myopathy: a vacuolar myopathy with selective type I muscle fiber involvement. An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Figarella-Branger, D; Alla, P; Harlé, J-R; Pellissier, J-F

    2002-02-01

    Colchicine, a microtubule polymerization inhibitor, can very occasionally induce myopathy. We report two cases of colchicine myopathy. Both patients presented with myalgia and proximal muscle weakness. The first patient, an 80-year-old woman, had chronic renal failure related to renal amyloidosis. She had been treated by colchicine for 4 months. The second, a 75-year-old man with normal renal function, suffering from gout, was treated by colchicine for 3 weeks. Muscle biopsies displayed the same alterations, but the degree of severity was different. Conventional histology revealed vacuolar changes characterized by acid phosphatase-positive vacuoles and myofibrillar disarray foci. The lesions were selective for type I fibers. Ultrastructural study demonstrated autophagic vacuoles. Most of the vacuoles expressed dystrophin but not merosin. Several fibers reacted with anti-MHC class I antibody and granular deposits of membrane attack complex were observed on the surface of numerous myofibers. Anti-alphaB-crystallin antibody strongly reacted with vacuolar content. Physiopathologically, microtubules are primordial for vesicle movements and colchicine induces autophagic vacuole accumulation by preventing their fusion with lysosomes. The selective type I involvement is probably due to the higher tubulin amount in type I fibers. AlphaB-crystallin overexpression is related to its microtubule protection properties. Moreover, we suggest that vacuoles randomly floating in sarcoplasm might occasionally meet the plasma membrane and open in the extracellular space, leading to complement activation. Accurate diagnosis of colchicine myopathy is relevant because the treatment is based on colchicine interruption.

  10. Transthyretin participates in beta-amyloid transport from the brain to the liver- involvement of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1?

    PubMed Central

    Alemi, Mobina; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre; Santos, Luís Miguel; Gomes, João Rodrigues; Oliveira, Sandra Marisa; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio; Saraiva, Maria João; Cardoso, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) binds Aβ peptide, preventing its deposition and toxicity. TTR is decreased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Additionally, AD transgenic mice with only one copy of the TTR gene show increased brain and plasma Aβ levels when compared to AD mice with both copies of the gene, suggesting TTR involvement in brain Aβ efflux and/or peripheral clearance. Here we showed that TTR promotes Aβ internalization and efflux in a human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3. TTR also stimulated brain-to-blood but not blood-to-brain Aβ permeability in hCMEC/D3, suggesting that TTR interacts directly with Aβ at the blood-brain-barrier. We also observed that TTR crosses the monolayer of cells only in the brain-to-blood direction, as confirmed by in vivo studies, suggesting that TTR can transport Aβ from, but not into the brain. Furthermore, TTR increased Aβ internalization by SAHep cells and by primary hepatocytes from TTR+/+ mice when compared to TTR−/− animals. We propose that TTR-mediated Aβ clearance is through LRP1, as lower receptor expression was found in brains and livers of TTR−/− mice and in cells incubated without TTR. Our results suggest that TTR acts as a carrier of Aβ at the blood-brain-barrier and liver, using LRP1. PMID:26837706

  11. Incremental value of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography over the two-dimensional technique in the assessment of a tuberculoma involving the left atrium and appendage.

    PubMed

    Kemaloğlu Öz, Tuğba; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Nanda, Navin C; Kalenderoğlu, Koray; Akyüz, Şükrü; Atasoy, Işıl; Ösken, Altuğ; Onuk, Tolga; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    Intracardiac tuberculomas are extremely rare, and cardiac involvement in tuberculosis accounts for only 0.5% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We report for the first time incremental value of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography over two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of a tuberculoma involving the left atrium and left atrial appendage.

  12. The p-ERK–p-c-Jun–cyclinD1 pathway is involved in proliferation of smooth muscle cells after exposure to cigarette smoke extract

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianjia; Song, Ting; Ni, Leng; Yang, Genhuan; Song, Xitao; Wu, Lifei; Liu, Bao; Liu, Changwei

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Smooth muscle cells proliferated after exposure to cigarette smoke extract. • The p-ERK, p-c-Jun, and cyclinD1 expressions increased in the process. • The p-ERK inhibitor, U0126, can reverse these effects. • The p-ERK → p-c-Jun → cyclinD1 pathway is involved in the process. - Abstract: An epidemiological survey has shown that smoking is closely related to atherosclerosis, in which excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays a key role. To investigate the mechanism underlying this unusual smoking-induced proliferation, cigarette smoke extract (CSE), prepared as smoke-bubbled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), was used to induce effects mimicking those exerted by smoking on SMCs. As assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 detection (an improved MTT assay), SMC viability increased significantly after exposure to CSE. Western blot analysis demonstrated that p-ERK, p-c-Jun, and cyclinD1 expression increased. When p-ERK was inhibited using U0126 (inhibitor of p-ERK), cell viability decreased and the expression of p-c-Jun and cyclinD1 was reduced accordingly, suggesting that p-ERK functions upstream of p-c-Jun and cyclinD1. When a c-Jun over-expression plasmid was transfected into SMCs, the level of cyclinD1 in these cells increased. Moreover, when c-Jun was knocked down by siRNA, cyclinD1 levels decreased. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the p-ERK–p-c-Jun–cyclinD1 pathway is involved in the excessive proliferation of SMCs exposed to CSE.

  13. Elevated hepatic gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity and abnormal sulfate levels in liver and muscle tissue may explain abnormal cysteine and glutathione levels in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Hack, V; Stahl-Hennig, C; Dröge, W

    1996-11-20

    To establish whether the low cysteine and glutathione levels in HIV-infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques may be consequences of an abnormal cysteine catabolism, we analyzed sulfate and glutathione levels in macaques. Muscle tissue (m. vastus lateralis and m. gastrocnemius) of SIV-infected macaques (n = 25) had higher sulfate and lower glutathione and glutamate levels than that of uninfected controls (n =9). Hepatic tissue, in contrast, showed decreased sulfate and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels, and increased gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) activity. These findings suggest drainage of the cysteine pool by increased cysteine catabolism in skeletal muscle tissue, and by increased hepatic glutathione biosynthesis. Cachectic macaques also showed increased urea levels and decreased glutamine/urea ratios in the liver, which are obviously related to the abnormal urea excretion and negative nitrogen balance commonly observed in cachexia. As urea production and net glutamine synthesis in the liver are strongly influenced by proton-generating processes, the abnormal hepatic urea production may be the direct consequence of the cysteine deficiency and the decreased catabolic conversion of cysteine into sulfate and protons in the liver.

  14. Serine Arginine Splicing Factor 3 Is Involved in Enhanced Splicing of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase RNA in Response to Nutrients and Hormones in Liver*

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Callee M.; Suchanek, Amanda L.; Cyphert, Travis J.; Kohan, Alison B.; Szeszel-Fedorowicz, Wioletta; Salati, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Expression of G6PD is controlled by changes in the degree of splicing of the G6PD mRNA in response to nutrients in the diet. This regulation involves an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12 of the mRNA. Using the G6PD model, we demonstrate that nutrients and hormones control the activity of serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins, a family of splicing co-activators, and thereby regulate the splicing of G6PD mRNA. In primary rat hepatocyte cultures, insulin increased the amount of phosphorylated SR proteins, and this effect was counteracted by arachidonic acid. The results of RNA affinity analysis with nuclear extracts from intact liver demonstrated that the SR splicing factor proteins SRSF3 and SRSF4 bound to the G6PD ESE. Consequently, siRNA-mediated depletion of SRSF3, but not SRSF4, in liver cells inhibited accumulation of both mRNA expressed from a minigene containing exon 12 and the endogenous G6PD mRNA. Consistent with the functional role of SRSF3 in regulating splicing, SRSF3 was observed to bind to the ESE in both intact cells and in animals using RNA immunoprecipitation analysis. Furthermore, refeeding significantly increased the binding of SRSF3 coincident with increased splicing and expression of G6PD. Together, these data establish that nutritional regulation of SRSF3 activity is involved in the differential splicing of the G6PD transcript in response to nutrients. Nutritional regulation of other SR proteins presents a regulatory mechanism that could cause widespread changes in mRNA splicing. Nutrients are therefore novel regulators of mRNA splicing. PMID:23233666

