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Sample records for involved field radiotherapy

  1. Patterns of failure after involved field radiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo-Jie; Li, Hong-Wei; He, Bin; Wang, Geng-Ming; Cai, Han-Fei; Duan, Shi-Miao; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Cui, Zhen; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the patterns of failure and the treatment effects of involved-field irradiation (IFI) on patients treated with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to determine whether IFI is practicable in these patients. A total of 79 patients with locally advanced ESCC underwent three dimensional conformal (3D)CRT) or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using IFI or elective nodal irradiation (ENI) according to the target volume. The patterns of failure were defined as local/regional, in-field, out)of)field regional lymph node (LN) and distant failure. With a median follow)up of 32.0 months, failures were observed in 66 (83.6%) patients. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure (55.8 vs 52.8%) and in)field regional lymph node failure (25.6 vs 19.4%) showed no statistically significant difference between the IFI and the ENI group (p=0.526 and 0.215, respectively). Out)of)field nodal relapse rate of only 7.0% was seen in the IFI group. Three)year survival rates for the ENI and IFI group were 22.2 and 18.6%, respectively (p=0.240), and 3)year distant metastasis rates were 27.8 and 32.6%, respectively (p=0.180). The lung V10, V20, V30 and mean lung dose of the ENI group were greater than those of the IFI group, while the mean lung dose and V10 had statistically significant difference. The patterns of failure and survival rates in the IFI group were similar as in the ENI group; the regional recurrence and distant metastasis are the main cause of treatment failure. IFI is feasible for locally advanced ESCC. Further investigation is needed to increase local control and decrease distant metastasis in these patients.

  2. Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease After Involved Node Radiotherapy Versus Mantle Field for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com; Brodin, Nils Patrik; Vogelius, Ivan R.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are known to have increased cardiac mortality and morbidity. The risk of developing cardiovascular disease after involved node radiotherapy (INRT) is currently unresolved, inasmuch as present clinical data are derived from patients treated with the outdated mantle field (MF) technique. Methods and Materials: We included all adolescents and young adults with supradiaphragmatic, clinical Stage I-II HL treated at our institution from 2006 to 2010 (29 patients). All patients were treated with chemotherapy and INRT to 30 to 36 Gy. We then simulated a MF plan for each patient with a prescribed dose of 36 Gy.more » A logistic dose-response curve for the 25-year absolute excess risk of cardiovascular disease was derived and applied to each patient using the individual dose-volume histograms. Results: The mean doses to the heart, four heart valves, and coronary arteries were significantly lower for INRT than for MF treatment. However, the range in doses with INRT treatment was substantial, and for a subgroup of patients, with lymphoma below the fourth thoracic vertebrae, we estimated a 25-year absolute excess risk of any cardiac event of as much as 5.1%. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a potential for individualizing treatment by selecting the patients for whom INRT provides sufficient cardiac protection for current technology; and a subgroup of patients, who still receive high cardiac doses, who would benefit from more advanced radiation technique.« less

  3. Impact of involved field radiotherapy in partial response after doxorubicin-based chemotherapy for advanced aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Elizabeth C.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Carde, Patrice

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Whether salvage therapy in patients with advanced aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in partial remission (PR) should consist of radiotherapy or autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is debatable. We evaluated the impact of radiotherapy on outcome in PR patients treated in four successive European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trials for aggressive NHL. Patients and Methods: Records of 974 patients (1980-1999) were reviewed regarding initial response, final outcome, and type and timing of salvage treatment. After 8 cycles of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, 227 NHL patients were in PR and treated: 114 received involved field radiotherapy, 16 ASCT, 93 second-line chemotherapy,more » and 4 were operated. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after radiotherapy were estimated (Kaplan-Meier method) and compared with other treatments (log-rank). Impact on survival was evaluated by multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model). Results: The median PFS in PR patients was 4.2 years and 48% remained progression-free at 5 years. Half of the PR patients converted to a complete remission. After conversion, survival was comparable to patients directly in complete remission. Radiotherapy resulted in better OS and PFS compared with other treatments, especially in patients with low to intermediate International Prognostic Index score, bulky disease, or nodal disease only. Correction by multivariate analysis for prognostic factors such as stage, bulky disease, and number of extranodal locations showed that radiotherapy was clearly the most significant factor affecting both OS and PFS. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis demonstrates that radiotherapy can be effective for patients in PR after fully dosed chemotherapy; assessment in a randomized trial (radiotherapy vs. ASCT) is justified.« less

  4. Quality control of involved field radiotherapy in the HD 13 and HD 14 trials : Report of the radiotherapy panel of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).

    PubMed

    Kriz, J; Baues, C; Engenhart-Cabillic, R; Haverkamp, U; Herfart, K; Lukas, P; Plütschow, A; Schmidberger, H; Staar, S; Fuchs, M; Engert, A; Eich, H T

    2017-02-01

    As part of the foundation of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) in 1978, a central radiotherapy (RT) reference centre was established to evaluate and to improve the quality of treatment. During the study generations, the quality assurance programs (QAP) were continued and adapted to the demands of each study. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the results of the fifth study generation and to compare them to the previous findings. With the start of the fourth GHSG study generation (HD10-12), a central prospective review of all diagnostic images was established to create an individual treatment plan for each early stage study patient. The quality of involved field RT was retrospectively evaluated by an expert panel of radiation oncologists. In the fifth study generation (HD13-15), the retrospective review of radiotherapy performed was refined and the results were compared with the findings of the fourth generation. The expert panel analyzed the RT planning and application of 1037 (28 %) patients (HD13 n = 465, HD14 n = 572). Simulation films were available in 85 % of cases and verification films in 87 %. RT was assessed as major violation in 46 % (HD13 = 38 %, HD14 = 52 %), minor violation in 9 % (HD13 = 9 %, HD14 = 9 %) and according to the protocol in 45 % (HD13 = 52 %, HD14 = 38 %). The value for QAP of RT within the GHSG trials is well known. Still there were several protocol violations. In the future, the QAP program has to be adapted to the requirements of "modern RT" in malignant lymphoma.

  5. Involved Node, Site, Field and Residual Volume Radiotherapy for Lymphoma: A Comparison of Organ at Risk Dosimetry and Second Malignancy Risks.

    PubMed

    Murray, L; Sethugavalar, B; Robertshaw, H; Bayman, E; Thomas, E; Gilson, D; Prestwich, R J D

    2015-07-01

    Recent radiotherapy guidelines for lymphoma have included involved site radiotherapy (ISRT), involved node radiotherapy (INRT) and irradiation of residual volume after full-course chemotherapy. In the absence of late toxicity data, we aim to compare organ at risk (OAR) dose-metrics and calculated second malignancy risks. Fifteen consecutive patients who had received mediastinal radiotherapy were included. Four radiotherapy plans were generated for each patient using a parallel pair photon technique: (i) involved field radiotherapy (IFRT), (ii) ISRT, (iii) INRT, (iv) residual post-chemotherapy volume. The radiotherapy dose was 30 Gy in 15 fractions. The OARs evaluated were: breasts, lungs, thyroid, heart, oesophagus. Relative and absolute second malignancy rates were estimated using the concept of organ equivalent dose. Significance was defined as P < 0.005. Compared with ISRT, IFRT significantly increased doses to lung, thyroid, heart and oesophagus, whereas INRT and residual volume techniques significantly reduced doses to all OARs. The relative risks of second cancers were significantly higher with IFRT compared with ISRT for lung, breast and thyroid; INRT and residual volume resulted in significantly lower relative risks compared with ISRT for lung, breast and thyroid. The median excess absolute risks of second cancers were consistently lowest for the residual technique and highest for IFRT in terms of thyroid, lung and breast cancers. The risk of oesophageal cancer was similar for all four techniques. Overall, the absolute risk of second cancers was very similar for ISRT and INRT. Decreasing treatment volumes from IFRT to ISRT, INRT or residual volume reduces radiation exposure to OARs. Second malignancy modelling suggests that this reduction in treatment volumes will lead to a reduction in absolute excess second malignancy. Little difference was observed in second malignancy risks between ISRT and INRT, supporting the use of ISRT in the absence of a pre

  6. Involved-Field Radiotherapy versus Elective Nodal Irradiation in Combination with Concurrent Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Bao, Yong; Ma, Hong-Lian; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yan; Peng, Fang; Zhou, Qi-Chao; Xie, Cong-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This prospective randomized study is to evaluate the locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. It appears that higher dose could be delivered in IFRT arm than that in ENI arm, and IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures. Both a tendency of improved locoregional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate are in favor of IFRT arm in this study. PMID:23762840

  7. Dosimetric Comparison of Involved-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Photon Radiotherapy and Breast-Sparing Proton Therapy for the Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Female Pediatric Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Andolino, David L., E-mail: dandolin@iupui.edu; Hoene, Ted; Xiao, Lu

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the potential reduction in breast dose for young girls with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) treated with breast-sparing proton therapy (BS-PT) as compared with three-dimensional conformal involved-field photon radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: The Clarian Health Cancer Registry was queried for female pediatric patients with the diagnosis of HL who received radiotherapy at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center during 2006-2009. The original CT simulation images were obtained, and 3D-CRT and BS-PT plans delivering 21 Gy or cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) in 14 fractions were created for each patient. Dose-volume histogram data were collected for both 3D-CRT and BS-PTmore » plans and compared by paired t test for correlated samples. Results: The cancer registry provided 10 female patients with Ann Arbor Stage II HL, aged 10-18 years at the time of treatment. Both mean and maximum breast dose were significantly less with BS-PT compared with 3D-CRT: 0.95 CGE vs. 4.70 Gy (p < 0.001) and 21.07 CGE vs. 23.11 Gy (p < 0.001), respectively. The volume of breast receiving 1.0 Gy/CGE and 5.0 Gy/CGE was also significantly less with BS-PT, 194 cm{sup 3} and 93 cm{sup 3}, respectively, compared with 790 cm{sup 3} and 360 cm{sup 3} with 3D-CRT (p = 0.009, 0.013). Conclusion: Breast-sparing proton therapy has the potential to reduce unnecessary breast dose in young girls with HL by as much as 80% relative to involved-field 3D-CRT.« less

  8. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) vs. involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): A comparative analysis of toxicities and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Annemarie T; Shen, Jason; Finlay, Jarod; Mitra, Nandita; Evans, Tracey; Stevenson, James; Langer, Corey; Lin, Lilie; Hahn, Stephen; Glatstein, Eli; Rengan, Ramesh

    2010-05-01

    Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) and involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) are definitive radiotherapeutic approaches used to treat patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ENI delivers prophylactic radiation to clinically uninvolved lymph nodes, while IFRT only targets identifiable gross nodal disease. Because clinically uninvolved nodal stations may harbor microscopic disease, IFRT raises concerns for increased nodal failures. This retrospective cohort analysis evaluates failure rates and treatment-related toxicities in patients treated at a single institution with ENI and IFRT. We assessed all patients with stage III locally advanced or stage IV oligometastatic NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy from 2003 to 2008. Each physician consistently treated with either ENI or IFRT, based on their treatment philosophy. Of the 108 consecutive patients assessed (60 ENI vs. 48 IFRT), 10 patients had stage IV disease and 95 patients received chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 18.9 months. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, patients treated with IFRT demonstrated a significantly lower risk of high grade esophagitis (Odds ratio: 0.31, p = 0.036). The differences in 2-year local control (39.2% vs. 59.6%), elective nodal control (84.3% vs. 84.3%), distant control (47.7% vs. 52.7%) and overall survival (40.1% vs. 43.7%) rates were not statistically significant between ENI vs. IFRT. Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicted Risk of Radiation-Induced Cancers After Involved Field and Involved Node Radiotherapy With or Without Intensity Modulation for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma in Female Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Damien C., E-mail: damien.weber@unige.ch; Johanson, Safora; Peguret, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the excess relative risk (ERR) of radiation-induced cancers (RIC) in female patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) female patients treated with conformal (3DCRT), intensity modulated (IMRT), or volumetric modulated arc (RA) radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Plans for 10 early-stage HL female patients were computed for 3DCRT, IMRT, and RA with involved field RT (IFRT) and involvednode RT (INRT) radiation fields. Organs at risk dose--volume histograms were computed and inter-compared for IFRT vs. INRT and 3DCRT vs. IMRT/RA, respectively. The ERR for cancer induction in breasts, lungs, and thyroid was estimated using both linear and nonlinear models. Results:more » The mean estimated ERR for breast, lung, and thyroid were significantly lower (p < 0.01) with INRT than with IFRT planning, regardless of the radiation delivery technique used, assuming a linear dose-risk relationship. We found that using the nonlinear model, the mean ERR values were significantly (p < 0.01) increased with IMRT or RA compared to those with 3DCRT planning for the breast, lung, and thyroid, using an IFRT paradigm. After INRT planning, IMRT or RA increased the risk of RIC for lung and thyroid only. Conclusions: In this comparative planning study, using a nonlinear dose--risk model, IMRT or RA increased the estimated risk of RIC for breast, lung, and thyroid for HL female patients. This study also suggests that INRT planning, compared to IFRT planning, may reduce the ERR of RIC when risk is predicted using a linear model. Observing the opposite effect, with a nonlinear model, however, questions the validity of these biologically parameterized models.« less

  10. Involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) versus elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for 239 esophageal cancers: a single institutional retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Omori, Mami; Imae, Toshikazu; Okuma, Kae; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2015-08-14

    This retrospective study on early and locally advanced esophageal cancer was conducted to evaluate locoregional failure and its impact on survival by comparing involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in combination with concurrent chemotherapy. We assessed all patients with esophageal cancer of stages I-IV treated with definitive radiotherapy from June 2000 to March 2014. Between 2000 and 2011, ENI was used for all cases excluding high age cases. After Feb 2011, a prospective study about IFRT was started, and therefore IFRT was used since then for all cases. Concurrent chemotherapy regimen was nedaplatin (80 mg/m(2) at D1 and D29) and 5-fluorouracil (800 mg/m(2) at D1-4 and D29-32). Of the 239 consecutive patients assessed (120 ENI vs. 119 IFRT), 59 patients (24.7%) had stage IV disease and all patients received at least one cycle of chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 34.0 months. There were differences in 3-year local control (44.8% vs. 55.5%, p = 0.039), distant control (53.8% vs. 69.9%, p = 0.021) and overall survival (34.8% vs. 51.6%, p = 0.087) rates between ENI vs. IFRT, respectively. Patients treated with IFRT (8 %) demonstrated a significantly lower risk (p = 0.047) of high grade late toxicities than with ENI (16%). IFRT did not increase the risk of initially uninvolved or isolated nodal failures (27.5% in ENI and 13.4% in IFRT). Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients. Both tendencies of improved loco-regional progression-free survival and a significant increased overall survival rate favored the IFRT arm over the ENI arm in this study.

  11. SU-F-P-52: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials Comparing Elective Nodal Irradiation with Involved-Field Irradiation for Conformal Or Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, W; Zhang, R; Zhou, Z

    Purpose: To compare elective nodal irradiation with involved-field irradiation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with esophageal cancer by a metaanalysis. Methods: Wanfang, CNKI, VIP, CBM databases, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched to identify the controlled clinical trials of elective nodal irradiation with involved-field irradiation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with esophageal cancer. The obtained data were analyzed using Stata 11.0. The difference between two groups was estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: A total of 12 controlled clinical trials involving 1095 esophagealmore » cancer patients, which were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the elective nodal irradiation group reduced the rates of out-field failure comparing with involved-field irradiation group (OR=3.727, P=0.007). However, the rates of ≥grades 3 acute radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis were significantly higher in the elective nodal irradiation group than in the involved-field irradiation group (OR=0.348, P=0.001, OR=0.385, P=0.000). 1-, 2-, 3-year local control rates (OR=0.966, P=0.837, OR=0.946, P=0.781; OR=0.732P=0.098) and 1-, 3-, 5-year survival rates were similar in the two groups ( OR=0.966, P=0.837; OR=0.946, P=0.781; OR=0.732, P=0.098; OR=0.952, P=0.756; OR=1.149, P=0.422; OR=0.768, P=0.120). It is the same with the rates of distant metastasis (OR=0.986, P=0.937). Conclusion: Compared with involved-field irradiation, the elective nodal irradiation can reduce the rates of out-field failure for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with esophageal cancer. However, its advantage of local control and survival rates is not obvious and it increases the

  12. Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Results of Intensive Chemotherapy Regimens (MACOP-B/VACOP-B) Plus Involved Field Radiotherapy on 53 Patients. A Single Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzarotto, Renzo; Boso, Caterina; Vianello, Federica

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: The optimal therapy for primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) remains undefined. The superiority of intensive chemotherapy regimens (Methotrexate, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisone, Bleomycin [MACOP-B]/Etoposide, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Prednisone, Bleomycin [VACOP-B]) over Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, Prednisone (CHOP)-like chemotherapy is upheld by some authors. The role of radiotherapy is still debated. In the absence of randomized trials, we report clinical findings and treatment response in 53 consecutive patients treated with intensive chemotherapy and mediastinal involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT). Methods and Material: Fifty-three consecutive patients with PMLBCL were retrospectively analyzed. Planned treatment consisted of induction chemotherapy (I-CT; Prednisone, Methotrexate, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide,more » Etoposide-Mechloroethamine, Vincristine, Procarbazine, Prednisone [ProMACE-MOPP] in the first 2 patients, MACOP-B in the next 11, and VACOP-B in the last 40) followed by IFRT. Planned treatment was concluded in 43 of 53 patients; in 10 patients, I-CT was not immediately followed by IFRT. Among these 10 patients, 6 received high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) followed by IFRT, 2 received HD-CT, and 2 received no further treatment. Results: After a median follow-up of 93.9 months (range, 6-195 months), 45 of 53 patients (84.9%) were alive without disease. Eight patients died: 7 of PMLBCL and 1 of toxicity during HD-CT. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 93.42% and 86.6%, respectively. The response rates after I-CT were complete response (CR) in 20 (37.73%) and partial response (PR) in 30 (56.60%); 3 patients (5.66%) were considered nonresponders. Among patients in PR after chemotherapy, 92% obtained a CR after IFRT. Conclusions: Our report confirms the efficacy of intensive chemotherapy plus mediastinal IFRT. IFRT plays a pivotal role

  13. A prospective study of reduced-dose three-course CHOP followed by involved-field radiotherapy for patients 70 years old or more with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shikama, Naoto; Oguchi, Masahiko; Isobe, Koichi

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: We conducted a multicenter prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reduced-dose three-course CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) followed by involved-field radiotherapy for elderly patients with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The primary endpoint was compliance with the combined modality. Methods and Materials: This study included untreated patients, {>=}70 years old, with diffuse aggressive lymphoma, Stage IA or contiguous nonbulky Stage IIA. 80%-CHOP (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m{sup 2}, doxorubicin 40 mg/m{sup 2}, vincristine 1.1 mg/m{sup 2}, and prednisolone at 80 mg/day for 5 days) was repeated every 3 weeks. After three cycles of chemotherapy, involved-field radiotherapy was performedmore » with a radiation dose of 30-50 Gy in 15-28 fractions. Results: Twenty-four patients with a median age of 75 years (range, 70-84 years) were enrolled. The compliance rate of the protocol study was 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.6-97.3). Three patients received only two cycles of chemotherapy because of toxicity or second neoplasm. There were no deaths caused by severe toxicity. The 3-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 83.1% (95% CI, 75.4-90.8) and 82.9% (95% CI, 75.1-90.6), respectively. Conclusion: Three-course 80%-CHOP followed by involved-field radiotherapy may be safe for administration to elderly patients over 70 years old. The next step is to evaluate three-course 80%-CHOP and rituximab followed by radiotherapy in elderly patients with localized disease.« less

  14. Quality Control of Involved Field Radiotherapy in Patients With Early-Favorable (HD10) and Early-Unfavorable (HD11) Hodgkin's Lymphoma: An Analysis of the German Hodgkin Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Eich, Hans Theodor; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Hansemann, Katja

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: The German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) set up a radiotherapy (RT) reference center within the Department of Radiation Oncology at University of Cologne to undertake quality assurance of the group's clinical studies. In the HD10 trial (early-favorable stages) and HD11 trial (early-unfavorable stages) all patients received involved field (IF)-RT (30 Gy vs. 20 Gy) within a combined-modality approach. For these patients a central prospective review of all diagnostic imaging was performed by expert radiation oncologists to control disease extension and to define IF treatment volume. Methods and Materials: On the basis of simulation films, verification films, and radiotherapy casemore » report form (CRF) an expert panel evaluated retrospectively the adequacy of irradiated IF treatment portals according to the RT prescription, applied radiation doses, treatment time, and technical parameters. Results: Between 1999 and 2006 a total of 825 of 1370 randomized patients of the HD10 trial (60%) and 954 of 1422 patients of the HD11 trial (67%) were evaluated by the panel. Radiotherapy was rated as suboptimal in 47% of all reviewed cases. Although the participating RT centers received a precise RT prescription, most difficulties occurred in the adequate coverage of the IF (40%), followed by technical faults (12%). Deviations from the prescribed single daily dose (1.8-2 Gy), weekly dose, and total reference dose were rare (1%). Conclusions: As a consequence of these findings, radiation oncologists were trained on the definition of IF-RT at GHSG meetings and at the annual meetings of the German Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology. Possible correlations between RT quality and relapse rate will be investigated.« less

  15. Efficacy of abbreviated Stanford V chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: mature results of the G4 trial.

    PubMed

    Advani, R H; Hoppe, R T; Baer, D; Mason, J; Warnke, R; Allen, J; Daadi, S; Rosenberg, S A; Horning, S J

    2013-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of an abbreviated Stanford V regimen in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). PATIENTS AND METHODS PATIENTS: with untreated nonbulky stage I-IIA supradiaphragmatic HL were eligible for the G4 study. Stanford V chemotherapy was administered for 8 weeks followed by radiation therapy (RT) 30 Gy to involved fields (IF). Freedom from progression (FFP), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated. All 87 enrolled patients completed the abbreviated regimen. At a median follow-up of 10 years, FFP, DSS and OS are 94%, 99% and 94%, respectively. Therapy was well tolerated with no treatment-related deaths. Mature results of the abbreviated Stanford V regimen in nonbulky early-stage HL are excellent and comparable to the results from other contemporary therapies.

  16. A Phase I Study of Chemoradiotherapy With Use of Involved-Field Conformal Radiotherapy and Accelerated Hyperfractionation for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: WJTOG 3305

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Takuhito, E-mail: tada@msic.med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Department of Radiology, Izumi Municipal Hospital, Izumi; Chiba, Yasutaka

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: A Phase I study to determine a recommended dose of thoracic radiotherapy using accelerated hyperfractionation for unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer was conducted. Methods and Materials: Patients with unresectable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer were treated intravenously with carboplatin (area under the concentration curve 2) and paclitaxel (40 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1, 8, 15, and 22 with concurrent twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy (1.5 Gy per fraction) beginning on Day 1 followed by two cycles of consolidation chemotherapy using carboplatin (area under the concentration curve 5) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m{sup 2}). Total doses were 54 Gy in 36 fractions, 60 Gymore » in 40 fractions, 66 Gy in 44 fractions, and 72 Gy in 48 fractions at Levels 1 to 4. The dose-limiting toxicity, defined as Grade {>=}4 esophagitis and neutropenic fever and Grade {>=}3 other nonhematologic toxicities, was monitored for 90 days. Results: Of 26 patients enrolled, 22 patients were assessable for response and toxicity. When 4 patients entered Level 4, enrollment was closed to avoid severe late toxicities. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 3 patients. They were Grade 3 neuropathy at Level 1 and Level 3 and Grade 3 infection at Level 1. However, the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The median survival time was 28.6 months for all patients. Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose was not reached, although the dose of radiation was escalated to 72 Gy in 48 fractions. However, a dose of 66 Gy in 44 fractions was adopted for this study because late toxicity data were insufficient.« less

  17. Treatment planning and delivery of involved field radiotherapy in advanced Hodgkin's disease: results from a questionnaire-based audit for the UK Stanford V regimen vs ABVD clinical trial quality assurance programme (ISRCTN 64141244).

    PubMed

    Diez, P; Hoskin, P J; Aird, E G A

    2007-10-01

    This questionnaire forms the basis of the quality assurance (QA) programme for the UK randomized Phase III study of the Stanford V regimen versus ABVD for treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease to assess differences between participating centres in treatment planning and delivery of involved-field radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma The questionnaire, which was circulated amongst 42 participating centres, consisted of seven sections: target volume definition and dose prescription; critical structures; patient positioning and irradiation techniques; planning; dose calculation; verification; and future developments The results are based on 25 responses. One-third plan using CT alone, one-third use solely the simulator and the rest individualize, depending on disease site. Eleven centres determine a dose distribution for each patient. Technique depends on disease site and whether CT or simulator planning is employed. Most departments apply isocentric techniques and use immobilization and customized shielding. In vivo dosimetry is performed in 7 centres and treatment verification occurs in 24 hospitals. In conclusion, the planning and delivery of treatment for lymphoma patients varies across the country. Conventional planning is still widespread but most centres are moving to CT-based planning and virtual simulation with extended use of immobilization, customized shielding and compensation.

  18. Involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) versus elective nodal irradiation (ENI) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of incidence of elective nodal failure (ENF).

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijian; Yu, Liang; Lin, Sixiang; Wang, Lina; Dong, Xin; Yu, Lingxia; Li, Weiyi; Li, Baosheng

    2016-09-21

    The use of involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) has generated concern about the increasing incidence of elective nodal failure (ENF) in contrast to elective nodal irradiation (ENI). This meta-analysis aimed to provide more reliable and up-to-date evidence on the incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI. We searched three databases for eligible studies where locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients received IFRT or ENI. Outcome of interest was the incidence of ENF. The fixed-effects model was used to pool outcomes across the studies. There were 3 RCTs and 3 cohort studies included with low risk of bias. There was no significant difference in incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI either among RCTs (RR = 1.38, 95 % CI: 0.59-3.25, p = 0.46) or among cohort studies (RR = 0.99, 95 % CI: 0.46-2.10, p = 0.97). There was also no significant difference in incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI when RCTs and cohort studies were combined (RR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 0.65-2.01, p = 0.64). I 2 of test for heterogeneity was 0 %. This meta-analysis provides more reliable and stable evidence that there is no significant difference in incidence of ENF between IFRT and ENI.

  19. Feasibility of Elective Nodal Irradiation (ENI) and Involved Field Irradiation (IFI) in Radiotherapy for the Elderly Patients (Aged ≥ 70 Years) with Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis from a Single Institute

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongbo; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Fang; Han, Anqin; Li, Minghuan; Kong, Li; Yu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a retrospective analysis to assess the feasibility of involved field irradiation (IFI) in elderly patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of the records of elderly patients (≥ 70 years) with unresectable ESCC and no distant metastases who received treatment with radiotherapy between January 2009 and March 2013. According to the irradiation volume, patients were allocated into either the elective nodal irradiation (ENI) group or the IFI group. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and treatment-related toxicities were compared between the two groups. Results A total of 137 patients were enrolled. Fifty-four patients (39.4%) were allocated to the ENI group and 83 patients (60.6%) to the IFI group, the median doses in the two groups were 60 Gy and 59.4 Gy, respectively. For the entire group, the median survival time (MST) and PFS were 16 months and 12 months, respectively. The median PFS and 3-year PFS rate in the ENI group were 13 months and 20.6%, compared to 11 months and 21.0% in the IFI groups (p = 0.61). The MST and 3-year OS rate in the ENI and IFI groups were 17 months and 26.4% and 15.5 months and 21.7%, respectively (p = 0.25). The rate of grade ≥ 3 acute irradiation esophagitis in the ENI group was significantly higher than that in the IFI group (18.5% vs. 6.0%; p = 0.027). Other grade ≥ 3 treatment-related toxicities did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions IFI resulted in decreased irradiation toxicities without sacrificing OS in elderly patients with ESCC. PMID:26636574

  20. Feasibility of Elective Nodal Irradiation (ENI) and Involved Field Irradiation (IFI) in Radiotherapy for the Elderly Patients (Aged ≥ 70 Years) with Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis from a Single Institute.

    PubMed

    Jing, Wang; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Hongbo; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Fang; Han, Anqin; Li, Minghuan; Kong, Li; Yu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to assess the feasibility of involved field irradiation (IFI) in elderly patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). We performed a retrospective review of the records of elderly patients (≥ 70 years) with unresectable ESCC and no distant metastases who received treatment with radiotherapy between January 2009 and March 2013. According to the irradiation volume, patients were allocated into either the elective nodal irradiation (ENI) group or the IFI group. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and treatment-related toxicities were compared between the two groups. A total of 137 patients were enrolled. Fifty-four patients (39.4%) were allocated to the ENI group and 83 patients (60.6%) to the IFI group, the median doses in the two groups were 60 Gy and 59.4 Gy, respectively. For the entire group, the median survival time (MST) and PFS were 16 months and 12 months, respectively. The median PFS and 3-year PFS rate in the ENI group were 13 months and 20.6%, compared to 11 months and 21.0% in the IFI groups (p = 0.61). The MST and 3-year OS rate in the ENI and IFI groups were 17 months and 26.4% and 15.5 months and 21.7%, respectively (p = 0.25). The rate of grade ≥ 3 acute irradiation esophagitis in the ENI group was significantly higher than that in the IFI group (18.5% vs. 6.0%; p = 0.027). Other grade ≥ 3 treatment-related toxicities did not significantly differ between the two groups. IFI resulted in decreased irradiation toxicities without sacrificing OS in elderly patients with ESCC.

  1. Stereotactic radiotherapy for malignancies involving the trigeminal and facial nerves.

    PubMed

    Cuneo, K C; Zagar, T M; Brizel, D M; Yoo, D S; Hoang, J K; Chang, Z; Wang, Z; Yin, F F; Das, S K; Green, S; Ready, N; Bhatti, M T; Kaylie, D M; Becker, A; Sampson, J H; Kirkpatrick, J P

    2012-06-01

    Involvement of a cranial nerve caries a poor prognosis for many malignancies. Recurrent or residual disease in the trigeminal or facial nerve after primary therapy poses a challenge due to the location of the nerve in the skull base, the proximity to the brain, brainstem, cavernous sinus, and optic apparatus and the resulting complex geometry. Surgical resection caries a high risk of morbidity and is often not an option for these patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy are potential treatment options for patients with cancer involving the trigeminal or facial nerve. These techniques can deliver high doses of radiation to complex volumes while sparing adjacent critical structures. In the current study, seven cases of cancer involving the trigeminal or facial nerve are presented. These patients had unresectable recurrent or residual disease after definitive local therapy. Each patient was treated with stereotactic radiation therapy using a linear accelerator based system. A multidisciplinary approach including neuroradiology and surgical oncology was used to delineate target volumes. Treatment was well tolerated with no acute grade 3 or higher toxicity. One patient who was reirradiated experienced cerebral radionecrosis with mild symptoms. Four of the seven patients treated had no evidence of disease after a median follow up of 12 months (range 2-24 months). A dosimetric analysis was performed to compare intensity modulated fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (IM-FSRT) to a 3D conformal technique. The dose to 90% (D90) of the brainstem was lower with the IM-FSRT plan by a mean of 13.5 Gy. The D95 to the ipsilateral optic nerve was also reduced with IM-FSRT by 12.2 Gy and the D95 for the optic chiasm was lower with FSRT by 16.3 Gy. Treatment of malignancies involving a cranial nerve requires a multidisciplinary approach. Use of an IM-FSRT technique with a micro-multileaf collimator resulted in a lower dose to the brainstem, optic nerves and chiasm

  2. Involved-node radiotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Definition and guidelines of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).

    PubMed

    Eich, Hans Theodor; Müller, Rolf-Peter; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Lukas, Peter; Schmidberger, Heinz; Staar, Susanne; Willich, Normann

    2008-08-01

    Radiotherapy of Hodgkin's Lymphoma has evolved from extended-field to involved-field (IF) radiotherapy reducing toxicity whilst maintaining high cure rates. Recent publications recommend further reduction in the radiation field to involved-node (IN) radiotherapy; however, this concept has never been tested in a randomized trial. The German Hodgkin Study Group aims to compare it with standard IF radiotherapy in their future HD17 trial. ALL patients must be examined by the radiation oncologist before the start of chemotherapy. At that time, patients must have complete staging CT scans. For patients with IN radiotherapy, a radiation planning CT before and after chemotherapy with patients in the treatment position is recommended. Fusion techniques, allowing the overlapping of the pre- and postchemotherapy CT scans, should be used. Usage of PET-CT scans with patients in the treatment position is recommended, whenever possible. The clinical target volume encompasses the initial volume of the Lymph node(s) before chemotherapy and incorporates the initial Location and extent of the disease taking the displacement of the normal tissues into account. The margin of the planning target volume should be 2 cm in axial and 3 cm in craniocaudal direction. If necessary, it can be reduced to 1-1.5 cm. To minimize Lung and cardiac toxicity, the target definition in the mediastinum is different. The concept of IN radiotherapy has been proposed as a means to further improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing the risk of radiation-induced toxicity, including second malignancies. Field sizes wiLL further decrease compared to IF radiotherapy.

  3. Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Artacho-Cordón; del Mar, Salinas-Asensio María; Irene, Calvente; Sandra, Ríos-Arrabal; Josefa, León; Elisa, Román-Marinetto; Nicolás, Olea; Isabel, Núñez María

    2013-01-01

    One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT), the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy. PMID:23867611

  4. Second cancer risk assessments after involved-site radiotherapy for mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to provide second cancer risk assessments attributable to involved-site radiotherapy (ISRT) of mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and to compare these risks with those from the conventional involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT). Both ISRT and IFRT plans were made for 11 patients (six females, five males) with HL in the region of mediastinum. All three-dimensional plans involved 6 MV photon beams and delivered 30 Gy to the target site. Differential dose-volume histograms were defined for the lung, female breast, and esophagus which were partly included within the planned treatment fields. The patient-specific organ equivalent dose (OED) and the relevant lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of developing malignancies in each of the above critical organs were determined with the aid of a mechanistic, plateau and bell-shaped models. The LAR estimates were compared with the baseline risks for unexposed people. The OED range of lung, breast, and esophagus calculated by the ISRT plans was 176.1-360.2, 19.5-124.1, and 42.6-157.7 cGy, respectively. The resultant LARs of developing lung and breast cancer as estimated by the three different models were at least 1.8 and 5.3 times lower than the baseline risks, respectively. The probability for the appearance of radiation-induced esophageal malignancies from ISRT in males was also up to 3.8 times smaller than the nominal incidence cancer rates. The corresponding probability in irradiated females exceeded the baseline risks. The estimated lifetime risks for lung and breast cancer induction due to ISRT were systematically and significantly lower than those from the IFRT irrespective of the model used for analysis (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the LARs for esophageal cancer development estimated by the ISRT and IFRT plans (P = 0.63). The presented second cancer risk data may be of value in the selection of the optimal radiotherapy technique for the management of mediastinal HL and in

  5. Radiotherapy for Early Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma According to the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG): The Roles of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Involved-Node Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Koeck, Julia, E-mail: Julia_Koeck@gmx.net; Abo-Madyan, Yasser; Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Cure rates of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are high, and avoidance of late complications and second malignancies have become increasingly important. This comparative treatment planning study analyzes to what extent target volume reduction to involved-node (IN) and intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy (RT), compared with involved-field (IF) and three-dimensional (3D) RT, can reduce doses to organs at risk (OAR). Methods and Materials: Based on 20 computed tomography (CT) datasets of patients with early unfavorable mediastinal HL, we created treatment plans for 3D-RT and IMRT for both the IF and IN according to the guidelines of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).more » As OAR, we defined heart, lung, breasts, and spinal cord. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were evaluated for planning target volumes (PTVs) and OAR. Results: Average IF-PTV and IN-PTV were 1705 cm{sup 3} and 1015 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean doses to the PTVs were almost identical for all plans. For IF-PTV/IN-PTV, conformity was better with IMRT and homogeneity was better with 3D-RT. Mean doses to the heart (17.94/9.19 Gy for 3D-RT and 13.76/7.42 Gy for IMRT) and spinal cord (23.93/13.78 Gy for 3D-RT and 19.16/11.55 Gy for IMRT) were reduced by IMRT, whereas mean doses to lung (10.62/8.57 Gy for 3D-RT and 12.77/9.64 Gy for IMRT) and breasts (left 4.37/3.42 Gy for 3D-RT and 6.04/4.59 Gy for IMRT, and right 2.30/1.63 Gy for 3D-RT and 5.37/3.53 Gy for IMRT) were increased. Volume exposed to high doses was smaller for IMRT, whereas volume exposed to low doses was smaller for 3D-RT. Pronounced benefits of IMRT were observed for patients with lymph nodes anterior to the heart. IN-RT achieved substantially better values than IF-RT for almost all OAR parameters, i.e., dose reduction of 20% to 50%, regardless of radiation technique. Conclusions: Reduction of target volume to IN most effectively improves OAR sparing, but is still considered investigational. For the time being, IMRT should be

  6. Left-sided breast cancer irradiation using rotational and fixed-field radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, X. Sharon, E-mail: xqi@mednet.ucla.edu; Liu, Tian X.; Liu, Arthur K.

    2014-10-01

    The 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique is the standard for breast cancer radiotherapy. During treatment planning, not only the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) but also the minimization of the dose to critical structures, such as the lung, heart, and contralateral breast tissue, need to be considered. Because of the complexity and variations of patient anatomy, more advanced radiotherapy techniques are sometimes desired to better meet the planning goals. In this study, we evaluated external-beam radiation treatment techniques for left breast cancer using various delivery platforms: fixed-field including TomoDirect (TD), static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT), and rotational radiotherapy includingmore » Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and tomotherapy helical (TH). A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer who did or did not have positive lymph nodes and were previously treated with 3DCRT/sIMRT to the entire breast were selected, their treatment was planned with Monaco VMAT, TD, and TH. Dosimetric parameters including PTV coverage, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, dose-volume histograms, and target minimum/maximum/mean doses were evaluated. It is found that for plans providing comparable PTV coverage, the Elekta VMAT plans were generally more inhomogeneous than the TH and TD plans. For the cases with regional node involvement, the average mean doses administered to the heart were 9.2 (± 5.2) and 8.8 (± 3.0) Gy in the VMAT and TH plans compared with 11.9 (± 6.4) and 11.8 (± 9.2) Gy for the 3DCRT and TD plans, respectively, with slightly higher doses given to the contralateral lung or breast or both. On average, the total monitor units for VMAT plans are 11.6% of those TH plans. Our studies have shown that VMAT and TH plans offer certain dosimetric advantages over fixed-field IMRT plans for advanced breast cancer requiring regional nodal treatment. However, for early-stage breast cancer fixed-field

  7. Left-sided breast cancer irradiation using rotational and fixed-field radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Qi, X Sharon; Liu, Tian X; Liu, Arthur K; Newman, Francis; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Kavanagh, Brian; Hu, Y Angie

    2014-01-01

    The 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique is the standard for breast cancer radiotherapy. During treatment planning, not only the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) but also the minimization of the dose to critical structures, such as the lung, heart, and contralateral breast tissue, need to be considered. Because of the complexity and variations of patient anatomy, more advanced radiotherapy techniques are sometimes desired to better meet the planning goals. In this study, we evaluated external-beam radiation treatment techniques for left breast cancer using various delivery platforms: fixed-field including TomoDirect (TD), static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT), and rotational radiotherapy including Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and tomotherapy helical (TH). A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer who did or did not have positive lymph nodes and were previously treated with 3DCRT/sIMRT to the entire breast were selected, their treatment was planned with Monaco VMAT, TD, and TH. Dosimetric parameters including PTV coverage, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, dose-volume histograms, and target minimum/maximum/mean doses were evaluated. It is found that for plans providing comparable PTV coverage, the Elekta VMAT plans were generally more inhomogeneous than the TH and TD plans. For the cases with regional node involvement, the average mean doses administered to the heart were 9.2 (± 5.2) and 8.8 (± 3.0)Gy in the VMAT and TH plans compared with 11.9 (± 6.4) and 11.8 (± 9.2)Gy for the 3DCRT and TD plans, respectively, with slightly higher doses given to the contralateral lung or breast or both. On average, the total monitor units for VMAT plans are 11.6% of those TH plans. Our studies have shown that VMAT and TH plans offer certain dosimetric advantages over fixed-field IMRT plans for advanced breast cancer requiring regional nodal treatment. However, for early-stage breast cancer fixed-field radiotherapy

  8. Implementation of small field radiotherapy dosimetry for spinal metastase case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofikoh, Wibowo, W. E.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to know dose profile of small field radiotherapy in the spinal metastase case with source axis distance (SAD) techniques. In addition, we evaluated and compared the dose planning of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and conventional techniques to measurements with Exradin A16 and Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimeters. The results showed that film EBT3 had a highest precision and accuracy with the average of the standard deviation of ±1.7 and maximum discrepancy of 2.6 %. In addition, the average value of Full Wave Half Maximum (FWHM) and its largest deviation in small field size of 0.8 x 0.8 cm2 are 0.82 cm and 16.3 % respectively, while it was found around 2.36 cm and 3 % for the field size of 2.4 x 2.4 cm2. The comparison between penumbra width and the collimation was around of 37.1 % for the field size of 0.8 x 0.8 cm2, while it was found of 12.4 % for the field size of 2.4 x 2.4 cm2.

  9. Fractionated external beam radiotherapy of skull base metastases with cranial nerve involvement.

    PubMed

    Dröge, L H; Hinsche, T; Canis, M; Alt-Epping, B; Hess, C F; Wolff, H A

    2014-02-01

    Skull base metastases frequently appear in a late stage of various tumor entities and cause pain and neurological disorders which strongly impair patient quality of life. This study retrospectively analyzed fractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as a palliative treatment approach with special respect to neurological outcome, feasibility and acute toxicity. A total of 30 patients with skull base metastases and cranial nerve disorders underwent EBRT with a mean total dose of 31.6 Gy. Neurological status was assessed before radiotherapy, during radiotherapy and 2 weeks afterwards categorizing orbital, parasellar, middle fossa, jugular foramen and occipital condyle involvement and associated clinical syndromes. Neurological outcome was scored as persistence of symptoms, partial response, good response and complete remission. Treatment-related toxicity and overall survival were assessed. Before EBRT 37 skull base involvement syndromes were determined with 4 patients showing more than 1 syndrome. Of the patients 81.1 % responded to radiotherapy with 10.8 % in complete remission, 48.6 % with good response and 21.6 % with partial response. Grade 1 toxicity of the skin occurred in two patients and grade 1 hematological toxicity in 1 patient under concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Median overall survival was 3.9 months with a median follow-up of 45 months. The use of EBRT for skull base metastases with symptomatic involvement of cranial nerves is marked by good therapeutic success in terms of neurological outcome, high feasibility and low toxicity rates. These findings underline EBRT as the standard therapeutic approach in the palliative setting.

  10. Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sonja; Debus, Jürgen; Neuhof, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Solitary plasmocytoma occurring in bone (solitary plasmocytoma of the bone, SBP) or in soft tissue (extramedullary plasmocytoma, EP) can be treated effectively and with little toxicity by local radiotherapy. Ten-year local control rates of up to 90% can be achieved. Patients with multiple myeloma often suffer from symptoms such as pain or neurological impairments that are amenable to palliative radiotherapy. In a palliative setting, short treatment schedules and lower radiation doses are used to reduce toxicity and duration of hospitalization. In future, low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) may play a role in a potentially curative regimen with nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

  11. How to identify rectal sub-regions likely involved in rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dréan, G.; Acosta, O.; Ospina, J. D.; Voisin, C.; Rigaud, B.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; de Crevoisier, R.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the de nition of patient-speci c constraints in prostate cancer radiotherapy planning are solely based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Nevertheless those DVH models lack of spatial accuracy since they do not use the complete 3D information of the dose distribution. The goal of the study was to propose an automatic work ow to de ne patient-speci c rectal sub-regions (RSR) involved in rectal bleeding (RB) in case of prostate cancer radiotherapy. A multi-atlas database spanning the large rectal shape variability was built from a population of 116 individuals. Non-rigid registration followed by voxel-wise statistical analysis on those templates allowed nding RSR likely correlated with RB (from a learning cohort of 63 patients). To de ne patient-speci c RSR, weighted atlas-based segmentation with a vote was then applied to 30 test patients. Results show the potentiality of the method to be used for patient-speci c planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

  12. Dosimetric Evaluation of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy and 4-Field 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Bora; Beyzadeoğlu, Murat; Sager, Ömer; Dinçoğlan, Ferrat; Demiral, Selçuk; Gamsız, Hakan; Sürenkök, Serdar; Oysul, Kaan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this dosimetric study is the targeted dose homogeneity and critical organ dose comparison of 7-field Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and 3-D 4-field conformal radiotherapy. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with low and moderate risk prostate cancer treated at Gülhane Military Medical School Radiation Oncology Department between January 2009 and December 2009 are included in this study. Two seperate dosimetric plans both for 7-field IMRT and 3D-CRT have been generated for each patient to comparatively evaluate the dosimetric status of both techniques and all the patients received 7-field IMRT. Results: Dose-comparative evaluation of two techniques revealed the superiority of IMRT technique with statistically significantly lower femoral head doses along with reduced critical organ dose-volume parameters of bladder V60 (the volume receiving 60 Gy) and rectal V40 (the volume receiving 40 Gy) and V60. Conclusion: It can be concluded that IMRT is an effective definitive management tool for prostate cancer with improved critical organ sparing and excellent dose homogenization in target organs of prostate and seminal vesicles. PMID:25207069

  13. MR-guided breast radiotherapy: feasibility and magnetic-field impact on skin dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heijst, Tristan C. F.; den Hartogh, Mariska D.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Desirée van den Bongard, H. J. G.; van Asselen, Bram

    2013-09-01

    The UMC Utrecht MRI/linac (MRL) design provides image guidance with high soft-tissue contrast, directly during radiotherapy (RT). Breast cancer patients are a potential group to benefit from better guidance in the MRL. However, due to the electron return effect, the skin dose can be increased in presence of a magnetic field. Since large skin areas are generally involved in breast RT, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects on the skin dose, for whole-breast irradiation (WBI) and accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). In ten patients with early-stage breast cancer, targets and organs at risk (OARs) were delineated on postoperative CT scans co-registered with MRI. The OARs included the skin, comprising the first 5 mm of ipsilateral-breast tissue, plus extensions. Three intensity-modulated RT techniques were considered (2× WBI, 1× APBI). Individual beam geometries were used for all patients. Specially developed MRL treatment-planning software was used. Acceptable plans were generated for 0 T, 0.35 T and 1.5 T, using a class solution. The skin dose was augmented in WBI in the presence of a magnetic field, which is a potential drawback, whereas in APBI the induced effects were negligible. This opens possibilities for developing MR-guided partial-breast treatments in the MRL.

  14. Local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Takuya; Yamazaki, Hideya; Suzuki, Gen; Aibe, Norihiro; Masui, Koji; Tatekawa, Kotoha; Sasaki, Naomi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Satoaki; Yamada, Kei

    2017-09-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer; however, the optimal treatment field remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer. We retrospectively investigated 35 patients treated for a postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer with local field radiotherapy between December 2008 and March 2016. The median irradiation dose was 60 Gy (range: 50-67.5 Gy). Thirty-one (88.6%) patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The median follow-up period was 18 months (range: 5-94 months). The 2-year overall survival was 55.7%, with a median survival time of 29.9 months. In the univariate analysis, the maximal diameter ≤20 mm (P = 0.0383), solitary lesion (P = 0.0352), and the complete remission after treatment (P = 0.00411) had a significantly better prognosis. A total of 27 of 35 patients (77.1%) had progressive disease (loco-regional failure [n = 9], distant metastasis [n = 7], and both loco-regional failure and distant metastasis [n = 11]). No patients had Grade 3 or greater mucositis. Local field radiotherapy is a considerable treatment option for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Involved-Field, Low-Dose Chemoradiotherapy for Early-Stage Anal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, Paul; Cooper, Rachel; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To report the results of patients with early-stage anal cancer treated using a low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and June 2006, 21 patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (30 Gy in 15 fractions within 3 weeks) and concurrent chemotherapy (bolus mitomycin-C 12 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 to a maximum of 20 mg followed by infusion 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/24 h on Days 1-4). Of the 21 patients, 18 underwent small-volume, involved-field radiotherapy and 3 were treated with anteroposterior-posteroanterior parallel-opposed pelvic fields. Of the 21 patients, 17 had had lesions that weremore » excised with close (<1 mm) or involved margins, 1 had had microinvasive disease on biopsy, and 3 had had macroscopic tumor <2 cm in diameter (T1). All were considered to have Stage N0 disease radiologically. Results: After a median follow-up of 42 months, only 1 patient (4.7%) had experienced local recurrence and has remained disease free after local excision. No distant recurrences or deaths occurred. Only 1 patient could not complete treatment (because of Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity). Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity occurred in only 2 patients (9.5%). No significant late toxicity was identified. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that for patients with anal carcinoma who have residual microscopic or very-small-volume disease, a policy of low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy produces excellent local control and disease-free survival, with low rates of acute and late toxicity.« less

  16. Progressive Muscle Atrophy and Weakness After Treatment by Mantle Field Radiotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van, E-mail: e.segarceanu@antoniusziekenhuis.nl; Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A.; Pillen, Sigrid

    Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. Onmore » ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.« less

  17. An adaptive radiotherapy planning strategy for bladder cancer using deformation vector fields.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Anne; Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted; Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer; Høyer, Morten; Søndergaard, Jimmi; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2014-09-01

    Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has considerable potential in treatment of bladder cancer due to large inter-fractional changes in shape and size of the target. The aim of this study was to compare our clinically applied method for plan library creation that involves manual bladder delineations (Clin-ART) with a method using the deformation vector fields (DVFs) resulting from intensity-based deformable image registrations (DVF-based ART). The study included thirteen patients with urinary bladder cancer who had daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) acquired for set-up. In both ART strategies investigated, three plan selection volumes were generated using the CBCTs from the first four fractions; in Clin-ART boolean combinations of delineated bladders were used, while the DVF-based strategy applied combinations of the mean and standard deviation of patient-specific DVFs. The volume ratios (VRs) of the course-averaged PTV for the two ART strategies relative the non-adaptive PTV were calculated. Both Clin-ART and DVF-based ART considerably reduced the course-averaged PTV, compared to non-adaptive RT. The VR for DVF-based ART was lower than for Clin-ART (0.65 vs. 0.73; p<0.01). DVF-based ART for bladder irradiation has a considerable normal tissue sparing potential surpassing our already highly conformal clinically applied ART strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: response to radiotherapy and its clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Cheng; Mayr, Nina A; Yuh, William T C; Wang, Jian Z; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the cranial nerve (CN) palsy associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we studied factors that influenced the neurologic outcome of radiotherapy (RT), and the patterns and time course of neurologic recovery of CN palsy. Between July 1987 and July 1989, 93 patients who presented with CN palsy at the time of diagnosis of NPC were studied. All patients underwent external-beam RT with either cobalt-60 or 6-MV photon beams to a dose of 69 to 84 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. The time course and pattern of neurologic recovery (complete, partial, or none) from CN palsy were evaluated. Age, sex, stage, histology, incidence and distribution of types of CNs involved, duration of CN palsy, and time course of tumor response during RT were correlated with the patterns and the time course of neurologic CN recovery by univariate and multivariate analyses. The cases of CN palsy most commonly involved CN V (38%), CN VI (26%), and CN XII (11%), which accounted for the majority of the cases (75%). The time course of CN recovery was variable and protracted. Most patients showed significant improvement upon completion of RT (51%, 19%, and 30% complete, partial, and no recovery, respectively) and further improvement 6 months after RT (58%, 17%, and 25%, respectively). Cranial nerves V, VI, and XII accounted for 75% of cases with no recovery. Recovery was best for CNs II, IX, and XI and the sympathetic nerve (100%, 87%, 100%, and 100%, respectively) and worst for CNs IV, VII, and XII (67%, 60%, and 40%, respectively, with no recovery). Neurologic CN recovery correlated significantly with the pretherapy duration (<3 months versus > or =3 months) of CN palsy (88% versus 62%; p = .002, multivariate analysis), the time course of clinical tumor regression, and neurologic symptom improvement during RT. Age, sex, T stage, N stage, histology, anterior versus posterior CN palsies, and base of skull involvement were not significant. According to our limited data, most patients with CN

  19. Definition of fields margins for palliative radiotherapy of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buwenge, Milly; Marinelli, Alfonso; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Wondemagegnhu, Tigeneh; Salah, Tareq; Cammelli, Silvia; Uddin, A F M Kamal; Sumon, Mostafa A; Donati, Constanza M; Cilla, Savino; Morganti, Alessio G

    2018-06-01

    The present study aimed to provide practical guidelines for palliative treatment of advanced carcinoma of the pancreas (CAP) with the 2D technique. Fifteen patients with locally advanced CAP consecutively treated with radiation therapy at the Radiation Oncology Center, Research and Care Foundation 'Giovanni Paolo II' (Campobasso, Italy) underwent computed tomography simulation in supine position. Definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) included the head and body of the pancreas, and the retropancreatic space. The planning target volume was defined by adding a margin of 14 mm to the CTV in the cranio-caudal direction and of 11 mm in radial direction. For each patient, 3 treatment plans were calculated using a cobalt source, 6 MV photons and 15 MV photons (box technique). Beams were drawn using the primary collimators without using multileaf collimators, and progressively optimized in order to respect the minimum dose (D min >90%) constraint. Once the final plan was achieved, distances of the fields edges from a set of reference points (bony or duodenal landmarks) were measured. Using this technique, 15 anterior-posterior and postero-anterior (AP-PA) beams and 15 pairs of lateral-lateral (LL) beams were defined for the different patients. Finally, the single minimal AP-PA and LL beams able to include the 15 sets of AP-PA and LL beams were defined. The results of this analysis are reported in tabular form. Guidelines are provided for treatment based on cobalt unit or Linear accelerator (both 6 and 15 MV photons). This study provides information regarding field size and position. A dosimetric study has been planned to identify the dose to be administered with this technique taking into account current dose-volume constraints.

  20. Impact of field number and beam angle on functional image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Chris M.; Wild, Jim M.; Swinscoe, James A.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hart, Kerry A.; Hatton, Matthew Q.; Ireland, Rob H.

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of beam angles and field number on functionally-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) normal lung avoidance treatment plans that incorporate hyperpolarised helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging (3He MRI) ventilation data. Eight non-small cell lung cancer patients had pre-treatment 3He MRI that was registered to inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy planning computed tomography. IMRT plans that minimised the volume of total lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (V20) were compared with plans that minimised 3He MRI defined functional lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (fV20). Coplanar IMRT plans using 5-field manually optimised beam angles and 9-field equidistant plans were also evaluated. For each pair of plans, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare fV20 and the percentage of planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90). Incorporation of 3He MRI led to median reductions in fV20 of 1.3% (range: 0.2-9.3% p  =  0.04) and 0.2% (range: 0 to 4.1%; p  =  0.012) for 5- and 9-field arrangements, respectively. There was no clinically significant difference in target coverage. Functionally-guided IMRT plans incorporating hyperpolarised 3He MRI information can reduce the dose received by ventilated lung without comprising PTV coverage. The effect was greater for optimised beam angles rather than uniformly spaced fields.

  1. Supplemental computational phantoms to estimate out-of-field absorbed dose in photon radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Kyle J.; Tannous, Jaad; Nabha, Racile; Feghali, Joelle Ann; Ayoub, Zeina; Jalbout, Wassim; Youssef, Bassem; Taddei, Phillip J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a straightforward method of supplementing patient anatomy and estimating out-of-field absorbed dose for a cohort of pediatric radiotherapy patients with limited recorded anatomy. A cohort of nine children, aged 2-14 years, who received 3D conformal radiotherapy for low-grade localized brain tumors (LBTs), were randomly selected for this study. The extent of these patients’ computed tomography simulation image sets were cranial only. To approximate their missing anatomy, we supplemented the LBT patients’ image sets with computed tomography images of patients in a previous study with larger extents of matched sex, height, and mass and for whom contours of organs at risk for radiogenic cancer had already been delineated. Rigid fusion was performed between the LBT patients’ data and that of the supplemental computational phantoms using commercial software and in-house codes. In-field dose was calculated with a clinically commissioned treatment planning system, and out-of-field dose was estimated with a previously developed analytical model that was re-fit with parameters based on new measurements for intracranial radiotherapy. Mean doses greater than 1 Gy were found in the red bone marrow, remainder, thyroid, and skin of the patients in this study. Mean organ doses between 150 mGy and 1 Gy were observed in the breast tissue of the girls and lungs of all patients. Distant organs, i.e. prostate, bladder, uterus, and colon, received mean organ doses less than 150 mGy. The mean organ doses of the younger, smaller LBT patients (0-4 years old) were a factor of 2.4 greater than those of the older, larger patients (8-12 years old). Our findings demonstrated the feasibility of a straightforward method of applying supplemental computational phantoms and dose-calculation models to estimate absorbed dose for a set of children of various ages who received radiotherapy and for whom anatomies were largely missing in their original

  2. Magnetic-field-induced dose effects in MR-guided radiotherapy systems: dependence on the magnetic field strength.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, A J E; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2008-02-21

    Several institutes are currently working on the development of a radiotherapy treatment system with online MR imaging (MRI) modality. The main difference between their designs is the magnetic field strength of the MRI system. While we have chosen a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field strength, the Cross Cancer Institute in Edmonton will be using a 0.2 T MRI scanner and the company Viewray aims to use 0.3 T. The magnetic field strength will affect the severity of magnetic field dose effects, such as the electron return effect (ERE): considerable dose increase at tissue air boundaries due to returning electrons. This paper has investigated how the ERE dose increase depends on the magnetic field strength. Therefore, four situations where the ERE occurs have been simulated: ERE at the distal side of the beam, the lateral ERE, ERE in cylindrical air cavities and ERE in the lungs. The magnetic field comparison values were 0.2, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 T. Results show that, in general, magnetic field dose effects are reduced at lower magnetic field strengths. At the distal side, the ERE dose increase is largest for B = 0.75 T and depends on the irradiation field size for B = 0.2 T. The lateral ERE is strongest for B = 3 T but shows no effect for B = 0.2 T. Around cylindrical air cavities, dose inhomogeneities disappear if the radius of the cavity becomes small relative to the in-air radius of the secondary electron trajectories. At larger cavities (r > 1 cm), dose inhomogeneities exist for all magnetic field strengths. In water-lung-water phantoms, the ERE dose increase takes place at the water-lung transition and the dose decreases at the lung-water transition, but these effects are minimal for B = 0.2 T. These results will contribute to evaluating the trade-off between magnetic field dose effects and image quality of MR-guided radiotherapy systems.

  3. Comparison of curricula in radiation technology in the field of radiotherapy in selected European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Janaszczyk, Agnieszka; Bogusz-Czerniewicz, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Radiation technology is a discipline of medical science which deals with diagnostics, imaging and radiotherapy, that is treatment by ionizing radiation. To present and compare the existing curricula of radiation technology in selected EU countries. The research work done for the purpose of the comparative analysis was based on the methods of diagnostic test and document analysis. The comparison of curricula in selected countries, namely Austria, France, the Netherlands and Poland, showed that admission criteria to radiation technology courses are varied and depend on regulations of respective Ministries of Health. The most restrictive conditions, including written tests in biology, chemistry and physics, and psychometric test, are those in France. Contents of basic and specialist subject groups are very similar in all the countries. The difference is in the number of ECT points assigned to particular subjects and the number of course hours offered. The longest practical training is provided in the Netherlands and the shortest one in Poland. The duration of studies in the Netherlands is 4 years, while in Poland it is 3 years. Austria is the only country to offer extra practical training in quality management. Graduates in the compared EU countries have similar level of qualifications in the fields of operation of radiological equipment, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, foreign language and specialist terminology in the field of medical and physical sciences, general knowledge of medical and physical sciences, and detailed knowledge of radiation technology.

  4. Comparison of individual and composite field analysis using array detector for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy dose verification.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Sathiyan; Chandraraj, Varatharaj; Sridhar, C H; Manickam, Ravikumar

    2012-01-01

    To compare the measured and calculated individual and composite field planar dose distribution of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans. The measurements were performed in Clinac DHX linear accelerator with 6 MV photons using Matrixx device and a solid water phantom. The 20 brain tumor patients were selected for this study. The IMRT plan was carried out for all the patients using Eclipse treatment planning system. The verification plan was produced for every original plan using CT scan of Matrixx embedded in the phantom. Every verification field was measured by the Matrixx. The TPS calculated and measured dose distributions were compared for individual and composite fields. The percentage of gamma pixel match for the dose distribution patterns were evaluated using gamma histogram. The gamma pixel match was 95-98% for 41 fields (39%) and 98% for 59 fields (61%) with individual fields. The percentage of gamma pixel match was 95-98% for 5 patients and 98% for other 12 patients with composite fields. Three patients showed a gamma pixel match of less than 95%. The comparison of percentage gamma pixel match for individual and composite fields showed more than 2.5% variation for 6 patients, more than 1% variation for 4 patients, while the remaining 10 patients showed less than 1% variation. The individual and composite field measurements showed good agreement with TPS calculated dose distribution for the studied patients. The measurement and data analysis for individual fields is a time consuming process, the composite field analysis may be sufficient enough for smaller field dose distribution analysis with array detectors.

  5. Dosimetry and field matching for radiotherapy to the breast and superclavicular fossa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winfield, Elizabeth

    Radiotherapy for early breast cancer aims to achieve local disease control and decrease loco-regional recurrence rates. Treatment may be directed to breast or chest wall alone or, include regional lymph nodes. When using tangential fields to treat the breast a separate anterior field directed to the axilla and supraclavicular fossa (SCF) is needed to treat nodal areas. The complex geometry of this region necessitates matching of adjacent radiation fields in three dimensions. The potential exists for zones of overdosage or underdosage along the match line. Cosmetic results may be compromised if treatment fields are not accurately aligned. Techniques for field matching vary between centres in the UK. A study of dosimetry across the match line region using different techniques, as reported in the multi-centre START Trial Quality Assurance (QA) programme, was undertaken. A custom-made anthropomorphic phantom was designed to assess dose distribution in three dimensions using film dosimetry. Methods with varying degrees of complexity were employed to match tangential and SCF beams. Various techniques combined half beam blocking and machine rotations to achieve geometric alignment. Matching of asymmetric beams allowed a single isocentre technique to be used. Where field matching was not undertaken a gap between tangential and SCF fields was employed. Results demonstrated differences between techniques in addition to variations within the same technique between different centres. Geometric alignment techniques produced more homogenous dose distributions in the match region than gap techniques or those techniques not correcting for field divergence. For this multi-centre assessment of match plane techniques film dosimetry used in conjunction with a breast shaped phantom provided relative dose information. This study has highlighted the difficulties of matching treatment fields to achieve homogenous dose distribution through the region of the match plane and the degree of

  6. Sparkling Geomagnetic Field: Involving Schools in Geomagnetic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Rachel; Leonhardt, Roman; Leichter, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Solar activity will be reaching a maximum in 2013/2014 as the sun reaches the end of its cycle, bringing with it an opportunity to study in greater detail the effect of solar wind or "space weather" on our planet's magnetic field. Heightened solar activity leads to a larger amount of clouds of energetic particles bombarding the Earth. Although the Earth's magnetic field shields us from most of these particles, the field becomes distorted and compacted by the solar wind, which leads to magnetic storms that we detect from the surface. These storms cause aurorae at higher latitudes and can lead to widespread disruption of communication and navigation equipment all over the Earth when sufficiently strong. This project, "Sparkling Geomagnetic Field," is a part of Austria's Sparkling Science programme, which aims to involve schools in active scientific research to encourage interest in science from a young age. Researchers from the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in Vienna have worked hand-in-hand with three schools across Austria to set up regional geomagnetic stations consisting of state-of-the-art scalar and vector magnetometers to monitor the effects of the solar wind on the geomagnetic field. The students have been an active part of the research team from the beginning, first searching for a suitable location to set up the stations as well as later overseeing the continued running of the equipment and analysing the data output. Through this project the students will gain experience in contemporary scientific methods: data processing and analysis, field work, as well as equipment setup and upkeep. A total of three stations have been established with schools in Innsbruck, Tamsweg and Graz at roughly equal distances across Austria to run alongside the already active station in the Conrad Observatory near Vienna. Data acquisition runs through a data logger and software developed to deliver data in near realtime. This network allows for

  7. Field classes: key to involve and attract students to soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Cardoso, Irene Maria; da Silva Lopes, Angelica

    2015-04-01

    Soil genesis is a subject taught to students of Agrarian Sciences and Geography at the Federal University of Viçosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Each semester 200 to 250 students inscribe for it. It is organized as the first 60 hours course on soils for 1st and 2nd year's students. The course has a distinct pedagogical approach, which is based on Paulo Freire's education principles, known as socio constructivism. In such approach, learning environments and materials are prepared to stimulate dialogues and exchange of knowledge between students themselves, strengthening that their role is crucial to their own learning. During the course, students have different types of practical classes: indoors, in a class room or at the Earth Sciences museum and outdoors, in the field. In the class room they have the opportunity to handle materials -minerals, rocks, soils and maps-, follow demonstrations and perform small experiments. The classes given in the museum intend a broadening of the subjects approached in theoretical and practical classes. In the field classes the students are organized in small groups with the task to investigate soil formation by observation and description of geology, landscape, land use, soil expositions and some of the soil properties. Attracting students to soils involves looking at meanings and perceptions related to soils they bring with themselves and follow this up to sensitize and create awareness about their importance. With this aim, it is also included, as part of the evaluation, a final voluntary presentation that many of the students do. The presentation can be a song, a poem, a sketch or whatever they propose and create. Many of the presentations bring topics related to the new perception about soils they get during the semester and to ideas or questions raised in the field classes. A survey with the students showed that field classes are by far the preferred classes and they are considered more dynamic. Since students have less and less

  8. The Impact of Radiotherapy Fields in the Treatment of Patients With Choroid Plexus Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloom, Ali; Wolff, Johannes E.; Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.or

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To perform a comprehensive literature review and analysis of cases dealing with choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) to determine the optimal radiotherapy (RT) treatment field. Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English language articles from 1979 to 2008 was performed, yielding 33 articles with 56 patients who had available data regarding RT treatment field. The median age at diagnosis was 2.7 years (range, 1 month-53 years). Of 54 patients with data regarding type of surgery, 21 (38.9%) had complete resection. Chemotherapy was delivered to 27 (48%) as part of initial therapy. The RT treatment volume was the craniospinal axismore » in 38 (68%), whole brain in 9 (16%), and tumor/tumor bed in 9 (16%). Median follow-up for surviving patients was 40 months. Results: The 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 59.5% and 37.2%, respectively. Complete resection (p = 0.035) and use of craniospinal irradiation (CSI; p = 0.025) were found to positively affect PFS. The 5-year PFS for patients who had CSI vs. whole brain and tumor/tumor bed RT were 44.2% and 15.3%. For the 19 patients who relapsed, 9 (47%) had a recurrence in the RT field, 6 (32%) had a recurrence outside the RT field, and 4 (21%) had a recurrence inside and outside the irradiated field. Conclusion: Patients with CPC who received CSI had better PFS compared with those receiving less than CSI. This study supports the use of CSI in the multimodality management of patients with CPC.« less

  9. The field size matters: low dose external beam radiotherapy for thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis : Importance of field size.

