Science.gov

Sample records for involving multielement systems

  1. Multi-Element Airfoil System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  2. Multielement suppressor nozzles for thrust augmentation systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, R. L.; O'Keefe, J. V.; Tate, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    The noise reduction and nozzle performance characteristics of large-scale, high-aspect-ratio multielement nozzle arrays operated at low velocities were determined by test. The nozzles are selected for application to high-aspect-ratio augmentor suppressors to be used for augmentor wing airplanes. Significant improvements in noise characteristics for multielement nozzles over those of round or high-aspect-ratio slot nozzles are obtained. Elliptical noise patterns typical of slot nozzles are presented for high-aspect-ratio multielement nozzle arrays. Additional advantages are available in OASPL noise reduction from the element size and spacing. Augmentor-suppressor systems can be designed for maximum beam pattern directivity and frequency spectrum shaping advantages. Measurements of the nozzle wakes show a correlation with noise level data and frequency spectrum peaks. The noise and jet wake results are compared with existing prediction procedures based on empirical jet flow equations, Lighthill relationships, Strouhal number, and empirical shock-induced screech noise effects.

  3. Multi-Element Unstructured Analyses of Complex Valve Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulyma, Peter (Technical Monitor); Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Shipman, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    The safe and reliable operation of high pressure test stands for rocket engine and component testing places an increased emphasis on the performance of control valves and flow metering devices. In this paper, we will present a series of high fidelity computational analyses of systems ranging from cryogenic control valves and pressure regulator systems to cavitating venturis that are used to support rocket engine and component testing at NASA Stennis Space Center. A generalized multi-element framework with sub-models for grid adaption, grid movement and multi-phase flow dynamics has been used to carry out the simulations. Such a framework provides the flexibility of resolving the structural and functional complexities that are typically associated with valve-based high pressure feed systems and have been difficult to deal with traditional CFD methods. Our simulations revealed a rich variety of flow phenomena such as secondary flow patterns, hydrodynamic instabilities, fluctuating vapor pockets etc. In the paper, we will discuss performance losses related to cryogenic control valves, and provide insight into the physics of the dominant multi-phase fluid transport phenomena that are responsible for the choking like behavior in cryogenic control elements. Additionally, we will provide detailed analyses of the modal instability that is observed in the operation of the dome pressure regulator valve. Such instabilities are usually not localized and manifest themselves as a system wide phenomena leading to an undesirable chatter at high flow conditions.

  4. Dry Coal Feed System and Multi-Element Injector Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Sprouse; Fred Widman; Alan Darby

    2006-08-30

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine technology to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. One key feature of the PWR concept is the use of an ultra-dense phase feed system to provide dry coal to the multi-element injector. This report describes the layout, test procedures, instrumentation and data acquisition requirements for an ultradense phase multi-element injector and feed system to be operated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC).

  5. Detailed Modeling and Irreversible Transfer Process Analysis of a Multi-Element Thermoelectric Generator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Heng; Gou, Xiaolong; Yang, Suwen

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) power generation technology, due to its several advantages, is becoming a noteworthy research direction. Many researchers conduct their performance analysis and optimization of TE devices and related applications based on the generalized thermoelectric energy balance equations. These generalized TE equations involve the internal irreversibility of Joule heating inside the thermoelectric device and heat leakage through the thermoelectric couple leg. However, it is assumed that the thermoelectric generator (TEG) is thermally isolated from the surroundings except for the heat flows at the cold and hot junctions. Since the thermoelectric generator is a multi-element device in practice, being composed of many fundamental TE couple legs, the effect of heat transfer between the TE couple leg and the ambient environment is not negligible. In this paper, based on basic theories of thermoelectric power generation and thermal science, detailed modeling of a thermoelectric generator taking account of the phenomenon of energy loss from the TE couple leg is reported. The revised generalized thermoelectric energy balance equations considering the effect of heat transfer between the TE couple leg and the ambient environment have been derived. Furthermore, characteristics of a multi-element thermoelectric generator with irreversibility have been investigated on the basis of the new derived TE equations. In the present investigation, second-law-based thermodynamic analysis (exergy analysis) has been applied to the irreversible heat transfer process in particular. It is found that the existence of the irreversible heat convection process causes a large loss of heat exergy in the TEG system, and using thermoelectric generators for low-grade waste heat recovery has promising potential. The results of irreversibility analysis, especially irreversible effects on generator system performance, based on the system model established in detail have guiding significance for

  6. Design and implementation of a system with a multielement thermopile for monitoring temperature of a plane.

    PubMed

    Li, L T; Tsai, C F; Young, M S

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we report the design of a system equipped with a multielement thermopile for measuring the temperature of a given plane. We evaluate the performance of our measurement system, which comprises a microcontroller, an analog-to-digital converter, a liquid crystal display (LCD), light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a buzzer, laser pointers, and a rotary encoder. We use different types of display modes such as an LCD for displaying the measured temperature, LEDs which colors indicate the temperature range, and an RS-232 or a wireless interface that transmits the temperature values to be displayed as different colors on a PC screen. The buzzer/alarm in the system is activated when the threshold temperature is reached. The system is inexpensive, portable, and can be used for two-dimensional temperature measurements; further, its emissivity can be easily adjusted. The effective detection range of this system is from -20 to 115 degrees C, and the field of view is 41 degrees x32 degrees ; the measurement error is confined to +/-1 degrees C. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in monitoring the temperature of a remote plane. Hence, it is possible to identify a hot spot that occurred in the electrical heating equipment or a smoldering source hidden in upholstery.

  7. Design Methodology for Multi-Element High-Lift Systems on Subsonic Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, R. S.; vanDam, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    The choice of a high-lift system is crucial in the preliminary design process of a subsonic civil transport aircraft. Its purpose is to increase the allowable aircraft weight or decrease the aircraft's wing area for a given takeoff and landing performance. However, the implementation of a high-lift system into a design must be done carefully, for it can improve the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft but may also drastically increase the aircraft empty weight. If designed properly, a high-lift system can improve the cost effectiveness of an aircraft by increasing the payload weight for a given takeoff and landing performance. This is why the design methodology for a high-lift system should incorporate aerodynamic performance, weight, and cost. The airframe industry has experienced rapid technological growth in recent years which has led to significant advances in high-lift systems. For this reason many existing design methodologies have become obsolete since they are based on outdated low Reynolds number wind-tunnel data and can no longer accurately predict the aerodynamic characteristics or weight of current multi-element wings. Therefore, a new design methodology has been created that reflects current aerodynamic, weight, and cost data and provides enough flexibility to allow incorporation of new data when it becomes available.

  8. Multielement extraction system for determining 19 trace elements in gold exploration samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J. Robert; Viets, John G.; ,

    1990-01-01

    A multielement extraction system is being used successfully to provide essentially interference-free geochemical analyses to aid in gold exploration. The Methyl isobutyl ketone-Amine synerGistic Iodide Complex (MAGIC) extraction system separates Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cu, Ga, Hg, In, Mo, Pb, Pd, Pt, Sb, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, and Zn from interfering geological matrices. Quantitative extraction of these elements is accomplished over a broad range of acid normality making it possible to economically determine all 19 elements from a single digestion or leach solution. The resulting organic extracts are amenable to analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). For many years the principal shortcoming of ICP-AES was the complex spectral and stray-light interferences that were caused by the extreme variability of components such as Fe, Na, and Ca in common geological matrices. The MAGIC extraction allows determination of the extracted elements with enhanced sensitivity, from a virtually uniform matrix, by ICP-AES and FAAS. Because of its simultaneous multichannel capabilities, ICP-AES is the ideal instrumental technique for determining these 19 extracted elements. Ultratrace (sub-part-per-billion) determinations of Au and many of the other extracted elements can be made by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS), following back stripping of the extracts. The combination of the extraction followed by stripping of the organic phase eliminates 99.999% of potential interferences for Au. Gold determination by GFAAS from these extracts under the specified conditions yields a fourfold improvement in sensitivity over conventional GFAAS methods. This sensitivity enhancement and the interference-free matrix allow highly reliable determinations well into the parts-per-trillion range.

  9. Prediction of leading-edge transition and relaminarization phenomena on a subsonic multi-element high-lift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    Boundary-layer transition and relaminarization may have a critical effect on the flow development about multi-element high-lift systems of subsonic transport jets with swept wings. The purpose of the research is to study these transition phenomena in the leading-edge region of the various elements of a high-lift system. The flow phenomena studied include transition to the attachment-line flow, relaminarization, and crossflow instability, and transition. The calculations are based on pressure distributions measured in flight on the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle (Boeing 737-100) at a wing station where the flow approximated infinite swept wing conditions. The results indicate that significant regions of laminar flow can exist on all flap elements in flight. In future flight experiments (planned for January-February, 1994) the extent of these regions, the transition mechanisms and the effect of laminar flow on the high-lift characteristics of the multi-element system will be further explored.

  10. Experiments on Lunar Core Composition: Phase Equilibrium Analysis of A Multi-Element (Fe-Ni-S-C) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, B. M.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.

    2015-01-01

    Previous geochemical and geophysical experiments have proposed the presence of a small, metallic lunar core, but its composition is still being investigated. Knowledge of core composition can have a significant effect on understanding the thermal history of the Moon, the conditions surrounding the liquid-solid or liquid-liquid field, and siderophile element partitioning between mantle and core. However, experiments on complex bulk core compositions are very limited. One limitation comes from numerous studies that have only considered two or three element systems such as Fe-S or Fe-C, which do not supply a comprehensive understanding for complex systems such as Fe-Ni-S-Si-C. Recent geophysical data suggests the presence of up to 6% lighter elements. Reassessments of Apollo seismological analyses and samples have also shown the need to acquire more data for a broader range of pressures, temperatures, and compositions. This study considers a complex multi-element system (Fe-Ni-S-C) for a relevant pressure and temperature range to the Moon's core conditions.

  11. Multielement analysis of micro-volume biological samples by ICP-MS with highly efficient sample introduction system.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Yuka; Inagaki, Kazumi; Sabarudin, Akhmad; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Iwahata, Daigo; Takatsu, Akiko; Chiba, Koichi; Umemura, Tomonari

    2011-12-15

    A method for multielement analysis of micro-volume biological sample by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a highly efficient sample introduction system was presented. The sample introduction system was the combination of (1) an inert loop injection unit and (2) a high performance concentric nebulizer (HPCN) coupled with a temperature controllable cyclone chamber. The loop injection unit could introduce 20 μL samples into the carrier liquid flow of 10 μL min(-1) producing a stable signal for 100s without any dilution. The injection loop is continuously washed with 0.1M HNO(3) carrier solution during the measurement, thereby much improving sample throughput. The HPCN is a triple tube concentric nebulizer, which can generate fine aerosols and provide a stable and highly measurement sensitivity in ICP-MS at a liquid flow rate less than 10 μL min(-1). With the combination of the chamber heating at 60°C, the sensitivity obtained with the proposed sample introduction system at the liquid flow rate of 10 μL min(-1) was almost the same as that with a common concentric nebulizer and cyclone chamber system at the liquid flow rate of 1 mL min(-1), though the sample consumption rate of the HPCN was two orders of the magnitude lower than that of the common nebulizer. The validation of the proposed system was performed by analyzing the NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver. The observed values for 12 elements such as Na, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd were in good agreement with their certified values and information value. Satisfactory analytical results for 14 elements such as Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Ba in Escherichia coli sample were also obtained. The proposed sample introduction system was quite effective in the cases when only micro-volume of biological sample is available. PMID:22099643

  12. Aperture size to therapeutic volume relation for a multielement ultrasound system: determination of applicator adequacy for superficial hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Moros, E G; Myerson, R J; Straube, W L

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic and thermal models were developed to simulate superficial hyperthermia treatments using a new multielement planar ultrasonic system. Typical power density and steady-state temperature distributions are presented. A parametric study was performed to determine the relationship between therapeutic volume (volume at and above 42 degrees C) and aperture size (number of active elements). The parameters investigated were: maximum allowable temperature, skin surface temperature, blood perfusion (thermal diffusion length), acoustic absorption, and frequency. Results showed that this device produces well distributed sound beams with lateral dimensions comparable to the aperture size. These simulated results were in agreement with experimental measurements. The simulated temperature distributions were uniform at each depth across the applicator's aperture. The main heating characteristics found were: (1) the therapeutic volume was directly proportional to the aperture size; (2) the lateral dimensions of the therapeutic volume were independent of the parameters studied and remained practically constant with depth for several centimeters, with a very rapid increase near the skin surface and a very rapid fall off at depth; and (3) therapeutic penetration was strongly dependent on maximum allowable temperature, frequency, and acoustic absorption; and weakly dependent on blood perfusion and skin surface temperature. These heating characteristics are new in commercial systems for superficial hyperthermia. Despite the well-distributed beams, it was found that in order to produce adequate hyperthermia with this device the lateral dimensions of tumors must be smaller than the applicator's active aperture and that thermal depth coverage must be monitored during treatments. Guidelines for aperture selection and thermometry strategies are discussed. PMID:8289722

  13. Visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak based on multielement image fiber bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Chektybayev, B. Shapovalov, G.; Kolodeshnikov, A.

    2015-05-15

    In the paper, new visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak is described. The system has been designed to observe processes inside of plasma and the processes occurring due to plasma-wall interactions through the long equatorial port. Imaging system is designed based on special image fiber bundle and entrance wide angle lens, which provide image of large section of the vacuum chamber, both poloidal half-section and divertor through the sufficiently long equatorial port. The system also consists of two video cameras: slow and fast with image intensifier. Commercial equipment had been used in design of the system that allowed reducing the cost and time for research and development. The paper also discusses advantages and disadvantages of the system in comparison with conventional endoscopes based on a lens system and considers its promising utilization in future tokamaks and future steady state fusion reactors.

  14. Visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak based on multielement image fiber bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chektybayev, B.; Shapovalov, G.; Kolodeshnikov, A.

    2015-05-01

    In the paper, new visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak is described. The system has been designed to observe processes inside of plasma and the processes occurring due to plasma-wall interactions through the long equatorial port. Imaging system is designed based on special image fiber bundle and entrance wide angle lens, which provide image of large section of the vacuum chamber, both poloidal half-section and divertor through the sufficiently long equatorial port. The system also consists of two video cameras: slow and fast with image intensifier. Commercial equipment had been used in design of the system that allowed reducing the cost and time for research and development. The paper also discusses advantages and disadvantages of the system in comparison with conventional endoscopes based on a lens system and considers its promising utilization in future tokamaks and future steady state fusion reactors.

  15. Visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak based on multielement image fiber bundle.

    PubMed

    Chektybayev, B; Shapovalov, G; Kolodeshnikov, A

    2015-05-01

    In the paper, new visible wide angle view imaging system of KTM tokamak is described. The system has been designed to observe processes inside of plasma and the processes occurring due to plasma-wall interactions through the long equatorial port. Imaging system is designed based on special image fiber bundle and entrance wide angle lens, which provide image of large section of the vacuum chamber, both poloidal half-section and divertor through the sufficiently long equatorial port. The system also consists of two video cameras: slow and fast with image intensifier. Commercial equipment had been used in design of the system that allowed reducing the cost and time for research and development. The paper also discusses advantages and disadvantages of the system in comparison with conventional endoscopes based on a lens system and considers its promising utilization in future tokamaks and future steady state fusion reactors.

  16. Quantitative simultaneous multi-element microprobe analysis using combined wavelength and energy dispersive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, L. S.; Doan, A. S., Jr.; Wood, F. M., Jr.; Bredekamp, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A combined WDS-EDS system obviates the severe X-ray peak overlap problems encountered with Na, Mg, Al and Si common to pure EDS systems. By application of easily measured empirical correction factors for pulse pile-up and peak overlaps which are normally observed in the analysis of silicate minerals, the accuracy of analysis is comparable with that expected for WDS electron microprobe analyses. The continuum backgrounds are subtracted for the spectra by a spline fitting technique based on integrated intensities between the peaks. The preprocessed data are then reduced to chemical analyses by existing data reduction programs.

  17. System overview for the multi-element corrector magnets and controls for the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, C.; Ball, M.; Franck, A.R.; Harding, D.J.; Kasley, P.A.; Krafczyk, G.E.; Kucera, M.J.; Lackey, J.; McArthur, D.; Misek, J.; Pellico, W.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    To better control the beam position, tune, and chromaticity in the Fermilab Booster synchrotron, a new package of six corrector elements has been designed, incorporating both normal and skew orientations of dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets. The devices are under construction and will be installed in 48 locations in the Booster accelerator. Each of these 288 corrector magnets will be individually powered. Each of the magnets will be individually controlled using operator programmed current ramps designed specifically for each type of Booster acceleration cycle. This paper provides an overview of the corrector magnet installation in the accelerator enclosure, power and sensor interconnections, specifications for the switch-mode power supplies, rack and equipment layouts, controls and interlock electronics, and the features of the operator interface for programming the current ramps and adjusting the timing of the system triggers.

  18. Multielement extraction system for the determination of 18 trace elements in geochemical samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.R.; Viets, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    A Methyl isobutyl ketone-Amine synerGistic Iodide Complex (MAGIC) extraction system has been developed for use in geochemical exploration which separates a maximum number of trace elements from interfering matrices. Extraction curves for 18 of these trace elements are presented: Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ga, In, Tl, Sa, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Se, and Te. The acid normality of the aqueous phase controls the extraction into the organic phase, and each of these 18 elements has a broad range of HCl normality over which H is quantitatively extracted, making H possible to determine all 18 trace elements from a single sample digestion or leach solution. The extract can be analyzed directly by flame atomic absorption or inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Most of these 18 elements can be determined by Nameless atomic absorption after special treatment of the organic extract.

  19. Immune System Involvement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips" to find out more! Email * Zipcode The Immune System and Psoriatic Disease What is an autoimmune disease? ... swollen and painful joints and tendons. Treating the immune system The immune system is not only the key ...

  20. Musculoskeletal involvement in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Randone, Silvia Bellando; Guiducci, Serena; Cerinic, Marco Matucci

    2008-04-01

    Musculoskeletal involvement is more frequent than expected in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is a major cause of disability, even if the prognosis of the disease largely depends on visceral involvement. The most common clinical feature of musculoskeletal involvement is arthralgia; less frequent features are arthritis, flexion contractures, stiffness (affecting predominantly fingers, wrists and ankles), proximal muscle weakness (mainly of the shoulder and hip) and tendon sheath involvement. Tendon friction rubs are predictive of poor prognosis. If musculoskeletal involvement is suspected, serum creatinine phosphokinase, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphate, rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies should be checked routinely. Treatment for muscle involvement has not yet been considered adequately and, in the future, it is to be hoped that clinical trials will identify new drugs to control this aspect of SSc, which seriously compromises patients' quality of life. PMID:18455689

  1. Lupus pernio without systemic involvement

    PubMed Central

    Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan; Vora, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that can affect the pulmonary, reticulo-endothelial, skin, gastrointestinal, cardiac, musculo – skeletal, endocrine or central nervous system. Exclusive cutaneous involvement is very rare in sarcoidosis. Lupus pernio is a variant of cutaneous sarcoidosis presenting with erythematous to violaceous nodules and plaques located symmetrically over the nose, cheeks, ears and digits. We present a case of lupus pernio which showed rapid improvement with topical steroids and has yet not developed any systemic involvement even after 6 years of regular follow up. PMID:24350015

  2. Spectrometer system using a modular echelle spectrograph and a laser-driven continuum source for simultaneous multi-element determination by graphite furnace absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, Sebastian; Okruss, Michael; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Huang, Mao Dong; Esser, Norbert; Florek, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    A multi-element absorption spectrometer system has been developed based on a laser-driven xenon continuum source and a modular simultaneous echelle spectrograph (MOSES), which is characterized by a minimized number of optical components resulting in high optical throughput, high transmittance and high image quality. The main feature of the new optical design is the multifunction usage of a Littrow prism, which is attached on a rotation stage. It operates as an order-sorter for the echelle grating in a double-pass mode, as a fine positioning device moving the echelle spectrum on the detector, and as a forwarder to address different optical components, e.g., echelle gratings, in the setup. Using different prisms, which are mounted back to back on the rotation stage, a multitude of different spectroscopic modes like broad-range panorama observations, specific UV-VIS and NIR studies or high resolution zoom investigations of variable spectral channels can be realized. In the UV panorama mode applied in this work, MOSES has simultaneously detectable wavelength coverage from 193 nm to 390 nm with a spectral resolution λ/Δλ of 55,000 (3-pixel criterion). In the zoom mode the latter can be further increased by a factor of about two for a selectable section of the full wavelength range. The applicability and the analytical performance of the system were tested by simultaneous element determination in a graphite furnace, using eight different elements. Compared to an instrument operating in the optimized single line mode, the achieved analytical sensitivity using the panorama mode was typically a factor of two lower. Using the zoom mode for selected elements, comparable sensitivities were obtained. The results confirm the influence of the different spectral resolutions.

  3. Characterization of a tunable optical parametric oscillator laser system for multielement flame laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry of cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, and thallium in buffalo river sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J X; Hou, X; Tsai, S J; Yang, K X; Michel, R G

    1997-02-01

    A pulsed (10 Hz) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser system based on beta-barium borate (BBO) crystals and equipped with a frequency-doubling option (FDO) was characterized for use in laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LEAFS). This all-solid-state laser has a narrow spectral line width, a wide spectral tuning range (220-2200 nm), and a rapid, computer-controlled slew scan of wavelength (0.250 nm s-1 in the visible and infrared, and 0.125 nm s-1 in the ultraviolet). The output power characteristics (15-90 mJ/pulse in the visible, 1-40 mJ in the infrared, and 1-11 mJ in the ultraviolet), laser pulse-to-pulse variability (3-13% relative standard deviation, RSD, of the laser pulses), conversion efficiency of the FDO (2-17%), and spectral bandwidth in the visible spectrum (0.1-0.3 cm-1) were measured. The laser was used as the excitation source for a flame LEAFS instrument for which rapid, sequential, multielement analysis was demonstrated by slew scan of the laser. The instrument allowed about 640 measurements to be made in about 6 h, with triplicate measurements of all solutions and aqueous calibration curves, which yielded accurate analyses of a river sediment (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Buffalo River Sediment, 2704) for five elements with precisions < 5% RSD. Comparable or improved flame LEAFS detection limits over literature values were obtained for cobalt (2 ng mL-1), copper (2 ng mL-1), lead (0.4 ng mL-1), manganese (0.2 ng mL-1), and thallium (0.9 ng mL-1) by flame LEAFS.

  4. Systemic involvement in mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Burg, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) represents almost 50% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas and more than 70% of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). Arising from preferentially skin-homing lymphocytes with genetic instability, MF evolves through stages (IA-IVB), producing inconspicuous inflammatory features in the beginning and finally resulting in a proliferation of cytomorphologic, phenotypic, and genotypic abnormal tumor cells. Over the past 200 years, there has been much confusion in the classification of lymphomas due to semantic disagreements (MF, CTCL, parapsoriasis, lymphosarcoma, reticulum cell sarcoma, and many other terms), lack of diagnostic standard criteria, and new molecular diagnostic methods. Studies on extracutaneous involvement in early stages (IA-IIA) are almost completely lacking. In advanced stages of MF (IIB-IVB), discovery of extracutaneous involvement is dependent on the methods used (physical examination, technology, molecular diagnostics, autopsy, and laparoscopy) and reveals a wide range of results. Due to the inflammation-simulating features in the beginning of the disease, early diagnosis is very difficult to assess. Extracutaneous involvement has previously been documented in more than 70% of autopsies. More recent studies give much lower figures. Like all lymphomas, MF is a systemic disease from the very beginning, with distinct homing preferences in tumor cells. Organs most commonly involved during the lengthy course of the disease are, in descending frequency, lymph node/peripheral blood, liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow, GI tract, pancreas, and kidney. PMID:26321404

  5. Multi-element spherical shell generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A nozzle assembly in a multi-element spherical shell generation system includes first and second side-by-side spaced apart nozzles and a web portion extending between and connecting the nozzles. The first nozzle has an inner orifice adapted to discharge a first filler material and an outer annular orifice separated from and defined in concentric relation about the inner orifice and adapted to discharge a first shell material. The second nozzle has an inner orifice adapted to discharge a second filler material and an outer annular orifice separated from and defined in concentric relation about the inner orifice and adapted to discharge a second shell material. A multi-element spherical shell can be formed through employment of the nozzle assembly by merger with one another after discharge from the outer orifices of the nozzles of a pair of adjacent annular streams of liquid or molten shell wall material of different compositions and encapsulation by the mixed shell wall materials of a common encapsulated core fluids also simultaneously discharged by the inner orifices nozzles. On the other hand, the pair of encapsulating streams of shell wall material can be of the same materials which merge together and encapsulate core fluids of different compositions which will merge together after discharge from the nozzles.

  6. Audiovestibular involvement in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Berrettini, S; Ferri, C; Pitaro, N; Bruschini, P; Latorraca, A; Sellari-Franceschini, S; Segnini, G

    1994-01-01

    In order to evaluate the nature and association of audiovestibular disturbances and systemic sclerosis (SSC), 37 unselected SSC patients were studied with a detailed audiological and vestibular examination since November, 1987. Pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, impedance audiometry, brainstem response audiometry and vestibular function using electronystagmographic recording were performed. We found a rather frequent audiovestibular involvement (41%). A hearing loss was found in 14 SSC patients; hearing loss was sensorineural in 10 cases and mixed in 4 cases. The latter revealed a finding similar to tympanosclerosis. Four patients showed altered vestibular test values and only one of these had normal hearing. Sensorineural deafness was the more frequent pathological finding and in all cases the site of lesion was cochlear. SSC appears to be directly responsible for audiovestibular damage, since in 12 out of 15 patients with such involvement, no other apparent cause could be revealed. SSC may be included among the autoimmune diseases which may cause audiovestibular disturbances. PMID:8078672

  7. High-Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging of Dento-Periodontal Tissues Using a Multi-Element Phased Array System.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim-Cuong T; Le, Lawrence H; Kaipatur, Neelambar R; Zheng, Rui; Lou, Edmond H; Major, Paul W

    2016-10-01

    Intraoral ultrasonography uses high-frequency mechanical waves to study dento-periodontium. Besides the advantages of portability and cost-effectiveness, ultrasound technique has no ionizing radiation. Previous studies employed a single transducer or an array of transducer elements, and focused on enamel thickness and distance measurement. This study used a phased array system with a 128-element array transducer to image dento-periodontal tissues. We studied two porcine lower incisors from a 6-month-old piglet using 20-MHz ultrasound. The high-resolution ultrasonographs clearly showed the cross-sectional morphological images of the hard and soft tissues. The investigation used an integration of waveform analysis, travel-time calculation, and wavefield simulation to reveal the nature of the ultrasound data, which makes the study novel. With the assistance of time-distance radio-frequency records, we robustly justified the enamel-dentin interface, dentin-pulp interface, and the cemento-enamel junction. The alveolar crest level, the location of cemento-enamel junction, and the thickness of alveolar crest were measured from the images and compared favorably with those from the cone beam computed tomography with less than 10% difference. This preliminary and fundamental study has reinforced the conclusions from previous studies, that ultrasonography has great potential to become a non-invasive diagnostic imaging tool for quantitative assessment of periodontal structures and better delivery of oral care.

  8. Multi-element study of sediments from the river Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukina, Sofia; Lobus, Nikolai; Peresypkin, Valery; Baturin, Gleb; Smurov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Major (Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K), minor (Mn) and trace (Cr, Ni, Cd, V, Zn, Cu, Pb, Sb, Bi, Sn, Ag, Li, Co, As, Zr, Mo, Hg) elements along with nutrients (TOC, TS, TP) and TIC were first determined in ten surface sediment samples from the Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea. According to the sediment quality guidelines and reference background values, most of the element contents that were studied were below the threshold levels, while the content of Ag exceeded significantly the hazardous levels in the most of the samples along the river - sea transect. The local anthropogenic and/or environmental sources of Ag within the region need special study. Aluminum and lithium normalization indicated some specific features in the abundance and distribution of the elements along the salinity gradient. The mean grain size of the sediments decreased from the river part to the bay part of the transect. Sedimentary TOC was relatively low (1-2 %) and showed independent distribution along the river - sea transect in relation to the other elements that were studied. Ca, Ba and Sr distribution showed some sporadic enrichment and were largely controlled by the TIC content in sediments. Sedimentary TP, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Na, K, Li, Co, Cs, Zn and V varied within the narrow range and tended to increase seaward. These elements are most likely controlled by the accumulation of their fine grained aluminosilicate host minerals and materials at sites determined by hydrodynamic conditions, i. e., in the sea floor depression. TS, As, Sn, Bi, U, Cd and Mo were relatively low in the sediments studied and tended to decrease seaward with the slight elevation in the intermediate part of the transect. These elements can be scavenged by and/or co-precipitated with the dissolved and particulate materials of the river discharge and further deposited on the river - sea geochemical barrier in the course of estuarine sedimentation. The distribution of Ni, Cr, Zr Cu, Pb, Sb, Hg and

  9. Efficient simulation of incompressible viscous flow over multi-element airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.; Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Kwak, Dochan

    1993-01-01

    The incompressible, viscous, turbulent flow over single and multi-element airfoils is numerically simulated in an efficient manner by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution algorithm employs the method of pseudo compressibility and utilizes an upwind differencing scheme for the convective fluxes, and an implicit line-relaxation scheme. The motivation for this work includes interest in studying high-lift take-off and landing configurations of various aircraft. In particular, accurate computation of lift and drag at various angles of attack up to stall is desired. Two different turbulence models are tested in computing the flow over an NACA 4412 airfoil; an accurate prediction of stall is obtained. The approach used for multi-element airfoils involves the use of multiple zones of structured grids fitted to each element. Two different approaches are compared; a patched system of grids, and an overlaid Chimera system of grids. Computational results are presented for two-element, three-element, and four-element airfoil configurations. Excellent agreement with experimental surface pressure coefficients is seen. The code converges in less than 200 iterations, requiring on the order of one minute of CPU time on a CRAY YMP per element in the airfoil configuration.

  10. Efficient simulation of incompressible viscous flow over multi-element airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.; Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Kwak, Dochan

    1992-01-01

    The incompressible, viscous, turbulent flow over single and multi-element airfoils is numerically simulated in an efficient manner by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The computer code uses the method of pseudo-compressibility with an upwind-differencing scheme for the convective fluxes and an implicit line-relaxation solution algorithm. The motivation for this work includes interest in studying the high-lift take-off and landing configurations of various aircraft. In particular, accurate computation of lift and drag at various angles of attack, up to stall, is desired. Two different turbulence models are tested in computing the flow over an NACA 4412 airfoil; an accurate prediction of stall is obtained. The approach used for multi-element airfoils involves the use of multiple zones of structured grids fitted to each element. Two different approaches are compared: a patched system of grids, and an overlaid Chimera system of grids. Computational results are presented for two-element, three-element, and four-element airfoil configurations. Excellent agreement with experimental surface pressure coefficients is seen. The code converges in less than 200 iterations, requiring on the order of one minute of CPU time (on a CRAY YMP) per element in the airfoil configuration.

  11. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  12. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOEpatents

    Lee, P.J.

    1994-10-11

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle. 10 figs.

  13. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle.

  14. Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

  15. Multielement plant tissue analysis using ICP spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T H; de Bang, T C; Laursen, K H; Pedas, P; Husted, S; Schjoerring, J K

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissue analysis is a valuable tool for evaluating the nutritional status and quality of crops and is widely used for scientific and commercial purposes. The majority of plant analyzes are now performed by techniques based on ICP spectrometry such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) or ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These techniques enable fast and accurate measurements of multielement profiles when combined with appropriate methods for sample preparation and digestion. This chapter presents state-of-the-art methods for digestion of plant tissues and subsequent analysis of their multielement composition by ICP spectrometry. Details on upcoming techniques, expected to gain importance within the field of multielement plant tissue analysis over the coming years, are also provided. Finally, attention is given to laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) for multielement bioimaging of plant tissues. The presentation of the methods covers instructions on all steps from sampling and sample preparation to data interpretation. PMID:23073880

  16. Multielement geochemistry of solid materials in geothermal systems and its applications. Part 1. Hot-water system at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bamford, R.W.; Christensen, O.D.; Capuano, R.M.

    1980-02-01

    Geochemical studies of the geothermal system at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, have led to development of chemical criteria for recognition of major features of the system and to a three-dimensional model for chemical zoning in the system. Based on this improved level of understanding several new or modified geochemical exploration and assessment techniques have been defined and are probably broadly applicable to evaluation of hot-water geothermal systems. The main purpose of this work was the development or adaptation of solids geochemical exploration techniques for use in the geothermal environment. (MHR)

  17. Multi-element probabilistic collocation method in high dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, Jasmine; Karniadakis, George Em

    2010-03-01

    We combine multi-element polynomial chaos with analysis of variance (ANOVA) functional decomposition to enhance the convergence rate of polynomial chaos in high dimensions and in problems with low stochastic regularity. Specifically, we employ the multi-element probabilistic collocation method MEPCM and so we refer to the new method as MEPCM-A. We investigate the dependence of the convergence of MEPCM-A on two decomposition parameters, the polynomial order {mu} and the effective dimension {nu}, with {nu}<=}{mu} for monotonic convergence of the method. We also employ MEPCM-A to obtain error bars for the piezometric head at the Hanford nuclear waste site under stochastic hydraulic conductivity conditions. Finally, we compare the cost of MEPCM-A against Monte Carlo in several hundred dimensions, and we find MEPCM-A to be more efficient for up to 600 dimensions for a specific multi-dimensional integration problem involving a discontinuous function.

  18. Recent Experiments Involving Few-Nucleon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, W.

    2014-08-01

    Recent experimental results are presented for reactions involving A = 3 to A = 6 nuclear systems. The emphasis is on unique data obtained at new experimental facilities. It is shown that the inertial confinement fusion facilities OMEGA and NIF provide a largely unexpected opportunity for experimental few-body physics to both obtain data of unprecedented quality and extend previous measurements to energies not accessible in the past. Whenever possible, data are compared to state-of-the-art theoretical calculations.

  19. Ocular Involvement in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Generali, Elena; Cantarini, Luca; Selmi, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Eye involvement represents a common finding in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome, seronegative spondyloarthropathy, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. The eye is a privileged immune site but commensal bacteria are found on the ocular surface. The eye injury may be inflammatory, vascular or infectious, as well as iatrogenic, as in the case of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, corticosteroids, and bisphosphonates. Manifestations may affect different components of the eye, with episcleritis involving the episclera, a thin layer of tissue covering the sclera; scleritis being an inflammation of the sclera potentially leading to blindness; keratitis, referring to corneal inflammation frequently associated with scleritis; and uveitis as the inflammation of the uvea, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid, subdivided into anterior, posterior, or panuveitis. As blindness may result from the eye involvement, clinicians should be aware of the possible manifestations and their management also independent of the ophthalmologist opinion as the therapeutic approach generally points to the underlying diseases. In some cases, the eye involvement may have a diagnostic implication, as for episcleritis in rheumatoid arthritis, or acute anterior uveitis in seronegative spondyloarthritis. Nonetheless, some conditions lack specificity, as in the case of dry eye which affects nearly 30 % of the general population. The aim of this review is to elucidate to non-ophthalmologists the major ocular complications of rheumatic diseases and their specific management and treatment options.

  20. Parasitoses with central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2014-10-01

    Most of the parasitoses manifest systemically, including the central nervous system (CNS). Among the most prevalent parasitoses in Central Europe (cysticercosis, toxocarosis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis), cerebral involvement is well recognized and part of the clinical presentation, which cannot be neglected. CNS involvement results from invasion of larvae of these parasites via the blood stream or by direct migration into the CNS. Most frequently larvae reside within the cerebral parenchyma, but sometimes also within the ventricles, in the meningeas within cerebral aneurysms, or in the parenchyma of the spinal cord. Depending on the stage of their development, they cause a local defect or more widespread damage, such as encephalitis, ventriculitis, ependymitis, arachnoiditis, meningitis, myelitis, polyradiculitis, mechanical obstruction of the arterial or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, or vasculitis with appropriate clinical presentations. These include epilepsy, headache, impaired consciousness, orientation, cognition, focal neurological motor, sensory, or vegetative deficits, or visual impairment. CNS involvement is diagnosed on the clinical presentation, the epidemiological background, blood and CSF investigations, imaging studies, and sometimes biopsy. Treatment is based on various antihelminthic agents and, occasionally, surgery. PMID:25297698

  1. Involvement of mast cells in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Sonosuke; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Sawamukai, Norifumi; Shimajiri, Shohei; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2010-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is characterized by tissue fibrosis, obliterative microangiopathy and immune abnormalities. The etiology of SSc is largely unknown and is known to be resistant to existing corticosteroid and immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, establishment of a treatment strategy especially for SSc patients with organ involvement is strongly desired. Mast cells are widely recognized as effector cells in allergic disorders and other IgE-mediated immune responses. However, recently, mast cells have become known to play a role in bridging innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Additionally, there is growing evidence of mast cell to be involved in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, and is expected as a novel therapeutic target. We describe here the role of mast cell in SSc pathology and suggest as a novel therapeutic target.

  2. Detecting False Positives in Multielement Designs: Implications for Brief Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Sara M.; Rapp, John T.; Henrickson, Marissa L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors assessed the extent to which multielement designs produced false positives using continuous duration recording (CDR) and interval recording with 10-s and 1-min interval sizes. Specifically, they created 6,000 graphs with multielement designs that varied in the number of data paths, and the number of data points per data path, using a…

  3. Central nervous system involvement in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Dinesh; Tesfaye, Solomon

    2006-12-01

    Diabetic complications result in much morbidity and mortality and considerable consumption of scarce medical resources. Thus, elucidation of the risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying diabetic complications is important. The effects of diabetes on the central nervous system (CNS) result in cognitive dysfunction and cerebrovascular disease. Treatment-related hypoglycemia also has CNS consequences. Advances in neuroimaging now provide greater insights into the structural and functional impact of diabetes on the CNS. Greater understanding of CNS involvement could lead to new strategies to prevent or reverse the damage caused by diabetes mellitus.

  4. Involvement of serotonin system in bullimia

    SciTech Connect

    Marazziti, D.; Macchi, E.; Rotondo, A.; Placidi, G.F.; Cassano, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Platelet /sup 3/H-imipramine binding was investigated in 8 patients affected by bulimia according to DSM III criteria, and in 7 health volunteers. The Bmax /+ -/SD (fmol/mg protein) was 356 /+ -/ 53 in patients, and 1144 /+ -/ 134 in controls. The Kd /+ -/ SD (nM) was 1.35 /+ -/ 0.44 in patients, and 1.90 /+ -/ 0.72 in controls. There was a significant difference in Bmax values in the two groups, whereas no significant difference was observed in Kd values. This study suggests the possible involvement of the indoleamine system in bullimia.

  5. Multielement detector for gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the results of a study to improve the capabilities of a gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma (GC- MIP) detector system, determine the feasibility of empirical formula determination for simple mixtures containing elements of interest to fossil fuel analysis and, subsequently, explore applications for analysis of the complex mixtures associated with fossil fuels. The results of this study indicate that the GC-MIP system is useful as a specific-element detector that provides excellent elemental specificity for a number of elements of interest to the analysis of fossil fuels. It has reasonably good sensitivity for carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and nickel, and better sensitivity for chlorine and fluorine. Sensitivity is poor for nitrogen and oxygen, however, probably because of undetected leaks or erosion of the plasma tube. The GC-MIP can also provide stoichiometric information about components of simple mixtures. If this powerful technique is to be available for complex mixtures, it will be necessary to greatly simplify the chromatograms by chemical fractionation. 38 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Recent results from a continuous wave stepped frequency GPR system using a new ground-coupled multi-element antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linford, Neil; Linford, Paul; Payne, Andy

    2016-04-01

    The recent availability of multi-channel GPR instrumentation has allowed high-speed acquisition of densely sampled data sets over unprecedented areas of coverage. Such instrumentation has been of particular interest for the mapping of near-surface archaeological remains where the ability to collect GPR data at very close sample spacings (<0.1m) can provide a unique insight to both image and assess the survival of historic assets at a landscape scale. This paper reviews initial results obtained with a 3d-Radar GeoScope MkIV continuous wave stepped frequency (CWSF) GPR system utilising both initial prototypes and production versions of a newly introduced ground coupled antenna array. Whilst this system originally utilised an air-coupled antenna array there remained some debate over the suitability of an air-coupled antenna for all site conditions, particularly where a conductive surface layer, typical of many archaeological sites in the UK, may impede the transfer of energy into the ground. Encouraging results obtained from an initial prototype ground-coupled antenna array led to the introduction of a full width 22 channel G1922 version in March 2014 for use with the MkIV GeoScope console, offering faster acquisition across a wider frequency bandwidth (60MHz to 3GHz) with a cross-line 0.075m spacing between the individual elements in the array. Field tests over the Roman remains at Silchester corroborated the results from the earlier prototype, demonstrating an increased depth of penetration at the site compared to the previous air-coupled array. Further field tests were conducted with the G1922 over a range of sites, including Roman villa sites, formal post-medieval garden remains and a medieval farmstead to assess the response of the ground-coupled antenna to more challenging site conditions, particularly through water saturated soils. A full production DXG1820 version of the antenna became available for field work in 2015 offering optimisation of the individual

  7. Respiratory system involvement in Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Kuo, Christin; Ananth, Amitha Lakshmi; Myers, Angela; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Stevenson, David A; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Hudgins, Louanne

    2016-07-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a multisystem disorder caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the HRAS proto-oncogene. Respiratory system complications have been reported in individuals with CS, but a comprehensive description of the full spectrum and incidence of respiratory symptoms in these patients is not available. Here, we report the clinical course of four CS patients with respiratory complications as a major cause of morbidity. Review of the literature identified 56 CS patients with descriptions of their neonatal course and 17 patients in childhood/adulthood. We found that in the neonatal period, respiratory complications are seen in approximately 78% of patients with transient respiratory distress reported in 45% of neonates. Other more specific respiratory diagnoses were reported in 62% of patients, the majority of which comprised disorders of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Symptoms of upper airway obstruction were reported in CS neonates but were more commonly diagnosed in childhood/adulthood (71%). Analysis of HRAS mutations and their respiratory phenotype revealed that the common p.Gly12Ser mutation is more often associated with transient respiratory distress and other respiratory diagnoses. Respiratory failure and dependence on mechanical ventilation occurs almost exclusively with rare mutations. In cases of prenatally diagnosed CS, the high incidence of respiratory complications in the neonatal period should prompt anticipatory guidance and development of a postnatal management plan. This may be important in cases involving rarer mutations. Furthermore, the high frequency of airway obstruction in CS patients suggests that otorhinolaryngological evaluation and sleep studies should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Modeling Systems Involving Interactions Between Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. B.

    2005-05-01

    When we think of numerical models, `simulation modeling' often comes to mind: The modeler strives to include as many of the processes operating in the system of interest, and in as much detail, as is practical. The goal is typically to make accurate quantitative predictions. However, numerical models can also play an explanatory role. The goal of explaining a poorly understood phenomenon is often best pursued with an `exploratory' model (Murray 2002, 2003), in which a modeler minimizes the processes included and the level of detail, to try to determine what mechanisms-and what aspects of those mechanisms-are essential. These strategies are closely associated with different approaches to modeling processes across temporal and spatial scales. Simulation models often involve `explicit numerical reductionism'-the direct representation of interactions at scales as small as possible. Parameterizing sub-grid-scale processes is often seen as an unfortunate necessity, to be avoided if possible. On the other hand, when devising an exploratory model, a top-down strategy is often employed; an effort is made to represent only the effects that much smaller-scale processes have on the scale of interest. This approach allows investigation of the interactions between the emergent variables and structures that most directly explain many complex behaviors. As a caricature, we don't investigate water-wave phenomena by simulating molecular collisions. In addition, basing a model on processes at much smaller scales than those of the phenomena of interest leads to the concern that model imperfections may propagate up through the scales; that if the small-scale processes are not treated very accurately, the key interactions that emerge at larger scales may not occur as they do in the natural system. However, this risk can be bypassed by basing a model directly on larger-scale interactions, and examining which of these interactions might cause a phenomenon. For this reason, it has been

  9. Simultaneous multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption measurements using a photodiode array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, S. L.; Chin, K. S.

    1994-05-01

    A photodiode array detector multichannel analyser system has been coupled to a graphite furnace atomizer and tested for simultaneous multielement atomic absorption analysis. Multielement hollow cathode lamps are used as light sources and spectral lines are dispersed through a spectrograph with three selectable gratings. Multiple transmitted spectra are recorded to simultaneously determine the atomic absorption profiles of the analyte elements during the atomization stage. Atomic absorbance of individual elements is obtained by integrating the respective peak areas of the appropriate time-resolved atomic absorption spectra. The obtained sensitivities for Ni-Co-Fe are within the same order of magnitude as those from conventional single element determinations using photomultiplier tube detection. The system has also been applied for simultaneous multielement flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) measurements and it has been demonstrated that background absorption can be readily corrected for both flame and graphite furnace AAS by a two-line method where non-atomic absorption lines can be chosen from the simultaneously recorded spectra.

  10. Flexible metabolism approach in modeling of multi-element closed ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltykov, Mikhail; Bartsev, Sergey

    Stoichiometric constraints usually are not considered in current ecological models. This approach allows describing ecosystems which are limited only by one biogenic element. However, it is obvious that in model of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) should be considered case with several biogenic elements. But it was shown that conventional ecological models can not describe this case correctly. The main reason of inapplicability of conventional models to multi-element case is "metabolism rigidity". It means that in terms of these models organisms should consume their nutrients in fixed proportion. Of course this is just a simplifying assumption and more realistic models should consider the probability of organisms to consume nutrients in non-fixed proportion. Such models may be named as "flexible metabolism" (FM) models in contrast with traditional "rigid metabolism" (RM) models. It was showed that FM-models allow to existing of multi-element closed ecosystems in contrast to RM-one. This work was devoted to investigation of properties of FM-models of multi-element closed ecosystems.

  11. Process Upsets Involving Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.; Perry, Jay; Wright, John; Bahr, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Paradoxically, trace contaminant control systems that suffer unexpected upsets and malfunctions can release hazardous gaseous contaminants into a spacecraft cabin atmosphere causing potentially serious toxicological problems. Trace contaminant control systems designed for spaceflight typically employ a combination of adsorption beds and catalytic oxidation reactors to remove organic and inorganic trace contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. Interestingly, the same design features and attributes which make these systems so effective for purifying a spacecraft's atmosphere can also make them susceptible to system upsets. Cabin conditions can be contributing causes of phenomena such as adsorbent "rollover" and catalyst poisoning can alter a systems performance and in some in stances release contamination into the cabin. Evidence of these phenomena has been observed both in flight and during ground-based tests. The following discussion describes specific instances of system upsets found in trace contaminant control systems, groups these specific upsets into general hazard classifications, and recommends ways to minimize these hazards.

  12. Involving the motor system in decision making.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Reto; König, Peter; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2004-02-01

    The control of behaviour is usually understood in terms of three distinct components: sensory processing, decision making and movement control. Recently, this view has been questioned on the basis of physiological and behavioural data, blurring the distinction between these three stages. This raises the question to what extent the motor system itself can contribute to the interpretation of behavioural situations. To investigate this question we use a neural model of sensory motor integration applied to a behaving mobile robot performing a navigation task. We show that the population response of the motor system provides a substrate for the categorization of behavioural situations. This categorization allows for the assessment of the complexity of a behavioural situation and regulates whether higher-level decision making is required to resolve behavioural conflicts. Our model lends credence to an emerging reconceptualization of behavioural control where the motor system can be considered as part of a high-level perceptual system.

  13. SMR Handbook: Hybrid Energy Systems Involving SMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale nuclear reactors are traditionally operated for a singular purpose: steady-state production of dispatchable baseload electricity that is distributed broadly on the electric grid. While this implementation is key to a sustainable, reliable energy grid, SMRs offer new opportunities for increased use of clean nuclear energy for both electric and thermal applications in more locations – while still accommodating the desire to support renewable production sources. This chapter considers a scenario in which renewable generation would be tightly coupled with the nuclear generation source – behind the grid – to meet the grid demand as an integrated energy system while simultaneously producing other commodities with the available thermal energy.

  14. A case of systemic polyarteritis nodosa involving bronchial artery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y J; Park, S S; Kim, S Y; Lee, J Y; Koo, H K; Yoon, H I

    2010-07-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis involving predominantly medium-sized muscular arteries. It commonly involves skin, kidney, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, and neurological system. But bronchial artery involvement of PAN is rarely identified. We report a case of PAN with initial presentation of hemoptysis. On admission, chest radiograph and chest CT angiography revealed no focus of bleeding. Angiography showed a bronchial artery aneurysm and multiple arterial aneurysms in both renal, hepatic, mesenteric and branches of small bowel arteries. These findings were compatible with the diagnosis of PAN. The patient was started on steroid and cyclophosphamide.

  15. Active control of multi-element rotor blade airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torok, Michael S. (Inventor); Moffitt, Robert C. (Inventor); Bagai, Ashish (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A multi-element rotor blade includes an individually controllable main element and fixed aerodynamic surface in an aerodynamically efficient location relative to the main element. The main element is controlled to locate the fixed aerodynamic surface in a position to increase lift and/or reduce drag upon the main element at various azimuthal positions during rotation.

  16. Detection of foreign body using fast thermoacoustic tomography with a multielement linear transducer array

    SciTech Connect

    Nie Liming; Xing Da; Yang Diwu; Zeng Lvming; Zhou Quan

    2007-04-23

    Current imaging modalities face challenges in clinical applications due to limitations in resolution or contrast. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging may provide a complementary modality for medical imaging, particularly for detecting foreign objects due to their different absorption of electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies. A thermoacoustic tomography system with a multielement linear transducer array was developed and used to detect foreign objects in tissue. Radiography and thermoacoustic images of objects with different electromagnetic properties, including glass, sand, and iron, were compared. The authors' results demonstrate that thermoacoustic imaging has the potential to become a fast method for surgical localization of occult foreign objects.

  17. Multi-Element Bioimaging of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Salt, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding of root function is central for the development of plants with more efficient nutrient uptake and translocation. We here present a method for multielement bioimaging at the cellular level in roots of the genetic model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using conventional protocols for microscopy, we observed that diffusible ions such as potassium and sodium were lost during sample dehydration. Thus, we developed a protocol that preserves ions in their native, cellular environment. Briefly, fresh roots are encapsulated in paraffin, cryo-sectioned, and freeze dried. Samples are finally analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, utilizing a specially designed internal standard procedure. The method can be further developed to maintain the native composition of proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA, making it attractive in combination with other omics techniques. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we analyzed a mutant of Arabidopsis unable to synthesize the metal chelator nicotianamine. The mutant accumulated substantially more zinc and manganese than the wild type in the tissues surrounding the vascular cylinder. For iron, the images looked completely different, with iron bound mainly in the epidermis of the wild-type plants but confined to the cortical cell walls of the mutant. The method offers the power of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to be fully employed, thereby providing a basis for detailed studies of ion transport in roots. Being applicable to Arabidopsis, the molecular and genetic approaches available in this system can now be fully exploited in order to gain a better mechanistic understanding of these processes. PMID:27566167

  18. Involving family systems in critical care nursing: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Leon, Ana M; Knapp, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The literature indicates that involvement of families in critical care settings is effective in meeting the needs of families and patients during a medical crisis. This article presents basic concepts from family systems theory, including cultural considerations useful in developing nursing care plans that integrate family involvement in the care of critically ill patients. PMID:18953193

  19. The Role of Involvement in Learning Management System Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klobas, Jane E.; McGill, Tanya J.

    2010-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMS) have been adopted by the majority of higher education institutions and research that explores the factors that influence the success of LMS is needed. This paper investigates the roles of student and instructor involvement in LMS success, using the DeLone and McLean (2003) model of information systems success as a…

  20. ANCA negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with systemic involvement.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, K; Ramakrishnan, M; Sah, A K; Gowtham, S; Ajeshkumar, R N

    2010-01-01

    Systemic vasculitides (SV) are a group of diseases with multi system involvement and varied clinical presentation. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) testing has high sensitivity and specificity for SV. We describe the clinical course of four patients who had pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with systemic involvement without serological ANCA positivity; they were followed up for a cumulative 55 patient months. The mean Birmingham vasculitis score score was 23. All four had systemic symptoms with arthralgias and fever (100%). Neurological manifestations were seen in two patients (66%). Accelerated hypertension was seen in one. One patient had pulmonary renal syndrome. Renal manifestation was characterized by nephrotic range of proteinuria with glomerular hematuria in all (100%) and severe renal failure requiring dialysis in three (66%). At admission the mean blood urea was 146 +/- 19 mg% and mean serum creatinine was 5.6 +/- 1.9 mg%. Renal biopsy revealed focal proliferative glomerulonephritis with crescents only in 20-30% of glomeruli. There was significant chronic interstitial involvement in two patients (66%). Therapy with pulse steroids, cyclophosphamide, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was effective in three patients while one died with lung hemorrhage. In conclusion, majority of patients with ANCA negative pauci-immune glomerulonephritis have multi-system involvement at admission. Renal biopsy is characterized by focal proliferative lesions with crescents and significant chronic interstitial fibrosis. Immunosuppressive drugs in the form of corticosteroids, MMF and cyclophosphamide bring about marked renal recovery in most patients. PMID:20535271

  1. Involvement of the orexin system in sympathetic nerve regulation.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Manabu; Ohba, Takayoshi; Kushikata, Testuya; Niwa, Hidetoshi; Kurose, Akira; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ono, Kyoichi; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2015-05-15

    Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a secreted neuropeptide implicated in the regulation of sleep and food intake. In the present study, we examined the importance of orexin in regulation of the sympathetic nervous system using an orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic (OXTg) rat, which has a minimal number of orexin neurons. RT-PCR analysis identified expression of prepro-orexin and orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG), and expression of another receptor (OX2R) was marginal in the wild-type rat. The orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic rat showed increased expression of OX1R and OX2R, whereas expression of prepro-orexin was undetectable, suggesting a compensatory increase in both receptors. In the ECG recording (R-R interval), orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic rats showed decreased responsiveness to the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol. Furthermore, OXTg rats had deteriorated R-R interval regulation, indicating involvement of the orexin system in sympathetic nerve regulation. This was accompanied by decreased baroreflex and responsiveness to β-adrenergic blocker in blood pressure recording, also suggesting involvement of the orexin system in sympathetic nerve regulation. Histological examination revealed hypotrophic changes in the transgenic heart, suggesting involvement of the orexin system in cardiac development. Taken together, our present results indicate involvement of the orexin system in sympathetic nerve control.

  2. Systemic mastocytosis presenting with gastrointestinal, bone and skin involvement.

    PubMed

    Rosignuolo, Maria; Muscianese, Marta; Pranteda, Guglielmo

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is often the first imaging study performed in patient with abdominal pain or vague symptoms related to the gastrointestinal tract. To this end, it has been demonstrated that transabdominal sonography achieves good to excellent results in potential bowel disorders; especially, if ultrasonography findings are framed in the context of clinical information. Systemic mastocytosis is not a common disease and it usually involves skin, gastrointestinal tract and bone. It results from a clonal neoplastic proliferation of abnormal mast cells and clinically it can ranges from 'asymptomatic' with normal life expectancy to 'highly aggressive'. Symptoms are caused by the release of mast cells mediators, such as histamine, and by the increase bulk of mast cells in the tissue. We present herein a case of systemic mastocytosis presenting with abdominal symptomatology due to thickened colonic involvement showed by US associated with bone and skin involvement.

  3. Gastric and enteric involvement in progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Ellen C

    2008-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is a chronic multisystem disease characterized by excess deposition of connective tissue in skin and internal organs, associated with microvasculature changes and immunologic abnormalities. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract may occur in 2 stages, a neuropathic disorder followed by a myopathy. Gastric emptying is delayed in 10% to 75% of patients and correlates with symptoms of early satiety, bloating, and emesis. Compliance of the fundus is increased although perception of fullness is normal. Myoelectric abnormalities have been found in some studies. Treatments include metoclopramide, cisapride, and erythromycin. Bleeding from telangiectasias and watermelon stomach is treated endoscopically. Small bowel involvement in PSS occurs in 17% to 57% of patients. The migrating motor complexes are reduced or absent, predisposing to bacterial overgrowth. Malabsorption may also be due to pancreatic insufficiency. Barium enemas demonstrate pancolonic involvement in 10% to 50% of patients with PSS. Wide-mouthed diverticuli, involving all layers of the intestinal wall, are characteristic. Pseudoobstruction may respond to octreotide or prucalopride therapy. Complications include pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis, stercoral ulcerations, and perforation. Fecal incontinence may be due to dysfunction of the internal anal sphincter, a smooth muscle responsible for most of the resting anal sphincter pressure. Anal manometry may show a reduction or loss of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex. Treatments include biofeedback, sacral nerve stimulation, and surgery. PSS involves the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. Studies are needed to define effective treatments in these diseases, which cause great morbidity.

  4. Systems engineering and integration processes involved with manned mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, Eugene F.; Kraft, Christopher C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss three mission operations functions that are illustrative of the key principles of operations SE&I and of the processes and products involved. The flight systems process was selected to illustrate the role of the systems product line in developing the depth and cross disciplinary skills needed for SE&I and providing the foundation for dialogue between participating elements. FDDD was selected to illustrate the need for a structured process to assure that SE&I provides complete and accurate results that consistently support program needs. The flight director's role in mission operations was selected to illustrate the complexity of the risk/gain tradeoffs involved in the development of the flight techniques and flight rules process as well as the absolute importance of the leadership role in developing the technical, operational, and political trades.

  5. Multi-element stochastic spectral projection for high quantile estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Jordan; Garnier, Josselin

    2013-06-01

    We investigate quantile estimation by multi-element generalized Polynomial Chaos (gPC) metamodel where the exact numerical model is approximated by complementary metamodels in overlapping domains that mimic the model's exact response. The gPC metamodel is constructed by the non-intrusive stochastic spectral projection approach and function evaluation on the gPC metamodel can be considered as essentially free. Thus, large number of Monte Carlo samples from the metamodel can be used to estimate α-quantile, for moderate values of α. As the gPC metamodel is an expansion about the means of the inputs, its accuracy may worsen away from these mean values where the extreme events may occur. By increasing the approximation accuracy of the metamodel, we may eventually improve accuracy of quantile estimation but it is very expensive. A multi-element approach is therefore proposed by combining a global metamodel in the standard normal space with supplementary local metamodels constructed in bounded domains about the design points corresponding to the extreme events. To improve the accuracy and to minimize the sampling cost, sparse-tensor and anisotropic-tensor quadratures are tested in addition to the full-tensor Gauss quadrature in the construction of local metamodels; different bounds of the gPC expansion are also examined. The global and local metamodels are combined in the multi-element gPC (MEgPC) approach and it is shown that MEgPC can be more accurate than Monte Carlo or importance sampling methods for high quantile estimations for input dimensions roughly below N=8, a limit that is very much case- and α-dependent.

  6. A high speed networked signal processing platform for multi-element radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Peeyush; Subrahmanya, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    A new architecture is presented for a Networked Signal Processing System (NSPS) suitable for handling the real-time signal processing of multi-element radio telescopes. In this system, a multi-element radio telescope is viewed as an application of a multi-sensor, data fusion problem which can be decomposed into a general set of computing and network components for which a practical and scalable architecture is enabled by current technology. The need for such a system arose in the context of an ongoing program for reconfiguring the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) as a programmable 264-element array, which will enable several new observing capabilities for large scale surveys on this mature telescope. For this application, it is necessary to manage, route and combine large volumes of data whose real-time collation requires large I/O bandwidths to be sustained. Since these are general requirements of many multi-sensor fusion applications, we first describe the basic architecture of the NSPS in terms of a Fusion Tree before elaborating on its application for the ORT. The paper addresses issues relating to high speed distributed data acquisition, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based peer-to-peer networks supporting significant on-the fly processing while routing, and providing a last mile interface to a typical commodity network like Gigabit Ethernet. The system is fundamentally a pair of two co-operative networks, among which one is part of a commodity high performance computer cluster and the other is based on Commercial-Off The-Shelf (COTS) technology with support from software/firmware components in the public domain.