  15. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp involves differential expression of rRNA and molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Nardocci, Gino; Fernandez de la Reguera, Catalina; Simonet, Nicolas; Fumeron, Robinson; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal biogenesis controls cellular growth in living organisms, with the rate-limiting step of this process being the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Considering that epigenetic mechanisms allow an organism to respond to environmental changes, the expression in muscle of several molecules that regulate epigenetic rRNA synthesis, as well as rDNA transcription, were evaluated during the seasonal acclimatization of the carp. First, the nucleotide sequences encoding the components forming the NoRC (ttf-I, tip5) and eNoSC (sirt1, nml, suv39h1), two chromatin remodeling complexes that silence rRNA synthesis, as well as the sequence of ubf1, a key regulator of rDNA transcription, were obtained. Subsequently the transcriptional regulation of the aforementioned molecules, and other key molecules involved in rRNA synthesis (mh2a1, mh2a2, h2a.z, h2a.z.7, nuc, p80), was assessed. The carp sequences for TTF-I, TIP5, SIRT1, NML, SUV39H1, and UBF1 showed a high conservation of domains and key amino acids in comparison with other fish and higher vertebrates. The mRNA contents in muscle for ttf-I, tip5, sirt1, nml, suv39h1, mh2a1, mh2a.z, and nuc were up-regulated during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the mRNA levels of mh2a2, ubf1, and p80 were down-regulated. Also, the contents of molecules involved in processing the rRNA (snoRNAs) and pRNA, a stabilizer of NoRC complex, were analyzed, finding that these non-coding RNAs were not affected by seasonal acclimatization. These results suggest that variations in the expression of rRNA and the molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis are contributing to the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp.

  16. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp involves differential expression of rRNA and molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Nardocci, Gino; Fernandez de la Reguera, Catalina; Simonet, Nicolas; Fumeron, Robinson; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal biogenesis controls cellular growth in living organisms, with the rate-limiting step of this process being the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Considering that epigenetic mechanisms allow an organism to respond to environmental changes, the expression in muscle of several molecules that regulate epigenetic rRNA synthesis, as well as rDNA transcription, were evaluated during the seasonal acclimatization of the carp. First, the nucleotide sequences encoding the components forming the NoRC (ttf-I, tip5) and eNoSC (sirt1, nml, suv39h1), two chromatin remodeling complexes that silence rRNA synthesis, as well as the sequence of ubf1, a key regulator of rDNA transcription, were obtained. Subsequently the transcriptional regulation of the aforementioned molecules, and other key molecules involved in rRNA synthesis (mh2a1, mh2a2, h2a.z, h2a.z.7, nuc, p80), was assessed. The carp sequences for TTF-I, TIP5, SIRT1, NML, SUV39H1, and UBF1 showed a high conservation of domains and key amino acids in comparison with other fish and higher vertebrates. The mRNA contents in muscle for ttf-I, tip5, sirt1, nml, suv39h1, mh2a1, mh2a.z, and nuc were up-regulated during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the mRNA levels of mh2a2, ubf1, and p80 were down-regulated. Also, the contents of molecules involved in processing the rRNA (snoRNAs) and pRNA, a stabilizer of NoRC complex, were analyzed, finding that these non-coding RNAs were not affected by seasonal acclimatization. These results suggest that variations in the expression of rRNA and the molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis are contributing to the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp. PMID:24769445

  17. Effect of dietary α-lipoic acid on the mRNA expression of genes involved in drug metabolism and antioxidation system in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi

    2014-08-14

    In the present study, the mRNA levels of hepatic proteins involved in the drug metabolism of rats fed α-lipoic acid were evaluated by DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses. Experimental diets containing 0, 0·1, 0·25 and 0·5 % (w/w) α-lipoic acid were fed to four groups of rats consisting of seven animals each for 21 d. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the diet containing 0·5 % α-lipoic acid significantly (P< 0·05) increased the mRNA levels of various phase I drug-metabolising enzymes up to 15-fold and phase II enzymes up to 52-fold in an isoenzyme-specific manner. α-Lipoic acid also up-regulated the mRNA levels of some members of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily, presumed to be involved in the exportation of xenobiotics, up to 6·6-fold. In addition, we observed that α-lipoic acid increased the mRNA levels of many proteins involved in antioxidation, such as members of the thiol redox system (up to 5·5-fold), metallothioneins (up to 12-fold) and haeme oxygenase 1 (1·5-fold). These results were confirmed using real-time PCR analysis, and α-lipoic acid dose dependently increased the mRNA levels of various proteins involved in drug metabolism and antioxidation. Consistent with these observations, α-lipoic acid dose dependently increased the hepatic concentration of glutathione and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione transferase measured using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene as substrates, but decreased the hepatic and serum concentrations of malondialdehyde. In conclusion, the present study unequivocally demonstrated that α-lipoic acid increases the mRNA expression of proteins involved in drug metabolism and antioxidation in the liver.

  18. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  19. Combined inhibition of heat shock proteins 90 and 70 leads to simultaneous degradation of the oncogenic signaling proteins involved in muscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Alice; Juengst, Brendon; Sheridan, Kathleen; Danella, John F.; Williams, Heinric

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) plays a critical role in the survival of cancer cells including muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The addiction of tumor cells to HSP90 has promoted the development of numerous HSP90 inhibitors and their use in clinical trials. This study evaluated the role of inhibiting HSP90 using STA9090 (STA) alone or in combination with the HSP70 inhibitor VER155008 (VER) in several human MIBC cell lines. While both STA and VER inhibited MIBC cell growth and migration and promoted apoptosis, combination therapy was more effective. Therefore, the signaling pathways involved in MIBC were systematically interrogated following STA and/or VER treatments. STA and not VER reduced the expression of proteins in the p53/Rb, PI3K and SWI/SWF pathways. Interestingly, STA was not as effective as VER or combination therapy in degrading proteins involved in the histone modification pathway such as KDM6A (demethylase) and EP300 (acetyltransferase) as predicted by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. This data suggests that dual HSP90 and HSP70 inhibition can simultaneously disrupt the key signaling pathways in MIBC. PMID:26556859

  20. Granulomatous slack skin - seven years follow-up of a case with features of "parapsoriasis en plaques", muscle involvement, granulomatous vasculitis, and necrobiotic changes.

    PubMed

    ChiriŢă, Aurel Doru; Mărgăritescu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatous slack skin (GSS) represents an extremely rare variant of mycosis fungoides with only 70 cases reported in the literature to date. It is characterized clinically by the occurrence of bulky, pendulous skinfolds, usually located in flexural areas and histologically by an infiltrate composed of small neoplastic T-lymphocytes joined by granulomatous inflammation with scattered multinucleated giant cells containing nuclei arranged in a wreath-like fashion. Since its first description, very rare cases of GSS with muscle involvement, large vessels involvement, or necrobiotic changes have been reported. We present an extraordinary case of GSS with all these unusual features developing in the lesions of the same patient. The long follow-up of seven years allowed us to document the evolution of each lesion. Some lesions appeared and evolved in a manner very reminiscent of those of "parapsoriasis en plaques", others were classical GSS lesions, and still others developed large ulcerated lesions. These ulcerated lesions consistently failed to respond to conventional wound therapy, skin directed therapy [retinoids + psoralen combined with ultraviolet A (PUVA)-therapy], and interferon-alpha therapy. Remarkably, the ulcers completely healed when systemic corticosteroids were added. We hence postulate that the ulcers appeared because of large vessel vasculitis rather than tumoral direct destruction. PMID:27516031

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ attenuates serotonin-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition involving ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinyuan; Chen, Chunyan; Cheng, Gong; Liang, Lei; Yao, Xiaowei; Yang, Guang; You, Penghua; Shou, Xiling

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by inducing pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation and inhibiting PASMC apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a crucial role in regulating proliferation and apoptosis of many cell types. Moreover, recently, loss of PPARγ has also been reported to be associated with the development of PAH. The present study is aimed to assess whether PPARγ is involved in 5-HT induced PASMC proliferation and apoptosis inhibition and the possible mechanism. We found that 5-HT could induce PASMC proliferation and inhibit PASMC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that 5-HT negatively regulated PPARγ expression and gene promoter activity in PASMCs and 5-HT induced PASMC proliferation and apoptosis resistance could be abolished by PPARγ agonists and enhanced by PPARγ inhibitor. In addition, we found that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway mediated the 5-HT-induced inhibition of PPARγ expression. Our results might provide novel insights into the mechanisms for the pro-remodeling action of 5-HT in pulmonary vasculature.