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, Alexander; Bulling, Elke; Nitsche, Mirko; Carl, Ulrich Martin; Hermann, Robert Michael

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose radiotherapy (RT) for thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis (rhizarthrosis). The responses of 84 patients (n = 101 joints) were analyzed 3 months after therapy (n = 65) and at 12 months (n = 27). Patients were treated with 6 fractions of 1 Gy, two times a week, with a linear accelerator. At the end of therapy, about 70 % of patients reported a response (partial remission or complete remission), 3 months later about 60 %, and 1 year after treatment 70 %. In univariate regression analysis, higher patient age and field size greater than 6 × 4 cm were associated with response to treatment, while initial increase of pain under treatment was predictive for treatment failure. Duration of RT series (more than 18 days), gender, time of symptoms before RT, stress pain or rest pain, or prior ortheses use, injections, or surgery of the joint were not associated with treatment efficacy. In multivariate regression analysis, only field size and initial pain increase were highly correlated with treatment outcome. In conclusion, RT represents a useful treatment option for patients suffering from carpometacarpal osteoarthritis. In contrast to other benign indications, a larger field size (>6 × 4 cm) seems to be more effective than smaller fields and should be evaluated in further prospective studies.

  10. Early Clinical Outcome With Concurrent Chemotherapy and Extended-Field, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beriwal, Sushil; Gan, Gregory N.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the early clinical outcomes with concurrent cisplatin and extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) for carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with Stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer treated with EF-IMRT were evaluated. The pelvic lymph nodes were involved in 19 patients, and of these 19 patients, 10 also had para-aortic nodal disease. The treatment volume included the cervix, uterus, parametria, presacral space, upper vagina, and pelvic, common iliac, and para-aortic nodes to the superior border of L1. Patients were assessed for acute toxicities according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0.more » All late toxicities were scored with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late toxicity score. Results: All patients completed the prescribed course of EF-IMRT. All but 2 patients received brachytherapy. Median length of treatment was 53 days. The median follow-up was 18 months. Acute Grade {>=}3 gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and myelotoxicity were seen in 1, 1, and 10 patients, respectively. Thirty-four patients had complete response to treatment. Of these 34 patients, 11 developed recurrences. The first site of recurrence was in-field in 2 patients (pelvis in 1, pelvis and para-aortic in 1) and distant in 9 patients. The 2-year actuarial locoregional control, disease-free survival, overall survival, and Grade {>=}3 toxicity rates for the entire cohort were 80%, 51%, 65%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: Extended-field IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy was tolerated well, with acceptable acute and early late toxicities. The locoregional control rate was good, with distant metastases being the predominant mode of failure. We are continuing to accrue a larger number of patients and longer follow-up data to further extend our initial observations with this approach.« less

  11. Minimally invasive surgery using intraoperative electron-beam radiotherapy for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities with tendon involvement.

    PubMed

    Matsumine, Akihiko; Tsujii, Masaya; Nakamura, Tomoki; Asanuma, Kunihiro; Matsubara, Takao; Kakimoto, Takuya; Yada, Yuki; Takada, Akinori; Ii, Noriko; Nomoto, Yoshihito; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-08-12

    When a soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is located at the distal part of an extremity and involves the tendon, a wide excision usually causes severe functional disability. We therefore developed a minimally invasive surgical technique using intraoperative electron-beam radiotherapy (IOERT) to reduce the incidence of post-operative functional disability in patients with peri-/intra-tendinous STS. We assessed the clinical outcomes of the novel minimally invasive surgery. The study population included five patients who received treatment for distal extremity STSs. After elevating the tumor mass, including the tendon and nerve from the tumor bed with a wide margin, a lead board was inserted beneath the tumor mass to shield the normal tissue. IOERT (25-50 Gy) was then applied, and the tumor excised with care taken to maintain the continuity of the tendon. In a desmoid patient, local recurrence was observed outside the irradiated field. No cases of neuropathy or bone necrosis were observed. The mean limb function score was excellent in all patients. None of the high-grade sarcoma patients had local recurrence or distant metastasis. Although the current study is only a pilot study with a small number of patients, it shows that this minimally invasive procedure has the potential to become a standard treatment option for selected patients. H17-250 (registered 2 November 2005) and H25-250 (modified from H17-250, registered 5 December 2013).

  12. Predictive local receptive fields based respiratory motion tracking for motion-adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yubo Wang; Tatinati, Sivanagaraja; Liyu Huang; Kim Jeong Hong; Shafiq, Ghufran; Veluvolu, Kalyana C; Khong, Andy W H

    2017-07-01

    Extracranial robotic radiotherapy employs external markers and a correlation model to trace the tumor motion caused by the respiration. The real-time tracking of tumor motion however requires a prediction model to compensate the latencies induced by the software (image data acquisition and processing) and hardware (mechanical and kinematic) limitations of the treatment system. A new prediction algorithm based on local receptive fields extreme learning machines (pLRF-ELM) is proposed for respiratory motion prediction. All the existing respiratory motion prediction methods model the non-stationary respiratory motion traces directly to predict the future values. Unlike these existing methods, the pLRF-ELM performs prediction by modeling the higher-level features obtained by mapping the raw respiratory motion into the random feature space of ELM instead of directly modeling the raw respiratory motion. The developed method is evaluated using the dataset acquired from 31 patients for two horizons in-line with the latencies of treatment systems like CyberKnife. Results showed that pLRF-ELM is superior to that of existing prediction methods. Results further highlight that the abstracted higher-level features are suitable to approximate the nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics of respiratory motion for accurate prediction.

  13. Clinical outcome of extended-field irradiation vs. pelvic irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Chen, Kai; Cao, Xinping; Zeng, Yiming

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distinctions in survival and toxicity between patients with cervical cancer with common iliac node or para-aortic node involvement, who were treated with extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) and patients with or without lower involved pelvic nodes, who were treated with pelvic IMRT. A total of 55 patients treated with EF-IMRT and 52 patients treated with pelvic IMRT at the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients treated with EF-IMRT had the highest level of lymph node involvement to the para-aortic or common iliac nodes, while patients treated with pelvic IMRT had no para-aortic or common iliac nodes involved (P<0.001). The median follow-up time was 29.5 months. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates of EF-IMRT and pelvic IMRT were 79.4 and 82.3% (P=0.45), respectively, and the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates of EF-IMRT and pelvic IMRT were 61.0 and 73.7% (P=0.55), respectively. Cox's regression analysis revealed that EF irradiation was a protective prognostic factor for OS and DFS. A total of 16 patients in the EF-IMRT group and 13 patients in the pelvic IMRT group experienced treatment failure (P=0.67), with the patterns of failure being the same for the two groups (P=0.88). The cumulative incidence of grade 3 and 4 acute toxicities in the EF-IMRT group was 34.5%, in comparison with 19.2% in the pelvic group (P=0.048). The results of the present study suggest that patients with cervical cancer with grossly involved common iliac or para-aortic nodes should be electively subjected to EF irradiation to improve the survival and alter patterns of recurrence. Notably, EF irradiation delivered via IMRT exhibits an increased toxicity incidence, however, this remains within an acceptable range.

  14. Clinical outcome of extended-field irradiation vs. pelvic irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Chen, Kai; Cao, Xinping; Zeng, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distinctions in survival and toxicity between patients with cervical cancer with common iliac node or para-aortic node involvement, who were treated with extended-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (EF-IMRT) and patients with or without lower involved pelvic nodes, who were treated with pelvic IMRT. A total of 55 patients treated with EF-IMRT and 52 patients treated with pelvic IMRT at the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients treated with EF-IMRT had the highest level of lymph node involvement to the para-aortic or common iliac nodes, while patients treated with pelvic IMRT had no para-aortic or common iliac nodes involved (P<0.001). The median follow-up time was 29.5 months. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates of EF-IMRT and pelvic IMRT were 79.4 and 82.3% (P=0.45), respectively, and the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates of EF-IMRT and pelvic IMRT were 61.0 and 73.7% (P=0.55), respectively. Cox's regression analysis revealed that EF irradiation was a protective prognostic factor for OS and DFS. A total of 16 patients in the EF-IMRT group and 13 patients in the pelvic IMRT group experienced treatment failure (P=0.67), with the patterns of failure being the same for the two groups (P=0.88). The cumulative incidence of grade 3 and 4 acute toxicities in the EF-IMRT group was 34.5%, in comparison with 19.2% in the pelvic group (P=0.048). The results of the present study suggest that patients with cervical cancer with grossly involved common iliac or para-aortic nodes should be electively subjected to EF irradiation to improve the survival and alter patterns of recurrence. Notably, EF irradiation delivered via IMRT exhibits an increased toxicity incidence, however, this remains within an acceptable range. PMID:29344136

  15. Decreasing Temporal Lobe Dose With Five-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Treatment of Pituitary Macroadenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Parhar, Preeti K.; Duckworth, Tamara; Shah, Parinda

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To compare temporal lobe dose delivered by three pituitary macroadenoma irradiation techniques: three-field three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), three-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (3F IMRT), and a proposed novel alternative of five-field IMRT (5F IMRT). Methods and Materials: Computed tomography-based external beam radiotherapy planning was performed for 15 pituitary macroadenoma patients treated at New York University between 2002 and 2007 using: 3D-CRT (two lateral, one midline superior anterior oblique [SAO] beams), 3F IMRT (same beam angles), and 5F IMRT (same beam angles with additional right SAO and left SAO beams). Prescription dose was 45 Gy. Target volumes were: gross tumor volume (GTV)more » = macroadenoma, clinical target volume (CTV) = GTV, and planning target volume = CTV + 0.5 cm. Structure contouring was performed by two radiation oncologists guided by an expert neuroradiologist. Results: Five-field IMRT yielded significantly decreased temporal lobe dose delivery compared with 3D-CRT and 3F IMRT. Temporal lobe sparing with 5F IMRT was most pronounced at intermediate doses: mean V25Gy (% of total temporal lobe volume receiving {>=}25 Gy) of 13% vs. 28% vs. 29% for right temporal lobe and 14% vs. 29% vs. 30% for left temporal lobe for 5F IMRT, 3D-CRT, and 3F IMRT, respectively (p < 10{sup -7} for 5F IMRT vs. 3D-CRT and 5F IMRT vs. 3F IMRT). Five-field IMRT plans did not compromise target coverage, exceed normal tissue dose constraints, or increase estimated brain integral dose. Conclusions: Five-field IMRT irradiation technique results in a statistically significant decrease in the dose to the temporal lobes and may thus help prevent neurocognitive sequelae in irradiated pituitary macroadenoma patients.« less

  16. Dose enhancement in radiotherapy of small lung tumors using inline magnetic fields: A Monte Carlo based planning study

    SciTech Connect

    Oborn, B. M., E-mail: brad.oborn@gmail.com; Ge, Y.; Hardcastle, N.

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To report on significant dose enhancement effects caused by magnetic fields aligned parallel to 6 MV photon beam radiotherapy of small lung tumors. Findings are applicable to future inline MRI-guided radiotherapy systems. Methods: A total of eight clinical lung tumor cases were recalculated using Monte Carlo methods, and external magnetic fields of 0.5, 1.0, and 3 T were included to observe the impact on dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and gross tumor volume (GTV). Three plans were 6 MV 3D-CRT plans while 6 were 6 MV IMRT. The GTV’s ranged from 0.8 to 16 cm{sup 3}, whilemore » the PTV’s ranged from 1 to 59 cm{sup 3}. In addition, the dose changes in a 30 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom were investigated for small beams. The central 20 cm of this phantom contained either water or lung density insert. Results: For single beams, an inline magnetic field of 1 T has a small impact in lung dose distributions by reducing the lateral scatter of secondary electrons, resulting in a small dose increase along the beam. Superposition of multiple small beams leads to significant dose enhancements. Clinically, this process occurs in the lung tissue typically surrounding the GTV, resulting in increases to the D{sub 98%} (PTV). Two isolated tumors with very small PTVs (3 and 6 cm{sup 3}) showed increases in D{sub 98%} of 23% and 22%. Larger PTVs of 13, 26, and 59 cm{sup 3} had increases of 9%, 6%, and 4%, describing a natural fall-off in enhancement with increasing PTV size. However, three PTVs bounded to the lung wall showed no significant increase, due to lack of dose enhancement in the denser PTV volume. In general, at 0.5 T, the GTV mean dose enhancement is around 60% lower than that at 1 T, while at 3 T, it is 5%–60% higher than 1 T. Conclusions: Monte Carlo methods have described significant and predictable dose enhancement effects in small lung tumor plans for 6 MV radiotherapy when an external inline magnetic field is included. Results of

  17. Measurement and modeling of out-of-field doses from various advanced post-mastectomy radiotherapy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jihyung; Heins, David; Zhao, Xiaodong; Sanders, Mary; Zhang, Rui

    2017-12-01

    More and more advanced radiotherapy techniques have been adopted for post-mastectomy radiotherapies (PMRT). Patient dose reconstruction is challenging for these advanced techniques because they increase the low out-of-field dose area while the accuracy of out-of-field dose calculations by current commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs) is poor. We aim to measure and model the out-of-field radiation doses from various advanced PMRT techniques. PMRT treatment plans for an anthropomorphic phantom were generated, including volumetric modulated arc therapy with standard and flattening-filter-free photon beams, mixed beam therapy, 4-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and tomotherapy. We measured doses in the phantom where the TPS calculated doses were lower than 5% of the prescription dose using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The TLD measurements were corrected by two additional energy correction factors, namely out-of-beam out-of-field (OBOF) correction factor K OBOF and in-beam out-of-field (IBOF) correction factor K IBOF, which were determined by separate measurements using an ion chamber and TLD. A simple analytical model was developed to predict out-of-field dose as a function of distance from the field edge for each PMRT technique. The root mean square discrepancies between measured and calculated out-of-field doses were within 0.66 cGy Gy-1 for all techniques. The IBOF doses were highly scattered and should be evaluated case by case. One can easily combine the measured out-of-field dose here with the in-field dose calculated by the local TPS to reconstruct organ doses for a specific PMRT patient if the same treatment apparatus and technique were used.

  18. Long-term Benefit of Tumor Volume-Directed Involved Field Radiation Therapy in the Management of Recurrent Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Kevin; Patel, Mona; Liotta, Margaret; Harkenrider, Matthew; Guo, Rong; Small, William; Ronald, Potkul

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to report on long-term effectiveness of involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) in the salvage of localized recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC). A retrospective analysis of 27 patients with a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer who received tumor volume-directed IFRT for localized extraperitoneal recurrences (either as consolidation after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) or as attempted salvage if unresectable) forms the basis of this report. All patients were heavily pretreated with multiple chemotherapy regimens. Involved field radiation therapy was primarily with external beam (median dose, 50.4 Gy). Local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was defined as freedom from in-field recurrences and was considered as a measure of effectiveness of radiotherapy. Statistical analyses evaluated association between disease-free survival, overall survival, LRFS, and various prognostic factors. Comparison was also made with a similar but unmatched cohort with localized recurrences salvaged by additional chemotherapy instead of local therapies (NIFRT group). Of 27 patients, 17 had optimal CRS before RT. The actuarial survival at 5 and 10 years (in parenthesis) from date of radiation were LRFS (70% and 60%), overall survival (30% and 19%), and disease-free survival (33% and 20%). None of the NIFRT patients survived beyond 5 years from initiation of salvage chemotherapy. Long-term follow-up in this selected series confirmed the benefit of IFRT (±CRS) in localized ROC. Chemotherapy salvage in a similar NIFRT group was not equivalent, suggesting a role for locoregional therapies in selected patients with ROC.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of a compact microbeam radiotherapy system based on carbon nanotube field emission technology.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Eric C; Chang, Sha X

    2012-08-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an experimental radiotherapy technique that has shown potent antitumor effects with minimal damage to normal tissue in animal studies. This unique form of radiation is currently only produced in a few large synchrotron accelerator research facilities in the world. To promote widespread translational research on this promising treatment technology we have proposed and are in the initial development stages of a compact MRT system that is based on carbon nanotube field emission x-ray technology. We report on a Monte Carlo based feasibility study of the compact MRT system design. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using EGSnrc-based codes. The proposed small animal research MRT device design includes carbon nanotube cathodes shaped to match the corresponding MRT collimator apertures, a common reflection anode with filter, and a MRT collimator. Each collimator aperture is sized to deliver a beam width ranging from 30 to 200 μm at 18.6 cm source-to-axis distance. Design parameters studied with Monte Carlo include electron energy, cathode design, anode angle, filtration, and collimator design. Calculations were performed for single and multibeam configurations. Increasing the energy from 100 kVp to 160 kVp increased the photon fluence through the collimator by a factor of 1.7. Both energies produced a largely uniform fluence along the long dimension of the microbeam, with 5% decreases in intensity near the edges. The isocentric dose rate for 160 kVp was calculated to be 700 Gy∕min∕A in the center of a 3 cm diameter target. Scatter contributions resulting from collimator size were found to produce only small (<7%) changes in the dose rate for field widths greater than 50 μm. Dose vs depth was weakly dependent on filtration material. The peak-to-valley ratio varied from 10 to 100 as the separation between adjacent microbeams varies from 150 to 1000 μm. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the proposed compact MRT system

  20. Coplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy class solution for patients with prostate cancer with bilateral hip prostheses with and without nodal involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young K., E-mail: Young.Lee@rmh.nhs.uk; McVey, Gerard P.; South, Chris P.

    2013-07-01

    Dose distributions for prostate radiotherapy are difficult to predict in patients with bilateral hip prostheses in situ, due to image distortions and difficulty in dose calculation. The feasibility of delivering curative doses to prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with bilateral hip prostheses was evaluated. Planning target volumes for prostate only (PTV1) and pelvic nodes (PTV2) were generated from data on 5 patients. PTV1 and PTV2 dose prescriptions were 70 Gy and 60 Gy, respectively, in 35 fractions, and an additional nodal boost of 65 Gy was added for 1 plan. Rectum, bladder, and bowel were also delineated. Beammore » angles and segments were chosen to best avoid entering through the prostheses. Dose-volume data were assessed with respect to clinical objectives. The plans achieved the required prescription doses to the PTVs. Five-field IMRT plans were adequate for patients with relatively small prostheses (head volumes<60 cm{sup 3}) but 7-field plans were required for patients with larger prostheses. Bowel and bladder doses were clinically acceptable for all patients. Rectal doses were deemed clinically acceptable, although the V{sub 50} {sub Gy} objective was not met for 4/5 patients. We describe an IMRT solution for patients with bilateral hip prostheses of varying size and shape, requiring either localized or whole pelvic radiotherapy for prostate cancer.« less

  1. Is Neurosurgery With Adjuvant Radiotherapy an Effective Treatment Modality in Isolated Brain Involvement From Endometrial Cancer?: From Case Report to Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kimyon, Gunsu; Turan, Taner; Basaran, Derman; Turkmen, Osman; Karalok, Alper; Tasci, Tolga; Tulunay, Gokhan; Kose, Mehmet Faruk

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment options and post-brain involvement survival (PBIS) of patients with isolated brain involvement from endometrial cancer (EC). The literature electronic search was conducted from 1972 to May 2016 to identify articles about isolated (without extracranial metastases) brain involvement from EC at recurrence and the initial diagnosis. Forty-eight articles were found. After comprehensive evaluation of case series and case reports, the study included 49 cases. The median age of the patients at initial diagnosis was 57 years (range, 40-77 years). Poor differentiation was determined in 36 (73.5%) patients. Thirty-five (71.4%) patients had a single brain lesion. Lesion was found in the supratentorial part of the brain in 33 (67.3%) patients. Median PBIS for all cohorts was 13 months (range, 0.25-118 months) with 2-year PBIS of 52% and 5-year PBIS of 37%. Age, tumor type, grade, disease-free interval, diagnosis time of brain lesion, localization, and number of brain lesion were not predictive of PBIS. Two-year PBIS was 77% in patients who underwent surgical resection and radiotherapy, whereas it was 19% in the surgical resection-only group, and 20% in the primary radiotherapy-only group (Ps = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). Chemotherapy was not associated with improved PBIS. Although neuroinvasion from EC appears mostly with a disseminated disease, there is a considerable amount of patients with isolated brain involvement who would have a higher chance of curability. Surgery with radiotherapy is the rational current management option, and this improves the survival for isolated brain involvement from EC.

  2. Calculation of out-of-field dose distribution in carbon-ion radiotherapy by Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Yonai, Shunsuke; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Namba, Masao

    2012-08-01

    Recent radiotherapy technologies including carbon-ion radiotherapy can improve the dose concentration in the target volume, thereby not only reducing side effects in organs at risk but also the secondary cancer risk within or near the irradiation field. However, secondary cancer risk in the low-dose region is considered to be non-negligible, especially for younger patients. To achieve a dose estimation of the whole body of each patient receiving carbon-ion radiotherapy, which is essential for risk assessment and epidemiological studies, Monte Carlo simulation plays an important role because the treatment planning system can provide dose distribution only in∕near the irradiation field and the measured data are limited. However, validation of Monte Carlo simulations is necessary. The primary purpose of this study was to establish a calculation method using the Monte Carlo code to estimate the dose and quality factor in the body and to validate the proposed method by comparison with experimental data. Furthermore, we show the distributions of dose equivalent in a phantom and identify the partial contribution of each radiation type. We proposed a calculation method based on a Monte Carlo simulation using the PHITS code to estimate absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and dose-averaged quality factor by using the Q(L)-L relationship based on the ICRP 60 recommendation. The values obtained by this method in modeling the passive beam line at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba were compared with our previously measured data. It was shown that our calculation model can estimate the measured value within a factor of 2, which included not only the uncertainty of this calculation method but also those regarding the assumptions of the geometrical modeling and the PHITS code. Also, we showed the differences in the doses and the partial contributions of each radiation type between passive and active carbon-ion beams using this calculation method. These results indicated that

  3. Out-of-field organ doses and associated radiogenic risks from para-aortic radiotherapy for testicular seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazonakis, Michalis, E-mail: mazonak@med.uoc.gr; Berris, Theocharis; Damilakis, John

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to (a) calculate the radiation dose to out-of-field organs from radiotherapy for stage I testicular seminoma and (b) estimate the associated radiogenic risks. Methods: Monte Carlo methodology was employed to model radiation therapy with typical anteroposterior and posteroanterior para-aortic fields on an anthropomorphic phantom simulating an average adult. The radiation dose received by all main and remaining organs that defined by the ICRP publication 103 and excluded from the treatment volume was calculated. The effect of field dimensions on each organ dose was determined. Additional therapy simulations were generated by introducing shielding blocksmore » to protect the kidneys from primary radiation. The gonadal dose was employed to assess the risk of heritable effects for irradiated male patients of reproductive potential. The lifetime attributable risks (LAR) of radiotherapy-induced cancer were estimated using gender- and organ-specific risk coefficients for patient ages of 20, 30, 40, and 50 years old. The risk values were compared with the respective nominal risks. Results: Para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 5.0–538.6 mGy. Blocked field treatment led to a dose change up to 28%. The mean organ dose variation by increasing or decreasing the applied field dimensions was 18.7% ± 3.9% and 20.8% ± 4.5%, respectively. The out-of-field photon doses increased the lifetime intrinsic risk of developing thyroid, lung, bladder, prostate, and esophageal cancer by (0.1–1.4)%, (0.4–1.1)%, (2.5–5.4)%, (0.2–0.4)%, and (6.4–9.2)%, respectively, depending upon the patient age at exposure and the field size employed. A low risk for heritable effects of less than 0.029% was found compared with the natural incidence of these defects. Conclusions: Testicular cancer survivors are subjected to an increased risk for the induction of bladder and esophageal cancer following para

  4. 18FDG-PET based radiation planning of mediastinal lymph nodes in limited disease small cell lung cancer changes radiotherapy fields: a planning study.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Judith; Offermann, Claudia; Bosmans, Geert; Wanders, Rinus; Dekker, André; Borger, Jacques; Oellers, Michel; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; van Baardwijk, Angela; Teule, Jaap; Snoep, Gabriel; Hochstenbag, Monique; Houben, Ruud; Lambin, Philippe; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the influence of selective irradiation of 18FDG-PET positive mediastinal nodes on radiation fields and normal tissue exposure in limited disease small cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC). Twenty-one patients with LD-SCLC, of whom both CT and PET images were available, were studied. For each patient, two three-dimensional conformal treatment plans were made with selective irradiation of involved lymph nodes, based on CT and on PET, respectively. Changes in treatment plans as well as dosimetric factors associated with lung and esophageal toxicity were analyzed and compared. FDG-PET information changed the treatment field in 5 patients (24%). In 3 patients, this was due to a decrease and in 2 patients to an increase in the number of involved nodal areas. However, there were no significant differences in gross tumor volume (GTV), lung, and esophageal parameters between CT- and PET-based plans. Incorporating FDG-PET information in radiotherapy planning for patients with LD-SCLC changed the treatment plan in 24% of patients compared to CT. Both increases and decreases of the GTV were observed, theoretically leading to the avoidance of geographical miss or a decrease of radiation exposure of normal tissues, respectively. Based on these findings, a phase II trial, evaluating PET-scan based selective nodal irradiation, is ongoing in our department.

  5. Comparison of onboard low-field magnetic resonance imaging versus onboard computed tomography for anatomy visualization in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noel, Camille E; Parikh, Parag J; Spencer, Christopher R; Green, Olga L; Hu, Yanle; Mutic, Sasa; Olsen, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Onboard magnetic resonance imaging (OB-MRI) for daily localization and adaptive radiotherapy has been under development by several groups. However, no clinical studies have evaluated whether OB-MRI improves visualization of the target and organs at risk (OARs) compared to standard onboard computed tomography (OB-CT). This study compared visualization of patient anatomy on images acquired on the MRI-(60)Co ViewRay system to those acquired with OB-CT. Fourteen patients enrolled on a protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and undergoing image-guided radiotherapy for cancer in the thorax (n = 2), pelvis (n = 6), abdomen (n = 3) or head and neck (n = 3) were imaged with OB-MRI and OB-CT. For each of the 14 patients, the OB-MRI and OB-CT datasets were displayed side-by-side and independently reviewed by three radiation oncologists. Each physician was asked to evaluate which dataset offered better visualization of the target and OARs. A quantitative contouring study was performed on two abdominal patients to assess if OB-MRI could offer improved inter-observer segmentation agreement for adaptive planning. In total 221 OARs and 10 targets were compared for visualization on OB-MRI and OB-CT by each of the three physicians. The majority of physicians (two or more) evaluated visualization on MRI as better for 71% of structures, worse for 10% of structures, and equivalent for 14% of structures. 5% of structures were not visible on either. Physicians agreed unanimously for 74% and in majority for > 99% of structures. Targets were better visualized on MRI in 4/10 cases, and never on OB-CT. Low-field MR provides better anatomic visualization of many radiotherapy targets and most OARs as compared to OB-CT. Further studies with OB-MRI should be pursued.

  6. Teachers as Secondary Players: Involvement in Field Trips to Natural Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2017-08-01

    This study focused on field trips to natural environments where the teacher plays a secondary role alongside a professional guide. We investigated teachers' and field trip guides' views of the teacher's role, the teacher's actual function on the field trip, and the relationship between them. We observed field trips, interviewed teachers and guides, and administered questionnaires. We found different levels of teacher involvement, ranging from mainly supervising and giving technical help, to high involvement especially in the cognitive domain and sometimes in the social domain. Analysis of students' self-reported outcomes showed that the more students believe their teachers are involved, the higher the self-reported learning outcomes.

  7. Dosimetric and efficiency comparison of high-dose radiotherapy for esophageal cancer: volumetric modulated arc therapy versus fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-Y; Huang, W-Y; Jen, Y-M; Chen, C-M; Su, Y-F; Chao, H-L; Lin, C-S

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare high-dose volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ff-IMRT) plans for the treatment of patients with middle-thoracic esophageal cancer. Eight patients with cT2-3N0M0 middle-thoracic esophageal cancer were enrolled. The treatment planning system was the version 9 of the Pinnacle(3) with SmartArc (Philips Healthcare, Fitchburg, WI, USA). VMAT and ff-IMRT treatment plans were generated for each case, and both techniques were used to deliver 50 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV(50)) and then provided a 16-Gy boost (PTV(66)). The VMAT plans provided superior PTV(66) coverage compared with the ff-IMRT plans (P = 0.034), whereas the ff-IMRT plans provided more appropriate dose homogeneity to the PTV(50) (P = 0.017). In the lung, the V(5) and V(10) were lower for the ff-IMRT plans than for the VMAT plans, whereas the V(20) was lower for the VMAT plans. The delivery time was significantly shorter for the VMAT plans than for the ff-IMRT plans (P = 0.012). In addition, the VMAT plans delivered fewer monitor units. The VMAT technique required a shorter planning time than the ff-IMRT technique (3.8 ± 0.8 hours vs. 5.4 ± 0.6 hours, P = 0.011). The major advantages of VMAT plans are higher efficiency and an approximately 50% reduction in delivery time compared with the ff-IMRT plans, with comparable plan quality. Further clinical investigations to evaluate the use of high-dose VMAT for the treatment of esophageal cancer are warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  8. The comparison of 5-field conformal radiotherapy techniques for the treatment of prostate cancer: The best for femoral head sparing

    SciTech Connect

    Zare, Mahkameh; Lashkari, Marzieh, E-mail: m-lashkari@sina.tums.ac.ir; Ghalehtaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    External radiotherapy is a standard treatment procedure for localized prostate cancer. Given the relatively high long term survival treatment complications have been brought in center of attention. In this planning study, between 2012 and 2014, CT simulation data of 90 consecutive high-risk prostate cancer patients were collected. In the first phase, all were planned for whole pelvis irradiation up to 46Gy in 23 daily fractions. In the second phase, only the prostate gland was the target of radiation. Next, the subjects were divided randomly into three groups and each received a unique 5field conformal radiation plan including Plan A (Gantrymore » angle: 0, 60, 120, 240, and 300), Plan B (Gantry angles: 0, 90, 120, 240, and 270) and Plan C (Gantry angles: 0, 60, 90, 270, and 300). The total dose was 70Gy. For each patient, the rectum, bladder, and both femoral heads were contoured as the at risk organs (OAR). From dose volume histograms, the proportional dose of PTV V100, the bladder and rectum V80 and V90 and femoral head V50 and V100 were calculated in all subjects and compared across plans. A statistically significant difference in the femoral head V50 and V100 was found between our studied 5field plans so that in Plan A (beam angles: 0, 60, 120, 240 and 300) less dose was received by both heads of femur. This study suggests that 5 field treatment planning including an anterior, two anterior oblique and two posterior oblique portals to be more proper for 3D conformal radiotherapy in order to spare femoral head with acceptable PTV coverage, and bladder and rectal doses.« less

  9. The development and validation of a Monte Carlo model for calculating the out-of-field dose from radiotherapy treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kry, Stephen

    Introduction. External beam photon radiotherapy is a common treatment for many malignancies, but results in the exposure of the patient to radiation away from the treatment site. This out-of-field radiation irradiates healthy tissue and may lead to the induction of secondary malignancies. Out-of-field radiation is composed of photons and, at high treatment energies, neutrons. Measurement of this out-of-field dose is time consuming, often difficult, and is specific to the conditions of the measurements. Monte Carlo simulations may be a viable approach to determining the out-of-field dose quickly, accurately, and for arbitrary irradiation conditions. Methods. An accelerator head, gantry, and treatment vault were modeled with MCNPX and 6 MV and 18 MV beams were simulated. Photon doses were calculated in-field and compared to measurements made with an ion chamber in a water tank. Photon doses were also calculated out-of-field from static fields and compared to measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters in acrylic. Neutron fluences were calculated and compared to measurements made with gold foils. Finally, photon and neutron dose equivalents were calculated in an anthropomorphic phantom following intensity-modulated radiation therapy and compared to previously published dose equivalents. Results. The Monte Carlo model was able to accurately calculate the in-field dose. From static treatment fields, the model was also able to calculate the out-of-field photon dose within 16% at 6 MV and 17% at 18 MV and the neutron fluence within 19% on average. From the simulated IMRT treatments, the calculated out-of-field photon dose was within 14% of measurement at 6 MV and 13% at 18 MV on average. The calculated neutron dose equivalent was much lower than the measured value but is likely accurate because the measured neutron dose equivalent was based on an overestimated neutron energy. Based on the calculated out-of-field doses generated by the Monte Carlo model, it was

  10. Out-of-field in vivo dosimetry using TLD in SABR for primary kidney cancer involving mixed photon fields.

    PubMed

    Lonski, P; Keehan, S; Siva, S; Pham, D; Franich, R D; Taylor, M L; Kron, T

    2017-05-01

    To assess out-of-field dose using three different variants of LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) for ten patients who underwent stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and compare with treatment planning system (TPS) dose calculations. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements were conducted at 20, 30, 40 and 50cm from isocentre on ten patients undergoing SABR for primary RCC. Three types of high-sensitivity LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD material with different 6 Li/ 7 Li isotope ratios were used. Patient plans were calculated using Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) for clinical evaluation and recalculated using Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) algorithm for comparison. Both AAA and PBC showed diminished accuracy for photon doses at increasing distance out-of-field. At 50cm, measured photon dose was 0.3cGy normalised to a 10Gy prescription on average with only small variation across all patients. This is likely due to the leakage component of the out-of-field dose. The 6 Li-enriched TLD materials showed increased signal attributable to additional neutron contribution. LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD containing 6 Li is sensitive enough to measure out-of-field dose 50cm from isocentre however will over-estimate the photon component of out-of-field dose in high energy treatments due to the presence of thermal neutrons. 7 Li enriched materials which are insensitive to neutrons are therefore required for accurate photon dosimetry. Neutron signal has been shown here to increase with MUs and is higher for patients treated using certain non coplanar beam arrangements. Further work is required to convert this additional neutron signal to dose. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A practical and theoretical definition of very small field size for radiotherapy output factor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, P. H., E-mail: p.charles@qut.edu.au; Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.

    Purpose: This work introduces the concept of very small field size. Output factor (OPF) measurements at these field sizes require extremely careful experimental methodology including the measurement of dosimetric field size at the same time as each OPF measurement. Two quantifiable scientific definitions of the threshold of very small field size are presented. Methods: A practical definition was established by quantifying the effect that a 1 mm error in field size or detector position had on OPFs and setting acceptable uncertainties on OPF at 1%. Alternatively, for a theoretical definition of very small field size, the OPFs were separated intomore » additional factors to investigate the specific effects of lateral electronic disequilibrium, photon scatter in the phantom, and source occlusion. The dominant effect was established and formed the basis of a theoretical definition of very small fields. Each factor was obtained using Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian iX linear accelerator for various square field sizes of side length from 4 to 100 mm, using a nominal photon energy of 6 MV. Results: According to the practical definition established in this project, field sizes ≤15 mm were considered to be very small for 6 MV beams for maximal field size uncertainties of 1 mm. If the acceptable uncertainty in the OPF was increased from 1.0% to 2.0%, or field size uncertainties are 0.5 mm, field sizes ≤12 mm were considered to be very small. Lateral electronic disequilibrium in the phantom was the dominant cause of change in OPF at very small field sizes. Thus the theoretical definition of very small field size coincided to the field size at which lateral electronic disequilibrium clearly caused a greater change in OPF than any other effects. This was found to occur at field sizes ≤12 mm. Source occlusion also caused a large change in OPF for field sizes ≤8 mm. Based on the results of this study, field sizes ≤12 mm were considered to be theoretically very

  12. A practical and theoretical definition of very small field size for radiotherapy output factor measurements.

    PubMed

    Charles, P H; Cranmer-Sargison, G; Thwaites, D I; Crowe, S B; Kairn, T; Knight, R T; Kenny, J; Langton, C M; Trapp, J V

    2014-04-01

    This work introduces the concept of very small field size. Output factor (OPF) measurements at these field sizes require extremely careful experimental methodology including the measurement of dosimetric field size at the same time as each OPF measurement. Two quantifiable scientific definitions of the threshold of very small field size are presented. A practical definition was established by quantifying the effect that a 1 mm error in field size or detector position had on OPFs and setting acceptable uncertainties on OPF at 1%. Alternatively, for a theoretical definition of very small field size, the OPFs were separated into additional factors to investigate the specific effects of lateral electronic disequilibrium, photon scatter in the phantom, and source occlusion. The dominant effect was established and formed the basis of a theoretical definition of very small fields. Each factor was obtained using Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian iX linear accelerator for various square field sizes of side length from 4 to 100 mm, using a nominal photon energy of 6 MV. According to the practical definition established in this project, field sizes ≤ 15 mm were considered to be very small for 6 MV beams for maximal field size uncertainties of 1 mm. If the acceptable uncertainty in the OPF was increased from 1.0% to 2.0%, or field size uncertainties are 0.5 mm, field sizes ≤ 12 mm were considered to be very small. Lateral electronic disequilibrium in the phantom was the dominant cause of change in OPF at very small field sizes. Thus the theoretical definition of very small field size coincided to the field size at which lateral electronic disequilibrium clearly caused a greater change in OPF than any other effects. This was found to occur at field sizes ≤ 12 mm. Source occlusion also caused a large change in OPF for field sizes ≤ 8 mm. Based on the results of this study, field sizes ≤ 12 mm were considered to be theoretically very small for 6 MV beams. Extremely

  13. Number and Location of Positive Nodes, Postoperative Radiotherapy, and Survival After Esophagectomy With Three-Field Lymph Node Dissection for Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Junqiang; Pan Jianji, E-mail: panjianji@126.com; Zheng Xiongwei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze influences of the number and location of positive lymph nodes and postoperative radiotherapy on survival for patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (TE-SCC) treated with radical esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: A total of 945 patients underwent radical esophagectomy plus three-field lymph node dissection for node-positive TE-SCC at Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital between January 1993 and March 2007. Five hundred ninety patients received surgery only (S group), and 355 patients received surgery, followed 3 to 4 weeks later by postoperative radiotherapy (S+R group) to a median total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions.more » We assessed potential associations among patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors and overall survival. Results: Five-year overall survival rates were 32.8% for the entire group, 29.6% for the S group, and 38.0% for the S+R group (p = 0.001 for S vs. S+R). Treatment with postoperative radiotherapy was particularly beneficial for patients with {>=}3 positive nodes and for those with metastasis in the upper (supraclavicular and upper mediastinal) region or both the upper and lower (mediastinal and abdominal) regions (p < 0.05). Postoperative radiotherapy was also associated with lower recurrence rates in the supraclavicular and upper and middle mediastinal regions (p < 0.05). Sex, primary tumor length, number of positive nodes, pathological T category, and postoperative radiotherapy were all independent predictors of survival. Conclusions: Postoperative radiotherapy was associated with better survival for patients with node-positive TE-SCC, particularly those with three or more positive nodes and positive nodes in the supraclavicular and superior mediastinal regions.« less

  14. Electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Bryan M.; Wachsman, Eric D.; Van Assche, IV, Frederick Martin

    2015-05-19

    Electrode configurations for electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases are provided. According to an embodiment, electric-field electrodes can be incorporated in devices such as gas sensors and fuel cells to shape an electric field provided with respect to sensing electrodes for the gas sensors and surfaces of the fuel cells. The shaped electric fields can alter surface dynamics, system thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and adsorption/desorption processes. In one embodiment, ring-shaped electric-field electrodes can be provided around sensing electrodes of a planar gas sensor.

  15. Cardiac Side-effects From Breast Cancer Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C W; Kirby, A M

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy reduces the risk of cancer recurrence and death. However, it usually involves some radiation exposure of the heart and analyses of randomised trials have shown that it can increase the risk of heart disease. Estimates of the absolute risks of radiation-related heart disease are needed to help oncologists plan each individual woman's treatment. The risk for an individual woman varies according to her estimated cardiac radiation dose and her background risk of ischaemic heart disease in the absence of radiotherapy. When it is known, this risk can then be compared with the absolute benefit of the radiotherapy. At present, many UK cancer centres are already giving radiotherapy with mean heart doses of less than 3 Gy and for most women the benefits of the radiotherapy will probably far outweigh the risks. Technical approaches to minimising heart dose in breast cancer radiotherapy include optimisation of beam angles, use of multileaf collimator shielding, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, treatment in a prone position, treatment in deep inspiration (including the use of breath-hold and gating techniques), proton therapy and partial breast irradiation. The multileaf collimator is suitable for many women with upper pole left breast cancers, but for women with central or lower pole cancers, breath-holding techniques are now recommended in national UK guidelines. Ongoing work aims to identify ways of irradiating pan-regional lymph nodes that are effective, involve minimal exposure of organs at risk and are feasible to plan, deliver and verify. These will probably include wide tangent-based field-in-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy or arc radiotherapy techniques in combination with deep inspiratory breath-hold, and proton beam irradiation for women who have a high predicted heart dose from intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SU-E-T-279: A Novel Electron-Beam Combined with Magnetic Field Application for Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Alezra, D; Nardi, E; Koren, S; Bragilovski, D; Orion, I

    2012-06-01

    The new beam and delivery system consists of an electron accelerator and a system of magnets (one or more). Introducing a transverse magnetic field in and near the tumor, causes the electrons to spiral in this region, thereby producing an effective peak in the depth dose distribution, within the tumor volume. Although the basic idea is not new, we suggest here for the first time, a viable as well as a workable, magnetic field configuration, which in addition to focusing the beam does not interfere with its propagation to the target. The electron accelerator: can be a linear accelerator or any other type electron accelerator, capable of producing different electron energies for different depths and dose absorption accumulation. The Field size can be as small as a pencil beam and as big as any of the other standard field sizes that are used in radiotherapy. The scatter filter can be used or removed. The dose rate accumulation can be as higher as possible.The magnets are able to produce magnetic fields. The order, direction, width, place, shape and number of the magnetic fields define the shape and the Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curve of the electron beam. Prototypes were successfully tested by means of computer simulation, using:COMSOL-Multiphsics for magnetic fields calculations. FLUKA package, for electron beam MC simulation. Our results suggest that by using an electron beam at different energies, combined with magnetic fields, we could modify the delivered dose. This is caused by manipulating the electron motion via the Lorentz force. The applied magnetic field, will focus the electron beam at a given depth and deposit the energy in a given volume and depth, where otherwise the electron energy will have spread deeper. The direction and magnitude of the magnetic fields will prevent the scattering of the electron beam and its absorption in remote volumes. In practice, we get a pseudo Bragg peak depth dose distribution, applying a relatively low cost system. The

  17. Radiation dose and cancer risk to out-of-field and partially in-field organs from radiotherapy for symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazonakis, Michalis, E-mail: mazonak@med.uoc.gr; Damilakis, John; Tzedakis, Antonis

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are the most common benign tumors of the spine that may cause bone resorption. Megavoltage irradiation is usually the treatment of choice for the management of symptomatic VHs. The current study was conducted to estimate the risk for carcinogenesis from radiotherapy of this benign disease on the basis of the calculated radiation doses to healthy organs. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-particle transport code was employed to simulate the irradiation with 6 MV x-rays of a VH presented in the cervical, upper thoracic, lower thoracic, and lumbar spine. The average radiation dose (D{sub av}) received by eachmore » critical organ located outside the primarily irradiated area was calculated. Three-dimensional treatment plans were also generated for the VHs occurring at the four different sites of the spinal cord based on patients’ computed tomography data. The organ equivalent dose (OED) to each radiosensitive structure, which was partly encompassed by the applied treatment fields, was calculated with the aid of differential dose–volume histograms. The D{sub av} and the OED values were combined with a linear-no-threshold model and a nonlinear mechanistic model, respectively, to estimate the organ-, age-, and gender-specific lifetime attributable risks (LARs) for cancer development. The estimated risks were compared with the respective nominal lifetime intrinsic risks (LIRs) for the unexposed population. Results: For a standard target dose of 34 Gy, the OED varied from 0.39–5.15 Gy by the organ of interest and the irradiation site. The D{sub av} range for the out-of-field organs was 4.9 × 10{sup −4} to 0.56 Gy. The LAR for the appearance of malignancies in the partially in-field organs after radiotherapy of male and female patients was (0.08%–1.8%) and (0.09%–1.9%), respectively. These risk values were 1.5–15.5 times lower when compared to the respective LIRs. The lifetime probability for out-of-field cancer induction in

  18. Experimental assessment of out-of-field dose components in high energy electron beams used in external beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Alabdoaburas, Mohamad M; Mege, Jean-Pierre; Chavaudra, Jean; Bezin, Jérémi Vũ; Veres, Atilla; de Vathaire, Florent; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2015-11-08

    The purpose of this work was to experimentally investigate the out-of-field dose in a water phantom, with several high energy electron beams used in external beam radiotherapy (RT). The study was carried out for 6, 9, 12, and 18 MeV electron beams, on three different linear accelerators, each equipped with a specific applicator. Measurements were performed in a water phantom, at different depths, for different applicator sizes, and off-axis distances up to 70 cm from beam central axis (CAX). Thermoluminescent powder dosimeters (TLD-700) were used. For given cases, TLD measurements were compared to EBT3 films and parallel-plane ionization chamber measurements. Also, out-of-field doses at 10 cm depth, with and without applicator, were evaluated. With the Siemens applicators, a peak dose appears at about 12-15 cm out of the field edge, at 1 cm depth, for all field sizes and energies. For the Siemens Primus, with a 10 × 10 cm(²) applicator, this peak reaches 2.3%, 1%, 0.9% and 1.3% of the maximum central axis dose (Dmax) for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron beams, respectively. For the Siemens Oncor, with a 10 × 10 cm(²) applicator, this peak dose reaches 0.8%, 1%, 1.4%, and 1.6% of Dmax for 6, 9, 12, and 14 MeV, respectively, and these values increase with applicator size. For the Varian 2300C/D, the doses at 12.5 cm out of the field edge are 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.5%, and 1.1% of Dmax for 6, 9, 12, and 18 MeV, respectively, and increase with applicator size. No peak dose is evidenced for the Varian applicator for these energies. In summary, the out-of-field dose from electron beams increases with the beam energy and the applicator size, and decreases with the distance from the beam central axis and the depth in water. It also considerably depends on the applicator types. Our results can be of interest for the dose estimations delivered in healthy tissues outside the treatment field for the RT patient, as well as in studies exploring RT long-term effects.

  19. Experimental assessment of out‐of‐field dose components in high energy electron beams used in external beam radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Alabdoaburas, Mohamad M.; Mege, Jean‐Pierre; Chavaudra, Jean; Bezin, Jérémi Vũ; Veres, Attila; de Vathaire, Florent; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to experimentally investigate the out‐of‐field dose in a water phantom, with several high energy electron beams used in external beam radiotherapy (RT). The study was carried out for 6, 9, 12, and 18 MeV electron beams, on three different linear accelerators, each equipped with a specific applicator. Measurements were performed in a water phantom, at different depths, for different applicator sizes, and off‐axis distances up to 70 cm from beam central axis (CAX). Thermoluminescent powder dosimeters (TLD‐700) were used. For given cases, TLD measurements were compared to EBT3 films and parallel‐plane ionization chamber measurements. Also, out‐of‐field doses at 10 cm depth, with and without applicator, were evaluated. With the Siemens applicators, a peak dose appears at about 12–15 cm out of the field edge, at 1 cm depth, for all field sizes and energies. For the Siemens Primus, with a 10×10cm2 applicator, this peak reaches 2.3%, 1%, 0.9% and 1.3% of the maximum central axis dose (Dmax) for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron beams, respectively. For the Siemens Oncor, with a 10×10cm2 applicator, this peak dose reaches 0.8%, 1%, 1.4%, and 1.6% of Dmax for 6, 9, 12, and 14 MeV, respectively, and these values increase with applicator size. For the Varian 2300C/D, the doses at 12.5 cm out of the field edge are 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.5%, and 1.1% of Dmax for 6, 9, 12, and 18 MeV, respectively, and increase with applicator size. No peak dose is evidenced for the Varian applicator for these energies. In summary, the out‐of‐field dose from electron beams increases with the beam energy and the applicator size, and decreases with the distance from the beam central axis and the depth in water. It also considerably depends on the applicator types. Our results can be of interest for the dose estimations delivered in healthy tissues outside the treatment field for the RT patient, as well as in studies exploring RT long‐term effects. PACS number

  20. Dosimetric comparison between intensity-modulated with coplanar field and 3D conformal radiotherapy with noncoplanar field for postocular invasion tumor.

    PubMed

    Wenyong, Tu; Lu, Liu; Jun, Zeng; Weidong, Yin; Yun, Li

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a dosimetric optimization effort aiming to compare noncoplanar field (NCF) on 3 dimensions conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and coplanar field (CF) on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for postocular invasion tumor. We performed a planning study on the computed tomography data of 8 consecutive patients with localized postocular invasion tumor. Four fields NCF 3D-CRT in the transverse plane with gantry angles of 0-10 degrees , 30-45 degrees , 240-270 degrees , and 310-335 degrees degrees were isocentered at the center of gravity of the target volume. The geometry of the beams was determined by beam's eye view. The same constraints were prepared with between CF IMRT optimization and NCF 3D-CRT treatment. The maximum point doses (D max) for the different optic pathway structures (OPS) with NCF 3D-CRT treatment should differ in no more than 3% from those with the NCF IMRT plan. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were obtained for all targets and organ at risk (OAR) with both treatment techniques. Plans with NCF 3D-CRT and CF IMRT constraints on target dose in homogeneity were computed, as well as the conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) in the target volume. The PTV coverage was optimal with both NCF 3D-CRT and CF IMRT plans in the 8 tumor sites. No difference was noted between the two techniques for the average D(max) and D(min) dose. NCF 3D-CRT and CF IMRT will yield similar results on CI. However, HI was a significant difference between NCF 3D-CRT and CF IMRT plan (p < 0.001). Physical endpoints for target showed the mean target dose to be low in the CF IMRT plan, caused by a large target dose in homogeneity (p < 0.001). The impact of NCF 3D-CRT versus CF IMRT set-up is very slight. NCF3D-CRT is one of the treatment options for postocular invasion tumor. However, constraints for OARs are needed. 2010 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of patient dose perturbations in rotational-type radiotherapy due to a transverse magnetic field: A tomotherapy investigation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y. M.; Geurts, M.; Smilowitz, J. B.; Sterpin, E.; Bednarz, B. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Several groups are exploring the integration of magnetic resonance (MR) image guidance with radiotherapy to reduce tumor position uncertainty during photon radiotherapy. The therapeutic gain from reducing tumor position uncertainty using intrafraction MR imaging during radiotherapy could be partially offset if the negative effects of magnetic field-induced dose perturbations are not appreciated or accounted for. The authors hypothesize that a more rotationally symmetric modality such as helical tomotherapy will permit a systematic mediation of these dose perturbations. This investigation offers a unique look at the dose perturbations due to homogeneous transverse magnetic field during the delivery of Tomotherapy® Treatment System plans under varying degrees of rotational beamlet symmetry. Methods: The authors accurately reproduced treatment plan beamlet and patient configurations using the Monte Carlo code geant4. This code has a thoroughly benchmarked electromagnetic particle transport physics package well-suited for the radiotherapy energy regime. The three approved clinical treatment plans for this study were for a prostate, head and neck, and lung treatment. The dose heterogeneity index metric was used to quantify the effect of the dose perturbations to the target volumes. Results: The authors demonstrate the ability to reproduce the clinical dose–volume histograms (DVH) to within 4% dose agreement at each DVH point for the target volumes and most planning structures, and therefore, are able to confidently examine the effects of transverse magnetic fields on the plans. The authors investigated field strengths of 0.35, 0.7, 1, 1.5, and 3 T. Changes to the dose heterogeneity index of 0.1% were seen in the prostate and head and neck case, reflecting negligible dose perturbations to the target volumes, a change from 5.5% to 20.1% was observed with the lung case. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the effect of external magnetic fields can be

  2. Interobserver delineation uncertainty in involved-node radiation therapy (INRT) for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: on behalf of the Radiotherapy Committee of the EORTC lymphoma group.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Marianne C; Girinsky, Theodore; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Aleman, Berthe; Beijert, Max; Hutchings, Martin; Lievens, Yolande; Meijnders, Paul; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Schut, Deborah; Maraldo, Maja V; van der Maazen, Richard; Specht, Lena

    2017-04-01

    In early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) the target volume nowadays consists of the volume of the originally involved nodes. Delineation of this volume on a post-chemotherapy CT-scan is challenging. We report on the interobserver variability in target volume definition and its impact on resulting treatment plans. Two representative cases were selected (1: male, stage IB, localization: left axilla; 2: female, stage IIB, localizations: mediastinum and bilateral neck). Eight experienced observers individually defined the clinical target volume (CTV) using involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) as defined by the EORTC-GELA guidelines for the H10 trial. A consensus contour was generated and the standard deviation computed. We investigated the overlap between observer and consensus contour [Sørensen-Dice coefficient (DSC)] and the magnitude of gross deviations between the surfaces of the observer and consensus contour (Hausdorff distance). 3D-conformal (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were calculated for each contour in order to investigate the impact of interobserver variability on each treatment modality. Similar target coverage was enforced for all plans. The median CTV was 120 cm 3 (IQR: 95-173 cm 3 ) for Case 1, and 255 cm 3 (IQR: 183-293 cm 3 ) for Case 2. DSC values were generally high (>0.7), and Hausdorff distances were about 30 mm. The SDs between all observer contours, providing an estimate of the systematic error associated with delineation uncertainty, ranged from 1.9 to 3.8 mm (median: 3.2 mm). Variations in mean dose resulting from different observer contours were small and were not higher in IMRT plans than in 3D-CRT plans. We observed considerable differences in target volume delineation, but the systematic delineation uncertainty of around 3 mm is comparable to that reported in other tumour sites. This report is a first step towards calculating an evidence-based planning target volume margin for INRT in HL.

  3. A 1.5 T transverse magnetic field in radiotherapy of rectal cancer: Impact on the dose distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Uilkema, Sander, E-mail: s.uilkema@nki.nl; Heide, Uulke van der; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: MRI guidance during radiotherapy has the potential to enable more accurate dose delivery, optimizing the balance between local control and treatment related toxicity. However, the presence of a permanent magnetic field influences the dose delivery, especially around air cavities. Here, electrons are able to return to the surface through which they entered the air cavity (electron return effect, ERE) locally resulting in dose hot- and cold-spots. Where RT of rectal cancer patients might benefit from MRI guidance for margin reduction, air cavities in and around the target volume are frequently present. The purpose of this research is to evaluatemore » the impact of the presence of a 1.5 T transverse magnetic field on dose delivery in patients with rectal cancer. Methods: Ten patients treated with 5 × 5 Gy RT having large changes in pelvic air content were selected out of a cohort of 33 patients. On the planning CT, a 1.5 T, 6 MV, 7-field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan was created. This plan was subsequently recalculated on daily CT scans. For each daily CT, the CTV V{sub 95%} and V{sub 107%} and bowel area V{sub 5Gy}, V{sub 10Gy}, V{sub 15Gy}, V{sub 20Gy}, and V{sub 25Gy} were calculated to evaluate the changes in dose distribution from fraction to fraction. For comparison, the authors repeated this procedure for the 0 T situation. To study the effect of changing air cavities separate from other anatomical changes, the authors also generated artificial air cavities in the CTV of one patient (2 and 5 cm diameter), in the high dose gradient region (2 cm), and in the low dose area (2 cm). Treatment plans were optimized without and with each simulated air cavity. For appearing and disappearing air cavities, the CTV V{sub 95%} and V{sub 107%} were evaluated. The authors also evaluated the ERE separate from attenuation changes locally around appearing gas pockets. Results: For the ten patients, at 1.5 T, the V{sub 95%} was influenced by both

  4. Estimation of extremely small field radiation dose for brain stereotactic radiotherapy using the Vero4DRT system.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Monzen, Hajime; Onishi, Yuichi; Kaneshige, Soichiro; Kanno, Ikuo

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was a dosimetric validation of the Vero4DRT for brain stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with extremely small fields calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS) iPlan (Ver.4.5.1; algorithm XVMC). Measured and calculated data (e.g. percentage depth dose [PDD], dose profile, and point dose) were compared for small square fields of 30 × 30, 20 × 20, 10 × 10 and 5 × 5 mm 2 using ionization chambers of 0.01 or 0.04 cm 3 and a diamond detector. Dose verifications were performed using an ionization chamber and radiochromic film (EBT3; the equivalent field sizes used were 8.2, 8.7, 8.9, 9.5, and 12.9 mm 2 ) for five brain SRT cases irradiated with dynamic conformal arcs. The PDDs and dose profiles for the measured and calculated data were in good agreement for fields larger than or equal to 10 × 10 mm 2 when an appropriate detector was chosen. The dose differences for point doses in fields of 30 × 30, 20 × 20, 10 × 10 and 5 × 5 mm 2 were +0.48%, +0.56%, -0.52%, and +11.2% respectively. In the dose verifications for the brain SRT plans, the mean dose difference between the calculated and measured doses were -0.35% (range, -0.94% to +0.47%), with the average pass rates for the gamma index under the 3%/2 mm criterion being 96.71%, 93.37%, and 97.58% for coronal, sagittal, and axial planes respectively. The Vero4DRT system provides accurate delivery of radiation dose for small fields larger than or equal to 10 × 10 mm 2 . Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discontinuous finite element space-angle treatment of the first order linear Boltzmann transport equation with magnetic fields: Application to MRI-guided radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    St Aubin, J., E-mail: joel.st.aubin@albertahealthservices.ca; Keyvanloo, A.; Fallone, B. G.

    Purpose: The advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided radiotherapy systems demands the incorporation of the magnetic field into dose calculation algorithms of treatment planning systems. This is due to the fact that the Lorentz force of the magnetic field perturbs the path of the relativistic electrons, hence altering the dose deposited by them. Building on the previous work, the authors have developed a discontinuous finite element space-angle treatment of the linear Boltzmann transport equation to accurately account for the effects of magnetic fields on radiotherapy doses. Methods: The authors present a detailed description of their new formalism and comparemore » its accuracy to GEANT4 Monte Carlo calculations for magnetic fields parallel and perpendicular to the radiation beam at field strengths of 0.5 and 3 T for an inhomogeneous 3D slab geometry phantom comprising water, bone, and air or lung. The accuracy of the authors’ new formalism was determined using a gamma analysis with a 2%/2 mm criterion. Results: Greater than 98.9% of all points analyzed passed the 2%/2 mm gamma criterion for the field strengths and orientations tested. The authors have benchmarked their new formalism against Monte Carlo in a challenging radiation transport problem with a high density material (bone) directly adjacent to a very low density material (dry air at STP) where the effects of the magnetic field dominate collisions. Conclusions: A discontinuous finite element space-angle approach has been proven to be an accurate method for solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation with magnetic fields for cases relevant to MRI guided radiotherapy. The authors have validated the accuracy of this novel technique against GEANT4, even in cases of strong magnetic field strengths and low density air.« less

  6. Neutron spectral measurements in an intense photon field associated with a high-energy x-ray radiotherapy machine.

    PubMed

    Holeman, G R; Price, K W; Friedman, L F; Nath, R

    1977-01-01

    High-energy x-ray radiotherapy machines in the supermegavoltage region generate complex neutron energy spectra which make an exact evaluation of neutron shielding difficult. Fast neutrons resulting from photonuclear reactions in the x-ray target and collimators undergo successive collisions in the surrounding materials and are moderated by varying amounts. In order to examine the neutron radiation exposures quantitatively, the neutron energy spectra have been measured inside and outside the treatment room of a Sagittaire medical linear accelerator (25-MV x rays) located at Yale-New Haven Hospital. The measurements were made using a Bonner spectrometer consisting of 2-, 3-, 5-, 8-, 10- and 12-in.-diameter polyethylene spheres with 6Li and 7Li thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips at the centers, in addition to bare and cadmium-covered chips. The individual TLD chips were calibrated for neutron and photon response. The spectrometer was calibrated using a known PuBe spectrum Spectrometer measurements were made at Yale Electron Accelerator Laboratory and results compared with a neutron time-of-flight spectrometer and an activation technique. The agreement between the results from these independent methods is found to be good, except for the measurements in the direct photon beam. Quality factors have been inferred for the neutron fields inside and outside the treatment room. Values of the inferred quality factors fall primarily between 4 and 8, depending on location.

  7. 41 CFR 102-5.80 - What are some examples of positions that may involve field work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of positions that may involve field work? 102-5.80 Section 102-5.80 Public Contracts and Property...-HOME-TO-WORK TRANSPORTATION Authorizing Home-to-Work Transportation § 102-5.80 What are some examples of positions that may involve field work? Examples of positions that may involve field work include...

  8. 41 CFR 102-5.80 - What are some examples of positions that may involve field work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of positions that may involve field work? 102-5.80 Section 102-5.80 Public Contracts and Property...-HOME-TO-WORK TRANSPORTATION Authorizing Home-to-Work Transportation § 102-5.80 What are some examples of positions that may involve field work? Examples of positions that may involve field work include...

  9. 41 CFR 102-5.80 - What are some examples of positions that may involve field work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of positions that may involve field work? 102-5.80 Section 102-5.80 Public Contracts and Property...-HOME-TO-WORK TRANSPORTATION Authorizing Home-to-Work Transportation § 102-5.80 What are some examples of positions that may involve field work? Examples of positions that may involve field work include...

  10. 41 CFR 102-5.80 - What are some examples of positions that may involve field work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of positions that may involve field work? 102-5.80 Section 102-5.80 Public Contracts and Property...-HOME-TO-WORK TRANSPORTATION Authorizing Home-to-Work Transportation § 102-5.80 What are some examples of positions that may involve field work? Examples of positions that may involve field work include...

  11. 41 CFR 102-5.80 - What are some examples of positions that may involve field work?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of positions that may involve field work? 102-5.80 Section 102-5.80 Public Contracts and Property...-HOME-TO-WORK TRANSPORTATION Authorizing Home-to-Work Transportation § 102-5.80 What are some examples of positions that may involve field work? Examples of positions that may involve field work include...

  12. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, M. T., E-mail: mariate9590@gmail.com; Barros, H.; Pino, F.

    2015-07-23

    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). Thesemore » covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (∼1.6 10{sup 4} neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.« less

  13. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, M. T.; Barros, H.; Pino, F.; Dávila, J.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-01

    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). These covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction 10B(n,α)7Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (˜1.6 104 neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.

  14. Applications of IMAT in cervical esophageal cancer radiotherapy: a comparison with fixed-field IMRT in dosimetry and implementation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong; Chen, Jinhu; Xing, Ligang; Dong, Xiaoling; Liu, Tonghai; Lu, Jie; Yu, Jinming

    2011-01-13

    This study aimed to compare fixed-field, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (f-IMRT) with intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) treatment plans in dosimetry and practical application for cervical esophageal carcinoma. For ten cervical esophageal carcinoma cases, f-IMRT plan (seven fixed-fields) and two IMAT plans, namely RA (coplanar 360° arcs) and RAx (coplanar 360° arcs without sectors from 80° to 110°, and 250° to 280°), were generated. DVHs were adopted for the statistics of above parameters, as well as conformal index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), dose-volumetric parameters of normal tissues, total accelerator output MUs and total treatment time. There were differences between RAx and f-IMRT, as well as RA in PTV parameters such as HI, V(95%) and V(110%), but not in CI. RAx reduced lung V₅ from (50.9% ± 9.8% in f-IMRT and (51.4% ± 10.8% in RA to (49.3% ± 10.4% in RAx (p < 0.05). However, lung V₃₀, V₄₀, V₅₀ and MLD increased in RAx. There was no difference in the mean heart dose in three plans. Total MU was reduced from 1174.8 ± 144.6 in f-IMRT to 803.8 ± 122.2 in RA and 736.2 ± 186.9 in RAx (p < 0.05). Compared with f-IMRT, IMAT reduced low dose volumes of lung and total MU on the basis of meeting clinical requirements.

  15. Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in normal human buccal mucosa cells of oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy: a field effect.

    PubMed

    Tak, A; Metgud, R; Astekar, M; Tak, M

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in exfoliated epithelial cells of the oral cavity on the side opposite the lesion targeted by radiotherapy and correlated them with radiation doses. Buccal smears were obtained from oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy with a cumulative dose of at least 1000 rad for 3 weeks and from controls matched for age, gender and habits. The exfoliated cells from the mucosa were collected using a cytobrush; smears were prepared, fixed in 80% methanol and stained using the Feulgen plus fast green method. The mean number of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies/1000 cells was significantly greater in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment, but the differences were not significant compared to radiation doses. It appears that radiotherapy has a potent clastogenic effect on buccal mucosal cells of oral cancer patients.