  7. Informational analysis involving application of complex information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupak, Clébia; Vanti, Adolfo Alberto; Balloni, Antonio José; Espin, Rafael

    The aim of the present research is performing an informal analysis for internal audit involving the application of complex information system based on fuzzy logic. The same has been applied in internal audit involving the integration of the accounting field into the information systems field. The technological advancements can provide improvements to the work performed by the internal audit. Thus we aim to find, in the complex information systems, priorities for the work of internal audit of a high importance Private Institution of Higher Education. The applied method is quali-quantitative, as from the definition of strategic linguistic variables it was possible to transform them into quantitative with the matrix intersection. By means of a case study, where data were collected via interview with the Administrative Pro-Rector, who takes part at the elaboration of the strategic planning of the institution, it was possible to infer analysis concerning points which must be prioritized at the internal audit work. We emphasize that the priorities were identified when processed in a system (of academic use). From the study we can conclude that, starting from these information systems, audit can identify priorities on its work program. Along with plans and strategic objectives of the enterprise, the internal auditor can define operational procedures to work in favor of the attainment of the objectives of the organization.

  8. CFD Methods and Tools for Multi-Element Airfoil Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.; George, Michael W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This lecture will discuss the computational tools currently available for high-lift multi-element airfoil analysis. It will present an overview of a number of different numerical approaches, their current capabilities, short-comings, and computational costs. The lecture will be limited to viscous methods, including inviscid/boundary layer coupling methods, and incompressible and compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods. Both structured and unstructured grid generation approaches will be presented. Two different structured grid procedures are outlined, one which uses multi-block patched grids, the other uses overset chimera grids. Turbulence and transition modeling will be discussed.

  9. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  10. Analysis of a High-Lift Multi-Element Airfoil using a Navier-Stokes Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Mark E.

    1995-01-01

    A thin-layer Navier-Stokes code, CFL3D, was utilized to compute the flow over a high-lift multi-element airfoil. This study was conducted to improve the prediction of high-lift flowfields using various turbulence models and improved glidding techniques. An overset Chimera grid system is used to model the three element airfoil geometry. The effects of wind tunnel wall modeling, changes to the grid density and distribution, and embedded grids are discussed. Computed pressure and lift coefficients using Spalart-Allmaras, Baldwin-Barth, and Menter's kappa-omega - Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models are compared with experimental data. The ability of CFL3D to predict the effects on lift coefficient due to changes in Reynolds number changes is also discussed.

  11. Counter-countermeasure identification based on multi-element dual band infrared detector.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Sun, Weiguo; Chen, Hongxu; Si, Junjie

    2013-07-20

    An infrared (IR) dual band multi-element detector with the abilities of dual band IR counter-countermeasure (IRCCM) and spatial filtering is presented for effective target detection in a complex tactical environment. The detection elements of the detector are specially arranged like a conventional reticle pattern. With special design, the ratio of radiation intensity from two IR bands can be calculated to distinguish the target from the IR target-flare mixed signal and the two detection bands use a common aperture in the seeker. Without a reticle in the optical system of the IR seeker, the dual band detector can still perform spatial filtering to eliminate background noise effectively. The design details of the detector are presented. The performance of the detector's dual band IRCCM and spatial filtering are analyzed. Simulation results are presented verifying validity of the presented method. PMID:23872767

  12. Health care for youth involved with the correctional system.

    PubMed

    Perry, Raymond C W; Morris, Robert E

    2014-09-01

    Adolescents with involvement in the correctional system have significant health risks and needs. Professional guidelines and policies related to health services in correctional settings can help health care providers who work in youth detention facilities and those who see youth for follow-up care after incarceration. Several challenges exist to providing care in detention facilities, but overcoming these barriers to optimally serve youth is critical. When youth are released to their homes, community providers must understand the extent of care offered in detention facilities, the unique considerations for youth on probation, and the aspects of follow-up care that should be addressed. PMID:25124213

  13. Understanding gesture: Is the listener’s motor system involved?

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Raedy M.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Beilock, Sian L.

    2013-01-01

    Listeners are able to glean information from the gestures that speakers produce, seemingly without conscious awareness. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Research on human action understanding shows that perceiving another’s actions results in automatic activation of the motor system in the observer, which then affects the observer’s understanding of the actor’s goals. We ask here whether perceiving another’s gesture can similarly result in automatic activation of the motor system in the observer. In Experiment 1, we first establish a new procedure that uses listener response times to study how gesture impacts sentence comprehension. In Experiment 2, we use this procedure, in conjunction with a secondary motor task, to investigate whether the listener’s motor system is involved in this process. We show that moving arms and hands (but not legs and feet) interferes with the listener’s ability to use information conveyed in a speaker’s hand gestures. Our data thus suggest that understanding gesture relies, at least in part, on the listener’s own motor system. PMID:23565671

  14. A severe case of systemic lupus erythematosus with cerebral involvement.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, M; Seidel, W; Mende, L; Petros, S; Engelmann, L

    2004-11-01

    We describe an 18-year-old girl who presented with severe systemic lupus erythematosus with multiple organ involvement. The disease was further complicated by recurrent seizures and intracerebral left parieto-occipital bleeding that required neurosurgical treatment. Postoperative rebleeding occurred due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and platelet dysfunction. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome was suspected, but could not be confirmed during follow-up. Additional treatment with plasmapheresis and intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide in combination with corticosteroids was started. Liquor drainage via a ventriculo-peritoneal (vp)-shunt was necessary because of a hydrocephalus malresorptivus. The patient's recovery was slow and incomplete (cachexia and amaurosis persisted). Follow-up was further complicated by an intraperitoneal vp-shunt cyst, which was initially treated conservatively, but finally had to be revised operatively.

  15. Use of multi-element beta dosimeters for measuring dose rates in the TMI-2 containment building

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, R I; Endres, G W.R.; Rathbun, L A

    1983-09-01

    The use of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) for beta dosimetry has traditionally involved inaccuracies due to the energy-dependent response of the TLDs. In order to correct for the beta energy spectrum, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL - operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) have developed a dosimeter using TLDs under a number of different thickness of aluminum shields. The PNL multi-element beta dosimeter has been used in four-element and seven-element configurations. Design considerations, analysis procedures, quality assurance, and error determinations for the dosimeters are described in this report. The methods of data analysis used for converting TLD response to dose are also described. These multi-element dosimeters have been used to measure beta and gamma doses resulting from radioactive contaminants in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 containment building. Over 100 dosimeters have been used in three sets of experiments at a number of locations in the building. This report documents the experiments and presents the doses evaluated by the dosimeters.

  16. Theory and Experiment of Multielement Airfoils: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czerwiec, Ryan; Edwards, J. R.; Rumsey, C. L.; Hassan, H. A.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed comparison of computed and measured pressure distributions, velocity profiles, transition onset, and Reynolds shear stresses for multi-element airfoils is presented. It is shown that the transitional k-zeta model, which is implemented into CFL3D, does a good job of predicting pressure distributions, transition onset, and velocity profiles with the exception of velocities in the slat wake region. Considering the fact that the hot wire used was not fine enough to resolve Reynolds stresses in the boundary layer, comparisons of turbulence stresses varied from good to fair. It is suggested that the effects of unsteadiness be thoroughly evaluated before more complicated transition/turbulence models are used. Further, it is concluded that the present work presents a viable and economical method for calculating laminar/transitional/turbuient flows over complex shapes without user interface.

  17. Recent Turbulence Model Advances Applied to Multielement Airfoil Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    A one-equation linear turbulence model and a two-equation nonlinear explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) are applied to the flow over a multielement airfoil. The effect of the K-epsilon and K-omega forms of the two-equation model are explored, and the K-epsilon form is shown to be deficient in the wall-bounded regions of adverse pressure gradient flows. A new K-omega form of EASM is introduced. Nonlinear terms present in EASM are shown to improve predictions of turbulent shear stress behind the trailing edge of the main element and near midflap. Curvature corrections are applied to both the one- and two-equation turbulence models and yield only relatively small local differences in the flap region, where the flow field undergoes the greatest curvature. Predictions of maximum lift are essentially unaffected by the turbulence model variations studied.

  18. Aggression proneness: Transdiagnostic processes involving negative valence and cognitive systems.

    PubMed

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in persons with various mental health problems and has been studied from the perspectives of neuroscience and psychophysiology. The present research reviews some of the extant experimental literature to help clarify the interplay between domains of functioning implicated in aggression proneness. We then convey a process-oriented model that elucidates how the interplay of the Negative Valence and Cognitive System domains of NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) helps explain aggression proneness, particularly reactive aggression. Finally, we report on a study involving event-related potential (ERP) indices of emotional and inhibitory control processing during an emotional-linguistic go/no-go task among 67 individuals with histories of violence and criminal offending (30% female, 44% African-American) who reported on their aggressive tendencies using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results provide evidence that tendencies toward angry and aggressive behavior relate to reduced inhibitory control processing (no-go P3) specifically during relevant threat-word blocks, suggesting deterioration of cognitive control by acute or sustained threat sensitivity. These findings highlight the value of ERP methodologies for clarifying the interplay of Negative Valence and Cognitive System processes in aggression proneness.

  19. Systemic inflammatory response and neuromuscular involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ching-Hua; Allen, Kezia; Oei, Felicia; Leoni, Emanuela; Kuhle, Jens; Tree, Timothy; Fratta, Pietro; Sharma, Nikhil; Sidle, Katie; Howard, Robin; Orrell, Richard; Fish, Mark; Greensmith, Linda; Pearce, Neil; Gallo, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the combined blood expression of neuromuscular and inflammatory biomarkers as predictors of disease progression and prognosis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: Logistic regression adjusted for markers of the systemic inflammatory state and principal component analysis were carried out on plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK), ferritin, and 11 cytokines measured in 95 patients with ALS and 88 healthy controls. Levels of circulating biomarkers were used to study survival by Cox regression analysis and correlated with disease progression and neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels available from a previous study. Cytokines expression was also tested in blood samples longitudinally collected for up to 4 years from 59 patients with ALS. Results: Significantly higher levels of CK, ferritin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–α, and interleukin (IL)–1β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 and lower levels of interferon (IFN)–γ were found in plasma samples from patients with ALS compared to controls. IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were the most highly regulated markers when all explanatory variables were jointly analyzed. High ferritin and IL-2 levels were predictors of poor survival. IL-5 levels were positively correlated with CK, as was TNF-α with NfL. IL-6 was strongly associated with CRP levels and was the only marker showing increasing expression towards end-stage disease in the longitudinal analysis. Conclusions: Neuromuscular pathology in ALS involves the systemic regulation of inflammatory markers mostly active on T-cell immune responses. Disease stratification based on the prognostic value of circulating inflammatory markers could improve clinical trials design in ALS. PMID:27308305

  20. Endogenous nociceptin system involvement in stress responses and anxiety behavior.

    PubMed

    Fulford, Allison Jane

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underpinning stress-related behavior and dysfunctional events leading to the expression of neuropsychiatric disorders remain incompletely understood. Novel candidates involved in the neuromodulation of stress, mediated both peripherally and centrally, provide opportunities for improved understanding of the neurobiological basis of stress disorders and may represent targets for novel therapeutic development. This chapter provides an overview of the mechanisms by which the opioid-related peptide, nociceptin, regulates the neuroendocrine stress response and stress-related behavior. In our research, we have employed nociceptin receptor antagonists to investigate endogenous nociceptin function in tonic control over stress-induced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Nociceptin demonstrates a wide range of functions, including modulation of psychological and inflammatory stress responses, modulation of neurotransmitter release, immune homeostasis, in addition to anxiety and cognitive behaviors. Greater appreciation of the complexity of limbic-hypothalamic neuronal networks, together with attention toward gender differences and the roles of steroid hormones, provides an opportunity for deeper understanding of the importance of the nociceptin system in the context of the neurobiology of stress and behavior.

  1. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in periodontal healing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozono, Sayaka; Matsuyama, Takashi; Biwasa, Kamal Krishna; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Nakajima, Yumiko; Yoshimoto, Takehiko; Yonamine, Yutaka; Kadomatsu, Hideshi; Tancharoen, Salunya; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2010-04-16

    Endocannabinoids including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are important lipid mediators for immunosuppressive effects and for appropriate homeostasis via their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid (CB) receptors in mammalian organs and tissues, and may be involved in wound healing in some organs. The physiological roles of endocannabinoids in periodontal healing remain unknown. We observed upregulation of the expression of CB1/CB2 receptors localized on fibroblasts and macrophage-like cells in granulation tissue during wound healing in a wound-healing model in rats, as well as an increase in AEA levels in gingival crevicular fluid after periodontal surgery in human patients with periodontitis. In-vitro, the proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by AEA was significantly attenuated by AM251 and AM630, which are selective antagonists of CB1 and CB2, respectively. CP55940 (CB1/CB2 agonist) induced phosphorylation of the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), and Akt in HGFs. Wound closure by CP55940 in an in-vitro scratch assay was significantly suppressed by inhibitors of MAP kinase kinase (MEK), p38MAPK, and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K). These findings suggest that endocannabinoid system may have an important role in periodontal healing.

  2. Student Involvement in the Egyptian Quality Assurance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elassy, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the extent and the quality of student involvement in the quality assurance process (QAP) in Egyptian higher education institutions (HEIs). Design/methodology/approach: In this study, two qualitative methods were used to explore the extent and the quality of student involvement; these were focus groups…

  3. A modified Shockley equation taking into account the multi-element nature of light emitting diodes based on nanowire ensembles.

    PubMed

    Musolino, M; Tahraoui, A; Treeck, D van; Geelhaar, L; Riechert, H

    2016-07-01

    In this work we study how the multi-element nature of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on nanowire (NW) ensembles influences their current voltage (I-V) characteristics. We systematically address critical issues of the fabrication process that can result in significant fluctuations of the electrical properties among the individual NWs in such LEDs, paying particular attention to the planarization step. Electroluminescence (EL) maps acquired for two nominally identical NW-LEDs reveal that small processing variations can result in a large difference in the number of individual nano-devices emitting EL. The lower number of EL spots in one of the LEDs is caused by its inhomogeneous electrical properties. The I-V characteristics of this LED cannot be described well by the classical Shockley model. We are able to take into account the multi-element nature of such LEDs and fit the I-V characteristics in the forward bias regime by employing an ad hoc adjusted version of the Shockley equation. More specifically, we introduce a bias dependence of the ideality factor. The basic considerations of our model should remain valid also for other types of devices based on ensembles of interconnected p-n junctions with inhomogeneous electrical properties, regardless of the employed material system.

  4. A modified Shockley equation taking into account the multi-element nature of light emitting diodes based on nanowire ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolino, M.; Tahraoui, A.; van Treeck, D.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we study how the multi-element nature of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on nanowire (NW) ensembles influences their current voltage (I-V) characteristics. We systematically address critical issues of the fabrication process that can result in significant fluctuations of the electrical properties among the individual NWs in such LEDs, paying particular attention to the planarization step. Electroluminescence (EL) maps acquired for two nominally identical NW-LEDs reveal that small processing variations can result in a large difference in the number of individual nano-devices emitting EL. The lower number of EL spots in one of the LEDs is caused by its inhomogeneous electrical properties. The I-V characteristics of this LED cannot be described well by the classical Shockley model. We are able to take into account the multi-element nature of such LEDs and fit the I-V characteristics in the forward bias regime by employing an ad hoc adjusted version of the Shockley equation. More specifically, we introduce a bias dependence of the ideality factor. The basic considerations of our model should remain valid also for other types of devices based on ensembles of interconnected p-n junctions with inhomogeneous electrical properties, regardless of the employed material system.

  5. Geoethical issues involved in Tsunami Warning System concepts and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is to mitigate the effect of an incoming tsunami by alerting coastal population early enough to allow people to evacuate safely from inundation zones. Though this representation might seem oversimplified, nonetheless, achieving successfully this goal requires a positive synergy of geoscience, communication, emergency management, technology, education, social sciences, politics. Geoethical issues arise always when there is an interaction between geoscience and society, and TWS is a paradigmatic case where interaction is very strong and is made critical because a) the formulation of the tsunami alert has to be made in a time as short as possible and therefore on uncertain data, and b) any evaluation error (underestimation or overestimation) can lead to serious (and sometimes catastrophic) consequences involving wide areas and a large amount of population. From the geoethical point of view three issues are critical: how to (i) combine forecasts and uncertainties reasonably and usefully, (ii) cope and possibly solve the dilemma whether it is better over-alerting or under-alerting population and (iii) deal with responsibility and liability of geoscientists, TWS operators, emergency operators and coastal population. The discussion will be based on the experience of the Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Center (HL-NTWC, Greece), which operates on 24/7 basis as a special unit of the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, and acts also as Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) in the framework of the North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) of the IOC/UNESCO. Since August 2012, when HL-NTWC was officially declared as operational, 14 tsunami warning messages have been disseminated to a large number of subscribers after strong submarine earthquakes occurring in Greece and elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. It is recognized that the alerting process

  6. Grey-scale conversion X-ray mapping by EDS of multielement and multiphase layered microstructures.

    PubMed

    Dahl, K V; Hald, J; Horsewell, A

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for grey-scale conversion of energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray maps has been developed, which is particularly useful for the plotting of line composition profiles across modified layered engineering surfaces. The method involves (a) the collection of grey-scale elemental maps, (b) the calculation of mean grey-scale levels along strips parallel to the layered microstructure and (c) the conversion of grey-scale line profiles into composition line profiles. As an example of the grey-scale conversion method and its advantages for multielement and multiphase layered microstructures, the procedure has been applied to a layered microstructure that results from a plasma-sprayed metallic MCrAlY coating onto a nickel-superalloy turbine blade. As a further demonstration of the accuracy and amount of compositional data that can be obtained with this procedure, measured compositional profiles have been obtained for several long-term isothermal heat treatments in which significant interdiffusion has taken place. The resulting composition profiles have greatly improved counting statistics compared to traditional point-by-point scans for the same scanning electron microscope time and may be considered as a rapid alternative to energy dispersive spectroscopy spectrum imaging. The composition profiles obtained may be conveniently compared with results of multicomponent thermodynamic modelling of interdiffusion. PMID:17286693

  7. New constraints on the relationship between 26Al and oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic variation in the early Solar System from a multielement isotopic study of spinel-hibonite inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kööp, Levke; Nakashima, Daisuke; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.; Tenner, Travis J.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Park, Changkun; Davis, Andrew M.

    2016-07-01

    We report oxygen, calcium, titanium and 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics for spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs), a class of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) common in CM chondrites. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses of 33 SHIBs and four SHIB-related objects obtained with high spatial resolution demonstrate that these CAIs have a uniform Δ17O value of approximately -23‰, similar to many other mineralogically pristine CAIs from unmetamorphosed chondrites (e.g., CR, CV, and Acfer 094). Five SHIBs studied for calcium and titanium isotopes have no resolvable anomalies beyond 3σ uncertainties. This suggests that nucleosynthetic anomalies in the refractory elements had been significantly diluted in the environment where SHIBs with uniform Δ17O formed. We established internal 26Al-26Mg isochrons for eight SHIBs and found that seven of these formed with uniformly high levels of 26Al (a multi-CAI mineral isochron yields an initial 26Al/27Al ratio of ∼4.8 × 10-5), but one SHIB has a smaller initial 26Al/27Al of ∼ 2.5 × 10-5, indicating variation in 26Al/27Al ratios when SHIBs formed. The uniform calcium, titanium and oxygen isotopic characteristics found in SHIBs with both high and low initial 26Al/27Al ratios allow for two interpretations. (1) If subcanonical initial 26Al/27Al ratios in SHIBs are due to early formation, as suggested by Liu et al. (2012), our data would indicate that the CAI formation region had achieved a high degree of isotopic homogeneity in oxygen and refractory elements before a homogeneous distribution of 26Al was achieved. (2) Alternatively, if subcanonical ratios were the result of 26Al-26Mg system resetting, the clustering of SHIBs at a Δ17O value of ∼-23‰ would imply that a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir existed in the nebula until at least ∼0.7 Ma after the formation of the majority of CAIs.

  8. Compact electrostatic beam optics for multi-element focused ion beams: simulation and experiments.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jose V; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic beam optics for a multi-element focused ion beam (MEFIB) system comprising of a microwave multicusp plasma (ion) source is designed with the help of two widely known and commercially available beam simulation codes: AXCEL-INP and SIMION. The input parameters to the simulations are obtained from experiments carried out in the system. A single and a double Einzel lens system (ELS) with and without beam limiting apertures (S) have been investigated. For a 1 mm beam at the plasma electrode aperture, the rms emittance of the focused ion beam is found to reduce from ∼0.9 mm mrad for single ELS to ∼0.5 mm mrad for a double ELS, when S of 0.5 mm aperture size is employed. The emittance can be further improved to ∼0.1 mm mrad by maintaining S at ground potential, leading to reduction in beam spot size (∼10 μm). The double ELS design is optimized for different electrode geometrical parameters with tolerances of ±1 mm in electrode thickness, electrode aperture, inter electrode distance, and ±1° in electrode angle, providing a robust design. Experimental results obtained with the double ELS for the focused beam current and spot size, agree reasonably well with the simulations.

  9. Compact electrostatic beam optics for multi-element focused ion beams: Simulation and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jose V.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2011-01-15

    Electrostatic beam optics for a multi-element focused ion beam (MEFIB) system comprising of a microwave multicusp plasma (ion) source is designed with the help of two widely known and commercially available beam simulation codes: AXCEL-INP and SIMION. The input parameters to the simulations are obtained from experiments carried out in the system. A single and a double Einzel lens system (ELS) with and without beam limiting apertures (S) have been investigated. For a 1 mm beam at the plasma electrode aperture, the rms emittance of the focused ion beam is found to reduce from {approx}0.9 mm mrad for single ELS to {approx}0.5 mm mrad for a double ELS, when S of 0.5 mm aperture size is employed. The emittance can be further improved to {approx}0.1 mm mrad by maintaining S at ground potential, leading to reduction in beam spot size ({approx}10 {mu}m). The double ELS design is optimized for different electrode geometrical parameters with tolerances of {+-}1 mm in electrode thickness, electrode aperture, inter electrode distance, and {+-}1{sup o} in electrode angle, providing a robust design. Experimental results obtained with the double ELS for the focused beam current and spot size, agree reasonably well with the simulations.

  10. Traditional Male Ideology and Service System Involvement among Drug-Involved Men Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies--thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV--affects help-seeking behavior. This study also…

  11. Technology-Related Involvement: The Effect of the MASHOV System on Parent Involvement in Israeli Junior Highs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Yavich, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine differences in parental involvement between two high schools that use the MASHOV program (an online learning management system) and one high school where parents receive updates regarding their children in other ways, with attention to parents' background variables: sex, income, and schooling. The study…

  12. Fetal MRI on a multi-element digital coil platform.

    PubMed

    Serai, Suraj D; Merrow, Arnold C; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2013-09-01

    Fetal MRI has an increasing list of indications and is most commonly employed when anomalies detected by prenatal ultrasonography require further characterization. This may occur when sonography is technically challenging or where specific MRI findings will determine pre- and postnatal management, including critical in utero and/or peripartum interventions. In these circumstances, there are high expectations for MRI to sort out complex diagnostic dilemmas through exquisite anatomical imaging that fetal surgeons and obstetricians can comprehend and relay to their patients. These expectations, in light of evolving clinical innovations, continue to drive advances in fetal imaging. Increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is fundamental to improving MR image quality, and proper coil selection is a key component of this pursuit. Since the introduction of parallel imaging techniques, the numbers of elements in phased-array coils have been continuously increased to achieve high SNR and shorter scan times. With the invention of a digital coil platform, it is now possible to connect combinations of multiple coil elements to enhance SNR beyond the capabilities of the adult eight-channel torso-coil routinely used in fetal imaging. This paper describes the application of multi-element radiofrequency coils on a digital broadband imaging platform with unique coil combinations to perform dedicated fetal MRI. PMID:23649206

  13. Spectral response of multi-element silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Rossington, C.S.; Chapman, K.

    1997-04-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon Si(Li) and high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. One of the major differences between the segmented Si detectors and the commercially available single-element Si(Li) or HPGe detectors is that hundreds of elements can be fabricated on a single Si substrate using standard silicon processing technologies. The segmentation of the detector substrate into many small elements results in very low noise performance at or near, room temperature, and the count rate of the detector is increased many-fold due to the multiplication in the total number of detectors. Traditionally, a single channel of detector with electronics can handle {approximately}100 kHz count rates while maintaining good energy resolution; the segmented detectors can operate at greater than MHz count rates merely due to the multiplication in the number of channels. One of the most critical aspects in the development of the segmented detectors is characterizing the charge sharing and charge loss that occur between the individual detector strips, and determining how these affect the spectral response of the detectors.

  14. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Coon, D.D.; Elliott, J.P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins projecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array. 5 figs.

  15. Modular multi-element high energy particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Coon, Darryl D.; Elliott, John P.

    1990-01-02

    Multi-element high energy particle detector modules comprise a planar heavy metal carrier of tungsten alloy with planar detector units uniformly distributed over one planar surface. The detector units are secured to the heavy metal carrier by electrically conductive adhesive so that the carrier serves as a common ground. The other surface of each planar detector unit is electrically connected to a feedthrough electrical terminal extending through the carrier for front or rear readout. The feedthrough electrical terminals comprise sockets at one face of the carrier and mating pins porjecting from the other face, so that any number of modules may be plugged together to create a stack of modules of any desired number of radiation lengths. The detector units each comprise four, preferably rectangular, p-i-n diode chips arranged around the associated feedthrough terminal to form a square detector unit providing at least 90% detector element coverage of the carrier. Integral spacers projecting from the carriers extend at least partially along the boundaries between detector units to space the p-i-n diode chips from adjacent carriers in a stack. The spacers along the perimeters of the modules are one-half the width of the interior spacers so that when stacks of modules are arranged side by side to form a large array of any size or shape, distribution of the detector units is uniform over the entire array.

  16. Multielement stoichiometry in aquatic invertebrates: when growth dilution matters.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Fisher, Nicholas S; Folt, Carol L

    2010-12-01

    Element concentrations in organisms can be variable, often causing deviations from otherwise consistent, taxon-specific multielement stoichiometries. Such variation can have considerable ecological consequences, yet physiological mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the influence of somatic growth dilution (SGD) on multiple element concentrations under different bioenergetic conditions. SGD occurs when rapid individual growth causes a disproportional gain in biomass relative to gain of a specific element. SGD can strongly affect elements in various organisms, but we lack a general framework to unify results across studies and assess its overall importance. We derived the general conditions that trigger SGD from an element accumulation model. We parameterized the model with bioenergetic and element-specific rates summarized from the literature to compare SGD effects on 15 elements (nonessential metals, essential trace elements, macronutrients) in three aquatic invertebrate taxa. For all taxa, we found that SGD (1) occurs to some degree for all 15 elements over realistic ranges of growth and ingestion rates and (2) has the greatest effect on elements with low efflux (excretion) rates, including certain nonessential metals (e.g., MeHg, Po), essential trace elements, and macronutrients (e.g., N, Fe). Thus, SGD can strongly affect concentrations of a spectrum of elements under natural conditions. These results provide a framework for predicting variation in the elemental composition of animals.

  17. Multielement stoichiometry of submerged macrophytes across Yunnan plateau lakes (China)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Shi, Qiao; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Han; Wang, Zhixiu; Liu, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    Stoichiometric homeostasis of element composition is one of the central concepts of ecological stoichiometry. We analyzed concentrations of macroelements (C, N, P, Ca, K, Mg, S), microelements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn) and beneficial elements (Na, Se, Si) in submerged macrophytes, water and sediments across 20 Yunnan plateau lakes. We predicted that tissue element composition in submerged macrophytes is affected by lake trophic level and taxonomy, and submerged macrophytes have weak stoichiometric homeostasis for all above 16 elements. Canonical discriminant analyses successfully discriminated among trophic level groups and taxa groups. Of all the elements, C, N, P and S most effectively discriminated among trophic level groups across 20 lakes, revealing lake trophic level mostly affect tissue macroelement composition in submerged macrophytes; while Ca, K and Se most effectively discriminated among submerged macrophytes taxa groups, suggesting taxonomy mostly affect compositions of macroelements and beneficial elements in submerged macrophytes. In addition, the stoichiometric homeostatic coefficient of 1/HCa:C for all five taxa of submerged macrophytes were less than zero, suggesting submerged macrophytes in Yunnan plateau lakes have strong Ca stoichiometric homeostasis. Our findings, not only broaden the knowledge of multielement stoichiometric homeostasis, but also help to choose most appropriate lake management strategy. PMID:25970822

  18. Multi-elements atmospheric deposition study in Albania.

    PubMed

    Qarri, Flora; Lazo, Pranvera; Stafilov, Trajce; Frontasyeva, Marina; Harmens, Harry; Bekteshi, Lirim; Baceva, Katerina; Goryainova, Zoya

    2014-02-01

    For the first time, the moss biomonitoring technique and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) analytical technique were applied to study multi-element atmospheric deposition in Albania. Moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) were collected during the summer of 2011 and September-October 2010 from 62 sites, evenly distributed over the country. Sampling was performed in accordance with the LRTAP Convention-ICP Vegetation protocol and sampling strategy of the European Programme on Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition. ICP-AES analysis made it possible to determine concentrations of 19 elements including key toxic metals such as Pb, Cd, As, and Cu. Cluster and factor analysis with varimax rotation was applied to distinguish elements mainly of anthropogenic origin from those predominantly originating from natural sources. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using GIS technology. The median values of the elements in moss samples of Albania were high for Al, Cr, Ni, Fe, and V and low for Cd, Cu, and Zn compared to other European countries, but generally were of a similar level as some of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania. This study was conducted in the framework of ICP Vegetation in order to provide a reliable assessment of air quality throughout Albania and to produce information needed for better identification of contamination sources and improving the potential for assessing environmental and health risks in Albania, associated with toxic metals.

  19. Child Maltreatment and the Justice System: Predictors of Court Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlak, Andrea J.; Doueck, Howard J.; Lyons, Peter; Wells, Susan J.; Schultz, Dana; Gragg, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Characteristics of the child victim, perpetrator, and maltreatment incident were used to examine predictors of court involvement in cases of serious child maltreatment. Method: Cases were drawn from those reported to: child protective services (n = 225), "sheriff's office" ( n = 225), "prosecutor's office" ( n = 60), "and dependency…

  20. Involvement of central nervous system in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Verma, A; Bisht, M S; Ahuja, G K

    1984-01-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked responses were recorded in 22 diabetic patients with a variable duration of illness (mean 5.8 years) and 14 normal healthy controls of comparable age. The initial 10 millisecond components, found to be most consistent and reproducible, were analysed. Variations in the form of individual wave latency, interpeak latencies and V wave amplitude were compared in both the groups. No difference was found in any of the parameters. It was concluded that central neural pathways are not involved at least initially in diabetes mellitus. PMID:6726270

  1. High-Lift Optimization Design Using Neural Networks on a Multi-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenman, Roxana M.; Roth, Karlin R.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag, and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural networks were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 83% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.

  2. Multielement fingerprinting as a tool in origin authentication of PGI food products: Tropea red onion.

    PubMed

    Furia, Emilia; Naccarato, Attilio; Sindona, Giovanni; Stabile, Gaetano; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2011-08-10

    Tropea red onion ( Allium cepa L. var. Tropea) is among the most highly appreciated Italian products. It is cultivated in specific areas of Calabria and, due to its characteristics, was recently awarded with the protected geographical indications (PGI) certification from the European Union. A reliable classification of onion samples in groups corresponding to "Tropea" and "non-Tropea" categories is now available to the producers. This important goal has been achieved through the evaluation of three supervised chemometric approaches. Onion samples with PGI brand (120) and onion samples not cultivated following the production regulations (80) were digested by a closed-vessel microwave oven system. ICP-MS equipped with a dynamic reaction cell was used to determine the concentrations of 25 elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ho, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, Pr, Rb, Sm, Sr, Tl, Y, and Zn). The multielement fingerprint was processed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) (standard and stepwise), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The cross-validation procedure has shown good results in terms of the prediction ability for all of the chemometric models: standard LDA, 94.0%; stepwise LDA, 94.5%; SIMCA, 95.5%; and BP-ANN, 91.5%.

  3. Design and analysis of a multi-element dual band infrared detector for counter-countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiguo; Li, Mo; Chen, Hongxu

    2014-01-01

    A dual band multi-element infrared (IR) detector which enables effective target tracking in a complex tactical environment is presented. The photosensitive elements are designed like the stripes of the Lovell optical reticle and arranged close to each other. The thin films of the dual band filter are precisely coated onto an IR transparent substrate, which is then bonded directly onto the surface of photosensitive area with an IR transparent adhesive. The optical system of the detector adopts a spin-scan mode. The filter-detector combination rotates with a mechanical rotor during scanning. The dual band filters temporally encode target location into the incoming radiation signals, and the photosensitive elements then convert the modulated radiation into an electrical signal. The ratio of radiation intensity from two bands can be calculated to distinguish target from IR target-flare mixed signals. Because the pattern of the detector is similar to the Lovell reticle, the detector can also perform spatial filtering to eliminate background noise. In addition, relatively high stability, together with simplicity of the hardware and low cost, indicates that the presented method has a potential application at the field in which precision is not strictly requested.

  4. Multibiological life support system experiments with humans partially involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu

    To establish bioregenerative life support system in lunar or mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between human beings and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, Chlorella vulgaris and so on must be investigated in order to place different organisms with appropriate numbers and proportions. This research cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) in the Closed Integrative Cultivating System (CICS) of the Integrative Experimental Sys-tem (IES) with Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the Plate Photo Bioreactor (PPB) of the IES. Gas exchange between testers and the IES were conducted periodically. The automotive control system of the PPB changed the illumination intensity of the photo bioreactor according to the CO2 concentration in the IES to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels by regu-lating the photosynthesis of alga. The conveyor-type cultivation method which was harvesting the biggest batch of lettuce and silkworms through the mass exchange chamber of IES every four days and transferring the smallest batch of lettuce and silkworms into the system; carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with nutrient liquid replenished into the system was implemented in the experiments. In terms of gas circulation, CO2 /O2 concentration changes in the system with trace gas contaminants (CH4 , NH3 and C2 H4 ) were measured. As to the mass transfer and transformation, element (C, H, O, N) contents, height, crown width and biomasses of lettuce in different developing stages, silkworms' bioconversion rates, alga's biomass changes, the amount and community change trends of the microorganism in different positions of the system, the quality of condensates gained under different running conditions and so on were studied. Results showed

  5. MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS INVOLVING CHEMICAL LOOPING COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Juan M. Salazar; Urmila M. Diwekar; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system using coal gasification is an important approach for future energy options. This work focuses on understading the system operation and optimizing it in the presence of uncertain operating conditions using ASPEN Plus and CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic simulation and multiobjective optimization capabilities developed by Vishwamitra Research Institute. The feasible operating surface for the IGCC system is generated and deterministic multiobjective optimization is performed. Since the feasible operating space is highly non-convex, heuristics based techniques that do not require gradient information are used to generate the Pareto surface. Accurate CFD models are simultaneously developed for the gasifier and chemical looping combustion system to characterize and quantify the process uncertainty in the ASPEN model.

  6. Student Involvement in the "Systems Approach to Biology."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Curtis L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Points out findings that students are motivated quite highly if a systems approach is used for instruction. Data presented reveal overall increased participation by students in instructional program. (PS)

  7. Multi-element least square HDMR methods and their applications for stochastic multiscale model reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Lijian Li, Xinping

    2015-08-01

    Stochastic multiscale modeling has become a necessary approach to quantify uncertainty and characterize multiscale phenomena for many practical problems such as flows in stochastic porous media. The numerical treatment of the stochastic multiscale models can be very challengeable as the existence of complex uncertainty and multiple physical scales in the models. To efficiently take care of the difficulty, we construct a computational reduced model. To this end, we propose a multi-element least square high-dimensional model representation (HDMR) method, through which the random domain is adaptively decomposed into a few subdomains, and a local least square HDMR is constructed in each subdomain. These local HDMRs are represented by a finite number of orthogonal basis functions defined in low-dimensional random spaces. The coefficients in the local HDMRs are determined using least square methods. We paste all the local HDMR approximations together to form a global HDMR approximation. To further reduce computational cost, we present a multi-element reduced least-square HDMR, which improves both efficiency and approximation accuracy in certain conditions. To effectively treat heterogeneity properties and multiscale features in the models, we integrate multiscale finite element methods with multi-element least-square HDMR for stochastic multiscale model reduction. This approach significantly reduces the original model's complexity in both the resolution of the physical space and the high-dimensional stochastic space. We analyze the proposed approach, and provide a set of numerical experiments to demonstrate the performance of the presented model reduction techniques. - Highlights: • Multi-element least square HDMR is proposed to treat stochastic models. • Random domain is adaptively decomposed into some subdomains to obtain adaptive multi-element HDMR. • Least-square reduced HDMR is proposed to enhance computation efficiency and approximation accuracy in certain

  8. Simultaneous multielement atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnly, James M.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.; O'Haver, Thomas C.

    The extended analytical range capability of a simultaneous multielement atomic absorption continuum source spectrometer (SIMAAC) was tested for furnace atomization with respect to the signal measurement mode (peak height and area), the atomization mode (from the wall or from a platform), and the temperature program mode (stepped or ramped atomization). These parameters were evaluated with respect to the shapes of the analytical curves, the detection limits, carry-over contamination and accuracy. Peak area measurements gave more linear calibration curves. Methods for slowing the atomization step heating rate, the use of a ramped temperature program or a platform, produced similar calibration curves and longer linear ranges than atomization with a stepped temperature program. Peak height detection limits were best using stepped atomization from the wall. Peak area detection limits for all atomization modes were similar. Carry-over contamination was worse for peak area than peak height, worse for ramped atomization than stepped atomization, and worse for atomization from a platform than from the wall. Accurate determinations (100 ± 12% for Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in National Bureau of Standards' Standard Reference Materials Bovine Liver 1577 and Rice Flour 1568 were obtained using peak area measurements with ramped atomization from the wall and stepped atomization from a platform. Only stepped atomization from a platform gave accurate recoveries for K. Accurate recoveries, 100 ± 10%, with precisions ranging from 1 to 36 % (standard deviation), were obtained for the determination of Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni. Pb, V and Zn in Acidified Waters (NBS SRM 1643 and 1643a) using stepped atomization from a platform.

  9. Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons, simultaneously measuring the electron dosage and x-ray intensities for each sample of element to determine a "K.sub.AB " value to be used in the equation ##EQU1## where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B, and exposing the multielement sample to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

  10. Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards

    DOEpatents

    King, W.E.

    1986-01-06

    This disclosure describes a method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons. Simultaneously the electron dosage and x-ray intensities are measured for each sample of element to determine a ''K/sub AB/'' value to be used in the equation (I/sub A/I/sub B/) = K/sub AB/ (C/sub A//C/sub B/), where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B. The multielement sample is exposed to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

  11. Inflammation and cutaneous nervous system involvement in hypertrophic scarring

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shao-hua; Yang, Heng-lian; Xiao, Hu; Wang, Yi-bing; Wang, De-chang; Huo, Ran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to use a mouse model of hypertrophic scarring by mechanical loading on the dorsum of mice to determine whether the nervous system of the skin and inflammation participates in hypertrophic scarring. Results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that inflammation contributed to the formation of a hypertrophic scar and increased the nerve density in scar tissue.Western blot assay verified that interleukin-13 expression was increased in scar tissue. These findings suggest that inflammation and the cutaneous nervous system play a role in hypertrophic scar formation. PMID:26692869

  12. Kinect-based rehabilitation exercises system: therapist involved approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Xu, Hui; Li, Andong

    2014-01-01

    The Kinect-based physical rehabilitation receives increasing recognition as an approach to provide convenience for the patients who need the therapy usually from the health professions. Most of the previous studies were driven from the patients' point of view. This paper proposes a system aiming to simplify the recovery instruction from therapists, increasing patients' motivation to participate in the rehabilitation exercise. Furthermore, the architecture for developing such rehabilitation system is designed by motion capture, human action recognition and standard exercises prototype with Kinect device. PMID:25226964

  13. [CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INVOLVEMENT IN GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS (GPA)].

    PubMed

    Horovitz, Yuval; Lidar, Merav

    2015-05-01

    We present the case of a 75 year-old female with Wegener's Granulomatosis. The patient arrived intubated to the emergency room, following loss of consciousness and a generalized seizure. A magnetic resonance imaging brain scan revealed a space occupying lesion (SOL) in the right temporal region. Subsequent investigation indicated the SOL to be a primary lymphoma of the central nervous system. The clinical manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis on both the central and peripheral nervous systems are reviewed herein, as well as the appropriated treatment modalities and the link between this disease and various malignancies. PMID:26168637

  14. Library involvement in the implementation of a course management system.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Deborah G

    2004-01-01

    Course management system software has much to offer the faculty and students in universities that adopt this technology. Libraries have used this technology to provide links to library resources, but they can also have a role in implementing the adoption of the course management software. The Penn State College of Medicine successfully implemented the ANGEL course management system under the guidance of a medical librarian. Tasks specific to the librarian included communication and promotion of ANGEL, in addition to providing training and technical support.

  15. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7.

  16. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosivemore » release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7

  17. Personalization and Patient Involvement in Decision Support Systems: Current Trends

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, L.; Lanzola, G.; Viani, N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This survey aims at highlighting the latest trends (2012-2014) on the development, use, and evaluation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) based decision support systems (DSSs) in medicine, with a particular focus on patient-centered and personalized care. Methods We considered papers published on scientific journals, by querying PubMed and Web of Science™. Included studies focused on the implementation or evaluation of ICT-based tools used in clinical practice. A separate search was performed on computerized physician order entry systems (CPOEs), since they are increasingly embedding patient-tailored decision support. Results We found 73 papers on DSSs (53 on specific ICT tools) and 72 papers on CPOEs. Although decision support through the delivery of recommendations is frequent (28/53 papers), our review highlighted also DSSs only based on efficient information presentation (25/53). Patient participation in making decisions is still limited (9/53), and mostly focused on risk communication. The most represented medical area is cancer (12%). Policy makers are beginning to be included among stakeholders (6/73), but integration with hospital information systems is still low. Concerning knowledge representation/management issues, we identified a trend towards building inference engines on top of standard data models. Most of the tools (57%) underwent a formal assessment study, even if half of them aimed at evaluating usability and not effectiveness. Conclusions Overall, we have noticed interesting evolutions of medical DSSs to improve communication with the patient, consider the economic and organizational impact, and use standard models for knowledge representation. However, systems focusing on patient-centered care still do not seem to be available at large. PMID:26293857

  18. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain.

    PubMed

    La Porta, Carmen; Bura, Simona A; Negrete, Roger; Maldonado, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease associated with articular cartilage degradation. The major clinical outcome of osteoarthritis is a complex pain state that includes both nociceptive and neuropathic mechanisms. Currently, the therapeutic approaches for osteoarthritis are limited as no drugs are available to control the disease progression and the analgesic treatment has restricted efficacy. Increasing evidence from preclinical studies supports the interest of the endocannabinoid system as an emerging therapeutic target for osteoarthritis pain. Indeed, pharmacological studies have shown the anti-nociceptive effects of cannabinoids in different rodent models of osteoarthritis, and compelling evidence suggests an active participation of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of this disease. The ubiquitous distribution of cannabinoid receptors, together with the physiological role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of pain, inflammation and even joint function further support the therapeutic interest of cannabinoids for osteoarthritis. However, limited clinical evidence has been provided to support this therapeutic use of cannabinoids, despite the promising preclinical data. This review summarizes the promising results that have been recently obtained in support of the therapeutic value of cannabinoids for osteoarthritis management.

  19. The nature of interactions involving prefrontal and striatal dopamine systems.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, L S

    1997-01-01

    A number of converging lines of evidence from work in rodents suggest that dopamine (DA) function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatal terminal fields may be linked, possibly in an 'inverse' manner, whereby a change in prefrontal dopamine transmission in one direction occasions an opposite change in dopamine function in striatal territories. The present article considers the possible functional importance of this concept in the light of recent neuroanatomical data and new data from our own laboratory indicating that, at the neurochemical level, the basic finding of an inverse relationship between dopamine function in prefrontal and striatal regions also holds good in the non-human primate. The main conclusion is that the simple idea of an inverse relationship between prefrontal and striatal dopamine systems emphasizing presynaptic release mechanisms is unlikely to underlie, solely, the full repertoire of functional interactions. Whilst there is evidence consistent with dynamic interactions between prefrontal and striatal dopamine release under some circumstances, specifically, during the early phases of aversive learning, a complete account of possible interactions between prefrontal and striatal dopamine systems requires consideration of additional factors. Such factors include: (1) the precise nature of the psychological function investigated, (2) the possibility of acute, localized changes in striatal postsynaptic function secondary to changes in presynaptic function and (3) the possibility of manipulations of prefrontal cortex leading to adaptive changes in striatal function, at a diffuse, neural systems level.

  20. Involvement of the cholinergic system in conditioning and perceptual memory.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lianne; Platt, Bettina; Riedel, Gernot

    2011-08-10

    The cholinergic systems play a pivotal role in learning and memory, and have been the centre of attention when it comes to diseases containing cognitive deficits. It is therefore not surprising, that the cholinergic transmitter system has experienced detailed examination of its role in numerous behavioural situations not least with the perspective that cognition may be rescued with appropriate cholinergic 'boosters'. Here we reviewed the literature on (i) cholinergic lesions, (ii) pharmacological intervention of muscarinic or nicotinic system, or (iii) genetic deletion of selective receptor subtypes with respect to sensory discrimination and conditioning procedures. We consider visual, auditory, olfactory and somatosensory processing first before discussing more complex tasks such as startle responses, latent inhibition, negative patterning, eye blink and fear conditioning, and passive avoidance paradigms. An overarching reoccurring theme is that lesions of the cholinergic projection neurones of the basal forebrain impact negatively on acquisition learning in these paradigms and blockade of muscarinic (and to a lesser extent nicotinic) receptors in the target structures produce similar behavioural deficits. While these pertain mainly to impairments in acquisition learning, some rare cases extend to memory consolidation. Such single case observations warranted replication and more in-depth studies. Intriguingly, receptor blockade or receptor gene knockout repeatedly produced contradictory results (for example in fear conditioning) and combined studies, in which genetically altered mice are pharmacological manipulated, are so far missing. However, they are desperately needed to clarify underlying reasons for these contradictions. Consistently, stimulation of either muscarinic (mainly M(1)) or nicotinic (predominantly α7) receptors was beneficial for learning and memory formation across all paradigms supporting the notion that research into the development and

  1. The aerogen-π bonds involving π systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meng; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Wenzuo; Xiao, Bo; Li, Qingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Ab initio calculations have been performed to study the complexes of XeOF2 and a series of π systems including ethyne, ethene, benzene, pyrrole, furan, and thiophene. More than two structures were obtained for each complex with an aerogen-π bond. The configuration of complex has a significant effect on its stability. The strength of aerogen-π interaction is comparable with that of lone pair-aerogen interaction and conventional hydrogen bonds. A breakdown of the aerogen-π interaction attributes its stability to approximately equal parts electrostatic and polarization energies, with a relatively smaller contribution from dispersion energy.

  2. Systemic issues involved in working with professional sports teams.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Joshua W; Herring, Kennise M; Iadevito, Teresa L

    2005-10-01

    Sport psychiatrists face a number of systemic and intra-psychic issues when treating professional athletes. Although only a modicum of literature exists to aid sport psychiatrists, there are several steps they may take to become an integral part of an athletic organization and to be successful in the treatment of the athletes themselves. The ability to delineate their role within the sports club is crucial to mental health professionals' organizational success. Equally important, it is incumbent upon sport psychiatrists to recognize and transcend intra-psychic issues that occur between athlete and physician.

  3. Neural Systems Involved When Attending to a Speaker.

    PubMed

    Kamourieh, Salwa; Braga, Rodrigo M; Leech, Robert; Newbould, Rexford D; Malhotra, Paresh; Wise, Richard J S

    2015-11-01

    Remembering what a speaker said depends on attention. During conversational speech, the emphasis is on working memory, but listening to a lecture encourages episodic memory encoding. With simultaneous interference from background speech, the need for auditory vigilance increases. We recreated these context-dependent demands on auditory attention in 2 ways. The first was to require participants to attend to one speaker in either the absence or presence of a distracting background speaker. The second was to alter the task demand, requiring either an immediate or delayed recall of the content of the attended speech. Across 2 fMRI studies, common activated regions associated with segregating attended from unattended speech were the right anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (aI/FOp), the left planum temporale, and the precuneus. In contrast, activity in a ventral right frontoparietal system was dependent on both the task demand and the presence of a competing speaker. Additional multivariate analyses identified other domain-general frontoparietal systems, where activity increased during attentive listening but was modulated little by the need for speech stream segregation in the presence of 2 speakers. These results make predictions about impairments in attentive listening in different communicative contexts following focal or diffuse brain pathology. PMID:25596592

  4. Vitamin D endocrine system involvement in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Pizzorni, Carmen; Sulli, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Vitamin D is synthesized from cholesterol in the skin (80-90%) under the sunlight and then metabolized into an active D hormone in liver, kidney and peripheral immune/inflammatory cells. These endocrine-immune effects include also the coordinated activities of the vitamin D-activating enzyme, 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) on cells of the immune system in mediating intracrine and paracrine actions. Vitamin D is implicated in prevention and protection from chronic infections (i.e. tubercolosis), cancer (i.e. breast cancer) and autoimmune rheumatic diseases since regulates both innate and adaptive immunity potentiating the innate response (monocytes/macrophages with antimicrobial activity and antigen presentation), but suppressing the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocyte functions). Vitamin D has modulatory effects on B lymphocytes and Ig production and recent reports have demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 does indeed exert direct effects on B cell homeostasis. A circannual rhythm of trough vitamin D levels in winter and peaks in summer time showed negative correlation with clinical status at least in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, the onset of symptoms of early arthritis during winter or spring have been associated with greater radiographic evidence of disease progression at 12 months possibly are also related to seasonal lower vitamin D serum levels.

  5. Perinatal complications and schizophrenia: involvement of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Trisha A.

    2013-01-01

    The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that, at least in part, events occurring within the intrauterine or perinatal environment at critical times of brain development underlies emergence of the psychosis observed during adulthood, and brain pathologies that are hypothesized to be from birth. All potential risks stimulate activation of the immune system, and are suggested to act in parallel with an underlying genetic liability, such that an imperfect regulation of the genome mediates these prenatal or early postnatal environmental effects. Epidemiologically based animal models looking at environment and with genes have provided us with a wealth of knowledge in the understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and give us the best possibility for interventions and treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:23805069

  6. Mechanistic approach to multi-element isotope modeling of organic contaminant degradation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We propose a multi-element isotope modeling approach to simultaneously predict the evolution of different isotopes during the transformation of organic contaminants. The isotopic trends of different elements are explicitly simulated by tracking position-specific isotopologues that contain the isotopes located at fractionating positions. Our approach is self-consistent and provides a mechanistic description of different degradation pathways that accounts for the influence of both primary and secondary isotope effects during contaminant degradation. The method is particularly suited to quantitatively describe the isotopic evolution of relatively large organic contaminant molecules. For such compounds, an integrated approach, simultaneously considering all possible isotopologues, would be impractical due to the large number of isotopologues. We apply the proposed modeling approach to the degradation of toluene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and nitrobenzene observed in previous experimental studies. Our model successfully predicts the multi-element isotope data (both 2D and 3D), and accurately captures the distinct trends observed for different reaction pathways. The proposed approach provides an improved and mechanistic methodology to interpret multi-element isotope data and to predict the extent of multi-element isotope fractionation that goes beyond commonly applied modeling descriptions and simplified methods based on the ratio between bulk enrichment factors or on linear regression in dual-isotope plots.

  7. Visual Search in a Multi-Element Asynchronous Dynamic (MAD) World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunar, Melina A.; Watson, Derrick G.

    2011-01-01

    In visual search tasks participants search for a target among distractors in strictly controlled displays. We show that visual search principles observed in these tasks do not necessarily apply in more ecologically valid search conditions, using dynamic and complex displays. A multi-element asynchronous dynamic (MAD) visual search was developed in…

  8. Do Multielement Visual Tracking and Visual Search Draw Continuously on the Same Visual Attention Resources?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, George A.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Arsenio, Helga C.; DiMase, Jennifer S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2005-01-01

    Multielement visual tracking and visual search are 2 tasks that are held to require visual-spatial attention. The authors used the attentional operating characteristic (AOC) method to determine whether both tasks draw continuously on the same attentional resource (i.e., whether the 2 tasks are mutually exclusive). The authors found that observers…

  9. Library Optimization in EDXRF Spectral Deconvolution for Multi-element Analysis of Ambient Aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    In multi-element analysis of atmospheric aerosols, attempts are made to fit overlapping elemental spectral lines for many elements that may be undetectable in samples due to low concentrations. Fitting with many library reference spectra has the unwanted effect of raising the an...

  10. Mesogondolella and Jinogondolella (Conodonta): Multielement definition of the taxa that bracket the basal Guadalupian (Middle Permian Series) GSSP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, L.L.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Henderson, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Multielement definitions are presented here for Mesogondolella and Jinogondolella based on species that bracket the basal Guadalupian (Middle Permian Series) GSSP. Distinctive apparatus characters that appear with the first Jinogondolella include several details of P2 element dimorphism and process bifurcation in S3 elements. The sequential expression of these multielement characters is traced through M. idahoensis, M. lamberti, and J. nankingensis. The resulting multielement definition of Jinogondolella serves to distinguish it from all other closely related genera. Mesogondolella lamberti is recognized as a distinct species, and J. serrata is formally designated a junior synonym of J. nankingensis. ?? 2007 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  11. Developing a Multi-Element Geospace Investigation to Understand the Impact of Hemispheric Assymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, L. J.; Newell, P. T.; Stromme, A.; Ridley, A. J.; Kozyra, J. U.; Mitchell, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions in space science is: How is the Earth system, which is enclosed within a shielding magnetic field, influenced by the space environment? In a broader context: How important is an intrinsic magnetic field to the evolution of a planet's atmosphere (and the development of life or of a spacefaring society)? The space science community has addressed focused aspects of this question first and only recently has begun to take an integrated view of the problem by using models to "connect the dots" between the Sun and the Earth. We are also developing new capabilities to investigate the coupling from the lower atmosphere (troposphere and stratosphere). Despite these advances, we have yet to discover how big a difference the lower atmosphere makes in the response of the upper atmosphere to geomagnetic disturbances. Furthermore addressing the larger issues (i.e., how lack of symmetry between the hemispheres causes new features to emerge and drives changes in the global system dynamics) are beyond current capabilities. There are a number of fundamental issues that need to be resolved to make further progress but the primary challenge is to remove the spatial and temporal ambiguity of measurements and to do so in an affordable way. In this paper we review the questions and formulate an integrated, observation- and model-based approach. Our primary focus is on high latitudes and, in particular, on the difference between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres both in terms of drivers and response. To address that issue we are developing a Multi-Element Geospace Investigation (MEGI) consisting of ground-, air- and space-based instruments. International collaboration is a key element as is the ability to seamlessly connect scientists and information (data and model results as well as analysis products). Our posited architecture will be discussed as will our plans to submit this concept as an NSF MREFC proposal.

  12. Monte Carlo design study for thick gas electron multiplier-based multi-element microdosimetric detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjomani, Z.; Hanu, A. R.; Prestwich, W. V.; Byun, S. H.

    2014-09-01

    To accomplish enhanced neutron dose response with high detection efficiency, a set of multi-element microdosimetric detectors were designed using THick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM). THGEM generates a strong electric field within microholes of a sub-millimeter thick insulator, which makes electron multiplication possible without the traditional anode wire electrodes. Owing to the absence of wire electrodes, the newly designed neutron dosemeters offer flexible and convenient fabrication in contrast to the traditional multi-element tissue-equivalent proportional counters. In order to investigate the dependence of the neutron dosimetric response and detection efficiency on detector design, five designs with a different number of gas cavities and an identical outer diameter of 5 cm were created. For each design, a Monte Carlo simulation was developed using the Geant4 code to calculate the deposited energy spectrum in the gas cavities for mono-energetic neutron beams ranging from 10 keV to 2 MeV. From the simulation results, the microdosimetric and the absorbed dose responses of each multi-element design were consistent with the responses of the conventional single cavity detector. The quality factor and the dose equivalent responses were subsequently obtained and showed reasonable agreement with the ideal values for neutron energies above 300 keV while underestimating in the lower energy region. The neutron detection efficiency of each design was analyzed in terms of the neutron counts per incident fluence and the counts per dose equivalent. As the number of the multi-element cavities increased, both efficiencies increased greatly. The efficiency of the highest cavity density with 61×9 multi-elements was on average 5.6 times higher than that of the single cavity design. The 37×7 design could be chosen as a reasonable compromise between the two conflicting requirements, high efficiency and convenience in fabrication.

  13. Pressure dissolution and real sample matrix calibration for multielement analysis of raw agricultural crops by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kuennen, R.W.; Woinik, K.A.; Fricke, F.L.; Caruso, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    A method utilizing a pressure dissolution technique to minimize sample pretreatment is described for multielement analysis of raw agricultural crops by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The procedure employs a 30-min pressure dissolution of sample composite with 6 M HCI at 80/sup 8/C in 60-mL linear polyethylene bottles. A sample introduction system is also described which permits direct atomization of complex organic matrices. Combined with a real sample matrix callbration technique, this introduction system allows rapid and accurate multielement analysis of complex HCl sample matrix solutions. The procedure compares favorably to more time-consuming conventional wet ashing methods for the determination of major, minor, and trace elements occurring in lettuce, potatoes, peanuts, soybeans, spinach, sweet corn, and wheat. Recoveries for spiked samples, precision studies, and analyses of NBS reference materials demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of the procedure. Advantages and limitations of this technique relative to conventional wet ashing methods are discussed. 2 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Authentication of fishery and aquaculture products by multi-element and stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Boyd, Claude E; Sun, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    The market of fishery and aquaculture products is globalized with increasing numbers of mislabeled products. This highlights the need for approaches to indentify the origin of these products. Among the measures used to identify the origin of other agro-products, multi-element and stable isotope analysis are promising approaches to identify the authenticity and traceability of fishery and aquaculture products. The present paper reviews the use of multi-element and stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of fishery and aquaculture products. Principles and limitations of each method will be illustrated and perspectives for traceability of fishery and aquaculture products will be discussed. The aim of this review is to mediate fundamental knowledge for the interpretation of experimental data on authentication of aquaculture products.

  15. Multielement analysis of geologic materials by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, O.D.; Kroneman, R.L.; Capuano, R.M.

    1980-03-01

    Atomic emission spectroscopy using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source permits the rapid acquisition of multielement geochemical data from a wide variety of geologic materials. Rocks or other solid samples are taken into solution with a four acid digestion procedure and introduced directly into the plasma; fluid samples are acidified or analyzed directly. The entire process is computer-controlled, fully-automated, and requires less than five minutes per sample for quantitative determination of 37 elements. The procedures and instrumentation employed at the ESL for multielement ICP analysis of geologic materials are described and these are intended as a guide for evaluating analytic results reported from this laboratory. The quality of geochemical data can be characterized by precision, limits of quantitative determination, and accuracy. Precision values are a measure of the repeatability of analyses. In general, major element and analyses have precision of better than 5% and trace elements of better than 10% of the amount present. (MHR)

  16. Authentication of fishery and aquaculture products by multi-element and stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Boyd, Claude E; Sun, Zhenlong

    2016-03-01

    The market of fishery and aquaculture products is globalized with increasing numbers of mislabeled products. This highlights the need for approaches to indentify the origin of these products. Among the measures used to identify the origin of other agro-products, multi-element and stable isotope analysis are promising approaches to identify the authenticity and traceability of fishery and aquaculture products. The present paper reviews the use of multi-element and stable isotope analysis to determine the origin of fishery and aquaculture products. Principles and limitations of each method will be illustrated and perspectives for traceability of fishery and aquaculture products will be discussed. The aim of this review is to mediate fundamental knowledge for the interpretation of experimental data on authentication of aquaculture products. PMID:26471677

  17. Effects of fixed versus random condition sequencing during multielement functional analyses.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Jennifer L; Iwata, Brian A; Rooker, Griffin W; Fritz, Jennifer N; Bloom, Sarah E

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that a fixed condition sequence might facilitate differential responding during multielement functional analyses (FAs) by capitalizing on or limiting sequence effects (Iwata, Pace, et al., 1994); however, the effects of condition sequence have not been examined empirically. We conducted fixed- and random-sequence FAs for 7 individuals with developmental disabilities to determine the relative effects that sequence may have on assessment outcomes. Experimental conditions during the fixed sequence were conducted in the following order: ignore, attention, play, and demand; condition order during the random sequence was determined randomly. Results showed that sequence had no influence on the FA outcomes for 3 subjects, whereas differential responding emerged either faster (1 subject) or only (3 subjects) under the fixed sequence for the remaining subjects. These results suggest that the fixed sequence, a simple modification, should be used when conducting multielement FAs to accommodate the influence of establishing operations across assessment conditions.