  2. Generation of slow-wave-type action potentials in canine colon smooth muscle involves a non-L-type Ca2+ conductance.

    PubMed Central

    Huizinga, J D; Farraway, L; Den Hertog, A

    1991-01-01

    1. The hypothesis was addressed that a non-L-type calcium conductance is involved in the generation of the initial part of the slow-wave-type action potential in the canine colon. 2. In the absence of a sodium and chloride gradient (NaCl replaced by glucamine), and in the presence of nitrendipine (in 'glucamine-nitrendipine' Krebs solution), a major portion of the upstroke potential of the slow wave persists at unchanged frequency. 3. In 'glucamine-nitrendipine' Krebs solution, the rate of rise and amplitude of the upstroke potential is reduced by removal of extracellular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. 4. The rate of rise and the amplitude of the upstroke potential is in a concentration-dependent manner reduced by Ni2+ greater than Cd2+ greater than Co2+ greater than Mg2+. 5. In 'glucamine-nitrendipine' Krebs solution, Ba2+ cannot replace Ca2+ in the generation of the upstroke potential. 6. Positive evidence was obtained for the hypothesis that a non-L-type calcium conductance is involved in the initiation of the slow-wave-type action potential in colonic smooth muscle. PMID:1724671

  3. A grass-based diet favours muscle n-3 long-chain PUFA deposition without modifying gene expression of proteins involved in their synthesis or uptake in Charolais steers.

    PubMed

    Cherfaoui, M; Durand, D; Bonnet, M; Bernard, L; Bauchart, D; Ortigues-Marty, I; Gruffat, D

    2013-11-01

    N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) are subject of growing interest as they are of particular relevance for meat quality and human health. However, their content in the muscles of cattle is generally low probably as the complex result of their biosynthesis from dietary n-3 PUFA in the muscle and/or in other tissues/organs and of their subsequent uptake by the muscle. In view of this, this study aimed at understanding whether the changes in the muscle n-3 LCPUFA content, depending on the diet (maize silage v. grass) or the muscle type (Rectus abdominis, RA v. Semitendinosus, ST) in 12 Charolais steers, were related to variations in the gene expression of proteins involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis or cellular uptake. Tissue fatty acid composition was analysed by gas-liquid chromatography and mRNA abundance of proteins by quantitative real-time PCR. The grass-based diet resulted in a 2.3-fold (P < 0.0002) increase in both RA and ST n-3 LCPUFA content compared with the maize silage-based diet, whereas no difference in the expression of genes involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis and uptake was observed between diets. ST exhibited a 1.5-fold higher n-3 LCPUFA content than RA (P < 0.003), whereas the gene expression of proteins involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis and uptake was 1.3- to 18-fold higher in RA than in ST (P < 0.05). In conclusion, diet- or muscle type-dependent changes in the muscle n-3 LCPUFA content of Charolais steers did not seem to be mediated by the gene expression regulation of proteins involved in the biosynthesis or uptake of these fatty acids. PMID:23916277

  4. Involvement of trigeminal transition zone and laminated subnucleus caudalis in masseter muscle hypersensitivity associated with tooth inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kohei; Matsumoto, Kunihito; Noma, Noboru; Matsuura, Shingo; Ohara, Kinuyo; Komiya, Hiroki; Watase, Tetsuro; Ogiso, Bunnai; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Hatori, Keisuke; Nakaya, Yuka; Iwata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    A rat model of pulpitis/periapical periodontitis was used to study mechanisms underlying extraterritorial enhancement of masseter response associated with tooth inflammation. Periapical bone loss gradually increased and peaked at 6 weeks after complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) application to the upper molar tooth pulp (M1). On day 3, the number of Fos-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA rats compared with M1 vehicle (veh) rats in the trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris/caudalis transition zone (Vi/Vc). The number of Fos-IR cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA and masseter (Mass) capsaicin applied (M1 CFA/Mass cap) rats compared with M1 veh/Mass veh rats in the contralateral Vc and Vi/Vc. The number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)-IR cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA/Mass cap and M1 veh/Mass cap rats compared to Mass-vehicle applied rats with M1 vehicle or CFA in the Vi/Vc. Pulpal CFA application caused significant increase in the number of Fos-IR cells in the Vi/Vc but not Vc on week 6. The number of pERK-IR cells was significantly lager in the rats with capsaicin application to the Mass compared to Mass-vehicle treated rats after pulpal CFA- or vehicle-application. However, capsaicin application to the Mass did not further affect the number of Fos-IR cells in the Vi/Vc in pulpal CFA-applied rats. The digastric electromyographic (d-EMG) activity after Mass-capsaicin application was significantly increased on day 3 and lasted longer at 6 weeks after pulpal CFA application, and these increase and duration were significantly attenuated by i.t. PD98059, a MEK1 inhibitor. These findings suggest that Vi/Vc and Vc neuronal excitation is involved in the facilitation of extraterritorial hyperalgesia for Mass primed with periapical periodontitis or acute pulpal-inflammation. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ERK in the Vi/Vc and Vc play pivotal roles in masseter hyperalgesia after pulpitis or periapical

  5. α-Lipoic acid up-regulates expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β in skeletal muscle: involvement of the JNK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Sibille, Brigitte; Murdaca, Joseph; Mothe-Satney, Isabelle; Grimaldi, Paul A; Neels, Jaap G

    2016-03-01

    We hypothesized that α-lipoic acid (α-LA) might interact with the transcriptional control of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β in skeletal muscle. Molecular mechanisms were investigated using differentiated C2C12 myotubes treated with α-LA and/or PPARβ agonist GW0742. In vivo studies with 3-mo-old C57Bl6 mice were realized: voluntary wheel running (VWR) training (7 wk), and a 6 wk diet containing (or not) α-LA (0.25% wt/wt). This last condition was combined with (or not) 1 bout of treadmill exercise (18 m/min for 1 h). Using a reporter assay, we demonstrate that α-LA is not an agonist of PPARβ but regulates PPARβ target gene expression through an active PPARβ pathway. GW0742-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 mRNA is potentiated by α-LA. In C2C12, α-LA lowers the activation of the JNK signaling pathway and increases PPARβ mRNA and protein levels (2-fold) to the same extent as with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Similarly to VWR training effect, PPARβ expression increases (2-fold) in vastus lateralis of animals fed an α-LA-enriched diet. However, α-LA treatment does not further stimulate the adaptive up-regulation of PPARβ observed in response to 1 bout of exercise. We have identified a novel mechanism of regulation of PPARβ expression/action in skeletal muscle with potential physiologic application through the action of α-LA, involving the JNK pathway.