  16. Brentuximab vedotin and AVD followed by involved-site radiotherapy in early stage, unfavorable risk Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anita; Casulo, Carla; Yahalom, Joachim; Schöder, Heiko; Barr, Paul M; Caron, Philip; Chiu, April; Constine, Louis S; Drullinsky, Pamela; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Gerecitano, John F; Hamilton, Audrey; Hamlin, Paul A; Horwitz, Steven M; Jacob, Alexandra G; Matasar, Matthew J; McArthur, Gianna N; McCall, Susan J; Moskowitz, Alison J; Noy, Ariela; Palomba, Maria L; Portlock, Carol S; Straus, David J; VanderEls, Nicholas; Verwys, Stephanie L; Yang, Joanna; Younes, Anas; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Zhang, Zhigang; Moskowitz, Craig H

    2016-09-15

    This multicenter pilot study assessed the safety and efficacy of brentuximab vedotin (BV) and AVD (adriamycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) followed by 30 Gy involved site radiation therapy (ISRT). Patients with newly diagnosed, early stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with unfavorable-risk features were treated with 4 cycles of BV and AVD. Patients who achieved a negative positron emission tomography (PET) scan (Deauville score of 1-3) received 30 Gy ISRT. Thirty patients received treatment and were assessable for toxicity. Twenty-nine patients completed 4 cycles of BV + AVD, and 25 patients BV + AVD + 30 Gy ISRT. No clinically significant noninfectious pneumonitis was observed. Serious adverse events (≥grade 3) were reported in 4 patients, including febrile neutropenia, peripheral neuropathy, and hypertension. After 2 and 4 cycles of BV + AVD, 90% (26 of 29) and 93% (27 or 29) of patients achieved a negative PET scan, respectively. Two patients with biopsy-proven primary refractory HL were treated off-study. All 25 patients who completed BV + AVD + ISRT achieved a complete response. With a median follow-up of 18.8 months, by intent to treat, the 1-year progression-free survival is 93.3% (95% confidence interval, 84-102). Overall, the treatment was well-tolerated with no evidence of significant pulmonary toxicity. The majority of patients (≥90%) achieved negative interim PET scans after 2 and 4 cycles of BV + AVD. Excluding the 2 primary refractory patients, all patients are disease free, suggesting that this is a highly active treatment program even in patients with substantial disease bulk. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01868451. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Analysis of in-field control and late toxicity for adults with early-stage Hodgkin's disease treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chronowski, Gregory M; Wilder, Richard B; Tucker, Susan L; Ha, Chul S; Younes, Anas; Fayad, Luis; Rodriguez, Maria A; Hagemeister, Fredrick B; Barista, Ibrahim; Cabanillas, Fernando; Cox, James D

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed in-field (IF) control in adults with early-stage Hodgkin's disease who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (RT) in terms of the (1) chemotherapeutic regimen used and number of cycles delivered, (2) response to chemotherapy, and (3) initial tumor size. Cardiac toxicity and second malignancies, particularly the incidence of solid tumors in terms of the RT field size treated, were also examined. From 1980 to 1995, 286 patients ranging in age from 16 to 88 years (median: 28 years) with Ann Arbor clinical Stage I or II Hodgkin's disease underwent chemotherapy followed 3 to 4 weeks later by RT. There were 516 nodal sites measuring 0.5 to 19.0 cm at the start of chemotherapy, including 134 cases of bulky mediastinal disease. NOVP, MOPP, ABVD, CVPP/ABDIC, and other chemotherapeutic regimens were given to 161, 67, 19, 18, and 21 patients, respectively. Patients received 1-8 (median: 3) cycles of induction chemotherapy. All 533 gross nodal and extranodal sites of disease were included in the RT fields. The median prescribed RT dose for gross disease was 40.0 Gy given in 20 daily 2.0-Gy fractions. There was little variation in the RT dose. Eighty-five patients were treated with involved-field or regional RT (to one side of the diaphragm), and 201 patients were treated with extended-field RT (to both sides of the diaphragm), based on the protocol on which they were enrolled. Follow-up of surviving patients ranged from 1.3 to 19.9 years (median: 7.4 years). Based on a review of simulation films, there were 16 IF, 8 marginal, and 15 out-of-field recurrences. The chemotherapeutic regimen used and the number of cycles of chemotherapy delivered did not significantly affect IF control. IF control also did not significantly depend on the response to induction chemotherapy. In cases where there was a confirmed or unconfirmed complete response as opposed to a partial response or stable disease in response to induction chemotherapy for bulky nodal disease, the 5

  18. SU-E-J-198: Out-Of-Field Dose and Surface Dose Measurements of MRI-Guided Cobalt-60 Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J; Agazaryan, N; Cao, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To measure quantities of dosimetric interest in an MRI-guided cobalt radiotherapy machine that was recently introduced to clinical use. Methods: Out-of-field dose due to photon scatter and leakage was measured using an ion chamber and solid water slabs mimicking a human body. Surface dose was measured by irradiating stacks of radiochromic film and extrapolating to zero thickness. Electron out-of-field dose was characterized using solid water slabs and radiochromic film. Results: For some phantom geometries, up to 50% of Dmax was observed up to 10 cm laterally from the edge of the beam. The maximum penetration was between 1 andmore » 2 mm in solid water, indicating an electron energy not greater than approximately 0.4 MeV. Out-of-field dose from photon scatter measured at 1 cm depth in solid water was found to fall to less than 10% of Dmax at a distance of 1.2 cm from the edge of a 10.5 × 10.5 cm field, and less that 1% of Dmax at a distance of 10 cm from field edge. Surface dose was measured to be 8% of Dmax. Conclusion: Surface dose and out-of-field dose from the MRIguided cobalt radiotherapy machine was measured and found to be within acceptable limits. Electron out-of-field dose, an effect unique to MRI-guided radiotherapy and presumed to arise from low-energy electrons trapped by the Lorentz force, was quantified. Dr. Low is a member of the scientific advisory board of ViewRay, Inc.« less

  19. Clinical outcome of patients with early stage favorable Hodgkin lymphoma treated with ABVD × two cycles followed by FDG-PET/CT restaging and 20 Gy of involved-site radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sophia C; Jacene, Heather A; Chen, Yu-Hui; Mauch, Peter M; Ng, Andrea K

    2018-06-01

    Our purpose was to assess outcome of patients with early-stage, favorable (per GHSG criteria) Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) staged with FDG-PET/CT and treated with two cycles of adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) followed by PET/CT assessment and involved-site radiotherapy (ISRT) to 20 Gy. Records of 23 patients who met eligibility criteria, treated between 2008 and 2016, were reviewed. PET response after two cycles of ABVD was independently assessed by a nuclear medicine physician. After two cycles of ABVD, 91.3% of patients had a Deauville score of 1-2; 1 patient had a score of 3. Median follow-up was 45.3 months. As of this analysis, all patients are alive without disease. One patient had an out-of-field relapse, yielding a 4-year relapse-free survival rate of 92.9% (95%CI [59.1, 99.0]). Our results showed that with careful patient selection by initial disease characteristics and FDG-PET response to chemotherapy, the use of a more restricted treatment volume of ISRT to 20 Gy following ABVD × 2 is associated with excellent outcomes.

  20. Long-Term Follow-Up of Dose-Adapted and Reduced-Field Radiotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy for Central Nervous System Germinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Ashley W.; Issa Laack, Nadia N., E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.ed; Buckner, Jan C.

    Purpose: To update our institutional experience with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and minimized radiotherapy vs. radiation monotherapy for intracranial germinoma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of 59 patients with diagnosis of primary intracranial germinoma between 1977 and 2007. Treatment was irradiation alone or neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and local irradiation (initial tumor plus margin) for patients with localized complete response and reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation for others. Results: For the chemoradiotherapy group (n = 28), median follow-up was 7 years. No patient died. The freedom from progression (FFP) rate was 88% at 5 years and 80% at 10 years. In 4 patients,more » disease recurred 1.1 to 6.8 years after diagnosis. All were young male patients who received 30.6 Gy to local fields after complete response to chemotherapy. The FFP rate was 88% for local irradiation vs. 100% for more extensive fields (p = .06). For the radiotherapy-alone group (n = 31), median follow-up was 15 years. Overall and disease-free survival rates were 93% and 93% at 5 years and 90% and 87% at 15 years. In 5 patients, disease recurred 1.1 to 4.9 years after diagnosis. Most patients in this group were young men 18 to 23 years of age with suprasellar primary disease treated with about 50 Gy to local fields. The FFP rate was 44% for local irradiation vs. 100% for more extensive fields (p < .01). Conclusions: The addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to local-field radiotherapy reduced central nervous system cancer recurrence when high-risk patients were excluded by thorough pretreatment staging. There was trend toward improved central nervous system tumor control when larger fields (whole brain, whole ventricle, or craniospinal axis) were used.« less

  1. SU-E-T-206: Comparison of EBT and EBT3 RadioChromic Films in Radiation Field of Parotid Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Toosi, T Bahreyni; Mianaei, F Khorshidi; Ghorbani, M

    Purpose: The aim of the current study is to compare EBT and EBT3 RadioChromic films in dosimetry of radiotherapy fields for treatment of parotid cancer. Methods: The calibrations of EBT and EBT3 films were performed with the same setups for doses ranging from 0.2 Gy to 5 Gy using 6 MV photon beam of a Siemens Primus linac. These films were scanned in color mode (RGB) by a Microtek (1000XL) scanner and the red color channel data was extracted. Treatment planning for parotid cancer radiation therapy was performed on a RANDO phantom. Skin dose was measured at different points inmore » the right anterior oblique (RAO) and right posterior oblique (RPO) fields by EBT and EBT3 films. Results: Dosimetry was performed with the same conditions for the two film types for calibration and in-phantom in parotid cancer radiotherapy. The measured net optical density (NOD) in EBT film was in some extent higher than that from EBT3 film. The minimum difference between these two films under calibration conditions was about 2.9% (for 0.2 Gy). However, the maximum difference was 35.5% (for 0.5 Gy). In the therapeutic fields of parotid cancer radiotherapy at different points, the measured dose from EBT film was higher than the EBT3 film. In these fields the minimum and maximum measured dose differences were 16.0% and 25.5%, respectively. Conclusion: With the same irradiation and reading conditions, EBT film demonstrates higher NOD than the EBT3 film. This effect may be related to the higher sensitivity of EBT film over EBT3 film. However, the obtained dose differences between these two films in low dose range can be due to the differences in fitting functions applied following the calibration process.« less

  2. Low-Dose Radiotherapy in Indolent Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rossier, Christine; Schick, Ulrike; Miralbell, Raymond

    Purpose: To assess the response rate, duration of response, and overall survival after low-dose involved-field radiotherapy in patients with recurrent low-grade lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods and Materials: Forty-three (24 women, 19 men) consecutive patients with indolent lymphoma or CLL were treated with a total dose of 4 Gy (2 x 2 Gy) using 6- 18-MV photons. The median age was 73 years (range, 39-88). Radiotherapy was given either after (n = 32; 75%) or before (n = 11; 25%) chemotherapy. The median time from diagnosis was 48 months (range, 1-249). The median follow-up period was 20 monthsmore » (range, 1-56). Results: The overall response rate was 90%. Twelve patients (28%) had a complete response, 15 (35%) had a partial response, 11 (26%) had stable disease, and 5 (11%) had progressive disease. The median overall survival for patients with a positive response (complete response/partial response/stable disease) was 41 months; for patients with progressive disease it was 6 months (p = 0.001). The median time to in-field progression was 21 months (range, 0-24), and the median time to out-field progression was 8 months (range, 0-40). The 3-year in-field control was 92% in patients with complete response (median was not reached). The median time to in-field progression was 9 months (range, 0.5-24) in patients with partial response and 6 months (range, 0.6-6) in those with stable disease (p < 0.05). Younger age, positive response to radiotherapy, and no previous chemotherapy were the best factors influencing the outcome. Conclusions: Low-dose involved-field radiotherapy is an effective treatment in the management of patients with recurrent low-grade lymphoma or CLL.« less

  3. Comparison of three and four-field radiotherapy technique and the effect of laryngeal shield on vocal and spinal cord radiation dose in radiotherapy of non-laryngeal head and neck tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, Noushin Hassan; Farajollahi, Alireza; Jamali, Masoud; Zeinali, Ahad; Jangjou, Amir Ghasemi

    2018-03-01

    Introduction: Due to the effect of radiation on both the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues, the side effects of radiation in normal tissues are expected. One of the important complications in the head and neck radiotherapy is the doses reached to the larynx and spinal cord of patients with non-laryngeal head and neck tumors. Materials and Methods: In this study, CT scan images of 25 patients with non-laryngeal tumors including; lymph nodes, tongue, oropharynx and nasopharynx were used. A three-field and a four-field treatment planning with and without laryngeal shield in 3D CRT technique were planned for each patient. Subsequently, the values of Dmin, Dmean, Dmax and Dose Volume Histogram from the treatment planning system and NTCP values of spinal cord and larynx were calculated with BIOPLAN and MATLAB software for all patients. Results: Statistical results showed that mean values of doses of larynx in both three and four-field methods were significantly different between with and without shield groups. Comparison of absorbed dose didn't show any difference between the three and four field methods (P>0.05). Using Shield, just the mean and minimum doses of spinal cord decreased in both three and four fields. The NTCP of the spinal cord and larynx by three and four-field methods with shield in the LKB and EUD models significantly are less than that of the three and four fields without shields, and in the four-field method NTCP of larynx is less than three radiation field. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that there is no significant difference in doses reached to larynx and spinal cord between the treatments techniques, but laryngeal shield reduce dose and NTCP values in larynx considerably.

  4. Magnetic Field Generation Processes Involving Gravity and Differential Rotation. Solitary Plasma Rings Formation around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2012-10-01

    A clear theoretical framework to describe how magnetic fields are generated and amplified is provided by the magneto-gravitational modes that involve both differential rotation and gravity and for which other factors such as temperature gradients can contribute to their excitation. These modes are shown to be important for the evolution of plasma disks surrounding black holes.footnotetextB. Coppi, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032901 (2011) Non-linear and axi-symmetric plasmas and associated field configurations are found under stationary conditions that do not involve the presence of a pre-existing ``seed'' magnetic field unlike other configurations found previously.footnotetextIbid. The relevant magnetic energy density is of the order of the gravitationally confined plasma pressure. The solitary plasma rings that characterize these configurations are localized radially over regions with vanishing differential rotation and can be envisioned as the saturated state of magneto-gravitational modes. The ``source'' of these configurations is the combination of the gravitational force and of the plasma density gradient orthogonal to it.

  5. Out-of-field neutron and leakage photon exposures and the associated risk of second cancers in high-energy photon radiotherapy: current status.

    PubMed

    Takam, R; Bezak, E; Marcu, L G; Yeoh, E

    2011-10-01

    Determination and understanding of out-of-field neutron and photon doses in accelerator-based radiotherapy is an important issue since linear accelerators operating at high energies (>10 MV) produce secondary radiations that irradiate parts of the patient's anatomy distal to the target region, potentially resulting in detrimental health effects. This paper provides a compilation of data (technical and clinical) reported in the literature on the measurement and Monte Carlo simulations of peripheral neutron and photon doses produced from high-energy medical linear accelerators and the reported risk and/or incidence of second primary cancer of tissues distal to the target volume. Information in the tables facilitates easier identification of (1) the various methods and measurement techniques used to determine the out-of-field neutron and photon radiations, (2) reported linac-dependent out-of-field doses, and (3) the risk/incidence of second cancers after radiotherapy due to classic and modern treatment methods. Regardless of the measurement technique and type of accelerator, the neutron dose equivalent per unit photon dose ranges from as low as 0.1 mSv/Gy to as high as 20.4 mSv/Gy. This radiation dose potentially contributes to the induction of second primary cancer in normal tissues outside the treated area.

  6. Dehydrogenation involved Coulomb explosion of molecular C2H4FBr in an intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Minjie; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Zhenrong

    2018-04-01

    The dissociative double ionization (DDI) of molecular 1-fluo-2-bromoethane (FBE) in an intense laser field has been investigated by dc-slice imaging technology. The DDI channels involved with dehydrogenation are revealed and it's believed both the charge distribution and the bound character of real potential energy surfaces of parent ions play important roles in the dissociation process. The relationship between the potential energy surfaces of the precursor species and the photofragment ejection angles are also discussed and analyzed. Furthermore, the competition between the DDI channels has been studied and the Csbnd C bond cleavages dominate the DDI process at relative higher laser intensity.

  7. [Conceptual and methodological issues involved in the research field of diagnostic reasoning].

    PubMed

    Di Persia, Francisco N

    2016-05-01

    The psychopathological field is crossed by dilemmas that put in question its methodological, conceptual and philosophical filiations. Since the early works of Ey and Jaspers until recent work of Berrios it has been in question the position psychopathology has in the field of medicine in general, and in the field of psychiatry in particular, especially if it should follow the principles of natural science or if it has an autonomous position between them. This debate has led to two opposing positions facing two different models of psychopathology: the biomedical model and the socio-constructionist model. In this work it is proposed to review the scope and difficulties involved in each model following two central axes: diagnostic reasoning and mental illness conceptual problem. Later, as a synthesis of the analysis proposed they are identified central concepts of each model that could allow the development of a hybrid model in psychopathology; in between them the comprehensive framework employed in symptoms recognition and the social component that characterizes it are highlighted. As a conclusion, these concepts are proposed as central aspects for conceptual and methodological clarification of the research field of diagnostic reasoning in psychopathology.

  8. A randomized study of involved-field irradiation versus elective nodal irradiation in combination with concurrent chemotherapy for inoperable stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuanghu; Sun, Xindong; Li, Minghuan; Yu, Jinming; Ren, Ruimei; Yu, Yonghu; Li, Jianbin; Liu, Xiuqing; Wang, Renben; Li, Baosheng; Kong, Li; Yin, Yong

    2007-06-01

    Radiation dose escalation is limited by the high incidence of pulmonary and esophageal toxicity, leading to calls for the omission of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) and the willingness to use involved-field irradiation (IFI) in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 200 eligible patients with inoperable stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and randomized into either an IFI or ENI arm. A total of 4 to 6 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy were delivered, and concurrent radiotherapy was started after the second cycle of chemotherapy. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2 Gy to 68 to 74 Gy for IFI or 60 to 64 Gy for ENI. Patients in the IFI arm achieved better overall response rate (90% vs. 79%, P = 0.032) and better 5-years local control rate (51% vs.36%, P = 0.032) than those in the ENI arm. The radiation pneumonitis rate in patients with IFI was lower than in patients with ENI (17% vs. 29%, P = 0.044), and similar trends appeared in the radiation esophagitis, myelosuppression, and radiation pericarditis between 2 study arms, although not significantly. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates were 60.4%, 25.6%, and 18.3% for the ENI arm and 69.9%, 39.4%, and 25.1% for the IFI arm, respectively. Only the 2-year survival rates were statistically significant (P = 0.048). IFI arm achieved better overall response and local control than ENI arm, and it allowed a dose of 68 to 74 Gy to be safely administered to patients with inoperable stage III NSCLC. Outcome improvement can be expected by conformal IFI combined with chemotherapy for stage III NSCLC.

  9. First patients treated with a 1.5 T MRI-Linac: clinical proof of concept of a high-precision, high-field MRI guided radiotherapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raaymakers, B. W.; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, I. M.; Bol, G. H.; Glitzner, M.; Kotte, A. N. T. J.; van Asselen, B.; de Boer, J. C. J.; Bluemink, J. J.; Hackett, S. L.; Moerland, M. A.; Woodings, S. J.; Wolthaus, J. W. H.; van Zijp, H. M.; Philippens, M. E. P.; Tijssen, R.; Kok, J. G. M.; de Groot-van Breugel, E. N.; Kiekebosch, I.; Meijers, L. T. C.; Nomden, C. N.; Sikkes, G. G.; Doornaert, P. A. H.; Eppinga, W. S. C.; Kasperts, N.; Kerkmeijer, L. G. W.; Tersteeg, J. H. A.; Brown, K. J.; Pais, B.; Woodhead, P.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The integration of 1.5 T MRI functionality with a radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac) has been pursued since 1999 by the UMC Utrecht in close collaboration with Elekta and Philips. The idea behind this integrated device is to offer unrivalled, online and real-time, soft-tissue visualization of the tumour and the surroundings for more precise radiation delivery. The proof of concept of this device was given in 2009 by demonstrating simultaneous irradiation and MR imaging on phantoms, since then the device has been further developed and commercialized by Elekta. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of online, high-precision, high-field MRI guidance of radiotherapy using the first clinical prototype MRI-Linac. Four patients with lumbar spine bone metastases were treated with a 3 or 5 beam step-and-shoot IMRT plan. The IMRT plan was created while the patient was on the treatment table and based on the online 1.5 T MR images; pre-treatment CT was deformably registered to the online MRI to obtain Hounsfield values. Bone metastases were chosen as the first site as these tumors can be clearly visualized on MRI and the surrounding spine bone can be detected on the integrated portal imager. This way the portal images served as an independent verification of the MRI based guidance to quantify the geometric precision of radiation delivery. Dosimetric accuracy was assessed post-treatment from phantom measurements with an ionization chamber and film. Absolute doses were found to be highly accurate, with deviations ranging from 0.0% to 1.7% in the isocenter. The geometrical, MRI based targeting as confirmed using portal images was better than 0.5 mm, ranging from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm. In conclusion, high precision, high-field, 1.5 T MRI guided radiotherapy is clinically feasible.

  10. Optimal field-splitting algorithm in intensity-modulated radiotherapy: Evaluations using head-and-neck and female pelvic IMRT cases

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, Xin; Kim, Yusung, E-mail: yusung-kim@uiowa.edu; Bayouth, John E.

    2013-04-01

    To develop an optimal field-splitting algorithm of minimal complexity and verify the algorithm using head-and-neck (H and N) and female pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) cases. An optimal field-splitting algorithm was developed in which a large intensity map (IM) was split into multiple sub-IMs (≥2). The algorithm reduced the total complexity by minimizing the monitor units (MU) delivered and segment number of each sub-IM. The algorithm was verified through comparison studies with the algorithm as used in a commercial treatment planning system. Seven IMRT, H and N, and female pelvic cancer cases (54 IMs) were analyzed by MU, segment numbers, andmore » dose distributions. The optimal field-splitting algorithm was found to reduce both total MU and the total number of segments. We found on average a 7.9 ± 11.8% and 9.6 ± 18.2% reduction in MU and segment numbers for H and N IMRT cases with an 11.9 ± 17.4% and 11.1 ± 13.7% reduction for female pelvic cases. The overall percent (absolute) reduction in the numbers of MU and segments were found to be on average −9.7 ± 14.6% (−15 ± 25 MU) and −10.3 ± 16.3% (−3 ± 5), respectively. In addition, all dose distributions from the optimal field-splitting method showed improved dose distributions. The optimal field-splitting algorithm shows considerable improvements in both total MU and total segment number. The algorithm is expected to be beneficial for the radiotherapy treatment of large-field IMRT.« less

  11. Solitary plasma rings and magnetic field generation involving gravity and differential rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.

    2012-12-01

    A new theoretical framework for describing how magnetic fields are generated and amplified is provided by finding magneto-gravitational modes that involve gravity, density gradients, and differential rotation in an essential way. Other factors, such as the presence of a high temperature particle population or of a temperature gradient, can contribute to their excitation. These modes identified by a linearized analysis are shown to be important for the evolution of plasma disks surrounding black holes toward different configurations. Since the nonlinear development of these modes can lead to radially localized regions with a relatively small differential rotation, new stationary structures have been identified, in the (fully) nonlinear limit, which are localized radially over regions with negligible gradients of the rotation frequency. These structures, characterized by solitary plasma rings, do not involve a pre-existing "seed" magnetic field, unlike other configurations found previously. The relevant magnetic energy density is comparable to the gravitationally confined plasma pressure. The "source" of these configurations is the combination of the gravitational force and of the plasma density gradient orthogonal to it that is an important factor in the theory of magneto-gravitational modes, another important factor being an anisotropy of the plasma pressure.

  12. Exposures involving perturbations of the EM field have non-linear effects on radiation response and can alter the expression of radiation induced bystander effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Our recent data suggest there is a physical component to the bystander signal induced by radiation exposure and that alternative medicine techniques such as Reiki and acupuncture or exposures to weak EM fields alter the response of cells to direct irradiation and either altered bystander signal production or altered the response of cells receiving bystander signals. Our proposed mechanism to explain these findings is that perturbation of electromagnetic (EM) fields is central to the induction of low radiation dose responses especially non-targeted bystander effects. In this presentation we review the alternative medicine data and other data sets from our laboratory which test our hypothesis that perturbation of bio-fields will modulate radiation response in the low dose region. The other data sets include exposure to MRI, shielding using lead and or Faraday cages, the use of physical barriers to bystander signal transmission and the use of membrane channel blockers. The data taken together strongly suggest that EM field perturbation can modulate low dose response and that in fact the EM field rather than the targeted deposition of ionizing energy in the DNA may be the key determinant of dose response in a cell or organism The results also lead us to suspect that at least when chemical transmission is blocked, bystander signals can be transmitted by other means. Our recent experiments suggest light signals and volatiles are not likely. We conclude that alternative medicine and other techniques involving electromagnetic perturbations can modify the response of cells to low doses of ionizing radiation and can induce bystander effects similar to those seen in medium transfer experiments. In addition to the obvious implications for mechanistic studies of low dose effects, this could perhaps provide a novel target to exploit in space radiation protection and in optimizing therapeutic gain during radiotherapy.

  13. Basement-involved faults and deep structures in the West Philippine Basin: constrains from gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Sanzhong; Zhang, Huixuan; Lei, Jianping; Gao, Song; Zhao, Feiyu

    2017-06-01

    To reveal the basement-involved faults and deep structures of the West Philippine Basin (WPB), the gravitational responses caused by these faults are observed and analyzed based on the latest spherical gravity model: WGM2012 Model. By mapping the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, several main faults and some other linear structures are located and observed in the WPB. Then, by conducting a 2D discrete multi-scale wavelet decomposition, the Bouguer anomalies are decomposed into the first- to eighth-order detail and approximation fields (the first- to eighth-order Details and Approximations). The first- to third-order Details reflect detailed and localized geological information of the crust at different depths, and of which the higher-order reflects gravity field of the deeper depth. The first- to fourth-order Approximations represent the regional gravity fields at different depths of the crust, respectively. The fourth-order Approximation represents the regional gravity fluctuation caused by the density inhomogeneity of Moho interface. Therefore, taking the fourth-order Approximation as input, and adopting Parker-Oldenburg interactive inversion, We calculated the depth of Moho interface in the WPB. Results show that the Moho interface depth in the WPB ranges approximately from 8 to 12 km, indicating that there is typical oceanic crust in the basin. In the Urdaneta Plateau and the Benham Rise, the Moho interface depths are about 14 and 16 km, respectively, which provides a piece of evidence to support that the Banham Rise could be a transitional crust caused by a large igneous province. The second-order vertical derivative and the horizontal derivatives in direction 0° and 90° are computed based on the data of the third-order Detail, and most of the basement-involved faults and structures in the WPB, such as the Central Basin Fault Zone, the Gagua Ridge, the Luzon-Okinawa Fault Zone, and the Mindanao Fault Zone are interpreted by the gravity derivatives.

  14. Comparison between the four-field box and field-in-field techniques for conformal radiotherapy of the esophagus using dose-volume histograms and normal tissue complication probabilities.

    PubMed

    Allaveisi, Farzaneh; Moghadam, Amir Nami

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated and compared the performance of the field-in-field (FIF) to that of the four-field box (4FB) technique regarding dosimetric and radiobiological parameters for radiotherapy of esophageal carcinoma. Twenty patients with esophageal cancer were selected. For each patient, two treatment plans were created: 4FB and FIF. The parameters compared included the conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), D mean , D max , tumor control probability (TCP), V 20Gy and V 30Gy of the heart and lungs, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and monitor units per fraction (MU/fr). A paired t-test analysis did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two techniques in terms of the CI and TCP. However, the HI significantly improved when the FIF was applied. D max of the PTV, lung, and spinal cord were also significantly better with the FIF. Moreover, the lung V 20Gy as well as the NTCPs of the lung and spinal cord significantly reduced when the FIF was used, and the MU/fr was significantly decreased. The FIF showed evident advantages over 4FB: a more homogeneous dose distribution, lower D max values, and fewer required MUs, while it also retained PTV dose conformality. FIF should be considered as a simple technique to use clinically in cases with esophageal malignancies, especially in clinics with no IMRT.

  15. CNR considerations for rapid real-time MRI tumor tracking in radiotherapy hybrid devices: Effects of B{sub 0} field strength

    SciTech Connect

    Wachowicz, K., E-mail: keith.wachowicz@albertaheal

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: This work examines the subject of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), specifically between tumor and tissue background, and its dependence on the MRI field strength, B{sub 0}. This examination is motivated by the recent interest and developments in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids where real-time imaging can be used to guide treatment beams. The ability to distinguish a tumor from background tissue is of primary importance in this field, and this work seeks to elucidate the complex relationship between the CNR and B{sub 0} that is too often assumed to be purely linear. Methods: Experimentally based models of B{sub 0}-dependant relaxation for various tumormore » and normal tissues from the literature were used in conjunction with signal equations for MR sequences suitable for rapid real-time imaging to develop field-dependent predictions for CNR. These CNR models were developed for liver, lung, breast, glioma, and kidney tumors for spoiled gradient-echo, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), and single-shot half-Fourier fast spin echo sequences. Results: Due to the pattern in which the relaxation properties of tissues are found to vary over B{sub 0} field (specifically the T{sub 1} time), there was always an improved CNR at lower fields compared to linear dependency. Further, in some tumor sites, the CNR at lower fields was found to be comparable to, or sometimes higher than those at higher fields (i.e., bSSFP CNR for glioma, kidney, and liver tumors). Conclusions: In terms of CNR, lower B{sub 0} fields have been shown to perform as well or better than higher fields for some tumor sites due to superior T{sub 1} contrast. In other sites this effect was less pronounced, reversing the CNR advantage. This complex relationship between CNR and B{sub 0} reveals both low and high magnetic fields as viable options for tumor tracking in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids.« less

  16. Hamiltonian vs Lagrangian Embedding of a Massive Spin-One Theory Involving Two-Form Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harikumar, E.; Sivakumar, M.

    We consider the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian embedding of a first-order, massive spin-one, gauge noninvariant theory involving antisymmetric tensor field. We apply the BFV-BRST generalized canonical approach to convert the model to a first class system and construct nilpotent BFV-BRST charge and a unitarizing Hamiltonian. The canonical analysis of the Stückelberg formulation of this model is presented. We bring out the contrasting feature in the constraint structure, specifically with respect to the reducibility aspect, of the Hamiltonian and the Lagrangian embedded model. We show that to obtain manifestly covariant Stückelberg Lagrangian from the BFV embedded Hamiltonian, phase space has to be further enlarged and show how the reducible gauge structure emerges in the embedded model.

  17. Monte Carlo study of out-of-field exposure in carbon-ion radiotherapy with a passive beam: Organ doses in prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yonai, Shunsuke; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Akahane, Keiichi

    2018-04-23

    The aim of this work was to estimate typical dose equivalents to out-of-field organs during carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) with a passive beam for prostate cancer treatment. Additionally, sensitivity analyses of organ doses for various beam parameters and phantom sizes were performed. Because the CIRT out-of-field dose depends on the beam parameters, the typical values of those parameters were determined from statistical data on the target properties of patients who received CIRT at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Using these typical beam-parameter values, out-of-field organ dose equivalents during CIRT for typical prostate treatment were estimated by Monte Carlo simulations using the Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) and the ICRP reference phantom. The results showed that the dose decreased with distance from the target, ranging from 116 mSv in the testes to 7 mSv in the brain. The organ dose equivalents per treatment dose were lower than those either in 6-MV intensity-modulated radiotherapy or in brachytherapy with an Ir-192 source for organs within 40 cm of the target. Sensitivity analyses established that the differences from typical values were within ∼30% for all organs, except the sigmoid colon. The typical out-of-field organ dose equivalents during passive-beam CIRT were shown. The low sensitivity of the dose equivalent in organs farther than 20 cm from the target indicated that individual dose assessments required for retrospective epidemiological studies may be limited to organs around the target in cases of passive-beam CIRT for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Involvement in a voluntary association in the field of cardiovascular disease prevention].

    PubMed

    Robert, Bruno

    2007-03-01

    The progress of this research enables to consider the field of health from the angle of voluntary help by the involvement of an association of voluntary ill people in the field of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The evolution of the health system with scientific progress, ever-changing political scenes, currents of thought, interests at stake make that since the 50s, health and its standards have been considered from a biomedical angle by legitimizing the dominant position of experts. In this context, what is the place of the laymen in the management of the risk of arisen chronic disease? What are their representations of health? What appropriation do they make of the domestic work of health which tends to make them interiorize new standards and rules of life and modify their health behavior? Some conceptual and theoretical lights and the encounter in the field within an association in an anthropological position through immersion, participating observation at various demonstrations with a preventive aim and conversations led with ill or former ill volunteers put in light certain aspects of the problem. The investment of the volunteers makes sense and tends to come true around the concepts of donation, counter donation, socialization in a new health under the influence of the symbolism of the rites of passage and the testimony to work in the distribution of educational messages. The activity of the volunteer is transformed with a logic which is far from philanthropy. He becomes a mediatory health agent where some genuine work of organization, management, negotiation and training seems to fill the space little invested by experts in health prevention and education.

  19. Cellular processes involved in human epidermal cells exposed to extremely low frequency electric fields.

    PubMed

    Collard, J-F; Hinsenkamp, M

    2015-05-01

    We observed on different tissues and organisms a biological response after exposure to pulsed low frequency and low amplitude electric or electromagnetic fields but the precise mechanism of cell response remains unknown. The aim of this publication is to understand, using bioinformatics, the biological relevance of processes involved in the modification of gene expression. The list of genes analyzed was obtained after microarray protocol realized on cultures of human epidermal explants growing on deepidermized human skin exposed to a pulsed low frequency electric field. The directed acyclic graph on a WebGestalt Gene Ontology module shows six categories under the biological process root: "biological regulation", "cellular process", "cell proliferation", "death", "metabolic process" and "response to stimulus". Enriched derived categories are coherent with the type of in vitro culture, the stimulation protocol or with the previous results showing a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of differentiation. The Kegg module on WebGestalt has highlighted "cell cycle" and "p53 signaling pathway" as significantly involved. The Kegg website brings out interactions between FoxO, MAPK, JNK, p53, p38, PI3K/Akt, Wnt, mTor or NF-KappaB. Some genes expressed by the stimulation are known to have an exclusive function on these pathways. Analyses performed with Pathway Studio linked cell proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle, mitosis, cell death etc. with our microarrays results. Medline citation generated by the software and the fold change variation confirms a diminution of the proliferation, activation of the differentiation and a less well-defined role of apoptosis or wound healing. Wnt and DKK functional classes, DKK1, MACF1, ATF3, MME, TXNRD1, and BMP-2 genes proposed in previous publications after a manual analysis are also highlighted with other genes after Pathway Studio automatic procedure. Finally, an analysis conducted on a list of genes

  20. Quality assurance in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kouloulias, V E

    2003-03-01

    In 1999, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), being a European pioneer in the field of cancer research as well as in quality assurance (QA), launched an Emmanuel van der Schueren fellowship for QA in radiotherapy. In this paper, the work that has been done during the first E. van der Schueren fellowship is reported, focusing on four phase III EORTC clinical trials: 22921 for rectal cancer, 22961 and 22991 for prostate cancer and 22922 for breast cancer. A historical review of the QA programme of the EORTC Radiotherapy group during the past 20 years is included.

  1. Involvement of NMDA receptor in low-frequency magnetic field-induced anxiety in mice.

    PubMed

    Salunke, Balwant P; Umathe, Sudhir N; Chavan, Jagatpalsingh G

    2014-12-01

    It had been reported that exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELFMF) induces anxiety in human and rodents. Anxiety mediates via the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, whereas activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor attenuates the same. Hence, the present study was carried out to understand the contribution of NMDA and/or GABA receptors modulation in ELFMF-induced anxiety for which Swiss albino mice were exposed to ELFMF (50 Hz, 10 G) by subjecting them to Helmholtz coils. The exposure was for 8 h/day for 7, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. Anxiety level was assessed in elevated plus maze, open field test and social interaction test, on 7th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th exposure day, respectively. Moreover, the role of GABA and glutamate in ELFMF-induced anxiety was assessed by treating mice with muscimol [0.25 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)], bicuculline (1.0 mg/kg i.p.), NMDA (15 mg/kg i.p.) and MK-801 (0.03 mg/kg i.p.), as a GABAA and NMDA receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively. Glutamate receptor agonist exacerbated while inhibitor attenuated the ELFMF-induced anxiety. In addition, levels of GABA and glutamate were determined in regions of the brain viz, cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Experiments demonstrated significant elevation of GABA and glutamate levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. However, GABA receptor modulators did not produce significant effect on ELFMF-induced anxiety and elevated levels of GABA at tested dose. Together, these findings suggest that ELFMF significantly induced anxiety behavior, and indicated the involvement of NMDA receptor in its effect.

  2. Teachers as Secondary Players: Involvement in Field Trips to Natural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on field trips to natural environments where the teacher plays a secondary role alongside a professional guide. We investigated teachers' and field trip guides' views of the teacher's role, the teacher's actual function on the field trip, and the relationship between them. We observed field trips, interviewed teachers and…

  3. Radiation dose to the lymph drainage area in esophageal cancer with involved-field irradiation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenbin; Gao, Hongmei; Zhu, Shuchai; Li, Youmei; Li, Juan; Liu, Zhikun; Su, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the radiation dose to the corresponding lymph drainage area in esophageal cancer using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with involvED-field IRradiation (IFI) and to analyze associated factors. A retrospective analysis oF 81 patients with esophageal cancer was conducted. According to the location of the lesions, the lymph drainage area was delineated and the dosimetric parameters were calculated. The 1-, 3-, 5- and 8-year survival rates of the patients were 67.90, 33.33, 20.99 and 11.11%, respectively. Based on the dose-volume histogram in the treatment plan, we calculated the volume percentage of the planning target volume including clinically positive lymph nodes (PTV-N) receiving radiation doses of 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 Gy (V PTV-N30-50 ). The median values of V PTV-N30-50 were 73, 70, 67, 64 and 58%, respectively. The prescribed dose size exhibited no correlation with V PTV-N30-35 , but did exhibit a significant correlation with V PTV-N40-50 ; the radiation field was not correlated with V PTV-N30-45 , but exhibited a significant correlation with V PTV-N50 ; The length of the lesion on esophageal barium meal X-ray and the PTV were significantly correlated with V PTV-N30-50 . The analysis of variance revealed that the V PTV-NX value in the upper thoracic segment was higher compared with that in the middle and lower thoracic segments; V PTV-N30-35 values differed significantly according to the different locations of the lesions, whereas V PTV-N40-50 values exhibited no significant differences. The value of V PTV-NX exerted no significant effect on long-term patient survival. Therefore, the corresponding lymph drainage area of esophageal cancer IS subjected to a certain Radiation dose when patients undergo 3D-CRT with IFI, which may play a role in the prevention of regional nodal metastasis. However, this hypothesis requires confirmation by further clinical studies.

  4. Radiation dose to the lymph drainage area in esophageal cancer with involved-field irradiation

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, WENBIN; GAO, HONGMEI; ZHU, SHUCHAI; LI, YOUMEI; LI, JUAN; LIU, ZHIKUN; SU, JINWEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the radiation dose to the corresponding lymph drainage area in esophageal cancer using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with involvED-field IRradiation (IFI) and to analyze associated factors. A retrospective analysis oF 81 patients with esophageal cancer was conducted. According to the location of the lesions, the lymph drainage area was delineated and the dosimetric parameters were calculated. The 1-, 3-, 5- and 8-year survival rates of the patients were 67.90, 33.33, 20.99 and 11.11%, respectively. Based on the dose-volume histogram in the treatment plan, we calculated the volume percentage of the planning target volume including clinically positive lymph nodes (PTV-N) receiving radiation doses of 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 Gy (VPTV-N30-50). The median values of VPTV-N30-50 were 73, 70, 67, 64 and 58%, respectively. The prescribed dose size exhibited no correlation with VPTV-N30-35, but did exhibit a significant correlation with VPTV-N40-50; the radiation field was not correlated with VPTV-N30-45, but exhibited a significant correlation with VPTV-N50; The length of the lesion on esophageal barium meal X-ray and the PTV were significantly correlated with VPTV-N30–50. The analysis of variance revealed that the VPTV-NX value in the upper thoracic segment was higher compared with that in the middle and lower thoracic segments; VPTV-N30-35 values differed significantly according to the different locations of the lesions, whereas VPTV-N40-50 values exhibited no significant differences. The value of VPTV-NX exerted no significant effect on long-term patient survival. Therefore, the corresponding lymph drainage area of esophageal cancer IS subjected to a certain Radiation dose when patients undergo 3D-CRT with IFI, which may play a role in the prevention of regional nodal metastasis. However, this hypothesis requires confirmation by further clinical studies. PMID:26870295

  5. Long-term prospective assessment of shoulder function after breast reconstruction involving a latissimus dorsi muscle flap transfer and postoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Yoshihiro; Morihara, Toru; Kushida, Rie; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Numajiri, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    Several investigators have evaluated the impaired function of the shoulder after removal of the latissimus dorsi muscle for breast reconstruction. However, a few investigators have studied whether including radiotherapy has a negative effect on functional recovery of the shoulder by a long-term follow-up after surgery. In this study, we compared objective measurements of shoulder function preoperatively and postoperatively for 3 years after latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) flap transfer and postoperative radiotherapy (PRT). Eighteen patients who underwent unilateral transfer of a pedicled LDM flap and PRT within 2 months of breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in this study. Range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength in exhaustive shoulder movements were measured before surgery, and at 3 and 6 months, and 1 and 3 years. The results of ROM measurements at 3months postsurgery showed significant decreases in both flexion and abduction by 7.1 and 9.2 % and at 3 years postsurgery by 4.7 and 5.7 %. The muscle strength measurements at 3 months postsurgery showed statistically significant decreases both in adduction and in the 2nd medial rotation by 30.7 and 25.9 % and at 3 years postsurgery by 36.4 and 20.4 %. A significant improvement in these impairments was not observed for 3 years after surgery compared with that at 3 months after surgery. A combination of the LDM flap procedure and PRT could be associated with a higher incidence of tissue adhesions in both flexion and abduction and muscle deficit both in adduction and in the 2nd medial rotation.

  6. Risk of a Second Malignant Neoplasm After Cancer in Childhood Treated With Radiotherapy: Correlation With the Integral Dose Restricted to the Irradiated Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, France; Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif; Universite Paris XI, Villejuif

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: After successful treatment of cancers in childhood, the occurrence of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) came to the fore. Few studies have considered the relationship between the radiation dose received and the risk of developing an SMN. To take into account the heterogeneity of the dose distribution so as to evaluate the overall risk of an SMN after a childhood cancer, we therefore focused on the integral dose restricted to the irradiated fields. Methods and Materials: The study was performed in a cohort of 4,401 patients who were 3-year survivors of all types of childhood cancer treated between 1947 andmore » 1986 in France and Great Britain. For each patient, the integral dose was estimated for the volume inside the beam edges. Results: We found a significant dose-response relationship between the overall risk of an SMN and the estimated integral dose. The excess relative risk for each incremental unit of the integral dose was only 0.008 in a linear model and 0.017 when a negative exponential term was considered, when adjusted for chemotherapy. The risk of SMN occurrence was 2.6 times higher in the case of irradiation. However among patients who had received radiotherapy, only those who had received the highest integral dose actually had a higher risk. Conclusions: The integral dose in our study cannot be considered as a good predictor of later risks. However other studies with the same study design are obviously needed to evaluate the use of the integral dose as a tool for decision making concerning different radiotherapy techniques.« less

  7. Circumferential resection margin positivity after preoperative chemoradiotherapy based on magnetic resonance imaging for locally advanced rectal cancer: implication of boost radiotherapy to the involved mesorectal fascia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Min Jung; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Nam Kyu; Min, Byung Soh; Ahn, Joong Bae; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Ho Geun; Koom, Woong Sub

    2016-04-01

    To identify patients who are at a higher risk of pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Between October 2008 and November 2012, 165 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT4 or cT3 with <2 mm distance from tumour to mesorectal fascia) who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy were analysed. The morphologic patterns on post-chemoradiotherapy magnetic resonance imaging were categorized into five patterns from Pattern A (most-likely negative pathologic circumferential resection margin) to Pattern E (most-likely positive pathologic circumferential resection margin). In addition, the location of mesorectal fascia involvement was classified as lateral, posterior and anterior. The diagnostic accuracy of the morphologic criteria was calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement was identified in 17 patients (10.3%). The diagnostic accuracy of predicting pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement was 0.73 using the five-scale magnetic resonance imaging pattern. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for predicting pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement were 76.5, 65.5, 20.3 and 96.0%, respectively, when cut-off was set between Patterns C and D. On multivariate logistic regression, the magnetic resonance imaging patterns D and E (P= 0.005) and posterior or lateral mesorectal fascia involvement (P= 0.017) were independently associated with increased probability of pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement. The rate of pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement was 30.0% when the patient had Pattern D or E with posterior or lateral mesorectal fascia involvement. Patients who are at a higher risk of pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement can be identified using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging although

  8. Expansion moments for the local field distribution that involve the three-particle distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Phil

    The second moment of the Lennard-Jones local field distribution in a hard-sphere fluid is evaluated using the PY3 three-particle distribution function. An approximation due to Lado that avoids the explicit calculation of the latter is shown to be accurate. Partial results are also given for certain cavity-hard-sphere radial distribution functions that occur in a closest particle expansion for the local field.

  9. Consumer Involvement in Evaluation and Quality Assurance Efforts: Review of Current Efforts in the Field of Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashline, Melissa

    This review of the professional and programmatic literature in the field of developmental disabilities focuses on ways in which individuals with developmental disabilities and their families are becoming increasingly involved in program evaluation and quality assurance efforts. Three major movements are having an impact on this activity: state and…

  10. Involvement of Difference in Decrease of Hemoglobin Level in Poor Prognosis of Stage I and II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Implication in Outcome of Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jin; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou; Department of Radiation Oncology, Anhui provincial hospital, Hefei

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the difference in its decrease during treatment on outcome of radiotherapy (RT) alone for patients with Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 572 patients with Stage I-II nasopharyngeal carcinoma with RT alone between January 2001 and December 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient characteristics, tumor variables, and Hb level, including pre-RT Hb, mid-RT Hb, and dynamic change of Hb between pre- and post- RT and its difference in decrease ( White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb) were subjected to univariate and multivariable analysis to identify factors that predict disease-specificmore » survival (DSS), local regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and metastases-free survival (MFS). Results: The 5-year DSS was poorer in the Hb continuous decrease group than in the Hb noncontinuous decrease group (84% vs. 89%; p = 0.008). There was poorer 5-year DSS in patients with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of >11.5 g/L than in those with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of {<=}11.5 g/L (82% vs. 89%; p = 0.001), and poorer LRFS (79% vs. 83%; p = 0.035). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that Hb decrease difference with greater than 11.5 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for DSS and LRFS. Conclusions: The difference in decrease of Hb level during the course of radiation treatment appeared as a poor prognostic factor in Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.« less

  11. Field deployment of a scope for growth assay involving Gammarus pulex, a freshwater benthic invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Maltby, L; Naylor, C; Calow, P

    1990-06-01

    Scope for growth (SfG) is a measure of the energy balance of an animal (i.e., the difference between energy intake and metabolic output). The SfG of marine invertebrates, particularly the mussel Mytilus edulis, has been successfully used as the basis of a field bioassay to detect a range of stresses both natural (temperature, food, salinity) and anthropogenic (hydrocarbons, sewage sludge). SfG of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex was found to be a sensitive indicator of stress under laboratory conditions and here we describe the field deployment of this technique and present data from three field trials. In every case, SfG was reduced at the downstream polluted site compared with that at an upstream reference site. This reduction in SfG was the result of a decrease in energy intake (absorption) rather than an increase in energy expenditure (respiration).

  12. A devolved model for public involvement in the field of mental health research: case study learning.

    PubMed

    Moule, Pam; Davies, Rosie

    2016-12-01

    Patient and public involvement in all aspects of research is espoused and there is a continued interest in understanding its wider impact. Existing investigations have identified both beneficial outcomes and remaining issues. This paper presents the impact of public involvement in one case study led by a mental health charity conducted as part of a larger research project. The case study used a devolved model of working, contracting with service user-led organizations to maximize the benefits of local knowledge on the implementation of personalized budgets, support recruitment and local user-led organizations. To understand the processes and impact of public involvement in a devolved model of working with user-led organizations. Multiple data collection methods were employed throughout 2012. These included interviews with the researchers (n = 10) and research partners (n = 5), observation of two case study meetings and the review of key case study documentation. Analysis was conducted in NVivo10 using a coding framework developed following a literature review. Five key themes emerged from the data; Devolved model, Nature of involvement, Enabling factors, Implementation challenges and Impact. While there were some challenges of implementing the devolved model it is clear that our findings add to the growing understanding of the positive benefits research partners can bring to complex research. A devolved model can support the involvement of user-led organizations in research if there is a clear understanding of the underpinning philosophy and support mechanisms are in place. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Impact of Field Trips and Family Involvement on Mental Models of the Desert Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the mental models of the desert environment held by fourth- and seventh-grade students in the USA and whether those mental models could be affected by: (1) classroom field trips to a desert riparian preserve, and (2) interaction with family members at the same preserve. Results generally indicated that students in this study…

  14. The Impact of Field Trips and Family Involvement on Mental Models of the Desert Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, Eugene

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the mental models of the desert environment held by fourth- and seventh-grade students in the USA and whether those mental models could be affected by: (1) classroom field trips to a desert riparian preserve, and (2) interaction with family members at the same preserve. Results generally indicated that students in this study were resolute in their models and that field trips did not impact the types of models students adhered to. Twenty-three seventh-grade students who self-selected to participate in a Family Science Club with their parents did demonstrate a shift in their mental models and developed significantly more sophisticated models over time. A critical implication of the study is that unless transformation of mental models of the environment is an explicit goal of instruction, simple exposure to the environment (even within the context of life science instruction) will not transform understandings of how organisms within an environment act and interact interdependently.

  15. The light-induced reduction of horizontal cell receptive field size in the goldfish retina involves nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Bryan A; Baldridge, William H

    2011-03-01

    Horizontal cells of the vertebrate retina have large receptive fields as a result of extensive gap junction coupling. Increased ambient illumination reduces horizontal cell receptive field size. Using the isolated goldfish retina, we have assessed the contribution of nitric oxide to the light-dependent reduction of horizontal cell receptive field size. Horizontal cell receptive field size was assessed by comparing the responses to centered spot and annulus stimuli and from the responses to translated slit stimuli. A period of steady illumination decreased the receptive field size of horizontal cells, as did treatment with the nitric oxide donor (Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (100 μM). Blocking the endogenous production of nitric oxide with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1 mM), decreased the light-induced reduction of horizontal cell receptive field size. These findings suggest that nitric oxide is involved in light-induced reduction of horizontal cell receptive field size. Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2011

  16. Recommendations for the use of radiotherapy in nodal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, P J; Díez, P; Williams, M; Lucraft, H; Bayne, M

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines have been developed to define the use of radiotherapy for lymphoma in the current era of combined modality treatment taking into account increasing concern over the late side-effects associated with previous radiotherapy. The role of reduced volume and reduced doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with three-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. Both wide-field and involved-field techniques have now been supplanted by the use of defined volumes based on node involvement shown on computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and applying the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumour volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV). The planning of lymphoma patients for radical radiotherapy should now be based upon contrast enhanced 3 mm contiguous CT with three-dimensional definition of volumes using the convention of GTV, CTV and PTV. The involved-site radiotherapy concept defines the CTV based on the PET-defined pre-chemotherapy sites of involvement with an expansion in the cranio-caudal direction of lymphatic spread by 1.5 cm, constrained to tissue planes such as bone, muscle and air cavities. The margin allows for uncertainties in PET resolution, image registration and changes in patient positioning and shape. There is increasing evidence in both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma that traditional doses are higher than necessary for disease control and related to the incidence of late effects. No more than 30 Gy for Hodgkin and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 24 Gy for indolent lymphomas is recommended; lower doses of 20 Gy in combination therapy for early-stage low-risk Hodgkin lymphoma may be sufficient. As yet there are no large datasets validating the use of involved-site radiotherapy; these will emerge from the current generation of clinical trials. Radiotherapy remains the most effective single

  17. Conventional 4-field box radiotherapy technique for cancer cervix: potential for geographic miss without CECT scan-based planning.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Y S; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Lal, P

    2004-01-01

    The advantage of 4-field radiation to the pelvis is that the use of lateral portals spares a portion of the small bowel anteriorly and rectum posteriorly. The standard lateral portals defined in textbooks are not always adequate especially in advanced cancer cervix. An analysis was done to determine adequacy of margins of standard lateral pelvic portals with CECT defined tumor volumes. The study included 40 patients of FIGO stage IIB and IIIB treated definitively for cancer cervix between 1998 and 2000. An inadequate margin was defined if the cervical growth and uterus were not encompassed by the 95% isodose. An inadequate posterior margin was common with bulky disease (P = 0.06) and with retroverted uterus (P = 0.08). Menopausal status, FIGO stage, associated myoma, and age were of no apparent prognostic significance. Bulk retained significant on multivariate analysis. An inadequate anterior margin was common in premenopausal (P = 0.01); anteverted uterus (P = 0.02); associated myoma (P = 0.01); and younger patients (P = 0.03). It was not influenced by bulk or stage. Menopausal status and associated myoma retained significant on multivariate analysis. Without the knowledge of precise tumor volume, the 4-field technique with standard portals is potentially risky as it may under dose the tumor through lateral portals and the standard AP/ PA portals are a safer option.

  18. Low dose out-of-field radiotherapy, part 2: Calculating the mean photon energy values for the out-of-field photon energy spectrum from scattered radiation using Monte Carlo methods.

    PubMed

    Skrobala, A; Adamczyk, S; Kruszyna-Mochalska, M; Skórska, M; Konefał, A; Suchorska, W; Zaleska, K; Kowalik, A; Jackowiak, W; Malicki, J

    2017-08-01

    During radiotherapy, leakage from the machine head and collimator expose patients to out-of-field irradiation doses, which may cause secondary cancers. To quantify the risks of secondary cancers due to out-of-field doses, it is first necessary to measure these doses. Since most dosimeters are energy-dependent, it is essential to first determine the type of photon energy spectrum in the out-of-field area. The aim of this study was to determine the mean photon energy values for the out-of-field photon energy spectrum for a 6 MV photon beam using the GEANT 4-Monte Carlo method. A specially-designed large water phantom was simulated with a static field at gantry 0°. The source-to-surface distance was 92cm for an open field size of 10×10cm2. The photon energy spectra were calculated at five unique positions (at depths of 0.5, 1.6, 4, 6, 8, and 10cm) along the central beam axis and at six different off-axis distances. Monte Carlo simulations showed that mean radiation energy levels drop rapidly beyond the edge of the 6 MV photon beam field: at a distance of 10cm, the mean energy level is close to 0.3MeV versus 1.5MeV at the central beam axis. In some cases, the energy level actually increased even as the distance from the field edge increased: at a depth of 1.6cm and 15cm off-axis, the mean energy level was 0.205MeV versus 0.252MeV at 20cm off-axis. The out-of-field energy spectra and dose distribution data obtained in this study with Monte Carlo methods can be used to calibrate dosimeters to measure out-of-field radiation from 6MV photons. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Dro1, a major QTL involved in deep rooting of rice under upland field conditions.

    PubMed

    Uga, Yusaku; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2011-05-01

    Developing a deep root system is an important strategy for avoiding drought stress in rice. Using the 'basket' method, the ratio of deep rooting (RDR; the proportion of total roots that elongated through the basket bottom) was calculated to evaluate deep rooting. A new major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling RDR was detected on chromosome 9 by using 117 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between the lowland cultivar IR64, with shallow rooting, and the upland cultivar Kinandang Patong (KP), with deep rooting. This QTL explained 66.6% of the total phenotypic variance in RDR in the RILs. A BC(2)F(3) line homozygous for the KP allele of the QTL had an RDR of 40.4%, compared with 2.6% for the homozygous IR64 allele. Fine mapping of this QTL was undertaken using eight BC(2)F(3) recombinant lines. The RDR QTL Dro1 (Deeper rooting 1) was mapped between the markers RM24393 and RM7424, which delimit a 608.4 kb interval in the reference cultivar Nipponbare. To clarify the influence of Dro1 in an upland field, the root distribution in different soil layers was quantified by means of core sampling. A line homozygous for the KP allele of Dro1 (Dro1-KP) and IR64 did not differ in root dry weight in the shallow soil layers (0-25 cm), but root dry weight of Dro1-KP in deep soil layers (25-50 cm) was significantly greater than that of IR64, suggesting that Dro1 plays a crucial role in increased deep rooting under upland field conditions.

  20. Technical Note: Dose effects of 1.5 T transverse magnetic field on tissue interfaces in MRI-guided radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xinfeng; Prior, Phil; Chen, Guang-Pei

    Purpose: The integration of MRI with a linear accelerator (MR-linac) offers great potential for high-precision delivery of radiation therapy (RT). However, the electron deflection resulting from the presence of a transverse magnetic field (TMF) can affect the dose distribution, particularly the electron return effect (ERE) at tissue interfaces. The purpose of the study is to investigate the dose effects of ERE at air-tissue and lung-tissue interfaces during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. Methods: IMRT and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for representative pancreas, lung, breast, and head and neck (HN) cases were generated following commonly used clinical dose volumemore » (DV) criteria. In each case, three types of plans were generated: (1) the original plan generated without a TMF; (2) the reconstructed plan generated by recalculating the original plan with the presence of a TMF of 1.5 T (no optimization); and (3) the optimized plan generated by a full optimization with TMF = 1.5 T. These plans were compared using a variety of DV parameters, including V{sub 100%}, D{sub 95%}, DHI [dose heterogeneity index: (D{sub 20%}–D{sub 80%})/D{sub prescription}], D{sub max}, and D{sub 1cc} in OARs (organs at risk) and tissue interface. All the optimizations and calculations in this work were performed on static data. Results: The dose recalculation under TMF showed the presence of the 1.5 T TMF can slightly reduce V{sub 100%} and D{sub 95%} for PTV, with the differences being less than 4% for all but one lung case studied. The TMF results in considerable increases in D{sub max} and D{sub 1cc} on the skin in all cases, mostly between 10% and 35%. The changes in D{sub max} and D{sub 1cc} on air cavity walls are dependent upon site, geometry, and size, with changes ranging up to 15%. The VMAT plans lead to much smaller dose effects from ERE compared to fixed-beam IMRT in pancreas case. When the TMF is considered in the plan optimization

  1. Field detection capability of immunochemical assays during criminal investigations involving the use of TNT.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Ferri, Elida; Mirasoli, Mara; D'Elia, Marcello; Ripani, Luigi; Peluso, Giuseppe; Risoluti, Roberta; Maiolini, Elisabetta; Girotti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The capability to collect timely information about the substances employed on-site at a crime scene is of fundamental importance during scientific investigations in crimes involving the use of explosives. TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) is one of the most employed explosives in the 20th century. Despite the growing use of improvised explosives, criminal use and access to TNT is not expected to decrease. Immunoassays are simple and selective analytical tests able to detect molecules and their immunoreactions can occur in portable formats for use on-site. This work demonstrates the application of three immunochemical assays capable of detecting TNT to typical forensic samples from experimental tests: an indirect competitive ELISA with chemiluminescent detection (CL-ELISA), a colorimetric lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on colloidal gold nanoparticles label, and a chemiluminescent-LFIA (CL-LFIA). Under optimised working conditions, the LOD of the colorimetric LFIA and CL-LFIA were 1 μg mL(-1) and 0.05 μg mL(-1), respectively. The total analysis time for LFIAs was 15 min. ELISA proved to be a very effective laboratory approach, showing very good sensitivity (LOD of 0.4 ng mL(-1)) and good reproducibility (CV value about 7%). Samples tested included various materials involved in controlled explosions of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), as well as hand swabs collected after TNT handling tests. In the first group of tests, targets covered with six different materials (metal, plastic, cardboard, carpet fabric, wood and adhesive tape) were fixed on top of wooden poles (180 cm high). Samples of soil from the explosion area and different materials covering the targets were collected after each explosion and analysed. In the second group of tests, hand swabs were collected with and without hand washing after volunteers simulated the manipulation of small charges of TNT. The small amount of solution required for each assay allows for several analyses. Results of

  2. Consolidation Radiotherapy in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas: Impact on Outcome of Different Fields and Doses in Patients in Complete Remission After Upfront Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreri, Andres Jose Maria, E-mail: andres.ferreri@hsr.i; Medical Oncology Unit, Department of Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan; Verona, Chiara

    Purpose: Avoidance radiotherapy or reduction of irradiation doses in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in complete remission (CR) after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy has been proposed to minimize the neurotoxicity risk. Nevertheless, no study has focused on the survival impact of radiation parameters, as far as we know, and the optimal radiation schedule remains to be defined. Methods and Materials: The impact on outcome and neurologic performance of different radiation fields and doses was assessed in 33 patients with PCNSL who achieved CR after MTX-containing chemotherapy and were referred to consolidation whole-brain irradiation (WBRT). Patterns of relapsemore » were analyzed on computed tomography-guided treatment planning, and neurologic impairment was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination. Results: At a median follow-up of 50 months, 21 patients are relapse-free (5-year failure-free survival [FFS], 51%). WBRT doses {>=}40 Gy were not associated with improved disease control in comparison with a WBRT dose of 30 to 36 Gy (relapse rate, 46% vs. 30%; 5-year FFS, 51% vs. 50%; p = 0.26). Disease control was not significantly different between patients irradiated to the tumor bed with 45 to 54 Gy or with 36 to 44 Gy, with a 5-year FFS of 35% and 44% (p = 0.43), respectively. Twenty patients are alive (5-year overall survival, 54%); WB and tumor bed doses did not have an impact on survival. Impairment as assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination was significantly more common in patients treated with a WBRT dose {>=}40 Gy. Conclusion: Consolidation with WBRT 36 Gy is advisable in patients with PCNSL in CR after HD-MTX-based chemotherapy. Higher doses do not change the outcome and could increase the risk of neurotoxicity.« less

  3. Identification of gonadal soma-derived factor involvement in Monopterus albus (protogynous rice field eel) sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yefei; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaowu; Guan, Guijun

    2016-07-01

    We studied molecular events and potential mechanisms underlying the process of female-to-male sex transformation in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish in which the gonad is initially a female ovary and transforms into male testes. We cloned and identified a novel gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF), which encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. gsdf expression was measured in gonads of female, intersex and male with reverse transcription-PCR and gsdf's role in sex transformation was studied with qPCR, histological analysis and dual-color in situ hybridization assays and compared to other sex-related genes. gsdf was correlated to Sertoli cell differentiation, indicating involvement in testicular differentiation and sex transformation from female to male in this species. A unique expression pattern reveals a potential role of gsdf essential for the sex transformation of rice field eels.

  4. Efficiency improvement of the investment and innovation activities in the transport facility construction field with public-private partnership involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayeva, Marina; Serebryakova, Yelena; Shalnev, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    Growing demand to increase the investment volume in modernization and development projects for transport infrastructure define the urgency of the current study. The amount of private sector investments in the field is insufficient to implement the projects for road construction due to their significant capital intensity and long payoff period. The implementation of social significant infrastructure projects on the principles of public-private partnership is one of the key strategic directions of growth for transport facilities. The authors come up with a concept and methodology for modeling the investment and innovation activity in the transport facility construction. Furthermore, there is developed a model to find the balance between public and private sector investments in implementing construction projects for transport infrastructure with involvement of PPP (further - public-private partnership). The suggested concepts aim to improve the efficiency rate of the investment and innovation activity in the field of transport facility construction on the basis of public and private sectors collaboration.

  5. Monitoring resistance of Cydia pomonella (L.) Spanish field populations to new chemical insecticides and the mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Dolors; Rodríguez, Marcela A; Avilla, Jesús

    2018-04-01

    Widespread resistance of Cydia pomonella to organophosphates was demonstrated in populations from the Spanish Ebro Valley area which showed high levels of enzymatic detoxification. To determine the efficacy of new insecticides, neonate larval bioassays were carried out on 20 field codling moth populations collected from three different Spanish apple production areas. Synergist bioassays were performed to determine the enzymatic mechanisms involved. The least active ingredients were methoxyfenozide, with 100% of the populations showing significantly lower mortality than the susceptible strain, and lambda-cyhalothrin, with very high resistance ratios (872.0 for the most resistant field population). Approximately 50% of the populations were resistant or tolerant to thiacloprid. By contrast, tebufenozide was very effective in all the field populations, as was chlorpyrifos-ethyl despite its widespread use during the last few years. Indoxacarb, spinosad and chlorantraniliprole also provided high efficacy, as did emamectin and spinetoram, which are not yet registered in Spain. The resistant Spanish codling moth populations can be controlled using new reduced-risk insecticides. The use of synergists showed the importance of the concentration applied and the difficulty of interpreting results in field populations that show multiple resistance to different active ingredients. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Limited Chemotherapy and Shrinking Field Radiotherapy for Osteolymphoma (Primary Bone Lymphoma): Results From the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 99.04 and Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group LY02 Prospective Trial;Bone; Lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, David, E-mail: david.christie@premion.com.au; Dear, Keith; Le, Thai

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To establish benchmark outcomes for combined modality treatment to be used in future prospective studies of osteolymphoma (primary bone lymphoma). Methods and Materials: In 1999, the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) invited the Australasian Leukemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) to collaborate on a prospective study of limited chemotherapy and radiotherapy for osteolymphoma. The treatment was designed to maintain efficacy but limit the risk of subsequent pathological fractures. Patient assessment included both functional imaging and isotope bone scanning. Treatment included three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions using a shrinking fieldmore » technique. Results: The trial closed because of slow accrual after 33 patients had been entered. Accrual was noted to slow down after Rituximab became readily available in Australia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the five-year overall survival and local control rates are estimated at 90% and 72% respectively. Three patients had fractures at presentation that persisted after treatment, one with recurrent lymphoma. Conclusions: Relatively high rates of survival were achieved but the number of local failures suggests that the dose of radiotherapy should remain higher than it is for other types of lymphoma. Disability after treatment due to pathological fracture was not seen.« less

  7. Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonghui; He, Mindi; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Shangcheng; Zhang, Lei; He, Yue; Chen, Chunhai; Liu, Chuan; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Microglia and astrocytes play important role in maintaining the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS). Several CNS impacts have been postulated to be associated with radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure. Given the important role of inflammation in neural physiopathologic processes, we investigated the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and the involved mechanism in response to RF fields. Microglial N9 and astroglial C8-D1A cells were exposed to 1800 MHz RF for different time with or without pretreatment with STAT3 inhibitor. Microglia and astrocytes were activated by RF exposure indicated by up-regulated CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, RF exposure induced differential pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, characterized by different expression and release profiles of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Moreover, the RF exposure activated STAT3 in microglia but not in astrocytes. Furthermore, the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic ameliorated the RF-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia but not in astrocytes. Our results demonstrated that RF exposure differentially induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia and astrocytes, which involved differential activation of STAT3 in microglia and astrocytes. Our data provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms of the reported CNS impacts associated with mobile phone use and present STAT3 as a promising target to protect humans against increasing RF exposure. PMID:25275372

  8. Differential pro-inflammatory responses of astrocytes and microglia involve STAT3 activation in response to 1800 MHz radiofrequency fields.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonghui; He, Mindi; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Shangcheng; Zhang, Lei; He, Yue; Chen, Chunhai; Liu, Chuan; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Microglia and astrocytes play important role in maintaining the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS). Several CNS impacts have been postulated to be associated with radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure. Given the important role of inflammation in neural physiopathologic processes, we investigated the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and the involved mechanism in response to RF fields. Microglial N9 and astroglial C8-D1A cells were exposed to 1800 MHz RF for different time with or without pretreatment with STAT3 inhibitor. Microglia and astrocytes were activated by RF exposure indicated by up-regulated CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, RF exposure induced differential pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, characterized by different expression and release profiles of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Moreover, the RF exposure activated STAT3 in microglia but not in astrocytes. Furthermore, the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic ameliorated the RF-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia but not in astrocytes. Our results demonstrated that RF exposure differentially induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia and astrocytes, which involved differential activation of STAT3 in microglia and astrocytes. Our data provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms of the reported CNS impacts associated with mobile phone use and present STAT3 as a promising target to protect humans against increasing RF exposure.

  9. [Involved-field three-dimensional conformal radiation treatment for stage III non-small-cell lung].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Ming; Sun, Xin-Dong; Li, Ming-Huan; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Yao, Chun-Ping; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Zhen

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of involved-field irradiation (IFI ) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From September 1997 to November 2001, 200 stage-III NSCLC patients were randomly divided into two groups-- IFI and ENI (elective node irradiation). The IFI group was irradiated by 3DCR to a dose of 68-74 Gy/34-37f/7-9 w including the primary tumor and the lymph nodes of > or = 10 mm in short axis. The ENI group was irradiated to a dose of 60-64 Gy/30-32f/6-7.5 w including the primary tumor, ipsilateral hilum, subcarinal and mediastinal lymph nodes, even the supraclavicular area when the lymph nodes of superior mediastinum were involved. The overall response (CR + PR) rates were 90.0% in IFI group and 79.0% in ENI group. Radiation pneumonitis developed in 29.0% of the patients in ENI group and 17.0% in IFI group (P = 0.04). The 1-year primary tumor failure rate in IFI group (13.0%) was lower than that (23.0%) in ENI group. The 1-year involved nodal failure rate was 20.0% in ENI group and 10.0% in IFI group (P = 0.048). The 1-year elective node failure rate was 16.0% in ENI group versus 21.0% in IFI group (P = 0.39). The 1-, 2-and 3-year overall survival rate was 67.2% , 38.7% , 27.3% , respectively, in IFI group; versus 59.7% , 25.6% , 19.2% in ENI group, with a difference significant in the 2-year overall survival rate between IFI and ENI group (P = 0.048). Involved-field 3D-CRT for stage-III non-small cell lung cancer is well tolerated. It does not increase the rate of lymph node failure in the elective node irradiation field, and may improve the survival due to dose escalation.