  18. An Improved Version of the NASA-Lockheed Multielement Airfoil Analysis Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, G. W.; Manke, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    An improved version of the NASA-Lockheed computer program for the analysis of multielement airfoils is described. The predictions of the program are evaluated by comparison with recent experimental high lift data including lift, pitching moment, profile drag, and detailed distributions of surface pressures and boundary layer parameters. The results of the evaluation show that the contract objectives of improving program reliability and accuracy have been met.

  19. A critical evaluation of the predictions of the NASA-Lockheed multielement airfoil computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, G. W.; Manke, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical predictions of several versions of the multielement airfoil computer program are evaluated. The computed results are compared with experimental high lift data of general aviation airfoils with a single trailing edge flap, and of airfoils with a leading edge flap and double slotted trailing edge flaps. Theoretical and experimental data include lift, pitching moment, profile drag and surface pressure distributions, boundary layer integral parameters, skin friction coefficients, and velocity profiles.

  20. Fathers Matter: Involving and Engaging Fathers in the Child Welfare System Process

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Christian A; Howard, Douglas; Rayford, Brett S; Gordon, Derrick M

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that children with involved and engaged fathers tend to have more positive outcomes relative to physical, cognitive, and social emotional health. Of children who become involved in the child welfare system, involving multiple parents in the case (e.g. mother and father) often results in a greater chance of a child returning home, fewer placement episodes, and reduced trauma that may be caused by separation anxiety. With the rise of single parenting homes (which are mostly maternal) in the United States, child welfare agencies are examining the efficacy of engaging multiple caregivers (esp. fathers) in the child welfare process. Research suggests that in order to involve fathers in child welfare processes, practices and policies must be intentional in implementing systems and protocols that encourage involvement of all parents regardless of relationship status of the parents. However, few child welfare agencies are required to inquire about fathers or involve fathers in the child's case. The purpose of this paper is to highlight efforts of the Connecticut Comprehensive Outcome Review (CCOR) process and discuss challenges and lessons learned from interviews and listening forums/focus groups that included social workers and fathers who are involved in the child welfare system in the state of Connecticut. Recommendations and considerations on engaging and involving fathers are discussed. PMID:25866428

  1. Frequent involvement of central nervous system in primary Sjögren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Isabel; Teixeira, Filipa; Martins Silva, Ana; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Farinha, Fátima; Santos, Ernestina

    2015-02-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary and tear glands, and autoantibody secretion, in the absence of other systemic autoimmune disorder. Among autoimmune diseases, it is a relatively common disease, but the burden of central nervous system (CNS) involvement is controversial. This retrospective study evaluates the prevalence, clinical patterns and outcomes of CNS involvement in a cohort of patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. We evaluated 93 patients with pSS diagnosed according to American-European Consensus Group criteria. Fourteen patients (15.1 %) had CNS involvement. All were women with an average age of onset of the disease of 42.1 ± 14.7 years (average ± SD) and an average age of onset of neurological involvement of 47.29 ± 16 years. Three had parkinsonian syndrome, two epilepsy, two motor and sensory deficits, two headache with brain magnetic resonance abnormalities, two neuromyelitis optica, two chronic progressive myelitis and one aseptic meningitis. Neurological involvement preceded Sjögren syndrome diagnosis in nine of the patients (64 %), and neurological outcome was good in 11 patients (78.6 %). Central nervous involvement was not as rare as expected, and the frequency was similar to the frequency of peripheral nervous system involvement. In half of the patients, this was the first symptom of the disease, emphasizing the importance of considering this diagnosis, especially in young female with neurological symptoms without other evident cause.

  2. Involvement in the US criminal justice system and cost implications for persons treated for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals with schizophrenia may have a higher risk of encounters with the criminal justice system than the general population, but there are limited data on such encounters and their attendant costs. This study assessed the prevalence of encounters with the criminal justice system, encounter types, and the estimated cost attributable to these encounters in the one-year treatment of persons with schizophrenia. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a prospective one-year cost-effectiveness study of persons treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia and related disorders in the United States. Criminal justice system involvement was assessed using the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research Team (PORT) client survey and the victimization subscale of the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI). Direct cost of criminal justice system involvement was estimated using previously reported costs per type of encounter. Patients with and without involvement were compared on baseline characteristics and direct annual health care and criminal justice system-related costs. Results Overall, 278 (46%) of 609 participants reported at least 1 criminal justice system encounter. They were more likely to be substance users and less adherent to antipsychotics compared to participants without involvement. The 2 most prevalent types of encounters were being a victim of a crime (67%) and being on parole or probation (26%). The mean annual per-patient cost of involvement was $1,429, translating to 6% of total annual direct health care costs for those with involvement (11% when excluding crime victims). Conclusions Criminal justice system involvement appears to be prevalent and costly for persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States. Findings highlight the need to better understand the interface between the mental health and the criminal justice systems and the related costs, in personal, societal, and economic terms. PMID:20109170

  3. Synergetic inhibition of thermochemical formation of chlorinated aromatics by sulfur and nitrogen derived from thiourea: Multielement characterizations.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Nakamura, Madoka; Takaoka, Masaki; Shiota, Kenji; Kitajima, Yoshinori

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur (N/S)-containing compounds inhibit the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs) in thermal processes. However, few studies have examined the inhibition mechanisms of N/S-containing compounds. In the present study, we focused on thiourea [(NH2)2CS] as such a compound and investigated its inhibition effects and mechanisms. The production of PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorobenzenes (CBzs) were inhibited by >99% in the model fly ash in the presence of 1.0% thiourea after heating at 300 °C. Experimental results using real fly ash series were indicative of the thermal destruction of these chlorinated aromatics by thiourea. Multielement characterization using K-edge X-ray absorption fine structures of copper, chlorine, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon revealed three possible inhibition paths, namely, (a) sulfidization of the copper catalyst to CuS, Cu2S, and CuSO4; (b) blocking the chlorination of carbon via the reaction of chlorine with N-containing compounds to generate ammonium chloride and other minor compounds; and (c) changing the carbon frame involved in attacking the carbon matrix by sulfur and nitrogen. Thus, thiourea plays a role as a sulfur and nitrogen donor to achieve multiple and synergistic inhibition of chlorinated aromatics. Our results suggest that other N/S-containing inhibitors function based on similar mechanisms.

  4. Synergetic inhibition of thermochemical formation of chlorinated aromatics by sulfur and nitrogen derived from thiourea: Multielement characterizations.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Nakamura, Madoka; Takaoka, Masaki; Shiota, Kenji; Kitajima, Yoshinori

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur (N/S)-containing compounds inhibit the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs) in thermal processes. However, few studies have examined the inhibition mechanisms of N/S-containing compounds. In the present study, we focused on thiourea [(NH2)2CS] as such a compound and investigated its inhibition effects and mechanisms. The production of PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorobenzenes (CBzs) were inhibited by >99% in the model fly ash in the presence of 1.0% thiourea after heating at 300 °C. Experimental results using real fly ash series were indicative of the thermal destruction of these chlorinated aromatics by thiourea. Multielement characterization using K-edge X-ray absorption fine structures of copper, chlorine, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon revealed three possible inhibition paths, namely, (a) sulfidization of the copper catalyst to CuS, Cu2S, and CuSO4; (b) blocking the chlorination of carbon via the reaction of chlorine with N-containing compounds to generate ammonium chloride and other minor compounds; and (c) changing the carbon frame involved in attacking the carbon matrix by sulfur and nitrogen. Thus, thiourea plays a role as a sulfur and nitrogen donor to achieve multiple and synergistic inhibition of chlorinated aromatics. Our results suggest that other N/S-containing inhibitors function based on similar mechanisms. PMID:26954475

  5. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems. PMID:26407854

  6. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  7. E-Learning System for Experiments Involving Construction of Practical Electronic Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-learning system for technical experiments involving the construction of practical electronic circuits; this system would meet the various demands of individual experimenters. This mixed mode is beneficial for practical use in that an experimenter who does not have sufficient circuit components for circuit making can…

  8. From Corrections to Community: The Juvenile Reentry Experience as Characterized by Multiple Systems Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusick, Gretchen Ruth; Goerge, Robert M.; Bell, Katie Claussen

    2009-01-01

    This Chapin Hall report describes findings on the extent of system involvement among Illinois youth released from correctional facilities, tracking a population of youth under age 18 in Illinois following their release. Using administrative records, researchers develop profiles of reentry experiences across the many systems that serve youth and…

  9. Libman-sacks endocarditis exclusively involving the tricuspid valve in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonghuai; Ma, Chunyan; Yang, Jun; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Lanting; Guan, Zhengyu; Wei, Hong; Gu, Tianxiang

    2014-06-13

    Libman-Sacks endocarditis, characterized by sterile verrucous vegetations, is a rare but typical cardiac manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. It primarily leads to lesions of the mitral and aortic valves, but isolated tricuspid valve involvement is exceptional. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with large tricuspid valve vegetations, thickening, and regurgitation. Clinical findings and laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient successfully recovered following tricuspid valve replacement. Echocardiography is the definitive imaging modality for assessing cardiac valvular involvement, choosing appropriate therapy, and evaluating the prognosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2014.

  10. Rayleigh-based, multi-element coral thermometry: A biomineralization approach to developing climate proxies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaetani, G.A.; Cohen, A.L.; Wang, Z.; Crusius, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new approach to coral thermometry that deconvolves the influence of water temperature on skeleton composition from that of “vital effects”, and has the potential to provide estimates of growth temperatures that are accurate to within a few tenths of a degree Celsius from both tropical and cold-water corals. Our results provide support for a physico-chemical model of coral biomineralization, and imply that Mg2+ substitutes directly for Ca2+ in biogenic aragonite. Recent studies have identified Rayleigh fractionation as an important influence on the elemental composition of coral skeletons. Daily, seasonal and interannual variations in the amount of aragonite precipitated by corals from each “batch” of calcifying fluid can explain why the temperature dependencies of elemental ratios in coral skeleton differ from those of abiogenic aragonites, and are highly variable among individual corals. On the basis of this new insight into the origin of “vital effects” in coral skeleton, we developed a Rayleigh-based, multi-element approach to coral thermometry. Temperature is resolved from the Rayleigh fractionation signal by combining information from multiple element ratios (e.g., Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca) to produce a mathematically over-constrained system of Rayleigh equations. Unlike conventional coral thermometers, this approach does not rely on an initial calibration of coral skeletal composition to an instrumental temperature record. Rather, considering coral skeletogenesis as a biologically mediated, physico-chemical process provides a means to extract temperature information from the skeleton composition using the Rayleigh equation and a set of experimentally determined partition coefficients. Because this approach is based on a quantitative understanding of the mechanism that produces the “vital effect” it should be possible to apply it both across scleractinian species and to corals growing in vastly different environments. Where

  11. Iapetonudus (N. gen.) and Iapetognathus Landing, unusual Earliest Ordovician multielement conodont taxa and their utility for biostratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicoll, R.S.; Miller, J.F.; Nowlan, G.S.; Repetski, J.E.; Ethington, Raymond L.

    1999-01-01

    The Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) multielement conodont genus Iapetognathus is one of the oldest denticulate euconodont genera known. The ramiform-ramiform apparatus structure of Iapetognathus is not similar morphologically to other Late Cambrian to Earliest Ordovician denticulate multielement taxa, such as Eodentatus or Cordyloduts, because the major denticulate process has a lateral rather than a posterior orientation as it is in the other two examples. For this reason the genus is believed to have developed from the coniform-coniform apparatus Iapetonudus ibexensis (N.gen., n.sp.) through the development of the denticulate lateral processes. The two genera have a number of morphologic features in common and appear in stratigraphic succession. Iapetognathus aengensis (Lindstro??m) is redefined as a multielement taxon using topotype material and Ig. preaengensis Landing is placed in synonymy with it. Iapetognathus sprakersi, recently described by Landing in Landing and others (1996), is recognized as a multielement species and the new multielement species, Ig. fluctivagus, Ig. jilinensis and Ig. landingi n. spp. are described herein, based on type specimens from Utah (U.S.A.), Jilin (China) and Colorado (U.S.A.) respectively. Iapetonudus and Iapetognathus are important genera in defining the level of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Iapetonudus is currently recognized only from Utah, Texas and Oklahoma, but Iapetognathus is cosmopolitan in its distribution.

  12. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance. PMID:21479943

  13. Multi-Element Behaviour Support as a Model for the Delivery of a Human Rights Based Approach for Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviours that Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doody, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the multi-element behaviour support (MEBS) model in meeting the rights of persons with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge. It does this through explicitly linking the multi-element model to the guiding principles of a human rights based approach (HRBA) using a vignette to…

  14. New sonic shockwave multi-element sensors mounted on a small airfoil flown on F-15B testbed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    An experimental device to pinpoint the location of a shockwave that develops in an aircraft flying at transonic and supersonic speeds was recently flight-tested at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The shock location sensor, developed by TAO Systems, Hampton, Va., utilizes a multi-element hot-film sensor array along with a constant-voltage anemometer and special diagnostic software to pinpoint the exact location of the shockwave and its characteristics as it develops on an aircraft surface. For this experiment, the 45-element sensor was mounted on the small Dryden-designed airfoil shown in this illustration. The airfoil was attached to the Flight Test Fixture mounted underneath the fuselage of Dryden's F-15B testbed aircraft. Tests were flown at transonic speeds of Mach 0.7 to 0.9, and the device isolated the location of the shock wave to within a half-inch. Application of this technology could assist designers of future supersonic aircraft in improving the efficiency of engine air inlets by controlling the shockwave, with a related improvement in aircraft performance and fuel economy.

  15. Application of a Navier-Stokes Solver to the Analysis of Multielement Airfoils and Wings Using Multizonal Grid Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kenneth M.; Biedron, Robert T.; Whitlock, Mark

    1995-01-01

    A computational study was performed to determine the predictive capability of a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes code (CFL3D) for two-dimensional and three-dimensional multielement high-lift systems. Three configurations were analyzed: a three-element airfoil, a wing with a full span flap and a wing with a partial span flap. In order to accurately model these complex geometries, two different multizonal structured grid techniques were employed. For the airfoil and full span wing configurations, a chimera or overset grid technique was used. The results of the airfoil analysis illustrated that although the absolute values of lift were somewhat in error, the code was able to predict reasonably well the variation with Reynolds number and flap position. The full span flap analysis demonstrated good agreement with experimental surface pressure data over the wing and flap. Multiblock patched grids were used to model the partial span flap wing. A modification to an existing patched- grid algorithm was required to analyze the configuration as modeled. Comparisons with experimental data were very good, indicating the applicability of the patched-grid technique to analyses of these complex geometries.

  16. Design and optimization of a multi-element piezoelectric transducer for mode-selective generation of guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanpanah Moghadam, Peyman; Quaegebeur, Nicolas; Masson, Patrice

    2016-07-01

    A novel multi-element piezoelectric transducers (MEPT) is designed, optimized, machined and experimentally tested to improve structural health monitoring systems for mode-selective generation of guided waves (GW) in an isotropic structure. GW generation using typical piezoceramics makes the signal processing and consequently damage detection very complicated because at any driving frequency at least two fundamental symmetric (S 0) and antisymmetric (A 0) modes are generated. To prevent this, mode selective transducer design is proposed based on MEPT. A numerical method is first developed to extract the interfacial stress between a single piezoceramic element and a host structure and then used as the input of an analytical model to predict the GW propagation through the thickness of an isotropic plate. Two novel objective functions are proposed to optimize the interfacial shear stress for both suppressing unwanted mode(s) and maximizing the desired mode. Simplicity and low manufacturing cost are two main targets driving the design of the MEPT. A prototype MEPT is then manufactured using laser micro-machining. An experimental procedure is presented to validate the performances of the MEPT as a new solution for mode-selective GW generation. Experimental tests illustrate the high capability of the MEPT for mode-selective GW generation, as unwanted mode is suppressed by a factor up to 170 times compared with the results obtained with a single piezoceramic.

  17. A case of Erdheim Chester disease with central nervous system involvement

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anil Kumar; Muthusamy, Karthik; Aaron, Sanjith; Alexander, Mathew; Kachare, Nanda; Mani, Sunithi; Sniya, Sudhakar

    2015-01-01

    Erdheim Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, commonly involving the musculoskeletal system. Other tissue can also be involved, including the central nervous system with wide spectrum of clinical features, at times being nonspecific. This can cause diagnostic dilemmas with delay in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Here we describe a 63-year-old man who had presented with ataxia and behavioral changes, bony pains, weight loss, and fatigue. His computed tomography (CT), 99Tc scintigraphy and histopathological features on bone biopsy were consistent with ECD. Thus, ECD should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with bony pain and nonspecific features of multiorgan involvement. PMID:26425015

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  19. Cutaneous involvement by cytomegalovirus in a renal transplant recipient as an indicator of severe systemic infection*

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Antonielle Borges Faria; Daxbacher, Egon Luiz Rodrigues; Chiaratti, Francielle Chiavelli; Jeunon, Thiago

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is an opportunistic virus that commonly affects immunosuppressed patients. Cutaneous involvement by this virus is rare and occurs in significantly immunocompromised hosts, with a poor prognosis. Skin ulcers may represent the first sign of systemic infection by cytomegalovirus in these patients. Herein, a case of a systemic infection by Cytomegalovirus presenting as genital and oral ulcers in a kidney-transplant recipient is reported. PMID:26982783

  20. 42 CFR 480.143 - QIO involvement in shared health data systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... established under the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 242k) or other State or Federally authorized shared... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false QIO involvement in shared health data systems. 480.143 Section 480.143 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  1. Educational Support System for Experiments Involving Construction of Sound Processing Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel educational support system for technical experiments involving the production of practical electronic circuits for sound processing. To support circuit design and production, each student uses a computer during the experiments, and can learn circuit design, virtual circuit making, and real circuit making. In the…

  2. Dermoscopic Visualization of Vellus Hair Involvement in Tinea Corporis: A Criterion for Systemic Antifungal Therapy?

    PubMed

    Knöpfel, Nicole; del Pozo, Luis Javier; Escudero, Maria del Mar; Martín-Santiago, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Dermoscopy has been shown to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of several infectious diseases. We report a case of tinea corporis in an infant in whom dermoscopy helped us to determine vellus hair involvement, causing treatment to be switched from topical to systemic antifungal therapy.

  3. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  4. Amyloidosis involving the respiratory system: 5-year's experience of a multi-disciplinary group's activity.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Maccari, Uberto; Madioni, Chiara; Venezia, Duccio; La Magra, Lidia Calogera

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis may involve the respiratory system with different clinical-radiological-functional patterns which are not always easy to be recognized. A good level of knowledge of the disease, an active integration of the pulmonologist within a multidisciplinary setting and a high level of clinical suspicion are necessary for an early diagnosis of respiratory amyloidosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the number and the patterns of amyloidosis involving the respiratory system. We searched the cases of amyloidosis among patients attending the multidisciplinary rare and diffuse lung disease outpatients' clinic of Pulmonology Unit of the Hospital of Arezzo from 2007 to 2012. Among the 298 patients evaluated during the study period, we identified three cases of amyloidosis with involvement of the respiratory system, associated or not with other extra-thoracic localizations, whose diagnosis was histo-pathologically confirmed after the pulmonologist, the radiologist, and the pathologist evaluation. Our experience of a multidisciplinary team confirms that intra-thoracic amyloidosis is an uncommon disorder, representing 1.0% of the cases of rare and diffuse lung diseases referred to our center. The diagnosis of the disease is not always easy and quick as the amyloidosis may involve different parts of the respiratory system (airways, pleura, parenchyma). It is therefore recommended to remind this orphan disease in the differential diagnosis of the wide clinical scenarios the pulmonologist may intercept in clinical practice.

  5. Maltreatment, Academic Difficulty, and Systems-Involved Youth: Current Evidence and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Susan; Zibulsky, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Youth involved in child-serving systems of care (e.g., child welfare and juvenile justice) often exhibit specific academic performance problems. The magnitude of academic risk among these students is a serious concern given that school attachment, performance, and attainment closely relate to indicators of well-being across the lifespan. It is…

  6. Practice parameter for the assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Terry; Fouras, George; Brown, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    This Practice Parameter presents principles for the mental health assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system. Important definitions, background, history, epidemiology, mental health care use, and functional outcomes are described. Practical guidance regarding child welfare-related considerations for evaluation and management are discussed.

  7. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k(o) neutron activation analysis

    PubMed

    Acharya; Mondal; Burte; Nair; Reddy; Reddy; Reddy; Manohar

    2000-12-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k0 method (k0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method.

  8. Method of forming multi-element thin hot film sensors on polyimide film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, Jr., Purnell (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of forming a multi-element, thin hot film sensor on a polyimide film. The sensor is formed by first cleaning one surface of the polyimide. Then, under a continuous vacuum, the surface is simultaneously cleaned by ion bombardment while nickel is deposited by evaporation. The ion beam cleaning is discontinued and copper is then deposited to an initial thickness by evaporation without a break in the vacuum. The vacuum is then removed and a final thickness of copper is deposited by plating. Sensor patterns are then defined in the nickel and copper layers using conventional photolithography and etching techniques.

  9. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k(o) neutron activation analysis

    PubMed

    Acharya; Mondal; Burte; Nair; Reddy; Reddy; Reddy; Manohar

    2000-12-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k0 method (k0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method. PMID:11077961

  10. A multi-element cosmological model with a complex space-time topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardashev, N. S.; Lipatova, L. N.; Novikov, I. D.; Shatskiy, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    Wormhole models with a complex topology having one entrance and two exits into the same space-time of another universe are considered, as well as models with two entrances from the same space-time and one exit to another universe. These models are used to build a model of a multi-sheeted universe (a multi-element model of the "Multiverse") with a complex topology. Spherical symmetry is assumed in all the models. A Reissner-Norström black-hole model having no singularity beyond the horizon is constructed. The strength of the central singularity of the black hole is analyzed.

  11. Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen

    2012-07-15

    We demonstrate the successful operation of a multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) array integrated with a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout circuit in a compact 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. A time-resolved readout technique, where output signals from each element enter the SFQ readout circuit with finite time intervals, revealed crosstalk-free operation of the four-element SSPD array connected with the SFQ readout circuit. The timing jitter and the system detection efficiency were measured to be 50 ps and 11.4%, respectively, which were comparable to the performance of practical single-pixel SSPD systems.

  12. Hybrid power system intelligent operation and protection involving distributed architectures and pulsed loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Ahmed

    Efficient and reliable techniques for power delivery and utilization are needed to account for the increased penetration of renewable energy sources in electric power systems. Such methods are also required for current and future demands of plug-in electric vehicles and high-power electronic loads. Distributed control and optimal power network architectures will lead to viable solutions to the energy management issue with high level of reliability and security. This dissertation is aimed at developing and verifying new techniques for distributed control by deploying DC microgrids, involving distributed renewable generation and energy storage, through the operating AC power system. To achieve the findings of this dissertation, an energy system architecture was developed involving AC and DC networks, both with distributed generations and demands. The various components of the DC microgrid were designed and built including DC-DC converters, voltage source inverters (VSI) and AC-DC rectifiers featuring novel designs developed by the candidate. New control techniques were developed and implemented to maximize the operating range of the power conditioning units used for integrating renewable energy into the DC bus. The control and operation of the DC microgrids in the hybrid AC/DC system involve intelligent energy management. Real-time energy management algorithms were developed and experimentally verified. These algorithms are based on intelligent decision-making elements along with an optimization process. This was aimed at enhancing the overall performance of the power system and mitigating the effect of heavy non-linear loads with variable intensity and duration. The developed algorithms were also used for managing the charging/discharging process of plug-in electric vehicle emulators. The protection of the proposed hybrid AC/DC power system was studied. Fault analysis and protection scheme and coordination, in addition to ideas on how to retrofit currently available

  13. Survival in progressive systemic sclerosis with pulmonary involvement: a single-center experience in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Zuhur, Ferit; Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Zuhur, Cigdem; Musellim, Benan; Ongen, Gul

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine survival and factors that affect survival in progressive systemic sclerosis (SSc) with pulmonary involvement. A total of 102 SSc patients with pulmonary involvement, diagnosed between 1994 and 2008, enrolled into the study. Pulmonary involvement was defined based on the presence of interstitial changes on high-resolution CT (HRCT). Demographical, clinical, radiological, and laboratory data of the patients were found from patient records and were used for the evaluation of survival. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 50 ± 12 years. In follow-up, 22 (21.5%) patients were deceased. The mean age of the patients at death was 55 ± 12 years. Seventy-eight percent of known causes of mortality were related to pulmonary complications. After any initial systemic manifestation of disease, the mean survival was 447 ± 27 months and 5, 10, 15, and 20 year survival rates were 99, 92, 83, and 72%, respectively. The mean survival after initial pulmonary manifestation was 269 ± 23 months and 5, 10 and 15 year survival rates were 91, 73 and 57%, respectively. Mean survival was 113 ± 5 months, and 5- and 10-year survival rates after the lung involvement detected with HRCT were 85 and 66%, respectively. Pulmonary artery hypertension, disease onset after the age of 40, and honeycombing on HRCT were associated with poor survival. Our data suggest that pulmonary involvement is the most important determinant factor for poor prognosis in patients with SSc. Therefore, echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, and HRCT should be performed in early stages of the disease for early diagnosis of pulmonary artery hypertension and lung involvement before irreversible vascular and interstitial changes exist.

  14. Involvement of type VI secretion system in secretion of iron chelator pyoverdine in Pseudomonas taiwanensis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Jen; Kuo, Tzu-Yen; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Chen, Pi-Yu; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Shih, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ying-Mi; Liu, Je-Ruei; Yang, Yu-Liang; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    Rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Therefore, in addition to breeding disease-resistant rice cultivars, it is desirable to develop effective biocontrol agents against Xoo. Here, we report that a soil bacterium Pseudomonas taiwanensis displayed strong antagonistic activity against Xoo. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, we identified an iron chelator, pyoverdine, secreted by P. taiwanensis that could inhibit the growth of Xoo. Through Tn5 mutagenesis of P. taiwanensis, we showed that mutations in genes that encode components of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) as well as biosynthesis and maturation of pyoverdine resulted in reduced toxicity against Xoo. Our results indicated that T6SS is involved in the secretion of endogenous pyoverdine. Mutations in T6SS component genes affected the secretion of mature pyoverdine from the periplasmic space into the extracellular medium after pyoverdine precursor is transferred to the periplasm by the inner membrane transporter PvdE. In addition, we also showed that other export systems, i.e., the PvdRT-OpmQ and MexAB-OprM efflux systems (for which there have been previous suggestions of involvement) and the type II secretion system (T2SS), are not involved in pyoverdine secretion. PMID:27605490

  15. Involvement of type VI secretion system in secretion of iron chelator pyoverdine in Pseudomonas taiwanensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Jen; Kuo, Tzu-Yen; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Chen, Pi-Yu; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Shih, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ying-Mi; Liu, Je-Ruei; Yang, Yu-Liang; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    Rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Therefore, in addition to breeding disease-resistant rice cultivars, it is desirable to develop effective biocontrol agents against Xoo. Here, we report that a soil bacterium Pseudomonas taiwanensis displayed strong antagonistic activity against Xoo. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, we identified an iron chelator, pyoverdine, secreted by P. taiwanensis that could inhibit the growth of Xoo. Through Tn5 mutagenesis of P. taiwanensis, we showed that mutations in genes that encode components of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) as well as biosynthesis and maturation of pyoverdine resulted in reduced toxicity against Xoo. Our results indicated that T6SS is involved in the secretion of endogenous pyoverdine. Mutations in T6SS component genes affected the secretion of mature pyoverdine from the periplasmic space into the extracellular medium after pyoverdine precursor is transferred to the periplasm by the inner membrane transporter PvdE. In addition, we also showed that other export systems, i.e., the PvdRT-OpmQ and MexAB-OprM efflux systems (for which there have been previous suggestions of involvement) and the type II secretion system (T2SS), are not involved in pyoverdine secretion. PMID:27605490

  16. Involvement of the central nervous system in patients with dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Renan B; Kuster, Gustavo W; Onuki-Castro, Fábio L; Souza, Vanda A; Levi, José E; Pannuti, Cláudio S

    2008-04-15

    The findings of a neurological evaluation in 85 patients with confirmed, acute, dengue virus infection are described. Signs of central nervous system involvement were present in 18 patients (21.2%). The most frequent neurological symptom was mental confusion. The frequency of neurological involvement did not differ between patients with primary and secondary dengue infection, and the prevalence of central nervous system involvement in dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever also did not differ significantly. The presence of CNS involvement did not influence the prognosis of dengue infection. Dengue viral CSF RNA was found in 7 of 13 patients submitted to a spinal tap, the CSF viral load being less than 1000 copies/ml. PCR was negative in serum samples obtained from three patients on the same day as the CSF samples, suggesting that the dengue virus actively enters the CNS and that the presence of the virus in the CNS does not result from passive crossing of the blood-brain barrier.

  17. Photocatalytic activity of multielement doped TiO 2 in the degradation of congo red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Kalaivani, S.; Amala Infant Joice, J.; Sivakumar, T.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 although considered a promising photocatalyst for the degradation of aqueous pollutants, it suffers from poor absorption in the visible region and hence requires ultraviolet (UV) light for activation. To make TiO2 a visible active photocatalyst, multielement (C, N, B, and F) doping has been done. The synthesised CNBF/TiO2 catalysts were calcined at different temperatures and characterized by XRD, BET surface area, UV DRS, XPS, HRSEM-EDAX, and TEM techniques. These catalysts found to show less band gap values when compared to bare TiO2. These catalysts were tested for their catalytic activity towards the degradation of a textile dye - congo red (CR) under different reaction conditions. It was found that the photocatalytic activity was dependent on both doping of multielement and the calcination temperature of CNBF/TiO2. The co-doped catalysts which were calcined at 400 °C and 600 °C (100% intensity in anatase phase) were found to be the best catalysts (100% decolourisation of CR in 21/2 h and 2 h respectively). TOC analysis carried out for the samples at the reaction time of 5 h showed very high percentage (83%) degradation of CR over CNBF/TiO2 catalysts calcined at 600 °C when compared to the other catalysts calcined at different temperatures. CNBF/TiO2 (1000 °C) showed very less photocatalytic activity due to the formation of rutile phase.

  18. Ice accretion simulation on multi-element airfoils using extended Messinger model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgen, S.; Canıbek, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the current article, the problem of in-flight ice accumulation on multi-element airfoils is studied numerically. The analysis starts with flow field computation using the Hess-Smith panel method. The second step is the calculation of droplet trajectories and droplet collection efficiencies. In the next step, convective heat transfer coefficient distributions around the airfoil elements are calculated using the Integral Boundary-Layer Method. The formulation accounts for the surface roughness due to ice accretion. The fourth step consists of establishing the thermodynamic balance and computing ice accretion rates using the Extended Messinger Model. At low temperatures and low liquid water contents, rime ice occurs for which the ice shape is determined by a simple mass balance. At warmer temperatures and high liquid water contents, glaze ice forms for which the energy and mass conservation equations are combined to yield a single first order ordinary differential equation, solved numerically. Predicted ice shapes are compared with experimental shapes reported in the literature and good agreement is observed both for rime and glaze ice. Ice shapes and masses are also computed for realistic flight scenarios. The results indicate that the smaller elements in multielement configurations accumulate comparable and often greater amount of ice compared to larger elements. The results also indicate that the multi-layer approach yields more accurate results compared to the one-layer approach, especially for glaze ice conditions.

  19. Designs and Algorithms to Map Eye Tracking Data with Dynamic Multielement Moving Objects

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1) participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2) visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1) developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs) in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2) introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT) that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3) finding a near optimal AGT value. The approach was tested in the context of air traffic control (ATC) operations where air traffic controller specialists (ATCSs) interrogated multiple moving aircraft on a radar display to detect and control the aircraft for the purpose of maintaining safe and expeditious air transportation. In addition, we show how eye tracking analysis results can differ based on how we define dynamic AOIs to determine eye fixations on moving objects. The results serve as a framework to more accurately analyze eye tracking data and to better support the analysis of human performance. PMID:27725830

  20. Dynamics of attention in depth: evidence from multi-element tracking.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Lavanya; Mingolla, Ennio

    2002-01-01

    We examined the allocation of attention in depth using a multi-element tracking paradigm. Observers were required to track a predefined subset of from two to eight elements in displays containing up to sixteen identical moving elements. We first show that depth cues, such as binocular disparity and occlusion through T-junctions, improve performance in a multi-element tracking task in the case where element boundaries are allowed to intersect in the depiction of motion in a single frontoparallel plane. We also show that the allocation of attention across two perceptually distinguishable planar surfaces, either frontoparallel or receding at a slanting angle and defined by coplanar elements, is easier than allocation of attention within a single surface. The same result was not found when attention was required to be deployed across items of two-color populations rather than across items of a single color. Our results suggest that, when surface information does not suffice to distinguish between targets and distractors that are embedded in these surfaces, division of attention across two surfaces aids in tracking moving targets. A final experiment with populations of elements moving within distinct volumes produced similar results, suggesting that spatial separation in three dimensions, rather than confinement to surfaces as such, may explain the improved performance for the two-surface case.

  1. Aerodynamics Characteristics of Multi-Element Airfoils at -90 Degrees Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stremel, Paul M.; Schmitz, Fredric H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A developed method has been applied to calculate accurately the viscous flow about airfoils normal to the free-stream flow. This method has special application to the analysis of tilt rotor aircraft in the evaluation of download. In particular, the flow about an XV-15 airfoil with and without deflected leading and trailing edge flaps at -90 degrees incidence is evaluated. The multi-element aspect of the method provides for the evaluation of slotted flap configurations which may lead to decreased drag. The method solves for turbulent flow at flight Reynolds numbers. The flow about the XV-15 airfoil with and without flap deflections has been calculated and compared with experimental data at a Reynolds number of one million. The comparison between the calculated and measured pressure distributions are very good, thereby, verifying the method. The aerodynamic evaluation of multielement airfoils will be conducted to determine airfoil/flap configurations for reduced airfoil drag. Comparisons between the calculated lift, drag and pitching moment on the airfoil and the airfoil surface pressure will also be presented.

  2. Substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    As child welfare systems across the country face the problem of parental substance abuse, there is an increasing need to understand the types of treatment approaches that are most effective for substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system-the majority of whom are mothers. This structured review of the literature focuses on evidence related to two areas: (1) individual-level interventions designed to assist mothers and women in addressing their substance abuse problems, and (2) system-level interventions designed to improve collaboration and coordination between the child welfare system and the alcohol and other drug system. Overall, research suggests the following program components may be effective with substance-abusing women with children: (1) Women-centered treatment that involves children, (2) Specialized health and mental health services, (3) Home visitation services, (4) Concrete assistance, (5) Short-term targeted interventions, and (6) Comprehensive programs that integrate many of these components. Research also suggests that promising collaborative models between the child welfare system (CWS) and the alcohol and other drug (AOD) system typically include the following core elements: (1) Out-stationing AOD workers in child welfare offices, (2) Joint case planning, (3) Using official committees to guide collaborative efforts, (4) Training and cross-training, (5) Using protocols for sharing confidential information, and (6) Using dependency drug courts. Although more rigorous research is needed on both individual-level and system-level substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system, the integration of individual-level interventions and system-level approaches is a potentially useful practice approach with this vulnerable population.

  3. The involvement of schizophrenic insanity acquittees in the mental health and criminal justice systems.

    PubMed

    Bloom, J D; Williams, M H; Bigelow, D A

    1992-09-01

    This article described the mental health and criminal justice involvement of a large group of schizophrenic insanity acquittees and the program designed to manage and treat these individuals. Most insanity acquittees in our system are chronically mentally ill individuals who fit well into the psychosocial rehabilitation models that have developed over the past 15 years. In addition, the use of conditional release and monitored care in the community appears to be the most realistic approach to this group of individuals who show a high degree of involvement with the mental health and criminal justice service systems. This research has continued implications for the development of outpatient civil commitment and for the attempt to give people as much liberty as they are capable of handling while being realistic about their capacities to survive in the community.

  4. Multi-element logic gates for trapped-ion qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. R.; Gaebler, J. P.; Lin, Y.; Wan, Y.; Bowler, R.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Precision control over hybrid physical systems at the quantum level is important for the realization of many quantum-based technologies. In the field of quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum networking, various proposals discuss the possibility of hybrid architectures where specific tasks are delegated to the most suitable subsystem. For example, in quantum networks, it may be advantageous to transfer information from a subsystem that has good memory properties to another subsystem that is more efficient at transporting information between nodes in the network. For trapped ions, a hybrid system formed of different species introduces extra degrees of freedom that can be exploited to expand and refine the control of the system. Ions of different elements have previously been used in QIP experiments for sympathetic cooling, creation of entanglement through dissipation, and quantum non-demolition measurement of one species with another. Here we demonstrate an entangling quantum gate between ions of different elements which can serve as an important building block of QIP, quantum networking, precision spectroscopy, metrology, and quantum simulation. A geometric phase gate between a 9Be+ ion and a 25Mg+ ion is realized through an effective spin-spin interaction generated by state-dependent forces induced with laser beams. Combined with single-qubit gates and same-species entangling gates, this mixed-element entangling gate provides a complete set of gates over such a hybrid system for universal QIP. Using a sequence of such gates, we demonstrate a CNOT (controlled-NOT) gate and a SWAP gate. We further demonstrate the robustness of these gates against thermal excitation and show improved detection in quantum logic spectroscopy. We also observe a strong violation of a CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt)-type Bell inequality on entangled states composed of different ion species.

  5. Multi-element logic gates for trapped-ion qubits.

    PubMed

    Tan, T R; Gaebler, J P; Lin, Y; Wan, Y; Bowler, R; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2015-12-17

    Precision control over hybrid physical systems at the quantum level is important for the realization of many quantum-based technologies. In the field of quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum networking, various proposals discuss the possibility of hybrid architectures where specific tasks are delegated to the most suitable subsystem. For example, in quantum networks, it may be advantageous to transfer information from a subsystem that has good memory properties to another subsystem that is more efficient at transporting information between nodes in the network. For trapped ions, a hybrid system formed of different species introduces extra degrees of freedom that can be exploited to expand and refine the control of the system. Ions of different elements have previously been used in QIP experiments for sympathetic cooling, creation of entanglement through dissipation, and quantum non-demolition measurement of one species with another. Here we demonstrate an entangling quantum gate between ions of different elements which can serve as an important building block of QIP, quantum networking, precision spectroscopy, metrology, and quantum simulation. A geometric phase gate between a (9)Be(+) ion and a (25)Mg(+) ion is realized through an effective spin-spin interaction generated by state-dependent forces induced with laser beams. Combined with single-qubit gates and same-species entangling gates, this mixed-element entangling gate provides a complete set of gates over such a hybrid system for universal QIP. Using a sequence of such gates, we demonstrate a CNOT (controlled-NOT) gate and a SWAP gate. We further demonstrate the robustness of these gates against thermal excitation and show improved detection in quantum logic spectroscopy. We also observe a strong violation of a CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt)-type Bell inequality on entangled states composed of different ion species. PMID:26672553

  6. Elucidating the role of aromatic interactions in rotational barriers involving aromatic systems.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carlos F R A C; Gomes, Lígia R; Low, John N; Silva, Artur M S; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2012-11-16

    The measurement of aryl-naphthyl rotational barriers, ΔG(⧧), in various solvents for two substituted 1,8-diarylnaphthalenes by dynamic (1)H NMR showed that ΔG(‡) trends in aromatic systems can be fully rationalized only when considering the different types of aromatic interactions that can be established in the ground and transition states, namely, intramolecular interactions involving the aromatic rings and specific solvation interactions. PMID:23106141

  7. Potential involvement of the extracranial venous system in central nervous system disorders and aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of the extracranial venous system in the pathology of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and aging is largely unknown. It is acknowledged that the development of the venous system is subject to many variations and that these variations do not necessarily represent pathological findings. The idea has been changing with regards to the extracranial venous system. Discussion A range of extracranial venous abnormalities have recently been reported, which could be classified as structural/morphological, hemodynamic/functional and those determined only by the composite criteria and use of multimodal imaging. The presence of these abnormalities usually disrupts normal blood flow and is associated with the development of prominent collateral circulation. The etiology of these abnormalities may be related to embryologic developmental arrest, aging or other comorbidities. Several CNS disorders have been linked to the presence and severity of jugular venous reflux. Another composite criteria-based vascular condition named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was recently introduced. CCSVI is characterized by abnormalities of the main extracranial cerebrospinal venous outflow routes that may interfere with normal venous outflow. Summary Additional research is needed to better define the role of the extracranial venous system in relation to CNS disorders and aging. The use of endovascular treatment for the correction of these extracranial venous abnormalities should be discouraged, until potential benefit is demonstrated in properly-designed, blinded, randomized and controlled clinical trials. Please see related editorial: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/259. PMID:24344742

  8. Central Nervous System Involvement in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Diagnostic Tools, Prophylaxis, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; De Santis, Giovanna; Di Veroli, Ambra; Ditto, Concetta; Nasso, Daniela; Postorino, Massimiliano; Refrigeri, Marco; Attrotto, Cristina; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement is associated with a very poor prognosis. The diagnostic assessment of this condition relies on the use of neuroradiology, conventional cytology (CC) and flow cytometry (FCM). Among these approaches, which is the gold standard it is still a matter of debate. Neuroradiology and CC have a limited sensitivity with a higher rate of false negative results. FCM demonstrated a superior sensitivity over CC, particularly when low levels of CNS infiltrating cells are present. Although prospective studies of a large series of patients are still awaited, a positive finding by FCM appears to anticipate an adverse outcome even if CC shows no infiltration. Current strategies for adult ALL CNS-directed prophylaxis or therapy involve systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation therapy. An early and frequent intrathecal injection of cytostatic combined with systemic chemotherapy is the most effective strategy to reduce the frequency of CNS involvement. In patients with CNS overt ALL, at diagnosis or upon relapse, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered. This review discusses risk factors, diagnostic techniques for identification of CNS infiltration and modalities of prophylaxis and therapy to manage it. PMID:25408861

  9. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriela; Weiss, Lawrence M; Barber, Glen N; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2011-02-01

    Lymphomas involving the central nervous system are recognized increasingly in immunocompetent as well as immunosuppressed individuals, and the majority of the cases are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to compare the immunophenotype, clinicopathological features, and association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) of DLBCL of the central nervous system (CNS) in 3 different clinical situations: primary, in immunocompetent patients; "primary," in immunosuppressed patients; and in patients with secondary involvement by systemic lymphoma. The authors reviewed the clinicopathological features, morphology, immunophenotype (according to germinal-center B-cell-like and nongerminal B-cell-like subtypes), and association with EBV in 36 cases of DLBCL of the CNS, including 25 primary cases, 5 associated with immunosuppression, and 6 cases with secondary involvement. Survival was evaluated in 15 cases of primary CNS lymphomas. Of the 36 patients, 19 were male and 18 female. Only 2 cases of lymphomas were EBV-positive; both occurred in immunosuppressed patients. Separation into germinal-center and non-germinal center subtypes by an immunohistochemistry panel showed that 68% of primary, 80% of secondary, and 83% of the cases associated with immunosuppression were of non-germinal-center subtype, respectively. Patients with non-germinal-center immunophenotype showed significantly worse survival than those with CNS lymphomas of the germinal-center subtype.

  10. Multi-Element Integrated Project Planning at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullon, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This presentation demonstrates how the ASRC Scheduling team developed working practices to support multiple NASA and ASRC Project Managers using the enterprise capabilities of Primavera P6 and P6 Web Access. This work has proceeded as part of Kennedy Ground Systems' preparation for its transition from the Shuttle Program to the Constellation Program. The presenters will cover Primavera's enterprise-class capabilities for schedule development, integrated critical path analysis, and reporting, as well as advanced Primavera P6 Web Access tools and techniques for communicating project status.

  11. ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; O CONNOR,P.; KANDASAMY,A.; GROSHOLZ,J.

    2002-07-08

    A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 {micro}m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed.

  12. [Software development of multi-element transient signal acquisition and processing with multi-channel ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Zhuang, Z; Wang, X; Zhu, E; Liu, J

    2000-02-01

    A software for multi-channel ICP-AES multi-element transient signal acquisition and processing were developed in this paper. It has been successfully applied to signal acquisition and processing in many transient introduction techniques on-line hyphenated with multi-channel ICP-AES.

  13. Health & justice: health care for people involved in the justice system.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    The issue of health and justice is especially pressing because people involved in the justice system are one of the most medically vulnerable groups in this country. They are often at-risk youth, children and adults with a history of physical and sexual abuse, low-income men of color, and people with high rates of chronic and communicable disease who may also be struggling with mental illness and substance abuse. Health funders have found that focusing on people entering, in, or emerging from the criminal and juvenile justice systems increases the likelihood of connecting with vulnerable populations that are hard to pull into traditional health interventions. Successful initiatives targeting these groups improve health, reduce recidivism, and transform systems by building cross-sectoral partnerships among health, justice, mental health, and substance abuse systems, which may require policy change at the local, state, and federal levels.

  14. Waveguide Calibrator for Multi-Element Probe Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    A calibrator, referred to as the spider design, can be used to calibrate probes incorporating multiple acoustic sensing elements. The application is an acoustic energy density probe, although the calibrator can be used for other types of acoustic probes. The calibrator relies on the use of acoustic waveguide technology to produce the same acoustic field at each of the sensing elements. As a result, the sensing elements can be separated from each other, but still calibrated through use of the acoustic waveguides. Standard calibration techniques involve placement of an individual microphone into a small cavity with a known, uniform pressure to perform the calibration. If a cavity is manufactured with sufficient size to insert the energy density probe, it has been found that a uniform pressure field can only be created at very low frequencies, due to the size of the probe. The size of the energy density probe prevents one from having the same pressure at each microphone in a cavity, due to the wave effects. The "spider" design probe is effective in calibrating multiple microphones separated from each other. The spider design ensures that the same wave effects exist for each microphone, each with an indivdual sound path. The calibrator s speaker is mounted at one end of a 14-cm-long and 4.1-cm diameter small plane-wave tube. This length was chosen so that the first evanescent cross mode of the plane-wave tube would be attenuated by about 90 dB, thus leaving just the plane wave at the termination plane of the tube. The tube terminates with a small, acrylic plate with five holes placed symmetrically about the axis of the speaker. Four ports are included for the four microphones on the probe. The fifth port is included for the pre-calibrated reference microphone. The ports in the acrylic plate are in turn connected to the probe sensing elements via flexible PVC tubes. These five tubes are the same length, so the acoustic wave effects are the same in each tube. The

  15. Hypoxic preconditioning involves system Xc- regulation in mouse neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sims, Brian; Clarke, Melinda; Francillion, Ludwig; Kindred, Elijah; Hopkins, Elana Shuford; Sontheimer, Harald

    2012-03-01

    In animals, hypoxic preconditioning has been used as a form of neuroprotection. The exact mechanism involved in neuroprotective hypoxic preconditioning has not been described, yet could be valuable for possible neuroprotective strategies. The overexpression of the cystine-glutamate exchanger, system Xc-, has been demonstrated as being neuroprotective (Shih, Erb et al. 2006). Here, using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice exposed to hypoxia showed an increase in system Xc- expression, with the highest level of intensity in the hippocampus. Western Blot analysis also showed an almost 2-fold increase in system Xc- protein in hypoxia-exposed versus control mice. The mRNA for the regulatory subunit of system Xc-, xCT, and the xCT/actin ratio were also increased under hypoxic conditions. Experiments using hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) siRNA showed a statistically significant decrease in HIF-1α and system Xc- expression. Under hypoxic conditions, system Xc- activity, as determined by cystine uptake, increased 2-fold. Importantly, hypoxic preconditioning was attenuated in neural stem cells by pharmacological inhibition of system Xc- activity with S4-carboxyphenylglycine. These data provide the first evidence of hypoxic regulation of the cystine glutamate exchanger system Xc-.

  16. Multiple Service System Involvement and Later Offending Behavior: Implications for Prevention and Early Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated patterns of childhood and adolescent experiences that correspond to later justice system entry, including persistence into adulthood, and explored whether timing of potential supports to the child or onset of family poverty, according to developmental periods and gender, would distinguish among latent classes. Methods. We constructed a database containing records for 8587 youths from a Midwestern metropolitan region, born between 1982 and 1991, with outcomes. We used data from multiple publicly funded systems (child welfare, income maintenance, juvenile and criminal justice, mental health, Medicaid, vital statistics). We applied a latent class analysis and interpreted a 7-class model. Results. Classes with higher rates of offending persisting into adulthood were characterized by involvement with multiple publicly funded systems in childhood and adolescence, with the exception of 1 less-urban, predominantly female class that had similarly high system involvement coupled with lower rates of offending. Conclusions. Poverty and maltreatment appear to play a critical role in offending trajectories. Identifying risk factors that cluster together may help program and intervention staff best target those most in need of more intensive intervention. PMID:25973802

  17. A comparative investigation on structure and multiferroic properties of bismuth ferrite thin films by multielement co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Guohua; Tan, Guoqiang Luo, Yangyang; Liu, Wenlong; Xia, Ao; Ren, Huijun

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Multielement (Tb, Cr and Mn) co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films were fabricated by CSD method. • Multielement co-doping induces a structural transition. • It is found effective to stabilize the valence of Fe ions at +3 by the strategy. • The co-doping at A/B-sites gives rise to the superior multiferroic properties. - Abstract: (Tb, Cr and Mn) multielement co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BTFCMO) thin films were prepared by the chemical solution deposition method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement and Raman analyses revealed that a phase transition from rhombohedral to triclinic structure occurs in the multielement co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films. It is found that the doping is conducive to stabilizing the valence of Fe ions and reducing leakage current. In addition, the highly enhanced ferroelectric properties with a huge remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of 239.6 μC/cm{sup 2} and a low coercive field (2E{sub c}) of 615.6 kV/cm are ascribed to the well film texture, the structure transition and the reduced leakage current by the co-doping. Moreover, the structure transition is the dominant factor resulting in the significant enhancement observed in magnetization (M{sub s} ∼ 10.5 emu/cm{sup 3}), owing to the collapse of the space-modulated spin structure. In this contribution, these results demonstrate that the multielement co-doping is in favor of the enhanced multiferroic properties of the BFO films for possible multifunctional applications.

  18. Heart involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome and neonatal lupus.

    PubMed

    Tincani, A; Rebaioli, C B; Taglietti, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    2006-10-01

    Cardiac involvement is one of the main complications substantially contributing to the morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases. All the anatomical heart structures can be affected, and multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been reported. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies have been implicated in immune complex formation and deposition as the initial triggers for inflammatory processes responsible for Libman-Sacks verrucous endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis. Anti-phospholipid antibodies have been associated with thrombotic events in coronary arteries, heart valve involvement and intra-myocardial vasculopathy in the context of primary and secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome. Antibodies-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antigens play a major pathogenic role in affecting the heart conduction tissue leading to the electrocardiographic abnormalities of the neonatal lupus syndrome and have been closely associated with endocardial fibroelastosis.

  19. Endoscopic biopsy of a B-cell lymphoma involving the entire ventricular system: A case report

    PubMed Central

    QIN, JIA-ZHEN; WU, YUE-KUI; YANG, ZHI-JUN; LV, JUN; DANG, YUAN-YUAN; ZHANG, HONG-TIAN; DAI, YI-WU

    2016-01-01

    A 62-year-old male suffering from vomiting and mild preceding nausea for 15 days was examined in the present case report. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a homogeneously enhancing cluster-like lesion involving the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. An endoscopic biopsy was performed, and histopathological examination led to the diagnosis of a high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. To the best of our knowledge, the present study reports the first case of a primary lymphoma involving the entire ventricular system. Therefore, primary lymphomas should be considered in the list of ventricular tumors. An endoscopic biopsy requires minimal invasion to obtain an adequate tissue sample, and frequently leads to the correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment protocols. PMID:26889262

  20. Dynamic visuomotor transformation involved with remote flying of a plane utilizes the 'Mirror Neuron' system.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Gamez, Mario; Cassel, Daniel B; Terzibas, Cengiz; Callan, Akiko; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-aki

    2012-01-01

    Brain regions involved with processing dynamic visuomotor representational transformation are investigated using fMRI. The perceptual-motor task involved flying (or observing) a plane through a simulated Red Bull Air Race course in first person and third person chase perspective. The third person perspective is akin to remote operation of a vehicle. The ability for humans to remotely operate vehicles likely has its roots in neural processes related to imitation in which visuomotor transformation is necessary to interpret the action goals in an egocentric manner suitable for execution. In this experiment for 3(rd) person perspective the visuomotor transformation is dynamically changing in accordance to the orientation of the plane. It was predicted that 3(rd) person remote flying, over 1(st), would utilize brain regions composing the 'Mirror Neuron' system that is thought to be intimately involved with imitation for both execution and observation tasks. Consistent with this prediction differential brain activity was present for 3(rd) person over 1(st) person perspectives for both execution and observation tasks in left ventral premotor cortex, right dorsal premotor cortex, and inferior parietal lobule bilaterally (Mirror Neuron System) (Behaviorally: 1(st)>3(rd)). These regions additionally showed greater activity for flying (execution) over watching (observation) conditions. Even though visual and motor aspects of the tasks were controlled for, differential activity was also found in brain regions involved with tool use, motion perception, and body perspective including left cerebellum, temporo-occipital regions, lateral occipital cortex, medial temporal region, and extrastriate body area. This experiment successfully demonstrates that a complex perceptual motor real-world task can be utilized to investigate visuomotor processing. This approach (Aviation Cerebral Experimental Sciences ACES) focusing on direct application to lab and field is in contrast to standard

  1. Inactivating effects of the lactoperoxidase system on bacterial lyases involved in oral malodour production.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Manabu; Shin, Kouichirou; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Hironaka, Shouji

    2015-10-01

    The main components of oral malodour have been identified as volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH). The lactoperoxidase (LPO) system (consisting of LPO, glucose oxidase, glucose and thiocyanate) was previously shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities against some oral bacteria in vitro and suppressive effects on VSCs in mouth air in a clinical trial. Here, we examined the in vitro effects of the LPO system on the activities of the bacterial lyases involved in the production of VSCs by oral anaerobes. The exposure of crude bacterial extracts of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis or purified methionine γ-lyase to the LPO system resulted in the inactivation of their lyase activities through l-cysteine and l-methionine, which was linked to the production of H(2)S and CH(3)SH, respectively. The exposure of living F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis cells to the LPO system resulted in the suppression of cell numbers and lyase activities. The inactivation of the crude bacterial extracts of F. nucleatum and purified methionine γ-lyase by the LPO system was partly recovered by the addition of DTT. Therefore, the LPO system may inactivate bacterial lyases including methionine γ-lyase by reacting with the free cysteine residues of lyases. These results suggested that the LPO system suppresses the production of VSCs not only through its antimicrobial effects, but also by its inactivating effects on the bacterial lyases of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis.

  2. MC4R expression in pedunculopontine nucleus involved in the modulation of midbrain dopamine system

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Tian, Xue-Bi; Liu, Tao-Tao; Liu, Cheng; Xiang, Hong-Bing; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Separate studies have implicated the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in processing aversive stimuli to dopamine systems, and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) are broadly expressed by the neurons in the PPTg, but the exact neurosubstrate underlying the regulation of dopamine systems by the central melanocortin pathway is poorly understood. Methods: In this study, the PPTg of 6 adult mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the MC4R promoter was detected by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Results: A large number of GFP-positive neurons in the dissipated parts of PPTg (dpPPTg) were found, and approximately 50% of MC4R-GFP- positive neurons in the dpPPTg coexpressed tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of dopamine neurons, indicating that they were dopaminergic. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that MC4R signaling in the dpPPTg may involve in the modulation of midbrain dopamine systems. PMID:25973101

  3. The endocannabinoid system: an ancient signaling involved in the control of male fertility.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Silvia; Meccariello, Rosaria; Cobellis, Gilda; Chianese, Rosanna; Cacciola, Giovanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Pierantoni, Riccardo

    2009-04-01

    The effects of cannabinoids on human health have been known since the antiquities when the extract of the plant Cannabis sativa was used because of its psychoactivity. The scientific story of the cannabinoids started in the 1960s with the isolation and characterization of the active component of the plant. After the synthesis of cannabinoid analogues, the analysis of structure-effect relationships was implemented, and this had a similar effect to a positive "Pandora's box" opening. To date, numerous roles have been ascribed to the "endocannabinoid system." Here we describe its involvement in the control of male reproduction, taking into consideration possible evolutionary speculations. Indeed, the endocannabinoid system is a very ancient signaling system, being clearly present from the divergence of the protostomian/deuterostomian.

  4. Scientists Needed! The Year of the Solar System: Opportunities for Scientist Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.