  6. CD36 is not involved in scavenger receptor-mediated endocytic uptake of glycolaldehyde- and methylglyoxal-modified proteins by liver endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajou, Keisuke; Horiuchi, Seikoh; Sakai, Masakazu; Hirata, Kenshiro; Tanaka, Makiko; Takeya, Motohiro; Kai, Toshiya; Otagiri, Masaki

    2005-05-01

    Circulating proteins modified by advanced glycation end-products (AGE) are mainly taken up by liver endothelial cells (LECs) via scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis. Endocytic uptake of chemically modified proteins by macrophages and macrophage-derived cells is mediated by class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) and CD36. In a previous study using SR-A knockout mice, we demonstrated that SR-A is not involved in endocytic uptake of AGE proteins by LECs [Matsumoto et al. (2000) Biochem. J. 352, 233-240]. The present study was conducted to determine the contribution of CD36 to this process. Glycolaldehyde-modified BSA (GA-BSA) and methylglyoxal-modified BSA (MG-BSA) were used as AGE proteins. 125I-GA-BSA and 125I-MG-BSA underwent endocytic degradation by these cells at 37 degrees C, and this process was inhibited by several ligands for the scavenger receptors. However, this endocytic uptake of 125I-GA-BSA by LECs was not inhibited by a neutralizing anti-CD36 antibody. Similarly, hepatic uptake of (111)In-GA-BSA after its intravenous injection was not significantly attenuated by co-administration of the anti-CD36 antibody. These results clarify that CD36 does not play a significant role in elimination of GA-BSA and MG-BSA from the circulation, suggesting that the receptor involved in endocytic uptake of circulating AGE proteins by LEC is not SR-A or CD36.

  7. Muscle Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  8. T₂ mapping provides multiple approaches for the characterization of muscle involvement in neuromuscular diseases: a cross-sectional study of lower leg muscles in 5-15-year-old boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Arpan, Ishu; Forbes, Sean C; Lott, Donovan J; Senesac, Claudia R; Daniels, Michael J; Triplett, William T; Deol, Jasjit K; Sweeney, H Lee; Walter, Glenn A; Vandenborne, Krista

    2013-03-01

    Skeletal muscles of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) show enhanced susceptibility to damage and progressive lipid infiltration, which contribute to an increase in the MR proton transverse relaxation time (T₂). Therefore, the examination of T₂ changes in individual muscles may be useful for the monitoring of disease progression in DMD. In this study, we used the mean T₂, percentage of elevated pixels and T₂ heterogeneity to assess changes in the composition of dystrophic muscles. In addition, we used fat saturation to distinguish T₂ changes caused by edema and inflammation from fat infiltration in muscles. Thirty subjects with DMD and 15 age-matched controls underwent T₂ -weighted imaging of their lower leg using a 3-T MR system. T₂ maps were developed and four lower leg muscles were manually traced (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, peroneal and tibialis anterior). The mean T₂ of the traced regions of interest, width of the T₂ histograms and percentage of elevated pixels were calculated. We found that, even in young children with DMD, lower leg muscles showed elevated mean T₂, were more heterogeneous and had a greater percentage of elevated pixels than in controls. T₂ measures decreased with fat saturation, but were still higher (P < 0.05) in dystrophic muscles than in controls. Further, T₂ measures showed positive correlations with timed functional tests (r = 0.23-0.79). The elevated T₂ measures with and without fat saturation at all ages of DMD examined (5-15 years) compared with unaffected controls indicate that the dystrophic muscles have increased regions of damage, edema and fat infiltration. This study shows that T₂ mapping provides multiple approaches that can be used effectively to characterize muscle tissue in children with DMD, even in the early stages of the disease. Therefore, T₂ mapping may prove to be clinically useful in the monitoring of muscle changes caused by the disease process or by therapeutic

  9. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells involved in the modulation of calcium sensing receptor in high homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuwen; Wang, Xiyao; Liang, Xiaohui; Wu, Jichao; Dong, Shiyun; Li, Hongzhu; Jin, Meili; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Weihua; Zhong, Xin

    2016-09-10

    Hyperhomocysteinemia induces the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhibits the phenotype switch of VSMCs and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulated the production of endogenous H2S. However, whether CaSR inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs by regulating the endogenous cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE, a major enzyme that produces H2S) pathway in high homocysteine (HHcy) has not been previously investigated. The intracellular calcium concentration, the concentration of H2S, the cell viability, the proliferation and the expression of proteins of cultured VSMCs from rat thoracic aortas were measured, respectively. The results showed that the [Ca(2+)]i and the expression of p-CaMK and CSE increased upon treatment with CaSR agonist. In HHcy, the H2S concentration decrease, the proliferation and migration rate increased, the expression of Cyclin D1, PCNA, Osteopontin and p-Erk1/2 increased while the α-SM actin, P21(Cip/WAK-1) and Calponin decreased. The CaSR agonist or exogenous H2S significantly reversed the changes of VSMCs caused by HHcy. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that CaSR regulate the endogenous CSE/H2S is related to the PLC-IP3 receptor and CaM signal pathways which inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs, and the latter is involved in the Erk1/2 dependent signal pathway in high homocysteine. PMID:27502588

  10. Mulberry leaf extract inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration involving a block of small GTPase and Akt/NF-kappaB signals.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Ho, Hsieh-Hsun; Huang, Chien-Ning; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Hsiang-Mei; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2009-10-14

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba, is commonly used in Chinese medicines because of its many pharmacologic effects. Mulberry leaves contain many phenolic antioxidants that can reduce cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis involves proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). Thus, we investigated the mechanisms by which mulberry leaf extract (MLE) might inhibit migration of VSMC. MLE was rich in polyphenols (44.82%), including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, gallocatechin gallate, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin. MLE could inhibit the migration of A7r5 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MLE also inhibited the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9, protein expressions, and phosphorylation of FAK and Akt, and protein expressions of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases: c-Raf, Ras, Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA) in a dose-dependent manner. NF-kappaB expression was also inhibited by MLE. MLE could effectively inhibit the migration of VSMC by blocking small GTPase and Akt/NF-kappaB signals.

  11. Comparative study of bisphenol A and its analogue bisphenol S on human hepatic cells: a focus on their potential involvement in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Ludovic; Rouimi, Patrick; de Sousa, Georges; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Carré, Benjamin; Barcellini, Sylvie; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-08-01

    For several decades, people have been in contact with bisphenol A (BPA) primarily through their diet. Nowadays it is gradually replaced by an analogue, bisphenol S (BPS). In this study, we compared the effects of these two bisphenols in parallel with the positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES) on different hepatocyte cell lines. Using a cellular impedance system we have shown that BPS is less cytotoxic than BPA in acute and chronic conditions. We have also demonstrated that, contrary to BPA, BPS is not able to induce an increase in intracellular lipid and does not activate the PXR receptor which is known to be involved in part, in this process. In parallel, it failed to modulate the expression of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, the drug transporter ABCB1 and other lipid metabolism genes (FASN, PLIN). However, it appears to have a weak effect on GSTA4 protein expression and on the Erk1/2 pathway. In conclusion, in contrast to BPA, BPS does not appear to induce the metabolic syndrome that may lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in vitro. Although we have to pay special attention to BPS, its use could be less dangerous concerning this toxicological endpoint for human health.

  12. Protection against phalloidin-induced liver injury by oleanolic acid involves Nrf2 activation and suppression of Oatp1b2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Liu, Jie; Wu, Kai Connie; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized pharmacological activation of Nrf2 with oleanolic acid (OA, 22.5mg/kg, sc for 4 days) and the genetic alteration of Nrf2 (Nrf2-null, wild-type, and Keap1-HKO mice) to examine the role of Nrf2 in protection against phalloidin hepatotoxicity. Mice were given phalloidin (1.5mg/kg, ip for 8h) to examine liver injury and the expression of toxicity-related genes. Phalloidin increased serum enzyme activities and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null and wild-type mice, but less injury was seen in Keap1-HKO mice and OA-pretreated mice. Phalloidin increased the expression of neutrophil-specific chemokine mKC and MIP-2 in Nrf2-null and WT mice, but such increases were attenuated in Keap1-HKO and OA-pretreated mice. Phalloidin increased, while Nrf2 activation attenuated, the expression of genes involved in acute-phase response (Ho-1) and DNA-damage response genes (Gadd45 and Chop10). Phalloidin is taken up by hepatocytes through Oatp1b2, but there was no difference in basal and phalloidin-induced Oatp1b2 expression among Nrf2-null, wild-type, and Keap1-HKO mice. In contrast, OA decreased phalloidin-induced Oatp1b2. Phalloidin activated MAPK signaling (p-JNK), which was attenuated by activation of Nrf2. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that protection against phalloidin hepatotoxicity by OA involves activation of Nrf2 and suppression of Oatp1b2.