  10. A meta-analysis of perceptual and cognitive functions involved in useful-field-of-view test performance.

    PubMed

    Woutersen, Karlijn; Guadron, Leslie; van den Berg, Albert V; Boonstra, F Nienke; Theelen, Thomas; Goossens, Jeroen

    2017-12-01

    The useful-field-of-view (UFOV) test measures the amount of information someone can extract from a visual scene in one glance. Its scores show relatively strong relationships with everyday activities. The UFOV test consists of three computer tests, suggested to measure processing speed and central vision, divided attention, and selective attention. However, other functions seem to be involved as well. In order to investigate the contribution of these suggested and other perceptual and cognitive functions, we performed a meta-analysis of 116 Pearson's correlation coefficients between UFOV scores and other test scores reported in 18 peer-reviewed articles. We divided these correlations into nine domains: attention, executive functioning, general cognition, memory, spatial ability, visual closure, contrast sensitivity, visual processing speed, and visual acuity. A multivariate mixed-effects model analysis revealed that each domain correlated significantly with each of the UFOV subtest scores. These correlations were stronger for Subtests 2 and 3 than for Subtest 1. Furthermore, some domains were more strongly correlated to the UFOV than others across subtests. We did not find interaction effects between subtest and domain, indicating that none of the UFOV subtests is more selectively sensitive to a particular domain than the others. Thus, none of the three UFOV subtests seem to measure one clear construct. Instead, a range of visual and cognitive functions is involved. Perhaps this is the reason for the UFOV's high ecological validity, as it involves many functions at once, making it harder to compensate if one of them fails.

  11. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a whole-ventricular irradiation: A planning comparison study

    SciTech Connect

    Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Mizowaki, Takashi, E-mail: mizo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sato, Sayaka

    This study evaluated the dosimetric difference between volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (cIMRT) in whole-ventricular irradiation. Computed tomography simulation data for 13 patients were acquired to create plans for VMAT and cIMRT. In both plans, the same median dose (100% = 24 Gy) was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV), which comprised a tumor bed and whole ventricles. During optimization, doses to the normal brain and body were reduced, provided that the dose constraints of the target coverage were satisfied. The dose-volume indices of the PTV, normal brain, and body as well as monitor unitsmore » were compared between the 2 techniques by using paired t-tests. The results showed no significant difference in the homogeneity index (0.064 vs 0.065; p = 0.824) of the PTV and conformation number (0.78 vs 0.77; p = 0.065) between the 2 techniques. In the normal brain and body, the dose-volume indices showed no significant difference between the 2 techniques, except for an increase in the volume receiving a low dose in VMAT; the absolute volume of the normal brain and body receiving 1 Gy of radiation significantly increased in VMAT by 1.6% and 8.3%, respectively, compared with that in cIMRT (1044 vs 1028 mL for the normal brain and 3079.2 vs 2823.3 mL for the body; p<0.001). The number of monitor units to deliver a 2.0-Gy fraction was significantly reduced in VMAT compared with that in cIMRT (354 vs 873, respectively; p<0.001). In conclusion, VMAT delivers IMRT to complex target volumes such as whole ventricles with fewer monitor units, while maintaining target coverage and conformal isodose distribution comparable to cIMRT; however, in addition to those characteristics, the fact that the volume of the normal brain and body receiving a low dose would increase in VMAT should be considered.« less

  12. Radiotherapy quality assurance report from children's oncology group AHOD0031

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Friedman, Debra L.; FitzGerald, T.J.; McCarten, Kathleen M.; Constine, Louis S.; Chen, Lu; Kessel, Sandy K.; Iandoli, Matt; Laurie, Fran; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A phase III trial assessing response-based therapy in intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma, mandated real-time central review of involved field radiotherapy and imaging records by a centralized review center to maximize protocol compliance. We report the impact of centralized radiotherapy review upon protocol compliance. Methods Review of simulation films, port films, and dosimetry records was required pre-treatment and after treatment completion. Records were reviewed by study-affiliated or review center-affiliated radiation oncologists. A 6–10% deviation from protocol-specified dose was scored as “minor”; >10% was “major”. A volume deviation was scored as “minor” if margins were less than specified, or “major” if fields transected disease-bearing areas. Interventional review and final compliance review scores were assigned to each radiotherapy case and compared. Results Of 1712 patients enrolled, 1173 underwent IFRT at 256 institutions in 7 countries. An interventional review was performed in 88% and a final review in 98%. Overall, minor and major deviations were found in 12% and 6%, respectively. Among the cases for which ≥ 1 pre-IFRT modification was requested by QARC and subsequently made by the treating institution, 100% were made compliant on final review. In contrast, among the cases for which ≥ 1 modification was requested but not made by the treating institution, 10% were deemed compliant on final review. Conclusion In a large trial with complex treatment pathways and heterogeneous radiotherapy fields, central review was performed in a large percentage of cases pre-IFRT and identified frequent potential deviations in a timely manner. When suggested modifications were performed by the institutions, deviations were almost eliminated. PMID:25670539

  13. Advances in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common type of malignancy worldwide and usually requires multidisciplinary care. Radiotherapy plays an important part in management of the disease. During the past few years, researchers have made much progress about radiotherapy for esophageal cancer, which was revealed in every aspect of clinical practice. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy remains the standard treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer, whereas neoadjuvant chemotherapy appears to show less toxicities and non-inferior prognosis. What’s more, definitive chemoradiotherapy could be an option for non-surgical candidates and good responders to chemoradiotherapy. Advances in radiation techniques result in higher conformity, homogeneity, more normal tissue sparing and less treatment time. Promising prognoses and less toxicities were also seen in advanced techniques. As radiation dose higher than 50 Gy obtains better local control and survival, simultaneously integrated boost is designed to increase primary tumor dosage and keep prophylactic dose to subclinical areas. Elective nodal irradiation brings about better local control but do not show advantages in survival compared with involved field irradiation (IFI). As a trend, more tolerable chemoradiotherapy regimen would be taken into account in dealing with elderly patients. PMID:29666802

  14. Open field exposure facilitates recovery from an aversive emotional event: Involvement of adrenergic and cholinergic transmitter systems.

    PubMed

    Psyrdellis, Mariana; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Justel, Nadia

    2016-10-28

    Successive negative contrast (SNC) is an incentive relativity procedure that has been widely used to model emotional reactivity in rodents. The reward downshift experienced during SNC is thought to result in frustration. The exploration of a novel open field (OF), a complex situation involving stress induction and novelty detection, can enhance or block the acquisition of associative and non-associative memories. Previous experiments found a modulatory effect of OF, applied before downshift trials, on SNC. This schedule, however, can affect retention performance by influencing attentional, motivational, motor or sensory-perceptual mechanisms at training or retention testing. The use of post-training OF exposure avoids these confounds. This work assessed the effect of OF exposure after the acquisition of the downshifted memory, with the goal of targeting the consolidation of this mnemonic trace. We also investigated the involvement of the cholinergic and adrenergic systems in this phenomenon. The results indicated that OF facilitates recovery from reward loss and that both transmitter systems, cholinergic and adrenergic, play a role in this effect of OF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiotherapy on hidradenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lalya, Issam; Hadadi, Khalid; Tazi, El Mehdi; Lalya, Ilham; Bazine, Amine; Andaloussy, Khalid; Elmarjany, Mohamed; Sifat, Hassan; Hassouni, Khalid; Kebdani, Tayeb; Mansouri, Hamid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Elgueddari, Brahim Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare carcinoma arising from sweat glands. It is an aggressive tumor that most metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant viscera; surgery with safe margins is the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of 68-year-old woman who presented with an invasive clear cell hidradenocarcinoma situated in the left parotid area which recurred 5 months after surgery, this recurrence was managed successfully by high-dose irradiation of the tumor bed (66 Gy) and regional lymphatic chains (50 Gy), after a follow-up of more than 15 months, the patient is in good local control without significant toxicity. POST OPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY ALLOWS BETTER LOCAL CONTROL AND SHOULD BE MANDATORY WHEN HISTOLOGICAL FEATURES PREDICTIVE OF RECURRENCE ARE PRESENT: positive margins, histology poorly differentiated, perineural invasion, vascular and lymphatic invasion, lymph node involvement, and extracapsular spread.

  16. Radiotherapy on hidradenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lalya, Issam; Hadadi, Khalid; Tazi, El Mehdi; Lalya, Ilham; Bazine, Amine; Andaloussy, Khalid; Elmarjany, Mohamed; Sifat, Hassan; Hassouni, Khalid; Kebdani, Tayeb; Mansouri, Hamid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Elgueddari, Brahim Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Context: Clear cell Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare carcinoma arising from sweat glands. It is an aggressive tumor that most metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant viscera; surgery with safe margins is the mainstay of treatment. Case Report: We report a case of 68-year-old woman who presented with an invasive clear cell hidradenocarcinoma situated in the left parotid area which recurred 5 months after surgery, this recurrence was managed successfully by high-dose irradiation of the tumor bed (66 Gy) and regional lymphatic chains (50 Gy), after a follow-up of more than 15 months, the patient is in good local control without significant toxicity. Conclusion: Post operative radiotherapy allows better local control and should be mandatory when histological features predictive of recurrence are present: positive margins, histology poorly differentiated, perineural invasion, vascular and lymphatic invasion, lymph node involvement, and extracapsular spread. PMID:22540063

  17. Identification and expression analysis of the genes involved in serotonin biosynthesis and transduction in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Sadamoto, Hitoshi; Aonuma, H

    2011-10-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates various aspects of behaviours such as aggressive behaviour and circadian behaviour in the cricket. To elucidate the molecular basis of the cricket 5-HT system, we identified 5-HT-related genes in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer. Complementary DNA of tryptophan hydroxylase and phenylalanine-tryptophan hydroxylase, which convert tryptophan into 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP), and that of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, which converts 5-HTP into 5-HT, were isolated from a cricket brain cDNA library. In addition, four 5-HT receptor genes (5-HT(1A) , 5-HT(1B) , 5-HT(2α) , and 5-HT(7) ) were identified. Expression analysis of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene TRH and phenylalanine-tryptophan hydroxylase gene TPH, which are selectively involved in neuronal and peripheral 5-HT synthesis in Drosophila, suggested that two 5-HT synthesis pathways co-exist in the cricket neuronal tissues. The four 5-HT receptor genes were expressed in various tissues at differential expression levels, suggesting that the 5-HT system is widely distributed in the cricket. © 2011 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Limited chemotherapy and shrinking field radiotherapy for Osteolymphoma (primary bone lymphoma): results from the trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 99.04 and Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group LY02 prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Christie, David; Dear, Keith; Le, Thai; Barton, Michael; Wirth, Andrew; Porter, David; Roos, Daniel; Pratt, Gary

    2011-07-15

    To establish benchmark outcomes for combined modality treatment to be used in future prospective studies of osteolymphoma (primary bone lymphoma). In 1999, the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) invited the Australasian Leukemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) to collaborate on a prospective study of limited chemotherapy and radiotherapy for osteolymphoma. The treatment was designed to maintain efficacy but limit the risk of subsequent pathological fractures. Patient assessment included both functional imaging and isotope bone scanning. Treatment included three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions using a shrinking field technique. The trial closed because of slow accrual after 33 patients had been entered. Accrual was noted to slow down after Rituximab became readily available in Australia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the five-year overall survival and local control rates are estimated at 90% and 72% respectively. Three patients had fractures at presentation that persisted after treatment, one with recurrent lymphoma. Relatively high rates of survival were achieved but the number of local failures suggests that the dose of radiotherapy should remain higher than it is for other types of lymphoma. Disability after treatment due to pathological fracture was not seen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ANDRILL: INVOLVING TEACHERS IN FIELD RESEARCH ENHANCES THE TRANSFER OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE TO CLASSROOMS AND TO OTHER EDUCATORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, M.; Huffman, L. T.; Trummel, B.

    2009-12-01

    For most educators, the end of a field research experience is truly the beginning. From the knowledge gained and the excitement of living and working in a harsh environment like Antarctica, ARISE (ANDRILL Research Immersion for Science Educators) participants create enhanced learning experiences and resources for their students and for the professional development of other teachers. ANDRILL (Antarctic geological DRILLing) is an multi-national and interdisciplinary research project involving Italy, Germany , New Zealand, and USA. The core concept of its Education and Public Outreach Program is to embed educators as integral members on the science research teams, allowing them to participate in every phase of the mission. Their primary goal is to develop effective and innovative educational approaches for the communication of the scientific and technical aspects of the drilling program. ANDRILL has developed an exemplary teacher research experience model that differs from most by supporting a collaborative team of international educators rather than just one teacher. During the first two years of drilling projects, 2006 and 2007, ANDRILL took 16 educators from 4 countries to Antarctica. From those experiences, a growing collaborative network of polar science educators is nurtured, many valuable resources and examples of professional development have been created, and lessons have been learned and evaluated for future teacher research immersion experiences. An Italian ARISE participant and ANDRILL’s Education and Outreach Coordinator will present how ARISE has been at the core of developing transformational programs and resources in both countries including: [1] Flexhibit, a digital series of climate change materials designed for informal and formal learning environments that have been translated into Italian, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, and New Zealand English, (2) C2S2: Climate Change Student Summits, which provide professional development and resources for

  20. Designing the safety of healthcare. Participation of ergonomics to the design of cooperative systems in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Maria Isabel; Bouldi, Nadia; Barcellini, Flore; Nascimento, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    This communication deals with the involvement of ergonomists in a research-action design process of a software platform in radiotherapy. The goal of the design project is to enhance patient safety by designing a workflow software that supports cooperation between professionals producing treatment in radiotherapy. The general framework of our approach is the ergonomics management of a design process, which is based in activity analysis and grounded in participatory design. Two fields are concerned by the present action: a design environment which is a participatory design process that involves software designers, caregivers as future users and ergonomists; and a reference real work setting in radiotherapy. Observations, semi-structured interviews and participatory workshops allow the characterization of activity in radiotherapy dealing with uses of cooperative tools, sources of variability and non-ruled strategies to manage the variability of the situations. This production of knowledge about work searches to enhance the articulation between technocentric and anthropocentric approaches, and helps in clarifying design requirements. An issue of this research-action is to develop a framework to define the parameters of the workflow tool, and the conditions of its deployment.

  1. SU-F-T-111: Investigation of the Attila Deterministic Solver as a Supplement to Monte Carlo for Calculating Out-Of-Field Radiotherapy Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Mille, M; Lee, C; Failla, G

    Purpose: To use the Attila deterministic solver as a supplement to Monte Carlo for calculating out-of-field organ dose in support of epidemiological studies looking at the risks of second cancers. Supplemental dosimetry tools are needed to speed up dose calculations for studies involving large-scale patient cohorts. Methods: Attila is a multi-group discrete ordinates code which can solve the 3D photon-electron coupled linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation on a finite-element mesh. Dose is computed by multiplying the calculated particle flux in each mesh element by a medium-specific energy deposition cross-section. The out-of-field dosimetry capability of Attila is investigated by comparing averagemore » organ dose to that which is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The test scenario consists of a 6 MV external beam treatment of a female patient with a tumor in the left breast. The patient is simulated by a whole-body adult reference female computational phantom. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using MCNP6 and XVMC. Attila can export a tetrahedral mesh for MCNP6, allowing for a direct comparison between the two codes. The Attila and Monte Carlo methods were also compared in terms of calculation speed and complexity of simulation setup. A key perquisite for this work was the modeling of a Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator. Results: The solid mesh of the torso part of the adult female phantom for the Attila calculation was prepared using the CAD software SpaceClaim. Preliminary calculations suggest that Attila is a user-friendly software which shows great promise for our intended application. Computational performance is related to the number of tetrahedral elements included in the Attila calculation. Conclusion: Attila is being explored as a supplement to the conventional Monte Carlo radiation transport approach for performing retrospective patient dosimetry. The goal is for the dosimetry to be sufficiently accurate for use in retrospective

  2. Residual tumour volumes and grey zones after external beam radiotherapy (with or without chemotherapy) in cervical cancer patients. A low-field MRI study.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M P; Mansmann, B; Federico, M; Dimopoulous, J C A; Georg, P; Fidarova, E; Dörr, W; Pötter, R

    2013-03-01

    Grey zones, which are defined as tissue with intermediate signal intensity in the area of primary hyperintense tumour extension, can be seen during radiation with or without chemotherapy on the T2-weighted MRI in patients with cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to systematically measure the tumour volume at the time of diagnosis and the residual tumour volume at the time of brachytherapy without and with consideration of the grey zones and to estimate tumour regression during external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). T2-weighted MRI datasets of 175 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB-IVA), who underwent combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy were available for this study. The gross tumour volume at the time of diagnosis (GTV(init)) and at the time of first brachytherapy without (GTV(res)) and with (GTV(res)+ GZ) consideration of grey zones were measured for each patient. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed and tumour regression rates without (R) and with consideration of grey zones (R(GZ)) were calculated. Further, the role of prognostic factors on GTV(init), GTV(res), GTV(res)+ GZ and tumour regression rates was investigated. The median GTV(init), GTV(res), GTV(res)+ GZ in all patients were 44.4 cm(3), 8.2 cm(3), 20.3 cm(3), respectively. The median R was 78.5% and the median R(GZ) was 50.1%. The histology and FIGO staging showed a significant impact on GTV(init), GTV(res) and GTV(res)+ GZ. Grey zones represent a substantial proportion of the residual tumour volume at the time of brachytherapy. Differentiation of high signal intensity mass and surrounding intermediate signal intensity grey zones may be reasonable.

  3. Involved Field Radiation After Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Rituximab Era

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Tithi; Dhakal, Sughosh; Chen Rui

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: For patients with recurrent or refractory large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is the treatment of choice. We evaluated the role of involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) post-ASCT for patients initially induced with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or, more recently, rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP). Materials and Methods: Between May 1992 and April 2005, 176 patients underwent ASCT for recurrent or refractory large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; 164 patients were evaluable for endpoint analysis. Fifty percent of the CHOP group (n = 131), and 39% of the R-CHOP group (n = 33), received IFRT. Follow-upmore » from the time of transplant was a median/mean of 1.7/3 years (range, 0.03-13 years). Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) improved with IFRT in both the R-CHOP (p = 0.006 and 0.02, respectively) and CHOP (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) groups. IFRT was associated with a 10% (p = 0.17) reduction in local failure, alone or with a distant site. On univariate analysis, IFRT was associated with superior OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.50 [95% CI 0.32, 0.78]; p = 0.002) and DSS (HR = 0.53 [95% CI 0.33, 0.86]; p = 0.009). Presence of B symptoms was adverse (p = 0.03). On multivariate analysis, only IFRT was associated with significant improvement in OS (HR = 0.35 [0.18, 0.68]; p = 0.002) and DSS (HR = 0.39 [95% CI 0.18, 0.84]; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Recognizing that positive and negative patient selection bias exists for the use of IFRT post-ASCT, patients initially treated with CHOP or R-CHOP and who undergo ASCT for recurrent or refractory disease may benefit from subsequent IFRT presumably due to enhanced local control that can translate into a survival advantage.« less

  4. Carbon-ion radiotherapy for marginal lymph node recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Noda, Shin-ei; Ohkubo, Yu; Ando, Ken; Wakatsuki, Masaru; Kato, Shingo; Kamada, Tadashi; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-04-05

    Recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy often occur at common iliac or para-aortic lymph nodes as marginal lymph node recurrences. Patients with these recurrences have a chance of long-term survival by optimal re-treatment with radiotherapy. However, the re-irradiation often overlaps the initial and the secondary radiotherapy fields and can result in increased normal tissue toxicities in the bowels or the stomach. Carbon-ion radiotherapy, a form of particle beam radiotherapy using accelerated carbon ions, offers more conformal and sharp dose distribution than X-ray radiotherapy. Therefore, this approach enables the delivery of high radiation doses to the target while sparing its surrounding normal tissues. Marginal lymph node recurrences in common iliac lymph nodes after radiotherapy were treated successfully by carbon-ion radiotherapy in two patients. These two patients were initially treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. However, the diseases recurred in the lymph nodes near the border of the initial radiotherapy fields after 22 months and 23 months. Because re-irradiation with X-ray radiotherapy may deliver high doses to a section of the bowels, carbon-ion radiotherapy was selected to treat the lymph node recurrences. A total dose of 48 Gy (RBE) in 12 fractions over 3 weeks was given to the lymph node recurrences, and the tumors disappeared completely with no severe acute toxicities. The two patients showed no evidence of disease for 75 months and 63 months after the initial radiotherapy and for 50 months and 37 months after the carbon-ion radiotherapy, respectively. No severe late adverse effects are observed in these patients. The two presented cases suggest that the highly conformal dose distribution of carbon-ion radiotherapy may be beneficial in the treatment of marginal lymph node recurrences after radiotherapy. In addition, the higher biological effect of carbon

  5. Enraged about radiotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, K.

    1994-01-01

    The use of radiotherapy in treating breast cancer has meant that many women are able to avoid mastectomy, which is both physically and psychologically damaging. The side effects of radiotherapy, however, are given little attention. Many women have developed brachial plexus injury after radiotherapy for breast cancer, often resulting in severe pain and loss of use of the arm. There is no effective treatment for this injury and little help can be offered. In addition, many of the women did not require radiotherapy of nodal areas. A pressure group has been formed to support these women, to establish the right to compensation, and to ensure that radiotherapy regimens given to future patients will not damage the brachial plexus. Images p188-a PMID:8312773

  6. Radiotherapy for stage I seminoma of the testis: Organ equivalent dose to partially in-field structures and second cancer risk estimates on the basis of a mechanistic, bell-shaped, and plateau model

    SciTech Connect

    Mazonakis, Michalis, E-mail: mazonak@med.uoc.gr; Damilakis, John; Varveris, Charalambos

    Purpose: The aim of the current study was to (a) calculate the organ equivalent dose (OED) and (b) estimate the associated second cancer risk to partially in-field critical structures from adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I seminoma of the testis on the basis of three different nonlinear risk models. Methods: Three-dimensional plans were created for twelve patients who underwent a treatment planning computed tomography of the abdomen. The plans for irradiation of seminoma consisted of para-aortic anteroposterior and posteroanterior fields giving 20 Gy to the target site with 6 MV photons. The OED of stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, and kidneys, thatmore » were partially included in the treatment volume, was calculated using differential dose–volume histograms. The mechanistic, bell-shaped, and plateau models were employed for these calculations provided that organ-specific parameters were available for the subsequent assessment of the excess absolute risk (EAR) for second cancer development. The estimated organ-specific lifetime risks were compared with the respective nominal intrinsic probabilities for cancer induction. Results: The mean OED, which was calculated from the patients’ treatment plans, varied from 0.54 to 6.61 Gy by the partially in-field organ of interest and the model used for dosimetric calculations. The difference between the OED of liver derived from the mechanistic model with those from the bell-shaped and plateau models was less than 1.8%. An even smaller deviation of 1.0% was observed for colon. For the rest organs of interest, the differences between the OED values obtained by the examined models varied from 8.6% to 50.0%. The EAR for stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, and kidney cancer induction at an age of 70 yr because of treatment of a typical 39-yr-old individual was up to 4.24, 11.39, 0.91, 3.04, and 0.14 per 10 000 persons-yr, respectively. Patient’s irradiation was found to elevate the lifetime intrinsic risks by 8.3%–63

  7. [Optimization of radiotherapy planning for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using 18FDG-PET].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Nestle, U; Walter, K; Licht, N; Ukena, D; Schnabel, K; Kirsch, C M

    2002-10-01

    In recent years, FDG-PET examinations have become more important for problems in oncology, especially in staging of bronchogenic carcinoma. In the retrospective study presented here, the influence of PET on the planning of radiotherapy for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigated. The study involved 39 patients with NSCLC who had been examined by PET for staging. They received radiotherapy on the basis of the anterior/posterior portals including the primary tumour and the mediastinum planned according to CT- and bronchoscopic findings. The results of the PET examination were not considered in initial radiotherapy planning. The portals were retrospectively redefined on the basis of FDG uptake considering the size and localization of the primary tumour; and FDG activities outside the mediastinal part of the portals. In 15 out of 39 patients, the CT/PET-planned portals differed from the CT-planned ones. In most causes (n = 12) the CT/PET field was smaller than the CT field. The median geometric field size of the portals was 179 cm2, after redefinition using PET 166 cm2. In 20 patients with disturbed ventilation caused by the tumour (atelectasis, dystelectosis), a correction of the portal was suggested significantly more frequently than in the other patients (p = 0.03). Our results demonstrate the synergism of topographical (CT) and metabolic (FDG-PET) information, which could be helpful in planning radiotherapy of bronchial carcinoma, especially for patients with disturbed ventilation.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations in radiotherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Andreo, Pedro

    2018-06-27

    The use of the Monte Carlo (MC) method in radiotherapy dosimetry has increased almost exponentially in the last decades. Its widespread use in the field has converted this computer simulation technique in a common tool for reference and treatment planning dosimetry calculations. This work reviews the different MC calculations made on dosimetric quantities, like stopping-power ratios and perturbation correction factors required for reference ionization chamber dosimetry, as well as the fully realistic MC simulations currently available on clinical accelerators, detectors and patient treatment planning. Issues are raised that include the necessity for consistency in the data throughout the entire dosimetry chain in reference dosimetry, and how Bragg-Gray theory breaks down for small photon fields. Both aspects are less critical for MC treatment planning applications, but there are important constraints like tissue characterization and its patient-to-patient variability, which together with the conversion between dose-to-water and dose-to-tissue, are analysed in detail. Although these constraints are common to all methods and algorithms used in different types of treatment planning systems, they make uncertainties involved in MC treatment planning to still remain "uncertain".

  9. SU-E-T-340: Dosimetry of a Small Field Electron Beam for Innovative Radiotherapy of Small Surface Or Internal Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reft, C; Lu, Z; Noonan, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: An innovative small high intensity electron beams with energies from 6 to 12 MeV is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to deliver an absorbed dose via a catheter to small malignant and nonmalignant lesions. This study reports on the initial dosimetric characteristics of this electron beam. These include output calibration, percent depth dose, beam profiles and leakage through the catheter. Methods: To simulate the narrow electron beam, the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is used to produce high energy electron beams. The electron beam from the accelerator is monitored by measuring the current through a transmission coil while the beammore » shape is observed with a fluorescent screen. The dosimetry properties of the electron beam transmitting through bone and tissue-like materials are measured with nanodot optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters and EDR radiographic film. The 6 MV photon beam from a Varian True beam linac is used to calibrate both the OSLDs and the film. Results: The beam characteristics of the 12 MeV beam were measured. The properties of the small diameter, 5 mm, beam differs from that of broad clinical electron beams from radiotherapy linacs. Due to the lack of scatter from the narrow beam, the maximum dose is at the surface and the depth of the 50% depth dose is 35 mm compared to 51 mm for a clinical 12 MeV. The widths of the 90% isodose measured at the surface and depths of 2, 6, 12, and 16 mm varied from 6.6 to 8.8 mm while the widths of the FWHM isodose varied from 7.8 to 25.5 mm. Conclusion: Initial beam measurements show favorable dosimetric properties for its use in treating either small surface or internal lesions, particularly to deliver radiation at the time of surgery to maximize the dose to the lesion and spare normal tissue.« less

  10. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.com; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapymore » based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).« less

  11. A Monte-Carlo study to assess the effect of 1.5 T magnetic fields on the overall robustness of pencil-beam scanning proton radiotherapy plans for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Christopher; Landry, Guillaume; Resch, Andreas F.; Dedes, George; Kamp, Florian; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Raaymakers, Bas W.; Parodi, Katia

    2017-11-01

    Combining magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) and proton therapy (PT) using pencil-beam scanning (PBS) may improve image-guided radiotherapy. We aimed at assessing the impact of a magnetic field on PBS-PT plan quality and robustness. Specifically, the robustness against anatomical changes and positioning errors in an MRI-guided scenario with a 30 cm radius 1.5 T magnetic field was studied for prostate PT. Five prostate cancer patients with three consecutive CT images (CT1-3) were considered. Single-field uniform dose PBS-PT plans were generated on the segmented CT1 with Monte-Carlo-based treatment planning software for inverse optimization. Plans were optimized at 90° gantry angle without B-field (no B), with  ±1.5 T B-field (B and minus B), as well as at 81° gantry angle and  +1.5 T (B G81). Plans were re-calculated on aligned CT2 and CT3 to study the impact of anatomical changes. Dose distributions were compared in terms of changes in DVH parameters, proton range and gamma-index pass-rates. To assess the impact of positioning errors, DVH parameters were compared for  ±5 mm CT1 patient shifts in anterior-posterior (AP) and left-right (LR) direction. Proton beam deflection considerably reduced robustness against inter-fractional changes for the B scenario. Range agreement, gamma-index pass-rates and PTV V95% were significantly lower compared to no B. Improved robustness was obtained for minus B and B G81, the latter showing only minor differences to no B. The magnetic field introduced slight dosimetric changes under LR shifts. The impact of AP shifts was considerably larger, and equivalent for scenarios with and without B-field. Results suggest that robustness equivalent to PT without magnetic field can be achieved by adaptation of the treatment parameters, such as B-field orientation (minus B) with respect to the patient and/or gantry angle (B G81). MRI-guided PT for prostate cancer might thus be implemented without compromising robustness

  12. Identification of qSOR1, a major rice QTL involved in soil-surface rooting in paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Uga, Yusaku; Hanzawa, Eiko; Nagai, Shinsei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Specific Indonesian lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars elongate thick primary roots on the soil surface of paddy fields. To clarify the genetic factors controlling soil-surface rooting, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 124 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Gemdjah Beton, an Indonesian lowland rice cultivar with soil-surface roots, and Sasanishiki, a Japanese lowland rice cultivar without soil-surface roots. These cultivars and the RILs were tested for soil-surface rooting in a paddy field. We identified four regions of chromosomes 3, 4, 6, and 7 that were associated with soil-surface rooting in the field. Among them, one major QTL was located on the long arm of chromosome 7. This QTL explained 32.5-53.6% of the total phenotypic variance across three field evaluations. To perform fine mapping of this QTL, we measured the basal root growth angle of crown roots at the seedling stage in seven BC(2)F(3) recombinant lines grown in small cups in a greenhouse. The QTL was mapped between markers RM21941 and RM21976, which delimit an 812-kb interval in the reference cultivar Nipponbare. We have designated this QTL qSOR1 (quantitative trait locus for SOIL SURFACE ROOTING 1).

  13. Characterizing a pulse-resolved dosimetry system for complex radiotherapy beams using organic scintillators.

    PubMed

    Beierholm, Anders R; Ottosson, Rickard O; Lindvold, Lars R; Behrens, Claus F; Andersen, Claus E

    2011-05-21

    A fast-readout dosimetry system based on fibre-coupled organic scintillators has been developed for the purpose of conducting point measurements of absorbed dose in radiotherapy beams involving high spatial and temporal dose gradients. The system measures the dose for each linac radiation pulse with millimetre spatial resolution. To demonstrate the applicability of the system in complex radiotherapy fields, output factors and per cent depth dose measurements were performed in solid water for a 6 MV photon beam and compared with Monte Carlo simulated doses for square fields down to 0.6 cm × 0.6 cm size. No significant differences between measurements and simulations were observed. The temporal resolution of the system was demonstrated by measuring dose per pulse, beam start-up transients and the quality factor for 6 MV. The precision of dose per pulse measurements was within 2.7% (1 SD) for a 10 cm × 10 cm field at 10 cm depth. The dose per pulse behaviour compared well with linac target current measurements and accumulated dose measurements, and the system was able to resolve transient dose delivery differences between two Varian linac builds. The system therefore shows promise for reference dosimetry and quality assurance of complex radiotherapy treatments.

  14. Radiotherapy-induced hypopituitarism: a review.

    PubMed

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Dixit, Sanjay

    2012-05-01

    Hypopituitarism is a disorder caused by impaired hormonal secretions from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Radiotherapy is the most common cause of iatrogenic hypopituitarism. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis inadvertently gets irradiated in patients receiving prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for leukemia, total body irradiation and radiotherapy for intracranial, base skull, sinonasal and nasopharyngeal tumors. Radiation-induced hypopituitarism (RIH) is insidious, progressive and largely nonreversible. Mostly, RIH involves one hypothalamic-pituitary axis; however, multiple hormonal axes deficiency starts developing at higher doses. Although the clinical effects of the hypopituitarism are more profound in children and young adults, its implications in older adults are being increasingly recognized. The risk continues to persist or increase up to 10 years following radiation exposure. The clinical management of hypopituitarism is challenging both for the patients and healthcare providers. Here we have reviewed the scale of the problem, the risk factors and the management of RIH.

  15. A new three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique for large breast and/or high body mass index patients: evaluation of a novel fields assessment aimed to reduce extra–target-tissue irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Stimato, Gerardina; Ippolito, Edy; Silipigni, Sonia; Venanzio, Cristina Di; Gaudino, Diego; Fiore, Michele; Trodella, Lucio; D'Angelillo, Rolando Maria; Ramella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop an alternative three-dimensional treatment plan with standardized fields class solution for whole-breast radiotherapy in patients with large/pendulous breast and/or high body mass index (BMI). Methods: Two treatment plans [tangential fields and standardized five-fields technique (S5F)] for a total dose of 50 Gy/25 fractions were generated for patients with large breasts [planning target volume (PTV) >1000 cm3 and/or BMI >25 kg m−2], supine positioned. S5F plans consist of two wedged tangential beams, anteroposterior: 20° for the right breast and 340° for the left breast, and posteroanterior: 181° for the right breast and 179° for the left breast. A field in field in medial–lateral beam and additional fields were added to reduce hot spot areas and extra–target-tissue irradiation and to improve dose distribution. The percentage of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (PTV V95%), percentage of PTV receiving 105% of the prescribed dose (PTV V105%), maximal dose to PTV (PTV Dmax), homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index were recorded. V10%, V20%, V105% and V107% of a “proper” normal tissue structure (body-PTV healthy tissue) were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SYSTAT v.12.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Results: In 38 patients included, S5F improved HI (8.4 vs 10.1; p ≤ 0.001) and significantly reduced PTV Dmax and PTV V105%. The extra–target-tissue irradiation was significantly reduced using S5F for V105% (cm3) and V107% (cm3) with a very high difference in tissue irradiation (46.6 vs 3.0 cm3, p ≤ 0.001 for V105% and 12.2 vs 0.0 cm3, p ≤ 0.001 for V107% for tangential field and S5F plans, respectively). Only a slight increase in low-dose extra–target-tissue irradiation (V10%) was observed (2.2719 vs 1.8261 cm3, p = 0.002). Conclusion: The S5F technique in patients with large breast or high BMI increases HI and decreases hot spots in extra-target-tissues and can therefore be

  16. A new three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique for large breast and/or high body mass index patients: evaluation of a novel fields assessment aimed to reduce extra-target-tissue irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gerardina, Stimato; Edy, Ippolito; Sonia, Silipigni; Cristina, Di Venanzio; Carla Germana, Rinaldi; Diego, Gaudino; Michele, Fiore; Lucio, Trodella; Maria, D'Angelillo Rolando; Sara, Ramella

    2016-09-01

    To develop an alternative three-dimensional treatment plan with standardized fields class solution for whole-breast radiotherapy in patients with large/pendulous breast and/or high body mass index (BMI). Two treatment plans [tangential fields and standardized five-fields technique (S5F)] for a total dose of 50 Gy/25 fractions were generated for patients with large breasts [planning target volume (PTV) >1000 cm(3) and/or BMI >25 kg m(-2)], supine positioned. S5F plans consist of two wedged tangential beams, anteroposterior: 20° for the right breast and 340° for the left breast, and posteroanterior: 181° for the right breast and 179° for the left breast. A field in field in medial-lateral beam and additional fields were added to reduce hot spot areas and extra-target-tissue irradiation and to improve dose distribution. The percentage of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (PTV V95%), percentage of PTV receiving 105% of the prescribed dose (PTV V105%), maximal dose to PTV (PTV Dmax), homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index were recorded. V10%, V20%, V105% and V107% of a "proper" normal tissue structure (body-PTV healthy tissue) were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SYSTAT v.12.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). In 38 patients included, S5F improved HI (8.4 vs 10.1; p ≤ 0.001) and significantly reduced PTV Dmax and PTV V105%. The extra-target-tissue irradiation was significantly reduced using S5F for V105% (cm(3)) and V107% (cm(3)) with a very high difference in tissue irradiation (46.6 vs 3.0 cm(3), p ≤ 0.001 for V105% and 12.2 vs 0.0 cm(3), p ≤ 0.001 for V107% for tangential field and S5F plans, respectively). Only a slight increase in low-dose extra-target-tissue irradiation (V10%) was observed (2.2719 vs 1.8261 cm(3), p = 0.002). The S5F technique in patients with large breast or high BMI increases HI and decreases hot spots in extra-target-tissues and can therefore be easily implemented in breast cancer

  17. Two cytochrome P450 genes are involved in imidacloprid resistance in field populations of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shao-li; Wu, Qing-jun; Pan, Hui-peng; Li, Ru-mei; Yang, Ni-na; Liu, Bai-ming; Xu, Bao-yun; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, You-jun

    2013-11-01

    The sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae), is an invasive and damaging pest of field crops worldwide. The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid has been widely used to control this pest. We assessed the species composition (B vs. Q), imidacloprid resistance, and association between imidacloprid resistance and the expression of five P450 genes for 14-17 B. tabaci populations in 12 provinces in China. Fifteen of 17 populations contained only B. tabaci Q, and two populations contained both B and Q. Seven of 17 populations exhibited moderate to high resistance to imidacloprid, and eight populations exhibited low resistance to imidacloprid, compared with the most susceptible field WHHB population. In a study of 14 of the populations, resistance level was correlated with the expression of the P450 genes CYP6CM1 and CYP4C64 but not with the expression of CYP6CX1, CYP6CX4, or CYP6DZ7. This study indicates that B. tabaci Q has a wider distribution in China than previously reported. Resistance to imidacloprid in field populations of B. tabaci is associated with the increased expression of two cytochrome P450 genes (CYP6CM1 and CYP4C64). Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using sediment transport and river restoration to link research and education, and promote K-12 female involvement in STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, E. M.; Bradley-Eitel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of this CAREER award is to better understand and predict the mechanics of sediment transport, to link research and education through courses and shared field sites, and to increase female interest in STEM fields. To accomplish the education component of this proposal we have focused on the following three activities: 1) a Keystone course on the scientific method, 2) a Women Outside with Science (WOWS) camp and 3) a permanent field site for research and education on river processes. In the Keystone Course, students investigated the impact of roughness addition, in sediment-starved river reaches (e.g. downstream of dams), on the retention of gravel used for spawning. They developed research questions and hypotheses, designed and conducted a set of scaled laboratory flume experiments, analyzed their data and wrote a draft manuscript of their results. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive on the merits of this course, which included hands-on learning of the following: basic sediment transport and fluvial geomorphology, applied statistics, laboratory methods, and scientific writing skills. Students sometimes struggled when flume experiments did not progress as planned, and in the analysis and interpretation of complex data. Some of the students in the course have reanalyzed data, conducted additional experiments and are currently rewriting the manuscript for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Such a course fundamentally links research and teaching, and provides an introduction to research for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. We have also run one summer WOWS camp, which was a ten day camping and inquiry based research experience for 20 female junior-high and high-school students. The girls studied climate change and water related issues, worked on a restoration project on the Little Salmon River, met with a fish biologist and did fish habitat surveys and studied water quality along the North Fork of the Payette River while on a

  19. Survey on deep learning for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Noblet, Vincent; Mazzara, Christophe; Lallement, Alex

    2018-07-01

    More than 50% of cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy, either exclusively or in combination with other methods. The planning and delivery of radiotherapy treatment is a complex process, but can now be greatly facilitated by artificial intelligence technology. Deep learning is the fastest-growing field in artificial intelligence and has been successfully used in recent years in many domains, including medicine. In this article, we first explain the concept of deep learning, addressing it in the broader context of machine learning. The most common network architectures are presented, with a more specific focus on convolutional neural networks. We then present a review of the published works on deep learning methods that can be applied to radiotherapy, which are classified into seven categories related to the patient workflow, and can provide some insights of potential future applications. We have attempted to make this paper accessible to both radiotherapy and deep learning communities, and hope that it will inspire new collaborations between these two communities to develop dedicated radiotherapy applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Light effects on the multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote 'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' are cancelled by radiofrequency fields: the involvement of radical pair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Roger Duarte; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    'Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' is the most studied multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote. It presents a light-dependent photokinesis: green light decreases the translation velocity whereas red light increases it, in comparison to blue and white light. The present article shows that radio-frequency electromagnetic fields cancel the light effect on photokinesis. The frequency to cancel the light effect corresponds to the Zeeman resonance frequency (DC magnetic field of 4 Oe and radio-frequency of 11.5 MHz), indicating the involvement of a radical pair mechanism. An analysis of the orientation angle relative to the magnetic field direction shows that radio-frequency electromagnetic fields disturb the swimming orientation when the microorganisms are illuminated with red light. The analysis also shows that at low magnetic fields (1.6 Oe) the swimming orientation angles are well scattered around the magnetic field direction, showing that magnetotaxis is not efficiently in the swimming orientation to the geomagnetic field. The results do not support cryptochrome as being the responsible chromophore for the radical pair mechanism and perhaps two different chromophores are necessary to explain the radio-frequency effects.

  1. Recruitment in Radiotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, T. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

  2. Kinetic magnetic-field effect involving the small biologically relevant inorganic radicals NO and O2(·-).

    PubMed

    Karogodina, Tatiana Y; Dranov, Igor G; Sergeeva, Svetlana V; Stass, Dmitry V; Steiner, Ulrich E

    2011-06-20

    Oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) to rhodamine 123 (RH) by oxoperoxonitrite (ONOO(-)), formed through recombination of NO and O(2)(·-) radicals resulting from thermal decomposition of 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) in buffered aerated aqueous solution at pH 7.6, represents a kinetic model system of the reactivity of NO and O(2)(·-) in biochemical systems. A magnetic-field effect (MFE) on the yield of RH detected in this system is explored in the full range of fields between 0 and 18 T. It is found to increase in a nearly linear fashion up to a value of 5.5±1.6 % at 18 T and 23 °C (3.1±0.7 % at 40 °C). A theoretical framework to analyze the MFE in terms of the magnetic-field-enhanced recombination rate constant k(rec) of NO and O(2)(·-) due to magnetic mixing of T(0) and S spin states of the radical pair by the Δg mechanism is developed, including estimation of magnetic properties (g tensor and spin relaxation times) of NO and O(2)(·-) in aqueous solution, and calculation of the MFE on k(rec) using the theoretical formalism of Gorelik at al. The factor with which the MFE on k(rec) is translated to the MFE on the yield of ONOO(-) and RH is derived for various kinetic scenarios representing possible sink channels for NO and O(2)(·-). With reasonable assumptions for the values of some unknown kinetic parameters, the theoretical predictions account well for the observed MFE. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Graduate student involvement with designing inquiry-based Earth science field projects for the secondary-level classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, J. M.; Scherf, L.; Ward, S.; Cady, P.; Bromley, J.; Varner, R. K.; Froburg, E.

    2008-12-01

    In a secondary-level Earth System Science (ESS) curriculum, the most authentic learning is achieved through the inquiry-based application of real-world research methods in the context of modern understanding of the interconnected components of the Earth System (e.g. lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere). Following the intensive ESST-1 summer institute at UNH, during which teachers enhance their ESS content knowledge via interactions with UNH faculty, staff, and graduate students, each participating teacher is paired with one graduate student fellow for the duration of the school year. This graduate fellow provides a continuing link between the secondary-level school teaching environment and university resources, facilitating the implementation of new content knowledge and current scientific research methodology into the classroom setting. According to the National Science Education Standards (1), scientific inquiry is the central strategy for teaching science. "In successful science classrooms, teachers and students collaborate in the pursuit of ideas... Students formulate questions and devise ways to answer them, they collect data and decide how to represent it, they organize data to generate knowledge, and they test the reliability of the knowledge they have generated. As they proceed, students explain and justify their work to themselves and to one another, learn to cope with problems such as the limitations of equipment, and react to challenges posed by the teacher and by classmates." To speak to these goals, an ongoing local wetland field study has been conceptualized and implemented in three example classrooms (seventh grade general science, ninth grade physical science and tenth grade biology) in two school systems (Oyster River Middle School in Durham, NH and Berlin High School in Berlin, NH). These field studies were conducted using authentic scientific equipment to collect data, including a Li-Cor 840 infrared CO2 analyzer and handmade

  4. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer: how much does it really cost?

    PubMed

    Lievens, Yolande; Obyn, Caroline; Mertens, Anne-Sophie; Van Halewyck, Dries; Hulstaert, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of randomized evidence, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is being accepted as superior to conventional radiotherapy for patients with T1-2N0 non-small-cell lung cancer in the periphery of the lung and unfit or unwilling to undergo surgery. To introduce SBRT in a system of coverage with evidence development, a correct financing had to be determined. A time-driven activity-based costing model for radiotherapy was developed. Resource cost calculation of all radiotherapy treatments, standard and innovative, was conducted in 10 Belgian radiotherapy centers in the second half of 2012. The average cost of lung SBRT across the 10 centers (6221&OV0556;) is in the range of the average costs of standard fractionated 3D-conformal radiotherapy (5919&OV0556;) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (7379&OV0556;) for lung cancer. Hypofractionated 3D-conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy schemes are less costly (3993&OV0556; respectively 4730&OV0556;). The SBRT cost increases with the number of fractions and is highly dependent of personnel and equipment use. SBRT cost varies more by centre than conventional radiotherapy cost, reflecting different technologies, stages in the learning curve and a lack of clear guidance in this field. Time-driven activity-based costing of radiotherapy is feasible in a multicentre setup, resulting in real-life resource costs that can form the basis for correct reimbursement schemes, supporting an early yet controlled introduction of innovative radiotherapy techniques in clinical practice.

  5. Two-argument total scatter factor for small fields simultaneously collimated by MLC and jaws: application to stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhaohui; Friesen, Scott; Hacker, Fred; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Direct use of the total scatter factor (S tot) for independent monitor unit (MU) calculations can be a good alternative approach to the traditional separate treatment of head/collimator scatter (S c) and phantom scatter (S p), especially for stereotactic small fields under the simultaneous collimation of secondary jaws and tertiary multileaf collimators (MLC). We have carried out the measurement of S tot in water for field sizes down to 0.5  ×  0.5 cm2 on a Varian TrueBeam STx medical linear accelerator (linac) equipped with high definition MLCs. Both the jaw field size (c) and MLC field size (s) significantly impact the linac output factors, especially when c \\gg s and s is small (e.g. s  <  5 cm). The combined influence of MLC and jaws gives rise to a two-argument dependence of the total scatter factor, S tot(c,s), which is difficult to functionally decouple. The (c,s) dependence can be conceived as a set of s-dependent functions (‘branches’) defined on domain [s min, s max  =  c] for a given jaw size of c. We have also developed a heuristic model of S tot to assist the clinical implementation of the measured S tot data for small field dosimetry. The model has two components: (i) empirical fit formula for the s-dependent branches and (ii) interpolation scheme between the branches. The interpolation scheme preserves the characteristic shape of the measured branches and effectively transforms the measured trapezoidal domain in (c,s) plane to a rectangular domain to facilitate easier two-dimensional interpolation to determine S tot for arbitrary (c,s) combinations. Both the empirical fit and interpolation showed good agreement with experimental validation data.

  6. The concept and evolution of involved site radiation therapy for lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    We describe the development of radiation therapy for lymphoma from extended field radiotherapy of the past to modern conformal treatment with involved site radiation therapy based on advanced imaging, three-dimensional treatment planning and advanced treatment delivery techniques. Today, radiation therapy is part of the multimodality treatment of lymphoma, and the irradiated tissue volume is much smaller than before, leading to highly significant reductions in the risks of long-term complications.

  7. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik

    2015-03-01

    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  8. Absolute dose calculations for Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I. A.; Shaw, C. P.; Zavgorodni, S. F.; Beckham, W. A.

    2005-07-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have traditionally been used for single field relative comparisons with experimental data or commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). However, clinical treatment plans commonly involve more than one field. Since the contribution of each field must be accurately quantified, multiple field MC simulations are only possible by employing absolute dosimetry. Therefore, we have developed a rigorous calibration method that allows the incorporation of monitor units (MU) in MC simulations. This absolute dosimetry formalism can be easily implemented by any BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc user, and applies to any configuration of open and blocked fields, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Our approach involves the relationship between the dose scored in the monitor ionization chamber of a radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac), the number of initial particles incident on the target, and the field size. We found that for a 10 × 10 cm2 field of a 6 MV photon beam, 1 MU corresponds, in our model, to 8.129 × 1013 ± 1.0% electrons incident on the target and a total dose of 20.87 cGy ± 1.0% in the monitor chambers of the virtual linac. We present an extensive experimental verification of our MC results for open and intensity-modulated fields, including a dynamic 7-field IMRT plan simulated on the CT data sets of a cylindrical phantom and of a Rando anthropomorphic phantom, which were validated by measurements using ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Our simulation results are in excellent agreement with experiment, with percentage differences of less than 2%, in general, demonstrating the accuracy of our Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations.

  9. Absolute dose calculations for Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams.

    PubMed

    Popescu, I A; Shaw, C P; Zavgorodni, S F; Beckham, W A

    2005-07-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have traditionally been used for single field relative comparisons with experimental data or commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). However, clinical treatment plans commonly involve more than one field. Since the contribution of each field must be accurately quantified, multiple field MC simulations are only possible by employing absolute dosimetry. Therefore, we have developed a rigorous calibration method that allows the incorporation of monitor units (MU) in MC simulations. This absolute dosimetry formalism can be easily implemented by any BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc user, and applies to any configuration of open and blocked fields, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Our approach involves the relationship between the dose scored in the monitor ionization chamber of a radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac), the number of initial particles incident on the target, and the field size. We found that for a 10 x 10 cm2 field of a 6 MV photon beam, 1 MU corresponds, in our model, to 8.129 x 10(13) +/- 1.0% electrons incident on the target and a total dose of 20.87 cGy +/- 1.0% in the monitor chambers of the virtual linac. We present an extensive experimental verification of our MC results for open and intensity-modulated fields, including a dynamic 7-field IMRT plan simulated on the CT data sets of a cylindrical phantom and of a Rando anthropomorphic phantom, which were validated by measurements using ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Our simulation results are in excellent agreement with experiment, with percentage differences of less than 2%, in general, demonstrating the accuracy of our Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations.

  10. Radiogenomics and radiotherapy response modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Naqa, Issam; Kerns, Sarah L.; Coates, James; Luo, Yi; Speers, Corey; West, Catharine M. L.; Rosenstein, Barry S.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2017-08-01

    Advances in patient-specific information and biotechnology have contributed to a new era of computational medicine. Radiogenomics has emerged as a new field that investigates the role of genetics in treatment response to radiation therapy. Radiation oncology is currently attempting to embrace these recent advances and add to its rich history by maintaining its prominent role as a quantitative leader in oncologic response modeling. Here, we provide an overview of radiogenomics starting with genotyping, data aggregation, and application of different modeling approaches based on modifying traditional radiobiological methods or application of advanced machine learning techniques. We highlight the current status and potential for this new field to reshape the landscape of outcome modeling in radiotherapy and drive future advances in computational oncology.

  11. SU-E-T-399: Evaluation of Selection Criteria for Computational Human Phantoms for Use in Out-Of-Field Organ Dosimetry for Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, C; Jung, J; Lee, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric uncertainty due to organ position errors when using height and weight as phantom selection criteria in the UF/NCI Hybrid Phantom Library for the purpose of out-of-field organ dose reconstruction. Methods: Four diagnostic patient CT images were used to create 7-field IMRT plans. For each patient, dose to the liver, right lung, and left lung were calculated using the XVMC Monte Carlo code. These doses were taken to be the ground truth. For each patient, the phantom with the most closely matching height and weight was selected from the body size dependent phantom library. The patientmore » plans were then transferred to the computational phantoms and organ doses were recalculated. Each plan was also run on 4 additional phantoms with reference heights and or weights. Maximum and mean doses for the three organs were computed, and the DVHs were extracted and compared. One sample t-tests were performed to compare the accuracy of the height and weight matched phantoms against the additional phantoms in regards to both maximum and mean dose. Results: For one of the patients, the height and weight matched phantom yielded the most accurate results across all three organs for both maximum and mean doses. For two additional patients, the matched phantom yielded the best match for one organ only. In 13 of the 24 cases, the matched phantom yielded better results than the average of the other four phantoms, though the results were only statistically significant at the .05 level for three cases. Conclusion: Using height and weight matched phantoms does yield better results in regards to out-of-field dosimetry than using average phantoms. Height and weight appear to be moderately good selection criteria, though this selection criteria failed to yield any better results for one patient.« less

  12. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) vs. conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for {sup 18}F-FDG-PET-guided dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer: A planning study

    SciTech Connect

    Teoh, May, E-mail: m.teoh@nhs.net; Beveridge, Sabeena; Wood, Katie

    2013-04-01

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET)–guided focal dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer may potentially improve local control. We evaluated the feasibility of this approach using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and compared these plans with fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) focal dose escalation plans. Materials and methods: An initial study of 20 patients compared RapidArc with fixed-field IMRT using standard dose prescriptions. From this cohort, 10 were included in a dose escalation planning study. Dose escalation was applied to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET–positive regions in the primary tumor at dose levels of 5% (DL1), 10% (DL2), and 15% (DL3) above standard radical dose (65 Gymore » in 30 fractions). Fixed-field IMRT and double-arc RapidArc plans were generated for each dataset. Dose-volume histograms were used for plan evaluation and comparison. The Paddick conformity index (CI{sub Paddick}) and monitor units (MU) for each plan were recorded and compared. Both IMRT and RapidArc produced clinically acceptable plans and achieved planning objectives for target volumes. Dose conformity was significantly better in the RapidArc plans, with lower CI{sub Paddick} scores in both primary (PTV1) and elective (PTV2) planning target volumes (largest difference in PTV1 at DL3; 0.81 ± 0.03 [RapidArc] vs. 0.77 ± 0.07 [IMRT], p = 0.04). Maximum dose constraints for spinal cord and brainstem were not exceeded in both RapidArc and IMRT plans, but mean doses were higher with RapidArc (by 2.7 ± 1 Gy for spinal cord and 1.9 ± 1 Gy for brainstem). Contralateral parotid mean dose was lower with RapidArc, which was statistically significant at DL1 (29.0 vs. 29.9 Gy, p = 0.01) and DL2 (29.3 vs. 30.3 Gy, p = 0.03). MU were reduced by 39.8–49.2% with RapidArc (largest difference at DL3, 641 ± 94 vs. 1261 ± 118, p < 0.01). {sup 18}F-FDG-PET–guided focal dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer is feasible

  13. Inorganic chemistry in nuclear imaging and radiotherapy: current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Valerie; Demoin, Dustin W.; Hoffman, Timothy J; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radiometals play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This field of radiochemistry is multidisciplinary, involving radiometal production, separation of the radiometal from its target, chelate design for complexing the radiometal in a biologically stable environment, specific targeting of the radiometal to its in vivo site, and nuclear imaging and/or radiotherapy applications of the resultant radiopharmaceutical. The critical importance of inorganic chemistry in the design and application of radiometal-containing imaging and therapy agents is described from a historical perspective to future directions. PMID:25382874

  14. Radiotherapy in marginal zone lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) for early-stage nodal and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). Materials and methods Patients with stage I (n = 22) and stage II (n = 8) MZL, who were treated with RT were reviewed. The primary tumor localisation was in the orbita (n = 12), stomach (n = 8), head and neck other than the orbita (n = 8), breast (n = 1) and one case of marginal zone lymphoma of the skin (n = 1). The median radiotherapy dose was 40 Gy (5 to 45 Gy). Results The median follow-up time was 103 months. The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 85 ± 7% and 71 ± 9%, respectively. There was no infield recurrence. Recurrence occurred outside of the radiation field in six patients. The relapses were treated with salvage RT and had excellent local control (100%) at five years after salvage RT. Conclusions Localized extranodal MZL have an excellent prognosis following moderate-dose RT. RT is also an effective salvage therapy in cases of localized recurrence. Further clinical studies should evaluate the optimal dose for MZL. PMID:23281682

  15. Parents' Lived Experiences During Their Children's Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gårdling, Jenny; Törnqvist, Erna; Edwinson Månsson, Marie; Hallström, Inger

    The aim of radiotherapy is to provide a cure and/or symptomatic relief for children with cancer. Treatment is delivered on a daily basis, 5 days per week, over the course of 5 to 35 days. Many parents find that leaving their children alone during treatment and exposing them to radiation is a challenging experience. To gain an understanding of parents' lived experiences, 10 parents were asked to keep a diary while their children underwent radiotherapy. A descriptive inductive design with a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was chosen to analyze the diaries. The parents were asked to write down their lived experiences while their children underwent radiotherapy. Daily notes, both short and long, were desirable. The parents described radiotherapy as a balancing act involving a constant attempt to maintain a balance between coercing and protecting their children in order to improve their children's chances of survival. Meanwhile, the parents themselves were struggling with their own despair and feelings of powerlessness. While protecting their children, they experienced a sense of hope and felt that they had gained control. Parents' daily written reflections are important for clinical practice and provide vital knowledge. Parents need support when focusing on coercing and protecting their children and help with information and routines that enable them gain control.

  16. A planning comparison of 3-dimensional conformal multiple static field, conformal arc, and volumetric modulated arc therapy for the delivery of stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Mike; Roa, Wilson; Drodge, Suzanne; Ghosh, Sunita; Murray, Brad; Scrimger, Rufus; Gabos, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare dosimetric variables as well as treatment times of multiple static fields (MSFs), conformal arcs (CAs), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques for the treatment of early stage lung cancer using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Treatments of 23 patients previously treated with MSF of 48Gy to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) in 4 fractions were replanned using CA and VMAT techniques. Dosimetric parameters of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0915 trial were evaluated, along with the van׳t Riet conformation number (CN), monitor units (MUs), and actual and calculated treatment times. Paired t-tests for noninferiority were used to compare the 3 techniques. CA had significant dosimetric improvements over MSF for the ratio of the prescription isodose volume to PTV (R100%, p < 0.0001), the maximum dose 2cm away from the PTV (D2cm, p = 0.005), and van׳t Riet CN (p < 0.0001). CA was not statistically inferior to MSF for the 50% prescription isodose volume to PTV (R50%, p = 0.05). VMAT was significantly better than CA for R100% (p < 0.0001), R50% (p < 0.0001), D2cm (p = 0.006), and CN (p < 0.0001). CA plans had significantly shorter treatment times than those of VMAT (p < 0.0001). Both CA and VMAT planning showed significant dosimetric improvements and shorter treatment times over those of MSF. VMAT showed the most favorable dosimetry of all 3 techniques; however, the dosimetric effect of tumor motion was not evaluated. CA plans were significantly faster to treat, and minimize the interplay of tumor motion and dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion effects. Given these results, CA has become the treatment technique of choice at our facility. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of radiotherapy in the management of POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yang-Gun; Kim, Young-Suk; Suh, Chang-Ok; Kim, Yu Ri; Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Jaeho

    2014-11-28

    POEMS syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by an underlying plasma cell proliferative disease. In this study, we examined the treatment outcomes and role of radiotherapy in the management of POEMS syndrome. In total, 33 patients diagnosed with POEMS syndrome were analyzed. These patients presented with osteosclerotic myeloma (OSM, n = 13), Castleman's disease (CD, n = 4), OSM with CD (n = 10), and vascular endothelial growth factor elevation without gross lesions (VEGFe, n = 6), respectively. The patients were treated by radiotherapy alone (n = 4), chemotherapy alone (n = 16), or a combination thereof (n = 9). The clinical response rates of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy plus chemotherapy were 75%, 69%, and 89%, respectively. In addition, the hematologic response rates were 50%, 69%, and 71%, respectively. Among the six patients with limited multiple lesions who underwent radiotherapy, the clinical symptoms were improved in five patients after radiotherapy. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 51 months, and the median overall survival (OS) was 65 months. In univariate analysis, the administration of chemotherapy was significantly associated with better PFS (p = 0.007) and OS (p = 0.020). In contrast, underlying VEGFe was a significant factor worsening PFS (p = 0.035) and OS (p = 0.008). Radiotherapy produces a reliable clinical response and is effective in improving POEMS-associated symptoms that are refractory to chemotherapy in selected patients with clustered or limited multiple lesions that can be covered by single radiation field.

  18. Intraoperative radiotherapy and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeung, J M C; Ngan, S; Lynch, C; Heriot, A G

    2010-04-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a highly specialized component of multidisciplinary management of advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer. The aim of this review was to assess its role and effectiveness in the management of colorectal cancer. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, Ovid and Cochrane to identify English language studies which have used IORT in the multidisciplinary management of primary and recurrent colon and rectal cancers. Improved survival and local control in patients with involved surgical margins treated with IORT have been shown in many studies, but these results have been mainly from retrospective studies. There is associated morbidity from IORT. IORT does have a role in the management of colorectal cancer. Further research needs to be performed to optimize the application of this therapy.

  19. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Damato, Bertil; Kacperek, Andrzej; Chopra, Mona

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed inmore » another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control.« less

  20. Innovations in Radiotherapy Technology.

    PubMed

    Feain, I J; Court, L; Palta, J R; Beddar, S; Keall, P

    2017-02-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries, together with remote and low socioeconomic populations within high-income countries, lack the resources and services to deal with cancer. The challenges in upgrading or introducing the necessary services are enormous, from screening and diagnosis to radiotherapy planning/treatment and quality assurance. There are severe shortages not only in equipment, but also in the capacity to train, recruit and retain staff as well as in their ongoing professional development via effective international peer-review and collaboration. Here we describe some examples of emerging technology innovations based on real-time software and cloud-based capabilities that have the potential to redress some of these areas. These include: (i) automatic treatment planning to reduce physics staffing shortages, (ii) real-time image-guided adaptive radiotherapy technologies, (iii) fixed-beam radiotherapy treatment units that use patient (rather than gantry) rotation to reduce infrastructure costs and staff-to-patient ratios, (iv) cloud-based infrastructure programmes to facilitate international collaboration and quality assurance and (v) high dose rate mobile cobalt brachytherapy techniques for intraoperative radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  1. The interrelationship of research in the laboratory and the field to assess hydration status and determine mechanisms involved in water regulation during physical activity.

    PubMed

    Stachenfeld, Nina S

    2014-05-01

    Changes in skin blood and sweating are the primary mechanisms for heat loss in humans. A hot, humid environment concomitant with dehydration limits the ability to increase skin blood flow for the purpose of transferring heat from the body core to skin surface and evaporate sweat to maintain core temperature within safe limits during exercise. Adequate hydration improves thermoregulation by maintaining blood volume to support skin blood flow and sweating. Humans rely on fluid intake to maintain total body water and blood volume, and have developed complex mechanisms to sense changes in the amount and composition of fluid in the body. This paper addresses the interrelationship of research in the laboratory and the field to assess hydration status involved in body water and temperature regulation during exercise. In the controlled setting of a research laboratory, investigators are able to investigate the contributions of volume and tonicity of fluid in the plasma to body water and temperature regulation during exercise and recovery. For example, laboratory studies have shown that tonicity in a rehydration beverage maintains the thirst mechanism (and stimulates drinking), and contributes to the ongoing stimulation of renal fluid retention hormones, ultimately leading to a more complete rehydration. Research in the field cannot control the environment precisely, but these studies provide a natural, 'real-life' setting to study fluid and temperature regulation during exercise. The conditions encountered in the field are closest to the environment during competition, and data collected in the field can have an immediate impact on performance and safety during exercise. There is an important synergy between these two methods of collecting data that support performance and protect athletes from harm during training and improve performance during competition.

  2. Can involved-field irradiation replace elective nodal irradiation in chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Miao, Chuanwang; Chen, Zhen; Li, Wanhu; Yuan, Shuanghu; Yu, Jinming; Hu, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy is the most common treatment for inoperable esophageal cancer. However, there is no consensus on the delineation of the clinical target volume. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) is recommended for inoperable esophageal cancer. A few studies have reported a decrease in the incidence of radiation-related toxicity of involved-field irradiation (IFI) for esophageal cancer. A systematic review and pooled analysis were performed to determine whether IFI in definitive chemoradiotherapy was more beneficial than ENI for esophageal cancer. The results showed no significant differences in the overall survival and local control rates between the IFI and ENI arms. Meanwhile, the incidences of esophageal and lung toxicities were significantly decreased in the IFI arm. These results suggest that IFI is a feasible treatment option for locally advanced esophageal cancer, especially to minimize irradiation-related toxicity.

  3. Can involved-field irradiation replace elective nodal irradiation in chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Miao, Chuanwang; Chen, Zhen; Li, Wanhu; Yuan, Shuanghu; Yu, Jinming; Hu, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy is the most common treatment for inoperable esophageal cancer. However, there is no consensus on the delineation of the clinical target volume. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) is recommended for inoperable esophageal cancer. A few studies have reported a decrease in the incidence of radiation-related toxicity of involved-field irradiation (IFI) for esophageal cancer. A systematic review and pooled analysis were performed to determine whether IFI in definitive chemoradiotherapy was more beneficial than ENI for esophageal cancer. The results showed no significant differences in the overall survival and local control rates between the IFI and ENI arms. Meanwhile, the incidences of esophageal and lung toxicities were significantly decreased in the IFI arm. These results suggest that IFI is a feasible treatment option for locally advanced esophageal cancer, especially to minimize irradiation-related toxicity. PMID:28442917

  4. Three-dimensional conformal radiation for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with involved-field irradiation may deliver considerable doses of incidental nodal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kai; Zhao, Lujun; Yang, Chengwen; Meng, Maobin; Wang, Ping

    2012-11-27

    To quantify the incidental irradiation dose to esophageal lymph node stations when irradiating T1-4N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients with a dose of 60 Gy/30f. Thirty-nine patients with medically inoperable T1-4N0M0 thoracic ESCC were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation (3DCRT) with involved-field radiation (IFI). The conformal clinical target volume (CTV) was re-created using a 3-cm margin in the proximal and distal direction beyond the barium esophagogram, endoscopic examination and CT scan defined the gross tumor volume (GTV) and a 0.5-cm margin in the lateral and anteroposterior directions of the CT scan-defined GTV. The PTV encompassed 1-cm proximal and distal margins and 0.5-cm radial margin based on the CTV. Nodal regions were delineated using the Japanese Society for Esophageal Diseases (JSED) guidelines and an EORTC-ROG expert opinion. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and other dosimetric parameters were calculated for each nodal station. Nodal regions with a metastasis rate greater than 5% were considered a high-risk lymph node subgroup. Under a 60 Gy dosage, the median D mean and EUD was greater than 40 Gy in most high-risk nodal regions except for regions of 104, 106tb-R in upper-thoracic ESCC and 101, 104-R, 105, 106rec-L, 2, 3&7 in middle-thoracic ESCC and 107, 3&7 in lower-thoracic ESCC. In the regions with an EUD less than 40 Gy, most incidental irradiation doses were significantly associated with esophageal tumor length and location. Lymph node stations near ESCC receive considerable incidental irradiation doses with involved-field irradiation that may contribute to the elimination of subclinical lesions.