    2011-12-01

    Spanning a Martian Year - 23 months from October 2010 through August 2012 - the Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebrates the amazing discoveries of numerous new and ongoing NASA missions and research efforts as they explore our near and distant neighbors and probe the outer edges of our solar system. The science revealed by these endeavors is dramatically revising our understanding of the formation and evolution of our solar system. YSS offers opportunities for planetary scientists to become involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) in meaningful ways. By getting involved in YSS E/PO activities, scientists can help to raise awareness of, build excitement in, and make connections with educators, students and the public about current planetary science research and exploration. Each month during YSS a different compelling aspect of the solar system - its formation, volcanism, ice, life - is explored. The monthly topics, tied to the big questions of planetary science, include online resources that can be used by scientists to engage their audiences: hands-on learning activities, demonstrations, connections to solar system and mission events, ideas for partnering with other organizations, and other programming ideas. Resources for past, present, and future YSS monthly topics can be found at: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss. Scientists are encouraged to get involved in YSS through an avenue that best fits their available time and interests. Possible paths include: contacting the YSS organizational team to provide content for or to review the monthly topics; integrating current planetary research discoveries into your introductory college science classes; starting a science club; prompting an interview with the local media, creating a podcast about your science, sharing YSS with educators or program coordinators at your local schools, museums, libraries, astronomical clubs and societies, retirement homes, or rotary club; volunteering to present your science in one

  5. Systemic Sclerosis Patients Present Alterations in the Expression of Molecules Involved in B-Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Lilian; Ferrier, Ashley; Aravena, Octavio; Fonseca, Elianet; Berendsen, Jorge; Biere, Andrea; Bueno, Daniel; Ramos, Verónica; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; Catalán, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The activation threshold of B cells is tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activator receptors in such a way that disturbances in their expression can lead to the appearance of autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of activating and inhibitory molecules involved in the modulation of B cell functions in transitional, naive, and memory B-cell subpopulations from systemic sclerosis patients. To achieve this, blood samples were drawn from 31 systemic sclerosis patients and 53 healthy individuals. Surface expression of CD86, MHC II, CD19, CD21, CD40, CD22, Siglec 10, CD35, and FcγRIIB was determined by flow cytometry. IL-10 production was evaluated by intracellular flow cytometry from isolated B cells. Soluble IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA from supernatants of stimulated B cells. Systemic sclerosis patients exhibit an increased frequency of transitional and naive B cells related to memory B cells compared with healthy controls. Transitional and naive B cells from patients express higher levels of CD86 and FcγRIIB than healthy donors. Also, B cells from patients show high expression of CD19 and CD40, whereas memory cells from systemic sclerosis patients show reduced expression of CD35. CD19 and CD35 expression levels associate with different autoantibody profiles. IL-10+ B cells and secreted levels of IL-10 were markedly reduced in patients. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis patients show alterations in the expression of molecules involved in B-cell regulation. These abnormalities may be determinant in the B-cell hyperactivation observed in systemic sclerosis. PMID:26483788

  6. CCQM Pilot Study CCQM-P140: Quantitative surface analysis of multi-element alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Joong; Jang, Jong Shik; Kim, An Soon; Suh, Jung Ki; Chung, Yong-Duck; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Wirth, Thomas; Unger, Wolfgang; Kang, Hee Jae; Popov, Oleg; Popov, Inna; Kuselman, Ilya; Lee, Yeon Hee; Sykes, David E.; Wang, Meiling; Wang, Hai; Ogiwara, Toshiya; Nishio, Mitsuaki; Tanuma, Shigeo; Simons, David; Szakal, Christopher; Osborn, William; Terauchi, Shinya; Ito, Mika; Kurokawa, Akira; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Jordaan, Werner; Jeong, Chil Seong; Havelund, Rasmus; Spencer, Steve; Shard, Alex; Streeck, Cornelia; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Eicke, Axel; Terborg, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study for a quantitative surface analysis of multi-element alloy films has been performed by the Surface Analysis Working Group (SAWG) of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM). The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate a protocol for a key comparison to demonstrate the equivalence of measures by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and Designated Institutes (DI) for the mole fractions of multi-element alloy films. A Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) film with non-uniform depth distribution was chosen as a representative multi-element alloy film. The mole fractions of the reference and the test CIGS films were certified by isotope dilution—inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. A total number counting (TNC) method was used as a method to determine the signal intensities of the constituent elements acquired in SIMS, XPS and AES depth profiling. TNC method is comparable with the certification process because the certified mole fractions are the average values of the films. The mole fractions of the CIGS films were measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDX). Fifteen laboratories from eight NMIs, one DI, and six non-NMIs participated in this pilot study. The average mole fractions of the reported data showed relative standard deviations from 5.5 % to 6.8 % and average relative expanded uncertainties in the range from 4.52 % to 4.86 % for the four test CIGS specimens. These values are smaller than those in the key comparison CCQM-K67 for the measurement of mole fractions of Fe-Ni alloy films. As one result it can be stated that SIMS, XPS and AES protocols relying on the quantification of CIGS films using the TNC method are mature to be used in a CCQM key comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The

  7. Thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system involvement in cerebellar granule cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bobba, A; Casalino, E; Petragallo, V A; Atlante, A

    2014-10-01

    The involvement of thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system has been investigated in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs), a cellular system in which neurons are induced in apoptosis by the physiological stimulus of lowering extracellular potassium. Clarifying the sequence of events that occur during apoptosis is a critical issue as it can lead to the identification of those key events that, if blocked, can slow down or reverse the death process. The results reported in this work show that TrxR is involved in the early phase of CGC apoptosis with an increase in activity that coincides with the increased expression of the TrxR1 isoform and guarantees the maintenance of adequate level of Trx in its reduced, active form. However, in late apoptosis, when about 50 % of cells are dead, partial proteolysis of TrxR1 by calpain occurs and the reduction of TrxR1 mRNA, together with the overall decrease in TrxR activity, contribute to increase the levels of the oxidized form of Trx. When the reduced form of Trx is externally added to apoptotic cultures, a significant reduction in cell death is achieved confirming that a well-functioning thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system is required for survival of CGCs. PMID:25055978

  8. Neurotransmitter, opiodergic system, steroid-hormone interaction and involvement in the replacement therapy of sexual disorders.

    PubMed

    Frajese, G; Lazzari, R; Magnani, A; Moretti, C; Sforza, V; Nerozzi, D

    1990-11-20

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are the neurotransmitters most directly involved in sexual activity. DA plays a stimulatory role while 5-HT has an inhibitory effect. The two monoaminergic systems modulate the secretion of many hormones (GnRH, LH, testosterone, prolactin and endorphins) involved in sexual functional capacity. Furthermore, hormones influence synthesis and storage of brain neurotransmitters. Impotence can often be associated to clinical depression and altered neurotransmitter function. Moreover, stress represents an unbalance between various neurotransmitter systems and can induce impotence especially when disorders of the endorphinic system are present. Replacement therapy is based upon the understanding of these basic concepts. Impotence due to an underlying depressive illness must be treated with dopaminergic antidepressant drugs; while in stressful conditions a good response to the naloxone test is the preliminary criterion to subsequent naltrexone treatment. When a hormonal deficiency has been proved, the hormone replacement therapy is of course highly effective (gonadotropins in hypogonadotropic syndromes, testosterone in aging, etc.). Finally, idiopathic impotence could be treated by DA agonist and/or 5-HT antagonist drugs either alone or better yet in association with psychotherapy.

  9. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in nicotine dependence and reward: participation of the endogenous opioid system

    PubMed Central

    Berrendero, Fernando; Robledo, Patricia; Trigo, José Manuel; Martín-García, Elena; Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine is the primary component of tobacco that maintains the smoking habit and develops addiction. The adaptive changes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors produced by repeated exposure to nicotine play a crucial role in the establishment of dependence. However, other neurochemical systems also participate in the addictive effects of nicotine including glutamate, cannabinoids, GABA and opioids. This review will cover the involvement of these neurotransmitters in nicotine addictive properties, with a special emphasis on the endogenous opioid system. Thus, endogenous enkephalins and beta-endorphins acting on mu-opioid receptors are involved in nicotine rewarding effects, whereas opioid peptides derived from prodynorphin participate in nicotine aversive responses. An upregulation of mu-opioid receptors has been reported after chronic nicotine treatment that could counteract the development of nicotine tolerance, whereas the downregulation induced on kappa-opioid receptors seems to facilitate nicotine tolerance. Endogenous enkephalins acting on mu-opioid receptors also play a role in the development of physical dependence to nicotine. In agreement with these actions of the endogenous opioid system, the opioid antagonist naltrexone has shown to be effective for smoking cessation in certain subpopulations of smokers. PMID:20170672

  10. Novel Type IV Secretion System Involved in Propagation of Genomic Islands▿

    PubMed Central

    Juhas, Mario; Crook, Derrick W.; Dimopoulou, Ioanna D.; Lunter, Gerton; Harding, Rosalind M.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Hood, Derek W.

    2007-01-01

    Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) mediate horizontal gene transfer, thus contributing to genome plasticity, evolution of infectious pathogens, and dissemination of antibiotic resistance and other virulence traits. A gene cluster of the Haemophilus influenzae genomic island ICEHin1056 has been identified as a T4SS involved in the propagation of genomic islands. This T4SS is novel and evolutionarily distant from the previously described systems. Mutation analysis showed that inactivation of key genes of this system resulted in a loss of phenotypic traits provided by a T4SS. Seven of 10 mutants with a mutation in this T4SS did not express the type IV secretion pilus. Correspondingly, disruption of the genes resulted in up to 100,000-fold reductions in conjugation frequencies compared to those of the parent strain. Moreover, the expression of this T4SS was found to be positively regulated by one of its components, the tfc24 gene. We concluded that this gene cluster represents a novel family of T4SSs involved in propagation of genomic islands. PMID:17122343

  11. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in ethanol-induced corticostriatal synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyeong Seok; Jeun, Seung Hyun; Li, Qing-Zhong; Kim, Ki Jung; Choi, Se Joon; Sung, Ki-Wug

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is a wildly abused substance that causes various problems and damage in our society. We examined the connection between the action of ethanol and the endocannabinoid system in corticostriatal synaptic transmission by recording excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs). Acute treatment of ethanol (100 mM) inhibited corticostriatal EPSCs. In the presence of AM 251 (5 μM), a cannabinoid 1 (CB(1))-receptor antagonist, or AM 404 (5 μM), a cannabinoid transporter inhibitor, the inhibition of corticostriatal EPSCs caused by ethanol was significantly reduced. This result suggests the possibility that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the action of ethanol. To support this result, brain slices were pre-treated with WIN 55,212-2 (1 μM), a CB(1)-receptor agonist, following treatment of ethanol or treated with WIN 55,212-2 alone. There was no significant difference between each other, indicating that when CB(1) receptors are previously activated, the effect of ethanol is blunted. These results suggest that the activation of the endocannabinoid system is one of the possible mechanisms involved in ethanol-induced corticostriatal synaptic depression.

  12. Neurotransmitter, opiodergic system, steroid-hormone interaction and involvement in the replacement therapy of sexual disorders.

    PubMed

    Frajese, G; Lazzari, R; Magnani, A; Moretti, C; Sforza, V; Nerozzi, D

    1990-11-20

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are the neurotransmitters most directly involved in sexual activity. DA plays a stimulatory role while 5-HT has an inhibitory effect. The two monoaminergic systems modulate the secretion of many hormones (GnRH, LH, testosterone, prolactin and endorphins) involved in sexual functional capacity. Furthermore, hormones influence synthesis and storage of brain neurotransmitters. Impotence can often be associated to clinical depression and altered neurotransmitter function. Moreover, stress represents an unbalance between various neurotransmitter systems and can induce impotence especially when disorders of the endorphinic system are present. Replacement therapy is based upon the understanding of these basic concepts. Impotence due to an underlying depressive illness must be treated with dopaminergic antidepressant drugs; while in stressful conditions a good response to the naloxone test is the preliminary criterion to subsequent naltrexone treatment. When a hormonal deficiency has been proved, the hormone replacement therapy is of course highly effective (gonadotropins in hypogonadotropic syndromes, testosterone in aging, etc.). Finally, idiopathic impotence could be treated by DA agonist and/or 5-HT antagonist drugs either alone or better yet in association with psychotherapy. PMID:1979499

  13. Novel type IV secretion system involved in propagation of genomic islands.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mario; Crook, Derrick W; Dimopoulou, Ioanna D; Lunter, Gerton; Harding, Rosalind M; Ferguson, David J P; Hood, Derek W

    2007-02-01

    Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) mediate horizontal gene transfer, thus contributing to genome plasticity, evolution of infectious pathogens, and dissemination of antibiotic resistance and other virulence traits. A gene cluster of the Haemophilus influenzae genomic island ICEHin1056 has been identified as a T4SS involved in the propagation of genomic islands. This T4SS is novel and evolutionarily distant from the previously described systems. Mutation analysis showed that inactivation of key genes of this system resulted in a loss of phenotypic traits provided by a T4SS. Seven of 10 mutants with a mutation in this T4SS did not express the type IV secretion pilus. Correspondingly, disruption of the genes resulted in up to 100,000-fold reductions in conjugation frequencies compared to those of the parent strain. Moreover, the expression of this T4SS was found to be positively regulated by one of its components, the tfc24 gene. We concluded that this gene cluster represents a novel family of T4SSs involved in propagation of genomic islands.

  14. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  15. Dietary induced anorexia: a review of involvement of the histaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Mercer, L P; Kelley, D S; Haq, A; Humphries, L L

    1996-06-01

    This review examines possible relationships between anorexia, dietary intake and central nervous system histaminergic activity. The hypothesis being reviewed is that one component of normal or pathophysiological neuroregulation of food intake involves histaminergic activity in the central nervous system, as influenced by concentrations and bioperiodicities of histamine and/or histamine receptors. Changes in concentrations of receptors are gender specific. Low protein quality or quantity diets elevate both central histamine and histamine receptors (H1) in rats while significantly decreasing their food intake. When injected with histaminergic antagonists, rats fed low protein diets increase food intake and have improved efficiency of weight gain. This review supports a dual hypotheses: central histaminergic activity is involved in the regulation of food intake, but food intake patterns (including dietary composition or energy content) can modify central histaminergic activity. This review also suggests that modified histamine and/or H1 receptor concentrations are potential mechanisms for elevated central histaminergic activity in food intake-related pathophysiological states. Thus, dietary interventions (clinically- or self-imposed) which modify food intake or diet composition have the potential of affecting the histaminergic system. Also, drugs with antihistaminergic properties have the potential of affecting food intake/weight gain patterns by interfering with normal neurochemical signals.

  16. Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in the Neurobehavioral Effects of Stress and Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Matthew N.; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is a neuroactive lipid signaling system that functions to gate synaptic transmitter release. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that this system is responsive to modulation by both stress and glucocorticoids within the hypothalamus and limbic structures; however, the nature of this regulation is more complex than initially assumed. The aim of the current review is to summarize the research to date which examines the effects of acute stress and glucocorticoid administration on endocannabinoid signaling in limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA), and in turn the role endocannabinoid signaling plays in the neurobehavioral responses to acute stress and glucocorticoid administration. The majority of research suggests that acute stress produces a mobilization of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) while concurrently reducing the tissue content of the other endocannabinoid ligand anandamide. Genetic and pharmacological studies demonstrate that the reduction in anandamide signaling may be involved in the initiation of HPA axis activation and the generation of changes in emotional behaviour, while the increase in 2-AG signaling may be involved in terminating the stress response, limiting neuronal activation and contributing to changes in motivated behaviours. Collectively, these studies reveal a complex interplay between endocannabinoids and the HPA axis, and further identify endocannabinoid signaling as a critical regulator of the stress response. PMID:19903506

  17. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis. PMID:25949205

  18. The involvement of serotonergic system in the antidepressant effect of zinc in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr; Wróbel, Andrzej; Blicharska, Eliza; Cichy, Agnieszka; Dybała, Małgorzata; Siwek, Agata; Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Brański, Piotr; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2009-03-17

    Recent preclinical data indicated the antidepressant-like activity of zinc in different tests and models of depression. The present study investigates the involvement of the serotonergic system in zinc activity in the forced swim test (FST) in mice and rats. The combined treatment of sub-effective doses of zinc (hydroaspartate, 2.5 mg Zn/kg) and citalopram (15 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) but not with reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg) significantly reduces the immobility time in the FST in mice. These treatments had no influence on the spontaneous locomotor activity. Moreover, while the antidepressant-like effect of zinc (5 mg/kg) in the FST was significantly blocked by pretreatment with inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, 3x200 mg/kg), 5HT-2(A/C) receptor antagonist, ritanserin (4 mg/kg) or 5HT-1A receptor antagonist, WAY 1006335 (0.1 mg/kg), the zinc-induced reduction in the locomotor activity was not affected by these serotonin modulator agents. These results indicate the specific involvement of the serotonergic system in antidepressant but not the motion behavior of zinc in mice. Also, an increase in the swimming but not climbing parameter of the rat FST observed following zinc administration (2.5 and 5 mg Zn/kg) indicates the serotonin pathway participation. This present data indicates that the antidepressant-like activity of zinc observed in the FST involves interaction with the serotonergic system.

  19. Modelling and pathway identification involving the transport mechanism of a complex metabolic system in batch culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Xi; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong

    2014-06-01

    The bio-dissimilation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) can be characterized by a complex metabolic system of interactions among biochemical fluxes, metabolic compounds, key enzymes and genetic regulation. In this paper, in consideration of the fact that the transport ways of 1,3-PD and glycerol with different weights across cell membrane are still unclear in batch culture, we consider 121 possible metabolic pathways and establish a novel mathematical model which is represented by a complex metabolic system. Taking into account the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentration of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium point for the metabolic system of batch culture, the novel approach used here is to define quantitatively biological robustness of the intracellular substance concentrations for the overall process of batch culture. To determine the most possible metabolic pathway, we take the defined biological robustness as cost function and establish an identification model, in which 1452 system parameters and 484 pathway parameters are involved. Simultaneously, the identification model is subject to the metabolic system, continuous state constraints and parameter constraints. As such, solving the identification model by a serial program is a very complicated task. We propose a parallel migration particle swarm optimization algorithm (MPSO) capable of solving the identification model in conjunction with the constraint transcription and smoothing approximation techniques. Numerical results show that the most possible metabolic pathway and the corresponding metabolic system can reasonably describe the process of batch culture.

  20. Involvement of the mirror neuron system in blunted affect in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Suk; Chun, Ji Won; Yoon, Sang Young; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Blunted affect is a relatively enduring schizophrenic symptom and its presence brings about poor functioning and outcomes. Functional impairment in the mirror neuron system which is involved in both motor execution and imitation may be a neural basis of blunted affect, but it is not proved yet. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls performed the facial expression task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The task was to reproduce facial expressions in response to the face or word stimuli for happiness, sadness, and meaningless expression. Brain activities during facial expressions in patients compared with controls and their relationship with affective flattening were analyzed. Compared to controls, patients exhibited decreased activity in the widespread dorsal frontal regions and increased activity in the ventral frontal and subcortical regions. Patients also demonstrated significant negative correlation of the severity of affective flattening with activities in the mirror neuron system, such as the premotor cortex, motor cortex, and inferior parietal lobule. Emotional expression in patients with schizophrenia may be related to hypoactivity of the dorsal system and hyperactivity of the ventral system. An imbalance of these two systems may contribute to blunted affect. Directly addressing blunted affect using emotional expression provides a new perspective that functional disturbance of the mirror neuron system may play an important role in manifestation of blunted affect in schizophrenia.

  1. Central nervous system involvement in primary Sjogren`s syndrome manifesting as multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Yao; Zhao, Teng; Zhou, Chun-Kui

    2014-04-01

    Central nervous system symptoms in patients with primary Sjogren`s syndrome are rare. They can present as extraglandular manifestations and require a differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis. Due to a variety of presentations, Sjogren`s syndrome with neurologic involvement may be difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old woman who was first diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 2010, but who was subsequently diagnosed with primary Sjogren`s syndrome 2 years later after showing signs of atypical neurologic manifestations. Therefore, primary Sjogren`s syndrome should be suspected in patients who present with atypical clinical and radiologic neurologic manifestations.

  2. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  3. Visual loss with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: multifocal central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Job, O M; Schatz, N J; Glaser, J S

    1999-03-01

    A 42-year-old woman with a 6-year history of diabetes insipidus and progressive hypersomnolence presented with visual loss. Neuroimaging showed infiltration in the hypothalamus, the optic nerve, and the chiasm, as well as multiple lesions in other areas of the brain parenchyma. Biopsy showed Langerhans cell histiocytosis. This is an unusual presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, involving the visual pathways without manifestations outside of the central nervous system. The differential diagnosis and the magnetic resonance imaging findings will be discussed. PMID:10098549

  4. Fast multi-element screening of non-digested biological materials by slurry introduction to ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Kollander, Barbro; Andersson, Marit; Pettersson, Jean

    2010-03-15

    A fast method for direct multi-element analysis of non-digested biological samples is presented. The only sample preparation needed is 1 min homogenization with a Polytron mixer in a small volume of neutral phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS). The total time for analysis (sample preparation and measurement) is 4 min only. This "mix and measure" method can handle large sample loads of biological samples and thus minimize dilution of trace elements. For example 100% whole blood was introduced without any clogging of the introduction system or extinguishing of the plasma. In 70% (v/v) whole blood reference material 14 of 16 analytes were quantified within +/-10% (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, S, Sr, Ti and Zn) and two semi-quantified within +/-20% (Cd and K). Fresh bovine liver was also analyzed with the same method and 7 of 9 analytes were quantified in 5% (w/v) liver slurry. Three different nebulizers were tested, Glass Expansion Concentric (GEC) of Meinhard type, Cross Flow and Burgener T2100 and they performed roughly equally well in giving quantitative results for the slurries but the sensitivity was better with the GEC. The stability of the plasma was studied by evaluating the ratio of Mg 280.270 nm and Mg 285.213 nm lines. When increasing the sample load from 20 to 100% (v/v) of whole blood and from 0.5 to 10% (w/v) of bovine liver the Mg ratio was constant within a few percent for all of the nebulizer tested. The ratio of the sensitivity between GEC and Burgener T2100 was studied and the ratio increased with the energy sum for atomic and ionic lines separately.

  5. Development of a deep-sea laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for in situ multi-element chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Blair; Takahashi, Tomoko; Sato, Takumi; Sakka, Tetsuo; Tamura, Ayaka; Matsumoto, Ayumu; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Ohki, Toshihiko; Ohki, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy is emerging as a technique that can expand the envelope of modern oceanographic sensors. The selectivity of spectroscopic techniques enables a single instrument to measure multiple components of the marine environment and can form the basis for versatile tools to perform in situ geochemical analysis. We have developed a deep-sea laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (ChemiCam) and successfully deployed the instrument from a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to perform in situ multi-element analysis of both seawater and mineral deposits at depths of over 1000 m. The instrument consists of a long-nanosecond duration pulse-laser, a spectrometer and a high-speed camera. Power supply, instrument control and signal telemetry are provided through a ROV tether. The instrument has two modes of operation. In the first mode, the laser is focused directly into seawater and spectroscopic measurements of seawater composition are performed. In the second mode, a fiber-optic cable assembly is used to make spectroscopic measurements of mineral deposits. In this mode the laser is fired through a 4 m long fiber-optic cable and is focused onto the target's surface using an optical head and a linear stage that can be held by a ROV manipulator. In this paper, we describe the instrument and the methods developed to process its measurements. Exemplary measurements of both seawater and mineral deposits made during deployments of the device at an active hydrothermal vent field in the Okinawa trough are presented. Through integration with platforms such as underwater vehicles, drilling systems and subsea observatories, it is hoped that this technology can contribute to more efficient scientific surveys of the deep-sea environment.

  6. Evaluating uncertainties in the calibration of isotopic reference materials and multi-element isotopic tracers (EARTHTIME Tracer Calibration Part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Noah M.; Condon, Daniel J.; Schoene, Blair; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2015-09-01

    A statistical approach to evaluating uncertainties in the calibration of multi-element isotopic tracers has been developed and applied to determining the isotopic composition of mixed U-Pb (202 Pb-205 Pb-233 U-235 U) tracers used for accurate isotope dilution U-Pb geochronology. Our experiment, part of the EARTHTIME initiative, directly links the tracer calibration to first-principles measurements of mass and purity that are all traceable to SI units, thereby quantifying the accuracy and precision of U-Pb dates in absolute time. The calibration incorporates new more accurate and precise purity measurements for a number of commonly used Pb and U reference materials, and requires inter-relating their isotopic compositions and uncertainties. Similar methods can be used for other isotope systems that utilize multiple isotopic standards for calibration purposes. We also detail the inter-calibration of three publicly available U-Pb gravimetric solutions, which can be used to bring the same first-principles traceability to in-house U-Pb tracers from other laboratories. Accounting for uncertainty correlations in the tracer isotope ratios yields a tracer calibration contribution to the relative uncertainty of a 206 Pb/238 U date that is only half of the relative uncertainty in the 235 U/205 Pb ratio of the tracer, which was historically used to approximate the tracer related uncertainty contribution to 206 Pb/238 U dates. The tracer uncertainty contribution to 206 Pb/238 U dates has in this way been reduced to <300 ppm when using the EARTHTIME and similarly calibrated tracers.

  7. Involvement of purinergic system in inflammation and toxicity induced by copper in zebrafish larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Maboni, Lucas de Oliveira; Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; and others

    2013-11-01

    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7 days post-fertilization were exposed to 10 μM of copper for a period of 24 h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. - Graphical abstract: This scheme provides a chronological proposition for the biochemical events induced by copper in zebrafish larvae. The dashed line shows the absorption of copper over the exposure time. After 1 h of exposure to copper, the release of PGE{sub 2} occurs, followed by an increase of MPO (as a consequence

  8. Desogestrel enhances ventilation in ondine patients: Animal data involving serotoninergic systems.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Fanny; Perrin-Terrin, Anne-Sophie; Verkaeren, Emilienne; Cardot, Philippe; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Frugière, Alain; Rivals, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian; Bodineau, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a neurorespiratory disease characterized by life-threatening sleep-related hypoventilation involving an alteration of CO2/H(+) chemosensitivity. Incidental findings have suggested that desogestrel may allow recovery of the ventilatory response to CO2. The effects of desogestrel on resting ventilation have not been reported. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that desogestrel strengthens baseline ventilation by analyzing the ventilation of CCHS patients. Rodent models were used in order to determine the mechanisms involved. Ventilation in CCHS patients was measured with a pneumotachometer. In mice, ventilatory neural activity was recorded from ex vivo medullary-spinal cord preparations, ventilation was measured by plethysmography and c-fos expression was studied in medullary respiratory nuclei. Desogestrel increased baseline respiratory frequency of CCHS patients leading to a decrease in their PETCO2. In medullary spinal-cord preparations or in vivo mice, the metabolite of desogestrel, etonogestrel, induced an increase in respiratory frequency that necessitated the functioning of serotoninergic systems, and modulated GABAA and NMDA ventilatory regulations. c-FOS analysis showed the involvement of medullary respiratory groups of cell including serotoninergic neurons of the raphe pallidus and raphe obscurus nuclei that seem to play a key role. Thus, desogestrel may improve resting ventilation in CCHS patients by a stimulant effect on baseline respiratory frequency. Our data open up clinical perspectives based on the combination of this progestin with serotoninergic drugs to enhance ventilation in CCHS patients. PMID:27040794

  9. Difficulty with daily activities involving the lower extremities in people with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Janet L; Brandenstein, Jane

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of lower extremity impairments in motion and strength in people with systemic sclerosis and the relationships of the impairments to limitations in activities of daily living primarily involving the lower extremities. Participants were 69 persons with SSc who received evaluations of lower extremity joint motion (Keitel function test), strength (timed-stands test), and basic mobility (timed up and go test) and completed a demographic questionnaire regarding symptoms in the lower extremities. Activity limitations were measured by the Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS) which examines functional ability, pain, and quality of life. The participants had difficulty with items requiring external rotation of the hips and lower extremity strength. There were moderate correlations between the impairment measures of joint motion, strength, mobility, and activity limitations. Fair correlations were found between the skin scores and the RAOS sections except for pain. The results of this study show that lower extremity involvement is present in persons with SSc. The findings, regarding strength, mobility, and joint motion are related to the ability to perform everyday activities involving the lower extremities, suggest that these areas should be targeted for intervention in persons with SSc.

  10. Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Takanari; Kim, Hojong; Spatocco, Brian L.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance. PMID:27001915

  11. Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Takanari; Kim, Hojong; Spatocco, Brian L; Sadoway, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance.

  12. Computational Modeling For The Transitional Flow Over A Multi-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, William W.; Liu, Feng-Jun; Rumsey, Chris L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The transitional flow over a multi-element airfoil in a landing configuration are computed using a two equation transition model. The transition model is predictive in the sense that the transition onset is a result of the calculation and no prior knowledge of the transition location is required. The computations were performed using the INS2D) Navier-Stokes code. Overset grids are used for the three-element airfoil. The airfoil operating conditions are varied for a range of angle of attack and for two different Reynolds numbers of 5 million and 9 million. The computed results are compared with experimental data for the surface pressure, skin friction, transition onset location, and velocity magnitude. In general, the comparison shows a good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Transonic solutions for a multielement airfoil using the full-potential equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, J.; Holst, T. L.; Sorenson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Transonic flow solutions are obtained over a multielement airfoil (augmentor-wing) using the full-potential equation. Solutions obtained for a subcritical case and a strong shock case show good quantitative agreement with experiment in regions not dominated by viscous effects. In those regions where viscous effects are dominant, the results are still in good qualitative agreement. For the strong shock case, Mach number and angle-of-attack corrections were necessary to match experimental coefficient of lift. Typical results from the transonic augmentor-wing Potential Code on the Cray-1S computer require about 10 sec of CPU time for a three-order-of-magnitude drop in the maximum residual. The speed with which solutions can be generated, and the associated low cost, will make this code a practical tool for the design aerodynamicist.

  14. Multi-element double ring detector for dual band infrared counter-countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Sun, Weiguo; Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Xubo

    2014-06-10

    A multi-element double ring detector which can track a target effectively under infrared (IR) countermeasure conditions is presented. Dual band IR counter-countermeasures can be performed by the detector to distinguish the target from target-flare mixed signals. Middle and short IR wavelengths are used for target and IR countermeasure detection, respectively. With a special design, unique dual band signals will be outputted by the detector when a target spot is located on the center of the detector. By comparison, the typical single element ring detector has a "dead spot" in this case, which is undesirable for target identification. Relatively high tracking accuracy and low cost indicate that the presented method has a potential application. PMID:24921141

  15. Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Takanari; Kim, Hojong; Spatocco, Brian L; Sadoway, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance. PMID:27001915

  16. Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 6: The Multi-element Grating Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pick, Monique; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, Andre

    2011-03-01

    After constructing a number of simple antennas for solar work at Nangay field station, during the second half of the 1950s and through into the 1960s radio astronomers from the Paris Observatory (Meudon) erected five different innovative multi-element arrays. Three of these operated at 169 MHz, a fourth at 408 MHz and the fifth array at 9,300 MHz. While all of these radio telescopes were used for solar research, one of the 169 MHz arrays was used mainly for galactic and extra-galactic research. In this paper we discuss these arrays and summarise the science that was achieved with them during this important period in the development of French radio astronomy.

  17. Navier-Stokes calculations on multi-element airfoils using a chimera-based solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasper, Donald W.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Robinson, Brian A.

    1993-01-01

    A study of Navier-Stokes calculations of flows about multielement airfoils using a chimera grid approach is presented. The chimera approach utilizes structured, overlapped grids which allow great flexibility of grid arrangement and simplifies grid generation. Calculations are made for two-, three-, and four-element airfoils, and modeling of the effect of gap distance between elements is demonstrated for a two element case. Solutions are obtained using the thin-layer form of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence closure provided by the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model or the Baldwin-Barth one equation model. The Baldwin-Barth turbulence model is shown to provide better agreement with experimental data and to dramatically improve convergence rates for some cases. Recently developed, improved farfield boundary conditions are incorporated into the solver for greater efficiency. Computed results show good comparison with experimental data which include aerodynamic forces, surface pressures, and boundary layer velocity profiles.

  18. Multi-element double ring infrared detector based on InSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo; Lv, Hui; Guo, Li; Liu, Zhu

    2015-10-01

    A multi-element double ring infrared detector based on InSb p-n photodiodes is presented. The presented detector includes an outer ring detector and an inner ring detector. Each ring consist 10 detector elements, five mid-wave infrared detector elements and five short wave infrared detector elements. Two wavebands of 3.5-5 μm and 1.5-3 μm in mid-wave infrared and short wave infrared are adopted. The mid-wave infrared and short wave infrared detector elements are arranged alternately and close to each other to form detection pair. Between the adjacent detector elements, there is an interval to avoid cross talk. Dual band filter thin films are directly coated on the photodiode surface to form a dual band infrared detector. The double ring detector which can perform dual band IR counter-countermeasures can track target effectively under infrared countermeasure conditions.

  19. Multi-element double ring detector for dual band infrared counter-countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Sun, Weiguo; Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Xubo

    2014-06-10

    A multi-element double ring detector which can track a target effectively under infrared (IR) countermeasure conditions is presented. Dual band IR counter-countermeasures can be performed by the detector to distinguish the target from target-flare mixed signals. Middle and short IR wavelengths are used for target and IR countermeasure detection, respectively. With a special design, unique dual band signals will be outputted by the detector when a target spot is located on the center of the detector. By comparison, the typical single element ring detector has a "dead spot" in this case, which is undesirable for target identification. Relatively high tracking accuracy and low cost indicate that the presented method has a potential application.

  20. Calcium-based multi-element chemistry for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Takanari; Kim, Hojong; Spatocco, Brian L.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-03-01

    Calcium is an attractive material for the negative electrode in a rechargeable battery due to its low electronegativity (high cell voltage), double valence, earth abundance and low cost; however, the use of calcium has historically eluded researchers due to its high melting temperature, high reactivity and unfavorably high solubility in molten salts. Here we demonstrate a long-cycle-life calcium-metal-based rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. By deploying a multi-cation binary electrolyte in concert with an alloyed negative electrode, calcium solubility in the electrolyte is suppressed and operating temperature is reduced. These chemical mitigation strategies also engage another element in energy storage reactions resulting in a multi-element battery. These initial results demonstrate how the synergistic effects of deploying multiple chemical mitigation strategies coupled with the relaxation of the requirement of a single itinerant ion can unlock calcium-based chemistries and produce a battery with enhanced performance.

  1. Cross-flow vortex structure and transition measurements using multi-element hot films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, Naval K.; Mangalam, Siva M.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Collier, Fayette S., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment on a 45-degree swept wing was conducted to study three-dimensional boundary-layer characteristics using surface-mounted, micro-thin, multi-element hot-film sensors. Cross-flow vortex structure and boundary-layer transition were measured from the simultaneously acquired signals of the hot films. Spanwise variation of the root-mean-square (RMS) hot-film signal show a local minima and maxima. The distance between two minima corresponds to the stationary cross-flow vortex wavelength and agrees with naphthalene flow-visualization results. The chordwise and spanwise variation of amplified traveling (nonstationary) cross-flow disturbance characteristics were measured as Reynolds number was varied. The frequency of the most amplified cross-flow disturbances agrees with linear stability theory.

  2. Aminoprocalcitonin-mediated suppression of feeding involves the hypothalamic melanocortin system.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eva; Maldonado, Rosario; Miñano, Francisco J

    2013-06-15

    Aminoprocalcitonin (N-PCT), a neuroendocrine peptide encoded by the calcitonin-I (CALC-I) gene, suppresses food intake when administered centrally in rats. However, the neural pathways underlying this effect remain unclear. N-PCT and calcitonin receptors (CT-R) have been identified in hypothalamic regions involved in energy homeostasis, including the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Here, we hypothesized an involvement of the hypothalamic ARC in mediating the anorexic effects of central N-PCT based on its content of peptidergic neurons involved in feeding and its expression of N-PCT and CT-R. Fasting strongly reduced expression of the N-PCT precursor gene CALC-I in the ARC, and central immunoneutralization of endogenous N-PCT increased food intake. Intracerebroventricular administration of N-PCT reduced food intake in fed and fasted rats, and its effect was attenuated by a neutralizing anti-N-PCT antibody. Immunohistochemistry for N-PCT showed that it is expressed in astrocytes and neurons in the ARC and is colocalized with anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Fasting reduced coexpression of N-PCT and POMC, and N-PCT administration activated hypothalamic neurons, including rostral POMC neurons. We also found that N-PCT stimulates POMC mRNA expression in fed and fasted rats, whereas it reduced the expression of orexigenic peptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) only in fasted rats in which those mRNAs are normally elevated. Finally, we showed that the melanocortin-3/4 receptor antagonist SHU 9119 attenuates the intake-suppressive effect of N-PCT. These data demonstrate that hypothalamic N-PCT is involved in control of energy balance and that its anorexigenic effects are mediated through the melanocortin system.

  3. Local stress and heat flux in atomistic systems involving three-body forces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youping

    2006-02-01

    Local densities of fundamental physical quantities, including stress and heat flux fields, are formulated for atomistic systems involving three-body forces. The obtained formulas are calculable within an atomistic simulation, in consistent with the conservation equations of thermodynamics of continuum, and can be applied to systems with general two- and three-body interaction forces. It is hoped that this work may correct some misuse of inappropriate formulas of stress and heat flux in the literature, may clarify the definition of site energy of many-body potentials, and may serve as an analytical link between an atomistic model and a continuum theory. Physical meanings of the obtained formulas, their relation with virial theorem and heat theorem, and the applicability are discussed.

  4. Local stress and heat flux in atomistic systems involving three-body forces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youping

    2006-02-01

    Local densities of fundamental physical quantities, including stress and heat flux fields, are formulated for atomistic systems involving three-body forces. The obtained formulas are calculable within an atomistic simulation, in consistent with the conservation equations of thermodynamics of continuum, and can be applied to systems with general two- and three-body interaction forces. It is hoped that this work may correct some misuse of inappropriate formulas of stress and heat flux in the literature, may clarify the definition of site energy of many-body potentials, and may serve as an analytical link between an atomistic model and a continuum theory. Physical meanings of the obtained formulas, their relation with virial theorem and heat theorem, and the applicability are discussed. PMID:16468857

  5. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Associated with Central Nervous System Involvement in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tommy L. H.; Cartagena, Ana M.; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M.

    2016-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus reactivation affecting the central nervous system is rare. We describe a 55-year-old diabetic female who presented with gait ataxia, right peripheral facial palsy, and painful vesicular lesions involving her right ear. Later, she developed dysmetria, fluctuating diplopia, and dysarthria. Varicella zoster virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. She was diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with spread to the central nervous system. Her facial palsy completely resolved within 48 hours of treatment with intravenous acyclovir 10 mg/kg every 8 hours. However, cerebellar symptoms did not improve until a tapering course of steroid therapy was initiated. PMID:27366189

  6. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Associated with Central Nervous System Involvement in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy L H; Cartagena, Ana M; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2016-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus reactivation affecting the central nervous system is rare. We describe a 55-year-old diabetic female who presented with gait ataxia, right peripheral facial palsy, and painful vesicular lesions involving her right ear. Later, she developed dysmetria, fluctuating diplopia, and dysarthria. Varicella zoster virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. She was diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with spread to the central nervous system. Her facial palsy completely resolved within 48 hours of treatment with intravenous acyclovir 10 mg/kg every 8 hours. However, cerebellar symptoms did not improve until a tapering course of steroid therapy was initiated. PMID:27366189

  7. Involvement of histaminergic system in the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Narita, Minoru; Onodera, Kenji; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2004-05-01

    The interactions between morphine and the histaminergic system are not yet fully clarified. More especially, the involvement of the histaminergic system in the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine has not been determined. Therefore, the effects of histamine-related compounds on the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine were examined in rats. Combination tests using histamine-related compounds with morphine were initiated in rats trained to discriminate between 3.0 mg/kg morphine and saline. Zolantidine (central histamine H2-receptor antagonist), but not pyrilamine (central histamine H1-receptor antagonist) or ranitidine (peripheral histamine H2-receptor antagonist), significantly attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine. The histamine precursor L-histidine significantly potentiated the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine. These results suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine are, at least in part, mediated through the central activation of histamine H2-receptors in rats.

  8. Acceleration of multiple solution of a boundary value problem involving a linear algebraic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.; Surovtsev, Roman S.

    2016-06-01

    Multiple solution of a boundary value problem that involves a linear algebraic system is considered. New approach to acceleration of the solution is proposed. The approach uses the structure of the linear system matrix. Particularly, location of entries in the right columns and low rows of the matrix, which undergo variation due to the computing in the range of parameters, is used to apply block LU decomposition. Application of the approach is considered on the example of multiple computing of the capacitance matrix by method of moments used in numerical electromagnetics. Expressions for analytic estimation of the acceleration are presented. Results of the numerical experiments for solution of 100 linear systems with matrix orders of 1000, 2000, 3000 and different relations of variated and constant entries of the matrix show that block LU decomposition can be effective for multiple solution of linear systems. The speed up compared to pointwise LU factorization increases (up to 15) for larger number and order of considered systems with lower number of variated entries.

  9. A visual warning system to reduce struck-by or pinning accidents involving mobile mining equipment

    PubMed Central

    Sammarco, J.; Gallagher, S.; Mayton, A.; Srednicki, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to examine whether a visual warning system can improve detection of moving machine hazards that could result in struck-by or pinning accidents. Thirty-six participants, twelve each in one of three age groups, participated in the study. A visual warning system capable of providing four different modes of warning was installed on a continuous mining machine that is used to mine coal. The speed of detecting various machine movements was recorded with and without the visual warning system. The average speed of detection for forward and reverse machine movements was reduced by 75% when using the flashing mode of the visual warning system. This translated to 0.485 m of machine travel for the fast speed condition of 19.8 m/min, which is significant in the context of the confined spaces of a mine. There were no statistically significant differences among age groups in the ability to detect machine movements for the visual warning modes in this study. The visual warning system shows promise as a safety intervention for reducing struck-by or pinning accidents involving continuous mining machines. The methods and results of this study could be applied to other moving machinery used in mining or other industries where moving machinery poses struck-by or pinning hazards. PMID:22503737

  10. Minimal multi-element stochastic collocation for uncertainty quantification of discontinuous functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jakeman, John D.; Narayan, Akil; Xiu, Dongbin

    2013-06-01

    We propose a multi-element stochastic collocation method that can be applied in high-dimensional parameter space for functions with discontinuities lying along manifolds of general geometries. The key feature of the method is that the parameter space is decomposed into multiple elements defined by the discontinuities and thus only the minimal number of elements are utilized. On each of the resulting elements the function is smooth and can be approximated using high-order methods with fast convergence properties. The decomposition strategy is in direct contrast to the traditional multi-element approaches which define the sub-domains by repeated splitting of the axes in the parameter space. Such methods are more prone to the curse-of-dimensionality because of the fast growth of the number of elements caused by the axis based splitting. The present method is a two-step approach. Firstly a discontinuity detector is used to partition parameter space into disjoint elements in each of which the function is smooth. The detector uses an efficient combination of the high-order polynomial annihilation technique along with adaptive sparse grids, and this allows resolution of general discontinuities with a smaller number of points when the discontinuity manifold is low-dimensional. After partitioning, an adaptive technique based on the least orthogonal interpolant is used to construct a generalized Polynomial Chaos surrogate on each element. The adaptive technique reuses all information from the partitioning and is variance-suppressing. We present numerous numerical examples that illustrate the accuracy, efficiency, and generality of the method. When compared against standard locally-adaptive sparse grid methods, the present method uses many fewer number of collocation samples and is more accurate.

  11. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Lift-Enhancing Tabs on a Multi-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Dale L.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the effect of lift-enhancing tabs on a two-element airfoil has been conducted. The objective of the study was to develop an understanding of the flow physics associated with lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. An NACA 63(2)-215 ModB airfoil with a 30% chord fowler flap was tested in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. Lift-enhancing tabs of various heights were tested on both the main element and the flap for a variety of flap riggings. A combination of tabs located at the main element and flap trailing edges increased the airfoil lift coefficient by 11% relative to the highest lift coefficient achieved by any baseline configuration at an angle of attack of 0 deg, and C(sub 1max) was increased by 3%. Computations of the flow over the two-element airfoil were performed using the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes code INS2D-UP. The computed results predicted all of the trends observed in the experimental data quite well. In addition, a simple analytic model based on potential flow was developed to provide a more detailed understanding of how lift-enhancing tabs work. The tabs were modeled by a point vortex at the air-foil or flap trailing edge. Sensitivity relationships were derived which provide a mathematical basis for explaining the effects of lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. Results of the modeling effort indicate that the dominant effects of the tabs on the pressure distribution of each element of the airfoil can be captured with a potential flow model for cases with no flow separation.

  12. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of a Rectangular Multi-Element Supersonic Jet Mixer-Ejector Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Taghavi, Ray

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a unique, detailed evaluation of the acoustics and aerodynamics of a rectangular multi-element supersonic jet mixer-ejector noise suppressor. The performance of such mixer-ejectors is important in aircraft engine application for noise suppression and thrust augmentation. In contrast to most prior experimental studies on ejectors that reported either aerodynamic or acoustic data, our work documents both types of data. We present information on the mixing, pumping, ejector wall pressure distribution, thrust augmentation and noise suppression characteristics of four simple, multi-element, jet mixer-ejector configurations. The four configurations included the effect of ejector area ratio (AR = ejector area/primary jet area) and the effect of non-parallel ejector walls. We also studied in detail the configuration that produced the best noise suppression characteristics. Our results show that ejector configurations that produced the maximum maximum pumping (entrained flow per secondary inlet area) also exhibited the lowest wall pressures in the inlet region, and the maximum thrust augmentation. When cases having the same total mass flow were compared, we found that noise suppression trends corresponded with those for pumping. Surprisingly, the mixing (quantified by the peak Mach number, and flow uniformity) at the ejector exit exhibited no relationship to the noise suppression at moderate primary jet fully expanded Mach numbers (Mj is less than 1.4). However, the noise suppression dependence on the mixing was apparent at higher Mj. The above observations are justified by noting that the mixing at the ejector exit is ot a strong factor in determining the radiated noise when noise produced internal to the ejector dominates the noise field outside the ejector.

  13. Process recognition in multi-element soil and stream-sediment geochemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grunsky, E.C.; Drew, L.J.; Sutphin, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Stream-sediment and soil geochemical data from the Upper and Lower Coastal Plains of South Carolina (USA) were studied to determine relationships between soils and stream sediments. From multi-element associations, characteristic compositions were determined for both media. Primary associations of elements reflect mineralogy, including heavy minerals, carbonates and clays, and the effects of groundwater. The effects of groundwater on element concentrations are more evident in soils than stream sediments. A "winnowing index" was created using ratios of Th to Al that revealed differing erosional and depositional environments. Both soils and stream sediments from the Upper and Lower Coastal Plains show derivation from similar materials and subsequent similar multi-element relationships, but have some distinct differences. In the Lower Coastal Plain, soils have high values of elements concentrated in heavy minerals (Ce, Y, Th) that grade into high values of elements concentrated into finer-grain-size, lower-density materials, primarily comprised of carbonates and feldspar minerals (Mg, Ca, Na, K, Al). These gradational trends in mineralogy and geochemistry are inferred to reflect reworking of materials during marine transgressions and regressions. Upper Coastal Plain stream-sediment geochemistry shows a higher winnowing index relative to soil geochemistry. A comparison of the 4 media (Upper Coastal Plain soils and stream sediments and Lower Coastal Plain soils and stream sediments) shows that Upper Coastal Plain stream sediments have a higher winnowing index and a higher concentration of elements contained within heavy minerals, whereas Lower Coastal Plain stream sediments show a strong correlation between elements typically contained within clays. It is not possible to calculate a functional relationship between stream sediment-soil compositions for all elements due to the complex history of weathering, deposition, reworking and re-deposition. However, depending on

  14. Effect of Acetaldehyde Intoxication and Withdrawal on NPY Expression: Focus on Endocannabinoidergic System Involvement.

    PubMed

    Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Vita, Carlotta; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the rewarding, motivational, and addictive properties of the parental compound. Many studies have investigated the role of ACD in mediating neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by alcohol administration, but very little is known about the modulation of neuropeptide systems following ACD intoxication and withdrawal. Indeed, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is altered during alcohol withdrawal in key regions for cerebrocortical excitability and neuroplasticity. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of ACD intoxication and withdrawal by recording rat behavior and by measuring NPY immunoreactivity in hippocampus and NAcc, two brain regions mainly involved in processes which encompass neuroplasticity in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, on the basis of the involvement of endocannabinoidergic system in alcohol and ACD reinforcing effects, the role of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 in modulating NPY expression during withdrawal was assessed. Our results indicate that (i) ACD intoxication induced a reduction in NPY expression in hippocampus and NAcc; (ii) symptoms of physical dependence, similar to alcohol's, were scored at 12 h from the last administration of ACD; and (iii) NPY levels increased in early and prolonged acute withdrawal in both brain regions examined. The administration of AM281 was able to blunt signs of ACD-induced physical dependence, to modulate NPY levels, and to further increase NPY expression during ACD withdrawal both in hippocampus and NAcc. In conclusion, the present study shows that complex plastic changes take place in NPY system during ACD intoxication and subsequent withdrawal in rat hippocampal formation and NAcc. The pharmacological inhibition of CB1 signaling could counteract the neurochemical imbalance associated with ACD, and alcohol withdrawal, likely boosting the setting up of homeostatic functional recovery.

  15. The spectrum of nasal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus and its association with the disease activity.

    PubMed

    Kusyairi, K A; Gendeh, B S; Sakthiswary, R; Shaharir, S S; Haizlene, A H; Yusof, K H

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of nasal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its association with the disease activity of SLE based on the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). This was a cross-sectional and observational study involving 73 stable SLE patients. All subjects were evaluated for the SLEDAI scores and had nasal endoscopic examination. The most commonly reported symptom was nasal congestion (31.5%) followed by nasal itchiness (26.0%), runny nose (20.5%) and nasal dryness (19.2%). Almost half (42.9%) of the subjects had nasal mucosal abnormalities, which included mucositis, crusting, ulceration, bifid middle turbinate, septal spur, Jacobson's organ, deviated nasal septum, bilateral inferior turbinate hypertrophy, everted uncinate process, nasopharynx cleft and torus palatinus. The median SLEDAI score for subjects with nasal symptoms was significantly higher than subjects without nasal symptoms (p < 0.05). Similarly, subjects with moderate to high activity (SLEDAI scores of 6-19) had a significantly higher frequency of both nasal symptoms and nasal mucosal abnormalities (p < 0.05) compared to subjects with no to mild activity (SLEDAI scores of 0-5).

  16. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Ayesha; Choksi, Vivek; Chu, Andrew; Mankodi, Dhruti; Shaharyar, Sameer; O'Brien, Keith; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated peripheral eosinophilia and high creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and transaminase levels. Workup for the common causes of rhabdomyolysis were negative. Her CPK continued to rise to greater than 100,000 units/L so a muscle biopsy was performed which showed widespread eosinophilic infiltrate consistent with eosinophilic polymyositis. She was started on high dose systemic corticosteroids with improvement of her symptoms, eosinophilia, and CPK level. Discussion. This case illustrates a systematic workup of rhabdomyolysis in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Many differential diagnoses must be considered before establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic polymyositis. To our knowledge, our case of eosinophilic polymyositis is unique as it presented with severe rhabdomyolysis without another organ involvement. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this physically debilitating disease to aid in prompt diagnosis. PMID:26229703

  17. Perceived parental security profiles in African American adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system.

    PubMed

    Andretta, James R; Ramirez, Aaron M; Barnes, Michael E; Odom, Terri; Roberson-Adams, Shelia; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2015-12-01

    Many researchers have shown the importance of parent attachment in childhood and adolescence. The present study extends the attachment literature to African Americans involved in the juvenile justice system (N = 213), and provides an initial inquiry using person-oriented methods. The average age was 16.17 years (SD = 1.44), and the sample was predominantly male (71%). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis of Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Short Form (IPPA-S) scores supported a 3-factor model: (a) Communication, (b) Trust, and (c) Alienation. Model-based clustering was applied to IPPA-S scores, and results pointed to 4 perceived parental security profiles: high security, moderately high security, moderately low security, and low security. In keeping with our hypotheses, IPPA-S profiles were associated with prosocial behaviors, depression, anxiety, and oppositional defiance. Contrary to hypotheses, IPPA-S profiles were not associated with perspective taking, emotional concern, or behaviors characteristic of a conduct disorder. Results also showed that gender, age, family member with whom the participant resides, charge severity, and offense history did not have an effect on IPPA-S clustering. Implications for therapeutic jurisprudence in African Americans involved with the juvenile justice system are provided.

  18. Reducing recidivism and symptoms in emerging adults with serious mental health conditions and justice system involvement.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J; McCart, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18-21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n = 41) were aged 17-20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post-analyses revealed significant reductions in participants' MH symptoms, justice system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  19. Prognosis and progress in immunotherapies for organ involvements in systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shinsuke; Kono, Michihito; Shimamura, Sanae; Kurita, Takashi; Odani, Toshio; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

      Treatment of organ involvements accompanied by systemic autoimmune diseases is still challenging for clinicians, reminding the existence of unmet needs. Among them, lupus nephritis (LN), neuropsychiatric lupus, interstitial lung diseases (ILD) complicated with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) or systemic sclerosis (SSc) are the most severe conditions with poor prognosis. Because of the rarity and severity of the disease status, and of variety in evaluation methods, randomized clinical trials tend to be difficult in recruiting patients, in designing protocols, and in meeting primary endpoints. In such tough conditions, superiority of IVCY over corticosteroids alone for LN has been established, which is now going to be replaced by mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Moreover, non-inferiority of tacrolimus to MMF is reported and efficacy of biologics such as Rituximab and Abatacept for LN is under investigation. In contrast, PM/DM-ILD is not suitable for randomized controlled trial because of the severity/acute progression in some patients. Intensive immunosuppressive regimen is recommended for those with poor prognostic factor(s). Cyclophosphamide has limited efficacy in SSc-ILD. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation elongated patient survival and improved ILD, but with high treatment-related mortality rate. Efficacy of rituximab and MMF has been reported in small-sized trials. In this review, previously established treatment as well as emerging immunotherapies for organ involvements will be discussed. Our experiences in autoimmune settings also will be introduced. PMID:27181229

  20. Possible involvement of thrombin/protease-activated receptor 1 system in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Yasushi; Osuga, Yutaka; Hirata, Tetsuya; Yoshino, Osamu; Koga, Kaori; Harada, Miyuki; Morimoto, Chieko; Nose, Emi; Yano, Tetsu; Tsutsumi, Osamu; Taketani, Yuji

    2005-06-01

    Endometriosis is known to be associated with local inflammatory reactions. Given the emerging concept of thrombin and its specific receptor, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), as important players in inflammation and cell proliferation, we investigated whether thrombin and PAR1 might be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease, using a primary cell culture system of endometriotic tissues. PAR1 mRNA was expressed in primary endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). Thrombin and SFLLRN (Ser-Phe-Leu-Leu-Arg-Asp), a PAR1 agonist peptide, increased the mRNA expression of IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the protein secretion of IL-8 nd MCP-1 in ESCs. The addition of thrombin inhibitor d-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l arginine chloromethyl ketone (PPACK) together with thrombin inhibited the thrombin-induced secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1. Thrombin, but not SFLLRN, activated matrix metalloproteinase-2 in ESCs, and the effect was inhibited by PPACK. Thrombin and SFLLRN increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive ratio of ESCs, indicating their cell proliferation-stimulating effects. The thrombin-induced increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive ratio was diminished by PPACK. These findings imply that the thrombin system might be involved in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, stimulating inflammatory responses of endometriotic cells and their mitogenic activity. PMID:15755869

  1. Dehydration-induced vasopressin secretion in humans: involvement of the histaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, A; Knigge, U; Jørgensen, H; Warberg, J

    2000-12-01

    In rats, the hypothalamic neurotransmitter histamine participates in regulation of vasopressin secretion and seems to be of physiological importance, because blockade of the histaminergic system reduces dehydration-induced vasopressin secretion. We investigated whether histamine is also involved in regulation of vasopressin secretion during dehydration in humans. We found that 40 h of dehydration gradually increased plasma osmolality by 10 mosmol/kg and induced a fourfold increase in vasopressin levels. Pretreatment with the H(2)-receptor antagonists cimetidine or ranitidine significantly reduced the dehydration-induced increase in vasopressin levels approximately 40% after 34 and 37 h of dehydration, whereas this was not the case with the H(1)-receptor antagonist mepyramine. Dehydration reduced aldosterone secretion by approximately 50%. This effect of dehydration was reduced by both H(1)- and H(2)-receptor blockade after 16 and/or 34 h of dehydration. We conclude that vasopressin secretion in response to dehydration in humans is under the regulatory influence of histamine and that the effect seems to be mediated via H(2)-receptors. In addition, the regulation of aldosterone secretion during dehydration also seems to involve the histaminergic system via H(1) and H(2) receptors.

  2. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Ayesha; Choksi, Vivek; Chu, Andrew; Mankodi, Dhruti; Shaharyar, Sameer; O'Brien, Keith; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated peripheral eosinophilia and high creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and transaminase levels. Workup for the common causes of rhabdomyolysis were negative. Her CPK continued to rise to greater than 100,000 units/L so a muscle biopsy was performed which showed widespread eosinophilic infiltrate consistent with eosinophilic polymyositis. She was started on high dose systemic corticosteroids with improvement of her symptoms, eosinophilia, and CPK level. Discussion. This case illustrates a systematic workup of rhabdomyolysis in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Many differential diagnoses must be considered before establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic polymyositis. To our knowledge, our case of eosinophilic polymyositis is unique as it presented with severe rhabdomyolysis without another organ involvement. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this physically debilitating disease to aid in prompt diagnosis. PMID:26229703

  3. Reducing Recidivism and Symptoms in Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions and Justice System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli J.; McCart, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The peak years of offending in the general population and among those with serious mental health conditions (SMHC) are during emerging adulthood. There currently are no evidence-based interventions for reducing offending behavior among 18–21 year olds, with or without SMHC. This open trial examined outcomes from an adaptation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an effective juvenile recidivism reduction intervention, modified for use with emerging adults with SMHC and recent justice system involvement. MST for emerging adults (MST-EA) targets MH symptoms, recidivism, problem substance use, and young adult functional capacities. All study participants (n=41) were aged 17–20 and had a MH diagnosis and recent arrest or incarceration. Implementation outcomes indicated that MST-EA was delivered with strong fidelity, client satisfaction was high, and the majority of participants successfully completed the intervention. Research retention rates also were high. Pre-post analyses revealed significant reductions in participants’ MH symptoms, justice-system involvement, and associations with antisocial peers. PMID:25023764

  4. An Assessment of the SEA Multi-Element Sensor for Liquid Water Content Calibration of the NASA GRC Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steen, Laura E.; Ide, Robert F.; Van Zante, Judith F.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Icing Research tunnel has been using an Icing Blade technique to measure cloud liquid water content (LWC) since 1980. The IRT conducted tests with SEA Multi-Element sensors from 2009 to 2011 to assess their performance in measuring LWC. These tests revealed that the Multi-Element sensors showed some significant advantages over the Icing Blade, particularly at higher water contents, higher impingement rates, and large drop sizes. Results of these and other tests are presented here.

  5. Involvement of zinc in cell-free protein synthesizing systems from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S.E.; Wallwork, J.C.

    1986-03-05

    There are conflicting reports in the literature concerning the role of zinc in protein synthesis. This study presents evidence for the direct involvement of zinc in the translation of polypeptide chains in rats. Cell-free systems for incorporation of amino acids into acid-insoluble proteins were prepared from livers of three populations of rats: (1) rats fed ad libitum a diet containing 25 ppm zinc; (2) rats fed a diet containing less than 1 ppm zinc and (3) rats pair-fed a diet containing 25 ppm zinc. The diets contained 20% egg white and were enriched with biotin. Distilled deionized drinking water was given. The animals were maintained on the regimen for 45 days with precautions to limit zinc contamination. Group 2 showed typical signs of zinc deficiency, including decreased bone zinc. In vitro systems containing liver polysomes and a pH5 precipitate enzyme fraction indicated that the synthetic ability of systems isolated from zinc-deficient rats was considerably depressed, resulting in incorporation of amino acids 15 to 30% less than systems from pair-fed rats and 30 to 50% less than ad libitum-fed control animals. The results of crossover experiments performed by mixing polysome and enzyme fractions from the different groups indicated that the defect is due primarily to the pH precipitate enzyme fraction and not the polysomes.

  6. User involvement in the early stages of the development of an aircraft warning system.

    PubMed

    Noyes, J M; Starr, A F; Frankish, C R

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance and the benefits to be attained from consulting the end-users during system and product development. Although the rationale of utilizing the expertise of end-users in the system development life cycle appears to provide an apparently straightforward, even 'ideal' approach, there are many difficulties associated with eliciting the required knowledge from experts, both general and specific to every user group. Furthermore, many developers do not know how to involve users, or if they do, they do not utilize them to best effect. In the avionics sphere, the wealth of knowledge possessed by line pilots and flight engineers represents a vital information resource for the design of future flight-deck systems. As a specific example, this paper overviews some of the considerations which arose from working with these end-users in the early stages of the development of a warning and diagnostic system for civil aircraft. The end-goal of this particular phase of the work was the generation of guidelines for the design of the interface for the software engineers to use when building the prototype, and the methodological approach taken to achieve this is reported here.