  13. Studies in vitro on the involvement of O-sulphate esters in the formation of O-methylated 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid by rat liver.

    PubMed

    Pennings, E J; Van Kempen, G M

    1981-03-01

    The involvement of O-sulphate esters in the directed O-methylation was investigated in vitro with a dialysed "high-speed' supernatant from rat liver as the enzyme preparation and the catechol compound 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid as the substrate. The enzyme reactions involved were studied separately with the O-methylated and O-sulphated derivatives. The rate of hydrolysis by arylsulphatase was 14.5 nmol/min per mg of protein for 3-methoxy-4-sulphonyloxybenzoic acid and 10.1 nmol/min per mg of protein for 4-methoxy-3-sulphonyloxybenzoic acid. The sulphotransferase activity towards the guaiacols 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid was 570pmol of 4-O-sulphated and 350pmol of 3-O-sulphated product formed/min per mg of protein. The 3-O- and 4-O-sulphate esters of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid could not serve as substrates for the catechol O-methyltransferase reaction. When either ester was incubated in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, but without the arylsulphatase inhibitor KH2PO4, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was formed, which was subsequently O-methylated in a meta/para ratio of 4.6. It is concluded that O-methylation can precede O-sulphation but that O-sulphation prevents further metabolism by O-methylation. Also O-sulphate esters do not have a directing effect on O-methylation. From the study of the simultaneous action of sulphotransferase and catechol O-methyltransferase on 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid we conclude that O-sulphation and O-methylation proceed independently of each other under the assay conditions used, both directed preferentially to the 3-hydroxy group.

  14. Protection against phalloidin-induced liver injury by oleanolic acid involves Nrf2 activation and suppression of Oatp1b2

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Liu, Jie; Wu, Kai Connie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized pharmacological activation of Nrf2 with oleanolic acid (OA, 22.5 mg/kg, sc for 4d) and the genetic Nrf2 activation (Nrf2-null, wild-type, and Keap1-HKO mice) to examine the role of Nrf2 in protection against phalloidin hepatotoxicity. Mice were given phalloidin (1.5 mg/kg, ip for 8 h) to examine liver injury and the expression of toxicity-related genes. Phalloidin increased serum enzyme activities and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null and wild-type mice, but less injury was seen in Keap1-HKO mice and OA-pretreated mice. Phalloidin increased the expression of neutrophil-specific chemokine mKC and MIP-2 in Nrf2-null and WT mice, but such increases were attenuated in Keap1-HKO and OA-pretreated mice. Phalloidin increased, while Nrf2 activation attenuated, the expression of genes involved in acute-phase response (Ho-1) and DNA-damage response genes (Gadd45 and Chop10). Phalloidin is taken up by hepatocytes through Oatp1b2, but there was no difference in basal and phalloidin-induced Oatp1b2 expression among Nrf2-null, wild-type, and Keap1-HKO mice. In contrast, OA decreased phalloidin-induced Oatp1b2. Phalloidin activated MAPK signaling (p-JNK), which was attenuated by activation of Nrf2. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that protection against phalloidin hepatotoxicity by OA involves activation of Nrf2 and suppression of Oatp1b2. PMID:25280775

  15. Toxicogenomic Dissection of the Perfluorooctanoic Acid Transcript Profile in Mouse Liver: Evidence for the Involvement of Nuclear Receptors PPARα and CAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of perfluorinated alkyl acids including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) elicit effects similar to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) in mouse and rat liver. There is strong evidence that PPC cause many of their effects linked to liver cancer through the nuclear recep...

  16. Toxicogenomic Dissection of the Perfluorooctanoic Acid Transcript Profile in Mouse Liver: Evidence for Involvement of the Nuclear Receptors PPARα and CAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of perfluorinated alkyl acids including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) elicit effects similar to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) in mouse and rat liver. There is strong evidence that PPC cause many of their effects related to liver carcinogenesis through the nucle...

  17. Expression of genes involved in energy homeostasis in the duodenum and liver of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows and their F(1) hybrid.

    PubMed

    Alam, Tanweer; Kenny, David A; Sweeney, Torres; Buckley, Frank; Prendiville, Robert; McGee, Mark; Waters, Sinead M

    2012-02-01

    Differences in feed intake and production efficiency in lactating Holstein-Friesian (HF), Jersey (JE), and JE × HF (F(1)) dairy cows have been reported. The liver-gut axis is important in the regulation of energy homeostasis, appetite behaviour, and production efficiency. The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the effect of dairy cow genotype on the expression profiles of genes involved in energy homeostasis in duodenal and hepatic tissue, and 2) the association between the expression of these genes across both tissues and with economically important production efficiency traits. The expression of 27 candidate genes involved in energy homeostasis, feed intake, and energy storage was measured by qPCR. Duodenal expression of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) genes was highest in HF. In contrast, hepatic expression of the leptin receptor (LEPR), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), protein kinase, AMP-activated, beta 1 (AMPKB1), and POMC genes was highest in the F(1) cross. In the duodenum, positive correlations were observed between mRNA expression of anorectic peptides (POMC and GLP1R), whereas a negative correlation was detected between orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorectic (peptide YY) gene expression. A negative correlation was observed between duodenal POMC gene expression and both residual feed intake and milk production efficiency traits, while GLP1R gene expression was negatively correlated with milk production efficiency traits. A heterotic effect was observed in hepatic expression of AMKPB1, IGF1R, LEPR, POMC in the F(1) genotype, possibly mediating improved feed efficiency in cross-bred cows. In conclusion, key genes involved in energy homeostasis and appetite behaviour are differentially expressed due to cow genotype in a tissue-dependent fashion. POMC and GLP1R are potential candidate genes for the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms

  18. Muscle biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  19. Mtu1-Mediated Thiouridine Formation of Mitochondrial tRNAs Is Required for Mitochondrial Translation and Is Involved in Reversible Infantile Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fan-Yan; Suzuki, Takeo; Araki, Kimi; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Fujimura, Atsushi; Takeya, Motohiro; Oike, Yuichi; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    Reversible infantile liver failure (RILF) is a unique heritable liver disease characterized by acute liver failure followed by spontaneous recovery at an early stage of life. Genetic mutations in MTU1 have been identified in RILF patients. MTU1 is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the 2-thiolation of 5-taurinomethyl-2-thiouridine (τm5s2U) found in the anticodon of a subset of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs). Although the genetic basis of RILF is clear, the molecular mechanism that drives the pathogenesis remains elusive. We here generated liver-specific knockout of Mtu1 (Mtu1LKO) mice, which exhibited symptoms of liver injury characterized by hepatic inflammation and elevated levels of plasma lactate and AST. Mechanistically, Mtu1 deficiency resulted in a loss of 2-thiolation in mt-tRNAs, which led to a marked impairment of mitochondrial translation. Consequently, Mtu1LKO mice exhibited severe disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity and a broad decrease in respiratory complex activities in the hepatocytes. Interestingly, mitochondrial dysfunction induced signaling pathways related to mitochondrial proliferation and the suppression of oxidative stress. The present study demonstrates that Mtu1-dependent 2-thiolation of mt-tRNA is indispensable for mitochondrial translation and that Mtu1 deficiency is a primary cause of RILF. In addition, Mtu1 deficiency is associated with multiple cytoprotective pathways that might prevent catastrophic liver failure and assist in the recovery from liver injury. PMID:27689697

  20. [Liver and artificial liver].