  5. Three-dimensional conformal radiation for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with involved-field irradiation may deliver considerable doses of incidental nodal irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To quantify the incidental irradiation dose to esophageal lymph node stations when irradiating T1-4N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients with a dose of 60 Gy/30f. Methods Thirty-nine patients with medically inoperable T1–4N0M0 thoracic ESCC were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation (3DCRT) with involved-field radiation (IFI). The conformal clinical target volume (CTV) was re-created using a 3-cm margin in the proximal and distal direction beyond the barium esophagogram, endoscopic examination and CT scan defined the gross tumor volume (GTV) and a 0.5-cm margin in the lateral and anteroposterior directions of the CT scan-defined GTV. The PTV encompassed 1-cm proximal and distal margins and 0.5-cm radial margin based on the CTV. Nodal regions were delineated using the Japanese Society for Esophageal Diseases (JSED) guidelines and an EORTC-ROG expert opinion. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and other dosimetric parameters were calculated for each nodal station. Nodal regions with a metastasis rate greater than 5% were considered a high-risk lymph node subgroup. Results Under a 60 Gy dosage, the median Dmean and EUD was greater than 40 Gy in most high-risk nodal regions except for regions of 104, 106tb-R in upper-thoracic ESCC and 101, 104-R, 105, 106rec-L, 2, 3&7 in middle-thoracic ESCC and 107, 3&7 in lower-thoracic ESCC. In the regions with an EUD less than 40Gy, most incidental irradiation doses were significantly associated with esophageal tumor length and location. Conclusions Lymph node stations near ESCC receive considerable incidental irradiation doses with involved-field irradiation that may contribute to the elimination of subclinical lesions. PMID:23186308

  6. Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Hypofractionated Radiotherapy for Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jennifer L; Li, Gordon; Shaffer, Jenny L; Azoulay, Melissa I; Gibbs, Iris C; Nagpal, Seema; Soltys, Scott G

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Standard therapy depends on patient age and performance status but principally involves surgical resection followed by a 6-wk course of radiation therapy given concurrently with temozolomide chemotherapy. Despite such treatment, prognosis remains poor, with a median survival of 16 mo. Challenges in achieving local control, maintaining quality of life, and limiting toxicity plague treatment strategies for this disease. Radiotherapy dose intensification through hypofractionation and stereotactic radiosurgery is a promising strategy that has been explored to meet these challenges. We review the use of hypofractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  7. Implementation of an intraoperative electron radiotherapy in vivo dosimetry program.

    PubMed

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Morillo-Macías, Virginia; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Boldó-Roda, Enrique; Lozoya-Albacar, Rafael; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos

    2016-03-15

    Intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) is a highly selective radiotherapy technique which aims to treat restricted anatomic volumes during oncological surgery and is now the subject of intense re-evaluation. In vivo dosimetry has been recommended for IOERT and has been identified as a risk-reduction intervention in the context of an IOERT risk analysis. Despite reports of fruitful experiences, information about in vivo dosimetry in intraoperative radiotherapy is somewhat scarce. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to report our experience in developing a program of in vivo dosimetry for IOERT, from both multidisciplinary and practical approaches, in a consistent patient series. We also report several current weaknesses. Reinforced TN-502RDM-H mobile metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and Gafchromic MD-55-2 films were used as a redundant in vivo treatment verification system with an Elekta Precise fixed linear accelerator for calibrations and treatments. In vivo dosimetry was performed in 45 patients in cases involving primary tumors or relapses. The most frequent primary tumors were breast (37 %) and colorectal (29 %), and local recurrences among relapses was 83 %. We made 50 attempts to measure with MOSFETs and 48 attempts to measure with films in the treatment zones. The surgical team placed both detectors with supervision from the radiation oncologist and following their instructions. The program was considered an overall success by the different professionals involved. The absorbed doses measured with MOSFETs and films were 93.8 ± 6.7 % and 97.9 ± 9.0 % (mean ± SD) respectively using a scale in which 90 % is the prescribed dose and 100 % is the maximum absorbed dose delivered by the beam. However, in 10 % of cases we experienced dosimetric problems due to detector misalignment, a situation which might be avoided with additional checks. The useful MOSFET lifetime length and the film sterilization procedure should also be

  8. Low-Dose Palliative Radiotherapy for Cutaneous B- and T-Cell Lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Karen J.; Schimmel, Erik C.; Vermeer, Maarten H.

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of low-dose palliative radiotherapy for both low-grade malignant cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCLs) and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (mycosis fungoides). Methods and Materials: A total of 18 patients with low-grade CBCL (10 primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell and 8 primary cutaneous follicle center lymphomas) with 44 symptomatic plaques and tumors underwent low-dose (4 Gy in two fractions) local radiotherapy. A total of 31 patients with mycosis fungoides were treated at 82 symptomatic sites, initially with 4 Gy and later with 8 Gy in two fractions. Results: The complete response rate for CBCL lesions was 72%. Of themore » 44 B-cell lymphoma lesions, 13 were re-treated to the same site after a median of 6.3 months because of persistent (n = 8) or recurrent (n = 5) symptomatic disease. Of the mycosis fungoides patients treated with 4 Gy in two fractions (17 lesions), 70% failed to respond. Increasing the dose to 8 Gy in two fractions yielded a complete response rate of 92% (60 of 65 lesions). The patients in whom low-dose radiotherapy failed were retreated with 20 Gy in eight fractions. Conclusion: Our results have demonstrated that low-dose involved-field radiotherapy induces a high response rate in both CBCL and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma lesions without any toxicity. Therefore, this treatment is now our standard palliative treatment. At progression, it is safe and feasible to apply greater radiation doses.« less

  9. Effect of low frequency, low amplitude magnetic fields on the permeability of cationic liposomes entrapping carbonic anhydrase: II. No evidence for surface enzyme involvement.

    PubMed

    Ramundo-Orlando, A; Mattia, F; Palombo, A; D'Inzeo, G

    2000-10-01

    Observations recently reported by our group indicate that combined 7 Hz sinusoidal (B(acpeak) = 50 mu T) and parallel static (B(dc) = 50 mu T) magnetic fields can induce a significant increase in diffusion rate of substrate across carbonic anhydrase (CA)-loaded liposomes (DPPC:Chol:SA). A direct involvement of charges of stearylamine (SA) on the lipid membrane surface was also demonstrated. Kinetic studies showed that CA was mainly entrapped in liposomes at 5:3:2 molar ratio, although a small amount (17%) of enzyme was also located on the external surface of these cationic liposomes. In this paper we report steady state kinetic studies on this latter CA after ELF-EMFs exposure. No difference in the apparent K(m) between exposed and sham samples was observed. On the contrary the apparent V(max) was increased by approximately a factor of 2 after field exposure. In spite of the proteolytic digestion of this external CA, a significant increase of enzymatic activity, as a function of increase in the diffusion rate of substrate across the lipid bilayer, was observed in the exposed samples. Based on these results, a conformational change induced by the field on the CA located on the external surface of 5:3:2 liposomes is excluded as an explanation for our previous observations, supporting the primary role of bilayer SA in the interaction with ELF. A model of ELF interaction, based on the Larmor precession theory, explaining the physical phenomenon induced on the dipole of SA has been developed. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Radiosurgery and radiotherapy for sacral tumors.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Iris C; Chang, Steven D

    2003-08-15

    Sacral tumors represent a small subset of spinal lesions and typically include chordomas, metastases, other primary bone tumors, and benign schwannomas. Resection is the standard treatment for many sacral tumors, but many types of sacral lesions have the potential for recurrence after excision. In these cases, adjuvant radiotherapy is often beneficial. Although conventional radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of spinal lesions, the radiation doses required for adequate local control of many sacral lesions generally exceed the tolerance doses of normal tissues, thus limiting its definitive role in the management of sacral tumors. Recent advances in the field of stereotactic radiosurgery have allowed precise targeting of the sacrum. In this report the authors review the use of these two forms of radiation treatment and their role in managing sacral tumors.

  11. Risk-adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yusung

    Currently, there is great interest in integrating biological information into intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning with the aim of boosting high-risk tumor subvolumes. Selective boosting of tumor subvolumes can be accomplished without violating normal tissue complication constraints using information from functional imaging. In this work we have developed a risk-adaptive optimization-framework that utilizes a nonlinear biological objective function. Employing risk-adaptive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, it is possible to increase the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) by up to 35.4 Gy in tumor subvolumes having the highest risk classification without increasing normal tissue complications. Subsequently, we have studied the impact of functional imaging accuracy, and found on the one hand that loss in sensitivity had a large impact on expected local tumor control, which was maximal when a low-risk classification for the remaining low risk PTV was chosen. While on the other hand loss in specificity appeared to have a minimal impact on normal tissue sparing. Therefore, it appears that in order to improve the therapeutic ratio a functional imaging technique with a high sensitivity, rather than specificity, is needed. Last but not least a comparison study between selective boosting IMRT strategies and uniform-boosting IMRT strategies yielding the same EUD to the overall PTV was carried out, and found that selective boosting IMRT considerably improves expected TCP compared to uniform-boosting IMRT, especially when lack of control of the high-risk tumor subvolumes is the cause of expected therapy failure. Furthermore, while selective boosting IMRT, using physical dose-volume objectives, did yield similar rectal and bladder sparing when compared its equivalent uniform-boosting IMRT plan, risk-adaptive radiotherapy, utilizing biological objective functions, did yield a 5.3% reduction in NTCP for the rectum. Hence, in risk-adaptive radiotherapy the

  12. Palliative radiotherapy practice within Western European countries: impact of the radiotherapy financing system?

    PubMed

    Lievens, Y; Van den Bogaert, W; Rijnders, A; Kutcher, G; Kesteloot, K

    2000-09-01

    calculations and field set-up, but without being statistically significant (P=0.264 and P=0.061 res.). The type of the centre and the reimbursement modality influence the fractionation regimen independently (P=0.0274). This is not the case for the centre size and the reimbursement, which were found to exert correlated effects on the fractionation schedule (P=0.1042). Reimbursement systems seem to influence radiotherapy practice. One should therefore aim to develop reimbursement criteria that pursue to deliver, not only the best qualitative, but also the most cost-effective treatments to the patients.

  13. Low-Dose Involved-Field Radiation in the Treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Predictors of Response and Treatment Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Andrea L., E-mail: alrusso@partners.org; Chen, Yu-Hui; Martin, Neil E.

    Purpose: To investigate clinical and pathologic factors significant in predicting local response and time to further treatment after low-dose involved-field radiation therapy (LD-IFRT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Records of NHL patients treated at a single institution between April 2004 and September 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Low-dose involved-field radiation therapy was given as 4 Gy in 2 fractions over 2 consecutive days. Treatment response and disease control were determined by radiographic studies and/or physical examination. A generalized estimating equation model was used to assess the effect of tumor and patient characteristics on disease response. A Cox proportional hazardsmore » regression model was used to assess time to further treatment. Results: We treated a total of 187 sites in 127 patients with LD-IFRT. Histologies included 66% follicular, 9% chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma, 10% marginal zone, 6% mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and 8% other. Median follow-up time was 23.4 months (range, 0.03-92.2 months). The complete response, partial response, and overall response rates were 57%, 25%, and 82%, respectively. A CLL histology was associated with a lower response rate (odds ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.5, P=.02). Tumor size, site, age at diagnosis, and prior systemic therapy were not associated with response. The median time to first recurrence was 13.6 months. Those with CLL and age ≤50 years at diagnosis had a shorter time to further treatment for local failures (hazard ratio [HR] 3.63, P=.01 and HR 5.50, P=.02, respectively). Those with CLL and MCL had a shorter time to further treatment for distant failures (HR 11.1 and 16.3, respectively, P<.0001). Conclusions: High local response rates were achieved with LD-IFRT across most histologies. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and MCL histologies and age ≤50 years at diagnosis had a shorter time to further treatment after LD-IFRT.« less

  14. Frontal eye field, where art thou? Anatomy, function, and non-invasive manipulation of frontal regions involved in eye movements and associated cognitive operations

    PubMed Central

    Vernet, Marine; Quentin, Romain; Chanes, Lorena; Mitsumasu, Andres; Valero-Cabré, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    The planning, control and execution of eye movements in 3D space relies on a distributed system of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Within this network, the Eye Fields have been described in animals as cortical regions in which electrical stimulation is able to trigger eye movements and influence their latency or accuracy. This review focuses on the Frontal Eye Field (FEF) a “hub” region located in Humans in the vicinity of the pre-central sulcus and the dorsal-most portion of the superior frontal sulcus. The straightforward localization of the FEF through electrical stimulation in animals is difficult to translate to the healthy human brain, particularly with non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Hence, in the first part of this review, we describe attempts made to characterize the anatomical localization of this area in the human brain. The outcome of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Magneto-encephalography (MEG) and particularly, non-invasive mapping methods such a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are described and the variability of FEF localization across individuals and mapping techniques are discussed. In the second part of this review, we will address the role of the FEF. We explore its involvement both in the physiology of fixation, saccade, pursuit, and vergence movements and in associated cognitive processes such as attentional orienting, visual awareness and perceptual modulation. Finally in the third part, we review recent evidence suggesting the high level of malleability and plasticity of these regions and associated networks to non-invasive stimulation. The exploratory, diagnostic, and therapeutic interest of such interventions for the modulation and improvement of perception in 3D space are discussed. PMID:25202241

  15. New quality assurance program integrating "modern radiotherapy" within the German Hodgkin Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kriz, J; Baues, C; Engenhart-Cabillic, R; Haverkamp, U; Herfarth, K; Lukas, P; Schmidberger, H; Marnitz-Schulze, S; Fuchs, M; Engert, A; Eich, H T

    2017-02-01

    Field design changed substantially from extended-field RT (EF-RT) to involved-field RT (IF-RT) and now to involved-node RT (IN-RT) and involved-site RT (IS-RT) as well as treatment techniques in radiotherapy (RT) of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the establishment of a quality assurance program (QAP) including modern RT techniques and field designs within the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). In the era of modern conformal RT, this QAP had to be fundamentally adapted and a new evaluation process has been intensively discussed by the radiotherapeutic expert panel of the GHSG. The expert panel developed guidelines and criteria to analyse "modern" field designs and treatment techniques. This work is based on a dataset of 11 patients treated within the sixth study generation (HD16-17). To develop a QAP of "modern RT", the expert panel defined criteria for analysing current RT procedures. The consensus of a modified QAP in ongoing and future trials is presented. With this schedule, the QAP of the GHSG could serve as a model for other study groups.

  16. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  17. Neurobehavioral and neurometabolic (SPECT) correlates of paranormal information: involvement of the right hemisphere and its sensitivity to weak complex magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Roll, W G; Persinger, M A; Webster, D L; Tiller, S G; Cook, C M

    2002-02-01

    Experiments were designed to help elucidate the neurophysiological correlates for the experiences reported by Sean Harribance. For most of his life he has routinely experienced "flashes of images" of objects that were hidden and of accurate personal information concerning people with whom he was not familiar. The specificity of details for target pictures of people was correlated positively with the proportion of occipital alpha activity. Results from a complete neuropsychological assessment, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and screening electroencephalography suggested that his experiences were associated with increased activity within the parietal lobe and occipital regions of the right hemisphere. Sensed presences (subjectively localized to his left side) were evoked when weak, magnetic fields, whose temporal structure simulated long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, were applied over his right temporoparietal lobes. These results suggest that the phenomena attributed to paranormal or "extrasensory" processes are correlated quantitatively with morphological and functional anomalies involving the right parietotemporal cortices (or its thalamic inputs) and the hippocampal formation.

  18. Laryngeal chondroradionecrosis following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Melo, Giulianno Molina; Souza, Paula Demetrio; Bastos, Luiz Castro; Neves, Murilo Catafesta; Espirito Santo, Kleber Simões do; Cervantes, Onivaldo; Abrahão, Márcio

    2017-01-01

    to study larynx chondroradionecrosis related to radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment and provide a treatment flowchart. retrospective study with clinical data analysis of all larynx cancer patients admitted in a two tertiary hospital in a five years period. from 131 patients treated for larynx cancer, 28 underwent chemoradiotherapy with curative intent and three of them presented chondroradionecrosis. They were treated with hiperbaric oxigen therapy and surgical debridment following our flowchart, preserving the larynx in all. the incidence of chondroradionecrosis as a complication of chemoradiotherapy in our series was 10,7% and the treatment with hiperbaric oxigen therapy, based in our flowchart, was effective to control this complication.

  19. Target volume delineation for radical radiotherapy of early oesophageal carcinoma in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Su, J; Zhu, S; Liu, Z; Zhao, Y; Song, C

    2017-02-01

    To compare the prognosis of elderly patients with early oesophageal carcinoma between radical elective nodal prophylactic irradiation and involved-field irradiation and to estimate the failure modes and adverse effects, then to provide the patients the safe and individual therapeutic regimens. The charts of 96 patients aged 65 and over with early stage oesophageal carcinoma receiving radical radiotherapy in our department were retrospectively analysed. Of all the patients, 49 received elective nodal prophylactic irradiation and the other 47 received involved-field irradiation. After completion of the whole treatment, we analysed short-term effects, tumour local control, overall survival of the patients, failure modes and adverse effects. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year local control rate in elective nodal irradiation and involved-field irradiation groups were 80.6%, 57.4%, 54.0% and 65.4%, 46.5%, 30.5% respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 =4.478, P=0.03). The differences of overall survival and progression-free survival were not significant (P>0.05). The difference of 1-, 3-, and 5-years local regional failure rate was statistically significant between elective nodal prophylactic irradiation and involved-field irradiation groups, except for the overall failure and distant metastasis rates. The overall incidence of radiation-induced oesophagitis after elective nodal irradiation or involved-field irradiation was 79.6% and 59.6%, and the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 =4.559, P=0.03). The difference of radiation pneumonitis between elective nodal prophylactic irradiation and involved-field irradiation was not significant (12.2% vs 14.9%; χ 2 =0.144, P=0.7). For elderly patients with early stage oesophageal carcinoma receiving radical radiotherapy, although elective nodal prophylactic irradiation could increase the incidence of radiation-induced oesophagitis, patients could tolerate the treatment and benefit from local

  20. Surgery Followed by Radiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression From Unfavorable Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Bajrovic, Amira

    Purpose: Despite a previously published randomized trial, controversy exists regarding the benefit of adding surgery to radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). It is thought that patients with MSCC from relatively radioresistant tumors or tumors associated with poor functional outcome after radiotherapy alone may benefit from surgery. This study focuses on these tumors. Methods and Materials: Data from 67 patients receiving surgery plus radiotherapy (S+RT) were matched to 134 patients (1:2) receiving radiotherapy alone (RT). Groups were matched for 10 factors and compared for motor function, ambulatory status, local control, and survival. Additional separate matched-pair analyses were performed formore » patients receiving direct decompressive surgery plus stabilization of involved vertebrae (DDSS) and patients receiving laminectomy (LE). Results: Improvement of motor function occurred in 22% of patients after S+RT and 16% after RT (p = 0.25). Posttreatment ambulatory rates were 67% and 61%, respectively (p = 0.68). Of nonambulatory patients, 29% and 19% (p = 0.53) regained ambulatory status. One-year local control rates were 85% and 89% (p = 0.87). One-year survival rates were 38% and 24% (p = 0.20). The matched-pair analysis of patients receiving LE showed no significant differences between both therapies. In the matched-pair analysis of patients receiving DDSS, improvement of motor function occurred more often after DDSS+RT than RT (28% vs. 19%, p = 0.024). Posttreatment ambulatory rates were 86% and 67% (p = 0.30); 45% and 18% of patients regained ambulatory status (p = 0.29). Conclusions: Patients with MSCC from an unfavorable primary tumor appeared to benefit from DDSS but not LE when added to radiotherapy in terms of improved functional outcome.« less

  1. Unilateral Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Tonsil Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chronowski, Gregory M., E-mail: gchronowski@mdanderson.org; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess, through a retrospective review, clinical outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with unilateral radiotherapy techniques that irradiate the involved tonsil region and ipsilateral neck only. Methods and Materials: Of 901 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated with radiotherapy at our institution, we identified 102 that were treated using unilateral radiotherapy techniques. All patients had their primary site of disease restricted to the tonsillar fossa or anterior pillar, with <1 cm involvement of the soft palate. Patients had TX (n =more » 17 patients), T1 (n = 52), or T2 (n = 33) disease, with Nx (n = 3), N0 (n = 33), N1 (n = 23), N2a (n = 21), or N2b (n = 22) neck disease. Results: Sixty-one patients (60%) underwent diagnostic tonsillectomy before radiotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (26%) underwent excision of a cervical lymph node or neck dissection before radiotherapy. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 38 months. Locoregional control at the primary site and ipsilateral neck was 100%. Two patients experienced contralateral nodal recurrence (2%). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 95% and 96%, respectively. The 5-year freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence rate was 96%. Nine patients required feeding tubes during therapy. Of the 2 patients with contralateral recurrence, 1 experienced an isolated neck recurrence and was salvaged with contralateral neck dissection only and remains alive and free of disease. The other patient presented with a contralateral base of tongue tumor and involved cervical lymph node, which may have represented a second primary tumor, and died of disease. Conclusions: Unilateral radiotherapy for patients with TX-T2, N0-N2b primary tonsil carcinoma results in high rates of disease control, with low rates of contralateral nodal failure and a low incidence of acute toxicity

  2. Comparison of Toxicity Between Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ling, Diane C; Hess, Clayton B; Chen, Allen M; Daly, Megan E

    2016-01-01

    The role of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in reducing treatment-related toxicity for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains incompletely defined. We compared acute toxicity and oncologic outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with IMRT or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-DCRT), with or without elective nodal irradiation (ENI). A single-institution retrospective review was performed evaluating 145 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed stage III NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Sixty-five (44.8%) were treated with 3-DCRT using ENI, 43 (30.0%) with 3-DCRT using involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT), and 37 (25.5%) with IMRT using IFRT. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Comparison of acute toxicities by treatment technique (IMRT vs. 3-DCRT) and extent of nodal irradiation (3-DCRT-IFRT vs. 3-DCRT-ENI) was performed for grade 2 or higher esophagitis or pneumonitis, number of acute hospitalizations, incidence of opioid requirement, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy utilization, and percentage weight loss during treatment. Local control and overall survival were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. We identified no significant differences in any measures of acute toxicity by treatment technique or extent of nodal irradiation. There was a trend toward lower rates of grade 2 or higher pneumonitis among IMRT patients compared to 3-DCRT patients (5.4% vs. 23.0%; P = .065). Local control and overall survival were similar between cohorts. Acute and subacute toxicities were similar for patients treated with IMRT and with 3-DCRT with or without ENI, with a nonsignificant trend toward a reduction in pneumonitis with IMRT. Larger studies are needed to better define which patients will benefit from IMRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Task sharing with radiotherapy technicians in image-guided radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Diaz, O; Lorchel, F; Revault, C; Mornex, F

    2013-10-01

    The development of accelerators with on-board imaging systems now allows better target volumes reset at the time of irradiation (image-guided radiotherapy [IGRT]). However, these technological advances in the control of repositioning led to a multiplication of tasks for each actor in radiotherapy and increase the time available for the treatment, whether for radiotherapy technicians or radiation oncologists. As there is currently no explicit regulatory framework governing the use of IGRT, some institutional experiments show that a transfer is possible between radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technicians for on-line verification of image positioning. Initial training for every technical and drafting procedures within institutions will improve audit quality by reducing interindividual variability. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  5. Definitive radiotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva and technical issues: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gokula; Norhafizah, I.; Shazril, I.; Nursyatina, AR; Aziz, MZ Abdul; Zin, Hafiz M.; Zakir, MK; Norjayadi; Norliza, AS; Ismail, A.; Khairun, N.

    2017-05-01

    This case report describes a complex radical 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy treatment planning, dosimetric issues and outcome of definitive treatment of un-resectable carcinoma of the vulvar in a 42-year old lady. The patient presented with large fungating mass of the vulva which was biopsy confirmed as Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Further staging investigation revealed locally advanced disease (T4), with bilateral inguinal lymph nodes involvement. There is no systemic metastasis or intra-pelvic nodes. The patient was seen by Gynae-Oncology team and the disease was deemed un-resectable without significant morbidity. She was treated to a total dose of 64.8Gy in 36 fractions over 7 weeks with concurrent weekly Cisplatinum in 2 phases. 3D-Conformal radiotherapy technique using the modified segmental boost technique (MSBT, large PA and small AP photon fields with inguinal electron matching) was used. TLD chips were used for in-vivo dose verification in phase 1 and 2 of the treatment. At completion of planned radiotherapy, patient had a complete clinical response, grade 2-3 skin toxicity, grade 2 rectal toxicity, and grade 2 dysuria Vulval Squamous Cell Carcinomas are very radiosensitive tumours and the skills of the treating Radiation Oncologist, Dosimetrists, Physicist, Radiation Therapist and also nurses is of foremost importance is ensuring good clinical outcomes.

  6. Estimation of Risk of Normal-tissue Toxicity Following Gastric Cancer Radiotherapy with Photon- or Scanned Proton-beams.

    PubMed

    Mondlane, Gracinda; Ureba, Ana; Gubanski, Michael; Lind, Pehr A; Siegbahn, Albert

    2018-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) radiotherapy involves irradiation of large tumour volumes located in the proximities of critical structures. The advantageous dose distributions produced by scanned-proton beams could reduce the irradiated volumes of the organs at risk (OARs). However, treatment-induced side-effects may still appear. The aim of this study was to estimate the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) following proton therapy of GC, compared to photon radiotherapy. Eight GC patients, previously treated with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), were retrospectively planned with scanned proton beams carried out with the single-field uniform-dose (SFUD) method. A beam-specific planning target volume was used for spot positioning and a clinical target volume (CTV) based robust optimisation was performed considering setup- and range-uncertainties. The dosimetric and NTCP values obtained with the VMAT and SFUD plans were compared. With SFUD, lower or similar dose-volume values were obtained for OARs, compared to VMAT. NTCP values of 0% were determined with the VMAT and SFUD plans for all OARs (p>0.05), except for the left kidney (p<0.05), for which lower toxicity was estimated with SFUD. The NTCP reduction, determined for the left kidney with SFUD, can be of clinical relevance for preserving renal function after radiotherapy of GC. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. An electromechanical, patient positioning system for head and neck radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostyn, Mark; Dwyer, Thomas; Miller, Matthew; King, Paden; Sacks, Rachel; Cruikshank, Ross; Rosario, Melvin; Martinez, Daniel; Kim, Siyong; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-09-01

    In cancer treatment with radiation, accurate patient setup is critical for proper dose delivery. Improper arrangement can lead to disease recurrence, permanent organ damage, or lack of disease control. While current immobilization equipment often helps for patient positioning, manual adjustment is required, involving iterative, time-consuming steps. Here, we present an electromechanical robotic system for improving patient setup in radiotherapy, specifically targeting head and neck cancer. This positioning system offers six degrees of freedom for a variety of applications in radiation oncology. An analytical calculation of inverse kinematics serves as fundamental criteria to design the system. Computational mechanical modeling and experimental study of radiotherapy compatibility and x-ray-based imaging demonstrates the device feasibility and reliability to be used in radiotherapy. An absolute positioning accuracy test in a clinical treatment room supports the clinical feasibility of the system.

  8. Radiotherapy Planning using MRI

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria A; Payne, Geoffrey S

    2016-01-01

    The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Radiotherapy (RT) planning is rapidly expanding. We review the wide range of image contrast mechanisms available to MRI and the way they are exploited for RT planning. However a number of challenges are also considered: the requirements that MR images are acquired in the RT treatment position, that they are geometrically accurate, that effects of patient motion during the scan are minimised, that tissue markers are clearly demonstrated, that an estimate of electron density can be obtained. These issues are discussed in detail, prior to the consideration of a number of specific clinical applications. This is followed by a brief discussion on the development of real-time MRI-guided RT. PMID:26509844

  9. [Porting Radiotherapy Software of Varian to Cloud Platform].

    PubMed

    Zou, Lian; Zhang, Weisha; Liu, Xiangxiang; Xie, Zhao; Xie, Yaoqin

    2017-09-30

    To develop a low-cost private cloud platform of radiotherapy software. First, a private cloud platform which was based on OpenStack and the virtual GPU hardware was builded. Then on the private cloud platform, all the Varian radiotherapy software modules were installed to the virtual machine, and the corresponding function configuration was completed. Finally the software on the cloud was able to be accessed by virtual desktop client. The function test results of the cloud workstation show that a cloud workstation is equivalent to an isolated physical workstation, and any clients on the LAN can use the cloud workstation smoothly. The cloud platform transplantation in this study is economical and practical. The project not only improves the utilization rates of radiotherapy software, but also makes it possible that the cloud computing technology can expand its applications to the field of radiation oncology.

  10. Addition of Rituximab to Involved-Field Radiation Therapy Prolongs Progression-free Survival in Stage I-II Follicular Lymphoma: Results of a Multicenter Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ruella, Marco; Center for Cellular Immunotherapies, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo

    Purpose: Rituximab (Rit) therapy added to involved-field radiation therapy (RT) has been proposed as an effective treatment for stage I-II follicular lymphoma (FL). The results of an observational multicenter study on the Rit-RT combination in limited-stage FL are here reported. Methods and Materials: Data have been collected from 2 consecutive cohorts of 94 patients with stage I-II FL treated between 1985 and 2011 at 5 Italian institutions. All patients had grade 1-3a FL, a median age of 54 years (range: 25-82). The first 51 patients received RT alone (control group), while the subsequent series of 43 patients received 4 rituximab coursesmore » (375 mg/m{sup 2}, days 1, 8, 15, 22) before RT (Rit-RT). Molecular disease was evaluated by nested bcl-2/IgH PCR or clonal IgH rearrangement was available in 33 Rit-RT patients. Results: At a median follow-up of 10.9 years (range: 1.8-22.9), the 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) projections for the whole cohort were 57% and 87.5%, respectively. The 10-year PFS was significantly longer (P<.05) in the Rit-RT group (64.6%) compared to RT alone (50.7%), whereas the 10-year OS projections were not significantly different. On bivariate analysis controlling for stage, there was only a trend toward improved PFS for Rit-RT (HR, 0.55; P=.081). Follicular lymphoma international prognostic index and age were associated with OS but not with PFS on Cox regression analysis. Bone marrow molecular analysis showing PCR positivity at diagnosis was strongly associated with relapse risk upon univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions: This multicenter observational study suggests a potential benefit of adding rituximab to radiation therapy for stage I-II FL. The results of the currently ongoing randomized studies are required to confirm these results. The study underlines the importance of molecular disease monitoring also for patient with limited-stage disease.« less

  11. Treating locally advanced lung cancer with a 1.5T MR-Linac - Effects of the magnetic field and irradiation geometry on conventionally fractionated and isotoxic dose-escalated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Hannah E; Menten, Martin J; Fast, Martin F; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe; McDonald, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility and potential benefits of radiotherapy with a 1.5T MR-Linac for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) patients. Ten patients with LA NSCLC were retrospectively re-planned six times: three treatment plans were created according to a protocol for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy and three treatment plans following guidelines for isotoxic target dose escalation. In each case, two plans were designed for the MR-Linac, either with standard (∼7mm) or reduced (∼3mm) planning target volume (PTV) margins, while one conventional linac plan was created with standard margins. Treatment plan quality was evaluated using dose-volume metrics or by quantifying dose escalation potential. All generated treatment plans fulfilled their respective planning constraints. For conventionally fractionated treatments, MR-Linac plans with standard margins had slightly increased skin dose when compared to conventional linac plans. Using reduced margins alleviated this issue and decreased exposure of several other organs-at-risk (OAR). Reduced margins also enabled increased isotoxic target dose escalation. It is feasible to generate treatment plans for LA NSCLC patients on a 1.5T MR-Linac. Margin reduction, facilitated by an envisioned MRI-guided workflow, enables increased OAR sparing and isotoxic target dose escalation for the respective treatment approaches. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. On Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Michael B.

    Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…

  13. Optic nerve sheath meningiomas: visual improvement after stereotactic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, James K; Forman, Scott; Hershewe, Gerard L; Moorthy, Chitti R; Benzil, Deborah L

    2002-05-01

    The management of primary optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) is controversial. Surgery often results in postoperative blindness in the affected eye and thus has been abandoned as a treatment option for most patients. When these tumors are left untreated, however, progressive visual impairment ensues, which also leads to blindness. Recently, radiation therapy has gained wider acceptance in the treatment of these lesions. Experience with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) in the treatment of ONSMs is limited because of the rare incidence of this tumor. We present a series of patients with ONSM who were treated with SRT. Five patients (three women, two men), ranging in age from 40 to 73 years, presented with progressive visual loss with decreased visual field, visual acuity, and color vision affecting six eyes (one patient had tumor involving both optic nerves). One patient also presented with proptosis and diplopia. Five eyes had functional residual vision (range, 20/20 to 20/40), and one eye was completely blind. All five patients were diagnosed clinically and radiographically to have an ONSM. Three were intraorbital, one was intracanalicular as well as intraorbital, and one was a left ONSM extending through the optic foramen into the intracranial space and involving the right optic nerve. The five functional eyes were treated with SRT by use of 1.8-Gy fractions to a cumulative dose of 45 to 54 Gy. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 7 years, and serial magnetic resonance imaging revealed no changes in the size of the tumor in all five patients. Four patients experienced dramatic improvement in visual acuity, visual field, and color vision within 3 months after SRT. One patient remained stable without evidence of visual deterioration or disease progression. None had radiation-induced optic neuropathy. SRT may be a viable option for treatment of primary ONSM in patients with documented progressive visual deterioration, and it may be effective in improving or stabilizing

  14. Design and Shielding of Radiotherapy Treatment Facilities; IPEM Report 75, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Patrick; Eaton, David

    2017-07-01

    Design and Shielding of Radiotherapy Treatment Facilities provides readers with a single point of reference for protection advice to the construction and modification of radiotherapy facilities. The book assembles a faculty of national and international experts on all modalities including megavoltage and kilovoltage photons, brachytherapy and high-energy particles, and on conventional and Monte Carlo shielding calculations. This book is a comprehensive reference for qualified experts and radiation-shielding designers in radiation physics and also useful to anyone involved in the design of radiotherapy facilities.

  15. Improving oncoplastic breast tumor bed localization for radiotherapy planning using image registration algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodzinski, Marek; Skalski, Andrzej; Ciepiela, Izabela; Kuszewski, Tomasz; Kedzierawski, Piotr; Gajda, Janusz

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge about tumor bed localization and its shape analysis is a crucial factor for preventing irradiation of healthy tissues during supportive radiotherapy and as a result, cancer recurrence. The localization process is especially hard for tumors placed nearby soft tissues, which undergo complex, nonrigid deformations. Among them, breast cancer can be considered as the most representative example. A natural approach to improving tumor bed localization is the use of image registration algorithms. However, this involves two unusual aspects which are not common in typical medical image registration: the real deformation field is discontinuous, and there is no direct correspondence between the cancer and its bed in the source and the target 3D images respectively. The tumor no longer exists during radiotherapy planning. Therefore, a traditional evaluation approach based on known, smooth deformations and target registration error are not directly applicable. In this work, we propose alternative artificial deformations which model the tumor bed creation process. We perform a comprehensive evaluation of the most commonly used deformable registration algorithms: B-Splines free form deformations (B-Splines FFD), different variants of the Demons and TV-L1 optical flow. The evaluation procedure includes quantitative assessment of the dedicated artificial deformations, target registration error calculation, 3D contour propagation and medical experts visual judgment. The results demonstrate that the currently, practically applied image registration (rigid registration and B-Splines FFD) are not able to correctly reconstruct discontinuous deformation fields. We show that the symmetric Demons provide the most accurate soft tissues alignment in terms of the ability to reconstruct the deformation field, target registration error and relative tumor volume change, while B-Splines FFD and TV-L1 optical flow are not an appropriate choice for the breast tumor bed localization problem

  16. [Anatomic foundation of the lateral portal for radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC)].

    PubMed

    Wei, B Q; Feng, P B; Li, J Z

    1987-05-01

    Basing on 31 normal skulls, the lateral projections of some points relative to the bony structure near the nasopharynx were located under the simulator, followed by drawing it on a sheet of paper with the aid of geometry and trigonometry. Thus, the relation between external and internal structures is shown on the drawn projection, which can serve as the anatomic basis for designing the routine field and improving radiotherapy technique. In the light of data informed by this study and clinical experiences of the authors and others, it was found logical, in radiotherapy of NPC, that large opposing lateral pre-auriculo-cervical portals with their posterior margin extending beyond the external auditory meatus posteriorly be used in order to avoid geographic miss of the uppermost deep cervical lymph nodes usually involved beneath the jugular foramen and posterior portion of the nasopharynx. In addition, the upper margin of the lateral portal must be parallel but superior to the cantho-auditory line, on which the foramen ovale is projected. Actual locating the upper margin should depend on the extent of the intracranial invasion of the tumor as shown by the CT scan.

  17. [Principles of radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Esik, Olga; Horváth, Akos; Bajcsay, András; Hideghéty, Katalin; Agócs, László; Pikó, Béla; Lengyel, Zsolt; Petrányi, Agota; Pisch, Julianna

    2002-01-01

    The long-term survival probability for Hungarian lung cancer patients is 10% worse than the best results published in the most highly developed countries (the mean 5-year survival probability in Hungary is 5%, in contrast with the 15% survival probability in the USA). On the basis of the international recommendations and personal experience, an attempt was made to formulate the guidelines for radiotherapy as one of the fundamental non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment modalities for national use. An expert panel was set up comprising physicians from 6 radiotherapeutic centers (the National Institute of Oncology / Semmelweis University, Budapest; the Beth Israel Medical Center, New York; the University of Kaposvár; the University of Essen; the University of Debrecen; and the County Hospital of Gyula). Experts in two important medical fields closely related to radiotherapy (surgery and diagnostic imaging) were also engaged in the elaboration of the manuscript. Discussion of the most important principles of the radiotherapy and an overview of the prognostic factors was followed by a critical analysis of the protocols applied in the radiotherapy of Hungarian NSCLC patients during recent decades. The new guidelines suggested for the radiotherapy of NSCLC are presented separately for the postoperative period, marginally resectable tumors, and the aggressive or non-aggressive radiotherapy of inoperable tumors. Detailed accounts are given of the techniques of external irradiation and brachytherapy, and of the acute and late radiation-induced damage of normal tissues. The authors believe that this document may be instrumental in improving the survival index of Hungarian NSCLC patients in the near future.

  18. Evolution of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad, Osama; Makishima, Hirokazu; Kamada, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    Charged particles can achieve better dose distribution and higher biological effectiveness compared to photon radiotherapy. Carbon ions are considered an optimal candidate for cancer treatment using particles. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan was the first radiotherapy hospital dedicated for carbon ion treatments in the world. Since its establishment in 1994, the NIRS has pioneered this therapy with more than 69 clinical trials so far, and hundreds of ancillary projects in physics and radiobiology. In this review, we will discuss the evolution of carbon ion radiotherapy at the NIRS and some of the current and future projects in the field. PMID:29509684

  19. Evolution of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Osama; Makishima, Hirokazu; Kamada, Tadashi

    2018-03-06

    Charged particles can achieve better dose distribution and higher biological effectiveness compared to photon radiotherapy. Carbon ions are considered an optimal candidate for cancer treatment using particles. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan was the first radiotherapy hospital dedicated for carbon ion treatments in the world. Since its establishment in 1994, the NIRS has pioneered this therapy with more than 69 clinical trials so far, and hundreds of ancillary projects in physics and radiobiology. In this review, we will discuss the evolution of carbon ion radiotherapy at the NIRS and some of the current and future projects in the field.

  20. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  1. Dynamic 3D measurement of modulated radiotherapy: a scintillator-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Louis; Rilling, Madison; Roy-Pomerleau, Xavier; Thibault, Simon

    2017-05-01

    With the rise of high-conformity dynamic radiotherapy, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy and robotic radiosurgery, the temporal dimension of dose measurement is becoming increasingly important. It must be possible to tell both ‘where’ and ‘when’ a discrepancy occurs between the plan and its delivery. A 3D scintillation-based dosimetry system could be ideal for such a thorough, end-to-end verification; however, the challenge lies in retrieving the volumetric information of the light-emitting volume. This paper discusses the motivation, from an optics point of view, of using the images acquired with a plenoptic camera, or light field imager, of an irradiated plastic scintillator volume to reconstruct the delivered 3D dose distribution. Current work focuses on the optimization of the optical design as well as the data processing that is involved in the ongoing development of a clinically viable, second generation dosimetry system.

  2. Use of stereotactic intensity-modulated radiotherapy in thyroid-related ophthalmopathy. Case report.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Salvador; Saboori, Mehran; Forman, Scott; Moorthy, Chitti R; Benzil, Deborah L

    2004-11-01

    Thyroid-related ophthalmopathy (TRO), a debilitating condition involving a range of visual and orbital symptoms, occurs in up to 40% of patients with Graves disease. The goals of treatment include correcting thyroid dysfunction, relieving ocular pain, preserving vision, and improving cosmetic appearance. Options for therapy include symptomatic treatment, glucocorticoid medication, radiation therapy, and surgery. Traditional radiation treatment uses small opposed bilateral fields consisting of retrobulbar volumes and customized blocks to shield periorbital structures. The combination of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and stereotactic technology facilitates the administration of radiation to patients suffering from TRO and provides greater safety and efficacy than traditional treatment. The authors present the case of a patient with severe TRO whose symptoms resolved rapidly after treatment with stereotactic IMRT. The outcome in this case supports stereotactic IMRT as an effective treatment option for patients with TRO who also undergo radiation therapy.

  3. Reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancers using charged particle or photon radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Demizu, Yusuke; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Ogita, Mikio; Himei, Kengo; Nakamura, Satoaki; Suzuki, Gen; Yoshida, Ken; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Oh, Ryoongjin

    2017-07-01

    To examine the outcomes of reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancers using different modalities. This retrospective study included 26 patients who received charged particle radiotherapy (CP) and 150 who received photon radiotherapy (117 CyberKnife radiotherapy [CK] and 36 intensity-modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) involving propensity scores was used to reduce background selection bias. Higher prescribed doses were used in CP than photon radiotherapy. The 1‑year overall survival (OS) rates were 67.9% for CP and 54.1% for photon radiotherapy (p = 0.15; 55% for CK and 51% for IMRT). In multivariate Cox regression, the significant prognostic factors for better survival were nasopharyngeal cancer, higher prescribed dose, and lower tumor volume. IPTW showed a statistically significant difference between CP and photon radiotherapy (p = 0.04). The local control rates for patients treated with CP and photon radiotherapy at 1 year were 66.9% (range 46.3-87.5%) and 67.1% (range 58.3-75.9%), respectively. A total of 48 patients (27%) experienced toxicity grade ≥3 (24% in the photon radiotherapy group and 46% in the CP group), including 17 patients with grade 5 toxicity. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age and a larger planning target volume (PTV) were significant risk factors for grade 3 or worse toxicity. CP provided superior survival outcome compared to photon radiotherapy. Tumor volume, primary site (nasopharyngeal), and prescribed dose were identified as survival factors. Younger patients with a larger PTV experienced toxicity grade ≥3.

  4. Magnetic field effects on electron transfer reactions involving sextet-spin ( S = 5/2) intermediates generated on photoexcitation of a Cr(III)-porphyrin complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yukie; Hoshino, Mikio; Hayashi, Hisaharu

    The excited trip-sextet ( 6 T 1 ) state of chloro-(3-methylimidazol)-( meso -tetraphenylporphyrinato) chromium(III) (Cr III P) is quenched by 1,1 '-dibenzyl-4,4 '-bipyridinium (BV 2+ ) in acetonitrile through electron transfer to give 5 (Cr III P .+ ) and 2 BV .+ . The intermediate is a geminate ion pair in the sextet (Sx) state 6 [ 5 (Cr III P .+ ) 2 BV .+ ], which decays through either the escape from a solvent cage to give the free ions or the spin conversion to the quartet (Qa) state followed by back electron transfer. The free ion yield ( ΦFI ) increased with increasing magnetic field from 0 to 4 T and then slightly decreased from 4 T to 10 T. These magnetic field effects are explained as follows. Under low fields where the Zeeman splitting of the spin sublevels is lower than or comparable with the electron spin dipole-dipole interaction within 5 (Cr III P .+ ), this interaction effectively induces the Sx ⇔Qa conversion of [ 5 (Cr III P .+ ) 2 BV + ] to result in low ΦFI values. Under high fields where the Zeeman splitting is larger than the dipole-dipole interaction, the Sx Qa conversion is decreased with increasing field to cause higher ΦFI values. The slight decrease in ΦFI above 4 T may be due to the Δg mechanism.

  5. Target margins in radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on the use of margins in radiotherapy of patients with prostate cancer, focusing on different options for image guidance (IG) and technical issues. The search in PubMed database was limited to include studies that involved external beam radiotherapy of the intact prostate. Post-prostatectomy studies, brachytherapy and particle therapy were excluded. Each article was characterized according to the IG strategy used: positioning on external marks using room lasers, bone anatomy and soft tissue match, usage of fiducial markers, electromagnetic tracking and adapted delivery. A lack of uniformity in margin selection among institutions was evident from the review. In general, introduction of pre- and in-treatment IG was associated with smaller planning target volume (PTV) margins, but there was a lack of definitive experimental/clinical studies providing robust information on selection of exact PTV values. In addition, there is a lack of comparative research regarding the cost–benefit ratio of the different strategies: insertion of fiducial markers or electromagnetic transponders facilitates prostate gland localization but at a price of invasive procedure; frequent pre-treatment imaging increases patient in-room time, dose and labour; online plan adaptation should improve radiation delivery accuracy but requires fast and precise computation. Finally, optimal protocols for quality assurance procedures need to be established. PMID:27377353

  6. Expanding global access to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Jaffray, David A; Barton, Michael B; Bray, Freddie; Baumann, Michael; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Hanna, Timothy P; Knaul, Felicia M; Lievens, Yolande; Lui, Tracey Y M; Milosevic, Michael; O'Sullivan, Brian; Rodin, Danielle L; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Van Dyk, Jacob; Yap, Mei Ling; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical and inseparable component of comprehensive cancer treatment and care. For many of the most common cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, radiotherapy is essential for effective treatment. In high-income countries, radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cases of cancer to cure localised disease, palliate symptoms, and control disease in incurable cancers. Yet, in planning and building treatment capacity for cancer, radiotherapy is frequently the last resource to be considered. Consequently, worldwide access to radiotherapy is unacceptably low. We present a new body of evidence that quantifies the worldwide coverage of radiotherapy services by country. We show the shortfall in access to radiotherapy by country and globally for 2015-35 based on current and projected need, and show substantial health and economic benefits to investing in radiotherapy. The cost of scaling up radiotherapy in the nominal model in 2015-35 is US$26·6 billion in low-income countries, $62·6 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $94·8 billion in upper-middle-income countries, which amounts to $184·0 billion across all low-income and middle-income countries. In the efficiency model the costs were lower: $14·1 billion in low-income, $33·3 billion in lower-middle-income, and $49·4 billion in upper-middle-income countries-a total of $96·8 billion. Scale-up of radiotherapy capacity in 2015-35 from current levels could lead to saving of 26·9 million life-years in low-income and middle-income countries over the lifetime of the patients who received treatment. The economic benefits of investment in radiotherapy are very substantial. Using the nominal cost model could produce a net benefit of $278·1 billion in 2015-35 ($265·2 million in low-income countries, $38·5 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $239·3 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Investment in the efficiency model would produce in the same period an even

  7. Radiotherapy dosimetry using a commercial OSL system.

    PubMed

    Viamonte, A; da Rosa, L A R; Buckley, L A; Cherpak, A; Cygler, J E

    2008-04-01

    A commercial optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) system developed for radiation protection dosimetry by Landauer, Inc., the InLight microStar reader, was tested for dosimetry procedures in radiotherapy. The system uses carbon-doped aluminum oxide, Al2O3:C, as a radiation detector material. Using this OSL system, a percent depth dose curve for 60Co gamma radiation was measured in solid water. Field size and SSD dependences of the detector response were also evaluated. The dose response relationship was investigated between 25 and 400 cGy. The decay of the response with time following irradiation and the energy dependence of the Al2O3:C OSL detectors were also measured. The results obtained using OSL dosimeters show good agreement with ionization chamber and diode measurements carried out under the same conditions. Reproducibility studies show that the response of the OSL system to repeated exposures is 2.5% (1sd), indicating a real possibility of applying the Landauer OSL commercial system for radiotherapy dosimetric procedures.

  8. Effect of low frequency, low amplitude magnetic fields on the permeability of cationic liposomes entrapping carbonic anhydrase: I. Evidence for charged lipid involvement.

    PubMed

    Ramundo-Orlando, A; Morbiducci, U; Mossa, G; D'Inzeo, G

    2000-10-01

    The influence of low frequency (4-16 Hz), low amplitude (25-75 mu T) magnetic fields on the diffusion processes in enzyme-loaded unilamellar liposomes as bioreactors was studied. Cationic liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and charged lipid stearylamine (SA) at different molar ratios (6:3:1 or 5:3:2) were used. Previous kinetic experiments showed a very low self-diffusion rate of the substrate p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) across intact liposome bilayer. After 60 min of exposure to 7 Hz sinusoidal (50 mu T peak) and parallel static (50 mu T) magnetic fields the enzyme activity, as a function of increased diffusion rate of p-NPA, rose from 17 +/- 3% to 80 +/- 9% (P < .0005, n = 15) in the 5:3:2 liposomes. This effect was dependent on the SA concentration in the liposomes. Only the presence of combined sinusoidal (AC) and static (DC) magnetic fields affected the p-NPA diffusion rates. No enzyme leakage was observed. Such studies suggest a plausible link between the action of extremely low frequency magnetic field on charged lipids and a change of membrane permeability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Measuring dose from radiotherapy treatments in the vicinity of a cardiac pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Peet, Samuel C; Wilks, Rachael; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the dose absorbed by tissues surrounding artificial cardiac pacemakers during external beam radiotherapy procedures. The usefulness of out-of-field reference data, treatment planning systems, and skin dose measurements to estimate the dose in the vicinity of a pacemaker was also examined. Measurements were performed by installing a pacemaker onto an anthropomorphic phantom, and using radiochromic film and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters to measure the dose in the vicinity of the device during the delivery of square fields and clinical treatment plans. It was found that the dose delivered in the vicinity of the cardiac device was unevenly distributed both laterally and anteroposteriorly. As the device was moved distally from the square field, the dose dropped exponentially, in line with out-of-field reference data in the literature. Treatment planning systems were found to substantially underestimate the dose for volumetric modulated arc therapy, helical tomotherapy, and 3D conformal treatments. The skin dose was observed to be either greater or lesser than the dose received at the depth of the device, depending on the treatment site, and so care should be if skin dose measurements are to be used to estimate the dose to a pacemaker. Square field reference data may be used as an upper estimate of absorbed dose per monitor unit in the vicinity of a cardiac device for complex treatments involving multiple gantry angles. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiotherapy for gastric lymphoma: a planning study of 3D conformal radiotherapy, the half-beam method, and intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Koji; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Wakita, Akihisa; Nakamura, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Murakami, Naoya; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2014-11-01

    During radiotherapy for gastric lymphoma, it is difficult to protect the liver and kidneys in cases where there is considerable overlap between these organs and the target volume. This study was conducted to compare the three radiotherapy planning techniques of four-fields 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), half-field radiotherapy (the half-beam method) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) used to treat primary gastric lymphoma in which the planning target volume (PTV) had a large overlap with the left kidney. A total of 17 patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were included. In DLBCL, immunochemotherapy (Rituximab + CHOP) was followed by radiotherapy of 40 Gy to the whole stomach and peri-gastric lymph nodes. 3DCRT, the half-field method, and IMRT were compared with respect to the dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) to the kidneys, liver and PTV. The mean dose and gEUD for 3DCRT was higher than for IMRT and the half-beam method in the left kidney and both kidneys. The mean dose and gEUD of the left kidney was 2117 cGy and 2224 cGy for 3DCRT, 1520 cGy and 1637 cGy for IMRT, and 1100 cGy and 1357 cGy for the half-beam method, respectively. The mean dose and gEUD of both kidneys was 1335 cGy and 1559 cGy for 3DCRT, 1184 cGy and 1311 cGy for IMRT, and 700 cGy and 937 cGy for the half-beam method, respectively. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the liver revealed a larger volume was irradiated in the dose range <25 Gy with 3DCRT, while the half-beam method irradiated a larger volume of liver with the higher dose range (>25 Gy). IMRT and the half-beam method had the advantages of dose reduction for the kidneys and liver. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  11. Radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ and risk of second non-breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Withrow, Diana R; Morton, Lindsay M; Curtis, Rochelle E; Schonfeld, Sara J; Berrington de González, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma (DCIS) is increasing, but the risks and benefits of the treatment remain uncertain. We aimed to investigate the relationship between radiotherapy for DCIS and risk of second non-breast cancers in a large US cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 52,556 women in 12 U.S. population-based cancer registries diagnosed with first primary DCIS during 1992-2008 at age 25-79 years. We estimated relative risks (RRs), attributable risks (AR), and excess absolute risks (EAR) of second non-breast cancers associated with radiotherapy using Poisson regression adjusted for age at year of diagnosis, grade, hormonal therapy (yes/no or unknown), and time since diagnosis. Approximately half of the women (46.3%) received radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was associated with an increased risk of all second non-breast cancers combined [RR 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.28] and all in-field, radiation-related second cancers combined (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.63), driven by second lung cancers (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.10-1.60) and non-CLL leukemia (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.02-2.86). The estimated cumulative excess risk of all second non-breast cancers was 0.8% by 15 years after DCIS diagnosis. Radiotherapy was associated with an increased risk of second non-breast cancers. The specific excess of cancers at sites likely in/near the radiotherapy field suggests the findings are unlikely due exclusively to confounding, but further research into factors related to receipt of radiotherapy is needed. Our risk estimates can be used to help assess the balance of the risks and benefits of radiotherapy for DCIS and to inform clinical practice.

  12. Investigation of photon beam models in heterogeneous media of modern radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, W; Johnston, P N; Wong, T P Y; Bubb, I F

    2004-06-01

    This study investigates the performance of photon beam models in dose calculations involving heterogeneous media in modern radiotherapy. Three dose calculation algorithms implemented in the CMS FOCUS treatment planning system have been assessed and validated using ionization chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and film. The algorithms include the multigrid superposition (MGS) algorithm, fast Fourier Transform Convolution (FFTC) algorithm and Clarkson algorithm. Heterogeneous phantoms used in the study consist of air cavities, lung analogue and an anthropomorphic phantom. Depth dose distributions along the central beam axis for 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams with field sizes of 5 cm x 5 cm and 10 cm x 10 cm were measured in the air cavity phantoms and lung analogue phantom. Point dose measurements were performed in the anthropomorphic phantom. Calculated results with three dose calculation algorithms were compared with measured results. In the air cavity phantoms, the maximum dose differences between the algorithms and the measurements were found at the distal surface of the air cavity with a 10 MV photon beam and a 5 cm x 5 cm field size. The differences were 3.8%. 24.9% and 27.7% for the MGS. FFTC and Clarkson algorithms. respectively. Experimental measurements of secondary electron build-up range beyond the air cavity showed an increase with decreasing field size, increasing energy and increasing air cavity thickness. The maximum dose differences in the lung analogue with 5 cm x 5 cm field size were found to be 0.3%. 4.9% and 6.9% for the MGS. FFTC and Clarkson algorithms with a 6 MV photon beam and 0.4%. 6.3% and 9.1% with a 10 MV photon beam, respectively. In the anthropomorphic phantom, the dose differences between calculations using the MGS algorithm and measurements with TLD rods were less than +/-4.5% for 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams with 10 cm x 10 cm field size and 6 MV photon beam with 5 cm x 5 cm field size, and within +/-7.5% for 10 MV with 5 cm

  13. Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachkoria, Ketevan; Zhang Hong; Adell, Gunnar

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy.more » Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p {<=} 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors.« less

  14. Involvement of the immune response in the cure of metastatic murine CT-26 colon carcinoma by low electric field-enhanced chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, Alexander; Tichler, Thomas; Korenstein, Rafi; Keisari, Yona

    2005-12-10

    Low electric field cancer treatment-enhanced chemotherapy (LEFCT-EC) is a new treatment modality that combines chemotherapeutic agents and low electric field stimulation. LEFCT-EC was found to destroy malignant mouse tumors and cause massive death of tumor cells. This may enable the immune system cells to efficiently recognize and eliminate tumor cells at the primary tumor site and at metastatic foci. Mice with 15 mm diameter intracutaneous colon carcinomas (CT-26) were injected with BCNU (35 mg/kg), and 2 min later the tumors were exposed to low electric fields (intensity 40 V/cm, pulse duration 180 micros, frequency 500 Hz) for 12 min (LEFCT-EC). We found that treatment with LEFCT-EC achieved complete cure of 93% of the animals. In comparison, electric fields alone (13% cure), chemotherapy alone (0%), surgery (15%) or a combination of surgery and bis-chloroethyl-nitrosurea, carmustine (BCNU; 84%) treatments resulted in lower cure rates. After treatment and cure with LEFCT-EC, 50% of the cured mice developed resistance to a tumor challenge (surgery + BCNU only 15%). Furthermore, splenocytes from cured animals protected naive animals from a tumorigenic dose of tumor cells. Separation of spleen cells into lymphocyte subpopulations indicated a major role for CD4 and CD8 T cells in this protection. FACS analysis revealed restoration of normal splenocyte subpopulation proportions impaired by cytotoxic chemotherapy. Our results suggest that LEFCT-EC can directly destroy primary tumors and facilitate the destruction of metastatic disease by enforcement of antitumor immune responses. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  15. Petermann I and II spot size: Accurate semi analytical description involving Nelder-Mead method of nonlinear unconstrained optimization and three parameter fundamental modal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Choudhury, Raja; Roy Choudhury, Arundhati; Kanti Ghose, Mrinal

    2013-01-01

    A semi-analytical model with three optimizing parameters and a novel non-Gaussian function as the fundamental modal field solution has been proposed to arrive at an accurate solution to predict various propagation parameters of graded-index fibers with less computational burden than numerical methods. In our semi analytical formulation the optimization of core parameter U which is usually uncertain, noisy or even discontinuous, is being calculated by Nelder-Mead method of nonlinear unconstrained minimizations as it is an efficient and compact direct search method and does not need any derivative information. Three optimizing parameters are included in the formulation of fundamental modal field of an optical fiber to make it more flexible and accurate than other available approximations. Employing variational technique, Petermann I and II spot sizes have been evaluated for triangular and trapezoidal-index fibers with the proposed fundamental modal field. It has been demonstrated that, the results of the proposed solution identically match with the numerical results over a wide range of normalized frequencies. This approximation can also be used in the study of doped and nonlinear fiber amplifier.

  16. Enhancing radiotherapy for lung cancer using immunoadjuvants delivered in situ from new design radiotherapy biomaterials: a preclinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yao; Yasmin-Karim, Sayeda; Moreau, Michele; Sinha, Neeharika; Sajo, Erno; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-12-01

    Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients. In this preliminary study, the potential of such an approach is investigated for lung cancer using anti-CD40 antibody. First the benefit of using the anti-CD40 delivered in situ to enhance radiotherapy was tested in mice with subcutaneous tumors generated with the Lewis Lung cancer cell line LL/2 (LLC-1). The tumors were implanted on both flanks of the mice to simulate metastasis. Tumors on one flank were treated with and without anti-CD40 and the survival benefits compared. An experimentally determined in vivo diffusion coefficient for nanoparticles was then employed to estimate the time for achieving intratumoral distribution of the needed minimal concentrations of anti-CD40 nanoparticles if released from a multifuntional radiotherapy biomaterials. The studies show that the use of anti-CD40 significantly enhanced radiotherapy effect, slowing the growth of the treated and untreated tumors, and increasing survival. Meanwhile our calculations indicate that for a 2-4 cm tumor and 7 mg g-1 IA concentrations, it would take 4.4-17.4 d, respectively, following burst release, for the required concentration of IA nanoparticles to accumulate throughout the tumor during image-guided radiotherapy. The distribution of IA could be customized as a function of loading concentrations or nanoparticle size to fit current

  17. Enhancing radiotherapy for lung cancer using immunoadjuvants delivered in situ from new design radiotherapy biomaterials: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yao; Yasmin-Karim, Sayeda; Moreau, Michele; Sinha, Neeharika; Sajo, Erno; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-12-21

    Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients. In this preliminary study, the potential of such an approach is investigated for lung cancer using anti-CD40 antibody. First the benefit of using the anti-CD40 delivered in situ to enhance radiotherapy was tested in mice with subcutaneous tumors generated with the Lewis Lung cancer cell line LL/2 (LLC-1). The tumors were implanted on both flanks of the mice to simulate metastasis. Tumors on one flank were treated with and without anti-CD40 and the survival benefits compared. An experimentally determined in vivo diffusion coefficient for nanoparticles was then employed to estimate the time for achieving intratumoral distribution of the needed minimal concentrations of anti-CD40 nanoparticles if released from a multifuntional radiotherapy biomaterials. The studies show that the use of anti-CD40 significantly enhanced radiotherapy effect, slowing the growth of the treated and untreated tumors, and increasing survival. Meanwhile our calculations indicate that for a 2-4 cm tumor and 7 mg g -1 IA concentrations, it would take 4.4-17.4 d, respectively, following burst release, for the required concentration of IA nanoparticles to accumulate throughout the tumor during image-guided radiotherapy. The distribution of IA could be customized as a function of loading concentrations or nanoparticle size to fit current

  18. EpiBrainRad: an epidemiologic study of the neurotoxicity induced by radiotherapy in high grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Durand, Thomas; Jacob, Sophie; Lebouil, Laura; Douzane, Hassen; Lestaevel, Philippe; Rahimian, Amithys; Psimaras, Dimitri; Feuvret, Loïc; Leclercq, Delphine; Brochet, Bruno; Tamarat, Radia; Milliat, Fabien; Benderitter, Marc; Vayatis, Nicolas; Noël, Georges; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Ricard, Damien; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2015-12-18

    Radiotherapy is one of the most important treatments of primary and metastatic brain tumors. Unfortunately, it can involve moderate to severe complications among which leukoencephalopathy is very frequent and implies cognitive deficits such as memory, attention and executive dysfunctions. However, the incidence of this complication is not well established and the risk factors and process are poorly understood. The main objective of the study is to improve knowledge on radio-induced leukoencephalopathy based on pluridisciplinar approaches combining cognitive, biologic, imagery and dosimetric investigations. The EpiBrainRad study is a prospective cohort study including newly diagnosed high grade gliomas patients treated by radiotherapy and concomitant-adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy. Patients are included between their surgery and first day of radio-chemotherapy, and the follow-up lasts for 3 years after treatment. Cognitive functioning assessments, specific blood biomarkers measures and magnetic resonance imagery are performed at different moment during the follow-up, and a specific dosimetric assessment of organs involved in the beam fields is performed. Firstly, leukoencephalopathy incidence rate will be estimated in this population. Secondly, correlations between cognitive impairments and dosimetry, biomarkers ranges and anomalies on imagery will be analyzed in order to better understand the onset and evolution of cognitive decrement associated with radiotherapy. Furthermore, a new cognitive test, quickly and easily performed, will be studied to determine its sensibility to detect leukoencephalopathy decrement. With an original multidisciplinary approach, the EpiBrainRad study aims to improve knowledge on radio-induced leukoencephalopathy in order to improve its early diagnosis and prevention. The main challenge is to preserve quality-of-life after cancer treatments which imply to study the incidence of radiation-induced complications and their associated

  19. (18)F-FDG uptake of the spinal cord was decreased after conventional dose radiotherapy in esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Harata, Naoki; Yoshida, Katsuya; Oota, Sayako; Fujii, Hayahiko; Isogai, Jun; Yoshimura, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated changes of (18)F-fluorodeocyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake in the spinal cord, inside and outside the radiation fields, in patients with esophageal cancer before and after conventional dose radiotherapy. A total of 17 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer (16 males, one female; age 50-83 years, mean 67.0 years), who underwent conventional dose radiotherapy and (18)F-FDG PET/CT before and 5.1 months (range 1.6-8.6 months) after the radiotherapy, were retrospectively evaluated. Sixteen patients had esophageal cancer and one patient had esophageal metastasis from thyroid cancer. Mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean) of the cervical, thoracic (inside and outside the radiation fields) and lumbar spinal cord were measured. SUVmean of the thoracic spinal cord inside the radiation field was decreased significantly after radiotherapy compared to those before radiotherapy (p < 0.001). SUVmean of the cervical spinal cord showed the same trend but it was not statistically significant (p = 0.051). SUVmean of the thoracic spinal cord outside the radiation field and the lumbar spinal cord did not differ significantly before and after the radiotherapy (p = 0.146 and p = 0.701, respectively). The results suggest that glucose metabolism of the spinal cord is decreased in esophageal cancer patients after conventional dose radiotherapy.

  20. MR Imaging Based Treatment Planning for Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Radiotherapy, MR-based treatment planning, dosimetry, Monte Carlo dose verification, Prostate Cancer, MRI -based DRRs 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...AcQPlan system Version 5 was used for the study , which is capable of performing dose calculation on both CT and MRI . A four field 3D conformal planning...prostate motion studies for 3DCRT and IMRT of prostate cancer; (2) to investigate and improve the accuracy of MRI -based treatment planning dose calculation

  1. Accelerated superfractionated radiotherapy for inflammatory breast carcinoma: complete response predicts outcome and allows for breast conservation.