  7. User involvement in the early stages of the development of an aircraft warning system.

    PubMed

    Noyes, J M; Starr, A F; Frankish, C R

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance and the benefits to be attained from consulting the end-users during system and product development. Although the rationale of utilizing the expertise of end-users in the system development life cycle appears to provide an apparently straightforward, even 'ideal' approach, there are many difficulties associated with eliciting the required knowledge from experts, both general and specific to every user group. Furthermore, many developers do not know how to involve users, or if they do, they do not utilize them to best effect. In the avionics sphere, the wealth of knowledge possessed by line pilots and flight engineers represents a vital information resource for the design of future flight-deck systems. As a specific example, this paper overviews some of the considerations which arose from working with these end-users in the early stages of the development of a warning and diagnostic system for civil aircraft. The end-goal of this particular phase of the work was the generation of guidelines for the design of the interface for the software engineers to use when building the prototype, and the methodological approach taken to achieve this is reported here. PMID:11541759

  8. A virtual reality system for the training of volunteers involved in health emergency situations.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Gianluca; Ponder, Michal; Molet, Tom; Fato, Marco; Thalmann, Daniel; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Bermano, Francesco; Beltrame, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    In order to guarantee an effective and punctual medical intervention to injured people involved in health emergency situations, where usually both professional and non-professional health operators are involved, a fast and accurate treatment has to be carried out. In case of catastrophic or very critical situations, non-professional operators who did not receive proper training (volunteers are among them) could be affected by psychological inhibitions. Their performances could slow down in such way that would affect the quality of the treatment and increase both direct and indirect costs. Our virtual reality system that is currently in use at the health care emergency center of San Martino Hospital in Genoa, Italy, has been designed and developed to check health emergency operators' capabilities to adopt correct decision-making procedures, to make optimal use of new technological equipment and to overcome psychological barriers. Our system is composed of (1) a high-end simulation PC, whose main functions are execution of the main software module, rendering of 3D scenes in stereo mode, rendering of sound, and control of data transmission from/to VR devices; (2) a low-end control PC, which controls the VR simulation running on the simulation PC, manages medical emergency simulation scenarios, introduces unexpected events to the simulation and controls the simulation difficulty level; (3) a magnetic-based motion tracking device used for head and hand tracking; (4) a wireless pair of shutter glasses together with a cathode ray tube wall projector; and (5) a high-end surround sound system. The expected benefits have been verified through the design and implementation of controlled clinical trials.

  9. Involvement of the Type IX Secretion System in Capnocytophaga ochracea Gliding Motility and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Daichi; Shibata, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kokubu, Eitoyo; Nakayama, Koji; Saito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Capnocytophaga ochracea is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that demonstrates gliding motility when cultured on solid agar surfaces. C. ochracea possesses the ability to form biofilms; however, factors involved in biofilm formation by this bacterium are unclear. A type IX secretion system (T9SS) in Flavobacterium johnsoniae was shown to be involved in the transport of proteins (e.g., several adhesins) to the cell surface. Genes orthologous to those encoding T9SS proteins in F. johnsoniae have been identified in the genome of C. ochracea; therefore, the T9SS may be involved in biofilm formation by C. ochracea. Here we constructed three ortholog-deficient C. ochracea mutants lacking sprB (which encodes a gliding motility adhesin) or gldK or sprT (which encode T9SS proteins in F. johnsoniae). Gliding motility was lost in each mutant, suggesting that, in C. ochracea, the proteins encoded by sprB, gldK, and sprT are necessary for gliding motility, and SprB is transported to the cell surface by the T9SS. For the ΔgldK, ΔsprT, and ΔsprB strains, the amounts of crystal violet-associated biofilm, relative to wild-type values, were 49%, 34%, and 65%, respectively, at 48 h. Confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the biofilms formed by wild-type C. ochracea were denser and bacterial cells were closer together than in those formed by the mutant strains. Together, these results indicate that proteins exported by the T9SS are key elements of the gliding motility and biofilm formation of C. ochracea. PMID:26729712

  10. Effects of high-involvement work systems on employee satisfaction and service costs in veterans healthcare.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Joel; Scotti, Dennis J; Behson, Scott; Farias, Gerard; Petzel, Robert; Neuman, Joel H; Keashly, Loraleigh

    2003-01-01

    Two strong imperatives for healthcare managers are reducing costs of service and attracting and retaining highly dedicated and competent patient care and support employees. Is there a trade-off or are there organizational practices that can further both objectives at the same time? High-involvement work systems (HIWS) represent a holistic work design that includes interrelated core features such as involvement, empowerment, development, trust, openness, teamwork, and performance-based rewards. HIWS have been linked to higher productivity, quality, employee and customer satisfaction, and market and financial performance in Fortune 1000 firms. Apparently, few prior studies have looked at the impacts of this holistic design within the healthcare sector. This research found that HIWS were associated with both greater employee satisfaction and lower patient service costs in 146 Veterans Health Administration centers, indicating that such practices pay off in both humanistic and financial terms. This suggests that managers implementing HIWS will incur real expenses that are likely to be more than offset by more satisfied employees, less organizational turmoil, and lower service delivery costs, which, in this study, amounted to over $1.2 million in savings for an average VHA facility. PMID:14671948

  11. Effects of high-involvement work systems on employee satisfaction and service costs in veterans healthcare.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Joel; Scotti, Dennis J; Behson, Scott; Farias, Gerard; Petzel, Robert; Neuman, Joel H; Keashly, Loraleigh

    2003-01-01

    Two strong imperatives for healthcare managers are reducing costs of service and attracting and retaining highly dedicated and competent patient care and support employees. Is there a trade-off or are there organizational practices that can further both objectives at the same time? High-involvement work systems (HIWS) represent a holistic work design that includes interrelated core features such as involvement, empowerment, development, trust, openness, teamwork, and performance-based rewards. HIWS have been linked to higher productivity, quality, employee and customer satisfaction, and market and financial performance in Fortune 1000 firms. Apparently, few prior studies have looked at the impacts of this holistic design within the healthcare sector. This research found that HIWS were associated with both greater employee satisfaction and lower patient service costs in 146 Veterans Health Administration centers, indicating that such practices pay off in both humanistic and financial terms. This suggests that managers implementing HIWS will incur real expenses that are likely to be more than offset by more satisfied employees, less organizational turmoil, and lower service delivery costs, which, in this study, amounted to over $1.2 million in savings for an average VHA facility.

  12. Differential Progression of Dysphagia in Heredity and Sporadic Ataxias Involving Multiple Systems.

    PubMed

    Isono, Chiharu; Hirano, Makito; Sakamoto, Hikaru; Ueno, Shuichi; Kusunoki, Susumu; Nakamura, Yusaku

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic ataxia affecting multiple systems, such as cerebellar, extrapyramidal, and autonomic systems, is known as multiple system atrophy cerebellar type (MSA-C), while similar multisystem involvements are seen in certain types of hereditary ataxia, such as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Dysphagia is a common symptom that can predispose to aspiration pneumonia, a major cause of death in patients with these diseases. Although the progressions of dysphagia in patients with MSA-C have been reported sporadically, those in SCA3 have not been reported. We retrospectively compared the results of repetitive videofluoroscopic examinations in patients with SCA3 (n = 6) and in those with MSA-C (n = 7). The result showed that the gross progression of dysphagia was significantly slower in patients with SCA3 than in those with MSA-C, but the maximum progression speeds were not significantly different. The dysphagia severities were not associated with impaired activity of daily living evaluated by the Barthel index in MSA-C, but were associated in SCA3. Despite the small number of patients enrolled, these data suggest that physicians should monitor swallowing functions in patients with SCA3 after mild dysphagia develops because it may progress as rapidly as it does in MSA-C.

  13. Effect of tianeptine on the central cholinergic system: involvement of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Bertorelli, R; Amoroso, D; Girotti, P; Consolo, S

    1992-03-01

    The effect of tianeptine on in vivo acetylcholine (ACh) release from brain hemispheric regions of freely moving rats was investigated using the microdialysis technique coupled with a sensitive radioenzymatic method. Tianeptine, at the dose of 30 mg/kg i.p., reduced ACh release from dorsal hippocampi by 40% in 40 min, and induced a 30% decrease of ACh output from frontal cortices while at the doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg it had no effect. In striata the drug did not significantly affect ACh release although it showed a tendency to increase it. The ACh content in the three areas considered was not affected by tianeptine at above doses. The drug did not alter choline-o-acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities suggesting that it did not influence the cholinergic system through direct action on the ACh metabolism; furthermore, it did not influence the sodium-dependent high-affinity uptake of choline in striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Impairment of serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission by chemical lesion of the median raphe nucleus or by metergoline, a blocker of 5-HT receptors, antagonized the cholinergic effect of tianeptine. The involvement of the serotonergic system is specific because lesions of the noradrenergic dorsal bundle failed to prevent the inhibitory action of tianeptine. The present data suggest that 5-HT may mediate the effect of tianeptine on the cholinergic system in dorsal hippocampi.

  14. Eclectic Ocular Comorbidities and Systemic Diseases with Eye Involvement: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pinazo-Durán, María D; Zanón-Moreno, Vicente; García-Medina, José J; Arévalo, J Fernando; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Nucci, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of several ocular diseases is more frequent than suspected. In spite of the refractive errors, one or more of the following can be detected simultaneously: glaucoma, cataracts, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eyes. In addition, as people age, ocular comorbidities are much more usually seen. Specific diseases are openly acknowledged to affect the eyes and vision, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension blood pressure, arthritis, hyperthyroidism, neurodegenerative disorders, hematologic malignancies, and/or systemic infections. Recent advances in early diagnosis and therapy of the ophthalmic pathologies have reinforced patient options to prevent visual impairment and blindness. Because of this, it is essential not to overlook sight-threatening conditions such as the ocular comorbidities and/or the eye involvement in the context of systemic disorders. Moreover, the important role of the multidisciplinary cooperation to improve and sustain management of patients affected with eclectic ocular comorbidities and/or systemic disorders with eye repercussion is specifically addressed. This review intends to shed light on these topics to help in making opportune diagnosis and appropriately managing the affected patients. PMID:27051666

  15. Predicting re-involvement for children adopted out of a public child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Some of the approximately 400,000 children currently placed out-of-home in a public child welfare system will not reunify with their family of origin. They may instead be adopted into a new family. Adoption placements can be characterized by poor adjustment for children; some such placements even result in disruption or dissolution. We conducted a stratified Cox regression of 4,016 children from the Colorado public child welfare system. All of the children had a finalized adoption during the years 2002 through 2006. The two outcomes analyzed were new child protection and youth-in-conflict referrals and assessments for these previously adopted children. New child welfare referrals and assessments may be early indicators of poor adjustment for adopted children within the adoptive family. Study results indicate that older children and Hispanic children had higher rates of referral and assessment. Children with a pre-adoption history including longer time out-of-home or a larger number of out-of-home placements also experienced higher referral and assessment rates. Additional factors which predicted subsequent system re-involvement included presence of paid adoption assistance, adoption by a non-relative foster parent and younger adoptive parent age. Several study results were moderated by the presence or absence of an ethnic match between the child and the adoptive parents. We provide an overview of the statistical model used for analysis and we discuss implications of the study results for child welfare practice.

  16. Trichoderma mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is involved in induction of plant systemic resistance.

    PubMed

    Viterbo, Ada; Harel, Michal; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Chet, Ilan; Mukherjee, Prasun K

    2005-10-01

    The role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) TmkA in inducing systemic resistance in cucumber against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. lacrymans was investigated by using tmkA loss-of-function mutants of Trichoderma virens. In an assay where Trichoderma spores were germinated in proximity to cucumber roots, the mutants were able to colonize the plant roots as effectively as the wild-type strain but failed to induce full systemic resistance against the leaf pathogen. Interactions with the plant roots enhanced the level of tmkA transcript in T. virens and its homologue in Trichoderma asperellum. At the protein level, we could detect the activation of two forms reacting to the phospho-p44/42 MAPK antibody. Biocontrol experiments demonstrated that the tmkA mutants retain their biocontrol potential against Rhizoctonia solani in soil but are not effective against Sclerotium rolfsii in reducing disease incidence. Our results show that, unlike in many plant-pathogen interactions, Trichoderma TmkA MAPK is not involved in limited root colonization. Trichoderma, however, needs MAPK signaling in order to induce full systemic resistance in the plant.

  17. Eclectic Ocular Comorbidities and Systemic Diseases with Eye Involvement: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zanón-Moreno, Vicente; García-Medina, José J.; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Nucci, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of several ocular diseases is more frequent than suspected. In spite of the refractive errors, one or more of the following can be detected simultaneously: glaucoma, cataracts, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eyes. In addition, as people age, ocular comorbidities are much more usually seen. Specific diseases are openly acknowledged to affect the eyes and vision, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension blood pressure, arthritis, hyperthyroidism, neurodegenerative disorders, hematologic malignancies, and/or systemic infections. Recent advances in early diagnosis and therapy of the ophthalmic pathologies have reinforced patient options to prevent visual impairment and blindness. Because of this, it is essential not to overlook sight-threatening conditions such as the ocular comorbidities and/or the eye involvement in the context of systemic disorders. Moreover, the important role of the multidisciplinary cooperation to improve and sustain management of patients affected with eclectic ocular comorbidities and/or systemic disorders with eye repercussion is specifically addressed. This review intends to shed light on these topics to help in making opportune diagnosis and appropriately managing the affected patients. PMID:27051666

  18. NASA Science Mission Directorate's Year of the Solar System: An Opportunity for Scientist Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Heather; Shipp, S.; Boonstra, D.; Shupla, C.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; LaConte, K.; Ristvey, J.; Wessen, A.; Zimmerman-Bachman, R.; Science E/PO Community, Planetary

    2010-10-01

    Between October 2010 and August 2012 - across a Martian year - a large number of Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) planetary missions will pass milestones (e.g., EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, MESSENGER, Dawn, Juno, GRAIL, and Mars Science Laboratory), with many other missions continuing to explore (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Express, Cassini, New Horizons, and Voyager). This Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers the Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) community an opportunity to collaborate with each other and the science community. Based on audience needs from formal and informal educators, YSS is structured to have monthly thematic topics that are driven by mission milestones, as well as observing opportunities. YSS will connect to ongoing and planned events nationwide. A website for YSS is in development and will be hosted off of the existing JPL Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/index.cfm). Once live, scientists, educators, and E/PO professionals will have a place to interact and collaborate. YSS will tie to NASA's Big Questions in Planetary Science - how did the Sun's family of planets and minor bodies originate and how have they evolved? - how did life begin and evolve on Earth, is it elsewhere, and what characteristics of the solar system lead to the origins of life? The thematic topics are broad in order to encompass many missions and planetary bodies each month, as well as address the Big Questions. YSS will kick off in October with the theme "Solar System Components and Scale” and a national event involving building solar system scale models across the country. Scientists are encouraged to contact schools, museums, planetaria, etc. in their communities to give presentations, provide science content, and collaborate on educational materials and events related to YSS.

  19. The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system is involved in sensitivity to the glucosylated bacteriocin sublancin.

    PubMed

    Garcia De Gonzalo, C V; Denham, E L; Mars, R A T; Stülke, J; van der Donk, W A; van Dijl, J M

    2015-11-01

    The mode of action of a group of glycosylated antimicrobial peptides known as glycocins remains to be elucidated. In the current study of one glycocin, sublancin, we identified the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) of Bacillus species as a key player in bacterial sensitivity. Sublancin kills several Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus species and Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Unlike other classes of bacteriocins for which the PTS is involved in their mechanism of action, we show that the addition of PTS-requiring sugars leads to increased resistance rather than increased sensitivity, suggesting that sublancin has a distinct mechanism of action. Collectively, our present mutagenesis and genomic studies demonstrate that the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) and domain A of enzyme II (PtsG) in particular are critical determinants for bacterial sensitivity to sublancin. PMID:26282429

  20. The Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System Is Involved in Sensitivity to the Glucosylated Bacteriocin Sublancin

    PubMed Central

    Garcia De Gonzalo, C. V.; Denham, E. L.; Mars, R. A. T.; Stülke, J.

    2015-01-01

    The mode of action of a group of glycosylated antimicrobial peptides known as glycocins remains to be elucidated. In the current study of one glycocin, sublancin, we identified the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) of Bacillus species as a key player in bacterial sensitivity. Sublancin kills several Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus species and Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Unlike other classes of bacteriocins for which the PTS is involved in their mechanism of action, we show that the addition of PTS-requiring sugars leads to increased resistance rather than increased sensitivity, suggesting that sublancin has a distinct mechanism of action. Collectively, our present mutagenesis and genomic studies demonstrate that the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) and domain A of enzyme II (PtsG) in particular are critical determinants for bacterial sensitivity to sublancin. PMID:26282429

  1. Determination of the geographic origin of rice by chemometrics with strontium and lead isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Miyuki; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-02-22

    The objective of this study was to develop a technique for determining the country of origin of rice in the Japanese market. The rice samples included a total of 350 products grown in Japan (n = 200), the United States (n = 50), China (n = 50), and Thailand (n = 50). In this study, (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Pb isotope ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) ratios and multielement concentrations (Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Ba) were determined by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. By combining three chemometric techniques based on different principles and determination criteria, the countries of origin of rice were determined. The predictions made by 10-fold cross-validation were around 97% accurate. The presented method demonstrated the effectiveness of determining the geographic origin of an agricultural product by combining several chemometric techniques using heavy element isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

  2. Piperine potentiates the antidepressant-like effect of trans-resveratrol: involvement of monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wu; Chen, Zhuoyou; Wang, Qiandong; Lin, Mengmeng; Wu, Shujuan; Yan, Qizhi; Wu, Fan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Li, Gaowen; Xu, Ying; Pan, Jianchun

    2013-12-01

    Major depression is characterized by dysfunction of neuroendocrine and immune networks. Trans-resveratrol, a phenolic compound presented in polygonum cuspidatum, was demonstrated previously to exert antidepressant-like effects through regulating monoaminergic system, oxidative/antioxidant defense and inflammatory response. The present study investigated the synergistic antidepressant-like effect of trans-resveratrol and piperine, a bioavailability enhancer, in mice and explored the possible mechanism. Trans-resveratrol was shown to reduce the immobility time both in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests (TST and FST). But the maximal inhibition was nearly 60% even if the doses were increased by 160 mg/kg; while piperine produced weak antidepressant-like effects in these two models. The interaction between trans-resveratrol and piperine was shown a clear-cut synergistic effect as evidenced by an isobolographic analysis. The further study suggested that the anti-immobility response from the subthreshold dose of piperine (2.5 mg/kg) and low doses of trans-resveratrol (10 and 20 mg/kg) was abolished by pretreatment with para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg, i.p.) in TST and FST, indicating the involvement of serotonergic system. Moreover, treatment with the subthreshold dose of piperine and low doses of trans-resveratrol attenuated reserpine-induced hypothermia and ptosis arguing for the relevance of noradrenaline. Additional evidence from neurochemical (monoamines in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) and biochemical (monoamine oxidase, MAO activity) assays corroborated the synergistically elevated monoaminergic system after co-treatment with trans-resveratrol and piperine. The present results indicate the effect of trans-resveratrol combined with piperine on depressive-like behaviors may be partly due to the potentiated activation of monoaminergic system in the brain. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the involvement of the

  3. Sample transport efficiency with electrothermal vaporization and electrostatic deposition technique in multielement solid sample analysis of plant and cereal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Jens; Buchkamp, Thomas; Hermann, Gerd; Lasnitschka, Georg

    2000-05-01

    A graphite furnace of the boat-in-tube type as electrothermal vaporizer (ETV) and an electrostatic precipitator were used for determining analyte transport efficiencies and dependencies on plant and cereal matrices, and on carrier elements. All analytical measurements were carried out with coherent forward scattering (CFS) using simultaneous multielement determinations. Transport efficiencies of up to 19% for Cu, 21% for Fe and Mn, and 36% for Pb from the ETV boat to the L'vov platform were obtained for the standard reference materials BCR CRM 281 rye grass, BCR CRM 189 wholemeal flour and NIST SRM 1567 wheat flour and multielement standard solutions containing approximately the same element ratios as certified for the solid samples. The analytical accuracy of the procedure including the ETV process and the electrostatic deposition was tested with Cu, Fe and Pb in BCR CRM 281, Cu, Fe and Mn in BCR CRM 189, and Fe and Mn in NIST SRM 1567 by weighing the solid sample onto the ETV-boat and calibrating against multielement standard solutions dosed into the ETV-boat as well. The analyte addition technique was tested with Cu, Fe and Mn in wholemeal flour. The deviations of the results were below 10% and the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) values were typically 3-10%. The influence of added potassium and palladium nitrates as physical carriers on the transport efficiencies of Ag, Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn standard solutions was investigated with simultaneous multielement determination. Using K and Pd as carriers increased transport efficiencies by factors up to 1.74 in comparison to measurements without an added carrier.

  4. Acoustic characterization of multi-element, dual-frequency transducers for high-intensity contact ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtnyk, M.; N'Djin, W. A.; Persaud, L.; Bronskill, M.; Chopra, R.

    2012-10-01

    High-intensity contact ultrasound therapy can generate precise volumes of thermal damage in deep-seated tissue using interstitial or intracavitary devices. Multi-element, dual-frequency transducers offer increased spatial control of the heating pattern by enabling modulation of ultrasound power and frequency along the device. The performance and acoustic coupling between elements of simple, multi-element, dual-frequency transducers was measured. Transducer arrays were fabricated by cutting halfway through a rectangular plate of PZT, creating individual 4 × 5 mm segments with fundamental frequency (4.1 MHz) and third harmonic (13.3 MHz). Coupling between elements was investigated using a scanning laser vibrometer to measure transducer surface displacements at each frequency and different acoustic powers (0, 10, 20 W/cm2). The measured acoustic power was proportional to the input electrical power with no hysteresis and efficiencies >50% at both frequencies. Maximum transducer surface displacements were observed near element centers, reducing to ˜1/3-maximum near edges. The power and frequency of neighboring transducer segments had little impact on an element's output. In the worst case, an element operating at 4.1 MHz and 20 W/cm2 coupled only 1.5 W/cm2 to its immediate neighboring element. Multi-element, dual-frequency transducers were successfully constructed using a simple dicing method. Coupling between elements was minor, therefore the power and frequency of each transducer element could be considered independent.

  5. Tracing the geographic origin of beef in China on the basis of the combination of stable isotopes and multielement analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gang; Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming; Ye, Zhihua

    2013-07-24

    The potential for classifying beef samples on the basis of their geographical origin was investigated by stable isotope and multielement analysis using samples from various provinces in China. C and N isotope composition and the concentrations of 23 elements of the defatted beef samples were determined. It was shown that as compared to the Tibet beef fed predominantly on C3 pasture, maize-fed beef produced in Shandong and Heilongjiang province gave rise to a significant difference in (13)C content. Significant differences were also observed in 18 elements among the defatted beef samples. Stable isotope data and multielement concentrations determined in the beef were subjected to multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Eight key variables were identified as providing maximum discrimination among samples. DA gave an overall correct classification rate of 100% and a cross-validation rate of 100%. This research has proved that the geographical origin of beef in China can be identified by a combination of stable isotopes and multielement analysis.

  6. CD36 is involved in oleic acid detection by the murine olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Oberland, Sonja; Ackels, Tobias; Gaab, Stefanie; Pelz, Thomas; Spehr, Jennifer; Spehr, Marc; Neuhaus, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory signals influence food intake in a variety of species. To maximize the chances of finding a source of calories, an animal's preference for fatty foods and triglycerides already becomes apparent during olfactory food search behavior. However, the molecular identity of both receptors and ligands mediating olfactory-dependent fatty acid recognition are, so far, undescribed. We here describe that a subset of olfactory sensory neurons expresses the fatty acid receptor CD36 and demonstrate a receptor-like localization of CD36 in olfactory cilia by STED microscopy. CD36-positive olfactory neurons share olfaction-specific transduction elements and project to numerous glomeruli in the ventral olfactory bulb. In accordance with the described roles of CD36 as fatty acid receptor or co-receptor in other sensory systems, the number of olfactory neurons responding to oleic acid, a major milk component, in Ca(2+) imaging experiments is drastically reduced in young CD36 knock-out mice. Strikingly, we also observe marked age-dependent changes in CD36 localization, which is prominently present in the ciliary compartment only during the suckling period. Our results support the involvement of CD36 in fatty acid detection by the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:26441537

  7. New Pulp Biobleaching System Involving Manganese Peroxidase Immobilized in a Silica Support with Controlled Pore Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Toshiya; Kajino, Tsutomu; Li, Bo; Sugiyama, Hidehiko; Takahashi, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    Attempts have been made to use manganese peroxidase (MnP) for chlorine-free pulp biobleaching, but they have not been commercially viable because of the enzyme's low stability. We developed a new pulp biobleaching method involving mesoporous material-immobilized manganese peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. MnP immobilized in FSM-16, a folded-sheet mesoporous material whose pore size is nearly the same as the diameter of the enzyme, had the highest thermal stability and tolerance to H2O2. MnP immobilized in FSM-16 retained more than 80% of its initial activity even after 10 days of continuous reaction. We constructed a thermally discontinuous two-stage reactor system, in which the enzyme (39°C) and pulp-bleaching (70°C) reactions were performed separately. When the treatment of pulp with MnP by means of the two-stage reactor system and alkaline extraction was repeated seven times, the brightness of the pulp increased to about 88% within 7 h after completion of the last treatment. PMID:11319102

  8. The ubiquitin conjugation system is involved in the disassembly of cilia and flagella

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kaiyao; Diener, Dennis R.

    2009-01-01

    The disassembly of cilia and flagella is linked to the cell cycle and environmental cues. We have found that ubiquitination of flagellar proteins is an integral part of flagellar disassembly. Free ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme CrUbc13 are detected in flagella, and several proteins are ubiquitinated in isolated flagella when exogenous ubiquitin and adenosine triphosphatase are added, suggesting that the ubiquitin conjugation system operates in flagella. Levels of ubiquitinated flagellar proteins increase during flagellar resorption, especially in intraflagellar transport (IFT) mutants, suggesting that disassembly products are labeled with ubiquitin and transported to the cell body by IFT. Substrates of the ubiquitin conjugation system include α-tubulin (but not β-tubulin), a dynein subunit (IC2), two signaling proteins involved in the mating process, cyclic guanosine monophosphate–dependent kinase, and the cation channel polycystic kidney disease 2. Ubiquitination of flagellar proteins is enhanced early in mating, suggesting that ubiquitination also plays an active role in regulating signaling pathways in flagella. PMID:19704024

  9. Fluid–structure interaction involving large deformations: 3D simulations and applications to biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Dai, Hu; Luo, Haoxiang; Doyle, James F.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional fluid–structure interaction (FSI) involving large deformations of flexible bodies is common in biological systems, but accurate and efficient numerical approaches for modeling such systems are still scarce. In this work, we report a successful case of combining an existing immersed-boundary flow solver with a nonlinear finite-element solid-mechanics solver specifically for three-dimensional FSI simulations. This method represents a significant enhancement from the similar methods that are previously available. Based on the Cartesian grid, the viscous incompressible flow solver can handle boundaries of large displacements with simple mesh generation. The solid-mechanics solver has separate subroutines for analyzing general three-dimensional bodies and thin-walled structures composed of frames, membranes, and plates. Both geometric nonlinearity associated with large displacements and material nonlinearity associated with large strains are incorporated in the solver. The FSI is achieved through a strong coupling and partitioned approach. We perform several validation cases, and the results may be used to expand the currently limited database of FSI benchmark study. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of the present method by applying it to the aerodynamics of elastic wings of insects and the flow-induced vocal fold vibration. PMID:24415796

  10. A two component system is involved in acid adaptation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Wei; Qu, Xiaojun; Chen, Zhangting; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Lanwei

    2012-05-20

    The Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is of vital importance to the food industry, especially to the dairy industry. Two component systems (TCSs) are one of the most important mechanisms for environmental sensing and signal transduction in the majority of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A typical TCS consists of a histidine protein kinase (HPK) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR). To investigate the functions of TCSs during acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus, we used quantitative PCR to reveal how TCSs expression changes during acid adaptation. Two TCSs (JN675228/JN675229 and JN675230/JN675231) and two HPKs (JN675236 and JN675240) were induced during acid adaptation. These TCSs were speculated to be related with the acid adaptation ability of L. bulgaricus. The mutants of JN675228/JN675229 were constructed in order to investigate the functions of JN675228/JN675229. The mutants showed reduced acid adaptation compared to that of wild type, and the complemented strains were similar to the wild-type strain. These observations suggested that JN675228 and JN675229 were involved in acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus. The interaction between JN675228 and JN675229 was identified by means of yeast two-hybrid system. The results indicated there is interaction between JN675228 and JN675229.

  11. The renin-angiotensin system and its involvement in vascular disease.

    PubMed

    van Thiel, Bibi S; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; te Riet, Luuk; Essers, Jeroen; Danser, A H Jan

    2015-09-15

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many types of cardiovascular diseases including cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, aneurysms, stroke, coronary artery disease and vascular injury. Besides the classical regulatory effects on blood pressure and sodium homoeostasis, the RAS is involved in the regulation of contractility and remodelling of the vessel wall. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effect of inhibition of this system in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. However, dysregulation and overexpression of the RAS, through different molecular mechanisms, also induces, the initiation of vascular damage. The key effector peptide of the RAS, angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes cell proliferation, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, processes known to contribute to remodelling of the vasculature. In this review, we focus on the components that are under the influence of the RAS and contribute to the development and progression of vascular disease; extracellular matrix defects, atherosclerosis and ageing. Furthermore, the beneficial therapeutic effects of inhibition of the RAS on the vasculature are discussed, as well as the need for additive effects on top of RAS inhibition.

  12. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

  13. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system. PMID:23599398

  14. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Font, Laura; Luján, Miguel Á.; Pastor, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (EOS) (opioid peptides and receptors) in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR) have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference (CPP). Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc), which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine (DA). The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: (1) implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and (2) the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR. PMID:23914161

  15. Fluid-structure interaction involving large deformations: 3D simulations and applications to biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang-Bao; Dai, Hu; Luo, Haoxiang; Doyle, James F.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction (FSI) involving large deformations of flexible bodies is common in biological systems, but accurate and efficient numerical approaches for modeling such systems are still scarce. In this work, we report a successful case of combining an existing immersed-boundary flow solver with a nonlinear finite-element solid-mechanics solver specifically for three-dimensional FSI simulations. This method represents a significant enhancement from the similar methods that are previously available. Based on the Cartesian grid, the viscous incompressible flow solver can handle boundaries of large displacements with simple mesh generation. The solid-mechanics solver has separate subroutines for analyzing general three-dimensional bodies and thin-walled structures composed of frames, membranes, and plates. Both geometric nonlinearity associated with large displacements and material nonlinearity associated with large strains are incorporated in the solver. The FSI is achieved through a strong coupling and partitioned approach. We perform several validation cases, and the results may be used to expand the currently limited database of FSI benchmark study. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of the present method by applying it to the aerodynamics of elastic wings of insects and the flow-induced vocal fold vibration.

  16. CD36 is involved in oleic acid detection by the murine olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Oberland, Sonja; Ackels, Tobias; Gaab, Stefanie; Pelz, Thomas; Spehr, Jennifer; Spehr, Marc; Neuhaus, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory signals influence food intake in a variety of species. To maximize the chances of finding a source of calories, an animal’s preference for fatty foods and triglycerides already becomes apparent during olfactory food search behavior. However, the molecular identity of both receptors and ligands mediating olfactory-dependent fatty acid recognition are, so far, undescribed. We here describe that a subset of olfactory sensory neurons expresses the fatty acid receptor CD36 and demonstrate a receptor-like localization of CD36 in olfactory cilia by STED microscopy. CD36-positive olfactory neurons share olfaction-specific transduction elements and project to numerous glomeruli in the ventral olfactory bulb. In accordance with the described roles of CD36 as fatty acid receptor or co-receptor in other sensory systems, the number of olfactory neurons responding to oleic acid, a major milk component, in Ca2+ imaging experiments is drastically reduced in young CD36 knock-out mice. Strikingly, we also observe marked age-dependent changes in CD36 localization, which is prominently present in the ciliary compartment only during the suckling period. Our results support the involvement of CD36 in fatty acid detection by the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:26441537

  17. Involvement of V-ATPase in the regulation of cell size in the fly's visual system.

    PubMed

    Pyza, E; Borycz, J; Giebultowicz, J M; Meinertzhagen, I A

    2004-11-01

    In the fly's visual system, two classes of lamina interneuron, L1 and L2, cyclically change both their size and shape in a rhythm that is circadian. Several neurotransmitters and the lamina's glial cells are known to be involved in regulating these rhythms. Moreover, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in the optic lobe is thought also to participate in such regulation. We have detected V-ATPase-like immunoreactivity in the heads of both Drosophilla melanogaster and Musca domestica using antibodies raised against either the B- or H-subunits of V-ATPase from D. melanogaster or against the B-subunit from two other insect species Culex quinquefasciatus and Manduca sexta. In the visual systems of both fly species V-ATPase was localized immunocytochemically to the compound eye photoreceptors. In D. melanogaster immunoreactivity oscillated during the day and night and under constant darkness the signal was stronger during the subjective night than the subjective day. In turn, blocking V-ATPase by injecting a V-ATPase blocker, bafilomycin, in M. domestica increased the axon sizes of L1 and L2, but only when bafilomycin was applied during the night. As a result bafilomycin abolished the day/night difference in axon size in L1 and L2, their sizes being similar during the day and night. PMID:15607501

  18. VEGF-induced antidepressant effects involve modulation of norepinephrine and serotonin systems.

    PubMed

    Udo, Hiroshi; Hamasu, Kousuke; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-15

    Throughout life, we are exposed to a variety of stresses, which may be inevitable and noxious sometimes. During evolution, animals must have acquired some physiological means to counteract stress. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic and neurogenic factor, which has been shown to elicit antidepressant-like effects in response to different external stimuli, potentially functioning as an anti-stress molecule. However, it remains largely unknown how VEGF modulates mood-related behaviors. To investigate molecular correlates, we analyzed monoaminergic systems of VEGF transgenic mice that display antidepressant-like behavior. Immunostaining showed that overall morphologies of monoaminergic nuclei and their processes were normal. However, we found imbalances in brain monoamine contents, in which the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin, but not dopamine, were decreased exclusively in the regions where VEGF was expressed. The turnover of norepinephrine showed a marked increase and serotonin turnover showed a modest reduction, whereas dopamine turnover was not affected. The protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzymes of catecholamine and serotonin synthesis, remained constant. The mRNA levels of monoamine receptors were generally similar but adrenergic receptors of ADRα1A and ADRβ1 were down-regulated. Behavioral tests showed that serotonin- or norepinephrine-selective antidepressant drugs failed to additively enhance antidepressant-like behaviors, whereas monoamine depleting drugs attenuated VEGF-mediated antidepressant-like effect. These data suggest that VEGF-induced antidepressant-like effects involve modulation of norepinephrine and serotonin systems.

  19. [Successful treatment with total cranial irradiation for central nervous system involvement of Langerhans cell sarcoma during chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Noriharu; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Yamashita, Takeshi; Kondo, Yukio; Nakao, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is an extremely rare neoplasm of Langerhans cell origin characterized by systemic involvement and a poor prognosis. There are, however, few reports of LCS with central nervous system involvement. We experienced a patient with LCS recurrence in the brain that appeared during systemic chemotherapy. The brains lesions eventually responded to total cranial irradiation. A 60-year-old female presented with systemic lymphadenopathy. LCS was diagnosed based on neck lymph node biopsy findings. Two cycles of ESHAP induced marked regression of her lymphadenopathy, but FDG-PET/CT scan revealed new lesions in the central nervous system and her disorientation gradually worsened. We administered 37.5 Gy of total cranial irradiation which improved her consciousness and shrank the brain tumors as demonstrated by MRI. The patient's clinical course indicates that radiation therapy may be effective for central nervous system involvement of LCS even if the lesion is resistant to systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26861100

  20. The Role of Quality Service Systems in Involving Families in Mental Health Treatment for Children with Severe Emotional Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Lindsay Satterwhite; Heflinger, Craig Anne

    2012-01-01

    Family involvement in the planning and execution of mental health treatment has been shown to positively influence child outcomes; however, there is wide variability in the levels of involvement by families. The current study investigated the influence of child, family caregiver, service system, and community factors on the level of family…

  1. Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA: evidence of primary and secondary central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Borlot, Felippe; Arantes, Paula Ricci; Quaio, Caio Robledo; Franco, José Francisco da Silva; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Gomy, Israel; Bertola, Debora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae

    2014-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase. Studies usually focus on skeletal abnormalities and their consequences. This study explores the neurological manifestations in a cohort of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients, with a detailed focus on brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. We performed a cross-sectional study involving nine patients with a biochemical confirmation of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA. The protocol consists of a comprehensive clinical examination and brain and spinal cord MRI analysis for all subjects. The mean age was 16.4 years (±5.7) and the mean onset of symptoms was 11.5 months (±6.3). Overall, cognition was spared in all but one patient and motor weakness was a constant finding in all patients. Deep sensation impairment was found in six patients. The brain MRIs showed non-specific white matter changes in two patients. Other abnormalities such as clival hypoplasia, basilar invagination, and arachnoid cists appeared in seven of the nine patients. Eight patients presented spinal cord compression, and in three of them, two spinal levels were compromised. Odontoid hypoplasia and degenerative features in the neuroaxis were present in all patients. Our experience with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients supports the evidence of central nervous system involvement. We emphasize the importance of regular clinical assessments with complete MRI studies, as an attempt to detect the early signs of spinal cord compression. This evaluation may be especially important before surgical interventions, as occult lesions may become symptomatic and promote postoperative unfavorable outcomes.

  2. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane

    2014-05-27

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health.

  3. Functional interactions between type IV secretion systems involved in DNA transfer and virulence.

    PubMed

    de Paz, Héctor D; Sangari, Félix J; Bolland, Silvia; García-Lobo, Juan M; Dehio, Christoph; de la Cruz, Fernando; Llosa, Matxalen

    2005-11-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the functional interactions between type IV secretion systems (T4SS) that are part of the conjugative machinery for horizontal DNA transfer (cT4SS), and T4SS involved in bacterial pathogenicity (pT4SS). The authors' previous work showed that a conjugative coupling protein (T4CP) interacts with the VirB10-type component of the T4SS in order to recruit the protein-DNA complex to the transporter for conjugative DNA transfer. This study now shows by two-hybrid analysis that conjugative T4CPs also interact with the VirB10 element of the pT4SS of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), Bartonella tribocorum (Bt) and Brucella suis (Bs). Moreover, the VirB10 component of a cT4SS (protein TrwE of plasmid R388) could be partially substituted by that of a pT4SS (protein TrwE of Bt) for conjugation. This result opens the way for the construction of hybrid T4SS that deliver DNA into animal cells. Interestingly, in the presence of part of the Bs T4SS the R388 T4SS protein levels were decreased and R388 conjugation was strongly inhibited. Complementation assays between the Trw systems of R388 and Bt showed that only individual components from the so-called 'core complex' could be exchanged, supporting the concept that this core is the common scaffold for the transport apparatus while the other 'peripheral components' are largely system-specific. PMID:16272374

  4. The HPA and immune axes in stress: the involvement of the serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Leonard, B E

    2005-10-01

    The impact of acute and chronic stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is reviewed and evidence presented that corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is the stress neurotransmitter which plays an important role in the activation of the central sympathetic and serotonergic systems. The activity of CRF is expressed through specific receptors (CRF 1 and 2) that are antagonistic in their actions and widely distributed in the limbic regions of the brain, as well as in the hypothalamus, and on immune cells. The mechanism whereby chronic stress, via the CRF induced activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus, can induce a change in the serotonergic system, involves an increase in the 5HT2A and a decrease in the 5HT1A receptor mediated function. Such changes contribute to the onset of anxiety and depression. In addition, the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids that is associated with chronic stress and depression desensitises the central glucocorticoid receptors to the negative feedback inhibition of the HPA axis. This indirectly results in the further activation of the HPA axis. The rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines that usually accompanies the chronic stress response results in a further stimulation of the HPA axis thereby adding to the stress response. While CRF would appear to play a pivotal role, evidence is provided that simultaneous changes in the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, combined with the activation of peripheral and central macrophages that increase the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the brain and blood, also play a critical role in predisposing to anxiety and depression. Neurodegenerative changes in the brain that frequently occur in the elderly patient with major depression, could result from the activation of indoleaminedioxygenase (IDO), a widely distributed enzyme that converts tryptophan via the kynenine pathway to for the neurotoxic end product quinolinic acid. PMID:16459240

  5. The spectrum of enzymes involved in activation of 2-aminoanthracene varies with the metabolic system applied.

    PubMed

    Veres, Zsuzsa; Török, Géza; Tóth, Eva; Vereczkey, László; Jemnitz, Katalin

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the involvement of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in the metabolic activation of 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) by use of metabolic systems such as liver S9 or hepatocytes from untreated and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF)- or phenobarbital (PB)-treated rats. Metabolic activation was determined in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Unexpectedly, both enzyme inducers, BNF and PB, significantly decreased the mutagenicity of 2AA activated by S9 fractions. 2AA mutagenicity was detected in the presence of cytochrome P450 inhibitors such as alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), clotrimazole and N-benzylimidazole to study the contribution of CYP isoenzymes to the activation process. ANF significantly decreased the activation of 2AA by S9 from untreated rats. In contrast, ANF significantly increased the metabolic activation of 2AA by S9 from BNF- and PB-treated rats. The enhanced mutagenicity was not altered by co-incubation with clotrimazole and ANF. Pre-incubation of 2AA in the presence of N-benzylimidazole significantly increased the activation of 2AA by S9 from BNF- and PB-treated rats, which suggests that CYPs play minor role in 2AA metabolic activation by rat liver S9 fractions. In contrast with the results described above, BNF treatment of rats significantly enhanced the activation of 2AA by hepatocytes. ANF attenuated the extent of this activation suggesting that different enzymes play a major role in the activation processes in these metabolic systems. Our results indicate that identification of mutagenic hazard by use of the Ames test may depend on the metabolic system applied.

  6. 45 CFR 1182.16 - Procedures to ensure that Institute employees involved with its systems of records are familiar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT... persons involved in the design, development, operation, or maintenance of any Institute system...

  7. Experimental and computational investigation of lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Dale

    1996-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the effect of lift enhancing tabs on a two-element airfoil was conducted. The objective of the study was to develop an understanding of the flow physics associated with lift enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. A NACA 63(sub 2)-215 ModB airfoil with a 30 percent chord Fowler flap was tested in the NASA Ames 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel. Lift enhancing tabs of various heights were tested on both the main element and the flap for a variety of flap riggings. Computations of the flow over the two-element airfoil were performed using the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes code INS2D-UP. The computer results predict all of the trends in the experimental data quite well. When the flow over the flap upper surface is attached, tabs mounted at the main element trailing edge (cove tabs) produce very little change in lift. At high flap deflections. however, the flow over the flap is separated and cove tabs produce large increases in lift and corresponding reductions in drag by eliminating the separated flow. Cove tabs permit high flap deflection angles to be achieved and reduce the sensitivity of the airfoil lift to the size of the flap gap. Tabs attached to the flap training edge (flap tabs) are effective at increasing lift without significantly increasing drag. A combination of a cove tab and a flap tab increased the airfoil lift coefficient by 11 percent relative to the highest lift tab coefficient achieved by any baseline configuration at an angle of attack of zero percent and the maximum lift coefficient was increased by more than 3 percent. A simple analytic model based on potential flow was developed to provide a more detailed understanding of how lift enhancing tabs work. The tabs were modeled by a point vortex at the training edge. Sensitivity relationships were derived which provide a mathematical basis for explaining the effects of lift enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. Results of the modeling

  8. Central nervous system granulomastous phlebitis with limited extracranial involvement of the heart and lungs: An autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Jernej; Zorman, Jerneja Videčnik; Matičič, Mojca; Vrabec, Matej; Alibegović, Armin; Popović, Mara

    2016-02-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare condition, usually with an insidious onset. There is a wide variety of histological types (granulomatous, lymphocytic or necrotizing vasculitis) and types of vessel involved (arteries, veins or both). Most cases are idiopathic. We describe a first case of idiopathic granulomatous central nervous system phlebitis with additional limited involvement of the heart and lung, exclusively affecting small and medium sized veins in a 22-year-old woman, presenting as a sub acute headache. The reasons for this peculiar limitation of inflammation to the veins and the involvement of the heart and lungs are unknown.

  9. Copper transport systems are involved in multidrug resistance and drug transport.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Komatsu, Masaharu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Akiyama, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    metabolism modulate drug transport appears to involve modulation of drug cellular localization via modulation of the vesicle transport system. In ATP7A overexpressing cells, Dox accumulates in the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, in the parental cells, Dox is localized in the nuclei, where the target molecules of Dox, topoisomerase II and DNA, are found. Disruption of the intracellular vesicle transport system with monensin, a Na+/H+ ionophore, induced the relocalization of Dox from the Golgi apparatus to the nuclei in the ATP7A overexpressing cells. These data suggested that ATP7A-related drug transport is dependent on the vesicle transport system. Thus copper transport systems play important roles in drug transport as well as in copper metabolism. Components of copper metabolism are therefore likely to include target molecules for the modulation of drug potency of not only anti-cancer agents but also of other drugs.

  10. Involvement of Spinal Angiotensin II System in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Wataru; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yamagata, Ryota; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity increases under hyperglycemic states, and is thought to be involved in diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II, a main bioactive component of the RAS, might act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the transmission of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Here, we examined whether the spinal Ang II system is responsible for diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Tactile allodynia was observed concurrently with an increase in blood glucose levels the day after mice received STZ (200 mg/kg, i.v.) injections. Tactile allodynia on day 14 was dose-dependently inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. In the lumbar dorsal spinal cord, the expression of Ang II, Ang converting enzyme (ACE), and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were all significantly increased on day 14 after STZ injection compared with vehicle-treated controls, whereas no differences were observed among AT1 receptors or angiotensinogen levels. Moreover, the increase in phospho-p38 MAPK was significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan. These results indicate that the expression of spinal ACE increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn led to an increase in Ang II levels and tactile allodynia. This increase in spinal Ang II was accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was shown to be mediated by AT1 receptors.

  11. Functional mapping of the prosencephalic systems involved in organizing predatory behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Comoli, E; Ribeiro-Barbosa, E R; Negrão, N; Goto, M; Canteras, N S

    2005-01-01

    The study of the neural basis of predatory behavior has been largely neglected over the recent years. Using an ethologically based approach, we presently delineate the prosencephalic systems mobilized during predation by examining Fos immunoreactivity in rats performing insect hunting. These results were further compared with those obtained from animals killed after the early nocturnal surge of food ingestion. First, predatory behavior was associated with a distinct Fos up-regulation in the ventrolateral caudoputamen at intermediate rostro-caudal levels, suggesting a possible candidate to organize the stereotyped sequence of actions seen during insect hunting. Insect predation also presented conspicuous mobilization of a neural network formed by a distinct amygdalar circuit (i.e. the postpiriform-transition area, the anterior part of cortical nucleus, anterior part of basomedial nucleus, posterior part of basolateral nucleus, and medial part of central nucleus) and affiliated sites in the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (i.e. the rhomboid nucleus) and in the hypothalamus (i.e. the parasubthalamic nucleus). Accordingly, this network is likely to encode prey-related motivational values, such as prey's odor and taste, and to influence autonomic and motor control accompanying predatory eating. Notably, regular food intake was also associated with a relatively weak Fos up-regulation in this network. However, during regular surge of food intake, we observed a much larger mobilization in hypothalamic sites related to the homeostatic control of eating, namely, the arcuate nucleus and autonomic parts of the paraventricular nucleus. Overall, the present findings suggest potential neural systems involved in integrating prey-related motivational values and in organizing the stereotyped sequences of action seen during predation. Moreover, the comparison with regular food intake contrasts putative neural mechanisms controlling predatory related eating vs. regular food intake.

  12. Involvement of Spinal Angiotensin II System in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Wataru; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yamagata, Ryota; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity increases under hyperglycemic states, and is thought to be involved in diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II, a main bioactive component of the RAS, might act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the transmission of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Here, we examined whether the spinal Ang II system is responsible for diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Tactile allodynia was observed concurrently with an increase in blood glucose levels the day after mice received STZ (200 mg/kg, i.v.) injections. Tactile allodynia on day 14 was dose-dependently inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. In the lumbar dorsal spinal cord, the expression of Ang II, Ang converting enzyme (ACE), and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were all significantly increased on day 14 after STZ injection compared with vehicle-treated controls, whereas no differences were observed among AT1 receptors or angiotensinogen levels. Moreover, the increase in phospho-p38 MAPK was significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan. These results indicate that the expression of spinal ACE increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn led to an increase in Ang II levels and tactile allodynia. This increase in spinal Ang II was accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was shown to be mediated by AT1 receptors. PMID:27401876

  13. Identification of a Cyanobacterial RND-Type Efflux System Involved in Export of Free Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihiro; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Use, Kazuhide; Uesaka, Kazuma; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Chang, Yajun; Kojima, Kouji; Aichi, Makiko; Ihara, Kunio; Nakahigashi, Kenji; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Omata, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    An RND (resistance-nodulation-division)-type transporter having the capacity to export free fatty acids (FFAs) was identified in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 during characterization of a mutant strain engineered to produce FFAs. The basic strategy for construction of the FFA-producing mutant was a commonly used one, involving inactivation of the endogenous acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase gene (aas) and introduction of a foreign thioesterase gene ('tesA), but a nitrate transport mutant NA3 was used as the parental strain to achieve slow, nitrate-limited growth in batch cultures. Also, a nitrogen-regulated promoter PnirA was used to drive 'tesA to maximize thioesterase expression during the nitrate-limited growth. The resulting mutant (dAS2T) was, however, incapable of growth under the conditions of nitrate limitation, presumably due to toxicity associated with FFA overproduction. Incubation of the mutant culture under the non-permissive conditions allowed for isolation of a pseudorevertant (dAS2T-pr1) capable of growth on nitrate. Genome sequence and gene expression analyses of this strain suggested that expression of an RND-type efflux system had rescued growth on nitrate. Targeted inactivation of the RND-type transporter genes in the wild-type strain resulted in loss of tolerance to exogenously added FFAs including capric, lauric, myristic, oleic and linolenic acids. Overexpression of the genes in dAS2T, on the other hand, enhanced FFA excretion and cell growth in nitrate-containing medium, verifying that the genes encode an efflux pump for FFAs. These results demonstrate the importance of the efflux system in efficient FFA production using genetically engineered cyanobacteria. PMID:26468506

  14. Nerolidol exhibits antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity: involvement of the GABAergic system and proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Fonsêca, Diogo V; Salgado, Paula R R; de Carvalho, Fabíola L; Salvadori, Mirian Graciela S S; Penha, Antônia Rosângela S; Leite, Fagner C; Borges, Clóvis José S; Piuvezam, Marcia R; Pordeus, Liana Clébia de Morais; Sousa, Damião P; Almeida, Reinaldo N

    2016-02-01

    Nerolidol, an acyclic sesquiterpene found as a major constituent of several essential oils, has several pharmacological activities, but its action in pain processes has never been studied. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of nerolidol, as well as possible mechanisms of action, in experimental mouse models of pain. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the formalin test, and the hot-plate test. The nerolidol-treated group showed lesser acetic acid-induced abdominal contractions than the control group in all of the three doses tested (200, 300, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.). The formalin test doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg p.o. inhibited licking time, in both the first phase and the second phase. In the hot-plate test, nerolidol did not alter latency at any of the observed time points. Motor coordination, evaluated through the rotarod test, was not hindered in animals treated with nerolidol. Regarding the mechanism of action, the antinociceptive activity of nerolidol is related to the GABAergic system, and not to the opioidergic or ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Treatment with nerolidol reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema. In the model of carrageenan-induced peritonitis, nerolidol decreased the influx of polymorphonuclear cells and also reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in peritoneal lavage. Nerolidol reduced production of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) in LPS-stimulated, peritoneal macrophages. Thus, these results showed that nerolidol has antinociceptive activity with possible involvement of the GABAergic system, and anti-inflammatory activity, attributed to the suppression of TNF-α and IL-1β proinflammatory cytokines.

  15. Morphine withdrawal syndrome: involvement of the dopaminergic system in prepubertal male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Silvina L; Kemmling, Alma K; Rubio, Modesto C; Balerio, Graciela N

    2005-12-01

    Morphine (MOR) withdrawal signs are more marked in males than in females. Considering that the influence of the dopaminergic system on these differences is unclear, we analyzed dopamine (DA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic-acid (DOPAC) brain levels during naloxone (NAL)-precipitated withdrawal as well as the involvement of D(1) and D(2) receptors in the expression of MOR withdrawal in either sex. Prepubertal Swiss-Webster mice received MOR (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily for 9 days. On the tenth day, dependent animals received NAL (6 mg/kg, i.p.) after MOR and were sacrificed 30 min later. DA and DOPAC concentrations were determined in different brain areas using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Other pool of mice received either a D(1) (SCH 23390; 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) or D(2) (raclopride; 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) receptor antagonist before NAL and withdrawal signs were evaluated. DA and DOPAC levels only decreased in striatum and cortex of withdrawn males. Conversely, both DA receptor antagonists decreased the expression of MOR withdrawal signs in either sex. The neurochemical sex differences described here could partially explain the behavioral sex differences observed during MOR withdrawal. Additionally, SCH-23390 and raclopride effects suggest an important role of both DA receptors in the expression of MOR withdrawal in males and females.

  16. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2: a novel gene involved in zebrafish central nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lina; Zhou, Wenhao; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Shanshan; Li, Weihua; Li, Huawei; Mao, Zuohua; Ma, Duan

    2013-09-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (Tfpi-2) is an important serine protease inhibitor in the extracellular matrix (ECM), but its precise physiological significance remains unknown. This work is part of a series of studies intended to investigate functional roles of Tfpi-2 and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. First, we cloned and identified zebrafish Tfpi-2 (zTfpi-2) as an evolutionarily conserved protein essential for zebrafish development. We also demonstrated that ztfpi-2 is mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of zebrafish, and embryonic depletion of ztfpi-2 caused severe CNS defects. In addition, changes of neural markers, including pax2a, egr2b, huC, ngn1, gfap and olig2, confirmed the presence of developmental abnormalities in the relevant regions of ztfpi-2 morphants. Using microarray analysis, we found that members of the Notch pathway, especially her4 and mib, which mediate lateral inhibition in CNS development, were also downregulated. Intriguingly, both her4 and mib were able to partially rescue the ztfpi-2 morphant phenotype. Furthermore, Morpholino knockdown of ztfpi-2 resulted in upregulation of neuronal markers while downregulation of glial markers, providing evidence that the Notch pathway is probably involved in ztfpi-2-mediated CNS development.

  17. Civilian PTSD symptoms and risk for involvement in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Donley, Sachiko; Habib, Leah; Jovanovic, Tanja; Kamkwalala, Asante; Evces, Mark; Egan, Glenn; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received considerable attention with regard to the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. In studies of veterans, behavioral sequelae of PTSD can include hostile and violent behavior. Rates of PTSD found in impoverished, high-risk urban populations within U.S. inner cities are as high as in returning veterans. The objective of this study was to determine whether civilian PTSD is associated with increased risk of incarceration and charges related to violence in a low-income, urban population. Participants (n = 4,113) recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, completed self-report measures assessing history of trauma, PTSD symptoms, and incarceration. Both trauma exposure and civilian PTSD remained strongly associated with increased risk of involvement in the criminal justice system and charges of a violent offense, even after adjustment for sex, age, race, education, employment, income, and substance abuse in a regression model. Trauma and PTSD have important implications for public safety and recidivism.

  18. Central projections of sensory systems involved in honey bee dance language communication.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Axel; Robinson, Gene E

    2007-01-01

    Honey bee dance language is a unique and complex form of animal communication used to inform nest mates in the colony about the specific location of food sources or new nest sites. Five different sensory systems have been implicated in acquiring and communicating the information necessary for dance language communication. We present results from neuronal tracer studies identifying the central projections from four of the five. Sensory neurons of the dorsal rim area of the compound eyes, involved in acquiring sun-compass based information, project to the dorsal-most part of the medulla. Sensory neurons of the neck hair plates, required to transpose sun-compass based information to gravity-based information in the dark hive, project to the dorsal labial neuromere of the subesophageal ganglion. Sensory neurons from the antennal joint hair sensilla and the Johnston's organ, which perceive information on dance direction and distance from mechanostimuli generated by abdomen waggling and wing vibration, project to the deutocerebral dorsal lobe and the subesophageal ganglion, and the posterior protocerebrum, respectively. We found no 'dance-specific' projections relative to those previously described for drone and queen honey bees and other insect species that do not exhibit dance communication. We suggest that the evolution of dance language communication was likely based on the modification of central neural pathways associated with path integration, the capability to calculate distance, and directional information during flight.

  19. Involvement of Cholinergic and Opioid System in γ-Terpinene-Mediated Antinociception

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Flávia Franceli de Brito; Lopes, Everton Moraes; de Araújo, Jonas Moura; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Veras, Leiz Maria C.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Almeida, Fernanda Regina de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The literature shows that the monoterpenes are great candidates for the development of new drugs for the treatment of various pathological processes, including painful conditions. The gamma terpinene (γ-TPN) is a monoterpene present in plant species that have multiple pharmacological properties and has structural similarity to antinociceptive monoterpenes, such as limonene and alpha-phellandrene. The γ-TPN molecular mass was evaluated by mass spectrometry and showed a pseudomolecular ion with m/z 137.0 Da. The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity at 2 g/kg, p.o. γ-TPN (1.562 to 50 mg/kg, p.o.) showed an antinociceptive effect in the formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests. γ-TPN has antinociceptive action when administered by others routes in glutamate test. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of γ-TPN, the open field and rota-rod test were conducted and the γ-TPN did not show muscle relaxant activity or central depressant effect. To investigate the mechanisms of action, the animals were pretreated with naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, mecamylamine, or L-arginine in the glutamate test. γ-TPN antinociception was inhibited in the presence of naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, and mecamylamine. The results suggest that the γ-TPN (p.o.) produced antinociceptive effect in models of chemical nociception through the cholinergic and opioid systems involvement. PMID:26170885

  20. Are There Clinical Differences in Limited Systemic Sclerosis according to Extension of Skin Involvement?

    PubMed Central

    Scolnik, Marina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Lancioni, Eliana; Sabelli, Mirtha R.; Saucedo, Carla M.; Marin, Josefina; Soriano, Enrique R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the characteristics of our patients with limited systemic sclerosis (lSSc) for differences between Barnett Type 1 (sclerodactyly only) and Type 2 or intermediate (acrosclerosis-distal but may reach up to elbows and/or knees plus face) subsets. Methods. Records of patients between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011, with SSc or those with anti-Scl-70, anticentromere, or antinucleolar antibodies were reviewed. Only cases fulfilling ACR 1980 criteria were included and classified as diffuse or limited according to LeRoy's criteria. Limited SSc was separated into sclerodactyly and acrosclerosis (Barnett's Types 1 and 2). Results. 234 SSc patients (216 females) fulfilled criteria. Female/male ratio was 12 : 1; 24% had dSSc and 76% lSSC (64% Type 1 and 12% Type 2). Total follow-up was 688 patient-years. Within lSSC, the Type 2 group had significantly shorter duration of Raynaud's and more anti-Scl-70 and less anticentromere antibodies. In particular, interstitial lung disease (ILD) was significantly more prevalent in Type 2 group and similar to Type 3. Conclusions. These results appear to confirm that extension of skin involvement within limited SSc may identify two different subsets with clinical and serologic characteristics. PMID:25435879

  1. Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades.

    PubMed

    Vianna, M R; Izquierdo, L A; Barros, D M; Walz, R; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    2000-09-01

    Since William James (1890) first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has been whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into the hippocampus and related brain areas after one-trial avoidance learning can effectively cancel short-term memory without affecting long-term memory formation. This shows that short-term memory and long-term memory involve separate mechanisms and are independently processed. Other treatments, however, influence both memory types similarly, suggesting links between both at the receptor and at the post-receptor level, which should not be surprising as they both deal with nearly the same sensorimotor representations. This review examines recent advances in short- and long-term memory mechanisms based on the effect of intra-hippocampal infusion of drugs acting upon neurotransmitter and signal transduction systems on both memory types.

  2. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis overview and involvement of the temporomandibular joint: prevalence, systemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Ruy

    2015-02-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the many joints involved in the inflammatory arthritides. As imaging of joints has developed, so have the data regarding extent and prevalence of TMJ involvement in these diseases. TMJ disease is especially prevalent in juvenile arthritis. The adult and pediatric inflammatory arthritides share common pathophysiology but are still markedly different. The preponderance of TMJ arthritis research exists in juvenile arthritis. This article discusses classification, treatment, and TMJ involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  3. Simulation of Fluid Flow and Collection Efficiency for an SEA Multi-element Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.; Struk, Peter M.; Bidwell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of fluid flow and collection efficiency for a Science Engineering Associates (SEA) multi-element probe are presented. Simulation of the flow field was produced using the Glenn-HT Navier-Stokes solver. Three dimensional unsteady results were produced and then time averaged for the collection efficiency results. Three grid densities were investigated to enable an assessment of grid dependence. Collection efficiencies were generated for three spherical particle sizes, 100, 20, and 5 micron in diameter, using the codes LEWICE3D and LEWICE2D. The free stream Mach number was 0.27, representing a velocity of approximately 86 ms. It was observed that a reduction in velocity of about 15-20 occurred as the flow entered the shroud of the probe.Collection efficiency results indicate a reduction in collection efficiency as particle size is reduced. The reduction with particle size is expected, however, the results tended to be lower than previous results generated for isolated two-dimensional elements. The deviation from the two-dimensional results is more pronounced for the smaller particles and is likely due to the effect of the protective shroud.