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, R A

    1998-06-01

    Despite good results of orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure the need still exists for an effective and safe artificial liver, able to temporarily take over the complex liver function so as to bridge the gap with transplantation or regeneration. Attempts to develop non-biological artificial livers have failed, mostly when controlled clinical trials were performed. In the last decade several different types of bioartificial livers have been devised, in which the biocomponent consists of freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes or a human hepatoblastoma cell line. The majority use semipermeable hollow fibers known from artificial kidney devices. The liver cells may lie either inside or outside the lumen of these fibers. In vitro analysis of liver function and animal experimental work showing that the bioartificial liver increases survival justify clinical application. Bioartificial livers are connected to patients extracorporeally by means of plasmapheresis circuit for periods of about 6 hours. In different trials about 40 patients with severe liver failure have been treated. No important adverse effects have not been reported in these phase I trials. Results of controlled studies are urgently needed. As long as no satisfactory immortalised human liver cell line with good function is available, porcine hepatocytes will remain the first choice, provided transmission of porcine pathogens to man is prevented. PMID:9752034

  1. Plasminogen-stimulated airway smooth muscle cell proliferation is mediated by urokinase and annexin A2, involving plasmin-activated cell signalling

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A G; Xia, Y C; Harris, T; Royce, S; Hamilton, J A; Schuliga, M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The conversion of plasminogen into plasmin by interstitial urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is potentially important in asthma pathophysiology. In this study, the effect of uPA-mediated plasminogen activation on airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Human ASM cells were incubated with plasminogen (0.5–50 μg·mL−1) or plasmin (0.5–50 mU·mL−1) in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors, including UK122, an inhibitor of uPA. Proliferation was assessed by increases in cell number or MTT reduction after 48 h incubation with plasmin(ogen), and by earlier increases in [3H]-thymidine incorporation and cyclin D1 expression. KEY RESULTS Plasminogen (5 μg·mL−1)-stimulated increases in cell proliferation were attenuated by UK122 (10 μM) or by transfection with uPA gene-specific siRNA. Exogenous plasmin (5 mU·mL−1) also stimulated increases in cell proliferation. Inhibition of plasmin-stimulated ERK1/2 or PI3K/Akt signalling attenuated plasmin-stimulated increases in ASM proliferation. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of cell signalling mediated by the EGF receptor, a receptor trans-activated by plasmin, also reduced plasmin(ogen)-stimulated cell proliferation. Knock down of annexin A2, which has dual roles in both plasminogen activation and plasmin-signal transduction, also attenuated ASM cell proliferation following incubation with either plasminogen or plasmin. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Plasminogen stimulates ASM cell proliferation in a manner mediated by uPA and involving multiple signalling pathways downstream of plasmin. Targeting mediators of plasminogen-evoked ASM responses, such as uPA or annexin A2, may be useful in the treatment of asthma. PMID:24111848

  2. Overexpression of Differentially Expressed Genes Identified in Non-pathogenic and Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Clones Allow Identification of New Pathogenicity Factors Involved in Amoebic Liver Abscess Formation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Martin; Fehling, Helena; Matthiesen, Jenny; Lorenzen, Stephan; Schuldt, Kathrin; Bernin, Hannah; Zaruba, Mareen; Lender, Corinna; Ernst, Thomas; Ittrich, Harald; Roeder, Thomas; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2016-08-01

    We here compared pathogenic (p) and non-pathogenic (np) isolates of Entamoeba histolytica to identify molecules involved in the ability of this parasite to induce amoebic liver abscess (ALA)-like lesions in two rodent models for the disease. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 12 clones (A1-A12) derived from a non-pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-A and 12 clones (B1-B12) derived from a pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-B. "Non-pathogenicity" included the induction of small and quickly resolved lesions while "pathogenicity" comprised larger abscess development that overstayed day 7 post infection. All A-clones were designated as non-pathogenic, whereas 4 out of 12 B-clones lost their ability to induce ALAs in gerbils. No correlation between ALA formation and cysteine peptidase (CP) activity, haemolytic activity, erythrophagocytosis, motility or cytopathic activity was found. To identify the molecular framework underlying different pathogenic phenotypes, three clones were selected for in-depth transcriptome analyses. Comparison of a non-pathogenic clone A1np with pathogenic clone B2p revealed 76 differentially expressed genes, whereas comparison of a non-pathogenic clone B8np with B2p revealed only 19 differentially expressed genes. Only six genes were found to be similarly regulated in the two non-pathogenic clones A1np and B8np in comparison with the pathogenic clone B2p. Based on these analyses, we chose 20 candidate genes and evaluated their roles in ALA formation using the respective gene-overexpressing transfectants. We conclude that different mechanisms lead to loss of pathogenicity. In total, we identified eight proteins, comprising a metallopeptidase, C2 domain proteins, alcohol dehydrogenases and hypothetical proteins, that affect the pathogenicity of E. histolytica. PMID:27575775

  3. Effect of diet on expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation in mouse liver-insights into mechanisms of hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Helen J; Cui, Julia Y; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional intake is a fundamental determinant of health. Many studies have correlated excess caloric intake, as well as a high ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids, with detrimental health outcomes, such as the metabolic syndrome. In contrast, low-calorie diets have beneficial health effects. Despite these associations, our understanding of the causal relationship between diet and health remains largely elusive. The present study examined the molecular changes elicited by nine diets with varying fat, sugar, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-6 fatty acids, and calories in C57BL/6 male mice. Microarray analyses were conducted on liver samples from three mice per diet and detected 20,449 genes of which 3,734 were responsive to changes in dietary components. Principal component analysis showed that diet restriction correlated the least with the other diets and also affected more genes than any other diet. Interestingly, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) identified gene sets involved in glutathione metabolism, immune response, fatty acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, ABC transporters, and oxidative phosphorylation as being highly responsive to changes in diet composition. On the gene level, this study reveals novel findings such as the induction of the drug efflux pump Abcb1a (p-glycoprotein) by diet restriction and an atherogenic diet, as well as the suppression of the rate limiting step of bile acid synthesis, Cyp7a1, by a high fructose diet. This study provides considerable insight into the molecular changes incurred by a variety of diets and furthers our understanding of the causal relationships between diet and health.

  4. Overexpression of Differentially Expressed Genes Identified in Non-pathogenic and Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Clones Allow Identification of New Pathogenicity Factors Involved in Amoebic Liver Abscess Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Stephan; Schuldt, Kathrin; Bernin, Hannah; Zaruba, Mareen; Lender, Corinna; Ittrich, Harald; Roeder, Thomas; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore; Bruchhaus, Iris

    2016-01-01

    We here compared pathogenic (p) and non-pathogenic (np) isolates of Entamoeba histolytica to identify molecules involved in the ability of this parasite to induce amoebic liver abscess (ALA)-like lesions in two rodent models for the disease. We performed a comprehensive analysis of 12 clones (A1–A12) derived from a non-pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-A and 12 clones (B1–B12) derived from a pathogenic isolate HM-1:IMSS-B. “Non-pathogenicity” included the induction of small and quickly resolved lesions while “pathogenicity” comprised larger abscess development that overstayed day 7 post infection. All A-clones were designated as non-pathogenic, whereas 4 out of 12 B-clones lost their ability to induce ALAs in gerbils. No correlation between ALA formation and cysteine peptidase (CP) activity, haemolytic activity, erythrophagocytosis, motility or cytopathic activity was found. To identify the molecular framework underlying different pathogenic phenotypes, three clones were selected for in-depth transcriptome analyses. Comparison of a non-pathogenic clone A1np with pathogenic clone B2p revealed 76 differentially expressed genes, whereas comparison of a non-pathogenic clone B8np with B2p revealed only 19 differentially expressed genes. Only six genes were found to be similarly regulated in the two non-pathogenic clones A1np and B8np in comparison with the pathogenic clone B2p. Based on these analyses, we chose 20 candidate genes and evaluated their roles in ALA formation using the respective gene-overexpressing transfectants. We conclude that different mechanisms lead to loss of pathogenicity. In total, we identified eight proteins, comprising a metallopeptidase, C2 domain proteins, alcohol dehydrogenases and hypothetical proteins, that affect the pathogenicity of E. histolytica. PMID:27575775