    PubMed

    Arthur, D W; Schmidt-Ullrich, R K; Friedman, R B; Wazer, D E; Kachnic, L A; Amir, C; Bear, H D; Hackney, M H; Smith, T J; Lawrence, W

    1999-05-01

    Chemotherapy and accelerated superfractionated radiotherapy were prospectively applied for inflammatory breast carcinoma with the intent of breast conservation. The efficacy, failure patterns, and patient tolerance utilizing this approach were analyzed. Between 1983 and 1996, 52 patients with inflammatory breast carcinoma presented to the Medical College of Virginia Hospitals of VCU and the New England Medical Center. Thirty-eight of these patients were jointly evaluated in multidisciplinary breast clinics and managed according to a defined prospectively applied treatment policy. Patients received induction chemotherapy, accelerated superfractionated radiotherapy, selected use of mastectomy, and concluded with additional chemotherapy. The majority were treated with 1.5 Gy twice daily to field arrangements covering the entire breast and regional lymphatics. An additional 18-21 Gy was then delivered to the breast and clinically involved nodal regions. Total dose to clinically involved areas was 63-66 Gy. Following chemoradiotherapy, patients were evaluated with physical examination, mammogram, and fine needle aspiration x 3. Mastectomy was reserved for those patients with evidence of persistent or progressive disease in the involved breast. All patients received additional chemotherapy. Median age was 51 years. Median follow-up was 23.9 months (6-86) months. The breast preservation rate at the time of last follow-up was 74%. The treated breast or chest wall as the first site of failure occurred in only 13%, and the ultimate local control rate with the selected use of mastectomy was 74%. Ten patients underwent mastectomy, 2 of which had pathologically negative specimens despite a clinically palpable residual mass. Response to chemotherapy was predictive of treatment outcome. Of the 15 patients achieving a complete response, 87% remain locoregionally controlled without the use of mastectomy. Five-year overall survival for complete responders was 68%. This is in

  2. [Big data, generalities and integration in radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Le Fèvre, C; Poty, L; Noël, G

    2018-02-01

    The many advances in data collection computing systems (data collection, database, storage), diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities are responsible for an increase and a diversification of available data. Big data offers the capacities, in the field of health, to accelerate the discoveries and to optimize the management of patients by combining a large volume of data and the creation of therapeutic models. In radiotherapy, the development of big data is attractive because data are very numerous et heterogeneous (demographics, radiomics, genomics, radiogenomics, etc.). The expectation would be to predict the effectiveness and tolerance of radiation therapy. With these new concepts, still at the preliminary stage, it is possible to create a personalized medicine which is always more secure and reliable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Family Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This periodical issue focuses on the theme of involvement of families in the education of their children with disabilities. It includes papers with the following titles and authors: "A Message from the Assistant Secretary: Developing Successful Partnerships between Parents and Service Providers" (Robert R. Davila); "Parent Advocacy…

  4. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Elective Nodal Irradiation and Involved-Field Radiation in the Definitive Treatment of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Dosimetric Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwala, Aparna H.; Ko, Christine J.; Ning, Holly; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Haglund, Karl E.; O’Meara, William P.; Simone, Charles B.; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Photon involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT), the standard for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), results in favorable outcomes without increased isolated nodal failures, perhaps from scattered dose to elective nodal stations. Given the high conformality of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), proton IFRT could increase nodal failures. We investigated the feasibility of IMPT for elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in LA-NSCLC. Materials and Methods IMPT IFRT plans were generated to the same total dose of 66.6–72 Gy received by 20 LA-NSCLC patients treated with photon IFRT. IMPT ENI plans were generated to 46 CGE to elective nodal (EN) planning treatment volumes (PTV) plus 24 CGE to involved field (IF)-PTVs. Results Proton IFRT and ENI both improved D95 involved field (IF)-PTV coverage by 4% (p<0.01) compared to photon IFRT. All evaluated dosimetric parameters improved significantly with both proton plans. Lung V20 and mean lung dose decreased 18% (p<0.01) and 36% (p<0.01), respectively, with proton IFRT and 11% (p=0.03) and 26% (p<0.01) with ENI. Mean esophagus dose decreased 16% with IFRT and 12% with ENI; heart V25 decreased 63% with both (all p<0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of IMPT for LA-NSCLC ENI. Potential decreased toxicity indicates IMPT could allow ENI while maintaining a favorable therapeutic ratio compared to photon IFRT. PMID:25604729

  5. Monetary incentives in support of academic achievement: results of a randomized field trial involving high-achieving, low-resource, ethnically diverse urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Margaret Beale; Noll, Elizabeth; Cassidy, Elaine

    2005-06-01

    Significant resources have been directed at understanding and alleviating the achievement gap in education. Most programs focused on this aim rely on a top-down approach, including funding for infrastructure improvement, curriculum development, class size, and teacher salaries. This article presents findings from a randomized field trial that evaluates a bottom-up approach in which high-achieving students of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds from poor families are given monetary incentives to maintain their academic standing. The evaluation was designed to explore the role of monetary incentives as a mechanism for promoting resiliency in the face of poverty-related challenge. Discussion of what motivates students to learn is framed as a function of normal cognitive and socioemotional development in challenging environments. Evaluation findings indicate that monetary incentives are effective in promoting academic success to different degrees and for different reasons depending on students' perception of the meaning of the incentive in relation to their emergent identity.

  6. Radiotherapy of Langerhans' Cell Histiocytosis : Results and Implications of a National Patterns-of-Care Study.

    PubMed

    Olschewski, Thomas; Seegenschmiedt, Michael Heinrich

    2006-11-01

    This patterns-of-care study was performed to define the current clinical experience with radiotherapy of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in adults in Germany and to define open questions resulting from this study. A standardized questionnaire was sent to 198 German radiotherapy institutions. Data about patient characteristics, stage of disease, practice and fractionation of radiotherapy, outcome of therapy, etc. were systematically evaluated. 123 of 198 institutions answered the complete questionnaire (62.1%). Only 23 of the 123 institutions (18.7%) reported experience with radiotherapy of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis of adults. 18 institutions with 98 patients were evaluable. The majority of patients (72 of 98) was treated on a linear accelerator. The median single dose of radiotherapy was 2 Gy, while the median total dose was 24 Gy. 81 of 89 evaluable patients (91%) reached a local control of the treated lesion(s), 69 of those had a complete remission. Eight of 89 patients (9%) developed an in-field recurrence. 87.8% of patients experienced no acute and 97% of patients no late side effects of radiotherapy. Clinical experience with radiotherapy of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in adults in Germany is still very limited. Nevertheless, the clinical results-with high remission and local control rates-confirm the effectiveness of radiotherapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of this disease. Due to the small number of patients in this study despite higher incidence rates, the knowledge of this disease has to be multiplied in Germany. Future patients should be systematically included into a prospective radiotherapy registry.

  7. A prospective study: current problems in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in yogyakarta, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Sharon D; Wildeman, Maarten A; Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R; Herdini, Camelia; Wildeman, Pieter L; van Diessen, Judi N A; Tjokronagoro, Maesadji; Tan, I Bing

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence in Indonesia. Previous study in Yogyakarta revealed a complete response of 29% and a median overall survival of less than 2 years. These poor treatment outcome are influenced by the long diagnose-to-treatment interval to radiotherapy (DTI) and the extended overall treatment time of radiotherapy (OTT). This study reveals insight why the OTT and DTI are prolonged. All patients treated with curative intent radiotherapy for NPC between July 2011 until October 2012 were included. During radiotherapy a daily diary was kept, containing information on DTI, missed radiotherapy days, the reason for missing and length of OTT. Sixty-eight patients were included. The median DTI was 106 days (95% CI: 98-170). Fifty-nine patients (87%) finished the treatment. The median OTT for radiotherapy was 57 days (95% CI: 57-65). The main reason for missing days was an inoperative radiotherapy machine (36%). Other reasons were patient's poor condition (21%), public holidays (14%), adjustment of the radiation field (7%), power blackout (3%), inoperative treatment planning system (2%) and patient related reasons (9%). Patient's insurance type was correlated to DTI in disadvantage for poor people. Yogyakarta has a lack of sufficient radiotherapy units which causes a delay of 3-4 months, besides the OTT is extended by 10-12 days. This influences treatment outcome to a great extend. The best solution would be creating sufficient radiotherapy units and better management in health care for poor patients. The growing economy in Indonesia will expectantly in time enable these solutions, but in the meantime solutions are needed. Solutions can consist of radiation outside office hours, better maintenance of the facilities and more effort from patient, doctor and nurse to finish treatment in time. These results are valuable when improving cancer care in low and middle income countries.

  8. Effects of short term and long term Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on depressive disorder in mice: Involvement of nitric oxide pathway.

    PubMed

    Madjid Ansari, Alireza; Farzampour, Shahrokh; Sadr, Ali; Shekarchi, Babak; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports on the possible effects of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF MF) on mood have been paradoxical in different settings while no study has yet been conducted on animal behavior. In addition, it was shown that ELF MF exposure makes an increase in brain nitric oxide level. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to assess the possible effect(s) of ELF MF exposure on mice Forced Swimming Test (FST) and evaluate the probable role of the increased level of nitric oxide in the observed behavior. Male adult mice NMRI were recruited to investigate the short term and long term ELF MF exposure (0.5 mT and 50 Hz, single 2h and 2 weeks 2h a day). Locomotor behavior was assessed by using open-field test (OFT) followed by FST to evaluate the immobility time. Accordingly, NΩ-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester 30 mg/kg was used to exert anti-depressant like effect. According to the results, short term exposure did not alter the immobility time, whereas long term exposure significantly reduces immobility time (p<0.01). However, it was revealed that the locomotion did not differ among all experimental groups. Short term exposure reversed the anti-depressant like effect resulting from 30 mg/kg of NΩ-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (p<0.01). It has been concluded that long term exposure could alter the depressive disorder in mice, whereas short term exposure has no significant effect. Also, reversing the anti-depressant activity of L-NAME indicates a probable increase in the brain nitric oxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Involvement of protein kinase C in the modulation of morphine-induced analgesia and the inhibitory effects of exposure to 60-hz magnetic fields in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis

    SciTech Connect

    Kavaliers, M.; Ossenkopp, K.P.

    1990-02-26

    One of the more consistent and dramatic effects of exposure to magnetic fields is the attenuation of morphine-induced analgesia. Results of previous studies have implicated alterations in calcium channel functioning and Ca{sup ++} flux in the mediation of these effects. It is generally accepted that Ca{sup ++}-activated-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (Protein kinase C; PKC) plays an important role in relaying trans-membrane signaling in diverse Ca{sup ++} dependent cellular processes. In experiment 1 we observed that morphine-induced analgesia in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis, as measured by the latency of an avoidance behavior to a warmed surface, was reduced by the PKCmore » activator, SC-9, and was enhanced by the PKC inhibitors, H-7 and H-9. In contrast, HA-10004, a potent inhibitor of other protein kinases, but only a very weak inhibitor of PKC, had no effect on morphine-induced analgesia. In experiment 2 exposure of snails for 30 minutes to a 1.0 gauss (rms) 60-Hz magnetic field reduced morphine-induced analgesia. This inhibitory effect of the magnetic field was reduced by the PKC inhibitors, H-7 and H-9, and was augmented by the PKC activator SC-9. These results suggest that: (i) PKC is involved in the modulation of morphine-induced analgesia and, (ii) the inhibitory effects of magnetic fields involve PKC.« less

  10. Organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risk estimates due to radiotherapy for benign pigmented villonodular synovitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2016-09-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign disease affecting synovial membranes of young and middle-aged adults. The aggressive treatment of this disorder often involves external-beam irradiation. This study was motivated by the lack of data relating to the radiation exposure of healthy tissues and radiotherapy-induced cancer risk. Monte Carlo methodology was employed to simulate a patient’s irradiation for PVNS in the knee and hip joints with a 6 MV photon beam. The average radiation dose received by twenty-two out-of-field critical organs of the human body was calculated. These calculations were combined with the appropriate organ-, age- and gender-specific risk coefficients of the BEIR-VII model to estimate the lifetime probability of cancer development. The risk for carcinogenesis to colon, which was partly included in the treatment fields used for hip irradiation, was determined with a non-linear mechanistic model and differential dose-volume histograms obtained by CT-based 3D radiotherapy planning. Risk assessments were compared with the nominal lifetime intrinsic risk (LIR) values. Knee irradiation to 36 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 0.2-24.6 mGy. The corresponding range from hip radiotherapy was 1.2-455.1 mGy whereas the organ equivalent dose for the colon was up to 654.9 mGy. The organ-specific cancer risks from knee irradiation for PVNS were found to be inconsequential since they were at least 161.5 times lower than the LIRs irrespective of the patient’s age and gender. The bladder and colon cancer risk from radiotherapy in the hip joint was up to 3.2 and 6.6 times smaller than the LIR, respectively. These cancer risks may slightly elevate the nominal incidence rates and they should not be ignored during the patient’s treatment planning and follow-up. The probabilities for developing any other solid tumor were more than 20 times lower than the LIRs and, therefore, they may be considered as small.

  11. Laryngeal Involvement of Rhabdomyosarcoma in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Abali, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Sercan; Sungur, Arzu; Yalçin, Suayib

    2003-01-01

    Background Although initial presentation of sarcomas in the head and neck region is relatively common, involvements of the larynx by rhabdomyosarcoma either primary or metastatic have been reported rarely. Case report A case of rhabdomyosarcoma in the right thigh, which involved laryngeal structures three years after the diagnosis, is presented. Conclusions The laryngeal involvement by primary and metastatic rhabdosarcomas is very rare, however when it occurs it can result in life treating upper airway obstruction. After emergency intervention, radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy must be undertaken for long-term benefit and surgery may be helpful only in selected cases. PMID:14556654

  12. A comparative study on the risk of second primary cancers in out-of-field organs associated with radiotherapy of localized prostate carcinoma using Monte Carlo-based accelerator and patient models

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Bryan; Athar, Basit; Xu, X. George

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A physician’s decision regarding an ideal treatment approach (i.e., radiation, surgery, and∕or hormonal) for prostate carcinoma is traditionally based on a variety of metrics. One of these metrics is the risk of radiation-induced second primary cancer following radiation treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of second cancer risks in out-of-field organs from 3D-CRT and IMRT treatments of prostate carcinoma compared to baseline cancer risks in these organs. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a detailed medical linear accelerator model and an anatomically realistic adult male whole-body phantom. A four-field box treatment, a four-field box treatment plus a six-field boost, and a seven-field IMRT treatment were simulated. Using BEIR VII risk models, the age-dependent lifetime attributable risks to various organs outside the primary beam with a known predilection for cancer were calculated using organ-averaged equivalent doses. Results: The four-field box treatment had the lowest treatment-related second primary cancer risks to organs outside the primary beam ranging from 7.3×10−9 to 2.54×10−5%∕MU depending on the patients age at exposure and second primary cancer site. The risks to organs outside the primary beam from the four-field box and six-field boost and the seven-field IMRT were nearly equivalent. The risks from the four-field box and six-field boost ranged from 1.39×10−8 to 1.80×10−5%∕MU, and from the seven-field IMRT ranged from 1.60×10−9 to 1.35×10−5%∕MU. The second cancer risks in all organs considered from each plan were below the baseline risks. Conclusions: The treatment-related second cancer risks in organs outside the primary beam due to 3D-CRT and IMRT is small. New risk assessment techniques need to be investigated to address the concern of radiation-induced second cancers from prostate treatments, particularly focusing on risks to organs inside the primary beam

  13. Standard-Fractionated Radiotherapy for Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma: Visual Outcome Is Predicted by Mean Eye Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Abouaf, Lucie; Girard, Nicolas; Claude Bernard University, Lyon

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has shown its efficacy in controlling optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSM) tumor growth while allowing visual acuity to improve or stabilize. However, radiation-induced toxicity may ultimately jeopardize the functional benefit. The purpose of this study was to identify predictive factors of poor visual outcome in patients receiving radiotherapy for ONSM. Methods and Materials: We conducted an extensive analysis of 10 patients with ONSM with regard to clinical, radiologic, and dosimetric aspects. All patients were treated with conformal radiotherapy and subsequently underwent biannual neuroophthalmologic and imaging assessments. Pretreatment and posttreatment values of visual acuity and visual field were comparedmore » with Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results: Visual acuity values significantly improved after radiotherapy. After a median follow-up time of 51 months, 6 patients had improved visual acuity, 4 patients had improved visual field, 1 patient was in stable condition, and 1 patient had deteriorated visual acuity and visual field. Tumor control rate was 100% at magnetic resonance imaging assessment. Visual acuity deterioration after radiotherapy was related to radiation-induced retinopathy in 2 patients and radiation-induced mature cataract in 1 patient. Study of radiotherapy parameters showed that the mean eye dose was significantly higher in those 3 patients who had deteriorated vision. Conclusions: Our study confirms that radiotherapy is efficient in treating ONSM. Long-term visual outcome may be compromised by radiation-induced side effects. Mean eye dose has to be considered as a limiting constraint in treatment planning.« less

  14. Radiotherapy for stage I Hodgkin's disease: 20 years experience at St Bartholomew's Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, T. S.; Wrigley, P. F.; Murray, P. A.; Stansfeld, A. G.; d'Ardenne, A. J.; Arnott, S.; Jones, A.; Shand, W. S.; Malpas, J. S.; Lister, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and one consecutive patients with newly diagnosed stage I Hodgkin's disease (HD) received treatment at St Bartholomew's Hospital, between 1968 and 1987, with a median follow-up of 12 years. Eleven patients have been excluded from detailed analysis because they either received involved field radiotherapy (RT) or radiotherapy with chemotherapy or were lost to follow-up. Actuarial analysis predicts 78% to be alive and without relapse of Hodgkin's disease at 15 years. Ninety evaluable patients (clinical stage (CS) 24; pathological stage (PS) 66) received either mantle or inverted 'Y' RT and form the basis of this analysis. The median age was 33 years (63 men, 27 women). Histology at presentation was nodular sclerosing (39), lymphocytic predominant (27) or mixed cellularity (24). The presenting site was neck (78), axilla (6) groin (4) and mediastinum (2). Complete remission was achieved in all evaluable patients, the actuarial proportion in remission being 75% at 15 years. Factors predictive of a prolonged remission were pathological staging versus clinical staging (P = 0.02) and lymph node size less than 3 cm (P = 0.04). Actuarial overall survival in these 90 patients was 75% at 15 years and none of the above factors correlated with survival. Relapse of HD has occurred in 18 patients (5 within RT field, 10 without and 3 in both). Second remission was achieved in 15/18. The actuarial rate of second remission and survival was 40% at 10 years. Sixteen patients have died, 7 of Hodgkin's disease, 7 of unrelated causes and 2 of second malignancy. A further 3 patients who developed second malignancy are still alive. At 15 years the actuarial mortality related to HD was 12%. These results confirm the importance of long follow up to assess the efficacy of primary therapy. PMID:2386750

  15. The effect of pulsed electric fields on the electrotactic migration of human neural progenitor cells through the involvement of intracellular calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hisamitsu; Edin, Fredrik; Li, Hao; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-12-01

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are required for the physiological control of the central nervous system development. Application of the direct current EFs to neural stem cells has been studied for the possibility of stem cell transplantation as one of the therapies for brain injury. EFs generated within the nervous system are often associated with action potentials and synaptic activity, apparently resulting in a pulsed current in nature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pulsed EF, which can reduce the cytotoxicity, on the migration of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs). We applied the mono-directional pulsed EF with a strength of 250mV/mm to hNPCs for 6h. The migration distance of the hNPCs exposed to pulsed EF was significantly greater compared with the control not exposed to the EF. Pulsed EFs, however, had less of an effect on the migration of the differentiated hNPCs. There was no significant change in the survival of hNPCs after exposure to the pulsed EF. To investigate the role of Ca 2+ signaling in electrotactic migration of hNPCs, pharmacological inhibition of Ca 2+ channels in the EF-exposed cells revealed that the electrotactic migration of hNPCs exposed to Ca 2+ channel blockers was significantly lower compared to the control group. The findings suggest that the pulsed EF induced migration of hNPCs is partly influenced by intracellular Ca 2+ signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by exposure to a specific time-varying electromagnetic field involves T-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Carly A; Buckner, Alison L; Koren, Stan A; Persinger, Michael A; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures affect many biological systems. The reproducibility of these effects is related to the intensity, duration, frequency, and pattern of the EMF. We have shown that exposure to a specific time-varying EMF can inhibit the growth of malignant cells. Thomas-EMF is a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern. Daily, 1 h, exposures to Thomas-EMF inhibited the growth of malignant cell lines including B16-BL6, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and HeLa cells but did not affect the growth of non-malignant cells. Thomas-EMF also inhibited B16-BL6 cell proliferation in vivo. B16-BL6 cells implanted in syngeneic C57b mice and exposed daily to Thomas-EMF produced smaller tumours than in sham-treated controls. In vitro studies showed that exposure of malignant cells to Thomas-EMF for > 15 min promoted Ca(2+) influx which could be blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated T-type Ca(2+) channels. Blocking Ca(2+) uptake also blocked Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Exposure to Thomas-EMF delayed cell cycle progression and altered cyclin expression consistent with the decrease in cell proliferation. Non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in Ca(2+) influx or cell growth. These data confirm that exposure to a specific EMF pattern can affect cellular processes and that exposure to Thomas-EMF may provide a potential anti-cancer therapy.

  17. Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth by Exposure to a Specific Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field Involves T-Type Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Carly A.; Buckner, Alison L.; Koren, Stan A.; Persinger, Michael A.; Lafrenie, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures affect many biological systems. The reproducibility of these effects is related to the intensity, duration, frequency, and pattern of the EMF. We have shown that exposure to a specific time-varying EMF can inhibit the growth of malignant cells. Thomas-EMF is a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern. Daily, 1 h, exposures to Thomas-EMF inhibited the growth of malignant cell lines including B16-BL6, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and HeLa cells but did not affect the growth of non-malignant cells. Thomas-EMF also inhibited B16-BL6 cell proliferation in vivo. B16-BL6 cells implanted in syngeneic C57b mice and exposed daily to Thomas-EMF produced smaller tumours than in sham-treated controls. In vitro studies showed that exposure of malignant cells to Thomas-EMF for > 15 min promoted Ca2+ influx which could be blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated T-type Ca2+ channels. Blocking Ca2+ uptake also blocked Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Exposure to Thomas-EMF delayed cell cycle progression and altered cyclin expression consistent with the decrease in cell proliferation. Non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in Ca2+ influx or cell growth. These data confirm that exposure to a specific EMF pattern can affect cellular processes and that exposure to Thomas-EMF may provide a potential anti-cancer therapy. PMID:25875081

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    scans is taken on different days. Both allow planning to account for variability intrinsic to the patient. Treatment verification has been carried out using a variety of technologies including: MV portal imaging, kV portal/fluoroscopy, MVCT, conebeam kVCT, ultrasound and optical surface imaging. The various methods have their pros and cons. The four x-ray methods involve an extra radiation dose to normal tissue. The portal methods may not generally be used to visualize soft tissue, consequently they are often used in conjunction with implanted fiducial markers. The two CT-based methods allow measurement of inter-fraction variation only. Ultrasound allows soft-tissue measurement with zero dose but requires skilled interpretation, and there is evidence of systematic differences between ultrasound and other data sources, perhaps due to the effects of the probe pressure. Optical imaging also involves zero dose but requires good correlation between the target and the external measurement and thus is often used in conjunction with an x-ray method. The use of anatomical imaging in radiotherapy allows treatment uncertainties to be determined. These include errors between the mean position at treatment and that at planning (the systematic error) and the day-to-day variation in treatment set-up (the random error). Positional variations may also be categorized in terms of inter- and intra-fraction errors. Various empirical treatment margin formulae and intervention approaches exist to determine the optimum strategies for treatment in the presence of these known errors. Other methods exist to try to minimize error margins drastically including the currently available breath-hold techniques and the tracking methods which are largely in development. This paper will review anatomical imaging techniques in radiotherapy and how they are used to boost the therapeutic benefit of the treatment.

  19. Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of benign meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Candish, Charles; McKenzie, Michael; Clark, Brenda G.

    Purpose: To assess the use of stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) for the treatment of meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Between April 1999 and October 2004, 38 patients underwent SRT. Of 34 patients (36 tumors) assessed, the median age was 53 years. The indication was primary treatment in 26 cases (no histology) and postoperative in 10 cases. The most common sites were cavernous sinus (17), optic nerve (6), and cerebellopontine angle (5). The median gross target volume and planning target volume were 8.9 cm{sup 3} and 18.9 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Stereotactic treatment was delivered with 6-MV photons with static conformal fields (custom-mademore » blocks, 9 patients, and micromultileaf collimator, 25 patients). Median number of fields was six. The median dose prescribed was 50 Gy (range, 45-50.4 Gy) in 28 fractions. The median homogeneity and conformality indices were 1.1 and 1.79, respectively. Results: Treatment was well tolerated. Median follow-up was 26 months with 100% progression-free survival. One patient developed an area of possible radionecrosis related to previous radiotherapy, and 2 men developed mild hypogonadism necessitating testosterone replacement. The vision of 5 of 6 patients with optic pathway meningiomas improved or remained static. Conclusions: Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of meningiomas is practical, and with early follow-up, seems to be effective.« less

  20. Experimental determination of field factors (\\Omega _{{{Q}_{\\text{clin}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{clin}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} ) for small radiotherapy beams using the daisy chain correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Alfonso et al proposed a new formalism for the dosimetry of small and non-standard fields. The proposed new formalism is strongly based on the calculation of detector-specific beam correction factors by Monte Carlo simulation methods, which accounts for the difference in the response of the detector between the small and the machine specific reference field. The correct calculation of the detector-specific beam correction factors demands an accurate knowledge of the linear accelerator, detector geometry and composition materials. The present work shows that the field factors in water may be determined experimentally using the daisy chain correction method down to a field size of 1 cm  ×  1 cm for a specific set of detectors. The detectors studied were: three mini-ionization chambers (PTW-31014, PTW-31006, IBA-CC01), three silicon-based diodes (PTW-60018, IBA-SFD and IBA-PFD) and one synthetic diamond detector (PTW-60019). Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements were performed for a 6 MV photon beam at 10 cm depth in water with a source-to-axis distance of 100 cm. The results show that the differences between the experimental and Monte Carlo calculated field factors are less than 0.5%—with the exception of the IBA-PFD—for field sizes between 1.5 cm  ×  1.5 cm and 5 cm  ×  5 cm. For the 1 cm  ×  1 cm field size, the differences are within 2%. By using the daisy chain correction method, it is possible to determine measured field factors in water. The results suggest that the daisy chain correction method is not suitable for measurements performed with the IBA-PFD detector. The latter is due to the presence of tungsten powder in the detector encapsulation material. The use of Monte Carlo calculated k{{Q\\text{clin}},{{Q}\\text{msr}}}{{f\\text{clin}},{{f}\\text{msr}}} is encouraged for field sizes less than or equal to 1 cm  ×  1 cm for the dosimeters used in this work.

  1. [Head and neck adaptive radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Graff, P; Huger, S; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J

    2013-10-01

    Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment. Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice. Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. SU-E-T-91: Accuracy of Dose Calculation Algorithms for Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tajaldeen, A; Ramachandran, P; Geso, M

    2015-06-15

    of algorithms in lung cancer radiotherapy involving small fields. However, further investigation by Monte Carlo simulation is required to confirm our results.« less

  3. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Might Increase Pneumonitis Risk Relative to Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients Receiving Combined Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy: A Modeling Study of Dose Dumping

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelius, Ivan S.; Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI; Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To model the possible interaction between cytotoxic chemotherapy and the radiation dose distribution with respect to the risk of radiation pneumonitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 18 non-small-cell lung cancer patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy at the University of Wisconsin were selected for the present modeling study. Three treatment plans were considered: the delivered tomotherapy plans; a three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plan; and a fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan. The IMRT and 3D-CRT plans were generated specifically for the present study. The plans were optimized without adjusting for the chemotherapy effect. The effect of chemotherapy was modeledmore » as an independent cell killing process by considering a uniform chemotherapy equivalent radiation dose added to all voxels of the organ at risk. The risk of radiation pneumonitis was estimated for all plans using the Lyman and the critical volume models. Results: For radiotherapy alone, the critical volume model predicts that the two IMRT plans are associated with a lower risk of radiation pneumonitis than the 3D-CRT plan. However, when the chemotherapy equivalent radiation dose exceeds a certain threshold, the radiation pneumonitis risk after IMRT is greater than after 3D-CRT. This threshold dose is in the range estimated from clinical chemoradiotherapy data sets. Conclusions: Cytotoxic chemotherapy might affect the relative merit of competing radiotherapy plans. More work is needed to improve our understanding of the interaction between chemotherapy and the radiation dose distribution in clinical settings.« less

  4. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    PubMed

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A Kindler syndrome-associated squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Ademar; Trinca, William Correia; Flores, Thais Pires; Costa, Andrea Barleze; Brito, Claudio de Sá; Weigert, Karen Loureiro; Matos, Maryana Schwartzhaupt; Nicolini, Carmela; Obst, Fernando Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Kindler syndrome1, 2 is a genetic disorder mainly characterized by increased skin fragility and photosensitivity,3, 4 making the use of treatments based on radiation difficult or even prohibited. Thus, cases reporting Kindler syndrome patients treated with radiotherapy are rare. In this study, we report clinical outcomes and care provided for a rare case of a Kindler syndrome patient submitted to radiotherapy. Diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma involving the buccal mucosa, the patient was exclusively treated with radiotherapy, with 70 Gy delivered on the PTV with the Volumetric Modulated Arc technique. The patient's reaction regarding control of the lesion is relevant compared to patients not affected by the syndrome. We noticed acute reactions of the skin and buccal mucosa after few radiotherapy sessions, followed by a fast reduction in the tumor volume. The efficacy of radiotherapy along with multidisciplinary actions allowed treatment continuity, leading to a complete control of the lesion and life quality improvement and showed that the use of radiotherapy on Kindler syndrome patients is possible.

  6. Risk of ischemic heart disease in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darby, Sarah C; Ewertz, Marianne; McGale, Paul; Bennet, Anna M; Blom-Goldman, Ulla; Brønnum, Dorthe; Correa, Candace; Cutter, David; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Gigante, Bruna; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Nisbet, Andrew; Peto, Richard; Rahimi, Kazem; Taylor, Carolyn; Hall, Per

    2013-03-14

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer often involves some incidental exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation. The effect of this exposure on the subsequent risk of ischemic heart disease is uncertain. We conducted a population-based case-control study of major coronary events (i.e., myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or death from ischemic heart disease) in 2168 women who underwent radiotherapy for breast cancer between 1958 and 2001 in Sweden and Denmark; the study included 963 women with major coronary events and 1205 controls. Individual patient information was obtained from hospital records. For each woman, the mean radiation doses to the whole heart and to the left anterior descending coronary artery were estimated from her radiotherapy chart. The overall average of the mean doses to the whole heart was 4.9 Gy (range, 0.03 to 27.72). Rates of major coronary events increased linearly with the mean dose to the heart by 7.4% per gray (95% confidence interval, 2.9 to 14.5; P<0.001), with no apparent threshold. The increase started within the first 5 years after radiotherapy and continued into the third decade after radiotherapy. The proportional increase in the rate of major coronary events per gray was similar in women with and women without cardiac risk factors at the time of radiotherapy. Exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation during radiotherapy for breast cancer increases the subsequent rate of ischemic heart disease. The increase is proportional to the mean dose to the heart, begins within a few years after exposure, and continues for at least 20 years. Women with preexisting cardiac risk factors have greater absolute increases in risk from radiotherapy than other women. (Funded by Cancer Research UK and others.).

  7. Analysis of late toxicity associated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer with uniform setting of classical 4-field 70 Gy in 35 fractions: a survey study by the Osaka Urological Tumor Radiotherapy Study Group.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Suzuki, Osamu; Nishimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Hitoshi; Hara, Tsuneo; Yoshida, Ken; Imai, Atsushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to analyse late toxicity associated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer using uniform dose-fractionation and beam arrangement, with the focus on the effect of 3D (CT) simulation and portal field size. We collected data concerning patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma who had been treated with EBRT at five institutions in Osaka, Japan, between 1998 and 2006. All had been treated with 70 Gy in 35 fractions, using the classical 4-field technique with gantry angles of 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. Late toxicity was evaluated strictly in terms of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0. In total, 362 patients were analysed, with a median follow-up of 4.5 years (range 1.0-11.6). The 5-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 93% and 96%, respectively. The mean ± SD portal field size in the right-left, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions was, respectively, 10.8 ± 1.1, 10.2 ± 1.0 and 8.8 ± 0.9 cm for 2D simulation, and 8.4 ± 1.2, 8.2 ± 1.0 and 7.7 ± 1.0 cm for 3D simulation (P < 0.001). No Grade 4 or 5 late toxicity was observed. The actuarial 5-year Grade 2-3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal (GI) late toxicity rates were 6% and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding late rectal bleeding rate was 23% for 2D simulation and 7% for 3D simulation (P < 0.001). With a uniform setting of classical 4-field 70 Gy/35 fractions, the use of CT simulation and the resultant reduction in portal field size were significantly associated with reduced late GI toxicity, especially with less rectal bleeding.

  8. Involving women.

    PubMed

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  9. Clinical efficacy of telemedicine in emergency radiotherapy for malignant spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, S; Shirato, H; Kaneko, K; Ooshio, W; Nishioka, T; Miyasaka, K

    2001-09-01

    The authors developed a Telecommunication-HElped Radiotherapy Planning and Information SysTem (THERAPIST), then estimated its clinical benefit in radiotherapy in district hospitals where consultation with the university hospital was required. The system consists of a personal computer with an image scanner and a digital camera, set up in district hospitals and directly connected via ISDN to an image server, and a treatment planning device set up in a university hospital. Image data and consultative reports are sent to the server. Radiation oncologists at the university hospital determine a treatment schedule and verify actual treatment fields. From 1998 to 1999, 12 patients with malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) were treated by emergency radiotherapy with the help of this system. Image quality, transmission time, and cost benefit also were satisfactory for clinical use. The mean time between the onset of symptoms and the start of radiotherapy was reduced significantly from 7.1 days to 0.8 days (P < .05) by the introduction of the system. Five of 6 nonambulant patients became ambulant after the introduction of THERAPIST compared with 2 of 8 before the introduction of THERAPIST. The treatment outcome was significantly better after the introduction of the system (P < .05), and suggested to be beyond the international standard. The telecommunication-helped radiotherapy and information system was useful in emergency radiotherapy in district hospitals for patients with MSCC for whom consultation with experienced radiation oncologists at a university hospital was required.

  10. How to use PET/CT in the evaluation of response to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Decazes, Pierre; Thureau, Sébastien; Dubray, Bernard; Vera, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a major treatment modality for many cancers. Tumor response after radiotherapy determines the subsequent steps of the patient's management (surveillance, adjuvant or salvage treatment and palliative care). Tumor response assessed during radiotherapy offers a promising opportunity to adapt the treatment plan to reduced or increased target volume, to specifically target sub-volumes with relevant biological characteristics (metabolism, hypoxia, proliferation, etc.) and to further spare the organs at risk. In addition to its role in the diagnosis and the initial staging, Positron Emission Tomography combined with a Computed Tomography (PET/CT) provides functional information and is therefore attractive to evaluate tumor response. The aim of this paper is to review the published data addressing PET/CT as an evaluation tool in irradiated tumors. Reports on PET/CT acquired at various times (during radiotherapy, after initial (chemo-) radiotherapy, after definitive radiotherapy and during posttreatment follow-up) in solid tumors (lung, head-and-neck, cervix, esophagus, prostate and rectum) were collected and reviewed. Various tracers and technical aspects are also discussed. 18F-FDG PET/CT has a well-established role in clinical routine after definitive chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancers. 18F-choline PET/CT is indicated in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure. 18F-FDG PET/CT is optional in many other circumstances and the clinical benefits of assessing tumor response with PET/CT remain a field of very active research. The combination of PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) may prove to be valuable in irradiated rectal and cervix cancers. Tumor response can be evaluated by PET/CT with clinical consequences in multiple situations, notably in head and neck and prostate cancers, after radiotherapy. Further clinical evaluation for most cancers is still needed, possibly in association to MRI.

  11. Respiratory gating and multifield technique radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Atsushi; Kaidu, Motoki; Tanabe, Satoshi; Utsunomiya, Satoru; Sasamoto, Ryuta; Maruyama, Katsuya; Tanaka, Kensuke; Saito, Hirotake; Nakano, Toshimichi; Shioi, Miki; Takahashi, Haruna; Kushima, Naotaka; Abe, Eisuke; Aoyama, Hidefumi

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a respiratory gating and multifield technique on the dose-volume histogram (DVH) in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Twenty patients who underwent four-dimensional computed tomography for esophageal cancer were included. We retrospectively created the four treatment plans for each patient, with or without the respiratory gating and multifield technique: No gating-2-field, No gating-4-field, Gating-2-field, and Gating-4-field plans. We compared the DVH parameters of the lung and heart in the No gating-2-field plan with the other three plans. In the comparison of the parameters in the No gating-2-field plan, there are significant differences in the Lung V 5Gy , V 20Gy , mean dose with all three plans and the Heart V 25Gy -V 40Gy with Gating-2-field plan, V 35Gy , V 40Gy , mean dose with No Gating-4-field plan and V 30Gy -V 40Gy , and mean dose with Gating-4-field plan. The lung parameters were smaller in the Gating-2-field plan and larger in the No gating-4-field and Gating-4-field plans. The heart parameters were all larger in the No gating-2-field plan. The lung parameters were reduced by the respiratory gating technique and increased by the multifield technique. The heart parameters were reduced by both techniques. It is important to select the optimal technique according to the risk of complications.

  12. Radiotherapy for Tracheal-Bronchial Cystic Adenoid Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Levy, A; Omeiri, A; Fadel, E; Le Péchoux, C

    2018-01-01

    Primary tracheal-bronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma (thoracic adenoid cystic carcinoma; TACC) is a rare and aggressive malignant tumour. Radiotherapy results have not been previously individualised in this setting. Records of 31 patients with TACC (74% tracheal and 26% bronchial) who received radiotherapy between February 1984 and September 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Surgical removal of the primary tumour was carried out for most (71%) patients, and 13/22 (59%) had R1 or R2 (1/22) margins. The mean tumour size was 4.1 cm, 10 (32%) had associated lymph node involvement and 13 (41%) had perineural invasion (PNI). Adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy were delivered for 22 (71%) and nine patients, respectively. The mean delivered dose was 62 Gy (40-70 Gy) and eight patients had a radiotherapy boost (mean 19 Gy, range 9-30 Gy, two with endobronchial brachytherapy). At a median follow-up of 5.7 years, the 5 year overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 88% and 61%, respectively. There were three local relapses and 10 metastatic relapses (mean delay 3.2 years), resulting in 5 year local and metastatic relapse rates of 10% and 26%, respectively. The prognostic factors in the univariate analysis for both decreased overall survival and PFS were: age ≥50 years (hazard ratio 6.2 and 3.8) and the presence of PNI (hazard ratio 10.3 and 4.1); and for PFS only: a radiotherapy dose ≤ 60 Gy (hazard ratio 3.1). Late toxicities were: tracheotomy due to symptomatic tracheal stenosis (n = 5), G3 dyspnoea (n = 4), hypothyroidism (n = 5) and pericarditis (n = 4). Radiotherapy dose may affect local control and the presence of PNI should be considered as an adverse prognostic factor. TACC irradiation conferred good local control rates, when comparing these results with historical series. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma following radiotherapy in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Borenstein, A.; Seidman, D.S.; Trau, H.

    1991-04-01

    A 36-year-old man was treated by radiotherapy for tinea capitis many years before discovery of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC). Because of patient's refusal of any surgical intervention, we were able to follow the natural course of this tumor for 13 years. This case emphasizes the typical slow development of (MAC). The implication of the association of MAC and radiotherapy are discussed.

  14. Dosimetry audit simulation of treatment planning system in multicenters radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmuri, S.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Treatment Planning System (TPS) is an important modality that determines radiotherapy outcome. TPS requires input data obtained through commissioning and the potentially error occurred. Error in this stage may result in the systematic error. The aim of this study to verify the TPS dosimetry to know deviation range between calculated and measurement dose. This study used CIRS phantom 002LFC representing the human thorax and simulated all external beam radiotherapy stages. The phantom was scanned using CT Scanner and planned 8 test cases that were similar to those in clinical practice situation were made, tested in four radiotherapy centers. Dose measurement using 0.6 cc ionization chamber. The results of this study showed that generally, deviation of all test cases in four centers was within agreement criteria with average deviation about -0.17±1.59 %, -1.64±1.92 %, 0.34±1.34 % and 0.13±1.81 %. The conclusion of this study was all TPS involved in this study showed good performance. The superposition algorithm showed rather poor performance than either analytic anisotropic algorithm (AAA) and convolution algorithm with average deviation about -1.64±1.92 %, -0.17±1.59 % and -0.27±1.51 % respectively.

  15. Radiotherapy dosimetry audit: three decades of improving standards and accuracy in UK clinical practice and trials.

    PubMed

    Clark, Catharine H; Aird, Edwin G A; Bolton, Steve; Miles, Elizabeth A; Nisbet, Andrew; Snaith, Julia A D; Thomas, Russell A S; Venables, Karen; Thwaites, David I

    2015-01-01

    Dosimetry audit plays an important role in the development and safety of radiotherapy. National and large scale audits are able to set, maintain and improve standards, as well as having the potential to identify issues which may cause harm to patients. They can support implementation of complex techniques and can facilitate awareness and understanding of any issues which may exist by benchmarking centres with similar equipment. This review examines the development of dosimetry audit in the UK over the past 30 years, including the involvement of the UK in international audits. A summary of audit results is given, with an overview of methodologies employed and lessons learnt. Recent and forthcoming more complex audits are considered, with a focus on future needs including the arrival of proton therapy in the UK and other advanced techniques such as four-dimensional radiotherapy delivery and verification, stereotactic radiotherapy and MR linear accelerators. The work of the main quality assurance and auditing bodies is discussed, including how they are working together to streamline audit and to ensure that all radiotherapy centres are involved. Undertaking regular external audit motivates centres to modernize and develop techniques and provides assurance, not only that radiotherapy is planned and delivered accurately but also that the patient dose delivered is as prescribed.

  16. Radiotherapy dosimetry audit: three decades of improving standards and accuracy in UK clinical practice and trials

    PubMed Central

    Aird, Edwin GA; Bolton, Steve; Miles, Elizabeth A; Nisbet, Andrew; Snaith, Julia AD; Thomas, Russell AS; Venables, Karen; Thwaites, David I

    2015-01-01

    Dosimetry audit plays an important role in the development and safety of radiotherapy. National and large scale audits are able to set, maintain and improve standards, as well as having the potential to identify issues which may cause harm to patients. They can support implementation of complex techniques and can facilitate awareness and understanding of any issues which may exist by benchmarking centres with similar equipment. This review examines the development of dosimetry audit in the UK over the past 30 years, including the involvement of the UK in international audits. A summary of audit results is given, with an overview of methodologies employed and lessons learnt. Recent and forthcoming more complex audits are considered, with a focus on future needs including the arrival of proton therapy in the UK and other advanced techniques such as four-dimensional radiotherapy delivery and verification, stereotactic radiotherapy and MR linear accelerators. The work of the main quality assurance and auditing bodies is discussed, including how they are working together to streamline audit and to ensure that all radiotherapy centres are involved. Undertaking regular external audit motivates centres to modernize and develop techniques and provides assurance, not only that radiotherapy is planned and delivered accurately but also that the patient dose delivered is as prescribed. PMID:26329469

  17. Radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Giaj-Levra, Niccolò; Sciascia, Savino; Fiorentino, Alba; Fersino, Sergio; Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Roccatello, Dario; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-03-01

    The decision to offer radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases continues to be challenging. Radiotherapy might trigger the onset of connective tissue diseases by increasing the expression of self-antigens, diminishing regulatory T-cell activity, and activating effectors of innate immunity (dendritic cells) through Toll-like receptor-dependent mechanisms, all of which could potentially lead to breaks of immune tolerance. This potential risk has raised some debate among radiation oncologists about whether patients with connective tissue diseases can tolerate radiation as well as people without connective tissue diseases. Because the number of patients with cancer and connective tissue diseases needing radiotherapy will probably increase due to improvements in medical treatment and longer life expectancy, the issue of interactions between radiotherapy and connective tissue diseases needs to be clearer. In this Review, we discuss available data and evidence for patients with connective tissue diseases treated with radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic field effects on the energy deposition spectra of MV photon radiation.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, C; Stanescu, T; Fallone, B G

    2009-01-21

    Several groups worldwide have proposed various concepts for improving megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy that involve irradiating patients in the presence of a magnetic field-either for image guidance in the case of hybrid radiotherapy-MRI machines or for purposes of introducing tighter control over dose distributions. The presence of a magnetic field alters the trajectory of charged particles between interactions with the medium and thus has the potential to alter energy deposition patterns within a sub-cellular target volume. In this work, we use the MC radiation transport code PENELOPE with appropriate algorithms invoked to incorporate magnetic field deflections to investigate electron energy fluence in the presence of a uniform magnetic field and the energy deposition spectra within a 10 microm water sphere as a function of magnetic field strength. The simulations suggest only very minor changes to the electron fluence even for extremely strong magnetic fields. Further, calculations of the dose-averaged lineal energy indicate that a magnetic field strength of at least 70 T is required before beam quality will change by more than 2%.

  19. Tally and geometry definition influence on the computing time in radiotherapy treatment planning with MCNP Monte Carlo code.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Miro, R; Gallardo, S; Santos, A; Verdu, G

    2006-01-01

    The present work has simulated the photon and electron transport in a Theratron 780 (MDS Nordion) (60)Co radiotherapy unit, using the Monte Carlo transport code, MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle), version 5. In order to become computationally more efficient in view of taking part in the practical field of radiotherapy treatment planning, this work is focused mainly on the analysis of dose results and on the required computing time of different tallies applied in the model to speed up calculations.

  20. The development of accurate and high quality radiotherapy treatment delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Susan E.

    Accurate radiotherapy delivery is required for curing cancer. Historical radiotherapy accuracy studies at Leeds (1983-1991) are discussed in context of when radiographers were not involved in practice design. The seminal research was unique in being led by a radiographer practitioner, and in prospectively studying the accuracy of different techniques within one department. The viability of alignment of treatment beams with marks painted on a patient's skin varied daily, and, using film I showed that the alignment of treatment on anatomy varied. I then led 6 sequential studies with collaborating oncologists. Unique outcomes were in identifying the origins of treatment inaccuracies, implementing and evidencing changes in multi-disciplinary practice, thus improving accuracy and reproducibility generally and achieving accuracy for the pelvis to within current norms. Innovations included: discontinuation of painted skin marks and developing whole-body patient positioning using lasers, tattoos, and standardised supports; unification of set-up conditions through planning and treatment; planning normal tissue margins round target tissue to allow for inaccuracies (1985); improved manual shielding methods, changed equipment usage, its quality assurance and design; influenced the development of portal imaging and image analysis. Consequences and current implications. The research, still cited internationally, contributed to clinical management of lymphoma, and critically underpins contemporary practice. It led to my becoming the first radiographer invited into multi-disciplinary collaborative work, to advise in the first multi-centre clinical trials to consider treatment delivery accuracy, contribute to books written from within other disciplines and inform guidelines for good practice so helping to improve practices, with recent publications. I thus led my profession into research activity. Later work included development of a national staffing formula for radiotherapy

  1. Treatment of salivary gland neoplasms with fast neutron radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Douglas, James G; Koh, Wui-jin; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Laramore, George E

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of fast neutron radiotherapy for the treatment of salivary gland neoplasms. Retrospective analysis. University of Washington Cancer Center, Neutron Facility, Seattle. The medical records of 279 patients treated with curative intent using fast neutron radiotherapy at the University of Washington Cancer Center were reviewed. Of the 279 patients, 263 had evidence of gross residual disease at the time of treatment (16 had no evidence of gross residual disease), 141 had tumors of a major salivary gland, and 138 had tumors of minor salivary glands. The median follow-up period was 36 months (range, 1-142 months). Local-regional control, cause-specific survival, and freedom from metastasis. The 6-year actuarial cause-specific survival rate was 67%. Multivariate analysis revealed that low group stage (I-II) disease, minor salivary sites, lack of skull base invasion, and primary disease were associated with a statistically significant improvement in cause-specific survival. The 6-year actuarial local-regional control rate was 59%. Multivariate analysis revealed size 4 cm or smaller, lack of base of skull invasion, prior surgical resection, and no previous radiotherapy to have a statistically significant improved local-regional control. Sixteen patients without evidence of gross residual disease had a 100% 6-year actuarial local-regional control. The 6-year actuarial freedom from metastasis rate was 64%. Factors associated with decreased development of systemic metastases included negative lymph nodes at the time of treatment and lack of base of skull involvement. The 6-year actuarial rate of development of grade 3 or 4 long-term toxicity (using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and European Organization for Research on the Treatment of Cancer criteria) was 10%. No patient experienced grade 5 toxic effects. Neuron radiotherapy is an effective treatment for patients with salivary gland neoplasms who have gross residual disease and achieves excellent

  2. Quality of Radiotherapy Reporting in Randomized Controlled Trials of Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Bekelman, Justin E.; Yahalom, Joachim

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Standards for the reporting of radiotherapy details in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are lacking. Although radiotherapy (RT) is an important component of curative therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), we postulated that RT reporting may be inadequate in Phase III HL and NHL trials. Methods and Materials: We searched PubMed and the Cochrane registry for reports of RCTs involving RT and either HL or NHL published between 1998 and 2007. We screened 133 titles and abstracts to identify relevant studies. We included a total of 61 reports. We assessed these reports for the presence of sixmore » quality measures: target volume, radiation dose, fractionation, radiation prescription, quality assurance (QA) process use, and adherence to QA (i.e., reporting of major or minor deviations). Results: Of 61 reports, 23 (38%) described the target volume. Of the 42 reports involving involved-field RT alone, only 8 (19%) adequately described the target volume. The radiation dose and fractionation was described in most reports (54 reports [89%] and 39 reports [64%], respectively). Thirteen reports specified the RT prescription point (21%). Only 12 reports (20%) described using a RT QA process, and 7 reports (11%) described adherence to the QA process. Conclusion: Reporting of RT in HL and NHL RCTs is deficient. Because the interpretation, replication, and application of RCT results depend on adequate description and QA of therapeutic interventions, consensus standards for RT reporting should be developed and integrated into the peer-review process.« less

  3. Adaptive radiotherapy for NSCLC patients: utilizing the principle of energy conservation to evaluate dose mapping operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2017-06-01

    Tumor regression during the course of fractionated radiotherapy confounds the ability to accurately estimate the total dose delivered to tumor targets. Here we present a new criterion to improve the accuracy of image intensity-based dose mapping operations for adaptive radiotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Six NSCLC patients were retrospectively investigated in this study. An image intensity-based B-spline registration algorithm was used for deformable image registration (DIR) of weekly CBCT images to a reference image. The resultant displacement vector fields were employed to map the doses calculated on weekly images to the reference image. The concept of energy conservation was introduced as a criterion to evaluate the accuracy of the dose mapping operations. A finite element method (FEM)-based mechanical model was implemented to improve the performance of the B-Spline-based registration algorithm in regions involving tumor regression. For the six patients, deformed tumor volumes changed by 21.2  ±  15.0% and 4.1  ±  3.7% on average for the B-Spline and the FEM-based registrations performed from fraction 1 to fraction 21, respectively. The energy deposited in the gross tumor volume (GTV) was 0.66 Joules (J) per fraction on average. The energy derived from the fractional dose reconstructed by the B-spline and FEM-based DIR algorithms in the deformed GTV’s was 0.51 J and 0.64 J, respectively. Based on landmark comparisons for the 6 patients, mean error for the FEM-based DIR algorithm was 2.5  ±  1.9 mm. The cross-correlation coefficient between the landmark-measured displacement error and the loss of radiation energy was  -0.16 for the FEM-based algorithm. To avoid uncertainties in measuring distorted landmarks, the B-Spline-based registrations were compared to the FEM registrations, and their displacement differences equal 4.2  ±  4.7 mm on average. The displacement differences were

  4. Durable treatment response of relapsing CNS plasmacytoma using intrathecal chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and Daratumumab.

    PubMed

    Elhassadi, Ezzat; Murphy, Maurice; Hacking, Dayle; Farrell, Michael

    2018-04-01

    CNS myelomatous involvement is a rare complication of multiple myeloma with dismal outcome. This disease's optimal treatment is unclear. Combined approach of systemic therapy, radiotherapy, and intrathecal injections chemotherapy should be considered and autologous stem cell transplant consolidation is offered to eligible patients. The role of Daratumumab in this disease deserves further evaluation.

  5. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-08-20

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

  6. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.; Doyle, Barney L.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

  7. Prognostic factors, patterns of recurrence and toxicity for patients with esophageal cancer undergoing definitive radiotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Matthias F; Lang, Kristin; Krug, David; Koerber, Stefan A; Uhlmann, Lorenz; Kieser, Meinhard; Debus, Juergen; Sterzing, Florian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of definitive chemo-radiation or radiotherapy alone in patients with esophageal cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of n = 238 patients with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus treated with definitive radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy at our institution between 2000 and 2012. Patients of all stages were included to represent actual clinical routine. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Moreover, treatment-related toxicity and patterns of recurrence were assessed. Patients recieved either chemo-radiation (64%), radiotherapy plus cetuximab (10%) or radiotherapy alone (26%). In 69%, a boost was applied, resulting in a median cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy; the remaining 31% received a median total dose of 50 Gy. For the entire cohort, the median OS and PFS were 15.0 and 11.0 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, important prognostic factors for OS and PFS were T stage (OS: P = 0.005; PFS: P = 0.006), M stage (OS: P = 0.015; PFS: P = 0.003), concomitant chemotherapy (P < 0.001) and radiation doses of >55 Gy (OS: P = 0.019; PFS: P = 0.022). Recurrences occurred predominantly as local in-field relapse or distant metastases. Toxicity was dominated by nutritional impairment (12.6% with G3/4 dysphagia) and chemo-associated side effects. Definitive chemo-radiation in patients with esophageal cancer results in survival rates comparable with surgical treatment approaches. However, local and distant recurrence considerably restrict prognosis. Further advances in radio-oncological treatment strategies are necessary for improving outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  8. Comparison of normal tissue dose calculation methods for epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients.

    PubMed

    Mille, Matthew M; Jung, Jae Won; Lee, Choonik; Kuzmin, Gleb A; Lee, Choonsik

    2018-06-01

    Radiation dosimetry is an essential input for epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients aimed at quantifying the dose-response relationship of late-term morbidity and mortality. Individualised organ dose must be estimated for all tissues of interest located in-field, near-field, or out-of-field. Whereas conventional measurement approaches are limited to points in water or anthropomorphic phantoms, computational approaches using patient images or human phantoms offer greater flexibility and can provide more detailed three-dimensional dose information. In the current study, we systematically compared four different dose calculation algorithms so that dosimetrists and epidemiologists can better understand the advantages and limitations of the various approaches at their disposal. The four dose calculations algorithms considered were as follows: the (1) Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) and (2) Acuros XB algorithm (Acuros XB), as implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS); (3) a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, EGSnrc; and (4) an accelerated Monte Carlo code, the x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC). The four algorithms were compared in terms of their accuracy and appropriateness in the context of dose reconstruction for epidemiological investigations. Accuracy in peripheral dose was evaluated first by benchmarking the calculated dose profiles against measurements in a homogeneous water phantom. Additional simulations in a heterogeneous cylinder phantom evaluated the performance of the algorithms in the presence of tissue heterogeneity. In general, we found that the algorithms contained within the commercial TPS (AAA and Acuros XB) were fast and accurate in-field or near-field, but not acceptable out-of-field. Therefore, the TPS is best suited for epidemiological studies involving large cohorts and where the organs of interest are located in-field or partially in-field. The EGSnrc and XVMC codes showed excellent agreement with measurements

  9. Quality assurance of the SCOPE 1 trial in oesophageal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wills, Lucy; Maggs, Rhydian; Lewis, Geraint; Jones, Gareth; Nixon, Lisette; Staffurth, John; Crosby, Tom

    2017-11-15

    SCOPE 1 was the first UK based multi-centre trial involving radiotherapy of the oesophagus. A comprehensive radiotherapy trials quality assurance programme was launched with two main aims: 1. To assist centres, where needed, to adapt their radiotherapy techniques in order to achieve protocol compliance and thereby enable their participation in the trial. 2. To support the trial's clinical outcomes by ensuring the consistent planning and delivery of radiotherapy across all participating centres. A detailed information package was provided and centres were required to complete a benchmark case in which the delineated target volumes and organs at risk, dose distribution and completion of a plan assessment form were assessed prior to recruiting patients into the trial. Upon recruiting, the quality assurance (QA) programme continued to monitor the outlining and planning of radiotherapy treatments. Completion of a questionnaire was requested in order to gather information about each centre's equipment and techniques relating to their trial participation and to assess the impact of the trial nationally on standard practice for radiotherapy of the oesophagus. During the trial, advice was available for individual planning issues, and was circulated amongst the SCOPE 1 community in response to common areas of concern using bulletins. 36 centres were supported through QA processes to enable their participation in SCOPE1. We discuss the issues which have arisen throughout this process and present details of the benchmark case solutions, centre questionnaires and on-trial protocol compliance. The range of submitted benchmark case GTV volumes was 29.8-67.8cm 3 ; and PTV volumes 221.9-513.3 cm 3 . For the dose distributions associated with these volumes, the percentage volume of the lungs receiving 20Gy (V20Gy) ranged from 20.4 to 33.5%. Similarly, heart V40Gy ranged from 16.1 to 33.0%. Incidence of incorrect outlining of OAR volumes increased from 50% of centres at benchmark

  10. Radiotherapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bosch, A; Frias, Z

    1988-12-01

    Fifty-nine patients with multiple myeloma referred for treatment of painful bony lesions received irradiation to 95 local areas, and 16 of the 59 were irradiated using hemibody techniques. Pain relief was obtained in practically all of the irradiated regions. Most local areas were treated to doses of 3000 cGy in 10 to 15 fractions. Patients with generalized pain due to multiple site involvement were treated with single dose hemibody irradiation, to doses of 600 cGy to the upper hemibody, and of 800 cGy to the lower hemibody. This treatment was well tolerated and side effects minimal. Median survival from diagnosis was 30 months and the survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 80%, 42%, and 12% respectively. Key articles on radiation therapy of multiple myeloma are reviewed and discussed. Since all patients eventually relapse after chemotherapy, the role of radiotherapy using present techniques should be fully evaluated and considered as an alternative in the primary treatment of multiple myeloma.

  11. Automated radiotherapy treatment plan integrity verification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Deshan; Moore, Kevin L.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: In our clinic, physicists spend from 15 to 60 min to verify the physical and dosimetric integrity of radiotherapy plans before presentation to radiation oncology physicians for approval. The purpose of this study was to design and implement a framework to automate as many elements of this quality control (QC) step as possible. Methods: A comprehensive computer application was developed to carry out a majority of these verification tasks in the Philips PINNACLE treatment planning system (TPS). This QC tool functions based on both PINNACLE scripting elements and PERL sub-routines. The core of this technique is the method ofmore » dynamic scripting, which involves a PERL programming module that is flexible and powerful for treatment plan data handling. Run-time plan data are collected, saved into temporary files, and analyzed against standard values and predefined logical rules. The results were summarized in a hypertext markup language (HTML) report that is displayed to the user. Results: This tool has been in clinical use for over a year. The occurrence frequency of technical problems, which would cause delays and suboptimal plans, has been reduced since clinical implementation. Conclusions: In addition to drastically reducing the set of human-driven logical comparisons, this QC tool also accomplished some tasks that are otherwise either quite laborious or impractical for humans to verify, e.g., identifying conflicts amongst IMRT optimization objectives.« less

  12. The role of technology in clinical trials using stereotactic body radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Alejandra Méndez; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2017-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy is a highly technology-driven treatment modality. The wider availability of in-room imaging and advanced radiotherapy delivery techniques has led to more institutions offering stereotactic ablative therapy (SABR). While some technological challenges remain, the crucial point for the next generation of SABR clinical trials is that today's technology is used correctly and close to its optimal potential for accuracy. The credentialing procedure of SABR needs to be extensive, but this investment will benefit the trial itself, the patients and the professionals involved. PMID:28055252

  13. Case study thoracic radiotherapy in an elderly patient with pacemaker: The issue of pacing leads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirova, Youlia M., E-mail: youlia.kirova@curie.net; Menard, Jean; Chargari, Cyrus

    2012-07-01

    To assess clinical outcome of patients with pacemaker treated with thoracic radiation therapy for T8-T9 paravertebral chloroma. A 92-year-old male patient with chloroma presenting as paravertebral painful and compressive (T8-T9) mass was referred for radiotherapy in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie. The patient presented with cardiac dysfunction and a permanent pacemaker that had been implanted prior. The decision of Multidisciplinary Meeting was to deliver 30 Gy in 10 fractions for reducing the symptoms and controlling the tumor growth. The patient received a total dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions using 4-field conformal radiotherapy with 20-MV photons. Themore » dose to pacemaker was 0.1 Gy but a part of the pacing leads was in the irradiation fields. The patient was treated the first time in the presence of his radiation oncologist and an intensive care unit doctor. Moreover, the function of his pacemaker was monitored during the entire radiotherapy course. No change in pacemaker function was observed during any of the radiotherapy fractions. The radiotherapy was very well tolerated without any side effects. The function of the pacemaker was checked before and after the radiotherapy treatment by the cardiologist and no pacemaker dysfunction was observed. Although updated guidelines are needed with acceptable dose criteria for implantable cardiac devices, it is possible to treat patients with these devices and parts encroaching on the radiation field. This case report shows we were able to safely treat our patient through a multidisciplinary approach, monitoring the patient during each step of the treatment.« less

  14. Present Status of Radiotherapy in Clinical Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duehmke, Eckhart

    Aims of radiation oncology are cure from malignant diseases and - at the same time preservation of anatomy (e.g. female breast, uterus, prostate) and organ functions (e.g. brain, eye, voice, sphincter ani). At present, methods and results of clinical radiotherapy (RT) are based on experiences with natural history and radiobiology of malignant tumors in properly defined situations as well as on technical developments since World War II in geometrical and biological treatment planning in teletherapy and brachytherapy. Radiobiological research revealed tolerance limits of healthy tissues to be respected, effective total treatment doses of high cure probability depending on histology and tumor volume, and - more recently - altered fractionation schemes to be adapted to specific growth fractions and intrinsic radiosensitivities of clonogenic tumor cells. In addition, Biological Response Modifiers (BRM), such as cis-platinum, oxygen and hyperthermia may steepen cell survival curves of hypoxic tumor cells, others - such as tetrachiordekaoxid (TCDO) - may enhance repair of normal tissues. Computer assisted techniques in geometrical RT-planning based on individual healthy and pathologic anatomy (CT, MRT) provide high precision RT for well defined brain lesions by using dedicated linear accelerators (Stereotaxy). CT-based individual tissue compensators help with homogenization of distorted dose distributions in magna field irradiation for malignant lymphomas and with total body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, e.g. for leukemia. RT with fast neutrons, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), RT with protons and heavy ions need to be tested in randomized trials before implementation into clinical routine.

  15. Response to treatment and interval to surgery after preoperative short-course radiotherapy in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    García-Cabezas, Sonia; Rodríguez-Liñán, Milagrosa; Otero-Romero, Ana M; Bueno-Serrano, Carmen M; Gómez-Barbadillo, José; Palacios-Eito, Amalia

    2016-10-01

    Preoperative short-course radiotherapy with immediate surgery improves local control in patients with rectal cancer. Tumor responses are smaller than those described with radiochemotherapy. Preliminary data associate this lower response to the short period until surgery. The aim of this study is to analyze the response to preoperative short-course radiotherapy and its correlation with the interval to surgery especially analyzing patients with mesorectal fascia involvement. A total of 155 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative radiotherapy (5×5Gy) were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor response in terms of rates of complete pathological response, downstaging, tumor regression grading and status of the circumferential resection margin were quantified. The mean interval from radiotherapy to surgery was 23 days. The rate of complete pathological response was 2.2% and 28% experienced downstaging (stage decreased). No differences between these rates and interval to surgery were detected. Eighty-eight patients had magnetic resonance imaging for staging (in 31 patients the mesorectal fascia was involved).The mean time to surgery in patients with involvement of the fascia and R0 surgery was 27 days and 16 days if R1 (P=.016). The cutoff of 20 days reached the highest probability of achieving a free circumferential resection margin between patients with mesorectal fascia involvement, with no statistically significant differences: RR 3.036 95% CI=(0.691-13.328), P=.06. After preoperative short-course radiotherapy, an interval>20 days enhances the likelihood of achieving a free circumferential resection margin in patients with mesorectal fascia involvement. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. When Does Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Really Avoid Radiotherapy? Clinical Predictors of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Papadia, Andrea; Bellati, Filippo; Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Donfrancesco, Cristina; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical variables that may predict the need for adjuvant radiotherapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and radical surgery in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. A retrospective series of cervical cancer patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages IB2-IIB treated with NACT followed by radical surgery was analyzed. Clinical predictors of persistence of intermediate- and/or high-risk factors at final pathological analysis were investigated. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate analysis and using a model based on artificial intelligence known as artificial neuronal network (ANN) analysis. Overall, 101 patients were available for the analyses. Fifty-two (51 %) patients were considered at high risk secondary to parametrial, resection margin and/or lymph node involvement. When disease was confined to the cervix, four (4 %) patients were considered at intermediate risk. At univariate analysis, FIGO grade 3, stage IIB disease at diagnosis and the presence of enlarged nodes before NACT predicted the presence of intermediate- and/or high-risk factors at final pathological analysis. At multivariate analysis, only FIGO grade 3 and tumor diameter maintained statistical significance. The specificity of ANN models in evaluating predictive variables was slightly superior to conventional multivariable models. FIGO grade, stage, tumor diameter, and histology are associated with persistence of pathological intermediate- and/or high-risk factors after NACT and radical surgery. This information is useful in counseling patients at the time of treatment planning with regard to the probability of being subjected to pelvic radiotherapy after completion of the initially planned treatment.

  17. Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Svartberg, Johan; Department of Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso

    Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone bindingmore » globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.« less

  18. Assessment of olfactory threshold in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mir Mohammad; Gerami, Hooshang; Rahimi, Abbas; Jafari, Manizheh

    2014-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment modality for patients with head and neck malignancies. As the nose lies within the field of radiotherapy of the head and neck, the olfactory fibers and olfactory receptors may be affected by radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in olfactory threshold in patients with head and neck malignancies who have received radiation to the head and neck. The olfactory threshold of patients with head and neck malignancies was assessed prospectively before radiation therapy and serially for up to 6 months after radiotherapy using sniff bottles. In vivo dosimetry was performed using 82 LiF (MCP) chips and a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. Sixty-one patients were recruited before radiotherapy was commenced. Seven patients did not return for evaluation after radiation. Fifty-four patients were available for follow-up assessment (28 women, 26 men; age, 22-86 years; median, 49 years). Total radiation dose was 50.1 Gy (range, 30-66 Gy). Mean olfactory threshold scores were found to deteriorate significantly at various timepoints after radiotherapy (11.7 before radiotherapy versus 4.0 at Month 6, general linear model, P<0.0001). With in vivo dosimetry, we found that the median measured dose to the olfactory area was 334 µC. We also identified a cutoff point according to the dose to the olfactory epithelium. Olfactory threshold was significantly decreased 2-6 weeks after initiation of therapy, with cumulative local radiation >135 µC (Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.01). Deterioration in olfactory threshold scores was found at 6 months after initiation of radiation therapy. Provided that these results are reproducible, an evaluation of olfactory functioning in patients with head and neck malignancies using in vivo dosimetry may be useful for determining the optimal dose for patients treated with conformal radiotherapy techniques while avoiding the side effects of radiation.