  4. Multi-element analysis of manganese nodules by atomic absorption spectrometry without chemical separation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.; Harnly, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Five manganese nodules, including the USGS reference nodules A-1 and P-1, were analyzed for Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn without prior chemical separation by using a simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption spectrometer with an air-cetylene flame. The nodules were prepared in three digestion matrices. One of these solutions was measured using sixteen different combinations of burner height and air/acetylene ratios. Results for A-1 and P-1 are compared to recommended values and results for all nodules are compared to those obtained with an inductively coupled plasma. The elements Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn are simultaneously determined with a composite recovery for all elements of 100 ?? 7%, independent of the digestion matrices, heights in the flame, or flame stoichiometries examined. Individual recoveries for Co, K, and Ni are considerably poorer in two digests than this composite figure, however. The optimum individual recoveries of 100 ?? 5% and imprecisions of 1-4%, except for zinc, are obtained when Co, K, Mn, Na and Ni are determined simultaneously in a concentrated digest, and in another analytical sequence, when Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn are measured simultaneously after dilution. Determination of manganese is equally accurate in the two sequences; its measurement in both assures internal consistency between the two measurement sequences. This approach improves analytical efficiency over that for conventional atomic absorption methods, while minimizing loss of accuracy or precision for individual elements. ?? 1982.

  5. Scattering of the field of a multi-element phased array by human ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the non-invasive treatment of cancer has been demonstrated for a range of different cancers including those of the liver, kidney, prostate and breast. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over other techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection, in terms of invasiveness and risk of harmful side effects. Despite its advantages, however, there are a number of significant challenges currently hindering its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to induce tissue necrosis at the required foci whilst minimising the formation of side lobes. Multielement random arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successfully treating a patient for liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the ribcage. A mesh of quadratic pressure patches was generated using CT scan data for ribs nine to twelve on the right side. A boundary element approach based on a Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used, in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array past the ribs at both intercostal and transcostal treatment locations. This method has the advantage of accounting for full effects of scattering and diffraction in three dimensions under continuous wave excitation.

  6. Polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer based on mussel-inspired chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin; Ma, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Guo-xiang; Hu, Jia-mei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, He-yun; Zhou, Feng

    2013-03-27

    This work reports on a facile and reliable method to prepare a polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer (PCMCF) based on mussel-inspired chemistry for the first time. The polydopamine (Pdop) film was coated on double copper potassium pyrophosphate trihydrate, providing three essential nutrients (Cu, K, and P) by spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine. The thickness of the polymer coating of the fertilizer was controlled by using the multistep deposition technique. The morphology and composition of the products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, a vis spectrophotometer, and a Kjeltec autoanalyzer. The controlled-release behavior of four elements, including nitrogen from Pdop, was evaluated in water and in soil (sterilized or not). The results revealed that the coated fertilizers had good slow-release properties, incubated in either water or soil. It is noted that the release rate of nutrients of PCMCF can be tailored by the thickness of the Pdop coating, and the Pdop coating can be biodegraded in soil. This coating technology will be effective and promising in the research and development of controlled-release fertilizer. PMID:23464683

  7. [Simultaneous quantitative analysis of multielements in Al alloy samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lan-Xiang; Yu, Hai-Bin

    2009-12-01

    The multielement components of some aluminium alloy samples were quantified by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The Nd : YAG pulsed laser was used to produce plasma in ambient air. The spectral range of 200-980 nm was simultaneously obtained through a multichannel grating spectrometer and CCD detectors. The authors studied the influences of time delays, energy of the laser, and depth profile of elements in samples on spectral intensity, and optimized the experimental parameters based on the influence analysis. With the optimal experimental parameters, the authors made the calibration curves by four certified aluminum alloy samples for eight elements, Si, Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, Sn, and Ni, and quantified the composition of an aluminum sample. The obtained maximum relative standard deviation (RSD) was 5.89%, and relative errors were--20.99%-15%. Experimental results show that LIBS is an effective technique for quantitative analysis of aluminum alloy samples, though the improved accuracy of the quantitative analysis is necessary.

  8. An experimental investigation of multi-element airfoil ice accretion and resulting performance degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the ice accretion pattern and performance characteristics of a multi-element airfoil was undertaken in the NASA Lewis 6- by 9-Foot Icing Research Tunnel. Several configurations of main airfoil, slat, and flaps were employed to examine the effects of ice accretion and provide further experimental information for code validation purposes. The text matrix consisted of glaze, rime, and mixed icing conditions. Airflow and icing cloud conditions were set to correspond to those typical of the operating environment anticipated tor a commercial transport vehicle. Results obtained included ice profile tracings, photographs of the ice accretions, and force balance measurements obtained both during the accretion process and in a post-accretion evaluation over a range of angles of attack. The tracings and photographs indicated significant accretions on the slat leading edge, in gaps between slat or flaps and the main wing, on the flap leading-edge surfaces, and on flap lower surfaces. Force measurments indicate the possibility of severe performance degradation, especially near C sub Lmax, for both light and heavy ice accretion and performance analysis codes presently in use. The LEWICE code was used to evaluate the ice accretion shape developed during one of the rime ice tests. The actual ice shape was then evaluated, using a Navier-Strokes code, for changes in performance characteristics. These predicted results were compared to the measured results and indicate very good agreement.

  9. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses.

    PubMed

    Bong, Yeon-Sik; Shin, Woo-Jin; Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Jeong, Youn-Joong; Lee, A-Reum; Jang, Chang-Soon; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Chung, Gong-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2012-12-15

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage.

  10. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  11. Origin assignment by multi-element stable isotopes of lamb tissues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shumin; Guo, Boli; Wei, Yimin

    2016-12-15

    The carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in lamb meat and wool samples under two feeding regimes from five different regions of China were determined by IRMS, which is to investigate their potential for assigning the lamb meat according to geographical origins. The δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δ(2)H values in lamb tissues had significant differences among different regions, with the δ(13)C value is highly related to that of the lamb feeds (p<0.01) and the δ(2)H value is significantly correlated with lamb drinking water (p<0.05). Moreover, δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δ(2)H values of lamb muscle are all highly correlated with the wool samples. A total correct classification of 88.9% and 83.8% were obtained from the combination of C, N and H isotopes of lamb muscle and wool, respectively. These results demonstrate that multi-element isotopes are effective in identifying the geographical origin of lamb meat. Moreover, both muscle and hair tissue can be used for lamb traceability.

  12. Origin assignment by multi-element stable isotopes of lamb tissues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shumin; Guo, Boli; Wei, Yimin

    2016-12-15

    The carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in lamb meat and wool samples under two feeding regimes from five different regions of China were determined by IRMS, which is to investigate their potential for assigning the lamb meat according to geographical origins. The δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δ(2)H values in lamb tissues had significant differences among different regions, with the δ(13)C value is highly related to that of the lamb feeds (p<0.01) and the δ(2)H value is significantly correlated with lamb drinking water (p<0.05). Moreover, δ(13)C, δ(15)N and δ(2)H values of lamb muscle are all highly correlated with the wool samples. A total correct classification of 88.9% and 83.8% were obtained from the combination of C, N and H isotopes of lamb muscle and wool, respectively. These results demonstrate that multi-element isotopes are effective in identifying the geographical origin of lamb meat. Moreover, both muscle and hair tissue can be used for lamb traceability. PMID:27451234

  13. Polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer based on mussel-inspired chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin; Ma, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Guo-xiang; Hu, Jia-mei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, He-yun; Zhou, Feng

    2013-03-27

    This work reports on a facile and reliable method to prepare a polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer (PCMCF) based on mussel-inspired chemistry for the first time. The polydopamine (Pdop) film was coated on double copper potassium pyrophosphate trihydrate, providing three essential nutrients (Cu, K, and P) by spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine. The thickness of the polymer coating of the fertilizer was controlled by using the multistep deposition technique. The morphology and composition of the products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, a vis spectrophotometer, and a Kjeltec autoanalyzer. The controlled-release behavior of four elements, including nitrogen from Pdop, was evaluated in water and in soil (sterilized or not). The results revealed that the coated fertilizers had good slow-release properties, incubated in either water or soil. It is noted that the release rate of nutrients of PCMCF can be tailored by the thickness of the Pdop coating, and the Pdop coating can be biodegraded in soil. This coating technology will be effective and promising in the research and development of controlled-release fertilizer.

  14. Numerical study to assess sulfur hexafluoride as a medium for testing multielement airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonhaus, Daryl L.; Anderson, W. Kyle; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology is described for computing viscous flows of air and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The basis is an existing flow solver that calculates turbulent flows in two dimensions on unstructured triangular meshes. The solver has been modified to incorporate the thermodynamic model for SF6 and used to calculate the viscous flow over two multielement airfoils that have been tested in a wind tunnel with air as the test medium. Flows of both air and SF6 at a free-stream Mach number of 0.2 and a Reynolds number of 9 x 10(exp 6) are computed for a range of angles of attack corresponding to the wind-tunnel test. The computations are used to investigate the suitability of SF6 as a test medium in wind tunnels and are a follow-on to previous computations for single-element airfoils. Surface-pressure, lift, and drag coefficients are compared with experimental data. The effects of heavy gas on the details of the flow are investigated based on computed boundary-layer and skin-friction data. In general, the predictions in SF6 vary little from those in air. Within the limitations of the computational method, the results presented are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further experiments.

  15. Influence of multi-element ion beam bombardment on the corrosion behavior of iron and steel

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Tian; Run, Wu; Weiping, Cai; Rutao, Wang ); Godechot, X.; Brown, I. )

    1991-06-01

    The effect of multi-element ion implantation on the corrosion resistance to acid solution has been studied for stainless steel, medium carbon steel, pure iron, and chromium-deposited iron. The implanted elements were Cu, Mo, Cr, Ni, Yb and Ti at doses of each species of from 5 {times} 10{sup 15} to 1 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}2} and at ion energies of up to 100 keV. The stainless steel used was 18-8 Cr-Ni, and the medium carbon steel was 0.45% C. The implanted samples were soaked in dilute sulfuric acid solution for periods up to 48 hours and the weight loss measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The kinetic parameter values describing the weight loss as a function of time were determined for all samples. In this paper we summarize the corrosion resistance behavior for the various different combinations of implanted species, doses, and substrates. The influence of the composition and structure of the modified surface layer is discussed.8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Capacitively readout multi-element sensor array with common-mode cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Warmack, Robert J.; Bryan, William L.; Jones, Robert L.; Oden, Patrick Ian; Thundat, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    An improved multi-element apparatus for detecting the presence of at least one chemical, biological or physical component in a monitored area comprising an array or single set of the following elements: a capacitive transducer having at least one cantilever spring element secured thereto, the cantilever element having an area thereof coated with a chemical having an affinity for the component to be detected; a pick-up plate positioned adjacent to the cantilever element at a distance such that a capacitance between the cantilever element and the pick-up plate changes as the distance between the cantilever element and the pick-up plate varies, the change in capacitance being a measurable variation; a detection means for measuring the measurable variation in the capacitance between the cantilever element and the pick-up plate that forms a measurement channel signal; and at least one feedback cantilever spring element positioned apart from the coated cantilever element, the cantilever element substantially unaffected by the component being monitored and providing a reference channel signal to the detection means that achieves a common mode cancellation between the measurement channel signal and reference channel signal.

  17. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  18. Neural Systems Involved in Fear and Anxiety Measured with Fear-Potentiated Startle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A good deal is now known about the neural circuitry involved in how conditioned fear can augment a simple reflex (fear-potentiated startle). This involves visual or auditory as well as shock pathways that project via the thalamus and perirhinal or insular cortex to the basolateral amygdala (BLA). The BLA projects to the central (CeA) and medial…

  19. A Model of Student Involvement in the Quality Assurance System at Institutional Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elassy, Noha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to create a theoretical model of student involvement in the institutional quality assurance process at their universities. Design/methodology/approach: The model suggested in this paper was created and developed from a critical examination of relevant literature on stakeholder involvement in decision making and quality…

  20. Labeling and the effect of adolescent legal system involvement on adult outcomes for foster youth aging out of care.

    PubMed

    Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A

    2015-09-01

    This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities.

  1. Involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect of nobiletin.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li-Tao; Xu, He-Li; Feng, Jing; Zhan, Xia; Zhou, Li-Pan; Cui, Cun-Cang

    2011-01-10

    Nobiletin isolated from citrus peels up-regulates synaptic transmission and improves memory impairment in rodents. This study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of nobiletin in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Additionally, the monoaminergic mechanisms involved in the antidepressant-like effect of nobiletin in mice were also assessed. Nobiletin (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, p.o.) decreased the immobility time in both the FST and TST without locomotor alterations in the open-field test (OFT). The anti-immobility effect of nobiletin (50mg/kg, p.o.) was completely prevented by the pretreatment of mice with WAY 100635 (0.1mg/kg, s.c., a serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), cyproheptadine (3mg/kg, i.p., a serotonin 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist), prazosin (62.5μg/kg, i.p., an α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist). On the other hand, the pretreatment of mice with yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist) or propranolol (5mg/kg, i.p., a β-adrenoceptor antagonist) did not block the antidepressant-like effect of nobiletin in the TST. Taken together, the data demonstrated that nobiletin produced an antidepressant-like effect that seems to be dependent on its interaction with the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Thus, the present study suggests the therapeutic potential of this dietary flavonoid for the treatment of depression.

  2. Modeling of drug release from matrix systems involving moving boundaries: approximate analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping I

    2011-10-10

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of approximate analytical solutions to the general moving boundary diffusion problems encountered during the release of a dispersed drug from matrix systems. Starting from the theoretical basis of the Higuchi equation and its subsequent improvement and refinement, available approximate analytical solutions for the more complicated cases involving heterogeneous matrix, boundary layer effect, finite release medium, surface erosion, and finite dissolution rate are also discussed. Among various modeling approaches, the pseudo-steady state assumption employed in deriving the Higuchi equation and related approximate analytical solutions appears to yield reasonably accurate results in describing the early stage release of a dispersed drug from matrices of different geometries whenever the initial drug loading (A) is much larger than the drug solubility (C(s)) in the matrix (or A≫C(s)). However, when the drug loading is not in great excess of the drug solubility (i.e. low A/C(s) values) or when the drug loading approaches the drug solubility (A→C(s)) which occurs often with drugs of high aqueous solubility, approximate analytical solutions based on the pseudo-steady state assumption tend to fail, with the Higuchi equation for planar geometry exhibiting a 11.38% error as compared with the exact solution. In contrast, approximate analytical solutions to this problem without making the pseudo-steady state assumption, based on either the double-integration refinement of the heat balance integral method or the direct simplification of available exact analytical solutions, show close agreement with the exact solutions in different geometries, particularly in the case of low A/C(s) values or drug loading approaching the drug solubility (A→C(s)). However, the double-integration heat balance integral approach is generally more useful in obtaining approximate analytical solutions especially when exact solutions are not

  3. Bacopa monnieri ameliorates memory deficits in olfactory bulbectomized mice: possible involvement of glutamatergic and cholinergic systems.

    PubMed

    Le, Xoan Thi; Pham, Hang Thi Nguyet; Do, Phuong Thi; Fujiwara, Hironori; Tanaka, Ken; Li, Feng; Van Nguyen, Tai; Nguyen, Khoi Minh; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (BM) on cognitive deficits using olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice and the underlying molecular mechanisms of its action. OBX mice were treated daily with BM (50 mg/kg, p.o.) or a reference drug, tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), 1 week before and continuously 3 days after OBX. Cognitive performance of the animals was analyzed by the novel object recognition test, modified Y maze test, and fear conditioning test. Brain tissues of OBX animals were used for neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies. OBX impaired non-spatial short-term memory, spatial working memory, and long-term fair memory. BM administration ameliorated these memory disturbances. The effect of BM on short-term memory deficits was abolished by a muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine. OBX downregulated phosphorylation of synaptic plasticity-related signaling proteins: NR1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), and calmodulin-dependent kinase II but not cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), and reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA in the hippocampus. OBX also reduced choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus and cholinergic neurons in the medial septum, and enlarged the size of lateral ventricle. BM administration reversed these OBX-induced neurochemical and histological alterations, except the decrease of GluR1 phosphorylation, and enhanced CREB phosphorylation. Moreover, BM treatment inhibited ex vivo activity of acetylcholinesterase in the brain. These results indicate that BM treatment ameliorates OBX-induced cognition dysfunction via a mechanism involving enhancement of synaptic plasticity-related signaling and BDNF transcription and protection of cholinergic systems from OBX-induced neuronal damage.

  4. A type VI secretion system is involved in Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterial competition.

    PubMed

    Decoin, Victorien; Barbey, Corinne; Bergeau, Dorian; Latour, Xavier; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Orange, Nicole; Merieau, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are crucial mediators of bacterial interactions with other organisms. Among them, the type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and appears to inject toxins into competitor bacteria and/or eukaryotic cells. Major human pathogens, such as Vibrio cholerae, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, express T6SSs. Bacteria prevent self-intoxication by their own T6SS toxins by producing immunity proteins, which interact with the cognate toxins. We describe here an environmental P. fluorescens strain, MFE01, displaying an uncommon oversecretion of Hcp (hemolysin-coregulated protein) and VgrG (valine-glycine repeat protein G) into the culture medium. These proteins are characteristic components of a functional T6SS. The aim of this study was to attribute a role to this energy-consuming overexpression of the T6SS. The genome of MFE01 contains at least two hcp genes (hcp1 and hcp2), suggesting that there may be two putative T6SS clusters. Phenotypic studies have shown that MFE01 is avirulent against various eukaryotic cell models (amebas, plant or animal cell models), but has antibacterial activity against a wide range of competitor bacteria, including rhizobacteria and clinical bacteria. Depending on the prey cell, mutagenesis of the hcp2 gene in MFE01 abolishes or reduces this antibacterial killing activity. Moreover, the introduction of T6SS immunity proteins from S. marcescens, which is not killed by MFE01, protects E. coli against MFE01 killing. These findings suggest that the protein encoded by hcp2 is involved in the killing activity of MFE01 mediated by effectors of the T6SS targeting the peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate that MFE01 can protect potato tubers against Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which causes tuber soft rot. Pseudomonas fluorescens is often described as a major PGPR (plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium), and our results suggest that there may be a connection between

  5. Basement-driven strike-slip deformation involving a salt-stock canopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Tim; Jackson, Martin; Hudec, Mike

    2016-04-01

    NW-striking basement-involved strike-slip zones have been reported or inferred from the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). This interpretation is uncertain, because the effects of strike-slip deformation are commonly difficult to recognize in cross sections. Recognition is doubly difficult if the strike-slip zone passes through a diapir field that complicates deformation, and an associated salt canopy that partially decouples shallow deformation from deep deformation. We use physical models to explore the effects of strike-slip deformation above and below a salt-stock canopy system. Canopies of varying maturity grew from a series of 14 feeders/diapirs located on and off the axis of a dextral basement fault. Strike-slip deformation styles in the overburden vary significantly depending on: (1) the location of the diapirs with respect to the basement fault trace, and; (2) the continuity of the canopy system. On-axis diapirs (where the diapirs lie directly above the basement fault) are typically strongly deformed and pinched shut at depth to form sharp S-shapes, whereas their shallow deformation style is that of a open-S-shaped pop-up structure in a restraining bend. The narrow diapir stem acts as a shear zone at depth. Pull-apart structures form between diapirs that are arranged in a right-stepping array tangental to the basement fault trace. These grade along strike into narrow negative flower structures. Off-axis diapirs (diapirs laterally offset from the basement fault but close enough to participate in the deformation) form zones of distributed deformation in the form of arrays of oblique faults (R shears) that converge along strike onto the narrower deformation zones associated with on-axis diapirs. Above an immature, or patchy, canopy system the strike-slip structures closely match sub canopy structures, with the exception of wrench fold formation where the supracanopy roof is thin. In contrast, the surface structures above a mature canopy system consist of a broad

  6. Systemic sarcoidosis with hypercalcaemia, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and thyroid involvement.

    PubMed

    Alsahwi, Nassib; Blavo, Delali; Karanchi, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder. The lungs are the principal organs affected, however, extrapulmonary involvement including disorders of the pituitary and thyroid glands has been reported but presentation with multiple endocrine manifestations is rare. We report the case of a 36-year-old African-American woman who presented with hypercalcaemia, abnormal thyroid function studies and secondary amenorrhoea. On workup including laboratory, radiological testing and biopsy she was diagnosed with sarcoidosis with multi-organ involvement. Endocrine manifestations included non-parathyroid hormone mediated hypercalcaemia related to sarcoidosis, thyroid involvement with sarcoidosis and hypothalamic-pituitary involvement with a sellar and suprasellar mass associated with secondary adrenal insufficiency, secondary hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and secondary hypothyroidism. We report to the best of our knowledge the first case of simultaneous multiple endocrine manifestations of sarcoidosis that included hypercalcaemia, hypopituitarism and sarcoidosis of the thyroid gland. PMID:27495178

  7. A multielement Ge detector with complete spectrum readout for x-ray fluorescence microprobe and microspectroscopy (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, Mark L.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rarback, Harvey

    1995-02-01

    Multielement Ge and Si(Li) detectors have been used in recent years to improve the increase count rate capability and to improve the solid-angle efficiency in fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Such systems have typically been equipped with one or more single-channel analyzers (SCAs) for each detector element. Such SCA-based electronics are sufficient when only the counts in one or two well-resolved peaks are of interest. For the fluorescence (XRF) microprobe at beamline X-26A at the NSLS, SCA-based electronics were not a satisfactory solution for two reasons: (1) for XRF experiments, the entire fluorescence spectrum is required; (2) for micro-XAS studies of trace elements in complex systems, the fluorescence peak often sits on a significant background or partially overlaps another fluorescence peak, requiring software background subtraction or peak deconvolution. An electronics system which permits collection of the entire fluorescence spectrum from each detector element has been designed. The system is made cost-effective by the use of analog multiplexors, reducing the number of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and multichannel analyzers (MCAs) required. The system was manufactured by Canberra Industries and consists of: (1) a 13 element Ge detector (11 mm diameter detector elements), (2) 13 NIM spectroscopy amplifiers with programmable gains, (3) four analog multiplexors with maximum of eight inputs each, (4) four ADCs with programmable offsets and gains and 800 ns conversion time, and (5) two MCAs with Ethernet communications ports and two ADC inputs each. The amplifiers have shaping times which are adjustable from 0.5 to 12 μs. The analog multiplexors were modified to perform pileup rejection. The analog multiplexing does not significantly reduce the count rate capability of the system, even at the shortest amplifier shaping times. The average detector resolution is 170 eV at 12 μs shaping time and 200 eV at 4 μs shaping time. The maximum

  8. Involvement of medullary GABAergic system in extraterritorial neuropathic pain mechanisms associated with inferior alveolar nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Nakaya, Yuka; Imamura, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kita, Kozue; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    In order to determine if the functional changes in the GABAergic system in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) are involved in the mechanisms underlying extraterritorial neuropathic pain in the orofacial region following inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX), mechanical noxious behavior, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immunohistochemistry and single neuronal activity were analyzed in vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-VenusA rats expressing fluorescent protein and the VGAT in Vc neurons. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive neurons was significantly reduced in IANX rats than naive and sham rats at 7days after nerve transection. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive pERK-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly increased in IANX rats at 21days after IAN transection compared with naive and sham rats. The background activity and mechanical-evoked responses of Vc nociceptive neurons were significantly depressed after intrathecal application of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol in sham rats but not in IANX rats. Furthermore, the expression of potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the Vc was significantly reduced in IANX rats compared with sham rats. The head-withdrawal threshold (HWT) to mechanical stimulation of the whisker pad skin was significantly decreased in IANX rats compared with sham rats on days 7 and 21 after IANX. The significant reduction of the HWT and significant increase in the number of VGAT-VenusA negative pERK-IR cells were observed in KCC2 blocker R-DIOA-injected rats compared with vehicle-injected rats on day 21 after sham treatment. These findings revealed that GABAergic Vc neurons might be reduced in their number at the early period after IANX and the functional changes might occur in GABAergic neurons from inhibitory to excitatory at the late period after IANX, suggesting that the neuroplastic changes occur in the GABAergic neuronal network in the Vc due to morphological and functional changes at

  9. Involvement of medullary GABAergic system in extraterritorial neuropathic pain mechanisms associated with inferior alveolar nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Nakaya, Yuka; Imamura, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kita, Kozue; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    In order to determine if the functional changes in the GABAergic system in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) are involved in the mechanisms underlying extraterritorial neuropathic pain in the orofacial region following inferior alveolar nerve transection (IANX), mechanical noxious behavior, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immunohistochemistry and single neuronal activity were analyzed in vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-VenusA rats expressing fluorescent protein and the VGAT in Vc neurons. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive neurons was significantly reduced in IANX rats than naive and sham rats at 7days after nerve transection. The number of VGAT-VenusA positive pERK-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly increased in IANX rats at 21days after IAN transection compared with naive and sham rats. The background activity and mechanical-evoked responses of Vc nociceptive neurons were significantly depressed after intrathecal application of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol in sham rats but not in IANX rats. Furthermore, the expression of potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the Vc was significantly reduced in IANX rats compared with sham rats. The head-withdrawal threshold (HWT) to mechanical stimulation of the whisker pad skin was significantly decreased in IANX rats compared with sham rats on days 7 and 21 after IANX. The significant reduction of the HWT and significant increase in the number of VGAT-VenusA negative pERK-IR cells were observed in KCC2 blocker R-DIOA-injected rats compared with vehicle-injected rats on day 21 after sham treatment. These findings revealed that GABAergic Vc neurons might be reduced in their number at the early period after IANX and the functional changes might occur in GABAergic neurons from inhibitory to excitatory at the late period after IANX, suggesting that the neuroplastic changes occur in the GABAergic neuronal network in the Vc due to morphological and functional changes at

  10. Improving Access To Care And Reducing Involvement In The Criminal Justice System For People With Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Huskamp, Haiden A; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    People with mental illness make up a disproportionate share of the criminal justice-involved population. The passage of critical new reforms affecting health care for vulnerable populations under the Affordable Care Act and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 presents unique opportunities to transform systems of care and avert criminal justice involvement. In addition, state and local jurisdictions have implemented a number of strategies to divert people with mental illness from the criminal justice system and reduce recidivism. In this article we summarize current knowledge about the involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system and consider the recent opportunities presented by national and local policies that aim to lower the proportion of such people who are incarcerated. PMID:27269025

  11. Improving Access To Care And Reducing Involvement In The Criminal Justice System For People With Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Huskamp, Haiden A; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    People with mental illness make up a disproportionate share of the criminal justice-involved population. The passage of critical new reforms affecting health care for vulnerable populations under the Affordable Care Act and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 presents unique opportunities to transform systems of care and avert criminal justice involvement. In addition, state and local jurisdictions have implemented a number of strategies to divert people with mental illness from the criminal justice system and reduce recidivism. In this article we summarize current knowledge about the involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system and consider the recent opportunities presented by national and local policies that aim to lower the proportion of such people who are incarcerated.

  12. Optic nerve involvement in childhood onset systemic lupus erythematosus: Three cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Suri, D; Abujam, B; Gupta, A; Rawat, A; Saikia, B; Walker Minz, R; Gupta, V; Bansal, R; Kaushik, S; Singh, S

    2016-01-01

    The ocular system can be affected in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in one third of patients. However, optic nerve involvement is relatively uncommon, but is more so in pediatric SLE patients, where it can occur in 1% of cases. We report three children with SLE who presented with optic nerve involvement. Two children had optic neuritis, with optic neuritis being the first manifestation in one child. The third child had ischaemic optic neuropathy secondary to antiphospholipid syndrome. A careful work up for SLE should be performed in every child with optic nerve disease. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment results in a better prognosis.

  13. Computer-Based Visualization System for the Study of Deep Brain Structures Involved in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Juanes, Juan A; Ruisoto, Pablo; Obeso, José A; Prats, Alberto; San-Molina, Joan

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's Disease is characterized by alterations in deep brain structures and pathways involved in movement control. However, the understanding of neuroanatomy and spatial relationships of deep brain structures remains a challenge for medical students. Recent developments in information technology may help provide new instructional material that addresses this problem. This paper aims to develop an interactive and digital tool to enhance the study of the anatomical and functional neurological basis involved in Parkinson's Disease. This tool allows the organization and exploration of complex neuroanatomical contents related with Parkinson's Disease in an attractive and interactive way. Educational implications of this tool are analyzed. PMID:26370536

  14. THE SAP3 COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR QUANTITATIVE MULTIELEMENT ANALYSIS BY ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, K. K.; Sanders, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    SAP3 is a dual-function FORTRAN computer program which performs peak analysis of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectra and then quantitatively interprets the results of the multielement analysis. It was written for mono- or bi-chromatic excitation as from an isotopic or secondary excitation source, and uses the separate incoherent and coherent backscatter intensities to define the bulk sample matrix composition. This composition is used in performing fundamental-parameter matrix corrections for self-absorption, enhancement, and particle-size effects, obviating the need for specific calibrations for a given sample matrix. The generalized calibration is based on a set of thin-film sensitivities, which are stored in a library disk file and used for all sample matrices and thicknesses. Peak overlap factors are also determined from the thin-film standards, and are stored in the library for calculating peak overlap corrections. A detailed description is given of the algorithms and program logic, and the program listing and flow charts are also provided. An auxiliary program, SPCAL, is also given for use in calibrating the backscatter intensities. SAP3 provides numerous analysis options via seventeen control switches which give flexibility in performing the calculations best suited to the sample and the user needs. User input may be limited to the name of the library, the analysis livetime, and the spectrum filename and location. Output includes all peak analysis information, matrix correction factors, and element concentrations, uncertainties and detection limits. Twenty-four elements are typically determined from a 1024-channel spectrum in one-to-two minutes using a PDP-11/34 computer operating under RSX-11M.

  15. Development of GOX/Hydrocarbon Multi-Element Swirl Coaxial Injector Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Muss, J.; Cheng, G. C.; Davis, R.; Cohn, R. K.

    2002-11-01

    In developing the advanced liquid rocket engine, injector design is critical to obtaining the dual goals of long engine life as well as providing high-energy release efficiency in the main combustion chamber. Introducing a swirl component in the injector flow can enhance the propellant mixing and thus improve engine performance. Therefore, swirl coaxial injectors, which swirl liquid fuel around a gaseous oxygen core, show promise for the next generation of high performance staged combustion rocket engines utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Understanding the mixing and combustion characteristics of the swirl coaxial flow provides the insight of optimizing the injector design. A joint effort of Sierra Engineering (Sierra) and the Propulsion Directorate of the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) was conducted to develop a design methodology, utilizing both high-pressure cold-flow testing and uni-element hot-fire testing, to create a high performing, long life swirl coaxial injector for multi-element combustor use. Several swirl coax injector configurations designed and fabricated by Sierra have been tested at AFRL. The cold-flow tests and numerical simulations have been conducted. The cold flow result provided valuable information of flow characteristics of swirl coaxial injectors. However, there are two important flow features of liquid rocket engines missed from the cold flow test: (1) the effect of combustion on the propellant mixing, and (2) the interaction of multiple injectors. The present work studies the hot flow environment specifically the multiple element swirl coaxial injector. Numerical simulations were performed with a pressure-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, FDNS. CFD results produced loading environments for an ANSYS finite element thermal/structural model. Since the fuels are injected at temperature below its critical temperature, the effect of phase change and chemical reactions needs to be accounted for in the CFD model.

  16. Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélat, Pierre; ter Haar, Gail; Saffari, Nader

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.

  17. Optimizing the combined application of amendments to allow plant growth in a multielement-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Romero-Puertas, M C; Mingorance, M D

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to 1) properly understand the dynamics of toxic elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn and As) in a sulphide-mine soil after combined application of compost from urban sewage sludge (SVC) and bottom ashes from biomass combustion (BA) and to 2) optimize the combination of both amendments for vegetation growth. Soil was amended following a D-optimal design and the mixtures (15 in total) were incubated during 30 d. At the end of the incubation, the effects of amendments on the assessed variables as well as the process modelling were evaluated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The process modelling confirmed that quadratic models were adequate to explain the behaviour of the assessed variables (R(2) ≥ 0.94 and Q(2) ≥ 0.75). Both amendments significantly increased pH and electrical conductivity, while reduced metal extractability. A different behaviour of As respect to metals was observed and high doses of BA sharply increased its extractability. The optimization process indicated that adequate conditions for vegetation growth would be reached adding the soil with 6.8% of SVC and 3.1% of BA (dry weight). After amendments application the germination and root elongation of three energy crops were significantly increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased. Therefore, the combined application of SVC and BA to a contaminated soil could improve soil conditions and might be expected to have an advantage during plant growth. Moreover, the RSM could be a powerful technique for the assessment of combined amendment effects on soil properties and their effective application in multielement-contaminated soils.

  18. The multi-element probabilistic collocation method (ME-PCM): Error analysis and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, Jasmine; Wan Xiaoliang; Karniadakis, George Em

    2008-11-20

    Stochastic spectral methods are numerical techniques for approximating solutions to partial differential equations with random parameters. In this work, we present and examine the multi-element probabilistic collocation method (ME-PCM), which is a generalized form of the probabilistic collocation method. In the ME-PCM, the parametric space is discretized and a collocation/cubature grid is prescribed on each element. Both full and sparse tensor product grids based on Gauss and Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature rules are considered. We prove analytically and observe in numerical tests that as the parameter space mesh is refined, the convergence rate of the solution depends on the quadrature rule of each element only through its degree of exactness. In addition, the L{sup 2} error of the tensor product interpolant is examined and an adaptivity algorithm is provided. Numerical examples demonstrating adaptive ME-PCM are shown, including low-regularity problems and long-time integration. We test the ME-PCM on two-dimensional Navier-Stokes examples and a stochastic diffusion problem with various random input distributions and up to 50 dimensions. While the convergence rate of ME-PCM deteriorates in 50 dimensions, the error in the mean and variance is two orders of magnitude lower than the error obtained with the Monte Carlo method using only a small number of samples (e.g., 100). The computational cost of ME-PCM is found to be favorable when compared to the cost of other methods including stochastic Galerkin, Monte Carlo and quasi-random sequence methods.

  19. Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs.

    PubMed

    Gélat, Pierre; Ter Haar, Gail; Saffari, Nader

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.

  20. Optimizing the combined application of amendments to allow plant growth in a multielement-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Romero-Puertas, M C; Mingorance, M D

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to 1) properly understand the dynamics of toxic elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn and As) in a sulphide-mine soil after combined application of compost from urban sewage sludge (SVC) and bottom ashes from biomass combustion (BA) and to 2) optimize the combination of both amendments for vegetation growth. Soil was amended following a D-optimal design and the mixtures (15 in total) were incubated during 30 d. At the end of the incubation, the effects of amendments on the assessed variables as well as the process modelling were evaluated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The process modelling confirmed that quadratic models were adequate to explain the behaviour of the assessed variables (R(2) ≥ 0.94 and Q(2) ≥ 0.75). Both amendments significantly increased pH and electrical conductivity, while reduced metal extractability. A different behaviour of As respect to metals was observed and high doses of BA sharply increased its extractability. The optimization process indicated that adequate conditions for vegetation growth would be reached adding the soil with 6.8% of SVC and 3.1% of BA (dry weight). After amendments application the germination and root elongation of three energy crops were significantly increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased. Therefore, the combined application of SVC and BA to a contaminated soil could improve soil conditions and might be expected to have an advantage during plant growth. Moreover, the RSM could be a powerful technique for the assessment of combined amendment effects on soil properties and their effective application in multielement-contaminated soils. PMID:26807942

  1. Multielement composition of wines and their precursors including provenance soil and their potentialities as fingerprints of wine origin.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2003-07-30

    The influence of the provenance soil and vinification process on the wine multielemental composition was investigated. For this purpose, two different vineyards from the Douro wine district, Portugal, were selected. Monovarietal grapes from a 10 year old vineyard were used to produce a red table wine, in a very modern winery. Polyvarietal grapes from a 60-70 year old vineyard were used to produce a red fortified wine, similar to Port, through a traditional vinification process. The multielement compositions (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hf, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, Zn, Zr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) of soil, grape juices (prepared in the laboratory), and samples collected in the different steps of each winemaking process were measured. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used, after suitable pretreatment of the samples (by UV irradiation for liquid samples and high-pressure microwave digestion for soil). Both vinification processes influenced the multielement composition of the wines. Most of the elements presented similar or even lower concentrations in the wine as compared to that observed in the respective grape juice, probably as a result of precipitation or coprecipitation with suspended particles during fermentation and/or wine aging. Evidence of effective contamination during grape pressing, fermentation, and/or fining of wines (depending on the element) was observed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the fortified wine and Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and V in the table wine. Nevertheless, significant correlations were obtained between the multielement composition of the wine and the respective grape juice (R = 0.997 and 0.979 for the fortified and table wines, respectively, n = 31, P < 0.01), as well as between that in the wine (median of the two studied wines) and the provenance soil (R = 0.994, n = 19, P < 0.01), for the set of elements determined in

  2. Optimisation of flame parameters for simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace elements in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    A study is described that identifies the optimum operating conditions for the accurate determination of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ag, Bi and Cd using simultaneous multi-element atomic absorption spectrometry. Accuracy was measured in terms of the percentage recoveries of the analytes based on certified values in nine standard reference materials. In addition to identifying optimum operating conditions for accurate analysis, conditions resulting in serious matrix interferences and the magnitude of the interferences were determined. The listed elements can be measured with acceptable accuracy in a lean to stoicheiometric flame at measurement heights ???5-10 mm above the burner.

  3. Involvement of the Motor System in Comprehension of Non-Literal Action Language: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that the sensory-motor system is involved in semantic processing of language stimuli, it is still unclear whether comprehension of abstract concepts is embodied, and whether the involvement of the sensory-motor system is context-dependent. Investigation of how the motor system is activated during comprehension of non-literal action languages can help address these issues. So far several studies have reported brain activations during non-literal action language comprehension, but the findings are highly inconsistent because of different types of non-literal action language stimuli. To clarify how the motor system is involved in comprehension of different types of non-literal languages, the current study conducted quantitative meta-analyses on fMRI findings about comprehension of sentences describing fictive motions, metaphoric actions, and idiomatic actions. Results showed that fictive motion sentences elicited activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus, an area important for spatial processing. For metaphoric actions, the left precentral gyrus (BA 6) was strongly activated, suggesting a link between metaphoric and literal meanings. For idiomatic actions, activity was found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), highlighting semantic selection and inhibition. No premotor or motor activity was found in idiom condition. These results together suggest that the involvement of the sensory-motor system in abstract concepts processing is flexible, depending on semantic features of the language stimuli and links between abstract and literal meanings.

  4. Putative Epigenetic Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in Anxiety- and Depression-Related Behaviors Caused by Nicotine as a Stressor.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Tamaki

    2016-01-01

    Like various stressors, the addictive use of nicotine (NC) is associated with emotional symptoms such as anxiety and depression, although the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated due to the complicated involvement of target neurotransmitter systems. In the elicitation of these emotional symptoms, the fundamental involvement of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation has recently been suggested. Furthermore, among the interacting neurotransmitter systems implicated in the effects of NC and stressors, the endocannabinoid (ECB) system is considered to contribute indispensably to anxiety and depression. In the present study, the epigenetic involvement of histone acetylation induced by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors was investigated in anxiety- and depression-related behavioral alterations caused by NC and/or immobilization stress (IM). Moreover, based on the contributing roles of the ECB system, the interacting influence of ECB ligands on the effects of HDAC inhibitors was evaluated in order to examine epigenetic therapeutic interventions. Anxiety-like (elevated plus-maze test) and depression-like (forced swimming test) behaviors, which were observed in mice treated with repeated (4 days) NC (subcutaneous 0.8 mg/kg) and/or IM (10 min), were blocked by the HDAC inhibitors sodium butyrate (SB) and valproic acid (VA). The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) agonist ACPA (arachidonylcyclopropylamide; AC) also antagonized these behaviors. Conversely, the CB1 antagonist SR 141716A (SR), which counteracted the effects of AC, attenuated the anxiolytic-like effects of the HDAC inhibitors commonly in the NC and/or IM groups. SR also attenuated the antidepressant-like effects of the HDAC inhibitors, most notably in the IM group. From these results, the combined involvement of histone acetylation and ECB system was shown in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. In the NC treatment groups, the limited influence of SR against the HDAC inhibitor

  5. Putative Epigenetic Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in Anxiety- and Depression-Related Behaviors Caused by Nicotine as a Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Hayase, Tamaki

    2016-01-01

    Like various stressors, the addictive use of nicotine (NC) is associated with emotional symptoms such as anxiety and depression, although the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated due to the complicated involvement of target neurotransmitter systems. In the elicitation of these emotional symptoms, the fundamental involvement of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation has recently been suggested. Furthermore, among the interacting neurotransmitter systems implicated in the effects of NC and stressors, the endocannabinoid (ECB) system is considered to contribute indispensably to anxiety and depression. In the present study, the epigenetic involvement of histone acetylation induced by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors was investigated in anxiety- and depression-related behavioral alterations caused by NC and/or immobilization stress (IM). Moreover, based on the contributing roles of the ECB system, the interacting influence of ECB ligands on the effects of HDAC inhibitors was evaluated in order to examine epigenetic therapeutic interventions. Anxiety-like (elevated plus-maze test) and depression-like (forced swimming test) behaviors, which were observed in mice treated with repeated (4 days) NC (subcutaneous 0.8 mg/kg) and/or IM (10 min), were blocked by the HDAC inhibitors sodium butyrate (SB) and valproic acid (VA). The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) agonist ACPA (arachidonylcyclopropylamide; AC) also antagonized these behaviors. Conversely, the CB1 antagonist SR 141716A (SR), which counteracted the effects of AC, attenuated the anxiolytic-like effects of the HDAC inhibitors commonly in the NC and/or IM groups. SR also attenuated the antidepressant-like effects of the HDAC inhibitors, most notably in the IM group. From these results, the combined involvement of histone acetylation and ECB system was shown in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. In the NC treatment groups, the limited influence of SR against the HDAC inhibitor

  6. Characterization and control of a multielement dual-frequency liquid-crystal device for high-speed adaptive optical wave-front correction.

    PubMed

    Dayton, D; Browne, S; Gonglewski, J; Restaino, S

    2001-05-20

    Multielement nematic liquid-crystal devices have been used by others and ourselves for closed-loop adaptive control of optical wave-front distortions. Until recently the phase retardance of available devices could be controlled rapidly in only one direction. The phase retardance of the dual-frequency device can be controlled rapidly in both directions. Understanding the dynamics of the phase retardance change is critical to the development of a high-speed control algorithm. We describe measurements and experiments leading to the closed-loop control of a multielement dual-frequency liquid-crystal adaptive optic.

  7. Characterization and Control of a Multielement Dual-Frequency Liquid-Crystal Device for High-Speed Adaptive Optical Wave-Front Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David; Browne, Stephen; Gonglewski, John; Restaino, Sergio

    2001-05-01

    Multielement nematic liquid-crystal devices have been used by others and ourselves for closed-loop adaptive control of optical wave-front distortions. Until recently the phase retardance of available devices could be controlled rapidly in only one direction. The phase retardance of the dual-frequency device can be controlled rapidly in both directions. Understanding the dynamics of the phase retardance change is critical to the development of a high-speed control algorithm. We describe measurements and experiments leading to the closed-loop control of a multielement dual-frequency liquid-crystal adaptive optic.

  8. Characterization and control of a multielement dual-frequency liquid-crystal device for high-speed adaptive optical wave-front correction.

    PubMed

    Dayton, D; Browne, S; Gonglewski, J; Restaino, S

    2001-05-20

    Multielement nematic liquid-crystal devices have been used by others and ourselves for closed-loop adaptive control of optical wave-front distortions. Until recently the phase retardance of available devices could be controlled rapidly in only one direction. The phase retardance of the dual-frequency device can be controlled rapidly in both directions. Understanding the dynamics of the phase retardance change is critical to the development of a high-speed control algorithm. We describe measurements and experiments leading to the closed-loop control of a multielement dual-frequency liquid-crystal adaptive optic. PMID:18357243

  9. The Effectiveness of Wilderness Adventure Therapy Programs for Young People Involved in the Juvenile Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Christopher D.; Lowe, Laura A.; Risler, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 35 male children and adolescents involved with a northeastern district of the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice. Subjects who participated in wilderness adventure therapy programs are compared to those who participated in group home programs. The study examines the rates of recidivism among the subjects within…

  10. A Case of Lagochilascariasis in Suriname with the Involvement of the ENT System and the Skull Base.

    PubMed

    Douma, Joeri A J; Akrum, Ralph A E; Joe, Rudie Tjong Tjin; Chan, Mike; Codrington, John; Vreden, Stephen Gerold S

    2016-07-01

    We describe a case of human lagochilascariasis, with skull-base involvement and a chronic and relapsing course after treatment. This rare parasitic infection is usually manifested in the head and neck area, characterized by progressive granulomatous inflammation and the formation of abscesses. Transmission to humans most likely occurs by the consumption of undercooked meat of wild rodents. On the basis of literature studies, we propose the most likely life cycle of the parasite that involves wild feline and rodent species, with humans as accidental hosts. Even in endemic areas, it is very difficult to recognize the disease at an early stage. Progression will eventually lead to involvement of the (central) nervous system, as described in our case. Treatment is often difficult and involves resection and prolonged treatment with anthelmintic drugs. Recurrences are not uncommon and at present, long-term oral administration of ivermectin seems to be the most effective treatment. PMID:27139450

  11. Developing a conceptual model for the application of patient and public involvement in the healthcare system in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azmal, Mohammad; Sari, Ali Akbari; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Ahmadi, Batoul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient and public involvement is engaging patients, providers, community representatives, and the public in healthcare planning and decision-making. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for the application of patient and public involvement in decision making in the Iranian healthcare system. Methods A mixed qualitative-quantitative approach was used to develop a conceptual model. Thirty three key informants were purposely recruited in the qualitative stage, and 420 people (patients and their companions) were included in a protocol study that was implemented in five steps: 1) Identifying antecedents, consequences, and variables associated with the patient and the publics’ involvement in healthcare decision making through a comprehensive literature review; 2) Determining the main variables in the context of Iran’s health system using conceptual framework analysis; 3) Prioritizing and weighting variables by Shannon entropy; 4) designing and validating a tool for patient and public involvement in healthcare decision making; and 5) Providing a conceptual model of patient and the public involvement in planning and developing healthcare using structural equation modeling. We used various software programs, including SPSS (17), Max QDA (10), EXCEL, and LISREL. Content analysis, Shannon entropy, and descriptive and analytic statistics were used to analyze the data. Results In this study, seven antecedents variable, five dimensions of involvement, and six consequences were identified. These variables were used to design a valid tool. A logical model was derived that explained the logical relationships between antecedent and consequent variables and the dimensions of patient and public involvement as well. Conclusion Given the specific context of the political, social, and innovative environments in Iran, it was necessary to design a model that would be compatible with these features. It can improve the quality of care and promote the patient and

  12. Issues Involved in Developing Integrated Optical Jukebox Storage Systems for Customized Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augsburger, Wayne; McNary, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a process for evaluating and planning integrated optical jukebox storage systems. Considerations regarding architecture and system performance are summarized, and a modeling program for tailoring system response to specific applications is presented. Five robotics algorithms are examined to illustrate different hardware configurations.…

  13. Identification of the Geobacter metallireducens BamVW Two-Component System, Involved in Transcriptional Regulation of Aromatic Degradation▿

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Javier F.; Zamarro, María Teresa; Barragán, María J. L.; Blázquez, Blas; Boll, Matthias; Kuntze, Kevin; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo; Carmona, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of aromatic degradation in obligate anaerobes was studied in the Fe(III)-respiring model organism Geobacter metallireducens GS-15. A two-component system and a σ54-dependent promoter were identified that are both involved in the regulation of the gene coding for benzoate-coenzyme A ligase, catalyzing the initial step of benzoate degradation. PMID:19915033

  14. NDTAC Practice Guide: Quality Education Services Are Critical for Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsoulin, Simon; Clark, Heather Griller; Rankin, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    This National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) practice guide examines the principle that quality education services are critical for youth involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This principle asserts that, to address the…

  15. Energy and the Confused Student V: The Energy/Momentum Approach to Problems Involving Rotating and Deformable Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Energy is a critical concept in physics problem-solving, but is often a major source of confusion for students if the presentation is not carefully crafted by the instructor or the textbook. A common approach to problems involving deformable or rotating systems that has been discussed in the literature is to employ the work-kinetic energy theorem…

  16. A T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia case with central nervous system involvement

    PubMed Central

    Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Gunes, Gursel; Yayar, Okan; Demiroglu, Haluk; Yesilirmak, Aysun; Uner, Aysegul

    2015-01-01

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is an aggressive mature T cell neoplasm that typically involves peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen. It is a rare disease that comprises 2-5% of mature lymphocytic leukemia in adults. Here we present a T-PLL patient with CNS involvement. A 74-year-old man admitted to a hospital in April 2014 with vomiting. He was diagnosed as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and R-CVP (Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone) chemotherapy protocol was started. After the first two cycles of chemotherapy, the patient’s mental functions improved. However after the 3rd cycle of chemotherapy was given in July 2014 the general situation of the patient deteriorated and ptosis of the left eye and facial paralysis developed. Then the patient was referred to our medical center. An MR of the brain revealed linear contrast enhancement around the bilateral 3rd, 7th and 8th cranial nerves which indicated cranial involvement by the lymphoproliferative process (Figure 1). Cerebrospinal fluid cytological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Based on these and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy findings a diagnosis of T-PLL was rendered (Figure 3). In September 2014 the patient died suddenly due to a cardiac arrest. Differential diagnosis is very important in T-PLL. Both T-PLL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may present with splenomegaly and lymphocytosis as well as circulating prolymphocytes in blood. Typical CLL cells are like mature lymphocytes with dense nucleus and aggregated chromatin. To conclude, CNS involvement in T-PLL is a rare finding and differential diagnosis of T-PLL is very important. PMID:26550397

  17. A T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia case with central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Gunes, Gursel; Yayar, Okan; Demiroglu, Haluk; Yesilirmak, Aysun; Uner, Aysegul

    2015-01-01

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is an aggressive mature T cell neoplasm that typically involves peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen. It is a rare disease that comprises 2-5% of mature lymphocytic leukemia in adults. Here we present a T-PLL patient with CNS involvement. A 74-year-old man admitted to a hospital in April 2014 with vomiting. He was diagnosed as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and R-CVP (Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone) chemotherapy protocol was started. After the first two cycles of chemotherapy, the patient's mental functions improved. However after the 3(rd) cycle of chemotherapy was given in July 2014 the general situation of the patient deteriorated and ptosis of the left eye and facial paralysis developed. Then the patient was referred to our medical center. An MR of the brain revealed linear contrast enhancement around the bilateral 3(rd), 7(th) and 8(th) cranial nerves which indicated cranial involvement by the lymphoproliferative process (Figure 1). Cerebrospinal fluid cytological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Based on these and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy findings a diagnosis of T-PLL was rendered (Figure 3). In September 2014 the patient died suddenly due to a cardiac arrest. Differential diagnosis is very important in T-PLL. Both T-PLL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may present with splenomegaly and lymphocytosis as well as circulating prolymphocytes in blood. Typical CLL cells are like mature lymphocytes with dense nucleus and aggregated chromatin. To conclude, CNS involvement in T-PLL is a rare finding and differential diagnosis of T-PLL is very important.

  18. Micro- and nano-environments of C sequestration: Multi-element spectromicroscopy assessment of soil organomineral assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, D.; Lehmann, J.; Harden, J. W.; Wang, J.; Muller, D.

    2011-12-01

    results of a combination of basic processes occurring at a micro-, nano- and atomistic level involving. One of the major limiting factors to past investigations of soil C sequestration is, therefore, the fact that these processes operate well below the scale that most researchers have been able to observe. Although our investigation is at its early stage, we have made progress over the past years to examine the interactive properties of organic C and mineral particles present in organomineral assemblages at sub-micrometer level using FTIR, multi-element STXM-NEXAFS and STEM-EELS spectromicroscopy assessment of soil organomineral assemblages and soil nanoparticles. The unprecedented ability rendered by these advanced techniques to investigate the different phases present in complex matrices such as soils, separated probably by only an atomically-thin wall, enables the generation of a wealth of new atomic- and nanoscale-level information of associated organic and oxide communities. Here we will use the first results of our investigation as a proof of concept and attempt to identify the mechanisms for C sequestration in soil relevant for agricultural sustainability and climate change mitigation strategies.

  19. EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENT PRACTICES FOR DRUG-INVOLVED ADULTS IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Taxman, Faye S.; Henderson, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the extent and organizational correlates of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in correctional facilities and community-based substance abuse treatment programs that manage drug-involved adult offenders. METHODS Correctional administrators and treatment program directors affiliated with a national sample of 384 criminal justice and community-based programs providing substance abuse treatment to adult offenders in the United States were surveyed in 2004. Correctional administrators reported the availability of up to 13 specified EBPs and treatment directors up to 15. The sum total of EBPs indicates their extent. Linear models regress the extent of EBPs on variables measuring structure and leadership, culture and climate, administrator attitudes and network connectedness of the organization. RESULTS Most programs offer fewer than 60% of the specified EBPs to drug-involved offenders. In multiple regression models, offender treatment programs that provided more EBPs were community-based, accredited, and network-connected; with a performance-oriented, non-punitive culture, more training resources; and leadership with a background in human services, a high regard for the value of substance abuse treatment and an understanding of EBPs. CONCLUSIONS The use of EBPs among facility- and community-based programs that serve drug-involved adult offenders has room for improvement. Initiatives to disseminate EBPs might target these institutional and environmental domains, but further research is needed to determine whether such organization interventions can promote the uptake of EBPs. PMID:17383551

  20. Correction factors for on-line microprobe analysis of multielement alloy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.; Brewer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    An on-line correction technique was developed for the conversion of electron probe X-ray intensities into concentrations of emitting elements. This technique consisted of off-line calculation and representation of binary interaction data which were read into an on-line minicomputer to calculate variable correction coefficients. These coefficients were used to correct the X-ray data without significantly increasing computer core requirements. The binary interaction data were obtained by running Colby's MAGIC 4 program in the reverse mode. The data for each binary interaction were represented by polynomial coefficients obtained by least-squares fitting a third-order polynomial. Polynomial coefficients were generated for most of the common binary interactions at different accelerating potentials and are included. Results are presented for the analyses of several alloy standards to demonstrate the applicability of this correction procedure.

  1. Characterization of a Multi-element Clinical HIFU System Using Acoustic Holography and Nonlinear Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Wayne; Yuldashev, Petr V.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Farr, Navid; Partanen, Ari; Bailey, Michael R.; Khokhlova, Vera A.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a treatment modality that relies on the delivery of acoustic energy to remote tissue sites to induce thermal and/or mechanical tissue ablation. To ensure the safety and efficacy of this medical technology, standard approaches are needed for accurately characterizing the acoustic pressures generated by clinical ultrasound sources under operating conditions. Characterization of HIFU fields is complicated by nonlinear wave propagation and the complexity of phased-array transducers. Previous work has described aspects of an approach that combines measurements and modeling, and here we demonstrate this approach for a clinical phased array transducer. First, low-amplitude hydrophone measurements were performed in water over a scan plane between the array and the focus. Second, these measurements were used to holographically reconstruct the surface vibrations of the transducer and to set a boundary condition for a 3-D acoustic propagation model. Finally, nonlinear simulations of the acoustic field were carried out over a range of source power levels. Simulation results were compared to pressure waveforms measured directly by hydrophone at both low and high power levels, demonstrating that details of the acoustic field including shock formation are quantitatively predicted. PMID:25004539

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Rollover Accidents Involving Vehicles Equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E.; Scheibe, Robert R.; Eyges, Vitaly E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present. PMID:19026219

  3. Modulation of motor functions involving central dopaminergic system by L-histidine.

    PubMed

    Paul, V N; Chopra, K; Kulkarni, S K

    2000-10-01

    There exists a possibility of interactions of histaminergic system with other neurotransmitters and their receptors in the central nervous system. Experimental evidences suggest a possible inhibitory influence of histaminergic system on the dopaminergic system. To elucidate the possible interaction between the histaminergic and dopaminergic pathways, we devised a strategy to study their effects on locomotor function and stereotypy behaviour. We investigated the effect of L-histidine, the precursor of histamine, on apomorphine-induced stereotypy and perphenazine-induced catalepsy. Histidine antagonised apomorphine-induced stereotypy. This inhibitory effect of histidine was abolished by both H1- and H2-receptor antagonists, chlorpheniramine and cimetidine, respectively. Perphenazine-induced catalepsy was potentiated by histidine and this effect was inhibited by chlorpheniramine alone but not by cimetidine. These results confirm a possible histamine-dopamine interaction in the modulation of motor functions by the central nervous system.

  4. K+ uptake in plant roots. The systems involved, their regulation and parallels in other organisms.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Alemán, Fernando; Martínez, Vicente; Rubio, Francisco

    2014-05-15

    Potassium (K(+)) is an essential macronutrient for plants. It is taken into the plant by the transport systems present in the plasma membranes of root epidermal and cortical cells. The identity of these systems and their regulation is beginning to be understood and the systems of K(+) transport in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana remain far better characterized than in any other plant species. Roots can activate different K(+) uptake systems to adapt to their environment, important to a sessile organism that needs to cope with a highly variable environment. The mechanisms of K(+) acquisition in the model species A. thaliana are the best characterized at the molecular level so far. According to the current model, non-selective channels are probably the main pathways for K(+) uptake at high concentrations (>10mM), while at intermediate concentrations (1mM), the inward rectifying channel AKT1 dominates K(+) uptake. Under lower concentrations of external K(+) (100μM), AKT1 channels, together with the high-affinity K(+) uptake system HAK5 contribute to K(+) acquisition, and at extremely low concentrations (<10μM) the only system capable of taking up K(+) is HAK5. Depending on the species the high-affinity system has been named HAK5 or HAK1, but in all cases it fulfills the same functions. The activation of these systems as a function of the K(+) availability is achieved by different mechanisms that include phosphorylation of AKT1 or induction of HAK5 transcription. Some of the characteristics of the systems for root K(+) uptake are shared by other organisms, whilst others are specific to plants. This indicates that some crucial properties of the ancestral of K(+) transport systems have been conserved through evolution while others have diverged among different kingdoms.

  5. Perpetual factors involved in performance of air traffic controllers using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershzohn, G.

    1978-01-01

    The task involved the control of two simulated aircraft targets per trial, in a 37.0 -km radius terminal area, by means of conventional radar vectoring and/or speed control. The goal was to insure that the two targets crossed the Missed Approach Point (MAP) at the runway threshold exactly 60 sec apart. The effects on controller performance of the MLS configuration under wind and no-wind conditions were examined. The data for mean separation time between targets at the MAP and the range about that mean were analyzed by appropriate analyses of variance. Significant effects were found for mean separation times as a result of the configuration of the MLS and for interaction between the configuration and wind conditions. The analysis of variance for range indicated significantly poorer performance under the wind condition. These findings are believed to be a result of certain perceptual factors involved in radar air traffic control (ATC) using the MLS with separation of targets in time.

  6. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yao Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging.