  5. Heterogeneity of neuronal and smooth muscle receptors involved in the VIP- and PACAP-induced relaxations of the pig intravesical ureter

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Medardo; Barahona, María Victoria; Recio, Paz; Rivera, Luis; Benedito, Sara; Martínez, Ana Cristina; García-Sacristán, Albino; Orensanz, Luis M; Prieto, Dolores

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms and receptors involved in the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-induced relaxations of the pig intravesical ureter were investigated.VIP, PACAP 38 and PACAP 27 concentration-dependently relaxed U46619-contracted ureteral strips with a similar potency. [Ala11,22,28]-VIP, a VPAC1 agonist, showed inconsistent relaxations.The neuronal voltage-gated Ca2+ channel inhibitor, ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CgTX, 1 μM), reduced the VIP relaxations. Urothelium removal or blockade of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents, nitric oxide (NO) synthase and guanylate cyclase with capsaicin (10 μM), NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 μM) and 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 5 μM), respectively, did not change the VIP relaxations. However, the PACAP 38 relaxations were reduced by ω-CgTX, capsaicin, L-NOARG and ODQ.The VIP and VIP/PACAP receptor antagonists, [Lys1, Pro2,5, Arg3,4, Tyr6]-VIP (1 μM) and PACAP (6–38) (0.4 μM), inhibited VIP and VIP and PACAP 38, respectively, relaxations.The nonselective and large-conductance Ca2-activated K+ channel blockers, tetraethylammonium (3 mM) and charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), respectively, and neuropeptide Y (0.1 μM) did not modify the VIP relaxations. The small-conductance Ca2-activated K+ channel blocker apamin (1 μM) did not change the PACAP 27 relaxations.The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) blocker, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS, 100 μM), reduced VIP relaxations. The phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor rolipram and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin relaxed ureteral preparations. The rolipram relaxations were reduced by Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS. Forskolin (30 nM) evoked a potentiation of VIP relaxations.These results suggest that VIP and PACAP relax the pig ureter through smooth muscle receptors, probably of the VPAC2 subtype, linked to a cAMP-PKA pathway. Neuronal VPAC receptors localized at

  6. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia. PMID:27142740

  7. ATP Sensitive Potassium Channels in the Skeletal Muscle Function: Involvement of the KCNJ11(Kir6.2) Gene in the Determination of Mechanical Warner Bratzer Shear Force

    PubMed Central

    Tricarico, Domenico; Selvaggi, Maria; Passantino, Giuseppe; De Palo, Pasquale; Dario, Cataldo; Centoducati, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Curci, Angela; Maqoud, Fatima; Mele, Antonietta; Camerino, Giulia M.; Liantonio, Antonella; Imbrici, Paola; Zizzo, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive K+-channels (KATP) are distributed in the tissues coupling metabolism with K+ ions efflux. KATP subunits are encoded by KCNJ8 (Kir6.1), KCNJ11 (Kir6.2), ABCC8 (SUR1), and ABCC9 (SUR2) genes, alternative RNA splicing give rise to SUR variants that confer distinct physiological properties on the channel. An high expression/activity of the sarco-KATP channel is observed in various rat fast-twitch muscles, characterized by elevated muscle strength, while a low expression/activity is observed in the slow-twitch muscles characterized by reduced strength and frailty. Down-regulation of the KATP subunits of fast-twitch fibers is found in conditions characterized by weakness and frailty. KCNJ11 gene knockout mice have reduced glycogen, lean phenotype, lower body fat, and weakness. KATP channel is also a sensor of muscle atrophy. The KCNJ11 gene is located on BTA15, close to a QTL for meat tenderness, it has also a role in glycogen storage, a key mechanism of the postmortem transformation of muscle into meat. The role of KCNJ11 gene in muscle function may underlie an effect of KCNJ11 genotypes on meat tenderness, as recently reported. The fiber phenotype and genotype are important in livestock production science. Quantitative traits including meat production and quality are influenced both by environment and genes. Molecular markers can play an important role in the genetic improvement of animals through breeding strategies. Many factors influence the muscle Warner-Bratzler shear force including breed, age, feeding, the biochemical, and functional parameters. The role of KCNJ11gene and related genes on muscle tenderness will be discussed in the present review. PMID:27242541

  8. Ethanol extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. reduced the carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in mice involving enhancement of NF-κB activity

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongguang; Liu, Xuefeng; Tang, Gusheng; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yinghui; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xuezhi; Wang, Wanyin

    2014-01-01

    Acute hepatic injury causes high morbidity and mortality world-wide. Management of severe acute hepatic failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. In present study, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used to induce acute liver damage in mice and the protective effects of ethanol extract of Portulaca Oleracea L. (PO) were examined. The aminotransferase activities were biochemical estimated and the liver damage was tested by morphological histological analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The role of PO on the activity of NF-κB was determined by luciferase reporter gene assay and immunohistochemistry. The level of p-p65 was tested by western blot. Our results showed that PO administration on mice would decrease the serum aminotransferase level and reduced the liver histological damage. We also found that nuclear translocation of p65 was enhanced in liver tissues of mice treated with PO compared with control animals. In addition, in cultured hepatic cells, PO increased the NF-κB luciferase reporter gene activity and upregulated the level of phosphorylation of p65, but had no effects on mice liver SOD activity and MDA level. Collectively, PO attenuated CCl4 induced mice liver damage by enhancement of NF-κB activity. PMID:25628785

  9. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  10. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  11. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  12. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the removal of a small piece of muscle tissue for examination. ... dystrophy Myopathic changes (destruction of the muscle) Necrosis (tissue death) of muscle Necrotizing vasculitis Traumatic muscle damage Polymyositis Additional conditions ...

  13. Relationships between thyroid status, tissue oxidative metabolism, and muscle differentiation in bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Cassar-Malek, I; Picard, B; Kahl, S; Hocquette, J F

    2007-07-01

    The temporal relationships between thyroid status and differentiation of liver, heart and different skeletal muscles were examined in 42 bovine fetuses from day 110 to day 260 of development using principal component analysis of the data. Plasma concentrations of reverse-triiodothyronine (rT(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) increased during development from day 110 to day 210 or 260, respectively, whereas concentration of triiodothyronine (T(3)) and hepatic type-1 5'-deiodinase activity (5'D1) increased from day 180 onwards. On day 260, high T(4) and rT(3) and low T(3) concentrations were observed together with a mature 5'D1 activity. Cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity expressed per mg protein increased at day 180 in masseter and near birth in masseter, rectus abdominis and cutaneus trunci muscles (P<0.05). Significant changes in citrate synthase (CS) activity per mg protein were observed between day 110 and day 180 in the liver and between day 210 and day 260 in the liver, the heart and the longissimus thoracis muscle (P<0.05). Muscle contractile differentiation was shown by the disappearance of the fetal myosin heavy chain from day 180 onwards. A positive correlation (r>0.47, P<0.01) was shown between thyroid status parameters (5'D1, concentrations of T(4) and T(3)) and COX activity in muscles known to be oxidative after birth (masseter, rectus abdominis) but not in liver and heart, nor in muscles known to be glycolytic after birth (cutaneus trunci, longissimus thoracis). A similar correlation was found between thyroid parameters and CS activity in liver and masseter. Results indicate that elevation of plasma T(3) concentrations in the last gestational trimester could be involved in the differentiation of oxidative skeletal muscles.