  19. Conformal Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Advanced Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma With Intracranial Extension: An Institutional Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Santam, E-mail: drsantam@gmail.com; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Patil, Vijay Maruti

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of conformal radiotherapy in advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a tertiary care institution. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart review was conducted for 8 patients treated with conformal radiotherapy between 2006 and 2009. The median follow-up was 17 months. All patients had Stage IIIB disease with intracranial extension. Radiotherapy was considered as treatment because patients were deemed inoperable owing to extensive intracranial/intraorbital extension or proximity to optic nerve. All but 1 patient were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy using seven coplanar fields. Median (range) dose prescribed was 39.6 (30-46) Gy. Actuarial analysis of local control and descriptivemore » analysis of toxicity profile was conducted. Results: Despite the large and complex target volume (median planning target volume, 292 cm{sup 3}), intensity-modulated radiotherapy achieved conformal dose distributions (median van't Reit index, 0.66). Significant sparing of the surrounding organs at risk was obtained. No significant Grade 3/4 toxicities were experienced during or after treatment. Actual local control at 2 years was 87.5%. One patient died 1 month after radiotherapy secondary to massive epistaxis. The remaining 7 patients had progressive resolution of disease and were symptom-free at last follow-up. Persistent rhinitis was the only significant toxicity, seen in 1 patient. Conclusions: Conformal radiotherapy results in good local control with minimal acute and late side effects in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, even in the presence of advanced disease.« less

  20. SU-G-JeP2-05: Dose Effects of a 1.5T Magnetic Field On Air-Tissue and Lung-Tissue Interfaces in MRI-Guided Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xinfeng; Prior, Phillip; Chen, Guangpei

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the dose effects of electron-return-effect (ERE) at air-tissue and lung-tissue interfaces under a 1.5T transverse-magnetic-field (TMF). Methods: IMRT and VMAT plans for representative pancreas, lung, breast and head & neck (H&N) cases were generated following clinical dose volume (DV) criteria. The air-cavity walls, as well as the lung wall, were delineated to examine the ERE. In each case, the original plan generated without TMF is compared with the reconstructed plan (generated by recalculating the original plan with the presence of TMF) and the optimized plan (generated by a full optimization withmore » TMF), using a variety of DV parameters, including V100%, D95% and dose heterogeneity index for PTV, Dmax, and D1cc for OARs (organs at risk) and tissue interface. Results: The dose recalculation under TMF showed the presence of the 1.5 T TMF can slightly reduce V100% and D95% for PTV, with the differences being less than 4% for all but lung case studied. The TMF results in considerable increases in Dmax and D1cc on the skin in all cases, mostly between 10-35%. The changes in Dmax and D1cc on air cavity walls are dependent upon site, geometry, and size, with changes ranging up to 15%. In general, the VMAT plans lead to much smaller dose effects from ERE compared to fixed-beam IMRT. When the TMF is considered in the plan optimization, the dose effects of the TMF at tissue interfaces are significantly reduced in most cases. Conclusion: The doses on tissue interfaces can be significantly changed by the presence of a 1.5T TMF during MR-guided RT when the TMF is not included in plan optimization. These changes can be substantially reduced or even removed during VMAT/IMRT optimization that specifically considers the TMF, without deteriorating overall plan quality.« less

  1. Combined treatment of inoperable carcinomas of the uterine cervix with radiotherapy and regional hyperthermia. Results of a phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, S; Harder, C; Wurm, R; Buchali, A; Blohmer, J; Gellermann, J; Wust, P; Randow, H; Budach, V

    1998-10-01

    The disappointing results for inoperable, advanced tumors of the uterine cervix after conventional radiotherapy alone necessitates improving of radiation therapy. Simultaneous chemotherapy or altered radiation fractionation, such as accelerated regimen, increase acute toxicity and treatment is often difficult to deliver in the planned manner. The purpose of this phase II study was to investigate the toxicity and effectiveness of a combined approach with radiotherapy and regional hyperthermia. From January 1994 to October 1995 18 patients with advanced carcinomas of the uterine cervix were treated in combination with radiotherapy and hyperthermia. The patients were treated with 6 to 20 MV photons delivered by a linear accelerator in a 4-field-box technique to a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. In the first and fourth week 2 regional hyperthermia treatments were each applied with the Sigma-60 applicator from a BSD-2000 unit. After this a boost to the primary tumor was given with high-dose-rate iridium-192 brachytherapy by an afterloading technique with 4 x 5 Gy at point A to a total of 20 Gy and for the involved parametrium anterioposterior-posterioanterior to 9 Gy in 5 fractions. The acute toxicity was low and similar to an external radiotherapy alone treatment. No Grade III/IV acute toxicity was found. The median age was 47 years (range 34 to 67 years). In 16 of 18 patients a rapid tumor regression was observed during combined thermo-radiotherapy, which allowed the use of intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy in these cases. Complete and partial remission were observed in 13 and 4 cases, respectively. One patient did not respond to the treatment. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 17 to 36 months). The local tumor control rate was 48% at 2 years. Median T20, T50 and T90 values were 41.7 degrees C (range 40.3 to 43.2 degrees C), 41.1 degrees C (range 39.2 to 42.5 degrees C) and 39.9 degrees C (range 37.7 to 41.9 degrees C), respectively. Cumulative

  2. The use of strontium-90 Beta radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for conjunctival melanoma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Victoria M L; Papastefanou, Vasilios P; Liu, S; Stoker, Ian; Hungerford, John L

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims. To report the safety and efficacy of strontium (Sr(90)) beta radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for conjunctival melanoma. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken from 1999 to 2007 of all patients who underwent Sr(90) beta radiotherapy for incompletely excised conjunctival melanoma. Failure of treatment was defined as recurrence of a conjunctival melanoma at the same location following beta radiotherapy. Results. Twenty patients underwent Sr(90) beta radiotherapy for incompletely excised conjunctival melanoma. Median follow-up interval was 59 months (8-152). All patients had conjunctival melanoma involving the bulbar conjunctiva. Underlying diagnoses included PAM with atypia in 60% (12 of 20), PAM without atypia in 15% (3 of 20), and de novo conjunctival melanoma in 25% (5 of 20). Following Sr(90) beta radiotherapy, in 90% (18 out of 20) local control was achieved and visual acuity was not affected in any patient. Three patients (15%) had dry eye symptoms, episcleritis, and descemetcoele, respectively. No cataract or secondary glaucoma was reported. Conclusions. Sr(90) treatment is a very effective adjuvant treatment after excisional biopsy and cryotherapy for conjunctival melanoma with a local success rate of 90%. The treatment is not associated with significant side effects and visual acuity is not affected.

  3. The Use of Strontium-90 Beta Radiotherapy as Adjuvant Treatment for Conjunctival Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Victoria M. L.; Papastefanou, Vasilios P.; Liu, S.; Stoker, Ian; Hungerford, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims. To report the safety and efficacy of strontium (Sr90) beta radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for conjunctival melanoma. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken from 1999 to 2007 of all patients who underwent Sr90 beta radiotherapy for incompletely excised conjunctival melanoma. Failure of treatment was defined as recurrence of a conjunctival melanoma at the same location following beta radiotherapy. Results. Twenty patients underwent Sr90 beta radiotherapy for incompletely excised conjunctival melanoma. Median follow-up interval was 59 months (8–152). All patients had conjunctival melanoma involving the bulbar conjunctiva. Underlying diagnoses included PAM with atypia in 60% (12 of 20), PAM without atypia in 15% (3 of 20), and de novo conjunctival melanoma in 25% (5 of 20). Following Sr90 beta radiotherapy, in 90% (18 out of 20) local control was achieved and visual acuity was not affected in any patient. Three patients (15%) had dry eye symptoms, episcleritis, and descemetcoele, respectively. No cataract or secondary glaucoma was reported. Conclusions. Sr90 treatment is a very effective adjuvant treatment after excisional biopsy and cryotherapy for conjunctival melanoma with a local success rate of 90%. The treatment is not associated with significant side effects and visual acuity is not affected. PMID:23431299

  4. Advances in Radiotherapy for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Justin; Ramakrishna, Rohan; Magge, Rajiv; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (RT) has long played a crucial role in the treatment of glioblastoma. Over the past several decades, significant advances in RT treatment and image-guidance technology have led to enormous improvements in the ability to optimize definitive and salvage treatments. This review highlights several of the latest developments and controversies related to RT, including the treatment of elderly patients, who continue to be a fragile and vulnerable population; potential salvage options for recurrent disease including reirradiation with chemotherapy; the latest imaging techniques allowing for more accurate and precise delineation of treatment volumes to maximize the therapeutic ratio of conformal RT; the ongoing preclinical and clinical data regarding the combination of immunotherapy with RT; and the increasing evidence of cancer stem-cell niches in the subventricular zone which may provide a potential target for local therapies. Finally, continued development on many fronts have allowed for modestly improved outcomes while at the same time limiting toxicity. PMID:29379468

  5. Advances in Radiotherapy for Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mann, Justin; Ramakrishna, Rohan; Magge, Rajiv; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (RT) has long played a crucial role in the treatment of glioblastoma. Over the past several decades, significant advances in RT treatment and image-guidance technology have led to enormous improvements in the ability to optimize definitive and salvage treatments. This review highlights several of the latest developments and controversies related to RT, including the treatment of elderly patients, who continue to be a fragile and vulnerable population; potential salvage options for recurrent disease including reirradiation with chemotherapy; the latest imaging techniques allowing for more accurate and precise delineation of treatment volumes to maximize the therapeutic ratio of conformal RT; the ongoing preclinical and clinical data regarding the combination of immunotherapy with RT; and the increasing evidence of cancer stem-cell niches in the subventricular zone which may provide a potential target for local therapies. Finally, continued development on many fronts have allowed for modestly improved outcomes while at the same time limiting toxicity.

  6. Intensified autophagy compromises the efficacy of radiotherapy against prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr; Kalamida, Dimitra; Mitrakas, Achilleas

    2015-05-29

    Introduction: Radiotherapy is an equivalent alternative or complement to radical prostatectomy, with high therapeutic efficacy. High risk patients, however, experience high relapse rates, so that research on radio-sensitization is the most evident route to improve curability of this common disease. Materials and methods: In the current study we investigated the autophagic activity in a series of patients with localized prostate tumors treated with radical radiotherapy, using the LC3A and the LAMP2a proteins as markers of autophagosome and lysosome cellular content, respectively. The role of autophagy on prostate cancer cell line resistance to radiation was also examined. Results: Using confocal microscopymore » on tissue biopsies, we showed that prostate cancer cells have, overall, high levels of LC3A and low levels of LAMP2a compared to normal prostate glands. Tumors with a ‘highLC3A/lowLAMP2a’ phenotype, suggestive of intensified lysosomal consumption, had a significantly poorer biochemical relapse free survival. The PC3 radioresistant cell line sustained remarkably its autophagic flux ability after radiation, while the DU145 radiosensitive one experiences a prolonged blockage of the autophagic process. This was assessed with aggresome accumulation detection and LC3A/LAMP2a double immunofluorescence, as well as with sequestrosome/p62 protein detection. By silencing the LC3A or LAMP2a expression, both cell lines became more sensitive to escalated doses of radiation. Conclusions: High base line autophagy activity and cell ability to sustain functional autophagy define resistance of prostate cancer cells to radiotherapy. This can be reversed by blocking up-regulated components of the autophagy pathway, which may prove of importance in the field of clinical radiotherapy. - Highlights: • High LC3A and low LAMP2a levels is a frequent expression pattern of prostate carcinoma. • This pattern of intensified autophagic flux relates with high relapse rates after

  7. Early onset of bilateral brachial plexopathy during mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Churn, M; Clough, V; Slater, A

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of brachial plexus neuropathy occurring in a 50-year-old man treated with standard mantle radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin's disease. A dose of 35 Gy in 20 fractions was given to the mantle field, following by a boost to the right side of the neck (8 Gy in four fractions). The onset of symptoms was early in the course of treatment and a gradual and almost full recovery was observed over 3 years after completion ofradiotherapy. The diagnosis was supported by electromyography. The temporal relationship of the radiotherapy and the onset of the brachial plexus neuropathy suggests a cause and effect, but this association is rarely reported after mantle radiotherapy. We review the aetiology of this condition and postulate possible mechanisms in this patient.

  8. Technical note: DIRART--A software suite for deformable image registration and adaptive radiotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deshan; Brame, Scott; El Naqa, Issam; Aditya, Apte; Wu, Yu; Goddu, S Murty; Mutic, Sasa; Deasy, Joseph O; Low, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in image guide radiotherapy technology and a growing interest in the possibilities for adapting treatment planning and delivery over the course of treatment. One obstacle faced by the research community has been the lack of a comprehensive open-source software toolkit dedicated for adaptive radiotherapy (ART). To address this need, the authors have developed a software suite called the Deformable Image Registration and Adaptive Radiotherapy Toolkit (DIRART). DIRART is an open-source toolkit developed in MATLAB. It is designed in an object-oriented style with focus on user-friendliness, features, and flexibility. It contains four classes of DIR algorithms, including the newer inverse consistency algorithms to provide consistent displacement vector field in both directions. It also contains common ART functions, an integrated graphical user interface, a variety of visualization and image-processing features, dose metric analysis functions, and interface routines. These interface routines make DIRART a powerful complement to the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR) and popular image-processing toolkits such as ITK. DIRART provides a set of image processing/registration algorithms and postprocessing functions to facilitate the development and testing of DIR algorithms. It also offers a good amount of options for DIR results visualization, evaluation, and validation. By exchanging data with treatment planning systems via DICOM-RT files and CERR, and by bringing image registration algorithms closer to radiotherapy applications, DIRART is potentially a convenient and flexible platform that may facilitate ART and DIR research. 0 2011 Ameri-

  9. Current role of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozyigit, Gokhan; Gultekin, Melis

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in females. Advances in systemic therapies and radiotherapy (RT) provided long survival rates in breast cancer patients. RT has a major role in the management of breast cancer. During the past 15 years several developments took place in the field of imaging and irradiation techniques, intensity modulated RT, hypofractionation and partial-breast irradiation. Currently, improvements in the RT technology allow us a subsequent decrease in the treatment-related complications such as fibrosis and long-term cardiac toxicity while improving the loco-regional control rates and cosmetic results. Thus, it is crucial that modern radiotherapy techniques should be carried out with maximum care and efficiency. Several randomized trials provided evidence for the feasibility of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer. However, the role of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer will continue to be defined by the mature results of randomized trials. Current review will provide an up-to-date evidence based data on the role of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer. PMID:25114857

  10. Dosimetric comparison between conventional and conformal radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix: Are we treating the right volumes?

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Jyotirup; Patra, Niladri B.; Sarkar, Biplab; Basu, Ayan; Pal, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Conventional portals, based on bony anatomy, for external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer have been repeatedly demonstrated as inadequate. Conversely, with image-based conformal radiotherapy, better target coverage may be offset by the greater toxicities and poorer compliance associated with treating larger volumes. This study was meant to dosimetrically compare conformal and conventional radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Five patients of carcinoma cervix underwent planning CT scan with IV contrast and targets, and organs at risk (OAR) were contoured. Two sets of plans-conventional and conformal were generated for each patient. Field sizes were recorded, and dose volume histograms of both sets of plans were generated and compared on the basis of target coverage and OAR sparing. Results: Target coverage was significantly improved with conformal plans though field sizes required were significantly larger. On the other hand, dose homogeneity was not significantly improved. Doses to the OARs (rectum, urinary bladder, and small bowel) were not significantly different across the 2 arms. Conclusion: Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy gives significantly better target coverage, which may translate into better local control and survival. On the other hand, it also requires significantly larger field sizes though doses to the OARs are not significantly increased. PMID:24455584

  11. Esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer: frequency and prediction.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Arimura, Hidetaka; Terashima, Kotaro; Matsuki, Takaomi; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    To determine clinical factors for predicting the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. The study group consisted of 109 patients with esophageal cancer of T1-4 and Stage I-III who were treated with definitive radiotherapy and achieved a complete response of their primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007. Esophageal stenosis was evaluated using esophagographic images within 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. We investigated the correlation between esophageal stenosis after radiotherapy and each of the clinical factors with regard to tumors and therapy. For validation of the correlative factors for esophageal stenosis, an artificial neural network was used to predict the esophageal stenotic ratio. Esophageal stenosis tended to be more severe and more frequent in T3-4 cases than in T1-2 cases. Esophageal stenosis in cases with full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent than that in cases without full circumference involvement. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. In the multivariate analysis, T stage, extent of involved circumference, and wall thickness of the tumor region were significantly correlated to esophageal stenosis (p = 0.031, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0011, respectively). The esophageal stenotic ratio predicted by the artificial neural network, which learned these three factors, was significantly correlated to the actual observed stenotic ratio, with a correlation coefficient of 0.864 (p < 0.001). Our study suggested that T stage, extent of involved circumference, and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region were useful to predict the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of radiotherapy infrastructure in Japan and in other countries with well-developed radiotherapy infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Katsumasa; Konishi, Kenta; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Tomonari; Shikama, Naoto

    2018-05-01

    In high-income countries, the number of radiotherapy machine per population reaches a sufficient level. However, the patterns of infrastructure of radiotherapy in high-income countries are not well known. Among 29 high-income countries with gross national income of $25,000 or more per capita, we selected 23 countries whose total number of newly diagnosed cancer patients in 2012 was reported in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Statistics 2017. The numbers of radiotherapy centers and teletherapy machines in each of these 23 countries were collected using the Dictionary of Radiotherapy Centers database. The number of cancer patients per teletherapy machine was 452.35-1398.22 (median 711.66) with a three-fold variation, whereas the number of cancer patients per radiotherapy center varied even more widely, from 826.16 to 5159.86 (median 2259.83) with a six-fold variation. The average number of teletherapy machines per radiotherapy center also ranged widely, from 1.24 to 8.29 (median 3.11) with a seven-fold variation. The number of teletherapy machines in each country was almost proportional to that of cancer patients, and the number of teletherapy machines per radiotherapy center was inversely related to the number of radiotherapy centers per cancer patients. The number of teletherapy machines per radiotherapy center in Japan was 1.24, the most fragmented among the high-income countries. The percentage of large radiotherapy centers having three or more teletherapy machines in Japan was the smallest among 23 high-income countries. Optimization of the radiotherapy infrastructure in Japan should be carefully considered.

  13. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Erin S., E-mail: murphye3@ccf.or; Suh, John H.

    2011-03-15

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation tomore » >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.« less

  14. Modality comparison for small animal radiotherapy: A simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Bazalova, Magdalena, E-mail: bazalova@stanford.edu; Nelson, Geoff; Noll, John M.

    Purpose: Small animal radiation therapy has advanced significantly in recent years. Whereas in the past dose was delivered using a single beam and a lead shield for sparing of healthy tissue, conformal doses can be now delivered using more complex dedicated small animal radiotherapy systems with image guidance. The goal of this paper is to investigate dose distributions for three small animal radiation treatment modalities. Methods: This paper presents a comparison of dose distributions generated by the three approaches—a single-field irradiator with a 200 kV beam and no image guidance, a small animal image-guided conformal system based on a modified microCTmore » scanner with a 120 kV beam developed at Stanford University, and a dedicated conformal system, SARRP, using a 220 kV beam developed at Johns Hopkins University. The authors present a comparison of treatment plans for the three modalities using two cases: a mouse with a subcutaneous tumor and a mouse with a spontaneous lung tumor. A 5 Gy target dose was calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. Results: All treatment modalities generated similar dose distributions for the subcutaneous tumor case, with the highest mean dose to the ipsilateral lung and bones in the single-field plan (0.4 and 0.4 Gy) compared to the microCT (0.1 and 0.2 Gy) and SARRP (0.1 and 0.3 Gy) plans. The lung case demonstrated that due to the nine-beam arrangements in the conformal plans, the mean doses to the ipsilateral lung, spinal cord, and bones were significantly lower in the microCT plan (2.0, 0.4, and 1.9 Gy) and the SARRP plan (1.5, 0.5, and 1.8 Gy) than in single-field irradiator plan (4.5, 3.8, and 3.3 Gy). Similarly, the mean doses to the contralateral lung and the heart were lowest in the microCT plan (1.5 and 2.0 Gy), followed by the SARRP plan (1.7 and 2.2 Gy), and they were highest in the single-field plan (2.5 and 2.4 Gy). For both cases, dose uniformity was greatest in the single-field irradiator plan

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Researchers conduct underwater acoustic research in the Launch Complex 39 turn basin. Several government agencies, including NASA, NOAA, the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission are involved in the testing. The research involves demonstrations of passive and active sensor technologies, with applications in fields ranging from marine biological research to homeland security. The work is also serving as a pilot project to assess the cooperation between the agencies involved. Equipment under development includes a passive acoustic monitor developed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and mobile robotic sensors from the Navy’s Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Researchers conduct underwater acoustic research in the Launch Complex 39 turn basin. Several government agencies, including NASA, NOAA, the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission are involved in the testing. The research involves demonstrations of passive and active sensor technologies, with applications in fields ranging from marine biological research to homeland security. The work is also serving as a pilot project to assess the cooperation between the agencies involved. Equipment under development includes a passive acoustic monitor developed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and mobile robotic sensors from the Navy’s Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit.

  16. The role of radiotherapy in the management of patients with diffuse low grade glioma: A systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Ryken, Timothy C; Parney, Ian; Buatti, John; Kalkanis, Steven N; Olson, Jeffrey J

    2015-12-01

    GRADE GLIOMA: Level I Lower dose radiotherapy is recommended as an equivalent alternative to higher dose immediate postoperative radiotherapy (45-50.4 vs. 59.4-64.8 Gy) in the management of newly diagnosed low-grade glioma in adults with reduced toxicity. Level III Delaying radiotherapy until recurrence or progression is recommended as an equivalent alternative to immediate postoperative radiotherapy in the management of newly diagnosed low-grade glioma in adults but may result in shorter time to progression. Level III The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy is not recommended over whole brain radiotherapy alone in the management of low-grade glioma, as it provides no additional survival benefit. Level III Limited-field radiotherapy is recommended over whole brain radiotherapy in the management of low-grade glioma. Level III Either stereotactic radiosurgery or brachytherapy are recommended as acceptable alternatives to external radiotherapy in selected patients. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED LOW GRADE GLIOMA TREATED WITH RADIOTHERAPY: Level II It is recommended that age greater than 40 years, astrocytic pathology, diameter greater than 6 cm, tumor crossing the midline and preoperative neurological deficit be considered as negative prognostic indicators when predicting overall survival in adult low grade glioma patients treated with radiotherapy. Level II It is recommended that smaller tumor size, extent of surgical resection and higher mini-mental status exam be considered as positive prognostic indicators when predicting overall survival and progression free survival in patients in adult low grade glioma patients treated with radiotherapy. Level III It is recommended that seizures at presentation, presence of oligodendroglial histological component and 1p19q deletion (along with additional relevant factors-see Table 1) be considered as positive prognostic indicators when predicting response to radiotherapy in adults with low grade

  17. Electron beam therapy with coil-generated magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Eran; Barnea, Gideon; Ma, Chang-Ming

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents an initial study on the issues involved in the practical implementation of the use of transverse magnetic fields in electron beam therapy. By using such magnetic fields the dose delivered to the tumor region can increase significantly relative to that deposited to the healthy tissue. Initially we calculated the magnetic fields produced by the Helmholtz coil and modified Helmholtz coil configurations. These configurations, which can readily be used to generate high intensity magnetic fields, approximate the idealized magnetic fields studied in our previous publications. It was therefore of interest to perform a detailed study of the fields produced by these configurations. Electron beam dose distributions for 15 MeV electrons were calculated using the ACCEPTM code for a 3T transverse magnetic field produced by the modified Helmholtz configuration. The dose distribution was compared to those obtained with no magnetic field. The results were similar to those obtained in our previous work, where an idealized step function magnetic field was used and a 3T field was shown to be the optimal field strength. A simpler configuration was also studied in which a single external coil was used to generate the field. Electron dose distributions are also presented for a given geometry and given magnetic field strength using this configuration. The results indicate that this method is more difficult to apply to radiotherapy due to its lack of symmetry and its irregularity. For the various configurations dealt with here, a major problem is the need to shield the magnetic field in the beam propagation volume, a topic that must be studied in detail.

  18. Toxicity and dosimetric analysis of non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy with 4DCT and image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy: a regional centre's experience.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Gareth C; Last, Andrew J; Shakespeare, Thomas P; Dwyer, Patrick M; Westhuyzen, Justin; McKay, Michael J; Connors, Lisa; Leader, Stephanie; Greenham, Stuart

    2016-09-01

    For patients receiving radiotherapy for locally advance non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the probability of experiencing severe radiation pneumonitis (RP) appears to rise with an increase in radiation received by the lungs. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) provides the ability to reduce planned doses to healthy organs at risk (OAR) and can potentially reduce treatment-related side effects. This study reports toxicity outcomes and provides a dosimetric comparison with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Thirty curative NSCLC patients received radiotherapy using four-dimensional computed tomography and five-field IMRT. All were assessed for early and late toxicity using common terminology criteria for adverse events. All plans were subsequently re-planned using 3DCRT to the same standard as the clinical plans. Dosimetric parameters for lungs, oesophagus, heart and conformity were recorded for comparison between the two techniques. IMRT plans achieved improved high-dose conformity and reduced OAR doses including lung volumes irradiated to 5-20 Gy. One case each of oesophagitis and erythema (3%) were the only Grade 3 toxicities. Rates of Grade 2 oesophagitis were 40%. No cases of Grade 3 RP were recorded and Grade 2 RP rates were as low as 3%. IMRT provides a dosimetric benefit when compared to 3DCRT. While the clinical benefit appears to increase with increasing target size and increasing complexity, IMRT appears preferential to 3DCRT in the treatment of NSCLC.

  19. SU-C-17A-07: The Development of An MR Accelerator-Enabled Planning-To-Delivery Technique for Stereotactic Palliative Radiotherapy Treatment of Spinal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogcarspel, S J; Kontaxis, C; Velden, J M van der

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop an MR accelerator-enabled online planning-todelivery technique for stereotactic palliative radiotherapy treatment of spinal metastases. The technical challenges include; automated stereotactic treatment planning, online MR-based dose calculation and MR guidance during treatment. Methods: Using the CT data of 20 patients previously treated at our institution, a class solution for automated treatment planning for spinal bone metastases was created. For accurate dose simulation right before treatment, we fused geometrically correct online MR data with pretreatment CT data of the target volume (TV). For target tracking during treatment, a dynamic T2-weighted TSE MR sequence was developed. An in house developedmore » GPU based IMRT optimization and dose calculation algorithm was used for fast treatment planning and simulation. An automatically generated treatment plan developed with this treatment planning system was irradiated on a clinical 6 MV linear accelerator and evaluated using a Delta4 dosimeter. Results: The automated treatment planning method yielded clinically viable plans for all patients. The MR-CT fusion based dose calculation accuracy was within 2% as compared to calculations performed with original CT data. The dynamic T2-weighted TSE MR Sequence was able to provide an update of the anatomical location of the TV every 10 seconds. Dose calculation and optimization of the automatically generated treatment plans using only one GPU took on average 8 minutes. The Delta4 measurement of the irradiated plan agreed with the dose calculation with a 3%/3mm gamma pass rate of 86.4%. Conclusions: The development of an MR accelerator-enabled planning-todelivery technique for stereotactic palliative radiotherapy treatment of spinal metastases was presented. Future work will involve developing an intrafraction motion adaptation strategy, MR-only dose calculation, radiotherapy quality-assurance in a magnetic field, and streamlining the entire

  20. Intensity-modulated proton therapy for elective nodal irradiation and involved-field radiation in the definitive treatment of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a dosimetric study.

    PubMed

    Kesarwala, Aparna H; Ko, Christine J; Ning, Holly; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Haglund, Karl E; O'Meara, William P; Simone, Charles B; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-05-01

    Photon involved-field (IF) radiation therapy (IFRT), the standard for locally advanced (LA) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), results in favorable outcomes without increased isolated nodal failures, perhaps from scattered dose to elective nodal stations. Because of the high conformality of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), proton IFRT could increase nodal failures. We investigated the feasibility of IMPT for elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in LA-NSCLC. IMPT IFRT plans were generated to the same total dose of 66.6-72 Gy received by 20 LA-NSCLC patients treated with photon IFRT. IMPT ENI plans were generated to 46 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE) to elective nodal planning treatment volumes (PTV) plus 24 CGE to IF-PTVs. Proton IFRT and ENI improved the IF-PTV percentage of volume receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (D95) by 4% (P < .01) compared with photon IFRT. All evaluated dosimetric parameters improved significantly with both proton plans. The lung percentage of volume receiving 20 Gy/CGE (V20) and mean lung dose decreased 18% (P < .01) and 36% (P < .01), respectively, with proton IFRT, and 11% (P = .03) and 26% (P < .01) with ENI. The mean esophagus dose decreased 16% with IFRT and 12% with ENI; heart V25 decreased 63% with both (all P < .01). This study demonstrates the feasibility of IMPT for LA-NSCLC ENI. Potential decreased toxicity indicates that IMPT could allow ENI while maintaining a favorable therapeutic ratio compared with photon IFRT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Monte Carlo verification of radiotherapy treatments with CloudMC.

    PubMed

    Miras, Hector; Jiménez, Rubén; Perales, Álvaro; Terrón, José Antonio; Bertolet, Alejandro; Ortiz, Antonio; Macías, José

    2018-06-27

    A new implementation has been made on CloudMC, a cloud-based platform presented in a previous work, in order to provide services for radiotherapy treatment verification by means of Monte Carlo in a fast, easy and economical way. A description of the architecture of the application and the new developments implemented is presented together with the results of the tests carried out to validate its performance. CloudMC has been developed over Microsoft Azure cloud. It is based on a map/reduce implementation for Monte Carlo calculations distribution over a dynamic cluster of virtual machines in order to reduce calculation time. CloudMC has been updated with new methods to read and process the information related to radiotherapy treatment verification: CT image set, treatment plan, structures and dose distribution files in DICOM format. Some tests have been designed in order to determine, for the different tasks, the most suitable type of virtual machines from those available in Azure. Finally, the performance of Monte Carlo verification in CloudMC is studied through three real cases that involve different treatment techniques, linac models and Monte Carlo codes. Considering computational and economic factors, D1_v2 and G1 virtual machines were selected as the default type for the Worker Roles and the Reducer Role respectively. Calculation times up to 33 min and costs of 16 € were achieved for the verification cases presented when a statistical uncertainty below 2% (2σ) was required. The costs were reduced to 3-6 € when uncertainty requirements are relaxed to 4%. Advantages like high computational power, scalability, easy access and pay-per-usage model, make Monte Carlo cloud-based solutions, like the one presented in this work, an important step forward to solve the long-lived problem of truly introducing the Monte Carlo algorithms in the daily routine of the radiotherapy planning process.

  2. The evolution and rise of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Vellayappan, Balamurugan A; Chao, Samuel T; Foote, Matthew; Guckenberger, Matthias; Redmond, Kristin J; Chang, Eric L; Mayr, Nina A; Sahgal, Arjun; Lo, Simon S

    2018-06-25

    Owing to improvements in clinical care and systemic therapy, more patients are being diagnosed with, and living longer with, spinal metastases (SM). In parallel, tremendous technological progress has been made in the field of radiation oncology. Advances in both software and hardware are able to integrate three- (and four-) dimensional body imaging with spatially accurate treatment delivery methods. This is able to improve the efficacy, shorten the overall treatment schedule and potentially reduce treatment-related toxicity. Areas covered: In this review, we will look at the progress made by stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the management of SM. We will review the technological factors which have enabled the widespread use of SBRT. The efficacy of SBRT, in various clinical scenarios, and associated toxicities will be reviewed. Lastly, we will discuss about patient selection, and provide a five-year roadmap. Expert commentary: Spine SBRT is a safe and efficacious treatment option. Practice guidelines recommend the use of SBRT in oligo-metastatic patients especially those with radio-resistant cancer types, and in scenarios involving re-irradiation. SBRT offers patients dose-intensification over a short schedule which may allow less time off systemic therapy. The results of the phase III trials are eagerly awaited.

  3. Secondary Intracranial Tumors Following Radiotherapy for Pituitary Adenomas: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Ryuya; Sato, Toshiteru; Hayano, Azusa; Takashima, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are often treated with radiotherapy for the management of tumor progression or recurrence. Despite the improvement in cure rates, patients treated by radiotherapy are at risk of development of secondary malignancies. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the secondary intracranial tumors that occurred following radiotherapy to pituitary adenomas to obtain clinicopathological characteristics. The analysis included 48 neuroepithelial tumors, 37 meningiomas, and 52 sarcomas which were published between 1959–2017, although data is missing regarding overall survival and type of irradiation in a significant proportion of the reports. The average onset age for the pituitary adenoma was 37.2 ± 14.4 years and the average latency period before the diagnosis of the secondary tumor was 15.2 ± 8.7 years. Radiotherapy was administered in pituitary adenomas at an average dose of 52.0 ± 19.5 Gy. The distribution of pituitary adenomas according to their function was prolactinoma in 10 (7.2%) cases, acromegaly in 37 (27.0%) cases, Cushing disease in 4 (2.9%) cases, PRL+GH in 1 (0.7%) case, non-functioning adenoma in 57 (41.6%) cases. Irradiation technique delivered was lateral opposing field in 23 (16.7%) cases, 3 or 4 field technique in 27 (19.6%) cases, rotation technique in 10 (7.2%) cases, radio surgery in 6 (4.3%) cases. Most of the glioma or sarcoma had been generated after lateral opposing field or 3/4 field technique. Fibrosarcomas were predominant before 1979 (p < 0.0001). The median overall survival time for all neuroepithelial tumors was 11 months (95% confidence intervals (CI), 3–14). Patients with gliomas treated with radiotherapy exhibited a non-significant positive trend with longer overall survival. The median overall survival time for sarcoma cases was 6 months (95% CI, 1.5–9). The median survival time in patients with radiation and/or chemotherapy for sarcomas exhibited a non-significant positive trend with longer overall

  4. Limited-field radiation for bifocal germinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Mabbott, Donald

    Purpose: To report the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of bifocal germinomas treated with chemotherapy followed by focal radiation. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review. Inclusion criteria included radiologic diagnosis of bifocal germinoma involving the pineal and neurohypophyseal region, no evidence of dissemination on spinal MRI, negative results from cerebrospinal fluid cytologic evaluation, and negative tumor markers. Results: Between 1995 and 2004, 6 patients (5 male, 1 female; median age, 12.8 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All had symptoms of diabetes insipidus at presentation. On MRI, 4 patients had a pineal and suprasellar mass, and 2 had amore » pineal mass associated with abnormal neurohypophyseal enhancement. All patients received chemotherapy followed by limited-field radiation and achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. The radiation field involved the whole ventricular system (range, 2,400-4,000 cGy) with or without a boost to the primary lesions. All patients remain in complete remission at a median follow-up of 48.1 months (range, 9-73.4 months). Conclusions: This experience suggests that bifocal germinoma can be considered a locoregional rather than a metastatic disease. Chemotherapy and focal radiotherapy might be sufficient to provide excellent outcomes. Staging refinement with new diagnostic tools will likely increase the incidence of the entity.« less

  5. Role of intraoperative radiotherapy in the treatment of sacral chordoma.

    PubMed

    Jullien-Petrelli, Ariel Christian; García-Sabrido, J L; Orue-Echebarria, M I; Lozano, P; Álvarez, A; Serrano, J; Calvo, F M; Calvo-Haro, J A; Lasso, J M; Asencio, J M

    2018-04-01

    Sacral chordoma is a rare entity with high local recurrence rates when complete resection is not achieved. To date, there are no series available in literature combining surgery and intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). The objective of this study was to report the experience of our center in the management of sacral chordoma combining radical resection with both external radiotherapy and IORT. This is a retrospective case series. The patient sample included 15 patients with sacral chordoma resected in our center from 1998 to 2015. The outcome measures were overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and rates of local and distant recurrences. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all the patients with sacral chordoma resected in our center from 1998 to December 2015. Overall survival, DFS, and rates of local and distant recurrences were calculated. Results between patients treated with or without IORT were compared. A total of 15 patients were identified: 8 men and 7 women. The median age was 59 years (range 28-77). Intraoperative radiotherapy was applied in nine patients and six were treated with surgical resection without IORT. In 13 patients, we performed the treatment of the primary tumor, and in two patients, we performed the treatment of recurrence disease. A posterior approach was used in four patients. Wide surgical margins (zero residue) were achieved in six patients, marginal margins (microscopic residue) were achieved in seven patients, and there were no patients with intralesional (R2) margins. At a median follow-up of 38 months (range 11-209 months), the 5-year OS in the IORT group was 100% versus 53% in the group of non-IORT (p=.05). The median DFS in the IORT group was 85 months, and that in the non-IORT group was 41 months. In the group without IORT, two patients died and nobody died during the follow-up in the group treated with IORT. High-sacrectomy treated patients had a median survival of 41 months, and low-sacrectomy treated

  6. [Role of radiotherapy in stage I testicular seminomas: about 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Aissa, Abdellah; Marnouche, Elamin; Elkacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of 25 stage I testicular seminomas to clarify the role of radiotherapy in the management of this disease. Between January 2001 and December 2009, 25 patients with stage I testicular seminoma were treated in the Radiotherapy Department at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat. Primary orchidectomy was performed via the inguinal route. Initial staging was based on total beta-hCG dosage, alpha-fetoprotein dosage and exploration of superior diaphragmatic and sub-diaphragmatic lymph nodes using tomodensitometry. Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered using linear accelerator. The median age was 33 years (18-52 years). Testicular tumor involved the right side in 16 patients and the left side in 9 patients. Radiotherapy was delivered to lombo-aortic lymph nodes in 18 patients, lombo-aortic and ipsilateral iliac lymph nodes in 7 patients, using 2 anterior-posterior beams, with delivery of 20-25 Gy in 10-14 fractions. Immediate tolerance was excellent. The average monitoring period was 73 months. Twenty three patients are currently alive in complete remission. One patient developed a pulmonary relapse 22 months after the end of the radiotherapy. One patient was lost to follow-up. Long-term toxicity, especially gastrointestinal toxicity, was not observed. No tumor or secondary hematologic disease was reported. Prophylactic radiotherapy remains the standard adjuvant treatment of stage I seminomas. Immediate tolerance is satisfactory and an increased risk for secondary cancer is negligible compared to the therapeutic benefit. However, strict monitoring and one cycle of carboplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy are also effective.

  7. Five-year follow-up using a prostate stent as fiducial in image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Carl, Jesper; Sander, Lotte

    2015-06-01

    To report results from the five-year follow-up on a previously reported study using image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (PC) and a removable prostate stent as fiducial. Patients with local or locally advanced PC were treated using five-field 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DRT). The clinical target volumes (CTV) were treated to 78 Gy in 39 fractions using daily on-line image guidance (IG). Late genito-urinary (GU) and gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicities were scored using the radiotherapy oncology group (RTOG) score and the common toxicity score of adverse events (CTC) score. Urinary symptoms were also scored using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Median observation time was 5.4 year. Sixty-two of the 90 patients from the original study cohort were eligible for toxicity assessment. Overall survival, cancer-specific survival and biochemical freedom from failure were 85%, 96% and 80%, respectively at five years after radiotherapy. Late toxicity GU and GI RTOG scores≥2 were 5% and 0%. Comparing pre- and post-radiotherapy IPSS scores indicate that development in urinary symptoms after radiotherapy may be complex. Prostate image-guided radiotherapy using a prostate stent demonstrated survival data comparable with recently published data. GU and GI toxicities at five-year follow-up were low and comparable to the lowest toxicity rates reported. These findings support that the precision of the prostate stent technique is at least as good as other techniques. IPSS revealed a complex development in urinary symptoms after radiotherapy.

  8. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Low-Risk Endometrial Cancers: Final Results of a Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect

    Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.i; Cilla, Savino M.P.; Ferrandina, Gabriella

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose of short-course radiotherapy (intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique) to the upper two thirds of the vagina in endometrial cancers with low risk of local recurrence. Patients and Methods: A Phase I clinical trial was performed. Eligible patients had low-risk resected primary endometrial adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy was delivered in 5 fractions over 1 week. The planning target volume was the clinical target volume plus 5 mm. The clinical target volume was defined as the upper two thirds of the vagina as evidenced at CT simulation by a vaginal radio-opaque device. The planning target volume was irradiated bymore » a seven-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique, planned by the Plato Sunrise inverse planning system. A first cohort of 6 patients received 25 Gy (5-Gy fractions), and a subsequent cohort received 30 Gy (6-Gy fractions). The Common Toxicity Criteria scale, version 3.0, was used to score toxicity. Results: Twelve patients with endometrial cancer were enrolled. Median age was 58 years (range, 49-74 years). Pathologic stage was IB (83.3%) and IC (16.7%). Median tumor size was 30 mm (range, 15-50 mm). All patients completed the prescribed radiotherapy. No patient experienced a dose-limiting toxicity at the first level, and the radiotherapy dose was escalated from 25 to 30 Gy. No patients at the second dose level experienced dose-limiting toxicity. The most common Grade 2 toxicity was gastrointestinal, which was tolerable and manageable. Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose of short-course radiotherapy was 30 Gy at 6 Gy per fraction. On the basis of this result, we are conducting a Phase II study with radiotherapy delivered at 30 Gy.« less

  9. Influence of secondary neutrons induced by proton radiotherapy for cancer patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although proton radiotherapy is a promising new approach for cancer patients, functional interference is a concern for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of secondary neutrons induced by proton radiotherapy on ICDs. Methods The experimental set-up simulated proton radiotherapy for a patient with an ICD. Four new ICDs were placed 0.3 cm laterally and 3 cm distally outside the radiation field in order to evaluate the influence of secondary neutrons. The cumulative in-field radiation dose was 107 Gy over 10 sessions of irradiation with a dose rate of 2 Gy/min and a field size of 10 × 10 cm2. After each radiation fraction, interference with the ICD by the therapy was analyzed by an ICD programmer. The dose distributions of secondary neutrons were estimated by Monte-Carlo simulation. Results The frequency of the power-on reset, the most serious soft error where the programmed pacing mode changes temporarily to a safety back-up mode, was 1 per approximately 50 Gy. The total number of soft errors logged in all devices was 29, which was a rate of 1 soft error per approximately 15 Gy. No permanent device malfunctions were detected. The calculated dose of secondary neutrons per 1 Gy proton dose in the phantom was approximately 1.3-8.9 mSv/Gy. Conclusions With the present experimental settings, the probability was approximately 1 power-on reset per 50 Gy, which was below the dose level (60-80 Gy) generally used in proton radiotherapy. Further quantitative analysis in various settings is needed to establish guidelines regarding proton radiotherapy for cancer patients with ICDs. PMID:22284700

  10. Threshold dose for peripheral neuropathy following intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in a large animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; DeLuca, A.M.; Barnes, M.

    1991-04-01

    Radiation injury to peripheral nerve is a dose-limiting toxicity in the clinical application of intraoperative radiotherapy, particularly for pelvic and retroperitoneal tumors. Intraoperative radiotherapy-related peripheral neuropathy in humans receiving doses of 20-25 Gy is manifested as a mixed motor-sensory deficit beginning 6-9 months following treatment. In a previous experimental study of intraoperative radiotherapy-related neuropathy of the lumbro-sacral plexus, an approximate inverse linear relationship was reported between the intraoperative dose (20-75 Gy range) and the time to onset of hind limb paresis (1-12 mos following intraoperative radiotherapy). The principal histological lesion in irradiated nerve was loss of large nerve fibers andmore » perineural fibrosis without significant vascular injury. Similar histological changes in irradiated nerves were found in humans. To assess peripheral nerve injury to lower doses of intraoperative radiotherapy in this same large animal model, groups of four adult American Foxhounds received doses of 10, 15, or 20 Gy to the right lumbro-sacral plexus and sciatic nerve using 9 MeV electrons. The left lumbro-sacral plexus and sciatic nerve were excluded from the intraoperative field to allow each animal to serve as its own control. Following treatment, a complete neurological exam, electromyogram, and nerve conduction studies were performed monthly for 1 year. Monthly neurological exams were performed in years 2 and 3 whereas electromyogram and nerve conduction studies were performed every 3 months during this follow-up period. With follow-up of greater than or equal to 42 months, no dog receiving 10 or 15 Gy IORT shows any clinical or laboratory evidence of peripheral nerve injury. However, all four dogs receiving 20 Gy developed right hind limb paresis at 8, 9, 9, and 12 mos following intraoperative radiotherapy.« less

  11. [Image-guided radiotherapy and partial delegation to radiotherapy technicians: Clermont-Ferrand experience].

    PubMed

    Loos, G; Moreau, J; Miroir, J; Benhaïm, C; Biau, J; Caillé, C; Bellière, A; Lapeyre, M

    2013-10-01

    The various image-guided radiotherapy techniques raise the question of how to achieve the control of patient positioning before irradiation session and sharing of tasks between radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technicians. We have put in place procedures and operating methods to make a partial delegation of tasks to radiotherapy technicians and secure the process in three situations: control by orthogonal kV imaging (kV-kV) of bony landmarks, control by kV-kV imaging of intraprostatic fiducial goldmarkers and control by cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging for prostate cancer. Significant medical overtime is required to control these three IGRT techniques. Because of their competence in imaging, these daily controls can be delegated to radiotherapy technicians. However, to secure the process, initial training and regular evaluation are essential. The analysis of the comparison of the use of kV/kV on bone structures allowed us to achieve a partial delegation of control to radiotherapy technicians. Controlling the positioning of the prostate through the use and automatic registration of fiducial goldmarkers allows better tracking of the prostate and can be easily delegated to radiotherapy technicians. The analysis of the use of daily cone beam CT for patients treated with intensity modulated irradiation is underway, and a comparison of practices between radiotherapy technicians and radiation oncologists is ongoing to know if a partial delegation of this control is possible. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Pharmacological interventions for the prevention of insufficiency fractures and avascular necrosis associated with pelvic radiotherapy in adults.

    PubMed

    van den Blink, Qurrat U; Garcez, Kate; Henson, Caroline C; Davidson, Susan E; Higham, Claire E

    2018-04-23

    Pelvic radiotherapy is a treatment delivered to an estimated 150,000 to 300,000 people annually across high-income countries. Fractures due to normal stresses on weakened bone due to radiotherapy are termed insufficiency fractures. Pelvic radiotherapy-related interruption of the blood supply to the hip is termed avascular necrosis and is another recognised complication. The reported incidences of insufficiency fractures are 2.7% to 89% and risk of developing avascular necrosis is 0.5%. These complications lead to significant morbidity in terms of pain, immobility and consequently risk of infections, pressure sores and mortality. To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for preventing insufficiency fractures and avascular necrosis in adults over 18 years of age undergoing pelvic radiotherapy. We performed electronic literature searches in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase and DARE to 19 April 2017. We also searched trial registries. Further relevant studies were identified through handsearching of citation lists of included studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or non RCTs with concurrent comparison groups including quasi-RCTs, cluster RCTs, prospective cohort studies and case series of 30 or more participants were screened. We included studies assessing the effect of pharmacological interventions in adults over 18 years of age undergoing radical pelvic radiotherapy as part of anticancer treatment for a primary pelvic malignancy. We excluded studies involving radiotherapy for bone metastases. We assessed use of pharmacological interventions at any stage before or during pelvic radiotherapy. Interventions included calcium or vitamin D (or both) supplementation, bisphosphonates, selective oestrogen receptor modulators, hormone replacement therapy (oestrogen or testosterone), denosumab and calcitonin. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors to

  13. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions.

  14. Credentialing of radiotherapy centres in Australasia for TROG 09.02 (Chisel), a Phase III clinical trial on stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy of early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Chesson, Brent; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Crain, Melissa; Clements, Natalie; Burns, Mark; Ball, David

    2018-05-01

    A randomised clinical trial comparing stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) with conventional radiotherapy for early stage lung cancer has been conducted in Australia and New Zealand under the auspices of the TransTasman Radiation Oncology Group (NCT01014130). We report on the technical credentialing program as prerequisite for centres joining the trial. Participating centres were asked to develop treatment plans for two test cases to assess their ability to create plans according to protocol. Dose delivery in the presence of inhomogeneity and motion was assessed during a site visit using a phantom with moving inserts. Site visits for the trial were conducted in 16 Australian and 3 New Zealand radiotherapy facilities. The tests with low density inhomogeneities confirmed shortcomings of the AAA algorithm for dose calculation. Dose was assessed for a typical treatment delivery including at least one non-coplanar beam in a stationary and moving phantom. This end-to-end test confirmed that all participating centres were able to deliver stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy with the required accuracy while the planning study demonstrated that they were able to produce acceptable plans for both test cases. The credentialing process documented that participating centres were able to deliver dose as required in the trial protocol. It also gave an opportunity to provide education about the trial and discuss technical issues such as four-dimensional CT, small field dosimetry and patient immobilisation with staff in participating centres. Advances in knowledge: Credentialing is an important quality assurance tool for radiotherapy trials using advanced technology. In addition to confirming technical competence, it provides an opportunity for education and discussion about the trial.

  15. Measuring neutron spectra in radiotherapy using the nested neutron spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Maglieri, Robert; Licea, Angel; Evans, Michael; Seuntjens, Jan; Kildea, John

    2015-11-01

    Out-of-field neutron doses resulting from photonuclear interactions in the head of a linear accelerator pose an iatrogenic risk to patients and an occupational risk to personnel during radiotherapy. To quantify neutron production, in-room measurements have traditionally been carried out using Bonner sphere systems (BSS) with activation foils and TLDs. In this work, a recently developed active detector, the nested neutron spectrometer (NNS), was tested in radiotherapy bunkers. The NNS is designed for easy handling and is more practical than the traditional BSS. Operated in current-mode, the problem of pulse pileup due to high dose-rates is overcome by measuring current, similar to an ionization chamber. In a bunker housing a Varian Clinac 21EX, the performance of the NNS was evaluated in terms of reproducibility, linearity, and dose-rate effects. Using a custom maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm, measured neutron spectra at various locations inside the bunker were then compared to Monte Carlo simulations of an identical setup. In terms of dose, neutron ambient dose equivalents were calculated from the measured spectra and compared to bubble detector neutron dose equivalent measurements. The NNS-measured spectra for neutrons at various locations in a treatment room were found to be consistent with expectations for both relative shape and absolute magnitude. Neutron fluence-rate decreased with distance from the source and the shape of the spectrum changed from a dominant fast neutron peak near the Linac head to a dominant thermal neutron peak in the moderating conditions of the maze. Monte Carlo data and NNS-measured spectra agreed within 30% at all locations except in the maze where the deviation was a maximum of 40%. Neutron ambient dose equivalents calculated from the authors' measured spectra were consistent (one standard deviation) with bubble detector measurements in the treatment room. The NNS may be used to reliably measure the neutron

  16. Experience with carbon ion radiotherapy at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäkel, O.; Schulz-Ertner, D.; Karger, C. P.; Heeg, P.; Debus, J.

    2005-12-01

    At GSI, a radiotherapy facility was established using beam scanning and active energy variation. Between December 1997 and April 2004, 220 patients have been treated at this facility with carbon ions. Most patients are treated for chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the base of skull, using a dose of 60 Gye (Gray equivalent) in 20 fractions. Carbon ion therapy is also offered in a combination with conventional radiotherapy for a number of other tumors (adenoidcystic carcinoma, chordoma of the cervical spine and sacrum, atypical menningeoma). The patients treated for skull base tumors showed an overall local control rate after two years of 90%. The overall treatment toxicity was mild. This shows that carbon ion radiotherapy can safely be applied using a scanned beam and encouraged the Heidelberg university hospital to build a hospital based facility for ion therapy.

  17. In vivo skin dose measurement in breast conformal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Noghreiyan, Atefeh Vejdani; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Jamali, Farideh; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Accurate skin dose assessment is necessary during breast radiotherapy to assure that the skin dose is below the tolerance level and is sufficient to prevent tumour recurrence. The aim of the current study is to measure the skin dose and to evaluate the geometrical/anatomical parameters that affect it. Forty patients were simulated by TIGRT treatment planning system and treated with two tangential fields of 6 MV photon beam. Wedge filters were used to homogenise dose distribution for 11 patients. Skin dose was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) and the effects of beam incident angle, thickness of irradiated region, and beam entry separation on the skin dose were analysed. Average skin dose in treatment course of 50 Gy to the clinical target volume (CTV) was 36.65 Gy. The corresponding dose values for patients who were treated with and without wedge filter were 35.65 and 37.20 Gy, respectively. It was determined that the beam angle affected the average skin dose while the thickness of the irradiated region and the beam entry separation did not affect dose. Since the skin dose measured in this study was lower than the amount required to prevent tumour recurrence, application of bolus material in part of the treatment course is suggested for post-mastectomy advanced breast radiotherapy. It is more important when wedge filters are applied to homogenize dose distribution.

  18. Radiotherapy in the treatment of solitary plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Jyothirmayi, R; Gangadharan, V P; Nair, M K; Rajan, B

    1997-05-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) and extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) are rare. High local control rates are reported with radiotherapy, although the optimal dose and extent of radiotherapy portals remains controversial. Between 1983 and 1993, 30 patients with solitary plasmacytoma were seen at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India. 23 patients had SPB and seven EMP. The mean age was 52 years and the male to female ratio 3.2:1. Diagnosis of SPB was confirmed by biopsy in 16 patients and tumour excision in seven. 20 patients received megavoltage radiotherapy to the bone lesion with limited margins, and one received chemotherapy. Two patients who underwent complete tumour excision received no further treatment. All seven patients with EMP received megavoltage radiotherapy, four following biopsy and three after tumour excision. Local control was achieved in all patients with SPB. Nine progressed to multiple myeloma and one developed a solitary plasmacytoma in another bone. Six patients with EMP achieved local control. Three later progressed to multiple myeloma and one had local relapse. Median time to relapse was 28 months in SPB and 30 months in EMP. 5-year overall survival rates were 82% and 57% for patients with SPB and EMP, respectively. The corresponding progression free survival rates were 55% and 50%, respectively. Age, sex, site of tumour, serum M protein and haemoglobin levels did not significantly influence progression free survival. The extent of surgery, radiotherapy dose or time to relapse were not significant prognostic factors. Radiotherapy appears to be an effective modality of treatment of solitary plasmacytoma. No dose-response relationship is observed, and high local control rates are achieved with limited portals. Progression to multiple myeloma is the commonest pattern of failure, although no prognostic factors for progression are identified. The role of chemotherapy in preventing disease progression needs further evaluation.

  19. Quality assurance of registration of CT and MRI data sets for treatment planning of radiotherapy for head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Craig S.; Liney, Gary P.; Beavis, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    We are implementing the use of magnetic resonance (MR) images for head and neck radiotherapy planning, which involves their registration with computed tomography (CT). The quality assurance (QA) of the registration process was an initial step of this program. A phantom was built, and appropriate materials were identified to produce clinically relevant MR T1 and T2 contrast for its constituent “anatomy.” We performed a characterization of the distortion detectable within our phantom. Finally, we assessed the accuracy of image registration by contouring structures in the registered/fused data sets using the treatment planning system. Each structure was contoured using each modality, in turn, blind of the other. The position, area, and perimeter of each structure were assessed as a measure of accuracy of the entire image registration process. Distortion effects in the MR image were shown to be minimized by choosing a suitable (≥±30 kHz) receiver bandwidth. Remaining distortion was deemed clinically acceptable within ±15 cm of the magnetic field isocenter. A coefficient of agreement (A) analysis gave values to be within 9% of unity, where A=RaRp and Ra/p is the ratio of the area/perimeter of a particular structure on CT to that on MR. The center of each structure of interest agreed to within 1.8 mm. A QA process has been developed to assess the accuracy of using multimodality image registration in the planning of radiotherapy for the head and neck; we believe its introduction is feasible and safe. PACS numbers: 87.53.Xd, 87.57.Gg, 87.59.Fm; 87.61.‐c, 87.66.Xa PMID:15753931

  20. Radiotherapy of oral malignant melanomas in dogs.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, L; Dobson, J M

    1996-07-01

    To evaluate response to radiotherapy in dogs with oral malignant melanomas. Clinical trial. 36 dogs with histologically confirmed oral malignant melanomas. The prescribed radiation dose was 36 Gy given in 4 fractions of 9 Gy at 7-day intervals. The primary radiation source was a linear accelerator. In 25 of 36 dogs, complete remission was achieved, and in 9 dogs, partial remission was achieved. Recurrence of the primary tumor was the cause of euthanasia of 4 dogs. Twenty-one dogs were euthanatized because of metastasis. Radiotherapy was an effective palliative treatment for the primary tumor in dogs with oral malignant melanomas. However, rapid development of metastatic disease remained a major challenge.

  1. [Rescue cryotherapy for prostate cancer after radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    García, Erique Lledó; Amo, Felipe Herranz; San Segundo, Carmen González; Fagundo, Eva Paños; Escudero, Roberto Molina; Alonso, Adrian Husillos; Piniés, Gabriel Ogaya; Rascón, Jose Jara; Fernández, Carlos Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Radical Radiotherapy constitutes a useful therapeutic option for localized prostate cancer. Almost one third of prostate cancer patients choose this alternative to treat the disease. Despite modifications in the technique as intensity modulation, 3D conformational radiotherapy or computer-assisted brachytherapy, a significant percentage of these patients will show an increase in PSA values after radiation. Local relapse without distant disease and PSA less than 10 ng/ml are candidates for salvage therapy. Cryotherapy has already become a curative treatment option in this group of patients. Recent technological as well as surgical advances in salvage-cryotherapy have reduced dramatically complications and progressively increase the interest on this alternative.

  2. [Development of quality assurance/quality control web system in radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Toshihiko; Yokoyama, Kazutoshi; Wakita, Akihisa; Nakamura, Satoshi; Ueki, Heihachi; Shiozawa, Keiko; Sasaki, Koji; Fuse, Masashi; Abe, Yoshihisa; Itami, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Our purpose is to develop a QA/QC (quality assurance/quality control) web system using a server-side script language such as HTML (HyperText Markup Language) and PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor), which can be useful as a tool to share information about QA/QC in radiotherapy. The system proposed in this study can be easily built in one's own institute, because HTML can be easily handled. There are two desired functions in a QA/QC web system: (i) To review the results of QA/QC for a radiotherapy machine, manuals, and reports necessary for routinely performing radiotherapy through this system. By disclosing the results, transparency can be maintained, (ii) To reveal a protocol for QA/QC in one's own institute using pictures and movies relating to QA/QC for simplicity's sake, which can also be used as an educational tool for junior radiation technologists and medical physicists. By using this system, not only administrators, but also all staff involved in radiotherapy, can obtain information about the conditions and accuracy of treatment machines through the QA/QC web system.

  3. Operations research for resource planning and -use in radiotherapy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruno; Hans, Erwin W; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; van de Kamer, Jeroen; van Harten, Wim

    2016-11-25

    The delivery of radiotherapy (RT) involves the use of rather expensive resources and multi-disciplinary staff. As the number of cancer patients receiving RT increases, timely delivery becomes increasingly difficult due to the complexities related to, among others, variable patient inflow, complex patient routing, and the joint planning of multiple resources. Operations research (OR) methods have been successfully applied to solve many logistics problems through the development of advanced analytical models for improved decision making. This paper presents the state of the art in the application of OR methods for logistics optimization in RT, at various managerial levels. A literature search was performed in six databases covering several disciplines, from the medical to the technical field. Papers included in the review were published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2015. Data extraction includes the subject of research, the OR methods used in the study, the extent of implementation according to a six-stage model and the (potential) impact of the results in practice. From the 33 papers included in the review, 18 addressed problems related to patient scheduling (of which 12 focus on scheduling patients on linear accelerators), 8 focus on strategic decision making, 5 on resource capacity planning, and 2 on patient prioritization. Although calculating promising results, none of the papers reported a full implementation of the model with at least a thorough pre-post performance evaluation, indicating that, apart from possible reporting bias, implementation rates of OR models in RT are probably low. The literature on OR applications in RT covers a wide range of approaches from strategic capacity management to operational scheduling levels, and shows that considerable benefits in terms of both waiting times and resource utilization are likely to be achieved. Various fields can be further developed, for instance optimizing the coordination between the available

  4. [Clinical target volume delineation for radiotherapy of the esophagus].

    PubMed

    Lazarescu, I; Thureau, S; Nkhali, L; Pradier, O; Dubray, B

    2013-10-01

    The dense lymphatic network of the esophagus facilitates tumour spreading along the cephalo-caudal axis and to locoregional lymph nodes. A better understanding of microscopic invasion by tumour cells, based on histological analysis of surgical specimens and analysis of recurrence sites, has justified a reduction in radiotherapy target volumes. The delineation of the clinical target volume (CTV) depends on tumour characteristics (site, histology) and on its spread as assessed on endoscopic ultrasonography and ((18)F)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET). We propose that positive and negative predictive values for FDG-PET should be used to adapt the CTV according to the risk of nodal involvement. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-radiotherapy hypothyroidism in dogs treated for thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Amores-Fuster, I; Cripps, P; Blackwood, L

    2017-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common adverse event after head and neck radiotherapy in human medicine, but uncommonly reported in canine patients. Records of 21 dogs with histologically or cytologically confirmed thyroid carcinoma receiving definitive or hypofractionated radiotherapy were reviewed. Nine cases received 48 Gy in 12 fractions, 10 received 36 Gy in 4 fractions and 2 received 32 Gy in 4 fractions. Seventeen cases had radiotherapy in a post-operative setting. Ten cases developed hypothyroidism (47.6%) after radiotherapy. The development of hypothyroidism was not associated with the radiotherapy protocol used. Median time to diagnosis of hypothyroidism was 6 months (range, 1-13 months). Hypothyroidism is a common side effect following radiotherapy for thyroid carcinomas. Monitoring of thyroid function following radiotherapy is recommended. No specific risk factors have been identified. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Breast Cancer Patients’ Experience of External-Beam Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Julie B.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical component of treatment for the majority of women with breast cancer, particularly those who receive breast conserving surgery. Although medically beneficial, radiotherapy can take a physical and psychological toll on patients. However, little is known about the specific thoughts and feelings experienced by women undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy. Therefore, the study aim was to use qualitative research methods to develop an understanding of these thoughts and feelings based on 180 diary entries, completed during radiotherapy by 15 women with Stage 0-III breast cancer. Thematic analysis identified four primary participant concerns: (a) a preoccupation with time; (b) fantasies (both optimistic and pessimistic) about life following radiotherapy; (c) the toll their side-effect experience takes on their self-esteem; and (d) feeling mystified by radiotherapy. These themes are consistent with previous literature on illness and identity. These findings have implications for the treatment and care of women undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy. PMID:19380502

  7. Development of a calibration protocol for quantitative imaging for molecular radiotherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wevrett, J.; Fenwick, A.; Scuffham, J.; Nisbet, A.

    2017-11-01

    Within the field of molecular radiotherapy, there is a significant need for standardisation in dosimetry, in both quantitative imaging and dosimetry calculations. Currently, there are a wide range of techniques used by different clinical centres and as a result there is no means to compare patient doses between centres. To help address this need, a 3 year project was funded by the European Metrology Research Programme, and a number of clinical centres were involved in the project. One of the required outcomes of the project was to develop a calibration protocol for three dimensional quantitative imaging of volumes of interest. Two radionuclides were selected as being of particular interest: iodine-131 (131I, used to treat thyroid disorders) and lutetium-177 (177Lu, used to treat neuroendocrine tumours). A small volume of activity within a scatter medium (water), representing a lesion within a patient body, was chosen as the calibration method. To ensure ease of use in clinical centres, an "off-the-shelf" solution was proposed - to avoid the need for in-house manufacturing. The BIODEX elliptical Jaszczak phantom and 16 ml fillable sphere were selected. The protocol was developed for use on SPECT/CT gamma cameras only, where the CT dataset would be used to correct the imaging data for attenuation of the emitted photons within the phantom. The protocol corrects for scatter of emitted photons using the triple energy window correction technique utilised by most clinical systems. A number of clinical systems were tested in the development of this protocol, covering the major manufacturers of gamma camera generally used in Europe. Initial imaging was performed with 131I and 177Lu at a number of clinical centres, but due to time constraints in the project, some acquisitions were performed with 177Lu only. The protocol is relatively simplistic, and does not account for the effects of dead-time in high activity patients, the presence of background activity surrounding

  8. Prognostic significance of specific magnetic resonance imaging features in canine nasal tumours treated by radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Agthe, P; Caine, A R; Gear, R N A; Dobson, J M; Richardson, K J; Herrtage, M E

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the prognostic significance of the magnetic resonance (MR) findings of meningeal hyperintensity of the olfactory bulbs and tumour extension into the caudal nasal recess (CNR) in dogs with nasal tumours treated by radiotherapy. MR images of 41 dogs with nasal tumours treated with radiotherapy were reviewed. The occurrence of neurological signs and survival of patients with and without meningeal hyperintensity of the olfactory bulbs and tumour extension into the CNR were analysed together with possible confounding factors including intracranial extension and patient age. There was no significant association between the presence of meningeal hyperintensity or CNR involvement and the occurrence of neurological signs. Although there was a tendency towards shorter survival in dogs with tumour extension into the CNR, multivariable analysis showed no significant difference in survival between dogs with/without CNR involvement, meningeal hyperintensity or intracranial tumour extension (P=0.12, 0.50 and 0.57, respectively). In dogs with nasal tumours treated with radiotherapy, tumour extension into the cranium is not necessarily associated with shorter survival in patients without neurological signs at time of diagnosis. Although a definite influence of CNR involvement on case outcome could not be demonstrated, studies with a larger population are warranted.

  9. Integer programming for improving radiotherapy treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ming; Li, Yi; Kou, Bo; Zhou, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    Patients received by radiotherapy departments are diverse and may be diagnosed with different cancers. Therefore, they need different radiotherapy treatment plans and thus have different needs for medical resources. This research aims to explore the best method of scheduling the admission of patients receiving radiotherapy so as to reduce patient loss and maximize the usage efficiency of service resources. A mix integer programming (MIP) model integrated with special features of radiotherapy is constructed. The data used here is based on the historical data collected and we propose an exact method to solve the MIP model. Compared with the traditional First Come First Served (FCFS) method, the new method has boosted patient admission as well as the usage of linear accelerators (LINAC) and beds. The integer programming model can be used to describe the complex problem of scheduling radio-receiving patients, to identify the bottleneck resources that hinder patient admission, and to obtain the optimal LINAC-bed radio under the current data conditions. Different management strategies can be implemented by adjusting the settings of the MIP model. The computational results can serve as a reference for the policy-makers in decision making.