  7. On computing stress in polymer systems involving multi-body potentials from molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2014-08-01

    Hardy stress definition has been restricted to pair potentials and embedded-atom method potentials due to the basic assumptions in the derivation of a symmetric microscopic stress tensor. Force decomposition required in the Hardy stress expression becomes obscure for multi-body potentials. In this work, we demonstrate the invariance of the Hardy stress expression for a polymer system modeled with multi-body interatomic potentials including up to four atoms interaction, by applying central force decomposition of the atomic force. The balance of momentum has been demonstrated to be valid theoretically and tested under various numerical simulation conditions. The validity of momentum conservation justifies the extension of Hardy stress expression to multi-body potential systems. Computed Hardy stress has been observed to converge to the virial stress of the system with increasing spatial averaging volume. This work provides a feasible and reliable linkage between the atomistic and continuum scales for multi-body potential systems.

  8. On computing stress in polymer systems involving multi-body potentials from molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yao E-mail: jhsong@cec.sc.edu; Song, Jeong-Hoon E-mail: jhsong@cec.sc.edu

    2014-08-07

    Hardy stress definition has been restricted to pair potentials and embedded-atom method potentials due to the basic assumptions in the derivation of a symmetric microscopic stress tensor. Force decomposition required in the Hardy stress expression becomes obscure for multi-body potentials. In this work, we demonstrate the invariance of the Hardy stress expression for a polymer system modeled with multi-body interatomic potentials including up to four atoms interaction, by applying central force decomposition of the atomic force. The balance of momentum has been demonstrated to be valid theoretically and tested under various numerical simulation conditions. The validity of momentum conservation justifies the extension of Hardy stress expression to multi-body potential systems. Computed Hardy stress has been observed to converge to the virial stress of the system with increasing spatial averaging volume. This work provides a feasible and reliable linkage between the atomistic and continuum scales for multi-body potential systems.

  9. Use of multi-element tracers to source apportion mercury in south Florida aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, Joseph R.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Keeler, Gerald J.

    The relative importance of local sources of mercury (Hg) in aerosols from urban areas in south Florida in relation to regional or global sources transported to the Everglades was investigated using a multi-element tracer approach. The sources of metals and Hg within aerosols were determined by integrating the collection of aerosols at seven locations with meteorology, source sampling, and statistical analysis. Sources include sea spray, soil dust from local carbonate bedrock and long range Saharan dust transport, regional scale transport of sulfate aerosols, and local point sources including oil-fired power plants, medical and waste incineration, and cement kilns. Using a principal components analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) approach, 80% of the Hg in particulate form at the Thompson Park Everglades receptor site (THP) could be attributed to local sources. The key to the success of the source attribution at THP was collection of samples on a 12-h sampling basis in order to account for diurnal changes in meteorological conditions in south Florida associated with land-sea breeze development. Fifty-six±7% of the particulate Hg at THP was associated with elevated Zn concentrations which source sampling and surface meteorology indicate as emissions from municipal waste incineration located southeast of THP. Another 14±5% of the particulate Hg was associated with elevated Cu and Pb concentrations from sources SSE of THP. Eleven±1% of the particulate Hg originated from medical waste incineration sources and was associated with elevated levels of Cl and rapid SE to NW transport. Elevated concentrations of Si, Al, Fe, Mn, and K occurred on the same days at all sites, following passage of tropical storms over south Florida. PCA grouped these elements within a factor that is likely Saharan dust in origin, only 12±2% of the particulate Hg at THP could be attributed to this non-local source. Because the majority of the particulate Hg at THP can be attributed to

  10. Simulation of Fluid Flow and Collection Efficiency for an SEA Multi-element Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.; Struk, Peter M.; Bidwell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of fluid flow and collection efficiency for a Science Engineering Associates (SEA) multi-element probe are presented. Simulation of the flow field was produced using the Glenn-HT Navier-Stokes solver. Three-dimensional unsteady results were produced and then time averaged for the heat transfer and collection efficiency results. Three grid densities were investigated to enable an assessment of grid dependence. Simulations were completed for free stream velocities ranging from 85-135 meters per second, and free stream total pressure of 44.8 and 93.1 kilopascals (6.5 and 13.5 pounds per square inch absolute). In addition, the effect of angle of attack and yaw were investigated by including 5 degree deviations from straight for one of the flow conditions. All but one of the cases simulated a probe in isolation (i.e. in a very large domain without any support strut). One case is included which represents a probe mounted on a support strut within a finite sized wind tunnel. Collection efficiencies were generated, using the LEWICE3D code, for four spherical particle sizes, 100, 50, 20, and 5 micron in diameter. It was observed that a reduction in velocity of about 20% occurred, for all cases, as the flow entered the shroud of the probe. The reduction in velocity within the shroud is not indicative of any error in the probe measurement accuracy. Heat transfer results are presented which agree quite well with a correlation for the circular cross section heated elements. Collection efficiency results indicate a reduction in collection efficiency as particle size is reduced. The reduction with particle size is expected, however, the results tended to be lower than the previous results generated for isolated two-dimensional elements. The deviation from the two-dimensional results is more pronounced for the smaller particles and is likely due to the reduced flow within the protective shroud. As particle size increases differences between the two

  11. Feasibility of pressurization to speed up enzymatic hydrolysis of biological materials for multielement determinations.

    PubMed

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2007-03-01

    The feasibility of pressurized solvents (liquids at a high pressure and/or high temperature without the subcritical point being reached) has been newly investigated to accelerate enzymatic hydrolysis processes of mussel tissue for multielement determinations. The target elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) were released from dried mussel tissue by action of two proteases (pepsin and pancreatin), and they have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Variables inherent to the enzymatic activity (pH, ionic strength, temperature, and enzyme mass) and factors affecting pressurization (static time, pressure, and number of cycles) were simultaneously studied by applying a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as the screening method. Results showed that pH, ionic strength, and temperature were the most statistically significant factors (confidence interval of 95%) under pressurized conditions for pepsin, while pH and ionic strength affected pancreatin activity. This means that metal extraction is mostly attributed to enzymatic activity. The static time (enzymatic hydrolysis time) was found statistically nonsignificant for most of the elements, meaning that the hydrolysis procedure can be finished within a 2-15 min range. For pepsin, optimized conditions (pH 1.0, temperature 40 degrees C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 2 min, and number of cycles 3) gave quantitative extractions for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Li, Mn, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn. The pepsin mass was 0.05 g, and the solution was Milli-Q water at pH 1.0 (adjusted with hydrochloric acid). For pancreatin, quantitative recoveries were only reached for As, Cd, Cu, Li, Pb, and Sr at room temperature, at a pressure of 1500 psi, for a static time of 2 min and a number of cycles of 3. The extraction solution was a 0.3 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate/potassium hydrogen phosphate buffer at a pH of 7.5 working at room temperature. Around 0.5 g of diatomaceous

  12. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Involvement of gut neural and endocrine systems in pathological disorders of the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Furness, J B; Poole, D P

    2012-04-01

    The functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is under the control of the most extensive system of peripheral neurons in the body, the enteric nervous system, and the largest endocrine system of the body, the GEP endocrine system. The enteric nervous system in large mammals contains 500 million neurons, and the GEP endocrine system produces more than 30 hormones. Numerous enteric neuropathies affecting both humans and animals have been described and digestive disorders affect commercially important species, such as horses and cattle. The most severe enteric neuropathies (e.g., lethal white syndrome in horses or Hirschsprung's disease in humans) can be fatal. Also, horses with ileus or other digestive disorders are commonly euthanized. In this review we discuss examples of enteric neuropathies that affect agricultural animals and humans: prion disease, postoperative ileus, distal enteric aganglionosis, and infective diarrhea. Enteric neurons and glia are a location of prion proteins and are involved in transmission of the infection from gut to brain and brain to gut. Postoperative ileus is a complex disorder involving the local inhibitory effects of sympathetic nervous system activation and the release of opioids, presumably from enteric neurons. Intestinal inflammation, especially of the external muscle that includes enteric ganglia, also occurs in ileus. Congenital distal bowel aganglionosis, responsible for lethal white syndrome in horses, Hirschsprung's disease in humans, and similar conditions in mice and rats, is a fatal condition if untreated. Mutations of the same genes can cause the condition in each of these species. The only effective current treatment is surgical removal of the aganglionic bowel. Infectious diarrheas involve activation of enteric secretomotor neurons by pathogens and the toxins they produce, which causes substantial fluid loss. Strategies to target enteric neurons in the treatment of secretory diarrheas have not been developed. Disorders

  13. Scleroderma: the role of serum autoantibodies in defining specific clinical phenotypes and organ system involvement

    PubMed Central

    Domsic, Robyn T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss recent advances in serologic testing for SSc-associated antibodies with respect to the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Recent findings The importance of SSc antibodies for diagnosis has become increasingly recognized, as evidence by incorporation into the 2013 ACR/EULAR clinical classification criteria for SSc. Two new SSc-associated antibodies and their clinical associations have been described. Multiple cohort studies have reported variable antibody frequency distribution based on geography, but the clinical associations remain much the same. New associations include anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies with gastric antral vascular ectasia, and a temporal association between SSc onset and RNA polymerase III antibodies. Summary The role and associations of SSc-associated antibodies for diagnosis and internal organ involvement is becoming increasingly accepted. PMID:25203118

  14. The Degree of Skin Involvement Identifies Distinct Lung Disease Outcomes and Survival in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Tricia R.; Wise, Robert A.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Boin, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether pattern of skin involvement can predict clinical features, risk of restrictive lung disease, and survival in a large scleroderma (SSc) cohort. Methods Demographic and clinical data collected over 30 years from 2,205 SSc patients were retrospectively analyzed after subdividing subjects into four subtypes based on pattern of skin fibrosis: Type-0 (no skin involvement), Type-1 (limited to metacarpophalangeal joints), Type-2 (distal to elbows/knees) and Type-3 (proximal to elbows/knees). Clinical features associated with skin subsets were identified by regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare time to restrictive lung disease (RLD) and survival across subtypes. Results The presence and severity of RLD were positively associated with skin subtype (p<0.001). RLD prevalence incrementally ranged from 51.9% in Type 0 to 76.7% in Type-3 (p<0.001). Type-2 SSc exhibited a distinct phenotype with intermediate risk for RLD relative to Type-1 (higher, p<0.001) and Type-3 (lower, p<0.001), and a unique autoantibody profile, with a prevalence of anti-centromere lower than Type-1 (28.9% vs. 44.1%, p=0.001) and of anti-topoisomerase I similar to Type-3 (p=0.38). These autoantibodies were also found to be significant negative (OR 0.33, p<0.001) and positive (OR 1.6, p=0.01) predictors of RLD risk respectively. Mortality was also intermediate in Type-2 patients relative to Type-3 (p=0.0003) and Type-1 (p=0.066). Conclusions These data suggest that the current classification subdividing SSc into the limited and diffuse cutaneous subtypes misclassifies an intermediate group of patients exhibiting unique autoantibody profile, disease course and clinical outcomes. PMID:23606705

  15. Involvement of the dopaminergic system in the consolidation of fear conditioning in hippocampal CA3 subregion.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia-Ling; Xue, Li; Wang, Run-Hua; Chen, Zi-Xiang; Shi, Yan-Wei; Zhao, Hu

    2015-02-01

    The hippocampus, the primary brain structure related to learning and memory, receives sparse but comprehensive dopamine innervations and contains dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Systematic hippocampal dopaminergic dysfunction can cause deficits in spatial working memory and impair consolidation of contextual fear memories. CA3 is involved in the rapid acquisition of new memories and has extensive nerve fibre connections with other brain structures such as CA1, the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A bidirectional fibrous connection between CA3 and the amygdala reflects the importance of CA3 in fear conditioning. The present study evaluated the effects of a 6-OHDA lesion in CA3 on the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. The results showed CA3 involvement in the expression but not the acquisition of conditioned fear. Injection of SCH23390 and quinpirole into the bilateral CA3 attenuated a conditioned fear-related freezing response, whereas SKF38393 and sulpiride were not associated with this effect. The present study found that a 6-OHDA lesion in CA3 up-regulated the expression of GluR1 in BLA and down-regulated NR2B in CA1 and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Our data suggest that dopamine depletion in hippocampal subdivision CA3 may not be necessary for the acquisition of conditioned fear, but the expression of conditioned fear is likely dependent on the integrity of mesohippocampal dopaminergic connections. It is probable that both D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors modulate the expression of conditioned fear. Changes in the expression of NR2B and GluR1 indicate that CA3 may modulate the activities of other brain structures. PMID:25446753

  16. Central adenosinergic system involvement in ethanol-induced motor incoordination in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, M.S. )

    1990-12-01

    To clarify if the behavioral interaction between ethanol and adenosine reported previously occur centrally or due to a peripheral hemodynamic change, the effect of i.c.v. adenosine agonists, N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (R-PIA), N6-(S-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine, antagonists, theophylline and 8-p-(sulfophenyl)theophylline as well as enprofylline on ethanol-(i.p.)-induced motor incoordination was evaluated by rotorod. Adenosine agonists and antagonists dose dependently accentuated and attenuated, respectively, ethanol-induced motor incoordination, thereby suggesting a central mechanism of adenosine modulation of this effect of ethanol and confirmed our previous reports in which adenosine agonists and antagonists were given i.p. Enprofylline, a weak adenosine antagonist but potent inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, did not alter ethanol's motor incoordination, further supporting involvement of brain adenosine receptor mechanism(s) in ethanol-adenosine interactions. Results from R-PIA and N6-(S-phenylisopropyl)adenosine experiments showed nearly a 40-fold greater potency of R-vs. S-diastereoisomer, suggesting predominance of adenosine A1 subtype. However, 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine data indicate complexity of the mechanism(s) and point toward an additional involvement of a yet unknown subtype of adenosine A2. No effect of ethanol on blood or brain levels of (3H)R-PIA was noted and sufficient amount of the latter entered the brain to suggest adenosine receptor activation adequate to produce behavioral interaction with ethanol. There was no escape of i.c.v.-administered (3H)R-PIA from brain to the peripheral circulation ruling out a peripheral and supporting a central mechanism of ethanol-adenosine interaction.

  17. Design of optical system for spectrometer involving a volume phase holographic transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-08-01

    At present, spectrometer has popularly being used into varieties of fields including environment, food, medical health monitoring and metal industry because it has the advantages of noninvasive, high efficient and convenient etc. The performance of the spectrometer is determined by its optical system. Normally, according to the apparatus and principle of splitting-light, optical system of spectrometer can be classified into several categories, for example, filter-typed, dispersion typed, Fourier transform typed and acousto-optic tunable typed. The grating typed optical system has been popularly used into the spectrometer due to the features of higher diffraction efficiency, resolution and dispersion rate etc. In the grating-typed optical system, although the traditional plane and concave grating have usually been used into some spectrometers, some disadvantages of them still limit their applications, such as, large aberration, worse spectral flatness and low deficiency, etc. In this paper, to overcome these disadvantages of the traditional plane and concave grating, a novel optical system for spectrometer (OSS) based on volume phase holographic transmission (VPHT) grating was designed. For this novel grating, its manufacture and theories were investigated, and its diffraction efficiency was firstly numerically simulated according to different parameters. In order to prove the feasibility of this designed OSS, the spectral calibration experiment was performed and the spectral resolution reached 2nm.

  18. Hierarchy of conversational rule violations involving utterance-based augmentative and alternative communication systems.

    PubMed

    Hoag, Linda A; Bedrosian, Jan L; McCoy, Kathleen F; Johnson, Dallas E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using messages with conversational rule violations on attitudes toward people who used utterance-based augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems in transactional interactions. Specifically, the ratings were compared across messages with relevance, informativeness, and brevity violations, when latency remained constant (i.e., short). The 96 participating sales clerks viewed scripted, videotaped bookstore conversations and completed an attitude questionnaire. Results indicated that the prestored message with repeated words/phrases was rated the highest, followed by the message with excessive information; next was the message with inadequate information, followed by the message with partly relevant information. The findings may be useful to those using utterance-based systems when making message choices during interactions with service providers. Technological implications point to the development of schema/script-based systems and intelligent editing.

  19. Hierarchy of conversational rule violations involving utterance-based augmentative and alternative communication systems.

    PubMed

    Hoag, Linda A; Bedrosian, Jan L; McCoy, Kathleen F; Johnson, Dallas E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using messages with conversational rule violations on attitudes toward people who used utterance-based augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems in transactional interactions. Specifically, the ratings were compared across messages with relevance, informativeness, and brevity violations, when latency remained constant (i.e., short). The 96 participating sales clerks viewed scripted, videotaped bookstore conversations and completed an attitude questionnaire. Results indicated that the prestored message with repeated words/phrases was rated the highest, followed by the message with excessive information; next was the message with inadequate information, followed by the message with partly relevant information. The findings may be useful to those using utterance-based systems when making message choices during interactions with service providers. Technological implications point to the development of schema/script-based systems and intelligent editing. PMID:18465368

  20. Signaling Pathways Involved in Renal Oxidative Injury: Role of the Vasoactive Peptides and the Renal Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Rukavina Mikusic, N. L.; Kravetz, M. C.; Kouyoumdzian, N. M.; Della Penna, S. L.; Rosón, M. I.; Fernández, B. E.; Choi, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological hydroelectrolytic balance and the redox steady state in the kidney are accomplished by an intricate interaction between signals from extrarenal and intrarenal sources and between antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors. Angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic peptide and intrarenal dopamine play a pivotal role in this interactive network. The balance between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide, by one side, and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system, by the other side, contributes to ensuring the normal function of the kidney. Different pathological scenarios, as nephrotic syndrome and hypertension, where renal sodium excretion is altered, are associated with an impaired interaction between two natriuretic systems as the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide that may be involved in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. The aim of this review is to update and comment the most recent evidences about the intracellular pathways involved in the relationship between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of renal inflammation. PMID:25436148

  1. Resource allocatiion: sequential data collection for reliability analysis involving systems and component level data

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson-cooke, Christine M

    2010-01-01

    In analyzing the reliability of complex systems, several types of data from full-system tests to component level tests are commonly available and are used. After a preliminary analysis, additional resources may be available to collect new data. The goal of resource allocation is to identify the best new data to collect to maximally improve the prediction of system reliability. While several possible definitions of 'maximally improve' are possible, we focus on reducing the uncertainty or the width of the uncertainty interval for the prediction of system reliability at a user-specified age(s). In this paper, we present an algorithm that allows us to estimate the anticipated improvement to the analysis with the addition of new data, based on current understanding of all of the statistical model parameters. This quantitative assessment of the anticipated improvement can be helpful to justify the benefits of collecting new data. Additionally by comparing different potential allocations, it is possible to determine what new data should be collected to improve our understanding of the response. This optimization takes into account the relative cost of different data types and can be based on flexible allocation options, or subject to logistical constraints.

  2. Student Information Systems: How Do You Spell Parental Involvement? S-I-S

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Courtesy of new technologies, such as student information systems (SIS), districts are opening new channels of communication, giving parents anytime Internet access to information they need to track their child's progress--and affording them the opportunity to make a tremendous impact on their child's learning growth. Take what is happening at…

  3. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  4. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  5. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  6. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  7. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Brain Structures Involved in Reward Processing during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urosevic, Snezana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin; Luciana, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of radical normative changes and increased risk for substance use, mood disorders, and physical injury. Researchers have proposed that increases in reward sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity of the behavioral approach system [BAS]) and/or increases in reactivity to all emotional stimuli (i.e., reward and threat sensitivities)…

  9. Involvement of the Gut Chemosensory System in the Regulation of Colonic Anion Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the extraction of nutrients from the diet. Therefore, the GI tract must possess an efficient surveillance system that continuously monitors the luminal content for beneficial or harmful compounds. Recent studies have shown that specialized cells in the intestinal lining can sense changes in this content. These changes directly influence fundamental GI processes such as secretion, motility, and local blood flow via hormonal and/or neuronal pathways. Until recently, most studies examining the control of ion transport in the colon have focused on neural and hormonal regulation. However, study of the regulation of gut function by the gut chemosensory system has become increasingly important, as failure of this system causes dysfunctions in host homeostasis, as well as functional GI disorders. Furthermore, regulation of ion transport in the colon is critical for host defense and for electrolytes balance. This review discusses the role of the gut chemosensory system in epithelial transport, with a particular emphasis on the colon. PMID:25866781

  10. Involvement of the opioid system in the hypokinetic state induced in cockroaches by a parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Gavra, Tali; Libersat, Frederic

    2011-03-01

    The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa stings and injects venom into the cockroach brain to induce a long-lasting hypokinetic state. This state is characterized by decreased responsiveness to aversive stimuli, suggesting the manipulation of a neuromodulatory system in the cockroach's central nervous system. A likely candidate is the opioid system, which is known to affect responsiveness to stimuli in insects. To explore this possibility, we injected cockroaches with different opioid receptor agonists or antagonists before they were stung by a wasp and tested the escape behavior of these cockroaches to electric foot shocks. Antagonists significantly decreased the startle threshold in stung individuals, whereas agonists led to an increased startle threshold in controls. Yet, neither agonists nor antagonists had any effect on grooming. To further characterize the interaction between the venom and opioid receptors, we used an antenna-heart preparation. In un-stung individuals external application of crude venom completely inhibits antenna-heart contractions. In stung individuals the antenna-heart showed no contractions. Although acetylcholine restored contractions, the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone was unable to antagonize the venom inhibition. These results suggest that the venom of A. compressa might contribute to the manipulation of cockroach behavior by affecting the opioid system.

  11. Involvement of Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Intellectual Disabilities in Multiple Public Service Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Stahmer, Aubyn; Mandell, David; Haine, Rachel A.; Hough, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) among youths active in at least one of five public service systems: mental health (MH), educational services for youth with serious emotional disturbance (SED), child welfare (CW), juvenile justice (JJ), and alcohol and…

  12. Involvement of urokinase-type plasminogen activator system in cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mekkawy, Ahmed H; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Morris, David L

    2014-09-01

    Currently, there are several studies supporting the role of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system in cancer. The association of uPA to its receptor triggers the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin. This process is regulated by the uPA inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2). Plasmin promotes degradation of basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM) components as well as activation of ECM latent matrix metalloproteases. Degradation and remodeling of the surrounding tissues is crucial in the early steps of tumor progression by facilitating expansion of the tumor mass, release of tumor growth factors, activation of cytokines as well as induction of tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Hence, many tumors showed a correlation between uPA system component levels and tumor aggressiveness and survival. Therefore, this review summarizes the structure of the uPA system, its contribution to cancer progression, and the clinical relevance of uPA family members in cancer diagnosis. In addition, the review evaluates the significance of uPA system in the development of cancer-targeted therapies.

  13. Support technologies involved in the development and implementation of radiometric systems for sensor calibration, characterization, and HWIL testing at AEDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, H. S.; Breeden, M. F.; Crider, D. H.; Steely, S. L.; Nicholson, R. A.; Labello, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The characterization, calibration, and mission simulation testing of space-based, interceptor, and air-borne sensors require a continual involvement in the development and evaluation of radiometric projection technologies. Activities at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) include Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) testing with high-fidelity complex scene-projection technologies as well as improvements in the radiometric source-calibration systems. These technologies are integrated into a low cryo-vacuum (~20 K) environment. The latest scene simulation and HWIL projection technologies are being investigated that can produce desired target temperatures and target-to-sensor ranges such that sensor mission performance can be evaluated. These technologies include multiple-band source subsystems and special spectral-tailoring methods, as well as comprehensive analysis and optical properties measurements of the components involved. Emphasis areas include the development of methodologies to test wide field of view (WFOV), polarimetric, and multi/hyperspectral radiometric imaging systems.

  14. A Review of Opportunities to Improve the Health of People Involved in the Criminal Justice System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Heller, Daliah

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, many constituencies have questioned the efficacy, cost, and unintended consequences of mass incarceration in the United States. Although substantial evidence now demonstrates that US incarceration policies have had unintended adverse health consequences, we know less about the strategies and policies that can prevent or reduce these problems for justice-involved individuals and how the criminal justice system (CJS) can contribute to the Healthy People 2020 national goal of eliminating inequities in health. This review examines strategies that have been used to improve the health of people at various stages of CJS involvement, including diversion from jail and prison stays into community settings, improvements to the social and physical environments within correctional facilities, provision of health and other services to inmates, assistance for people leaving correctional facilities to make the transition back to the community, and systems coordination and integration. PMID:26789388

  15. A Review of Opportunities to Improve the Health of People Involved in the Criminal Justice System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Heller, Daliah

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, many constituencies have questioned the efficacy, cost, and unintended consequences of mass incarceration in the United States. Although substantial evidence now demonstrates that US incarceration policies have had unintended adverse health consequences, we know less about the strategies and policies that can prevent or reduce these problems for justice-involved individuals and how the criminal justice system (CJS) can contribute to the Healthy People 2020 national goal of eliminating inequities in health. This review examines strategies that have been used to improve the health of people at various stages of CJS involvement, including diversion from jail and prison stays into community settings, improvements to the social and physical environments within correctional facilities, provision of health and other services to inmates, assistance for people leaving correctional facilities to make the transition back to the community, and systems coordination and integration.

  16. Hypothalamic Programming of Systemic Aging Involving IKKβ/NF-κB and GnRH

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo; Li, Juxue; Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Tang, Yizhe; Zhang, Hai; Yin, Ye; Li, Bo; Liu, Gang; Cai, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aging is a result of gradual and overall functional deteriorations across the body; however, it is unknown if an individual tissue works to primarily mediate aging progress and lifespan control. Here we found that the hypothalamus is important for the development of whole-body aging in mice, and the underlying basis involves hypothalamic immunity mediated by IKKβ/NF-κB and related microglia-neuron immune crosstalk. Several interventional models were developed showing that aging retardation and lifespan extension are achieved in mice through preventing against aging-related hypothalamic or brain IKKβ/NF-κB activation. Mechanistic studies further revealed that IKKβ/NF-κB inhibits GnRH to mediate aging-related hypothalamic GnRH decline, and GnRH treatment amends aging-impaired neurogenesis and decelerates aging. In conclusion, the hypothalamus has a programmatic role in aging development via immune-neuroendocrine integration, and immune inhibition or GnRH restoration in the hypothalamus/brain represent two potential strategies for optimizing lifespan and combating aging-related health problems. PMID:23636330

  17. Multi-systemic involvement in NGLY1-related disorder caused by two novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Heeley, Jennifer; Shinawi, Marwan

    2015-04-01

    NGLY1-related disorder is a newly described autosomal recessive condition characterized by neurological, hepatic, ophthalmological findings and associated with dysmorphic features, constipation and scoliosis. It is caused by mutations in NGLY1, which encodes an enzyme, N-glycanase 1, involved in deglycosylation of glycoproteins, an essential step in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. The disorder has been described in eight patients. We investigated the molecular basis and phenotype of NGLY1-related disorder in an additional patient. The proband is a 14-year-old who presented in early infancy with profound hypotonia and elevated transaminases. Liver biopsy showed lipid accumulation with dilated endoplasmic reticulum. He exhibited global developmental delay, acquired microcephaly, seizures, involuntary body movements, muscle atrophy, absent reflexes, and poor growth. He had multiple procedures for lacrimal duct stenosis and strabismus and had intractable blepharitis. He had severe osteopenia and persistent hypocholesterolemia. Whole exome sequencing revealed two novel variants in NGLY1: a truncating mutation, c.347C > G (p.S116X), and a splicing mutation, c.881 + 5G (p.IVS5 + 5G>T), predicted to abolish the splice donor site of exon 5. This study, along with previously reported cases, suggests that mutations in NGLY1 cause a recognizable phenotype and targeted sequencing should be considered in patients with typical presentation. This study expands the molecular spectrum of NGLY1-related condition and suggests that osteopenia and hypocholesterolemia may be part of the phenotype. PMID:25707956

  18. Interatomic Coulombic Decay Effects in Theoretical DNA Recombination Systems Involving Protein Interaction Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, E. L.; Rivas, D. A.; Duot, A. C.; Hovey, R. T.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.

    2015-03-01

    DNA replication is the basis for all biological reproduction. A strand of DNA will ``unzip'' and bind with a complimentary strand, creating two identical strands. In this study, we are considering how this process is affected by Interatomic Coulombic Decay (ICD), specifically how ICD affects the individual coding proteins' ability to hold together. ICD mainly deals with how the electron returns to its original state after excitation and how this affects its immediate atomic environment, sometimes affecting the connectivity between interaction sites on proteins involved in the DNA coding process. Biological heredity is fundamentally controlled by DNA and its replication therefore it affects every living thing. The small nature of the proteins (within the range of nanometers) makes it a good candidate for research of this scale. Understanding how ICD affects DNA molecules can give us invaluable insight into the human genetic code and the processes behind cell mutations that can lead to cancer. Authors wish to give special thanks to Pacific Union College Student Senate in Angwin, California, for their financial support.

  19. The Role of the Endothelin System in the Vascular Dysregulation Involved in Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Francesco Saverio; Bonifazzi, Claudio; Perri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a clinical and genetic group of inherited retinal disorders characterized by alterations of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium leading to a progressive concentric visual field restriction, which may bring about severe central vision impairment. Haemodynamic studies in patients with retinitis pigmentosa have demonstrated ocular blood flow abnormalities both in retina-choroidal and in retroocular vascular system. Moreover, several investigations have studied the augmentation of endothelin-1 plasma levels systemically in the body and locally in the eye. This might account for vasoconstriction and ischemia, typical in vascular dysregulation syndrome, which can be considered an important factor of reduction of the ocular blood flow in subjects affected by retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:26613048

  20. Differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement in a patient treated with acyclovir.

    PubMed

    von Euler, Mia; Axelsson, Gudmundur; Helldén, Anders

    2013-08-01

    Acyclovir-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms (AINSs) may resemble several diseases of the central nervous system. Laboratory testing of acyclovir may be critical in supporting the diagnosis of AINSs when there is doubt. We present a case of suspected herpes encephalitis in which the diagnosis of AINSs was supported by therapeutic drug monitoring of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of acyclovir and its main metabolite 9-carboxymethoxymethylguanine.

  1. Generalizations of the theorem of minimum entropy production to linear systems involving inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebhan, E.

    1985-07-01

    The temporal behavior of the excess entropy production Pex is investigated in linear electrical networks and in systems which can be described either by the linearized equations of viscous hydrodynamics or of resistive magnetohydrodynamics. As a result of inertial effects Pex is an oscillatory quantity. A kinetic potential is constructed which contains Pex additively. It is an upper bound of Pex and decreases monotonically in time, enforcing Pex-->0 as t-->∞.

  2. Modelling the dynamics of traits involved in fighting-predators-prey system.

    PubMed

    Kooi, B W

    2015-12-01

    We study the dynamics of a predator-prey system where predators fight for captured prey besides searching for and handling (and digestion) of the prey. Fighting for prey is modelled by a continuous time hawk-dove game dynamics where the gain depends on the amount of disputed prey while the costs for fighting is constant per fighting event. The strategy of the predator-population is quantified by a trait being the proportion of the number of predator-individuals playing hawk tactics. The dynamics of the trait is described by two models of adaptation: the replicator dynamics (RD) and the adaptive dynamics (AD). In the RD-approach a variant individual with an adapted trait value changes the population's strategy, and consequently its trait value, only when its payoff is larger than the population average. In the AD-approach successful replacement of the resident population after invasion of a rare variant population with an adapted trait value is a step in a sequence changing the population's strategy, and hence its trait value. The main aim is to compare the consequences of the two adaptation models. In an equilibrium predator-prey system this will lead to convergence to a neutral singular strategy, while in the oscillatory system to a continuous singular strategy where in this endpoint the resident population is not invasible by any variant population. In equilibrium (low prey carrying capacity) RD and AD-approach give the same results, however not always in a periodically oscillating system (high prey carrying-capacity) where the trait is density-dependent. For low costs the predator population is monomorphic (only hawks) while for high costs dimorphic (hawks and doves). These results illustrate that intra-specific trait dynamics matters in predator-prey dynamics. PMID:25773467

  3. Involvement of the histaminergic system in leptin-induced suppression of food intake.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, T; Yamamoto, Y; Mobarakeh, J I; Yanai, K; Watanabe, T; Watanabe, T; Yamatodani, A

    1999-11-01

    The ob gene product leptin is secreted from white adipose tissue, and may regulate food intake by acting on the hypothalamus in the central nervous system. But the mechanism of this effect is still unclear. The central histaminergic system has been suggested to participate in the control of various physiological functions, particularly in feeding behavior, as it mediates anorectic signals like leptin. Thus, we hypothesized that the central histaminergic system is a target for leptin in its control of feeding. To prove this, we first examined the effect of i.p. administration of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, on leptin-induced suppression of food intake in normal C57BL strain mice. Leptin treatment (1.3 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced food intake by 60% of that of control at 6 h and by 84% at 24 h compared with control. When mice were injected with FMH (100 mg/kg, i.p.) before being given leptin, leptin-induced suppression of food intake was abolished and there was no significant difference compared with that of control. Additionally, we further examined the effects of leptin on food intake in mutant mice lacking histamine H, receptors (H1R-KO mice). Leptin injection significantly reduced food intake by 56% of that of control at 6 h and by 79% at 24 h in wild-type mice (WT mice), but not in H1R-KO mice. This finding suggests that leptin affects the feeding behavior through activation of the central histaminergic system via histamine H1 receptors.

  4. A new animal model of placebo analgesia: involvement of the dopaminergic system in reward learning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Bombi; Park, Hi-Joon; Olausson, Håkan; Enck, Paul; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a new placebo analgesia animal model and investigated the role of the dopamine and opioid systems in placebo analgesia. Before and after the conditioning, we conducted a conditioned place preference (CPP) test to measure preferences for the cues (Rooms 1 and 2), and a hot plate test (HPT) to measure the pain responses to high level-pain after the cues. In addition, we quantified the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and c-Fos in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a response to reward learning and pain response. We found an enhanced preference for the low level-pain paired cue and enhanced TH expression in the VTA of the Placebo and Placebo + Naloxone groups. Haloperidol, a dopamine antagonist, blocked these effects in the Placebo + Haloperidol group. An increased pain threshold to high-heat pain and reduced c-Fos expression in the ACC were observed in the Placebo group only. Haloperidol blocked the place preference effect, and naloxone and haloperidol blocked the placebo analgesia. Cue preference is mediated by reward learning via the dopamine system, whereas the expression of placebo analgesia is mediated by the dopamine and opioid systems. PMID:26602173

  5. Involvement of Glucocorticoids in the Reorganization of the Amphibian Immune System at Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Katherine S.; Davis, A. Tray

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, integrative animal biologists and behavioral scientists have begun to understand the complex interactions between the immune system and the neuroendocrine system. Amphibian metamorphosis offers a unique opportunity to study dramatic hormone-driven changes in the immune system in a compressed time frame. In the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, the larval pattern of immunity is distinct from that of the adult, and metamorphosis marks the transition from one pattern to the other. Climax of metamorphosis is characterized by significant elevations in thyroid hormones, glucocorticoid hormones, and the pituitary hormones, prolactin and growth hormone. Previously, we and others have shown that elevated levels of unbound glucocorticoid hormones found at climax of metamorphosis are associated with a natural decline in lymphocyte numbers, lymphocyte viability, and mitogen-induced proliferation. Here we present evidence that the mechanism for loss of lymphocytes at metamorphosis is glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of lymphocyte function and loss of lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen are reversible by in vitro or in vivo treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, whereas the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU26752, is poorly effective. These observations support the hypothesis that loss of larval lymphocytes and changes in lymphocyte function are due to elevated concentrations of glucocorticoids that remove unnecessary lymphocytes to allow for development of immunological tolerance to the new adult-specific antigens that appear as a result of metamorphosis. PMID:9587715

  6. Molecular Players Involved in the Interaction Between Beneficial Bacteria and the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Hevia, Arancha; Delgado, Susana; Sánchez, Borja; Margolles, Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is a very complex ecosystem, in which there is a continuous interaction between nutrients, host cells, and microorganisms. The gut microbiota comprises trillions of microbes that have been selected during evolution on the basis of their functionality and capacity to survive in, and adapt to, the intestinal environment. Host bacteria and our immune system constantly sense and react to one another. In this regard, commensal microbes contribute to gut homeostasis, whereas the necessary responses are triggered against enteropathogens. Some representatives of our gut microbiota have beneficial effects on human health. Some of the most important roles of these microbes are to help to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier, to provide nutrients such as vitamins, or to protect against pathogens. In addition, the interaction between commensal microbiota and the mucosal immune system is crucial for proper immune function. This process is mainly performed via the pattern recognition receptors of epithelial cells, such as Toll-like or Nod-like receptors, which are able to recognize the molecular effectors that are produced by intestinal microbes. These effectors mediate processes that can ameliorate certain inflammatory gut disorders, discriminate between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, or increase the number of immune cells or their pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review intends to summarize the molecular players produced by probiotic bacteria, notably Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, but also other very promising potential probiotics, which affect the human immune system. PMID:26635753

  7. Translational evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in stress-related psychiatric illnesses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence over the past decade has highlighted an important role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in the regulation of stress and emotional behavior across divergent species, from rodents to humans. The general findings from this work indicate that the eCB system plays an important role in gating and buffering the stress response, dampening anxiety and regulating mood. Work in rodents has allowed researchers to determine the neural mechanisms mediating this relationship while work in human populations has demonstrated the possible importance of this system in stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety and major depression. These stress-protective effects of eCB signaling appear to be primarily mediated by their actions within corticolimbic structures, particularly the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date discussion of the current level of knowledge in this field, as well as address the current gaps in knowledge and specific areas of research that require attention. PMID:24286185

  8. Gβ5-RGS complexes are gatekeepers of hyperactivity involved in control of multiple neurotransmitter systems

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Keqiang; Ge, Shencheng; Collins, Victoria E.; Haynes, Christy L.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Meisel, Robert L.; Lujan, Rafael; Martemyanov, Kirill A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Our knowledge about genes involved in the control of basal motor activity that may contribute to the pathology of the hyperactivity disorders, e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is limited. Disruption of monoamine neurotransmitter signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) is considered to be a major contributing factor to the etiology of the ADHD. Genetic association evidence and functional data, suggest that regulators of G protein signaling proteins of the R7 family (R7 RGS) that form obligatory complexes with type 5 G protein beta subunit (Gβ5) and negatively regulate signaling downstream from monoamine GPCRs, may play a role in controlling hyperactivity. Methods To test this hypothesis, we conducted behavioral, pharmacological and neurochemical studies using a genetic mouse model that lacked Gβ5, a subunit essential for the expression of the entire R7 RGS family. Results Elimination of Gβ5-RGS complexes led to a striking level of hyperactivity that far exceeds activity levels previously observed in animal models. This hyperactivity was accompanied by motor learning deficits and, paradoxical behavioral sensitization to a novel environment. Neurochemical studies indicated that Gβ5-RGS deficient mice had higher sensitivity of inhibitory GPCR signaling and deficits in basal levels, release and reuptake of dopamine. Surprisingly, pharmacological treatment with monoamine reuptake inhibitors failed to alter hyperactivity. In contrast, blockade of NMDA receptors reversed the expression of hyperactivity in Gβ5-RGS deficient mice. Conclusions These findings establish that Gβ5-RGS complexes are critical regulators of monoamine-NMDA receptor signaling cross-talk and link these complexes to disorders that manifest as hyperactivity, impaired learning and motor dysfunctions. PMID:21766168

  9. Involvement of the histaminergic system on appetitive learning and its interaction with haloperidol in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Medalha, Carla Christina; Mattioli, Rosana

    2007-05-17

    This study investigated the actions of the histaminergic system on appetitive learning and memory, and its interaction with the dopaminergic system in goldfish. It consisted of nine sessions, in which fish were tested in a four-arm tank. On day 1, the animals were habituated for 10 min. On day 2, they were placed in one arm and had to find food at the left or the right arm. Time to begin feeding was recorded, and the procedure repeated for more 3 days (training phase). On training day 4, seven groups were injected with saline, seven with haloperidol (2.0 mg/kg) and one with DMSO solution before training and after feeding, three groups received saline, six chlorpheniramine (CPA) (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg), and six l-histidine (LH) (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg). Saline groups were considered as control of CPA and LH treated groups and DMSO as control of haloperidol. A non-injected group was also included. Testing occurred after 24 h. A reversal procedure was conducted 24h after testing and repeated for 3 days. The groups receiving CPA at 1.0 and 8.0 mg/kg and LH at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg differed between Test and Reversal day 1. Pre-treatment with haloperidol plus 8.0 mg/kg of CPA and 25 and 50 mg/kg of LH reverted the treatment effect. However, in the groups treated with 1.0 mg/kg of CPA and 100 mg/kg of LH, the difference remained. This study confirmed the interaction between the histaminergic and the dopaminergic systems on memory process in goldfish.

  10. Dual chiral recognition system involving cyclodextrin derivatives in capillary electrophoresis II. Enhancement of enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Jakubetz, H; Juza, M; Schurig, V

    1998-05-01

    The enantiomer separation of hexobarbital was investigated by open tubular electrochromatography (OTEC) using the chiral stationary phase (CSP) CHIRASIL-DEX (a permethylated beta-cyclodextrin covalently linked to a dimethylpolysiloxane) and by cyclodextrin-electrokinetic chromatogaphy (CD-EKC) using anionic beta-cyclodextrin-sulfo-n-propyl ether (SPE-beta-CD) and cationic beta-cyclodextrin-2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammoniumpropyl ether chloride (HTAP-beta-CD) added to the running buffer. By employing two chiral selectors, the enantiomer separation of hexobarbital was then studied simultaneously by OTEC with CHIRASIL-DEX and by CD-EKC with either SPE-beta-CD or HTAP-beta-CD in the dual chiral recognition mode. In conjunction with CHIRASIL-DEX, anionic SPE-beta-CD decreased the chiral separation factor alpha due to compensation of enantioselectivity whereas the cationic additive HTAP-beta-CD increased the chiral separation factor alpha due to enhancement of enantioselectivity. It is concluded that CHIRASIL-DEX imparts an opposite enantioselectivity to the enantiomers of hexobarbital as compared to the charged CDs SPE-beta-CD and HTAP-beta-CD. Unusual peak broadening phenomena are observed in the dual chiral recognition system comprised of CHIRASIL-DEX and HTAP-beta-CD. The possible consequences of accidental dual chiral recognition systems caused by wall stacking effects of the mobile phase additives onto the inner surface of the capillary column are discussed. PMID:9629908

  11. Multiplicity of solutions for a class of quasilinear Kirchhoff system involving the fractional p-Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Mingqi; Zhang, Binlin; Rădulescu, Vicenţiu D.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the multiplicity of solutions for a p-Kirchhoff system driven by a nonlocal integro-differential operator with zero Dirichlet boundary data. As a special case, we consider the following fractional p-Kirchhoff system {(∑i=1k[ui]s,pp)θ-1(-Δ)psuj(x)=λj|uj|q-2uj+∑i≠jβij|ui|m|uj|m-2ujin  Ω,uj=0in  RN\\Ω, where {≤ft[{{u}j}\\right]}s,p}={{≤ft({\\int}{\\int}{{{R}2N}}\\frac{|{{u}j}(x)-{{u}j}( y){{|}p}}{|x-y{{|}N+ps}}\\text{d}x\\text{d}y\\right)}1/p} , j=1,2,\\ldots,k , k≥slant 2 , θ ≥slant 1 , Ω is an open bounded subset of {{{R}}N} with Lipschitz boundary \\partial Ω , N  >  ps with s\\in (0,1) , (- Δ )ps is the fractional p-Laplacian, {{λj}>0 and {βij}={βji} for i\

  12. Bimodal pollination system of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis involving hummingbirds and bees.

    PubMed

    Schmid, S; Schmid, V S; Zillikens, A; Harter-Marques, B; Steiner, J

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of birds and insects as pollinators, we studied the floral biology of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach in the biome of the Atlantic rain forest, southern Brazil. On Santa Catarina Island, flowering extends from mid-September to the end of December, with diurnal anthesis. The reproductive system is obligatory xenogamy, thus pollinator-dependent. Flowers secrete 31.84 μl of nectar per day, with a mean sugar concentration of 23.2%. Highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur at the beginning of anthesis. Most floral traits are characteristic for ornithophily, and nectar production appears to be adapted to the energy demand of hummingbirds. Continued secretion of the sucrose-dominated nectar attracts and binds visitors to inflorescences, strengthening trapline foraging behaviour. Experiments assessing seed set after single flower visits were performed with the most frequent visitors, revealing the hummingbird Thalurania glaucopis as the most effective pollen vector. In addition, bees are also functional pollinators, as substantiated by their high visitation frequency. We conclude that this pollination system is bimodal. Thus, there is redundancy in the pollination service provided by birds and bees, granting a high probability of successful reproduction in Ae. nudicaulis.

  13. Oral inflammation and bacteremia: implications for chronic and acute systemic diseases involving major organs.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, Josefine; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Gingivitis and periodontitis are both highly prevalent gum diseases characterized by an accumulation of a polymicrobial biofilm (dental plaque) around teeth and inflammation in adjacent soft tissues. During dental procedures, even tooth brushing, these bacteria and their components, such as endotoxin, can easily disseminate into the systemic circulation through minor or major gingival injuries. Particularly in immuno-compromised subjects or patients with preexisting pathologic conditions, bacteremia may lead to bacterial infection of distant organs, which may cause immunological reactions. Oral bacteria and endotoxins have been found in sepsis, infective endocarditis, lung infection, liver disease and many other potentially lethal disorders. This article presents a review of the possible pathologic consequences of bacteremia originating in the oral cavity and points out the most commonly affected organs as well as preventive and treatment measures. At the present time, plaque control by subjects and/or dental professionals is one of the most effective means to prevent the onset and progression of oral bacteremia-induced systemic diseases. PMID:25567334

  14. A hybrid two-component system protein from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 was involved in chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanhua; Tu, Ran; Wu, Lixian; Hong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Sanfeng

    2011-09-20

    We here report the sequence and functional analysis of org35 of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7, which was originally identified to be able to interact with NifA in yeast-two-hybrid system. The org35 encodes a hybrid two-component system protein, including N-terminal PAS domains, a histidine kinase (HPK) domain and a response regulator (RR) domain in C-terminal. To determine the function of the Org35, a deletion-insertion mutant in PAS domain [named Sp7353] and a complemental strain Sp7353C were constructed. The mutant had reduced chemotaxis ability compared to that of wild-type, and the complemental strain was similar to the wild-type strain. These data suggested that the A. brasilense org35 played a key role in chemotaxis. Variants containing different domains of the org35 were expressed, and the functions of these domains were studied in vitro. Phosphorylation assays in vitro demonstrated that the HPK domain of Org35 possessed the autokinase activity and that the phosphorylated HPK was able to transfer phosphate groups to the RR domain. The result indicated Org35 was a phosphorylation-communicating protein.

  15. Energy conversion system involving change in the density of an upwardly moving liquid

    DOEpatents

    Petrick, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A system for converting thermal energy into electrical energy includes a fluid reservoir, a relatively high boiling point fluid such as lead or a lead alloy within the reservoir, a downcomer defining a vertical fluid flow path communicating at its upper end with the reservoir and an upcomer defining a further vertical fluid flow path communicating at its upper end with the reservoir. A variable area nozzle of rectangular section may terminate the upper end of the upcomer and the lower end of the of the downcomer communicates with the lower end of the upcomer. A mixing chamber is located at the lower end portion of the upcomer and receives a second relatively low boiling point fluid such as air, the mixing chamber serving to introduce the low boiling point fluid into the upcomer so as to produce bubbles causing the resultant two-phase fluid to move at high velocity up the upcomer. Means are provided for introducing heat into the system preferably between the lower end of the downcomer and the lower end of the upcomer. Power generating means are associated with the one of the vertical fluid flow paths one such power generating means being a magneto hydrodynamic electrical generator.

  16. Type IV Secretion System Is Not Involved in Infection Process in Citrus.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Tiago Rinaldi; de Laia, Marcelo Luiz; Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Gonçalves, Janaína Fernandes; Carvalho, Flavia Maria de Souza; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is used by Gram-negative bacteria to translocate protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope and into target cells. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri contains two copies of the T4SS, one in the chromosome and the other is plasmid-encoded. To understand the conditions that induce expression of the T4SS in Xcc, we analyzed, in vitro and in planta, the expression of 18 ORFs from the T4SS and 7 hypothetical flanking genes by RT-qPCR. As a positive control, we also evaluated the expression of 29 ORFs from the type III secretion system (T3SS), since these genes are known to be expressed during plant infection condition, but not necessarily in standard culture medium. From the 29 T3SS genes analyzed by qPCR, only hrpA was downregulated at 72 h after inoculation. All genes associated with the T4SS were downregulated on Citrus leaves 72 h after inoculation. Our results showed that unlike the T3SS, the T4SS is not induced during the infection process. PMID:24707292

  17. Effect of acute lithium administration on penile erection: involvement of nitric oxide system

    PubMed Central

    Sandoughdaran, Saleh; Sadeghipour, Hamed; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lithium has been the treatment of choice for bipolar disorder (BD) for many years. Although erectile dysfunction is a known adverse effect of this drug, the mechanism of action by which lithium affects erectile function is still unknown. Objective: The aim was to investigate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in modulatory effect of lithium on penile erection (PE). We further evaluated the possible role of Sildenafil in treatment of lithium-induced erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Erectile function was determined using rat model of apomorphine-induced erections. For evaluating the effect of lithium on penile erection, rats received intraperitoneal injection of graded doses of lithium chloride 30 mins before subcutaneous injection of apomorphine. To determine the possible role of NO pathway, sub-effective dose of N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, was administered 15 min before administration of sub-effective dose of lithium chloride. In other separate experimental groups, sub- effective dose of the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, or Sildenafil was injected into the animals 15 min before administration of a potent dose of lithium. 30 min after administration of lithium chloride, animals were assessed in apomorphine test. Serum lithium levels were measured 30 min after administration of effective dose of lithium. Results: Lithium at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased number of PE (p<0.001), whereas at lower doses (5, 10 and 30 mg/kg) had no effect on apomorphine induced PE. The serum Li+ level of rats receiving 50 mg/kg lithium was 1±0.15 mmol/L which is in therapeutic range of lithium. The inhibitory effect of Lithium was blocked by administration of sub-effective dose of nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg) (p<0.001) and sildenafil (3.5 mg/kg) (p<0.001) whereas pretreatment with a low and sub-effective dose of L-NAME (10mg/kg) potentiated sub-effective dose of

  18. Systemic and inflammatory disorders involving the heart: the role of PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Juneau, Daniel; Erthal, Fernanda; Alzahrani, Atif; Alenazy, Ali; Nery, Pablo B; Beanlands, Rob S; Chow, Benjamin J

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac inflammatory disorders, either primarily cardiac or secondary to a systemic process, are associated with significant morbidity and/or mortality. Their diagnosis can be challenging, especially due to significant overlap in their clinical presentation with other cardiac diseases. Recent publications have investigated the potential diagnostic role of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in these patients. Most of the available literature is focused on Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a tracer which has already demonstrated its use in other inflammatory and infectious processes. PET imaging can help in the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up in a variety of cardiac inflammatory processes, including infective endocarditis, cardiac implantable electronic device infection, pericarditis, myocarditis, sarcoidosis and amyloidosis. PET's ability to depict metabolic changes and abnormalities, sometime even before the onset of any anatomical changes, can be a significant advantage over standard anatomical imaging. PET appears to be particularly useful in cases where standard investigation is non-diagnostic or equivocal. PMID:27611707

  19. A Liouville type theorem for Lane-Emden systems involving the fractional Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaas, Alexander; Xia, Aliang

    2016-08-01

    We establish a Liouville type theorem for the fractional Lane-Emden system: {(-Δ)αu=vqin  RN,(-Δ)αv=upin  RN, where α \\in (0,1) , N>2α and p, q are positive real numbers and in an appropriate new range. To prove our result we will use the local realization of fractional Laplacian, which can be constructed as a Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator of a degenerate elliptic equation in the spirit of Caffarelli and Silvestre (2007 Commun. PDE 32 1245-60). Our proof is based on a monotonicity argument for suitable transformed functions and the method of moving planes in a half infinite cylinder ({IR}× S+N , where S+N is the half unit sphere in {{{R}}N+1} ) based on maximum principles which are obtained by barrier functions and a coupling argument using a fractional Sobolev trace inequality.

  20. A Liouville type theorem for Lane–Emden systems involving the fractional Laplacian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaas, Alexander; Xia, Aliang

    2016-08-01

    We establish a Liouville type theorem for the fractional Lane–Emden system: {(‑Δ)αu=vqin  RN,(‑Δ)αv=upin  RN, where α \\in (0,1) , N>2α and p, q are positive real numbers and in an appropriate new range. To prove our result we will use the local realization of fractional Laplacian, which can be constructed as a Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator of a degenerate elliptic equation in the spirit of Caffarelli and Silvestre (2007 Commun. PDE 32 1245–60). Our proof is based on a monotonicity argument for suitable transformed functions and the method of moving planes in a half infinite cylinder ({IR}× S+N , where S+N is the half unit sphere in {{{R}}N+1} ) based on maximum principles which are obtained by barrier functions and a coupling argument using a fractional Sobolev trace inequality.

  1. Mutation of fibulin-1 causes a novel syndrome involving the central nervous system and connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Bohlega, Saeed; Al-Ajlan, Huda; Al-Saif, Amr

    2014-05-01

    Fibulin-1 is an extracellular matrix protein that has an important role in the structure of elastic fibers and basement membranes of various tissues. Using homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we discovered a missense mutation, p.(Cys397Phe), in fibulin-1 in three patients from a consanguineous family presented with a novel syndrome of syndactyly, undescended testes, delayed motor milestones, mental retardation and signs of brain atrophy. The mutation discovered segregated with the phenotype and was not found in 374 population-matched alleles. The affected cysteine is highly conserved across vertebrates and its mutation is predicted to abolish a disulfide bond that defines the tertiary structure of fibulin-1. Our findings emphasize the crucial role fibulin-1 has in development of the central nervous system and various connective tissues.

  2. Systemic and inflammatory disorders involving the heart: the role of PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Juneau, Daniel; Erthal, Fernanda; Alzahrani, Atif; Alenazy, Ali; Nery, Pablo B; Beanlands, Rob S; Chow, Benjamin J

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac inflammatory disorders, either primarily cardiac or secondary to a systemic process, are associated with significant morbidity and/or mortality. Their diagnosis can be challenging, especially due to significant overlap in their clinical presentation with other cardiac diseases. Recent publications have investigated the potential diagnostic role of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in these patients. Most of the available literature is focused on Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a tracer which has already demonstrated its use in other inflammatory and infectious processes. PET imaging can help in the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up in a variety of cardiac inflammatory processes, including infective endocarditis, cardiac implantable electronic device infection, pericarditis, myocarditis, sarcoidosis and amyloidosis. PET's ability to depict metabolic changes and abnormalities, sometime even before the onset of any anatomical changes, can be a significant advantage over standard anatomical imaging. PET appears to be particularly useful in cases where standard investigation is non-diagnostic or equivocal.

  3. Threshold for spontaneous oscillation in a three-phase liquid membrane system involving nonionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Nanzai, Ben; Funazaki, Tomohisa; Igawa, Manabu

    2010-09-16

    This study of self-oscillation was conducted using a new three-phase liquid membrane system of ethanol aqueous solution, benzyl alcohol solution with nonionic surfactant, and pure water. Relations of the initial ethanol concentration to the oscillation amplitude and frequency, and to the induction period before oscillations were investigated. The oscillation amplitude is independent of the initial ethanol concentration, but the frequency and the induction period are related to it. The oscillation frequency increased concomitantly with the increased ethanol initial concentration, but the induction period before the electrical oscillations decreased with increasing concentration. To estimate the influence of ethanol diffusion on the electrical oscillations, the ethanol concentration in each phase was measured using separate experiments after different durations of oscillation. The diffusion coefficient was calculated using Fick's second law. Results show successful estimation of the threshold for oscillations. The threshold is defined in terms of the ethanol concentration at the interface between the benzyl alcohol phase and the pure water phase.

  4. Do infants provide evidence that the mirror system is involved in action understanding?

    PubMed

    Southgate, Victoria

    2013-09-01

    The mirror neuron theory of action understanding makes predictions concerning how the limited motor repertoire of young infants should impact on their ability to interpret others' actions. In line with this theory, an increasing body of research has identified a correlation between infants' abilities to perform an action, and their ability to interpret that action as goal-directed when performed by others. In this paper, I will argue that the infant data does by no means unequivocally support the mirror neuron theory of action understanding and that alternative interpretations of the data should be considered. Furthermore, some of this data can be better interpreted in terms of an alternative view, which holds that the role of the motor system in action perception is more likely to be one of enabling the observer to predict, after a goal has been identified, how that goal will be attained.

  5. Involvement of the opioid system in the orexigenic and hedonic effects of melanin-concentrating hormone.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Carlos Andres; Guesdon, Benjamin; Baraboi, Elena-Dana; Roffarello, Boris Monge; Hétu, Marylène; Richard, Denis

    2011-10-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) exerts an orexigenic effect that resembles that of opioids, suggesting that the MCH and opioid systems could interact in controlling the food intake behavior. Three series of experiments were conducted in male Wistar rats: 1) to test the ability of the κ-, μ-, and δ-opioid receptor antagonists binaltorphimine (nor-BNI-κ), β-funaltrexamine (β-FNA-μ), and naltrindole (NTI-δ), respectively, to block the stimulating effects of MCH on food intake; 2) to verify the ability of MCH to induce a positive hedonic response to a sweet stimulus when injected into the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) or right lateral ventricle (LV) of the brain; and 3) to assess the ability of nor-BNI, β-FNA, and NTI to block the effects of MCH on the hedonic response to a sweet stimulus. Nor-BNI, NTI (0, 10 and 40 nmol), and β-FNA (0, 10 and 50 nmol) were administered into the LV prior to injecting MCH (2.0 nmol). To assess the hedonic response, rats were implanted with an intraoral cannula allowing for the infusion of a sweet solution into the oral cavity. Food intake was assessed in sated rats during the first 3 h following the MCH or vehicle (i.e., artificial cerebrospinal fluid) injection. The hedonic response to a sweet stimulus was assessed by examining facial mimics, following the intraoral administration of a sucrose solution. Blockade of each of the three opioid receptors by selective antagonists prevented MCH-induced feeding. Furthermore, MCH-injections into the NAcSh and right LV resulted in enhanced hedonic responses. Finally, antagonism of the three opioid receptors blunted the LV-injected, MCH-induced, facial-liking expressions in response to an intraoral sweet stimulus. Overall, the present study provides evidence to link the MCH and opioid systems in the food intake behavior.

  6. Involvement of histaminergic system in the anxiolytic-like activities of Morus alba leaves in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungheon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ji Hye; Ko, Eun Seong; Oh, Won Bo; Seo, Yong Taek; Jang, Young Pyo; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Jung, Ji Wook

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of 85% methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves (EMA), which is a traditional herb, in mice. The effects of EMA on the anxiolytic-like behaviour were studied using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and hole-board test. To elucidate the mode of action of the anxiolytic-like effects of EMA, the mice were subjected to the co-administration of EMA (200 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) and either antagonist. EMA (at 200 or 400 mg/kg) significantly increased the percentages of time-spent in the open arms and entries into the open arms of the EPM versus vehicle-treated control group (p<0.05). Moreover, in the hole-board test, EMA (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly increased the number of head-dips versus vehicle-treated control group (p<0.05). However, there were no changes in the locomotor activity and myorelaxant effects in any group compared with the vehicle-treated control group. In addition, the anxiolytic-like effects of EMA were abolished by thioperamide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), which is a histamine H3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, results from reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) also revealed that the amygdalal histidine decarboxylase mRNA expression levels in EMA (200 mg/kg)-treated group were significantly higher than those in the vehicle-treated controls (p<0.05). These results suggest that EMA might prove to be an effective anxiolytic agent and that EMA acts via the histaminergic system in central nerve system.

  7. The involvement of the GABAergic system in the formation and expression of the extinction memory in the crab Neohelice granulata.