  14. Muscle strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  15. Liver Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Liver Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one ...

  16. Developmental changes in the protein profiles of human cardiac and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tipler, T D; Edwards, Y H; Hopkinson, D A

    1978-05-01

    1. The use of SDS electrophoresis as a tool for the analysis of development processes in man has been evaluated. 2. The protein profiles of cardiac and skeletal muscle from foetal (10--24 weeks gestation) infant and adult specimens have been analysed and striking developmental changes were found which involved all the major proteins. 3. Before 20 weeks gestation the soluble protein profile of skeletal muscle appears to consist largely of extracellular proteins. 4. Myoglobin was found in foetal cardiac muscle from 20 weeks gestation but was not demonstrable in foetal (greater than 24 weeks) skeletal muscle. Foetal and adult myoglobin were indistinguishable. 5. A limited survey of the protein patterns of brain, liver and kidney was carried out. In general these tissues show less developmental change than skeletal or cardiac muscle.

  17. Immune mediated liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of “immune coagulation”, which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure. PMID:26417328

  18. MSTN, mTOR and FoxO4 are involved in the enhancement of breast muscle growth by methionine in broilers with lower hatching weight.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao; Chen, Yueping; Wu, Ping; Wang, Tian; Zhou, Yanmin

    2014-01-01

    Broilers with lower hatching weight (HW) present poorer performance than those with high HW, but there is limited research on the growth regulation of broilers with lower HW. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary methionine (Met) levels on the growth performance and breast muscle yield of broilers with different HW and underlying mechanisms. A total of 192 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks with different HW (heavy: 48.3±0.1 g, and light: 41.7±0.1 g) were allocated to a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 6 replicates of 8 chicks per replicate cage. Control starter (1-21 d) and finisher (22-42 d) diets were formulated to contain 0.50% and 0.43% Met, respectively. Corresponding values for a high Met treatment were 0.60% and 0.53%. Light chicks had lower body weight gain (BWG) and breast muscle yield than heavy chicks when the broilers were fed the control diets. High Met diets improved BWG, gain to feed ratio and breast muscle yield in light but not heavy chicks. Decreased DNA content and increased RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios in breast muscle were induced by high Met diets only in light chicks. MSTN mRNA level was decreased by high Met diets only in light chicks, and this decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in MSTN gene exon 1 methylation. In addition, high Met diets increased mTOR phosphorylation, but decreased FoxO4 phosphorylation in breast muscle of light chicks. In conclusion, the BWG and breast muscle yield of light chicks were improved by increasing dietary Met levels probably through alterations of MSTN transcription and phosphorylation of mTOR and FoxO4. PMID:25437444

  19. Differential involvement of various sources of reactive oxygen species in thyroxin-induced hemodynamic changes and contractile dysfunction of the heart and diaphragm muscles.

    PubMed

    Elnakish, Mohammad T; Schultz, Eric J; Gearinger, Rachel L; Saad, Nancy S; Rastogi, Neha; Ahmed, Amany A E; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid hormones are key regulators of basal metabolic state and oxidative metabolism. Hyperthyroidism has been reported to cause significant alterations in hemodynamics, and in cardiac and diaphragm muscle functions, all of which have been linked to increased oxidative stress. However, the definite source of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in each of these phenotypes is still unknown. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that thyroxin (T4) may produce distinct hemodynamic, cardiac, and diaphragm muscle abnormalities by differentially affecting various sources of ROS. Wild-type and T4 mice with and without 2-week treatments with allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor), L-NIO (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), or MitoTEMPO (mitochondria-targeted antioxidant) were studied. Blood pressure and echocardiography were noninvasively evaluated, followed by ex vivo assessments of isolated heart and diaphragm muscle functions. Treatment with L-NIO attenuated the T4-induced hypertension in mice. However, apocynin improved the left-ventricular (LV) dysfunction without preventing the cardiac hypertrophy in these mice. Both allopurinol and MitoTEMPO reduced the T4-induced fatigability of the diaphragm muscles. In conclusion, we show here for the first time that T4 exerts differential effects on various sources of ROS to induce distinct cardiovascular and skeletal muscle phenotypes. Additionally, we find that T4-induced LV dysfunction is independent of cardiac hypertrophy and NADPH oxidase is a key player in this process. Furthermore, we prove the significance of both xanthine oxidase and mitochondrial ROS pathways in T4-induced fatigability of diaphragm muscles. Finally, we confirm the importance of the nitric oxide pathway in T4-induced hypertension. PMID:25795514

  20. Differential involvement of various sources of reactive oxygen species in thyroxin-induced hemodynamic changes and contractile dysfunction of the heart and diaphragm muscles

    PubMed Central

    Elnakish, Mohammad T.; Schultz, Eric J.; Gearinger, Rachel L.; Saad, Nancy S.; Rastogi, Neha; Ahmed, Amany A.E.; Mohler, Peter J.; Janssen, Paul M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key regulators of basal metabolic state and oxidative metabolism. Hyperthyroidism has been reported to cause significant alterations in hemodynamics, and in cardiac and diaphragm muscle function, all of which have been linked to increased oxidative stress. However, the definite source of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in each of these phenotypes is still unknown. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that thyroxin (T4) may produce distinct hemodynamic, cardiac, and diaphragm muscle abnormalities by differentially affecting various sources of ROS. Wild-type and T4 mice with and without 2-week treatments with allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor), L-NIO (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), or MitoTEMPO (mitochondria-targeted antioxidant) were studied. Blood pressure and echocardiography were noninvasively evaluated, followed by ex vivo assessments of isolated heart and diaphragm muscle functions. Treatment with L-NIO attenuated the T4-induced hypertension in mice. However, apocynin improved the left-ventricular (LV) dysfunction without preventing the cardiac hypertrophy in these mice. Both allopurinol and MitoTEMPO reduced the T4-induced fatigability of the diaphragm muscles. In conclusion, we show here for the first time that T4 exerts differential effects on various sources of ROS to induce distinct cardiovascular and skeletal muscle phenotypes. Additionally, we find that T4-induced LV dysfunction is independent of cardiac hypertrophy and NADPH oxidase is a key player in this process. Furthermore, we prove the significance of both xanthine oxidase and mitochondrial ROS pathways in T4-induced fatigability of diaphragm muscles. Finally, we confirm the importance of the nitric oxide pathway in T4-induced hypertension. PMID:25795514

  1. Effect of a negative energy balance induced by feed restriction on pro-inflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling pathways in the liver and skeletal muscle of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Denise K; Gröne, Birthe; Rosenbaum, Susann; Most, Erika; Hillen, Sonja; Becker, Sabrina; Erhardt, Georg; Reiner, Gerald; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    High-producing sows develop typical signs of an inflammatory condition and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver during lactation. At present, it is unknown whether a negative energy balance (NEB) is causative for this. Therefore, an experiment with lactating sows, which were either restricted in their feed intake to 82% of their energy requirement (Group FR) or were fed to meet their energy requirement (Control), was performed and the effect on ER stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome signalling in the liver was evaluated. Relative mRNA concentrations of several genes involved in ER stress-induced UPR, NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome signalling were reduced in the liver of Group FR compared to the Control group. Plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were 13% and 37%, respectively, lower in Group FR than in the Control group, but these differences were not significant. In conclusion, feed restriction in lactating sows inhibits pro-inflammatory and ER stress signalling pathways in the liver, which suggests that not the NEB per se is causative for inflammation and ER stress induction in the liver of lactating sows. Rather it is likely that ER stress during lactation is the consequence of the presence of potent pro-inflammatory and ER stress-inducing stimuli, such as cytokines, reactive oxygen species and microbial components, which enter the circulation as a result of infectious diseases that frequently occur in sows after farrowing.

  2. Quantitative T2 combined with texture analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images identify different degrees of muscle involvement in three mouse models of muscle dystrophy: mdx,