  10. Gold Nanoparticle Hyperthermia Reduces Radiotherapy Dose

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lynn; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Vadas, Timothy M.; Smilowitz, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles can absorb near infrared light, resulting in heating and ablation of tumors. Gold nanoparticles have also been used for enhancing the dose of X-rays in tumors during radiotherapy. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy is synergistic, importantly allowing a reduction in X-ray dose with improved therapeutic results. Here we intratumorally infused small 15 nm gold nanoparticles engineered to be transformed from infrared-transparent to infrared-absorptive by the tumor, which were then heated by infrared followed by X-ray treatment. Synergy was studied using a very radioresistant subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII) in mice. It was found that the dose required to control 50% of the tumors, normally 55 Gy, could be reduced to <15 Gy (a factor of >3.7). Gold nanoparticles therefore provide a method to combine hyperthermia and radiotherapy to drastically reduce the X-ray radiation needed, thus sparing normal tissue, reducing the side effects, and making radiotherapy more effective. PMID:24990355

  11. Results of radiotherapy for Peyronie's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Niewald, Marcus; Wenzlawowicz, Knut v.; Fleckenstein, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of radiotherapy for Peyronie's disease. Patients and Methods: In the time interval 1983-2000, 154 patients in our clinic were irradiated for Peyronie's disease. Of those, 101 had at least one complete follow-up data set and are the subject of this study. In the majority of patients, penis deviation was between 30 and 50{sup o}, there were one or two indurated foci with a diameter between 5 and 15 mm. Pain was recorded in 48/92 patients. Seventy-two of the 101 patients received radiotherapy with a total dose of 30 Gy, and 25 received 36 Gymore » in daily fractions of 2.0 Gy. The remaining patients received the following dosage: 34 Gy (1 patient), 38-40 Gy (3 patients). Mean duration of follow-up was 5 years. Results: The best results ever at any time during follow-up were an improvement of deviation in 47%, reduction of number of foci in 32%, reduction of size of foci in 49%, and less induration in 52%. Approximately 50% reported pain relief after radiotherapy. There were 28 patients with mild acute dermatitis and only 4 patients with mild urethritis. There were no long-term side effects. Conclusion: Our results compare well with those of other studies in the literature. In our patient cohort, radiotherapy was an effective therapy option with only very rare and mild side effects.« less

  12. Internet-based computer technology on radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chow, James C L

    2017-01-01

    Recent rapid development of Internet-based computer technologies has made possible many novel applications in radiation dose delivery. However, translational speed of applying these new technologies in radiotherapy could hardly catch up due to the complex commissioning process and quality assurance protocol. Implementing novel Internet-based technology in radiotherapy requires corresponding design of algorithm and infrastructure of the application, set up of related clinical policies, purchase and development of software and hardware, computer programming and debugging, and national to international collaboration. Although such implementation processes are time consuming, some recent computer advancements in the radiation dose delivery are still noticeable. In this review, we will present the background and concept of some recent Internet-based computer technologies such as cloud computing, big data processing and machine learning, followed by their potential applications in radiotherapy, such as treatment planning and dose delivery. We will also discuss the current progress of these applications and their impacts on radiotherapy. We will explore and evaluate the expected benefits and challenges in implementation as well.

  13. Radiation transport codes for potential applications related to radiobiology and radiotherapy using protons, neutrons, and negatively charged pions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Several Monte Carlo radiation transport computer codes are used to predict quantities of interest in the fields of radiotherapy and radiobiology. The calculational methods are described and comparisions of calculated and experimental results are presented for dose distributions produced by protons, neutrons, and negatively charged pions. Comparisons of calculated and experimental cell survival probabilities are also presented.

  14. Second Cancers After Fractionated Radiotherapy: Stochastic Population Dynamics Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachs, Rainer K.; Shuryak, Igor; Brenner, David; Fakir, Hatim; Hahnfeldt, Philip

    2007-01-01

    When ionizing radiation is used in cancer therapy it can induce second cancers in nearby organs. Mainly due to longer patient survival times, these second cancers have become of increasing concern. Estimating the risk of solid second cancers involves modeling: because of long latency times, available data is usually for older, obsolescent treatment regimens. Moreover, modeling second cancers gives unique insights into human carcinogenesis, since the therapy involves administering well characterized doses of a well studied carcinogen, followed by long-term monitoring. In addition to putative radiation initiation that produces pre-malignant cells, inactivation (i.e. cell killing), and subsequent cell repopulation by proliferation can be important at the doses relevant to second cancer situations. A recent initiation/inactivation/proliferation (IIP) model characterized quantitatively the observed occurrence of second breast and lung cancers, using a deterministic cell population dynamics approach. To analyze ifradiation-initiated pre-malignant clones become extinct before full repopulation can occur, we here give a stochastic version of this I I model. Combining Monte Carlo simulations with standard solutions for time-inhomogeneous birth-death equations, we show that repeated cycles of inactivation and repopulation, as occur during fractionated radiation therapy, can lead to distributions of pre-malignant cells per patient with variance >> mean, even when pre-malignant clones are Poisson-distributed. Thus fewer patients would be affected, but with a higher probability, than a deterministic model, tracking average pre-malignant cell numbers, would predict. Our results are applied to data on breast cancers after radiotherapy for Hodgkin disease. The stochastic IIP analysis, unlike the deterministic one, indicates: a) initiated, pre-malignant cells can have a growth advantage during repopulation, not just during the longer tumor latency period that follows; b) weekend

  15. Activation of hip prostheses in high energy radiotherapy and resultant dose to nearby tissue.

    PubMed

    Keehan, Stephanie; Smith, Ryan L; Millar, Jeremy; Esser, Max; Taylor, Michael L; Lonski, Peta; Kron, Tomas; Franich, Rick D

    2017-03-01

    High energy radiotherapy can produce contaminant neutrons through the photonuclear effect. Patients receiving external beam radiation therapy to the pelvis may have high-density hip prostheses. Metallic materials such as those in hip prostheses, often have high cross-sections for neutron interaction. In this study, Thackray (UK) prosthetic hips have been irradiated by 18 MV radiotherapy beams to evaluate the additional dose to patients from the activation products. Hips were irradiated in- and out-of field at various distances from the beam isocenter to assess activation caused in-field by photo-activation, and neutron activation which occurs both in and out-of-field. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors were used to measure the subsequent gamma-ray emissions and their half-lives. High sensitivity Mg, Cu, P doped LiF thermoluminescence dosimeter chips (TLD-100H) were used to measure the subsequent dose at the surface of a prosthesis over the 12 h following an in-field irradiation of 10,000 MU to a hip prosthesis located at the beam isocenter in a water phantom. 53 Fe, 56 Mn, and 52 V were identified within the hip following irradiation by radiotherapy beams. The dose measured at the surface of a prosthesis following irradiation in a water phantom was 0.20 mGy over 12 h. The dose at the surface of prostheses irradiated to 200 MU was below the limit of detection (0.05 mGy) of the TLD100H. Prosthetic hips are activated by incident photons and neutrons in high energy radiotherapy, however, the dose resulting from activation is very small. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Kong, A; Johnson, N; Cornes, P; Simera, I; Collingwood, M; Williams, C; Kitchener, H

    2007-04-18

    The role of adjuvant radiotherapy (both pelvic external beam radiotherapy and vaginal intracavity brachytherapy) in stage I endometrial cancer following total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH and BSO) remains unclear. To assess the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, Physician Data Query (PDQ) of National Cancer Institute. Handsearching was also carried out where appropriate. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared adjuvant radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy following surgery for patients with stage I endometrial cancer were included. Quality of the studies was assessed and data collected using a predefined data collection form. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence and endometrial cancer death. Data on quality of life (QOL) and morbidity were also collected. A meta-analysis on included trials was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager Software 4.2. The meta-analysis was performed on four trials (1770 patients). The addition of pelvic external beam radiotherapy to surgery reduced locoregional recurrence, a relative risk (RR) of 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 0.44, p < 0.00001), which is a 72% reduction in the risk of pelvic relapse (95% CI 56% to 83%) and an absolute risk reduction of 6% (95% CI of 4 to 8%). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one locoregional recurrence is 16.7 patients (95% CI 12.5 to 25). The reduction in the risk of locoregional recurrence did not translate into either a reduction in the risk of distant recurrence or death from all causes or endometrial cancer death. A subgroup analysis of women with multiple high risk factors (including stage 1c and grade 3) showed a trend toward the reduction in the risk of death from all causes and endometrial cancer

  17. Dosimetric inter-institutional comparison in European radiotherapy centres: Results of IAEA supported treatment planning system audit.

    PubMed

    Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla; Petrovic, Borislava; Grezdo, Joseph; Chelminski, Krzysztof; do Carmo Lopes, Maria; Izewska, Joanna; Van Dyk, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    One of the newer audit modalities operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) involves audits of treatment planning systems (TPS) in radiotherapy. The main focus of the audit is the dosimetry verification of the delivery of a radiation treatment plan for three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy using high energy photon beams. The audit has been carried out in eight European countries - Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Poland and Portugal. The corresponding results are presented. The TPS audit reviews the dosimetry, treatment planning and radiotherapy delivery processes using the 'end-to-end' approach, i.e. following the pathway similar to that of the patient, through imaging, treatment planning and dose delivery. The audit is implemented at the national level with IAEA assistance. The national counterparts conduct the TPS audit at local radiotherapy centres through on-site visits. TPS calculated doses are compared with ion chamber measurements performed in an anthropomorphic phantom for eight test cases per algorithm/beam. A set of pre-defined agreement criteria is used to analyse the performance of TPSs. TPS audit was carried out in 60 radiotherapy centres. In total, 190 data sets (combination of algorithm and beam quality) have been collected and reviewed. Dosimetry problems requiring interventions were discovered in about 10% of datasets. In addition, suboptimal beam modelling in TPSs was discovered in a number of cases. The TPS audit project using the IAEA methodology has verified the treatment planning system calculations for 3D conformal radiotherapy in a group of radiotherapy centres in Europe. It contributed to achieving better understanding of the performance of TPSs and helped to resolve issues related to imaging, dosimetry and treatment planning.

  18. Can immunostimulatory agents enhance the abscopal effect of radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Levy, Antonin; Chargari, Cyrus; Marabelle, Aurelien; Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Magné, Nicolas; Deutsch, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Ionising radiation (IR) may harm cancer cells through a rare indirect out-of-field phenomenon described as the abscopal effect. Increasing evidence demonstrates that radiotherapy could be capable of generating tumour-specific immune responses. On the other hand, effects of IR also include inhibitory immune signals on the tumour microenvironment. Following these observations, and in the context of newly available immunostimulatory agents in metastatic cancers (anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed cell death protein-1 or -ligand 1 [PD1 or PDL-1]), there is a remarkable potential for synergistic combinations of IR with such agents that act through the reactivation of immune surveillance. Here, we present and discuss the pre-clinical and clinical rationale supporting the enhancement of the abscopal effect of IR on the blockade of immune checkpoints and discuss the evolving potential of immunoradiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A reusable OSL-film for 2D radiotherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouter, Crijns; Dirk, Vandenbroucke; Paul, Leblans; Tom, Depuydt

    2017-11-01

    Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) combines reusability, sub-mm resolution, and a linear dose response in a single radiation detection technology. Such a combination is currently lacking in radiotherapy dosimetry. But OSL-films have a strong energy dependent response to keV photons due to a relative high effective atomic number (Z eff). The current work studied the applicability of a 2D OSL-film with a reduced Z eff as (IMRT/VMAT) dosimeter. Based on their commercial OSL-film experience, Agfa Healthcare N.V. produced a new experimental OSL-film for RT dosimetry. This film had a lower effective atomic number compared to the films used in radiology. Typical 2D dosimeter requirements such as uniformity, dose response, signal stability with time, and angular dependence were evaluated. Additionally, the impact of a possible residual energy dependence was assessed for the infield as well as the out-of-field region of both static beams and standard intensity modulated patterns (chair and pyramid). The OSL-film’s reusable nature allowed for a film specific absolute and linear calibration including a flood-field uniformity correction. The OSL-film was scanned with a CR-15X engine based reader using a strict timing (i.e. 4 min after ‘beam on’ or as soon as possible) to account for spontaneous recombination. The OSL-film had good basic response properties: non-uniformities  ⩽2.6%, a linear dose response (0-32 Gy), a linear signal decay (0.5% min-1) over the 20 min measured, and limited angular dependence  ⩽2.6%. Due to variations of the energy spectrum, larger dose differences were noted outside the central region of the homogenous phantom and outside both static and IMRT fields. However, the OSL-film’s measured dose differences of the IMRT patterns were lower than those of Gafchromic EBT measurements ([-1.6%, 2.1%] versus [-2.9%, 3.6%]). The current OSL-film could be used as a reusable high resolution dosimeter with read-out immediately after

  20. A reusable OSL-film for 2D radiotherapy dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Wouter, Crijns; Dirk, Vandenbroucke; Paul, Leblans; Tom, Depuydt

    2017-10-19

    Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) combines reusability, sub-mm resolution, and a linear dose response in a single radiation detection technology. Such a combination is currently lacking in radiotherapy dosimetry. But OSL-films have a strong energy dependent response to keV photons due to a relative high effective atomic number (Z eff ). The current work studied the applicability of a 2D OSL-film with a reduced Z eff as (IMRT/VMAT) dosimeter. Based on their commercial OSL-film experience, Agfa Healthcare N.V. produced a new experimental OSL-film for RT dosimetry. This film had a lower effective atomic number compared to the films used in radiology. Typical 2D dosimeter requirements such as uniformity, dose response, signal stability with time, and angular dependence were evaluated. Additionally, the impact of a possible residual energy dependence was assessed for the infield as well as the out-of-field region of both static beams and standard intensity modulated patterns (chair and pyramid). The OSL-film's reusable nature allowed for a film specific absolute and linear calibration including a flood-field uniformity correction. The OSL-film was scanned with a CR-15X engine based reader using a strict timing (i.e. 4 min after 'beam on' or as soon as possible) to account for spontaneous recombination. The OSL-film had good basic response properties: non-uniformities  ⩽2.6%, a linear dose response (0-32 Gy), a linear signal decay (0.5% min -1 ) over the 20 min measured, and limited angular dependence  ⩽2.6%. Due to variations of the energy spectrum, larger dose differences were noted outside the central region of the homogenous phantom and outside both static and IMRT fields. However, the OSL-film's measured dose differences of the IMRT patterns were lower than those of Gafchromic EBT measurements ([-1.6%, 2.1%] versus [-2.9%, 3.6%]). The current OSL-film could be used as a reusable high resolution dosimeter with read-out immediately after irradiation

  1. MCNP simulation of a Theratron 780 radiotherapy unit.

    PubMed

    Miró, R; Soler, J; Gallardo, S; Campayo, J M; Díez, S; Verdú, G

    2005-01-01

    A Theratron 780 (MDS Nordion) 60Co radiotherapy unit has been simulated with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The unit has been realistically modelled: the cylindrical source capsule and its housing, the rectangular collimator system, both the primary and secondary jaws and the air gaps between the components. Different collimator openings, ranging from 5 x 5 cm2 to 20 x 20 cm2 (narrow and broad beams) at a source-surface distance equal to 80 cm have been used during the study. In the present work, we have calculated spectra as a function of field size. A study of the variation of the electron contamination of the 60Co beam has also been performed.

  2. Fiducial marker guided prostate radiotherapy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Suneil; Hounsell, Alan R; O'Sullivan, Joe M

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is an essential tool in the accurate delivery of modern radiotherapy techniques. Prostate radiotherapy positioned using skin marks or bony anatomy may be adequate for delivering a relatively homogeneous whole-pelvic radiotherapy dose, but these surrogates are not reliable when using reduced margins, dose escalation or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Fiducial markers (FMs) for prostate IGRT have been in use since the 1990s. They require surgical implantation and provide a surrogate for the position of the prostate gland. A variety of FMs are available and they can be used in a number of ways. This review aimed to establish the evidence for using prostate FMs in terms of feasibility, implantation procedures, types of FMs used, FM migration, imaging modalities used and the clinical impact of FMs. A search strategy was defined and a literature search was carried out in Medline. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, which resulted in 50 articles being included in this review. The evidence demonstrates that FMs provide a more accurate surrogate for the position of the prostate than either external skin marks or bony anatomy. A combination of FM alignment and soft-tissue analysis is currently the most effective and widely available approach to ensuring accuracy in prostate IGRT. FM implantation is safe and well tolerated. FM migration is possible but minimal. Standardization of all techniques and procedures in relation to the use of prostate FMs is required. Finally, a clinical trial investigating a non-surgical alternative to prostate FMs is introduced. PMID:27585736

  3. Active middle ear implant after lateral petrosectomy and radiotherapy for ear cancer.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, Giovanni; Sprinzl, Georg M; Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Marchesi, Paolo; Mercante, Giuseppe; Spriano, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Tumor of the temporal bone is a rare disease with a very poor prognosis. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy are usually the recommended treatments for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external and middle ear, which may cause conductive hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the audiologic results and compliance of active middle ear implant (AMEI) and establish the feasibility of the procedure in a patient treated for middle ear cancer. A 73-year-old patient treated with lateral petrosectomy, neck dissection, reconstruction/obliteration by pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, and postoperative full dose radiotherapy for external and middle ear SCC was selected for AMEI. Preoperative audiometric and speech audiometry tests were performed on both ears before and after the activation. Pure tone free field audiometry. Binaural free field speech audiogram. Aided pure tone free field audiometry AMEI results show an increase in air conduction. Speech audiogram showed better discrimination scores in AMEI-aided situations. No complications were observed. AMEI after surgery followed by radiotherapy for middle ear cancer is feasible. Acoustic results in obliterated ear are satisfactory.

  4. Pelvic Nodal Radiotherapy in Patients With Unfavorable Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Evidence, Rationale, and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Lisa K.; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Roach, Mack, E-mail: mroach@radonc.ucsf.ed

    2011-05-01

    Over the past 15 years, there have been three major advances in the use of external beam radiotherapy in the management of men with clinically localized prostate made. They include: (1) image guided (IG) three-dimensional conformal/intensity modulated radiotherapy; (2) radiation dose escalation; and (3) androgen deprivation therapy. To date only the last of these three advances have been shown to improve overall survival. The presence of occult pelvic nodal involvement could explain the failure of increased conformality and dose escalation to prolong survival, because the men who appear to be at the greatest risk of death from clinically localized prostatemore » cancer are those who are likely to have lymph node metastases. This review discusses the evidence for prophylactic pelvic nodal radiotherapy, including the key trials and controversies surrounding this issue.« less

  5. Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin Before, During, and After Radiotherapy for High-Risk Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Finn Ole; Markussen, Alice; Jensen, Benny V; Fromm, Anne L; Vistisen, Kirsten K; Parner, Vibeke K; Linnemann, Dorte; Hansen, Rasmus H; Johannesen, Helle H; Schou, Jakob V

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before, during, and after radiotherapy for high-risk rectal cancer. Patients with rectum cancer T4 or T3 involving the mesorectal fascia was included in a prospective phase 2 trial. Liver or lung metastases were accepted if the surgeons found them resectable. The patients received 6 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before chemoradiotherapy (CRT), continued capecitabine and oxaliplatin during radiotherapy, and received 4 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin after CRT. The patients received radiotherapy as intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Total mesorectal excision was planned 8 weeks after CRT. The patients were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before start of treatment, after 6 weeks of chemotherapy, and again just before the operation. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-CR29 scoring system was used to evaluate adverse events. Fifty-two patients were enrolled between 2009 and 2012. The treatment was well tolerated, with only one death during treatment. Eighty percent of assessable patients experienced response to chemotherapy alone as evaluated by MRI, which increased to 94% after complete oncologic treatment. Forty-nine patients had a total mesorectal excision performed, all with a R0 resection and with a pathologic complete response of 20% for patients with T3 tumor and 7% for patients with T4 tumor. Five patients had metastases at study entry, while 47 patients had locally advanced rectal cancer without metastases. Of these 47 patients, overall survival and progression-free survival at 5 years was 72% and 62%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 60 months. This aggressive approach with capecitabine and oxaliplatin before, during, and after radiotherapy for high-risk rectal cancer is safe and feasible; it also has an impressive response rate as measured by MRI and a promising 5-year overall survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pinn, Melva E.; Gold, Douglas G. M.; Petersen, Ivy A.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence ofmore » chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity.« less

  7. Functional Imaging in Radiotherapy in the Netherlands: Availability and Impact on Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Vogel, W V; Lam, M G E H; Pameijer, F A; van der Heide, U A; van de Kamer, J B; Philippens, M E; van Vulpen, M; Verheij, M

    2016-12-01

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and multiparametric magnetic resonance (mpMR) is increasingly applied for radiotherapy purposes. However, evidence and experience are still limited, and this may lead to clinically relevant differences in accessibility, interpretation and decision making. We investigated the current patterns of care in functional imaging for radiotherapy in the Netherlands in a care evaluation study. The availability of functional imaging in radiotherapy centres in the Netherlands was evaluated; features available in >80% of academic and >80% of non-academic centres were considered standard of care. The impact of functional imaging on clinical decision making was evaluated using case questionnaires on lung, head/neck, breast and prostate cancer, with multiple-choice questions on primary tumour delineation, nodal involvement, distant metastasis and incidental findings. Radiation oncologists were allowed to discuss cases in a multidisciplinary approach. Ordinal answers were evaluated by median and interquartile range (IQR) to identify the extent and variability of clinical impact; additional patterns were evaluated descriptively. Information was collected from 18 radiotherapy centres in the Netherlands (all except two). PET/CT was available for radiotherapy purposes to 94% of centres; 67% in the treatment position and 61% with integrated planning CT. mpMR was available to all centres; 61% in the treatment position. Technologists collaborated between departments to acquire PET/CT or mpMR for radiotherapy in 89%. All sites could carry out image registration for target definition. Functional imaging generally showed a high clinical impact (average median 4.3, scale 1-6) and good observer agreement (average IQR 1.1, scale 0-6). However, several issues resulted in ignoring functional imaging (e.g. positional discrepancies, central necrosis) or poor observer agreement (atelectasis, diagnostic discrepancies

  8. Technical Note: DIRART – A software suite for deformable image registration and adaptive radiotherapy research

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deshan; Brame, Scott; El Naqa, Issam; Aditya, Apte; Wu, Yu; Murty Goddu, S.; Mutic, Sasa; Deasy, Joseph O.; Low, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in image guide radiotherapy technology and a growing interest in the possibilities for adapting treatment planning and delivery over the course of treatment. One obstacle faced by the research community has been the lack of a comprehensive open-source software toolkit dedicated for adaptive radiotherapy (ART). To address this need, the authors have developed a software suite called the Deformable Image Registration and Adaptive Radiotherapy Toolkit (DIRART). Methods:DIRART is an open-source toolkit developed in MATLAB. It is designed in an object-oriented style with focus on user-friendliness, features, and flexibility. It contains four classes of DIR algorithms, including the newer inverse consistency algorithms to provide consistent displacement vector field in both directions. It also contains common ART functions, an integrated graphical user interface, a variety of visualization and image-processing features, dose metric analysis functions, and interface routines. These interface routines make DIRART a powerful complement to the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR) and popular image-processing toolkits such as ITK. Results: DIRART provides a set of image processing∕registration algorithms and postprocessing functions to facilitate the development and testing of DIR algorithms. It also offers a good amount of options for DIR results visualization, evaluation, and validation. Conclusions: By exchanging data with treatment planning systems via DICOM-RT files and CERR, and by bringing image registration algorithms closer to radiotherapy applications, DIRART is potentially a convenient and flexible platform that may facilitate ART and DIR research. PMID:21361176

  9. Radiation-induced second primary cancer risks from modern external beam radiotherapy for early prostate cancer: impact of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and flattening filter free (FFF) radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Louise J.; Thompson, Christopher M.; Lilley, John; Cosgrove, Vivian; Franks, Kevin; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Henry, Ann M.

    2015-02-01

    Risks of radiation-induced second primary cancer following prostate radiotherapy using 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), flattening filter free (FFF) and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) were evaluated. Prostate plans were created using 10 MV 3D-CRT (78 Gy in 39 fractions) and 6 MV 5-field IMRT (78 Gy in 39 fractions), VMAT (78 Gy in 39 fractions, with standard flattened and energy-matched FFF beams) and SABR (42.7 Gy in 7 fractions with standard flattened and energy-matched FFF beams). Dose-volume histograms from pelvic planning CT scans of three prostate patients, each planned using all 6 techniques, were used to calculate organ equivalent doses (OED) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of second rectal and bladder cancers, and pelvic bone and soft tissue sarcomas, using mechanistic, bell-shaped and plateau models. For organs distant to the treatment field, chamber measurements recorded in an anthropomorphic phantom were used to calculate OEDs and EARs using a linear model. Ratios of OED give relative radiation-induced second cancer risks. SABR resulted in lower second cancer risks at all sites relative to 3D-CRT. FFF resulted in lower second cancer risks in out-of-field tissues relative to equivalent flattened techniques, with increasing impact in organs at greater distances from the field. For example, FFF reduced second cancer risk by up to 20% in the stomach and up to 56% in the brain, relative to the equivalent flattened technique. Relative to 10 MV 3D-CRT, 6 MV IMRT or VMAT with flattening filter increased second cancer risks in several out-of-field organs, by up to 26% and 55%, respectively. For all techniques, EARs were consistently low. The observed large relative differences between techniques, in absolute terms, were very low, highlighting the importance of considering absolute risks alongside the corresponding relative risks, since when absolute

  10. Radiotherapy dose verification on a customised head and neck perspex phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, K. Y.; Kandaiya, S.; Yahaya, N. Z.

    2017-05-01

    IMRT dose planned for head and neck radiotherapy was verified using a customised acrylic head-and-neck phantom. The dosimeters used were calibrated Gafchromic EBT2 film and metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor (MOSFET). Target volumes (TV) and organs-at-risk (OAR) which were previously contoured by an oncologist on selected nasopharynx (NPC) patients were transferred to this phantom by an image fusion procedure. Three radiotherapy plans were done: Plan1 with 7-fields intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prescribed dose 70 Gy using 33 fractions; Plan2 with 7-fields IMRT plan at 70 Gy and 35 fractions; and Plan3 which was a mid-plane-dose (MPD) plan of 66 Gy at 33 fractions. The dose maps were first verified using MapCheck2 by SNC-PatientTM software. The passing rates from gamma analysis were 97.7% (Plan1), 93.1% (Plan2) and 100% (Plan3). Percentage difference between Treatment Planning System (TPS) calculated dose and MOSFET measured dose was comparatively higher than those from EBT2. Calculated dose and EBT2 measured doses showed differences of within the range of ±3% for TV and <±10% for OARs. However MOSFET had differences of within the range of ±6% for TV and within the range of ±10% for OARs between measured and planned doses. An overdose treatment may occur as TPS calculated doses were lower than the measured doses in these plans. This may be due to the effects of leaf leakage, leaf scatter and photon backscatter into the measuring tools (Pawlicki et al., 1999 and Ma et al., 2000). More IMRT plans have to be studied to validate this conclusion. However, the dose measurements were still within the 10% tolerance (AAPM Task Group 119). In conclusion, both GafchromicEBT2 film and MOSFET are suitable for IMRT radiotherapy dosimetry.

  11. The influence of pretreatment characteristics and radiotherapy parameters on time interval to development of radiation-associated meningioma.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Arnold C; Ahmed, Irfan M; Mai, Wei Y; Teh, Bin S

    2009-12-01

    To identify pretreatment characteristics and radiotherapy parameters which may influence time interval to development of radiation-associated meningioma (RAM). A Medline/PUBMED search of articles dealing with RAM yielded 66 studies between 1981 and 2006. Factors analyzed included patient age and gender, type of initial tumor treated, radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume, and time interval from RT to development of RAM. A total of 143 patients with a median age at RT of 12 years form the basis of this report. The most common initial tumors or conditions treated with RT were medulloblastoma (n = 27), pituitary adenoma (n = 20), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 20), low-grade astrocytoma (n = 19), and tinea capitis (n = 14). In the 116 patients whose RT fields were known, 55 (47.4%) had a portion of the brain treated, whereas 32 (27.6%) and 29 (25.0%) had craniospinal and whole-brain fields. The median time from RT to develop a RAM or latent time (LT) was 19 years (range, 1-63 years). Male gender (p = 0.001), initial diagnosis of leukemia (p = 0.001), and use of whole brain or craniospinal field (p radiotherapy volume, and radiotherapy dose.

  12. The Influence of Pretreatment Characteristics and Radiotherapy Parameters on Time Interval to Development of Radiation-Associated Meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.or; Ahmed, Irfan M.; Mai, Wei Y.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To identify pretreatment characteristics and radiotherapy parameters which may influence time interval to development of radiation-associated meningioma (RAM). Methods and Materials: A Medline/PUBMED search of articles dealing with RAM yielded 66 studies between 1981 and 2006. Factors analyzed included patient age and gender, type of initial tumor treated, radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume, and time interval from RT to development of RAM. Results: A total of 143 patients with a median age at RT of 12 years form the basis of this report. The most common initial tumors or conditions treated with RT were medulloblastoma (n = 27), pituitarymore » adenoma (n = 20), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 20), low-grade astrocytoma (n = 19), and tinea capitis (n = 14). In the 116 patients whose RT fields were known, 55 (47.4%) had a portion of the brain treated, whereas 32 (27.6%) and 29 (25.0%) had craniospinal and whole-brain fields. The median time from RT to develop a RAM or latent time (LT) was 19 years (range, 1-63 years). Male gender (p = 0.001), initial diagnosis of leukemia (p = 0.001), and use of whole brain or craniospinal field (p <= 0.0001) were associated with a shorter LT, whereas patients who received lower doses of RT had a longer LT (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The latent time to develop a RAM was related to gender, initial tumor type, radiotherapy volume, and radiotherapy dose.« less

  13. Simple Carotid-Sparing Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Technique and Preliminary Experience for T1-2 Glottic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, David I., E-mail: dirosenthal@mdanderson.or; Fuller, Clifton D.; Barker, Jerry L.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetry and feasibility of carotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early glottic cancer and to report preliminary clinical experience. Methods and Materials: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine radiotherapy (DICOM-RT) datasets from 6 T1-2 conventionally treated glottic cancer patients were used to create both conventional IMRT plans. We developed a simplified IMRT planning algorithm with three fields and limited segments. Conventional and IMRT plans were compared using generalized equivalent uniform dose and dose-volume parameters for in-field carotid arteries, target volumes, and organs at risk. We have treated 11 patients with this simplified IMRT technique. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapymore » consistently reduced radiation dose to the carotid arteries (p < 0.05) while maintaining the clinical target volume coverage. With conventional planning, median carotid V35, V50, and V63 were 100%, 100%, and 69.0%, respectively. With IMRT planning these decreased to 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively (p < 0.01). Radiation planning and treatment times were similar for conventional radiotherapy and IMRT. Treatment results have been excellent thus far. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduced unnecessary radiation dose to the carotid arteries compared with conventional lateral fields while maintaining clinical target volume coverage. Further experience and longer follow-up will be required to demonstrate outcomes for cancer control and carotid artery effects.« less

  14. Predictors of post-treatment stenosis in cervical esophageal cancer undergoing high-dose radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Lee, Ik Jae

    2018-01-01

    AIM To evaluate toxicity and treatment outcome of high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for cervical esophageal cancer (CEC). METHODS We reviewed a total of 62 consecutive patients who received definitive RT for stage I to III cervical esophageal cancer between 2001 and 2015. Patients who received < 45 Gy, treated for lesions below sternal notch, treated with palliative aim, treated with subsequent surgical resection, or diagnosed with synchronous hypopharyngeal cancer were excluded. Treatment failures were divided into local (occurring within the RT field), outfield-esophageal, and regional [occurring in regional lymph node(s)] failures. Factors predictive of esophageal stenosis requiring endoscopic dilation were analyzed. RESULTS Grade 1, 2, and 3 esophagitis occurred in 19 (30.6%), 39 (62.9%), and 4 patients (6.5%), respectively, without grade ≥ 4 toxicities. Sixteen patients (25.8%) developed post-RT stenosis, of which 7 cases (43.8%) were malignant. Four patients (6.5%) developed tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), of which 3 (75%) cases were malignant. Factors significantly correlated with post-RT stenosis were stage T3/4 (P = 0.001), complete circumference involvement (P < 0.0001), stenosis at diagnosis (P = 0.024), and endoscopic complete response (P = 0.017) in univariate analysis, while complete circumference involvement was significant in multivariate analysis (P = 0.003). A higher dose (≥ 60 Gy) was not associated with occurrence of post-RT stenosis or TEF. With a median follow-up of 24.3 (range, 3.4-152) mo, the 2 y local control, outfield esophageal control, progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS) rates were 78.9%, 90.2%, 49.6%, and 57.3%, respectively. Factors significantly correlated with OS were complete circumference involvement (P = 0.023), stenosis at diagnosis (P < 0.0001), and occurrence of post-RT stenosis or TEF (P < 0.001) in univariate analysis, while stenosis at diagnosis (P = 0.004) and occurrence of post-RT stenosis or TEF (P = 0

  15. Predictors of post-treatment stenosis in cervical esophageal cancer undergoing high-dose radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Lee, Ik Jae

    2018-02-21

    To evaluate toxicity and treatment outcome of high-dose radiotherapy (RT) for cervical esophageal cancer (CEC). We reviewed a total of 62 consecutive patients who received definitive RT for stage I to III cervical esophageal cancer between 2001 and 2015. Patients who received < 45 Gy, treated for lesions below sternal notch, treated with palliative aim, treated with subsequent surgical resection, or diagnosed with synchronous hypopharyngeal cancer were excluded. Treatment failures were divided into local (occurring within the RT field), outfield-esophageal, and regional [occurring in regional lymph node(s)] failures. Factors predictive of esophageal stenosis requiring endoscopic dilation were analyzed. Grade 1, 2, and 3 esophagitis occurred in 19 (30.6%), 39 (62.9%), and 4 patients (6.5%), respectively, without grade ≥ 4 toxicities. Sixteen patients (25.8%) developed post-RT stenosis, of which 7 cases (43.8%) were malignant. Four patients (6.5%) developed tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), of which 3 (75%) cases were malignant. Factors significantly correlated with post-RT stenosis were stage T3/4 ( P = 0.001), complete circumference involvement ( P < 0.0001), stenosis at diagnosis ( P = 0.024), and endoscopic complete response ( P = 0.017) in univariate analysis, while complete circumference involvement was significant in multivariate analysis ( P = 0.003). A higher dose (≥ 60 Gy) was not associated with occurrence of post-RT stenosis or TEF. With a median follow-up of 24.3 (range, 3.4-152) mo, the 2 y local control, outfield esophageal control, progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS) rates were 78.9%, 90.2%, 49.6%, and 57.3%, respectively. Factors significantly correlated with OS were complete circumference involvement ( P = 0.023), stenosis at diagnosis ( P < 0.0001), and occurrence of post-RT stenosis or TEF ( P < 0.001) in univariate analysis, while stenosis at diagnosis ( P = 0.004) and occurrence of post-RT stenosis or TEF ( P = 0.023) were

  16. Very Early Salvage Radiotherapy Improves Distant Metastasis-Free Survival.

    PubMed

    Abugharib, Ahmed; Jackson, William C; Tumati, Vasu; Dess, Robert T; Lee, Jae Y; Zhao, Shuang G; Soliman, Moaaz; Zumsteg, Zachary S; Mehra, Rohit; Feng, Felix Y; Morgan, Todd M; Desai, Neil; Spratt, Daniel E

    2017-03-01

    Early salvage radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer is commonly advocated in place of adjuvant radiotherapy. We aimed to determine the optimal definition of early salvage radiotherapy. We performed a multi-institutional retrospective study of 657 men who underwent salvage radiotherapy between 1986 and 2013. Two comparisons were made to determine the optimal definition of early salvage radiotherapy, including 1) the time from radical prostatectomy to salvage radiotherapy (less than 9, 9 to 21, 22 to 47 or greater than 48 months) and 2) the level of detectable pre-salvage radiotherapy prostate specific antigen (0.01 to 0.2, greater than 0.2 to 0.5 or greater than 0.5 ng/ml). Outcomes included freedom from salvage androgen deprivation therapy, and biochemical relapse-free, distant metastases-free and prostate cancer specific survival. Median followup was 9.8 years. Time from radical prostatectomy to salvage radiotherapy did not correlate with 10-year biochemical relapse-free survival rates (R 2 = 0.18). Increasing pre-salvage radiotherapy prostate specific antigen strongly correlated with biochemical relapse-free survival (R 2 = 0.91). Increasing detectable pre-salvage radiotherapy prostate specific antigen (0.01 to 0.2, greater than 0.2 to 0.5 and greater than 0.5 ng/ml) predicted worse 10-year biochemical relapse-free survival (62%, 44% and 27%), freedom from salvage androgen deprivation therapy (77%, 66% and 49%), distant metastases-free survival (86%, 79% and 66%, each p <0.001) and prostate cancer specific survival (93%, 89% and 80%, respectively, p = 0.001). On multivariable analysis early salvage radiotherapy (prostate specific antigen greater than 0.2 to 0.5 ng/ml) was associated with a twofold increase in biochemical failure, use of salvage androgen deprivation therapy and distant metastases compared to very early salvage radiotherapy (prostate specific antigen 0.01 to 0.2 ng/ml). The duration from radical prostatectomy to salvage

  17. Optimisation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for untreated Hodgkin lymphoma patients with respect to second malignant neoplasms, overall and progression-free survival: individual participant data analysis.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Jeremy; Eichenauer, Dennis A; Becker, Ingrid; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas

    2017-09-13

    were not sought. For each study question, between three and six trials with between 1101 and 2996 participants in total and median follow-up between 6.7 and 10.8 years were analysed. All participants were adults and mainly under 60 years. Risk of bias was assessed as low for the majority of studies and outcomes. Chemotherapy alone versus same chemotherapy plus radiotherapy. Omitting additional radiotherapy probably reduces secondary malignancy incidence (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.82, low quality of evidence), corresponding to an estimated reduction of eight-year SMN risk from 8% to 4%. This decrease was particularly true for secondary acute leukemias. However, we had insufficient evidence to determine whether OS rates differ between patients treated with chemotherapy alone versus combined-modality (hazard ratio (HR) 0.71, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.11, moderate quality of evidence). There was a slightly higher rate of PFS with combined modality, but our confidence in the results was limited by high levels of statistical heterogeneity between studies (HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.73, moderate quality of evidence). Chemotherapy plus involved-field radiation versus same chemotherapy plus extended-field radiation (early stages) . There is insufficient evidence to determine whether smaller radiation field reduces SMN risk (Peto OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.16, low quality of evidence), OS (HR 0.89, 95% C: 0.70 to 1.12, high quality of evidence) or PFS (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.21, high quality of evidence). Chemotherapy plus lower-dose radiation versus same chemotherapy plus higher-dose radiation (early stages). There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of lower-radiation dose on SMN risk (Peto OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.50, low quality of evidence), OS (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.28, high quality of evidence) or PFS (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.48, high quality of evidence). Fewer versus more courses of chemotherapy (each with or without

  18. Long-term observation after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

    PubMed

    Chen, W Z; Zhou, D L; Luo, K S

    1989-02-01

    One thousand one hundred twenty-seven cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with routine radiotherapy from October 1969 to March 1976, of which 436 cases have survived for more than 5 years, 323 cases have survived for over 10 years. The follow-up rate was 98.4%. The present paper analyzes the factors involved in these 436 cases. All patients were treated with tele60Co unit, and in the neck some cases were treated with orthovoltage therapy. The total dose to the primary lesion was 60-75 Gy in 6-8 weeks and in a few cases over 80 Gy were needed, and 50 Gy were applied bilateral cervical lymphatic chain. In this series of cases the 10-year overall survival rate was 28.7%, with Stage I being 66.7%, Stage II 46.5%, Stage III 28.0%, and Stage IV 18.6%, respectively. Statistically, 68 cases died of cardiovascular and other diseases and should be eliminated for net survival calculations. Therefore, we could obtain an actual 10-year survival rate of 30.5%. However, it should be noted that most of these cases were advanced, with Stage III, IV accounting for 82.3%, thus at Stage I, II the 10-year survival rate was 48%, while at Stage III, IV rate was down to 24.5%, which was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Local and cervical recurrence as well as distant spread of diseases, for these cases started from the fifth to the tenth year after radiotherapy, the mortality caused by the above-mentioned three sites together was 76.9%. According to these findings, we propose that follow-up after radiotherapy in NPC exceeds 10-years. Of the 323 NPC cases, 10 were nasopharyngeal local recurrence which were re-irradiated, accounting for 3.1%. This paper shows that the 3-year survival rate in the local recurrence which were re-irradiated was 34.5%, the 5-year survival rate was 14.8%, and the 10-year survival rate was 11.5%. The failure after re-irradiation was caused by local recurrence and metastasis with a mortality of 83.6%. These results emphasize that the success

  19. Combined hyperthermia and radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Punit; Hurwitz, Mark D; Krishnan, Sunil; Asea, Alexzander

    2011-09-30

    Radiotherapy is used to treat approximately 50% of all cancer patients, with varying success. Radiation therapy has become an in-tegral part of modern treatment strategies for many types of cancer in recent decades, but is associated with a risk of long-term adverse effects. Of these side effects, car-diac complications are particularly relevant since they not only adversely affect quality of life but can also be potentially life-threat-ening. The dose of ionizing radiation that can be given to the tumor is determined by the sensitivity of the surrounding normal tissues. Strategies to improve radiotherapy therefore aim to increase the effect on the tumor or to decrease the effects on normal tissues, which must be achieved without sensitizing the normal tissues in the first approach and without protecting the tumor in the second approach. Hyperthermia is a potent sensitizer of cell killing by ionizing radiation (IR), which can be attributed to the fact that heat is a pleiotropic damaging agent, affecting multiple cell components to varying degrees by altering protein structures, thus influencing the DNA damage response. Hyperthermia induces heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; HSPA1A) synthesis and enhances telomerase activity. HSPA1A expression is associated with radioresistance. Inactivation of HSPA1A and telomerase increases residual DNA DSBs post IR exposure, which correlates with increased cell killing, supporting the role of HSPA1A and telomerase in IR-induced DNA damage repair. Thus, hyperthermia influences several molecular parameters involved in sensitizing tumor cells to radiation and can enhance the potential of targeted radiotherapy. Therapy-inducible vectors are useful for conditional expression of therapeutic genes in gene therapy, which is based on the control of gene expression by conventional treatment modalities. The understanding of the molecular response of cells and tissues to ionizing radiation has lead to a new appreciation of the exploitable genetic

  20. Combined Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Punit; Hurwitz, Mark D.; Krishnan, Sunil; Asea, Alexzander

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy is used to treat approximately 50% of all cancer patients, with varying success. Radiation therapy has become an integral part of modern treatment strategies for many types of cancer in recent decades, but is associated with a risk of long-term adverse effects. Of these side effects, cardiac complications are particularly relevant since they not only adversely affect quality of life but can also be potentially life-threatening. The dose of ionizing radiation that can be given to the tumor is determined by the sensitivity of the surrounding normal tissues. Strategies to improve radiotherapy therefore aim to increase the effect on the tumor or to decrease the effects on normal tissues, which must be achieved without sensitizing the normal tissues in the first approach and without protecting the tumor in the second approach. Hyperthermia is a potent sensitizer of cell killing by ionizing radiation (IR), which can be attributed to the fact that heat is a pleiotropic damaging agent, affecting multiple cell components to varying degrees by altering protein structures, thus influencing the DNA damage response. Hyperthermia induces heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; HSPA1A) synthesis and enhances telomerase activity. HSPA1A expression is associated with radioresistance. Inactivation of HSPA1A and telomerase increases residual DNA DSBs post IR exposure, which correlates with increased cell killing, supporting the role of HSPA1A and telomerase in IR-induced DNA damage repair. Thus, hyperthermia influences several molecular parameters involved in sensitizing tumor cells to radiation and can enhance the potential of targeted radiotherapy. Therapy-inducible vectors are useful for conditional expression of therapeutic genes in gene therapy, which is based on the control of gene expression by conventional treatment modalities. The understanding of the molecular response of cells and tissues to ionizing radiation has lead to a new appreciation of the exploitable genetic

  1. A novel electron accelerator for MRI-Linac radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Brendan; Gierman, Stephen; Holloway, Lois; Schmerge, John; Keall, Paul; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    MRI guided radiotherapy is a rapidly growing field; however, current electron accelerators are not designed to operate in the magnetic fringe fields of MRI scanners. As such, current MRI-Linac systems require magnetic shielding, which can degrade MR image quality and limit system flexibility. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel medical electron accelerator concept which is inherently robust to operation within magnetic fields for in-line MRI-Linac systems. Computational simulations were utilized to model the accelerator, including the thermionic emission process, the electromagnetic fields within the accelerating structure, and resulting particle trajectories through these fields. The spatial and energy characteristics of the electron beam were quantified at the accelerator target and compared to published data for conventional accelerators. The model was then coupled to the fields from a simulated 1 T superconducting magnet and solved for cathode to isocenter distances between 1.0 and 2.4 m; the impact on the electron beam was quantified. For the zero field solution, the average current at the target was 146.3 mA, with a median energy of 5.8 MeV (interquartile spread of 0.1 MeV), and a spot size diameter of 1.5 mm full-width-tenth-maximum. Such an electron beam is suitable for therapy, comparing favorably to published data for conventional systems. The simulated accelerator showed increased robustness to operation in in-line magnetic fields, with a maximum current loss of 3% compared to 85% for a conventional system in the same magnetic fields. Computational simulations suggest that replacing conventional DC electron sources with a RF based source could be used to develop medical electron accelerators which are robust to operation in in-line magnetic fields. This would enable the development of MRI-Linac systems with no magnetic shielding around the Linac and reduce the requirements for optimization of magnetic fringe field, simplify design of

  2. A novel electron accelerator for MRI-Linac radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Brendan; Gierman, Stephen; Holloway, Lois; Schmerge, John; Keall, Paul; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy is a rapidly growing field; however, current electron accelerators are not designed to operate in the magnetic fringe fields of MRI scanners. As such, current MRI-Linac systems require magnetic shielding, which can degrade MR image quality and limit system flexibility. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel medical electron accelerator concept which is inherently robust to operation within magnetic fields for in-line MRI-Linac systems. Methods: Computational simulations were utilized to model the accelerator, including the thermionic emission process, the electromagnetic fields within the accelerating structure, and resulting particle trajectories through these fields. The spatial and energy characteristics of the electron beam were quantified at the accelerator target and compared to published data for conventional accelerators. The model was then coupled to the fields from a simulated 1 T superconducting magnet and solved for cathode to isocenter distances between 1.0 and 2.4 m; the impact on the electron beam was quantified. Results: For the zero field solution, the average current at the target was 146.3 mA, with a median energy of 5.8 MeV (interquartile spread of 0.1 MeV), and a spot size diameter of 1.5 mm full-width-tenth-maximum. Such an electron beam is suitable for therapy, comparing favorably to published data for conventional systems. The simulated accelerator showed increased robustness to operation in in-line magnetic fields, with a maximum current loss of 3% compared to 85% for a conventional system in the same magnetic fields. Conclusions: Computational simulations suggest that replacing conventional DC electron sources with a RF based source could be used to develop medical electron accelerators which are robust to operation in in-line magnetic fields. This would enable the development of MRI-Linac systems with no magnetic shielding around the Linac and reduce the requirements for optimization of

  3. Proton Radiotherapy for Solid Tumors of Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Shane E.; McBride, Sean M.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing efficacy of pediatric cancer therapy over the past four decades has produced many long-term survivors that now struggle with serious treatment related morbidities affecting their quality of life. Radiation therapy is responsible for a significant proportion of these late effects, but a relatively new and emerging modality, proton radiotherapy hold great promise to drastically reduce these treatment related late effects in long term survivors by sparing dose to normal tissues. Dosimetric studies of proton radiotherapy compared with best available photon based treatment show significant dose sparing to developing normal tissues. Furthermore, clinical data are now emerging that begin to quantify the benefit in decreased late treatment effects while maintaining excellent cancer control rates. PMID:22417062

  4. The synergistic effects of traditional Chinese herbs and radiotherapy for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    JIA, LILI; MA, SHUMEI; HOU, XUE; WANG, XIN; QASED, ABU BAKER LAYTH; SUN, XUEFEI; LIANG, NAN; LI, HUICHENG; YI, HEQING; KONG, DEJUAN; LIU, XIAODONG; FAN, FEIYUE

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been demonstrated to have potent cytotoxic activity against certain malignant tumors. Ionizing radiation (IR) is one of the most effective methods used in the clinical treatment of cancer. The drawback of a single formula is that it limits the treatment efficacy for cancer, while comprehensive strategies require additional theoretical support. However, a combination of different antitumor treatment modalities is advantageous in restricting the non-specific toxicity often observed with an extremely high dose of a single regimen. The induction of apoptotic cell death is a significant process in tumor cells following radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and resistance to these treatments has been linked to a low propensity for apoptosis. Autophagy is a response of cancer cells to IR or chemotherapy, and involves the prominent formation of autophagic vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In this review, the synergistic effects of TCM and radiotherapy are summarized and the underlying mechanisms are illustrated, providing new therapeutic strategies for cancer. PMID:23760551

  5. The Prospective Role of Plant Products in Radiotherapy of Cancer: A Current Overview

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Banasri; Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, B. N.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of cancer often requires exposure to radiation, which has several limitations involving non-specific toxicity toward normal cells, reducing the efficacy of treatment. Efforts are going on to find chemical compounds which would effectively offer protection to the normal tissues after radiation exposure during radiotherapy of cancer. In this regard, plant-derived compounds might serve as “leads” to design ideal radioprotectors/radiosensitizers. This article reviews some of the recent findings on prospective medicinal plants, phytochemicals, and their analogs, based on both in vitro and in vivo tumor models especially focused with relevance to cancer radiotherapy. Also, pertinent discussion has been presented on the molecular mechanism of apoptotic death in relation to the oxidative stress in cancer cells induced by some of these plant samples and their active constituents. PMID:22291649

  6. Dosimetric characteristics of a PIN diode for radiotherapy application.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, S D; Philomina, A; Topkar, A

    2014-08-01

    The PIN diode developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) was modified for its use as a dosimeter in radiation therapy. For this purpose the diode was mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) and provided with necessary connections so that its response against irradiation can be recorded by a standard radiotherapy electrometer. The dosimetric characteristics of the diode were studied in Co-60 gamma rays as well as high energy X-rays. The measured sensitivity of this PIN diode is 4 nC/cGy which is about ten times higher than some commercial diode dosimeters. The leakage current from the diode is 0.04 nA. The response of the PIN diode is linear in the range of 20-1000 cGy which covers the full range of radiation dose encountered in radiotherapy treatments. The non-linearity of the diode response is 3.5% at 20 cGy and it is less than 1.5% at higher dose values. Its repeatability is within 0.5%. The angular response variation is about 5.6% within 6608 with respect to normal beam incidence. The response of the PIN diode at 6 and 18 MV X-rays varies within 2% with respect to its response at Co-60 gamma rays. The source to surface distance (SSD) dependence of the PIN diode was studied for Co-60 beam. It was found that the response of the diode decreases almost linearly relative to given dose for beams with constant collimator setting but increasing SSD (decreasing dose-rate). Within this study the diode response varied by about 2.5% between the maximum and minimum SSD. The dose-rate dependence of the PIN diode for 6 and 15 MV-rays was studied. The variation in response of diode for both energies in the studied dose range is less than 1%. The field size dependence of the PIN diode response is within 1% with respect to the response of ionisation chamber. These studies indicate that the characteristics of the PIN diode are suitable for use in radiotherapy dosimetry.

  7. A new radiotherapy surface dose detector:the MOSFET.

    PubMed

    Butson, M J; Rozenfeld, A; Mathur, J N; Carolan, M; Wong, T P; Metcalfe, P E

    1996-05-01

    Radiotherapy x-ray and electron beam surface doses are accurately measurable by use of a MOS-FET detector system. The MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is approximately 200-microns in diameter and consists of a 0.5-microns Al electrode on top of a 1-microns SiO2 and 300-microns Si substrate. Results for % surface dose were within +/- 2% compared to the Attix chamber and within +/- 3% of TLD extrapolation results for normally incident beams. Detectors were compared using different energies, field size, and beam modifying devices such as block trays and wedges. Percentage surface dose for 10 x 10-cm and 40 x 40-cm field size for 6-MV x rays at 100-cm SSD using the MOSFET were 16% and 42% of maximum, respectively. Factors such as its small size, immediate retrieval of results, high accuracy attainable from low applied doses, and as the MOSFET records its dose history make it a suitable in vivo dosimeter where surface and skin doses need to be determined. This can be achieved within part of the first fraction of dose (i.e., only 10 cGy is required.)

  8. Enhancing radiotherapy with cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitors: a rational advance?

    PubMed

    Choy, Hak; Milas, Luka

    2003-10-01

    Results of preclinical studies suggesting that the efficacy of molecular therapies is enhanced when they are combined with radiation have generated a surge of clinical trials combining these modalities. We reviewed the literature to identify the rationale and experimental foundation supporting the use of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors with standard radiotherapy regimens in current clinical trials. Radiation affects the ability of cells to divide and proliferate and induces the expression of genes involved in signaling pathways that promote cell survival or trigger cell death. Future advances in radiotherapy will hinge on understanding mechanisms by which radiation-induced transcription of genes governs cell death and survival, the selective control of this process, and the optimal approaches to combining this knowledge with existing therapeutic modalities. COX-2 is expressed in all stages of cancer, and in several cancers its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that COX-2-derived prostaglandins participate in carcinogenesis, inflammation, immune response suppression, apoptosis inhibition, angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Clinical trial results have demonstrated that selective inhibition of COX-2 can alter the development and the progression of cancer. In animal models, selective inhibition of COX-2 activity is associated with the enhanced radiation sensitivity of tumors without appreciably increasing the effects of radiation on normal tissue, and preclinical evidence suggests that the principal mechanism of radiation potentiation through selective COX-2 inhibition is the direct increase in cellular radiation sensitivity and the direct inhibition of tumor neovascularization. Results of current early-phase studies of non-small-cell lung, esophageal, cervical, and brain cancers will determine whether therapies that combine COX-2 inhibitors and radiation will enter

  9. Postoperative radiotherapy in the management of keloids.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Claudia C; Ibarra, Carla M; Arbulo, Douglas L; Russo, Moisés N; Solé, Claudio P

    2016-01-01

    The high recurrence rate following keloid resection has generated interest in adjuvant treatments for this disease. This study assesses keloid recurrence when treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. Retrospective analysis of resected keloids in patients referred to a Chilean radiation oncology centre between 2006 and 2013. Local recurrence was defined as new tissue growth on the surgical scar margin. Around103 keloids were analysed in 63 patients treated with 15 Gy in three fraction radiotherapy which was initiated on the same day as the surgery (75% of cases). The median keloid diameter was 6 cm; the most common site was thoracic (22%); the most common cause was prior surgery (35%); 37% caused symptoms, and several (47%) had received prior treatment with corticosteroids (32%), or surgery (30%). The median follow-up was three years, and 94% of recurrences occurred during the first year following treatment. Uni and multivariate analyses showed that an absence of symptoms was a protective factor for recurrence (OR: 0.24), while the time interval from onset to treatment with surgery plus radiotherapy >4.2 years was a risk factor (OR: 2.23). The first year recurrence rate was 32% and stabilised at 32% by the second year with no recurrences after 15 months. The combination of surgery and radiotherapy proved to be a good therapeutic alternative in the management of keloids. Our results are similar to those described in the literature for a dose of 15 Gy. Given these results, our centre will implement a new dose escalation protocol to improve future outcomes.

  10. Partial breast radiotherapy with simple teletherapy techniques.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Gábor; Újhidy, Dóra; Együd, Zsófia; Kiscsatári, Laura; Marosi, Gusztáv; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Varga, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    A prospective pilot study of partial breast irradiation (PBI) with conventional vs hypofractionated schedules was set out. The study aimed to determine efficacy, acute and late side effects, and the preference of photon vs electron irradiation based on individual features. Patients were enrolled according to internationally accepted guidelines on PBI. Conformal radiotherapy plans were generated with both photon and electron beams, and the preferred technique based on dose homogeneity and the radiation exposure of healthy tissues was applied. For electron dose verification, a special phantom was constructed. Patients were randomized for fractionation schedules of 25 × 2 vs 13 × 3Gy. Skin and breast changes were registered at the time of and ≥1 year after the completion of radiotherapy. Dose homogeneity was better with photons. If the tumor bed was located in the inner quadrants, electron beam gave superior results regarding conformity and sparing of organ at risk (OAR). If the tumor was situated in the lateral quadrants, conformity was better with photons. A depth of the tumor bed ≥3.0cm predicted the superiority of photon irradiation (odds ratio [OR] = 23.6, 95% CI: 5.2 to 107.5, p < 0.001) with >90% sensitivity and specificity. After a median follow-up of 39 months, among 72 irradiated cases, 1 local relapse out of the tumor bed was detected. Acute radiodermatitis of grade I to II, hyperpigmentation, and telangiectasia developed ≥1 year after radiotherapy, exclusively after electron beam radiotherapy. The choice of electrons or photons for PBI should be based on tumor bed location; the used methods are efficient and feasible. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypothyroidism After Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.-H.; Wang, H-M.; Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term incidence and possible predictive factors for posttreatment hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Four hundred and eight sequential NPC patients who had received regular annual thyroid hormone surveys prospectively after radiotherapy were included in this study. Median patient age was 47.3 years, and 286 patients were male. Thyroid function was prospectively evaluated by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and serum free thyroxine (FT4) levels. Low FT4 levels indicated clinical hypothyroidism in this study. Results: With a median follow-up of 4.3 years (range, 0.54-19.7 years), themore » incidence of low FT4 level was 5.3%, 9.0%, and 19.1% at 3, 5, and 10 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Hypothyroidism was more common with early T stage (p = 0.044), female sex (p = 0.037), and three-dimensional conformal therapy with the altered fractionation technique (p = 0.005) after univariate analysis. N stage, chemotherapy, reirradiation, and neck electron boost did not affect the incidence of hypothyroidism. Younger age and conformal therapy were significant factors that determined clinical hypothyroidism after multivariate analysis. Overall, patients presented with a low FT4 level about 1 year after presenting with an elevated TSH level. Conclusion: Among our study group of NPC patients, 19.1% experienced clinical hypothyroidism by 10 years after treatment. Younger age and conformal therapy increased the risk of hypothyroidism. We suggest routine evaluation of thyroid function in NPC patients after radiotherapy. The impact of pituitary injury should be also considered.« less

  12. Deterioration of duodenal lymphangiectasia after radiotherapy for gastric MALT lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    A 68-year-old Japanese woman underwent radiotherapy for gastric lymphoma. Although lymphangiectasia was sparsely observed in the second portion of the duodenum before radiotherapy, the number of pinpoint white spots obviously increased after the treatment. Although the duodenal lymphangiectasia gradually progressed, the patient had no features of protein-losing enteropathy. This case highlights the importance of endoscopic observation of the duodenum after irradiation to the abdomen as radiotherapy may secondarily cause intestinal lymphangiectasia. PMID:28798810

  13. Big Data Analytics for Prostate Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coates, James; Souhami, Luis; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a first-line treatment option for localized prostate cancer and radiation-induced normal tissue damage are often the main limiting factor for modern radiotherapy regimens. Conversely, under-dosing of target volumes in an attempt to spare adjacent healthy tissues limits the likelihood of achieving local, long-term control. Thus, the ability to generate personalized data-driven risk profiles for radiotherapy outcomes would provide valuable prognostic information to help guide both clinicians and patients alike. Big data applied to radiation oncology promises to deliver better understanding of outcomes by harvesting and integrating heterogeneous data types, including patient-specific clinical parameters, treatment-related dose-volume metrics, and biological risk factors. When taken together, such variables make up the basis for a multi-dimensional space (the "RadoncSpace") in which the presented modeling techniques search in order to identify significant predictors. Herein, we review outcome modeling and big data-mining techniques for both tumor control and radiotherapy-induced normal tissue effects. We apply many of the presented modeling approaches onto a cohort of hypofractionated prostate cancer patients taking into account different data types and a large heterogeneous mix of physical and biological parameters. Cross-validation techniques are also reviewed for the refinement of the proposed framework architecture and checking individual model performance. We conclude by considering advanced modeling techniques that borrow concepts from big data analytics, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence, before discussing the potential future impact of systems radiobiology approaches.

  14. [Radiotherapy of primary breast sarcomas: Retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Chellakhi, M; Benchakroun, N; Bouchbika, Z; Jouhadi, H; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2018-04-18

    Primary breast sarcomas are heterogeneous tumours derived from non-epithelial mammary gland structures. Although they represent a rare entity, their incidence may increase in the coming years owing to conservative approach considered in the treatment of breast cancer. The aim of this work was to highlight the effect of postoperative irradiation in the treatment of these tumours. This is a retrospective study conducted at the Mohammed-VI centre for cancer treatment between 2004 and 2011. Survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Fifteen cases were collected. The median age was 41.9years. Phyllode sarcoma accounted for 66% of this series. Surgical treatment was performed in 93% of the patients with negative margins in 33.33% of the cases. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was indicated in 46% of the patients with locally advanced tumours and 66% of the patients received postoperative radiotherapy for positive or close margins. Five years overall survival and relapse free survival was not significantly different with the use of adjuvant radiotherapy. Due to the rarity of this entity and the absence of randomized trials, evidence based management is still lacking. However, a multidisciplinary approach is to be required including surgical excision followed by radiotherapy, depending on the tumour characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Anal Cancer: An Examination of Radiotherapy Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Glynne-Jones, Rob; Lim, Faye

    2011-04-01

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9811, ACCORD-03, and ACT II Phase III trials in anal cancer showed no benefit for cisplatin-based induction and maintenance chemotherapy, or radiation dose-escalation >59 Gy. This review examines the efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiation (CRT) in anal cancer, and discusses potential alternative radiotherapy strategies. The evidence for the review was compiled from randomized and nonrandomized trials of radiation therapy and CRT. A total of 103 retrospective/observational studies, 4 Phase I/II studies, 16 Phase II prospective studies, 2 randomized Phase II studies, and 6 Phase III trials of radiotherapy or chemoradiation were identified. There are nomore » meta-analyses based on individual patient data. A 'one-size-fits-all' approach for all stages of anal cancer is inappropriate. Early T1 tumors are probably currently overtreated, whereas T3/T4 lesions might merit escalation of treatment. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy or the integration of biological therapy may play a role in future.« less

  16. Radiotherapy Improvements by Using Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Au nanoparticles can be prepared inside biological solutions and incorporated in special molecules for their transport through blood, drugs and proteins up to the tumour sites or directly injected in their volume when it is possible. The Au nanoparticles are biocompatible and can be accepted locally in the organism also at relatively high concentrations. The use of Au nanoparticles injected in the tumour site enhances significantly the effective atomic number of the medium, depending on the used concentration, and consequently the proton and electron energy loss and the X-ray absorption coefficient determining an increment of the local absorbed dose during radiotherapy. Traditional radiotherapy using electrons, X-rays and gamma rays, and innovative protontherapy can benefit the increment of the effective atomic number of the tissue in the presence of Au-nanoparticles embedded in the tumour volume with an adaptive up-take procedure. This method decreases the dose released to the healthy tissues permitting a better cantering of the irradiated targets and shielding the healthy tissue placed behind the tumour. The presented theoretical study approach permits to evaluate an enhancement of the radiotherapy dose of the order of 1 % using 60 MeV protons, of the order of 10% using 6 MeV electrons and of the order of 100 % using 100 keV X-ray photons. Here, we also disccused for patents relaed to the topic.

  17. Prospective study of combined modality treatment or radiotherapy alone in the management of early-stage adult Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ferah; Zengin, Nurullah; Engin, Hüseyin; Güllü, Ibrahim; Barista, Ibrahim; Caglar, Meltem; Ozyar, Enis; Cengiz, Mustafa; Gürkaynak, Murat; Zorlu, Faruk; Caner, Biray; Atahan, I Lale; Tekuzman, Gülten

    2004-11-01

    To determine the efficacy and toxicity of combined modality treatment (CMT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone in the management of clinical Stage I-IIA adult Hodgkin's disease patients. Forty-seven patients with supradiaphragmatic clinical Stage I-IIA Hodgkin's disease without bulky mediastinal lymphadenopathy were enrolled into this prospective study between September 1997 and February 2002. Patients with very favorable criteria presenting with one or two nonbulky nodal areas involved, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of <50 mm/h, age <40 years, and either lymphocyte predominant or nodular sclerosing histologic findings were treated by RT alone. Patients missing any of these favorable criteria were classified as the other favorable group and were treated with three courses of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy followed by involved-field RT. The median age was 36 years (range, 19-53 years). Of the 47 patients, 15 were women and 32 were men. Only 3 patients were classified as the most favorable group and treated with mantle RT alone; the remaining 44 were treated with CMT. The median follow-up was 51 months (range, 20-74 months). Only 2 patients developed recurrence, both out of the irradiated field, one in the contralateral neck and the other in the abdomen. The 5-year relapse-free and overall survival rate was 95.4% and 97.8%, respectively. Although none of the prognostic factors were statistically significant for relapse-free survival, a trend was noted for the response to chemotherapy (p = 0.06). Only 2 patients developed treatment-related complications. One patient treated with mantle RT alone developed severe ischemic heart disease and one in the CMT arm developed subclinical hypothyroidism. Despite the short follow-up, CMT or RT alone tailored according to the clinical prognostic factors were successful in terms of disease control in clinical Stage I-IIA Hodgkin's disease. Longer follow-up is required to make definitive conclusions.

  18. High Dose Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Adults with Glioblastomas

    SciTech Connect

    Koukourakis, Michael; Scarlatos, John; Yiannakakis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-15

    From 1989 to 1991, 27 patients with glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma of the brain were treated with radiotherapy. Fifteen of twenty-seven patients were treated through limited volume fields, with a thrice-a-day (1.1 Gy/f) or twice-a-day (1.4 Gy/f) hyperfractionated regimen to a total physical dose of 62–92 Gy (median dose 76 Gy). The remaining 12 were treated with whole brain irradiation (40 Gy of total conventionally fractionated dose) and a localised boost to a total dose of 60 Gy. The hyperfractionated regimen was well tolerated and there was no sign of increased brain oedema to indicate the insertion of amore » split. Of six patients who received a NTD10 (normalised total dose for α/β =10) higher than 71 Gy, five showed CR (83% CR rate) versus three of 21 patients who received a lower NTD10 (14% CR rate). For 13 patients who received a NTD10 higher than 66 Gy, the 18-months survival was 61% (8/13) versus 28% (4/14) for 14 patients who received a NTD10 less than 66 Gy. As far as the late morbidity is concerned, of six patients treated with 76-92 Gy of physical dose, none died because of radiation-induced brain necrosis within 18-42 months of follow-up, and three of them are without evidence of disease 18-31 months after the end of radiation treatment. None of our 15 patients who received less than whole brain irradiation relapsed outside the radiation portals. The present study strongly suggests the use of limited volume hyperfractionated radiotherapy schemes, so as to increase the local tumor dose (NTD10) to values higher than 79 Gy, at the same time keeping the NTD2 (NTD for α/β = 2) below 68 Gy.« less

  19. Melatonin prevents possible radiotherapy-induced thyroid injury.

    PubMed

    Arıcıgil, Mitat; Dündar, Mehmet Akif; Yücel, Abitter; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Akif; Aktan, Meryem; Alan, Mehmet Akif; Fındık, Sıdıka; Kılınç, İbrahim

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the protective effect of melatonin in radiotherapy-induced thyroid gland injury in an experimental rat model. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: the control group, melatonin treatment group, radiotherapy group and melatonin plus radiotherapy group. The neck region of each rat was defined by simulation and radiated with 2 Gray (Gy) per min with 6-MV photon beams, for a total dose of 18 Gy. Melatonin was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg through intraperitoneal injection, 15 min prior to radiation exposure. Thirty days after the beginning of the study, rats were decapitated and analyses of blood and thyroid tissue were performed. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), thiobarbituric acid re