    PubMed

    Tano, Martin Carbó; Molina, Victor A; Pedreira, Maria Eugenia

    2013-11-01

    There is growing interest in the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the extinction of aversive memory. This cognitive process usually occurs after repeated or prolonged presentation of a conditioned stimulus that was previously associated with an unconditioned stimulus. If extinction is considered to be a new memory, the role of the γ-aminobutyric acid system (GABAergic system) during extinction memory consolidation should be similar to that described for the original trace. It is also accepted that negative modulation of the GABAergic system before testing can impair extinction memory expression. However, it seems possible to speculate that inhibitory mechanisms may be required in order to acquire a memory that is inhibitory in nature. Using a combination of behavioral protocols, such as weak and robust extinction training procedures, and pharmacological treatments, such as the systemic administration of GABAA agonist (muscimol) and antagonist (bicuculline), we investigated the role of the GABAergic system in the different phases of the extinction memory in the crab Neohelice granulata. We show that the stimulation of the GABAergic system impairs and its inactivation facilitates the extinction memory consolidation. Moreover, fine variations in the GABAergic tone affect its expression at testing. Finally, an active GABAergic system is necessary for the acquisition of the extinction memory. This detailed description may contribute to the understanding of the role of the GABAergic system in diverse aspects of the extinction memory.

  8. Thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions involving vanadium in natural systems: Accumulation of vanadium in sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    A critical review of thermodynamic data for aqueous and solid V species is presented to evaluate dissolution, transport, and precipitation of V under natural conditions. Emphasis is given to results of experimental studies of V chemistry, especially those for which the experimental conditions are near those found in nature. Where possible, data are obtained for or corrected to the reference conditions of 298.15K, 1 atm (1.01325 bar) and zero ionic strength. Vanadium [IV] (VIV) and vanadium[V] (VV) are the most soluble forms of V in nature, and their complexes with fluoride, sulfate, and oxalate may act to increase V solubility under oxidizing conditions. Because redox behavior is of fundamental importance to understanding natural V chemistry, the kinetics of reduction of VIV to VIII H2S were studied. Although H2S is predicted from thermodynamic data to be capable of reducing VIV to VIII, this reaction has not been demonstrated experimentally. Experiments were carried out under conditions of temperature (45??C), pH (3.6-6.8), ionic strength (0.05-0.1 m), and V concentrations (9.8-240 ??molar) likely to be found in nature. Because the reaction is very slow, H2S concentrations in excess of natural conditions were used (8.1 ?? 10-4 to 0.41 atm). The results show that VIV is reduced to VIII under a variety of conditions. The rate increases with increasing pH, but is not appreciably affected by ionic strength (as represented by the concentration of KCl, which was used as the supporting electrolyte in all cases). Prior to initiation of the reaction, there is an induction period, the length of which increases with increasing KCl concentration or decreasing pH. Attempts to model the reaction mechanism by numerical methods have failed to produce a satisfying fit of the results, indicating partial reaction orders, a complex mechanism, or involvement of a variety of intermediate species. The results of the thermodynamic and kinetic studies were applied to understanding the

  9. Catabolic and regulatory systems in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 involved in electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Kasai, Takuya; Hirose, Atsumi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that respires using a variety of inorganic and organic compounds. MR-1 is also capable of utilizing extracellular solid materials, including anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), as electron acceptors, thereby enabling electricity generation. As MFCs have the potential to generate electricity from biomass waste and wastewater, MR-1 has been extensively studied to identify the molecular systems that are involved in electricity generation in MFCs. These studies have demonstrated the importance of extracellular electron-transfer (EET) pathways that electrically connect the quinone pool in the cytoplasmic membrane to extracellular electron acceptors. Electricity generation is also dependent on intracellular catabolic pathways that oxidize electron donors, such as lactate, and regulatory systems that control the expression of genes encoding the components of catabolic and electron-transfer pathways. In addition, recent findings suggest that cell-surface polymers, e.g., exopolysaccharides, and secreted chemicals, which function as electron shuttles, are also involved in electricity generation. Despite these advances in our knowledge on the EET processes in MR-1, further efforts are necessary to fully understand the underlying intra- and extracellular molecular systems for electricity generation in MFCs. We suggest that investigating how MR-1 coordinates these systems to efficiently transfer electrons to electrodes and conserve electrochemical energy for cell proliferation is important for establishing the biological basis for MFCs. PMID:26136738

  10. Involvement of the dopaminergic system in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2015-09-25

    We have recently demonstrated that orexin acts centrally in the brain to induce antinociceptive action against colonic distension through orexin 1 receptors in conscious rats. Although the dopaminergic system can induce antinociceptive action for somatic pain, the association between changes in the dopaminergic system and visceral pain perception has not been investigated. In the present study, we hypothesized that the dopaminergic system may be involved in visceral nociception, and if so, the dopaminergic system may mediate the orexin-induced visceral antinociception. Visceral sensation was evaluated using the colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Intracisternal injection of D1 (SKF38398) or D2 (quinpirole) dopamine receptor agonist increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either the D1 or D2 dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH23390 or sulpiride, respectively) potently blocked the centrally injected orexin-A-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest for the first time that dopaminergic signaling via D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the brain may induce visceral antinociception and that the dopaminergic signaling may be involved in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension.

  11. Involvement of the histaminergic system in the resuscitating effect of centrally acting leptin in haemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Jochem, J; Altinbas, B; Yalcin, M; Ottani, A; Giuliani, D; Savci, V; Kasperska-Zajac, A; Guarini, S

    2016-02-01

    Leptin, acting centrally as a neuromodulator, induces the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which may lead to a pressor action in normotensive animals. In haemorrhagic shock, leptin administered intracerebroventricularly (icv.) evokes the resuscitating effect, with long-lasting rises in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), subsequent increase in peripheral blood flows, and a 100% survival at 2 h. Since leptin is able to activate histaminergic neurons, and centrally acting histamine also induces the resuscitating effect with the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, in the present study, we investigated an involvement of the histaminergic system in leptin-evoked cardiovascular effects in haemorrhagic shock. The model of irreversible haemorrhagic shock, with MAP decreased to and stabilised at 20 - 25 mmHg, has been used. Leptin (20 μg) given icv. at 5 min of critical hypotension evoked 181.5% increase in extracellular hypothalamic histamine concentration during the first 10 min after injection. Rises in MAP, HR and renal, mesenteric and hindquarters blood flows induced by leptin were inhibited by icv. pre-treatment with histamine H1 receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (50 nmol). In contrast, there was no effect of H2, H3 and H4 receptor antagonists ranitidine (25 nmol), VUF 5681 (25 nmol) and JNJ 10191584 (25 nmol), respectively. In conclusion, the histaminergic system is involved in centrally-acting leptin-induced resuscitating effect in haemorrhagic shock in rats.

  12. Involvement of the histaminergic system in the resuscitating effect of centrally acting leptin in haemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Jochem, J; Altinbas, B; Yalcin, M; Ottani, A; Giuliani, D; Savci, V; Kasperska-Zajac, A; Guarini, S

    2016-02-01

    Leptin, acting centrally as a neuromodulator, induces the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which may lead to a pressor action in normotensive animals. In haemorrhagic shock, leptin administered intracerebroventricularly (icv.) evokes the resuscitating effect, with long-lasting rises in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), subsequent increase in peripheral blood flows, and a 100% survival at 2 h. Since leptin is able to activate histaminergic neurons, and centrally acting histamine also induces the resuscitating effect with the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, in the present study, we investigated an involvement of the histaminergic system in leptin-evoked cardiovascular effects in haemorrhagic shock. The model of irreversible haemorrhagic shock, with MAP decreased to and stabilised at 20 - 25 mmHg, has been used. Leptin (20 μg) given icv. at 5 min of critical hypotension evoked 181.5% increase in extracellular hypothalamic histamine concentration during the first 10 min after injection. Rises in MAP, HR and renal, mesenteric and hindquarters blood flows induced by leptin were inhibited by icv. pre-treatment with histamine H1 receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (50 nmol). In contrast, there was no effect of H2, H3 and H4 receptor antagonists ranitidine (25 nmol), VUF 5681 (25 nmol) and JNJ 10191584 (25 nmol), respectively. In conclusion, the histaminergic system is involved in centrally-acting leptin-induced resuscitating effect in haemorrhagic shock in rats. PMID:27010896

  13. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems.

    PubMed

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories, concepts are contextually situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and nonemotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e., focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e., focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources.

  14. Empirical support for an involvement of the mesostriatal dopamine system in human fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Raczka, K A; Mechias, M-L; Gartmann, N; Reif, A; Deckert, J; Pessiglione, M; Kalisch, R

    2011-01-01

    Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders relies on the principle of confronting a patient with the triggers of his fears, allowing him to make the unexpected safety experience that his fears are unfounded and resulting in the extinction of fear responses. In the laboratory, fear extinction is modeled by repeatedly presenting a fear-conditioned stimulus (CS) in the absence of the aversive unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to which it had previously been associated. Classical associative learning theory considers extinction to be driven by an aversive prediction error signal that expresses the expectation violation when not receiving an expected UCS and establishes a prediction of CS non-occurrence. Insufficiencies of this account in explaining various extinction-related phenomena could be resolved by assuming that extinction is an opponent appetitive-like learning process that would be mediated by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. In accordance with this idea, we find that a functional polymorphism in the DA transporter gene, DAT1, which is predominantly expressed in the striatum, significantly affects extinction learning rates. Carriers of the 9-repeat (9R) allele, thought to confer enhanced phasic DA release, had higher learning rates. Further, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed stronger hemodynamic appetitive prediction error signals in the ventral striatum in 9R carriers. Our results provide a first hint that extinction learning might indeed be conceptualized as an appetitive-like learning process and suggest DA as a new candidate neurotransmitter for human fear extinction. They open up perspectives for neurobiological therapy augmentation.

  15. Increased IL-35 serum levels in systemic sclerosis and association with pulmonary interstitial involvement.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Andréa Tavares; Gonçalves, Sayonara Maria Calado; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Gonçalves, Rafaela Silva Guimarães; Marques, Cláudia Diniz Lopes; Rego, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the serum IL-35 level and its association with clinical manifestations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). IL-35 serum levels were measured by ELISA from 56 patients with SSc and 53 healthy controls. Association of IL-35 serum levels were sought with clinical parameters. Serum IL-35 levels were significantly higher in SSc patients (5.08 ± 0.76 pg/ml) than in healthy individuals (1.89 ± 0.69 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). Patients with lung fibrosis had higher IL-35 levels than those without fibrosis (7.75 ± 1.36 and 3.08 ± 0.70 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.0022). IL-35 is elevated in the serum of patients with SSc and is associated with lung fibrosis. Our findings suggest that this cytokine can have a role in fibrotic diseases, but further studies are needed to address the role of IL-35 in the pathogenesis of SSc.

  16. Involvement of the antioxidant system in differential sensitivity of Carcinus maenas to fenitrothion exposure.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A P; Gravato, C; Guimarães, L

    2013-10-01

    Carcinus maenas is an invertebrate with worldwide distribution and high ability to adapt to different environments, which is frequently used in environmental monitoring. Despite this, it is not clear how historical exposure to moderate contamination may influence sensitivity to further chemical stress in this important decapod species. This study investigated differential responses to organophosphate fenitrothion of C. maenas from a moderately contaminated estuary and a low impacted one, using in vitro and in vivo biomarker assays. To clarify potential differences in sensitivity, a biochemical characterisation of muscle cholinesterases was first performed. The results indicated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as the main form present in C. maenas muscle. Exposure assays revealed that crabs from the moderately contaminated site were less sensitive to fenitrothion showing lower AChE inhibition than those from the low impacted site. Other biomarker changes detected in these animals were: increased anaerobic metabolism (muscle lactate dehydrogenase), enhanced phase II biotransformation (glutathione S-transferases in the digestive gland) and antioxidant defences (i.e., activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and levels of total glutathiones in the digestive gland). Altogether, the results pointed out a role for the glutathione redox system towards tolerance to fenitrothion exposure. PMID:24056931

  17. The leech nervous system: a valuable model to study the microglia involvement in regenerative processes.

    PubMed

    Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Drago, Francesco; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS). During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair. PMID:23878582

  18. Empirical support for an involvement of the mesostriatal dopamine system in human fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Raczka, K A; Mechias, M-L; Gartmann, N; Reif, A; Deckert, J; Pessiglione, M; Kalisch, R

    2011-01-01

    Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders relies on the principle of confronting a patient with the triggers of his fears, allowing him to make the unexpected safety experience that his fears are unfounded and resulting in the extinction of fear responses. In the laboratory, fear extinction is modeled by repeatedly presenting a fear-conditioned stimulus (CS) in the absence of the aversive unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to which it had previously been associated. Classical associative learning theory considers extinction to be driven by an aversive prediction error signal that expresses the expectation violation when not receiving an expected UCS and establishes a prediction of CS non-occurrence. Insufficiencies of this account in explaining various extinction-related phenomena could be resolved by assuming that extinction is an opponent appetitive-like learning process that would be mediated by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. In accordance with this idea, we find that a functional polymorphism in the DA transporter gene, DAT1, which is predominantly expressed in the striatum, significantly affects extinction learning rates. Carriers of the 9-repeat (9R) allele, thought to confer enhanced phasic DA release, had higher learning rates. Further, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed stronger hemodynamic appetitive prediction error signals in the ventral striatum in 9R carriers. Our results provide a first hint that extinction learning might indeed be conceptualized as an appetitive-like learning process and suggest DA as a new candidate neurotransmitter for human fear extinction. They open up perspectives for neurobiological therapy augmentation. PMID:22832428

  19. Involvement of protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system in opiate addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Massaly, Nicolas; Dahan, Lionel; Baudonnat, Mathieu; Hovnanian, Caroline; Rekik, Khaoula; Solinas, Marcello; David, Vincent; Pech, Stéphane; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Roullet, Pascal; Mouledous, Lionel; Frances, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Plastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a structure occupying a key position in the neural circuitry related to motivation, are among the critical cellular processes responsible for drug addiction. During the last decade, it has been shown that memory formation and related neuronal plasticity may rely not only on protein synthesis but also on protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). In this study, we assess the role of protein degradation in the NAcc in opiate-related behaviors. For this purpose, we coupled behavioral experiments to intra-accumbens injections of lactacystin, an inhibitor of the UPS. We show that protein degradation in the NAcc is mandatory for a full range of animal models of opiate addiction including morphine locomotor sensitization, morphine conditioned place preference, intra-ventral tegmental area morphine self-administration and intra-venous heroin self-administration but not for discrimination learning rewarded by highly palatable food. This study provides the first evidence of a specific role of protein degradation by the UPS in addiction.

  20. Baroreflex failure in a patient with central nervous system lesions involving the nucleus tractus solitarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Whetsell, W. O.; Jobe, J.; Nadeau, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Animal studies have shown the importance of the nucleus tractus solitarii, a collection of neurons in the brain stem, in the acute regulation of blood pressure. Impulses arising from the carotid and aortic baroreceptors converge in this center, where the first synapse of the baroreflex is located. Stimulation of the nucleus tractus solitarii provides an inhibitory signal to other brain stem structures, particularly the rostral ventrolateral medulla, resulting in a reduction in sympathetic outflow and a decrease in blood pressure. Conversely, experimental lesions of the nucleus tractus solitarii lead to loss of baroreflex control of blood pressure, sympathetic activation, and severe hypertension in animals. In humans, baroreflex failure due to deafferentation of baroreceptors has been previously reported and is characterized by episodes of severe hypertension and tachycardia. We present a patient with an undetermined process of the central nervous system characterized pathologically by ubiquitous infarctions that were particularly prominent in the nucleus tractus solitarii bilaterally but spared the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Absence of a functioning baroreflex was evidenced by the lack of reflex tachycardia to the hypotensive effects of sodium nitroprusside, exaggerated pressor responses to handgrip and cold pressor test, and exaggerated depressor responses to meals and centrally acting alpha 2-agonists. This clinicopathological correlate suggests that the patient's baroreflex failure can be explained by the unique combination of the destruction of sympathetic inhibitory centers (ie, the nucleus tractus solitarii) and preservation of centers that exert a positive modulation on sympathetic tone (ie, the rostral ventrolateral medulla).

  1. Neurodevelopmental changes in the responsiveness of systems involved in top down attention and emotional responding

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soonjo; White, Stuart F.; Nolan, Zachary T.; Sinclair, Stephen; Blair, R. J. R.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate age related changes in systems implicated in top down attention and the implications of this for amygdala responses to emotional distracters. Fifty-one healthy subjects including 18 children (aged 10–14), 15 adolescents (aged 14–18), and 18 young adults (aged 18–25) completed the affective Stroop paradigm while undergoing functional MRI. While achieving comparable behavioral performance, children, relative to adolescents and adults, showed increased activation in areas including anterior cingulate gyrus and precentral gyrus in task relative to view trials. In addition, children showed increased activation within the amygdala and fusiform gyrus in response to emotional stimuli. Notably, the group difference within the amygdala was particularly pronounced during task trials. Also children showed increased connectivity between amygdala and superior frontal gyrus and bilateral postcentral gyrii in response to negative task trials. These data are consistent with previous work indicating less consolidated functional integrity in regions implicated in top down attention in children relative to older participants and extend this work by indicating that this less consolidated functional integrity leads to reduced automatic emotion regulation as a function of top down attention. Given that reduced automatic emotion regulation as a function of top down attention is considered a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders, these data may contribute to an understanding of the increased risk for the development of these disorders at this age. PMID:25128588

  2. Longitudinal Changes in Behavioral Approach System Sensitivity and Brain Structures Involved in Reward Processing during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin; Luciana, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of radical normative changes and increased risk for substance use, mood disorders, and physical injury. Researchers have proposed that increases in reward sensitivity, i.e., sensitivity of the behavioral approach system (BAS), and/or increases in reactivity to all emotional stimuli (i.e., reward and threat sensitivities) lead to these phenomena. The present study is the first longitudinal investigation of changes in reward (i.e., BAS) sensitivity in 9 to 23-year-olds across a two-year follow-up. We found support for increased reward sensitivity from early to late adolescence and evidence for decline in the early twenties. This decline is combined with a decrease in left nucleus accumbens (Nacc) volume, a key structure for reward processing, from the late teens into the early twenties. Furthermore, we found longitudinal increases in sensitivity to reward to be predicted by individual differences in the Nacc and medial OFC volumes at baseline in this developmental sample. Similarly, increases in sensitivity to threat (i.e., BIS sensitivity) were qualified by sex, with only females experiencing this increase, and predicted by individual differences in lateral OFC volumes at baseline. PMID:22390662

  3. Involvement of the histaminergic system in renal sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to leptin and ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Kaneko, Hidekazu; Shen, Jiao; Nagai, Katsuya

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that histamine affects blood pressure (BP) in anesthetized rats. Here, we examined the effects of lateral cerebral ventricular (LCV) injection of various doses of histamine on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and BP in anesthetized rats. LCV injection of a low dose of histamine (0.0001nmol) suppressed RSNA and BP. Conversely, a high dose of histamine (100nmol) elevated both RSNA and BP. Moreover, inhibiting effects of a low dose of histamine were eliminated by LCV pre-injection of thioperamide, an antagonist of histaminergic H3-receptor, and accelerating effects of a high dose of histamine were abolished by LCV pre-injection of diphenhydramine, an antagonist of histaminergic H1-receptor. Thus, these evidences suggest that central histamine affects RSNA and BP via histaminergic receptors. In addition, we examined a role for histaminergic system in cardiovascular modulators such as leptin and ghrelin. The LCV pre-injection of thioperamide clearly blocked suppressing effects of ghrelin on RSNA and BP. The LCV pre-injection of diphenhydramine also blocked elevating effects of leptin. Therefore, these results suggest that leptin and ghrelin might affect RSNA and BP by mediating central histaminegic H1- and H3-receptors, respectively.

  4. Systems involving hydrogenated and fluorinated chains: volumetric properties of perfluoroalkanes and perfluoroalkylalkane surfactants.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Pedro; Lewis, J Ben; Laginhas, Carlos M C; Martins, Luís F G; McCabe, Clare; Blas, Felipe J; Filipe, Eduardo J M

    2011-12-22

    As part of a combined experimental and theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties of perfluoroalkylalkanes (PFAAs), the liquid density of perfluorobutylpentane (F4H5), perfluorobutylhexane (F4H6), and perfluorobutyloctane (F4H8) was measured as a function of temperature from 278.15 to 353.15 K and from atmospheric pressure to 70 MPa. The liquid densities of n-perfluoropentane, n-perfluorohexane, n-perfluorooctane, and n-perfluorononane were also measured at room pressure over the same temperature range. The PVT behavior of the PFAAs was also studied using the SAFT-VR equation of state. The PFAA molecules were modeled as heterosegmented diblock chains, using different parameters for the alkyl and perfluoroalkyl segments, that were developed in earlier work. Through this simple approach, we are able to predict the thermodynamic behavior of the perfluoroalkylalkanes, without fitting to any experimental data for the systems being studied. Molecular dynamics simulations have also been performed and used to calculate the densities of the perfluoroalkylalkanes studied.

  5. Veterinary Web-geographic information systems: what's the point and what's involved?

    PubMed

    Wint, William

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) in general, and Web-based GIS in particular, are changing very rapidly because of the simultaneous increases in and sophistication of software, processing power, data storage capacity and available bandwidth. The spread of globalisation, with its consequent impact on trade, information exchange networks and emerging diseases, has meant that the demand for Web-based GIS is exploding. This has been compounded by the comparative speed with which basic sites can now be constructed. An active data site with a GIS element is a must-have for all self-respecting data-rich projects. There is a wide range of issues which should be considered before a GIS website can be launched - its function and appearance, its content and audience, its maintenance and stability and the implementation. There are also issues of technical complexity and data formats, levels of access, confidentiality and accreditation, or quality control and data validation, all of which must be addressed if a site is to be both reliable and effective. These and other topics are considered in some detail, with examples from around the Net. PMID:20422550

  6. Increased IL-35 serum levels in systemic sclerosis and association with pulmonary interstitial involvement.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Andréa Tavares; Gonçalves, Sayonara Maria Calado; Pereira, Michelly Cristiny; Gonçalves, Rafaela Silva Guimarães; Marques, Cláudia Diniz Lopes; Rego, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the serum IL-35 level and its association with clinical manifestations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). IL-35 serum levels were measured by ELISA from 56 patients with SSc and 53 healthy controls. Association of IL-35 serum levels were sought with clinical parameters. Serum IL-35 levels were significantly higher in SSc patients (5.08 ± 0.76 pg/ml) than in healthy individuals (1.89 ± 0.69 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). Patients with lung fibrosis had higher IL-35 levels than those without fibrosis (7.75 ± 1.36 and 3.08 ± 0.70 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.0022). IL-35 is elevated in the serum of patients with SSc and is associated with lung fibrosis. Our findings suggest that this cytokine can have a role in fibrotic diseases, but further studies are needed to address the role of IL-35 in the pathogenesis of SSc. PMID:26160266

  7. Veterinary Web-geographic information systems: what's the point and what's involved?

    PubMed

    Wint, William

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) in general, and Web-based GIS in particular, are changing very rapidly because of the simultaneous increases in and sophistication of software, processing power, data storage capacity and available bandwidth. The spread of globalisation, with its consequent impact on trade, information exchange networks and emerging diseases, has meant that the demand for Web-based GIS is exploding. This has been compounded by the comparative speed with which basic sites can now be constructed. An active data site with a GIS element is a must-have for all self-respecting data-rich projects. There is a wide range of issues which should be considered before a GIS website can be launched - its function and appearance, its content and audience, its maintenance and stability and the implementation. There are also issues of technical complexity and data formats, levels of access, confidentiality and accreditation, or quality control and data validation, all of which must be addressed if a site is to be both reliable and effective. These and other topics are considered in some detail, with examples from around the Net.

  8. The biological properties of aspartame. II. Actions involving the gastrointestinal system.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, R G; Muir, E T; Cook, D L; Nutting, E F

    1980-01-01

    Aspartame (APM) was investigated in several pharmacological tests to delineate any effects on the gastrointestinal system. The compound did not affect food consumption at one hour following a single intragastric dose of 200 mg/kg in rats. There was no evidence of inhibition or stimulation of the gastric juice secretion rate, the concentration of gastric acid, acid output or proteolytic activity following an intragastric dose of 250 mg/kg in five-hour pylorus-ligated rats. Likewise, APM at the same dosage did not significantly affect gastric ulceration induced by nineteen hours of pylorus-ligation. In several in vitro tests it was demonstrated that APM did not affect the proteolytic activity of pepsin or the lipolytic activity of pancreatic lipase at concentrations of 143 microgram and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. Its anticholinergic activity was found to be insignificant, less than 0.001 times the potency of atropine sulfate, when measured against acetylcholine-induced contraction of isolated rabbit ileum. These data indicate that APM may be devoid of undesirable side effects on the gastrointestinal tract when used as a food sweetening agent.

  9. Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in X-Linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease with Central Nervous System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Karadima, Georgia; Floroskoufi, Paraskewi; Raftopoulou, Maria; Panas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX), carrying a GJB1 mutation affecting connexin-32 (c.191G>A, p. Cys64Tyr) which was recently reported by our group. This is the third case report of a patient with CMTX developing MS, but it is unique in the fact that other family members carrying the same mutation were found to have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement (diffuse white matter hyperintensity on brain MRI and extensor plantars). Although this may be a chance association, the increasing number of cases with CMTX and MS, especially with mutations involving the CNS, may imply some causative effect and provide insights into MS pathogenesis. PMID:25883816

  10. Interleukin-27 as a Novel Biomarker for Early Cardiopulmonary Failure in Enterovirus 71-Infected Children with Central Nervous System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingyuan; Du, Wenjing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Haiyang; Cao, Longbin; Yang, Weiqing; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhiyong; Wei, Pei; Wu, Weiquan; Huang, Zhulin; Fang, Ying; Lin, Qiling; Qin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhou, Keyuan

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which leads to severe neurological complications and has high morbidity and mortality. Reliable biomarker for the prediction of deterioration in EV71-infected children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement may reduce the cardiopulmonary failure and mortality. Here, we found that serum IL-27 levels were significantly higher in stage III EV71-infected HFMD patients with early cardiopulmonary failure and strong correlation with CRP levels. IL27p28 polymorphisms (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) did not influence IL-27 production, and these three SNPs were not associated with EV71 infection risk and clinical stage. IL-27 can be used as an prediction indicator for early cardiopulmonary failure in EV71-infected children with CNS involvement. PMID:27403033

  11. Interleukin-27 as a Novel Biomarker for Early Cardiopulmonary Failure in Enterovirus 71-Infected Children with Central Nervous System Involvement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingyuan; Du, Wenjing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Haiyang; Cao, Longbin; Yang, Weiqing; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhiyong; Wei, Pei; Wu, Weiquan; Huang, Zhulin; Fang, Ying; Lin, Qiling; Qin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhou, Keyuan; Zeng, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which leads to severe neurological complications and has high morbidity and mortality. Reliable biomarker for the prediction of deterioration in EV71-infected children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement may reduce the cardiopulmonary failure and mortality. Here, we found that serum IL-27 levels were significantly higher in stage III EV71-infected HFMD patients with early cardiopulmonary failure and strong correlation with CRP levels. IL27p28 polymorphisms (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) did not influence IL-27 production, and these three SNPs were not associated with EV71 infection risk and clinical stage. IL-27 can be used as an prediction indicator for early cardiopulmonary failure in EV71-infected children with CNS involvement. PMID:27403033

  12. Mapping of multi-elements during melting and solidification using synchrotron X-rays and pixel-based spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liotti, E.; Lui, A.; Connolley, T.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Sawhney, K.J.S.; Malandain, A.; Wilson, M.D.; Veale, M.C.; Seller, P.; Grant, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    A new synchrotron-based technique for elemental imaging that combines radiography and fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed and applied to study the spatial distribution of Ag, Zr and Mo in an Al alloy during heating and melting to 700, and then re-soldification. For the first time, multi-element distributions have been mapped independently and simultaneously, showing the dissolution of Ag- and Zr-rich particles during melting and the inter-dendritic segregation of Ag during re-solidification. The new technique is shown to have wide potential for metallurgical and materials science applications where the dynamics of elemental re-distribution and segregation in complex alloys is of importance. PMID:26522250

  13. Experimental ice shape and performance characteristics for a multi-element airfoil in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Brian M.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Namdar, Bahman S.; Langhals, Tammy J.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the ice accretion patterns and performance of characteristics of a multi-element airfoil was undertaken at the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Several configurations were examined to determine the ice shape and performance characteristics. The testing included glaze, rime, and mixed icing regimes. Tunnel cloud conditions were set to correspond to those typical of the operating environment for commercial transport aircraft. Measurements acquired included ice profile tracings and aerodynamic forces both during the accretion process and in a post-accretion evaluation over a range of angle of attack. Substantial ice accretions developed on the main wing, flaps, and slat surfaces. Force measurements indicate severe performance degradation, especially near CL max, for both light and heavy ice accretion. Frost was seen on the lower surface of the airfoil which was found to contribute significantly to the force components.

  14. The use of a single multielement standard for trace analysis in biological materials by external beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Islam, M. M.; Khan, A. H.

    1984-04-01

    The validity of the use of a single multielement standard for mass calibration in thick-target external beam PIXE analysis of biological materials has been investigated. In this study, the NBS orchard leaf, SRM 1571, was used as the basic standard for trace element analysis in other biological materials. Using the present procedure, the concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were determined in several NBS reference materials such as bovine liver, spinach, rice flour, etc., generally in 20 μC irradiations with 2.0 MeV protons. The analytical results are compared with certified values of the NBS as well as with other measurements and the sources of errors are discussed.

  15. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) equipment calibration for multielement analysis of soil and rock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moraes, Alex Silva; Tech, Lohane; Melquíades, Fábio Luiz; Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Considering the importance to understand the behavior of the elements on different natural and/or anthropic processes, this study had as objective to verify the accuracy of a multielement analysis method for rocks characterization by using soil standards as calibration reference. An EDXRF equipment was used. The analyses were made on samples doped with known concentration of Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr, for the obtainment of the calibration curves, and on a certified rock sample to check the accuracy of the analytical curves. Then, a set of rock samples from Rio Bonito, located in Figueira city, Paraná State, Brazil, were analyzed. The concentration values obtained, in ppm, for Mn, Rb, Sr and Zr varied, respectively, from 175 to 1084, 7.4 to 268, 28 to 2247 and 15 to 761.

  16. Application of a rapid scanning plasma emission detector and gas chromatography for multi-element quantification of halogenated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zerezghi, M; Mulligan, K J; Caruso, J A

    1984-08-01

    A microwave induced plasma emission detector is used as an element-selective detector for gas chromatography. The spectrometer, which is fitted with a rapid scanning galvanometer mirror, is used to scan a pre-selected spectral window to provide information in the multi-element mode. This information is used to determine the per mole response of some elements as a function of molecular structure. Despite the low microwave powers employed, the response per mole appears to be independent of the molecular structure. Detection limits and linear dynamic ranges are determined by narrowing the spectral coverage to increase the sensitivity. Calibration curves are linear over several orders of magnitude and detection limits are at the pg/sec levels. PMID:6480798

  17. SRXRF determination of the multielement composition of the hair and blood of the children of Tundra Nenetz population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chankina, O. V.; Kovalskaya, G. A.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Osipova, L. P.; Savchenko, T. I.

    2001-09-01

    SRXRF has been used to determine the multielement composition of the hair and blood of Tundra Nenetz children. The method allows one to simultaneously determine 21 elements in the blood and 22 elements in the hair. Individual differences have been revealed in the element composition of the hair and blood. Sexual and age changes have been revealed in the content of some elements in the hair. A technique has been developed to prepare blood and hair samples for measuring the element composition by the SRXRF method. The blood samples were prepared by spreading 20 μl over the 1 cm 2 Whatman filter. The hair samples were obtained by pressing in the form of tablets of 1 cm in diameter and a mass of 10-40 mg.

  18. Mapping of multi-elements during melting and solidification using synchrotron X-rays and pixel-based spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liotti, E.; Lui, A.; Connolley, T.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Malandain, A.; Wilson, M. D.; Veale, M. C.; Seller, P.; Grant, P. S.

    2015-11-01

    A new synchrotron-based technique for elemental imaging that combines radiography and fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed and applied to study the spatial distribution of Ag, Zr and Mo in an Al alloy during heating and melting to 700, and then re-soldification. For the first time, multi-element distributions have been mapped independently and simultaneously, showing the dissolution of Ag- and Zr-rich particles during melting and the inter-dendritic segregation of Ag during re-solidification. The new technique is shown to have wide potential for metallurgical and materials science applications where the dynamics of elemental re-distribution and segregation in complex alloys is of importance.

  19. Effects of hypergravity exposure on the developing central nervous system: possible involvement of thyroid hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Li, G. H.; Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Sulkowski, G. M.; Koibuchi, N.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of hypergravity exposure on the developing brain and specifically explored the possibility that these effects are mediated by altered thyroid status. Thirty-four timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to continuous centrifugation at 1.5 G (HG) from gestational Day 11 until one of three key developmental points: postnatal Day (P) 6, P15, or P21 (10 pups/dam: 5 males/5 females). During the 32-day centrifugation, stationary controls (SC, n = 25 dams) were housed in the same room as HG animals. Neonatal body, forebrain, and cerebellum mass and neonatal and maternal thyroid status were assessed at each time point. The body mass of centrifuged neonates was comparatively lower at each time point. The mass of the forebrain and the mass of the cerebellum were maximally reduced in hypergravity-exposed neonates at P6 by 15.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Analysis of neonatal plasma suggested a transient hypothyroid status, as indicated by increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level (38.6%) at P6, while maternal plasma TSH levels were maximally elevated at P15 (38.9%). Neither neonatal nor maternal plasma TH levels were altered, suggesting a moderate hypothyroid condition. Thus, continuous exposure of the developing rats to hypergravity during the embryonic and neonatal periods has a highly significant effect on the developing forebrain and cerebellum and neonatal thyroid status (P < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). These data are consistent with the hypothesized role of the thyroid hormone in mediating the effect of hypergravity in the developing central nervous system and begin to define the role of TH in the overall response of the developing organism to altered gravity.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection involves activation of its iron acquisition system in response to fascial contact

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M.; Christley, S.; Khodarev, N. N.; Fleming, I.; Huang, Y.; Chang, E.; Zaborina, O.; Alverdy, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound infections are traditionally thought to occur when microbial burden exceeds the innate clearance capacity of host immune system. Here we introduce the idea that the wound environment itself plays a significant contributory role to wound infection. Methods We developed a clinically relevant murine model of soft tissue infection to explore the role of activation of microbial virulence in response to tissue factors as a mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria cause wound infections. Mice underwent abdominal skin incision and light muscle injury with a crushing forceps versus skin incision alone followed by topical inoculation of P. aeruginosa. Mice were sacrificed on postoperative day 6 and abdominal tissues analyzed for clinical signs of wound infection. To determine if specific wound tissues components induce bacterial virulence, P. aeruginosa was exposed to skin, fascia, and muscle. Results Gross wound infection due to P. aeruginosa was observed to be significantly increased in injured tissues vs non-injured (80% vs 10%) tissues (n=20/group, p<0.0001). Exposure of P. aeruginosa to individual tissue components demonstrated that fascia significantly induced bacterial virulence as judged by the production of pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine compound known to kill immune cells. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of P. aeruginosa exposed to fascia demonstrated activation of multiple genes responsible for the synthesis of the iron scavenging molecule pyochelin. Conclusion We conclude that wound elements, in particular fascia, may play a significant role in enhancing the virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis of clinical wound infection. PMID:25807409

  1. Dynamic Visuomotor Transformation Involved with Remote Flying of a Plane Utilizes the ‘Mirror Neuron’ System

    PubMed Central

    Callan, Daniel E.; Gamez, Mario; Cassel, Daniel B.; Terzibas, Cengiz; Callan, Akiko; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-aki

    2012-01-01

    Brain regions involved with processing dynamic visuomotor representational transformation are investigated using fMRI. The perceptual-motor task involved flying (or observing) a plane through a simulated Red Bull Air Race course in first person and third person chase perspective. The third person perspective is akin to remote operation of a vehicle. The ability for humans to remotely operate vehicles likely has its roots in neural processes related to imitation in which visuomotor transformation is necessary to interpret the action goals in an egocentric manner suitable for execution. In this experiment for 3rd person perspective the visuomotor transformation is dynamically changing in accordance to the orientation of the plane. It was predicted that 3rd person remote flying, over 1st, would utilize brain regions composing the ‘Mirror Neuron’ system that is thought to be intimately involved with imitation for both execution and observation tasks. Consistent with this prediction differential brain activity was present for 3rd person over 1st person perspectives for both execution and observation tasks in left ventral premotor cortex, right dorsal premotor cortex, and inferior parietal lobule bilaterally (Mirror Neuron System) (Behaviorally: 1st>3rd). These regions additionally showed greater activity for flying (execution) over watching (observation) conditions. Even though visual and motor aspects of the tasks were controlled for, differential activity was also found in brain regions involved with tool use, motion perception, and body perspective including left cerebellum, temporo-occipital regions, lateral occipital cortex, medial temporal region, and extrastriate body area. This experiment successfully demonstrates that a complex perceptual motor real-world task can be utilized to investigate visuomotor processing. This approach (Aviation Cerebral Experimental Sciences ACES) focusing on direct application to lab and field is in contrast to standard

  2. [Diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of central nervous system involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pilar; Berenguer, Juan; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2010-09-18

    With the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) the incidence of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has declined. HAART has also modified the clinical manifestations of these tumors, with a lower frequency of involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). Currently, the frequency of meningeal involvement at the time of diagnosis of NHL in HIV-infected patients varies between 3% and 5%. These figures are similar to those observed among immunocompetent hosts. The diagnosis of meningeal lymphoma relies in clinical findings, imaging techniques, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. Flow cytometry is a diagnostic technique with a higher sensitivity and specificity than conventional cytology for the diagnosis of meningeal lymphoma. However, flow cytometry is not yet considered to be the gold standard for this purpose. Until recently, most experts recommended neuromeningeal prophylaxis for all HIV-infected patients with aggressive NHL. However, at present this prophylaxis is recommended only in patients with higher risk of CNS relapse according to different sites of involvement, stage and histological subtype. There are different regimens of prophylaxis and treatment for meningeal lymphoma. The drugs most commonly used for this purpose are methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside. However, there are other alternatives such as liposomal cytosine arabinoside that requires fewer spinal taps for drug administration and whose results are very promising. In summary, in the context of an effective HAART, HIV infected patients with NHL have a frequency of CNS involvement by lymphoma similar to that found among immunocompetent hosts. Consequently, indications and regimens for CNS prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with NHL should not be different than those employed in the general population. Universal CNS prophylaxis should be reserved for the few patients unable to receive an

  3. Uncovering the potential of private providers' involvement in health to strengthen comprehensive health systems: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira

    2012-09-01

    Health systems strengthening (HSS) is being increasingly recognized as a strategic cross-cutting issue in all World Health Organization (WHO) work. Health systems comprise six building blocks: service delivery; medical products, vaccines and technologies; health workforce; health systems financing; health information system; and leadership and governance. Public-private mix (PPM) approaches or partnerships consist of initiatives aimed at increasing collaboration and improving the relationships between public-public, public-private and private-private health providers. An important component of PPM is the clear distribution of tasks between the different providers involved in the provision of health care. In practice, most PPM initiatives are disease-specific and are often related to the health service delivery block mentioned above. Although there is widespread consensus that PPM initiatives are typically of an HSS nature, efforts to make explicit the links between PPM and health systems building blocks are rather uncommon. The present paper aims to identify - in order to facilitate operationalization - potential aspects linking PPM to health systems building blocks, using a few experiences from tuberculosis control and beyond. The paper targets policymakers, donors and health systems scientists and ends with a call for more aware and innovative leadership, for increased support of PPM initiatives covering various building blocks, and for more operational research.

  4. The Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET): Descriptions, limitations, and the involvement of the space nuclear power community

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.B. )

    1993-01-20

    Project and test planning for the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) Project began in August 1990. Since the formalization of the contract agreement two years ago, the TOPAZ-II testing hardware was delivered in May 1992. In the months since the delivery of the test hardware, Russians and Americans working side-by-side installed the equipment and are preparing to begin testing in early 1993. The procurement of the Russian TOPAZ-II unfueled thermionic space nuclear power system (SNP) provides a unique opportunity to understand a complete thermionic system and enhances the possibility for further study of this type of power conversion for space applications. This paper will describe the program and test article, facility and test article limitations, and how the government and industry are encouraged to be involved in the program.

  5. A multi-element screening method to identify metal targets for blood biomonitoring in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Villa, C A; Finlayson, S; Limpus, C; Gaus, C

    2015-04-15

    Biomonitoring of blood is commonly used to identify and quantify occupational or environmental exposure to chemical contaminants. Increasingly, this technique has been applied to wildlife contaminant monitoring, including for green turtles, allowing for the non-lethal evaluation of chemical exposure in their nearshore environment. The sources, composition, bioavailability and toxicity of metals in the marine environment are, however, often unknown and influenced by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. These factors can vary considerably across time and space making the selection of the most informative elements for biomonitoring challenging. This study aimed to validate an ICP-MS multi-element screening method for green turtle blood in order to identify and facilitate prioritisation of target metals for subsequent fully quantitative analysis. Multi-element screening provided semiquantitative results for 70 elements, 28 of which were also determined through fully quantitative analysis. Of the 28 comparable elements, 23 of the semiquantitative results had an accuracy between 67% and 112% relative to the fully quantified values. In lieu of any available turtle certified reference materials (CRMs), we evaluated the use of human blood CRMs as a matrix surrogate for quality control, and compared two commonly used sample preparation methods for matrix related effects. The results demonstrate that human blood provides an appropriate matrix for use as a quality control material in the fully quantitative analysis of metals in turtle blood. An example for the application of this screening method is provided by comparing screening results from blood of green turtles foraging in an urban and rural region in Queensland, Australia. Potential targets for future metal biomonitoring in these regions were identified by this approach.

  6. A multi-element screening method to identify metal targets for blood biomonitoring in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Villa, C A; Finlayson, S; Limpus, C; Gaus, C

    2015-04-15

    Biomonitoring of blood is commonly used to identify and quantify occupational or environmental exposure to chemical contaminants. Increasingly, this technique has been applied to wildlife contaminant monitoring, including for green turtles, allowing for the non-lethal evaluation of chemical exposure in their nearshore environment. The sources, composition, bioavailability and toxicity of metals in the marine environment are, however, often unknown and influenced by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. These factors can vary considerably across time and space making the selection of the most informative elements for biomonitoring challenging. This study aimed to validate an ICP-MS multi-element screening method for green turtle blood in order to identify and facilitate prioritisation of target metals for subsequent fully quantitative analysis. Multi-element screening provided semiquantitative results for 70 elements, 28 of which were also determined through fully quantitative analysis. Of the 28 comparable elements, 23 of the semiquantitative results had an accuracy between 67% and 112% relative to the fully quantified values. In lieu of any available turtle certified reference materials (CRMs), we evaluated the use of human blood CRMs as a matrix surrogate for quality control, and compared two commonly used sample preparation methods for matrix related effects. The results demonstrate that human blood provides an appropriate matrix for use as a quality control material in the fully quantitative analysis of metals in turtle blood. An example for the application of this screening method is provided by comparing screening results from blood of green turtles foraging in an urban and rural region in Queensland, Australia. Potential targets for future metal biomonitoring in these regions were identified by this approach. PMID:25655987

  7. Involvement of the serotonergic system in the anxiolytic-like effect of 2-phenylethynyl butyltellurium in mice.

    PubMed

    Quines, Caroline B; Da Rocha, Juliana T; Sampaio, Tuane B; Pesarico, Ana Paula; Neto, José S S; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2015-01-15

    Anxiety is a serious disorder with symptoms manifested at the psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels, accompanied by alterations in the serotonergic system and monoaminergic signaling. In this study, the anxiolytic-like effect of 2-phenylethynyl butyltellurium (PEBT), in three well-consolidated anxiety mouse models (light-dark test, novelty suppressed-feeding, elevated plus-maze), was investigated. The involvement of the serotonergic system, synaptosomal [(3)H] serotonin (5-HT) uptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO A and B) activities on cerebral cortices of mice, was examined. Mice received PEBT (1mg/kg, by intragastric route, i.g.) or canola oil (10 ml/kg, i.g.) 30 min before behavioral tests. The results showed that PEBT was effective in increasing the time spent by mice in the illuminated side on the light-dark box and in the open arms on the elevated plus-maze. PEBT decreased the latency to begin eating on the novelty suppressed-feeding test, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect of PEBT. Furthermore, PEBT reduced [(3)H] 5-HT uptake and selectively inhibited MAO-A activity in cerebral cortex, suggesting the involvement of the serotonergic system in the mechanism of action of this tellurium compound.

  8. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root extract alleviates formalin-induced nociception in mice: involvement of the opioidergic system.

    PubMed

    Orrù, Alessandro; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Tambaro, Simone; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Ruiu, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal extracts (WSEs) may possess therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of inflammation and pain. We aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive property of a WSE in the formalin test and to investigate the involvement of several neurotransmitter systems in this effect. The time spent licking the formalin-injected paw was recorded in CD1 mice after pretreatment with increasing doses of WSE. Also, c-Fos spinal cord expression and the effects of different compounds were investigated under these experimental conditions. Finally, the efficacy of WSE was analyzed following an injection of glutamate. WSE reduced the antinociceptive response during the tonic but not the acute phase of the formalin test and decreased formalin-induced c-Fos expression in spinal neurons. These effects were antagonized by the opioid antagonist naltrexone, whereas GABA, cannabinoid, δ-opioid, and nitric oxide compounds were ineffective. The administration of WSE also reduced nociception and c-Fos expression induced by glutamate injection. These results showed that WSE is effective in assays of chemical-induced nociception, indicating that this plant has potential valuable properties for the treatment of specific painful conditions. The antinocicetive effects of WSE in the formalin test appeared to be specifically mediated by the opioidergic system, although the involvement of the glutamatergic system cannot be excluded.

  9. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root extract alleviates formalin-induced nociception in mice: involvement of the opioidergic system.

    PubMed

    Orrù, Alessandro; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Tambaro, Simone; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Ruiu, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal extracts (WSEs) may possess therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of inflammation and pain. We aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive property of a WSE in the formalin test and to investigate the involvement of several neurotransmitter systems in this effect. The time spent licking the formalin-injected paw was recorded in CD1 mice after pretreatment with increasing doses of WSE. Also, c-Fos spinal cord expression and the effects of different compounds were investigated under these experimental conditions. Finally, the efficacy of WSE was analyzed following an injection of glutamate. WSE reduced the antinociceptive response during the tonic but not the acute phase of the formalin test and decreased formalin-induced c-Fos expression in spinal neurons. These effects were antagonized by the opioid antagonist naltrexone, whereas GABA, cannabinoid, δ-opioid, and nitric oxide compounds were ineffective. The administration of WSE also reduced nociception and c-Fos expression induced by glutamate injection. These results showed that WSE is effective in assays of chemical-induced nociception, indicating that this plant has potential valuable properties for the treatment of specific painful conditions. The antinocicetive effects of WSE in the formalin test appeared to be specifically mediated by the opioidergic system, although the involvement of the glutamatergic system cannot be excluded. PMID:26397759

  10. Identification of novel type 2 diabetes candidate genes involved in the crosstalk between the mitochondrial and the insulin signaling systems.

    PubMed

    Mercader, Josep M; Puiggros, Montserrat; Segrè, Ayellet V; Planet, Evarist; Sorianello, Eleonora; Sebastian, David; Rodriguez-Cuenca, Sergio; Ribas, Vicent; Bonàs-Guarch, Sílvia; Draghici, Sorin; Yang, Chenjing; Mora, Sílvia; Vidal-Puig, Antoni; Dupuis, Josée; Florez, Jose C; Zorzano, Antonio; Torrents, David

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a highly prevalent chronic metabolic disease with strong co-morbidity with obesity and cardiovascular diseases. There is growing evidence supporting the notion that a crosstalk between mitochondria and the insulin signaling cascade could be involved in the etiology of T2D and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated the molecular basis of this crosstalk by using systems biology approaches. We combined, filtered, and interrogated different types of functional interaction data, such as direct protein-protein interactions, co-expression analyses, and metabolic and signaling dependencies. As a result, we constructed the mitochondria-insulin (MITIN) network, which highlights 286 genes as candidate functional linkers between these two systems. The results of internal gene expression analysis of three independent experimental models of mitochondria and insulin signaling perturbations further support the connecting roles of these genes. In addition, we further assessed whether these genes are involved in the etiology of T2D using the genome-wide association study meta-analysis from the DIAGRAM consortium, involving 8,130 T2D cases and 38,987 controls. We found modest enrichment of genes associated with T2D amongst our linker genes (p = 0.0549), including three already validated T2D SNPs and 15 additional SNPs, which, when combined, were collectively associated to increased fasting glucose levels according to MAGIC genome wide meta-analysis (p = 8.12×10(-5)). This study highlights the potential of combining systems biology, experimental, and genome-wide association data mining for identifying novel genes and related variants that increase vulnerability to complex diseases. PMID:23236286

  11. Identification of Novel Type 2 Diabetes Candidate Genes Involved in the Crosstalk between the Mitochondrial and the Insulin Signaling Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, Josep M.; Puiggros, Montserrat; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Planet, Evarist; Sorianello, Eleonora; Sebastian, David; Rodriguez-Cuenca, Sergio; Ribas, Vicent; Bonàs-Guarch, Sílvia; Draghici, Sorin; Yang, Chenjing; Mora, Sílvia; Vidal-Puig, Antoni; Dupuis, Josée; Florez, Jose C.; Zorzano, Antonio; Torrents, David

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a highly prevalent chronic metabolic disease with strong co-morbidity with obesity and cardiovascular diseases. There is growing evidence supporting the notion that a crosstalk between mitochondria and the insulin signaling cascade could be involved in the etiology of T2D and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated the molecular basis of this crosstalk by using systems biology approaches. We combined, filtered, and interrogated different types of functional interaction data, such as direct protein–protein interactions, co-expression analyses, and metabolic and signaling dependencies. As a result, we constructed the mitochondria-insulin (MITIN) network, which highlights 286 genes as candidate functional linkers between these two systems. The results of internal gene expression analysis of three independent experimental models of mitochondria and insulin signaling perturbations further support the connecting roles of these genes. In addition, we further assessed whether these genes are involved in the etiology of T2D using the genome-wide association study meta-analysis from the DIAGRAM consortium, involving 8,130 T2D cases and 38,987 controls. We found modest enrichment of genes associated with T2D amongst our linker genes (p = 0.0549), including three already validated T2D SNPs and 15 additional SNPs, which, when combined, were collectively associated to increased fasting glucose levels according to MAGIC genome wide meta-analysis (p = 8.12×10−5). This study highlights the potential of combining systems biology, experimental, and genome-wide association data mining for identifying novel genes and related variants that increase vulnerability to complex diseases. PMID:23236286

  12. The antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I: possible involvement of the oxidative stress system and the noradrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Liu, Fang; Yue, Rongcai; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jigang; Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Shoude; Wang, Rui; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Weidong

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I, a saponin compound present in the Bacopa monniera plant, was evaluated by behavioral and neurochemical methods. Bacopaside I (50, 15 and 5 mg/kg) was given to mice via oral gavage for 7 successive days. The treatment significantly decreased the immobility time in mouse models of despair tests, but it did not influence locomotor activity. Neurochemical assays suggested that treatment by bacopaside I (50, 15 and 5 mg/kg) improved brain antioxidant activity to varying degrees after the behavioral despair test. Bacopaside I (15 and 5 mg/kg) significantly reversed reserpine-induced depressive-like behaviors, including low temperature and ptosis. Conversely, bacopaside I did not affect either brain MAO-A or MAO-B activity after the behavioral despair test in mice. Additionally, 5-hydroxytryptophan (a precursor of 5-serotonin) was not involved in the antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I. These findings indicated that the antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I might be related to both antioxidant activation and noradrenergic activation, although the exact mechanism remains to be further elucidated.

  13. The antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I: possible involvement of the oxidative stress system and the noradrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Liu, Fang; Yue, Rongcai; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jigang; Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Shoude; Wang, Rui; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Weidong

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I, a saponin compound present in the Bacopa monniera plant, was evaluated by behavioral and neurochemical methods. Bacopaside I (50, 15 and 5 mg/kg) was given to mice via oral gavage for 7 successive days. The treatment significantly decreased the immobility time in mouse models of despair tests, but it did not influence locomotor activity. Neurochemical assays suggested that treatment by bacopaside I (50, 15 and 5 mg/kg) improved brain antioxidant activity to varying degrees after the behavioral despair test. Bacopaside I (15 and 5 mg/kg) significantly reversed reserpine-induced depressive-like behaviors, including low temperature and ptosis. Conversely, bacopaside I did not affect either brain MAO-A or MAO-B activity after the behavioral despair test in mice. Additionally, 5-hydroxytryptophan (a precursor of 5-serotonin) was not involved in the antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I. These findings indicated that the antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I might be related to both antioxidant activation and noradrenergic activation, although the exact mechanism remains to be further elucidated. PMID:23872136

  14. The CISQ: a tool to measure staff involvement in and attitudes toward the implementation of a clinical information system.

    PubMed Central

    Gugerty, B.; Wooldridge, P.; Brennan, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Clinical Information System Questionnaire (CISQ-15) is a new 15-item tool designed to measure staff involvement in and attitudes towards CIS implementations. It was developed during a clinical trial which tested the effects of a combined managerial and IT intervention on staff attitudes and patient outcomes. The CISQ-15 appears to have high construct validity and internal consistency, although further studies are needed. Such studies are under way, and an expanded 36-item version, the CISQ-36, is now being evaluated. PMID:11079897

  15. Efficient simulation of incompressible viscous flow over single and multi-element airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.; Wiltberger, N. L.; Kwak, Dochan

    1992-01-01

    Incompressible viscous turbulent flows over single- and multiple-element airfoils are numerically simulated in an efficient manner by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution algorithm uses the method of pseudocompressibility with an upwind-differencing scheme for the convective fluxes and an implicit line-relaxation scheme to study high-lift take-off and landing configurations and to compute lift and drag at various angles of attack up to stall. Two different turbulence models are tested in computing the flow over an NACA 4412 airfoil. The approach used for multiple-element airfoils involves the use of multiple zones of structured grids fitted to each element. Two different approaches are compared: a patched system of grids and an overlaid Chimera system of grids. Computational results are presented for two-element, three-element, and four-element airfoil configurations. Excellent agreement with experimental surface-pressure coefficients is seen. The code converges in less than 200 iterations, requiring on the order of one minute of CPU time on a CRAY YMP per element in the airfoil configuration.

  16. Hamaker Constants of Systems Involving Water Obtained from a Dielectric Function That Fulfills the f Sum Rule.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Varea; Garcia-Molina

    2000-11-15

    Hamaker constants of systems involving liquid water are evaluated, within the full Lifshitz theory, by means of a recently proposed model of the dielectric function of this substance [Dingfelder et al., Radiat. Phys. Chem. 53, 1 (1998)], which has been extended in the present work by including terms corresponding to infrared excitations and microwave relaxation. An important feature of the complete model is that, besides a good fit to experimental data, it satisfies the physical constraint provided by the f sum rule. For symmetrical systems interacting across water, calculated Hamaker constants are generally in good agreement with results obtained using the Ninham-Parsegian representation with the Roth and Lenhoff parameters for water. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Observational fear learning involves affective pain system and Cav1.2 Ca2+ channels in ACC

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Daejong; Kim, Sangwoo; Chetana, Mattu; Jo, Daewoong; Ruley, H Earl; Lin, Shih-Yao; Rabah, Dania; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2010-01-01

    Fear can be acquired vicariously through social observation of others suffering from aversive stimuli. We found that mice (observers) developed freezing behavior by observing other mice (demonstrators) receive repetitive foot shocks. Observers had higher fear responses when demonstrators were socially related to themselves, such as siblings or mating partners. Inactivation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and parafascicular or mediodorsal thalamic nuclei, which comprise the medial pain system representing pain affection, substantially impaired this observational fear learning, whereas inactivation of sensory thalamic nuclei had no effect. The ACC neuronal activities were increased and synchronized with those of the lateral amygdala at theta rhythm frequency during this learning. Furthermore, an ACC-limited deletion of Cav1.2 Ca2+ channels in mice impaired observational fear learning and reduced behavioral pain responses. These results demonstrate the functional involvement of the affective pain system and Cav1.2 channels of the ACC in observational social fear. PMID:20190743

  18. Observational fear learning involves affective pain system and Cav1.2 Ca2+ channels in ACC.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Daejong; Kim, Sangwoo; Chetana, Mattu; Jo, Daewoong; Ruley, H Earl; Lin, Shih-Yao; Rabah, Dania; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2010-04-01

    Fear can be acquired vicariously through social observation of others suffering from aversive stimuli. We found that mice (observers) developed freezing behavior by observing other mice (demonstrators) receive repetitive foot shocks. Observers had higher fear responses when demonstrators were socially related to themselves, such as siblings or mating partners. Inactivation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and parafascicular or mediodorsal thalamic nuclei, which comprise the medial pain system representing pain affection, substantially impaired this observational fear learning, whereas inactivation of sensory thalamic nuclei had no effect. The ACC neuronal activities were increased and synchronized with those of the lateral amygdala at theta rhythm frequency during this learning. Furthermore, an ACC-limited deletion of Ca(v)1.2 Ca(2+) channels in mice impaired observational fear learning and reduced behavioral pain responses. These results demonstrate the functional involvement of the affective pain system and Ca(v)1.2 channels of the ACC in observational social fear.

  19. Involvement of the Nonneuronal Cholinergic System in Bone Remodeling in Rat Midpalatal Suture after Rapid Maxillary Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Wang, Lue; Miao, Cong; Ge, Lihua; Tian, Zhenchuan; Wang, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies sought to analyze the expression and function of the nonneuronal acetylcholine system in bone remodeling in vivo due to the lack of suitable models. We established a rat maxilla expansion model in which the midline palatine suture of the rat was rapidly expanded under mechanical force application, inducing tissue remodeling and new bone formation, which could be a suitable model to investigate the role of the nonneuronal acetylcholine system in bone remodeling in vivo. During the expansion, the expression pattern changes of the nonneuronal cholinergic system components and the mRNA levels of OPG/RANKL were detected by immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR. The value of the RANKL/OPG ratio significantly increased after 1 day of expansion, indicating dominant bone resorption induced by the mechanical stimulation; however after 3 days of expansion, the value of the RANKL/OPG ratio significantly decreased, suggesting a dominant role of the subsequent bone formation process. Increasing expression of Ach was detected after 3 days of expansion which indicated that ACh might play a role in bone formation. The mRNA expression levels of other components also showed observable changes during the expansion which confirmed the involvement of the nonneuronal cholinergic system in the process of bone remodeling in vivo. Further researches are still needed to figure out the detailed functions of the nonneuronal cholinergic system and its components. PMID:27478838

  20. A soybean β-expansin gene GmEXPB2 intrinsically involved in root system architecture responses to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenbing; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xinxin; Qin, Lu; Yan, Xiaolong; Liao, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Root system architecture responds plastically to some abiotic stresses, including phosphorus (P), iron (Fe) and water deficiency, but its response mechanism is still unclear. We cloned and characterized a vegetative β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, from a Pi starvation-induced soybean cDNA library. Transient expression of 35S::GmEXPB2-GFP in onion epidermal cells verified that GmEXPB2 is a secretory protein located on the cell wall. GmEXPB2 was found to be primarily expressed in roots, and was highly induced by Pi starvation, and the induction pattern was confirmed by GUS staining in transgenic soybean hairy roots. Results from intact soybean composite plants either over-expressing GmEXPB2 or containing knockdown constructs, showed that GmEXPB2 is involved in hairy root elongation, and subsequently affects plant growth and P uptake, especially at low P levels. The results from a heterogeneous transformation system indicated that over-expressing GmEXPB2 in Arabidopsis increased root cell division and elongation, and enhanced plant growth and P uptake at both low and high P levels. Furthermore, we found that, in addition to Pi starvation, GmEXPB2 was also induced by Fe and mild water deficiencies. Taken together, our results suggest that GmEXPB2 is a critical root β-expansin gene that is intrinsically involved in root system architecture responses to some abiotic stresses, including P, Fe and water deficiency. In the case of Pi starvation responses, GmEXPB2 may enhance both P efficiency and P responsiveness by regulating adaptive changes of the root system architecture. This finding has great agricultural potential for improving crop P uptake on both low-P and P-fertilized soils.