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Sample records for iodine 131-radiolabeled monoclonal

  1. Visualization of metastases from colon carcinoma using an iodine 131-radiolabeled monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Leyden, M.J.; Thompson, C.H.; Lichtenstein, M.; Andrews, J.T.; Sullivan, J.R.; Zalcberg, J.R.; McKenzie, I.F.

    1986-03-15

    A murine monoclonal antibody that reacts with human colonic cancer (250-30.6) was labeled with radioactive iodine (131I) and the antibody was injected intravenously into 15 patients with known metastases originating from carcinoma of the colon (10 cases), malignant melanoma (1), breast (1), pancreas (1), hepatocellular carcinoma (1), and adenocarcinoma of unknown origin (1). Of the patients with metastatic colon carcinoma, there were 19 known deposits as judged by the techniques of clinical examination, x-rays, and scans obtained using sulpha-colloid. Of these 19 deposits, 17 (90%) were found using the 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody. In one case, the primary tumor, previously undiagnosed, was found. In only 1 of the 10 patients was tumor not found and this was due to the subsequent finding that the undifferentiated tumor did not react with antibody. Of the five patients who did not have carcinoma of the colon, three had negative scans, but two were positive. Thus, the technique of immunoscintography can readily detect both primary and metastatic tumors.

  2. Estimates of radiation absorbed dose for intraperitoneally administered iodine-131 radiolabeled B72. 3 monoclonal antibody in patients with peritoneal carcinomatoses

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Colcher, D.C.; Yokoyama, K.; Reynolds, J.C.; Bacharach, S.A.; Raubitchek, A.; Pace, L.; Finn, R.D.; Rotman, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Using a newly available model for determining estimates of radiation absorbed dose of radioisotopes administered intraperitoneally, the authors have calculated absorbed dose to tumor and normal tissues based on a surgically controlled study of radiolabeled antibody distribution. Ten patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis received intraperitoneal injections of the murine monoclonal antibody B72.3 radiolabeled with 131I. Biodistribution studies were performed using nuclear medicine methods until laparotomy at 4-14 days after injection. Surgical biopsies of normal tissues and tumor were obtained. The marrow was predicted to be the critical organ, with maximum tolerated dose (200 rad (2 Gy) to marrow) expected at about 200 mCi (7.4 GBq). In patients with large intraperitoneal tumor deposits, the tumor itself is an important source tissue for radiation exposure to normal tissues. Local hot-spots for tumor-absorbed dose were observed, with maximum tumor-absorbed dose calculated at 11,000 rad (11 Gy) per 100 mCi (3.7 GBq) administered intraperitoneal; however, tumor rad dose varied considerably. This may pose serious problems for curative therapy, especially in patients with large tumor burdens.

  3. Choriocarcinoma: blocking factor and monoclonal antibody iodine 131 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pattillo, R.A.; Khazaeli, M.B.; Ruckert, A.C.; Hussa, R.O.; Collier, B.D.; Beierwaltes, W.; Mattingly, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    Postoperative iodine 131 monoclonal antibody localization in metastatic choriocarcinoma was accomplished in this study. The monoclonal antibody was prepared to male choriocarcinoma which cross reacted with gestational choriocarcinoma. The antibody was raised against whole choriocarcinoma cells and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) cross reactivity was excluded. The purified antibody was iodinated with /sup 131/I and successfully imaged BeWo choriocarcinoma transplanted in nude mice; however, imaging of choriocarcinoma in a patient was verified only after resection. It is our belief that failure to sufficiently concentrate the antibody in the tumor before operation was due to blocking factor in the serum of the patient. Blocking factor and hCG dropped postoperatively. Blocking factor activity in 15 patients with metastatic trophoblastic disease was monitored and, like hCG, was found to be a sensitive indicator of the presence of disease. Its efficacy may be in the small number of patients without hCG but with persistent disease.

  4. High-level iodination of monoclonal antibody fragments for radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferens, J.M.; Krohn, K.A.; Beaumier, P.L.; Brown, J.P.; Hellstroem, I.; Hellstroem, K.E.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.

    1984-03-01

    Two different murine monoclonal antibody Fab fragments specific for p97, a melanoma-associated antigen, were labeled with I-131 at high activity levels without excessive chemical damage. Up to 20 mg of Fab were labeled with up to 300 mCi of I-131 using the chloramine-T method and large working volumes at room temperature. As much as 90% of the initial activity was recovered as labeled product. The labeled Fabs varied in their sensitivity to radioiodination damage, as measured by an in vitro cell-binding assay. Radioiodination was performed safely using a remote iodination apparatus. The final product was of radiopharmaceutical quality suitable for clinical diagnosis and experimental radiotherapy in humans.

  5. [Pharmacokinetics of injection of iodine-131 labelling MEI-TUO-XI monoclonal antibody in human body].

    PubMed

    Li, Yunchun; Tan, Tianzhi; Mo, Tingshu; Lu, Wusheng; Deng, Houfu; Yang, Xiaochuan; Li, Xiao

    2007-08-01

    To study pharmacokinetics of injection of iodine-131 labelling MEI-TUO-XI monoclonal antibody (hepatoma monoclonal antibody HAb18 F(ab')2) in vivo. 24 cases of primary hepatocelluar carcinoma (PHC) were equally divided into the low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group. After the relevant injection was administrated into the hepatic artery of each case, intravenous blood and urine samples were separately collected at different time for determination of the radioactive count ratio (min(-1)). The proportion of 131I-HAb18 F(ab')2 in serum of each blood sample was determined, and the radioactive count ratio (min(-1)) of druggery for each blood sample was revised according to the proportion. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using DAS ver 1.0 (Drug And Statistics for Windows) program. The component of urine radiomaterial was determined and the percentages of urine radioactivity in administration dosage were calculated. The catabolism of the injection with time accorded with dynamics two-compartment model. The catabolism product was mainly free-131I and was excreted via kidney; the urine radioactivity was 47.70%-51.16% of administration dosage during 120 h after administration of drug. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics of the injection can satisfy the clinical demands. The drug dose recommended for clinical use was 27.75 MBq of the injection for each kg of human body.

  6. Iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krukowski, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    In descending order, Chile, Japan and the United States have the largest iodine reserves. Chile produces iodine from iodate minerals while Japan and the United States produce it from sodium iodide solutions found in underground iodide solutions. Iodine is also produced from subterranean brines in Azerbaijan, Russia, Turkmenista, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. In 2005, iodine prices increased sharply to US$19 to US$23 then leveled off at US$23 to US$25.

  7. Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... applying povidone-iodine reduces the risk of blood stream infections for people with hemodialysis catheters. However, most ... in which chyle is present in the urine stream. This causes the urine to appear milky white. ...

  8. Radioactive Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone Home » Radioactive Iodine Leer en Español Radioactive Iodine Iodine is essential for proper function of the ... that takes up and holds onto iodine. Radioactive Iodine FAQs WHAT IS RADIOACTIVE IODINE (RAI)? Iodine, in ...

  9. Treatment of small-cell lung cancer xenografts with iodine-313-anti-neural cell adhesion molecule monoclonal antibody and evaluation of absorbed dose in tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Hosono, Makoto; Endo, Keigo; Hosono, Masako N.

    1994-02-01

    Human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is considered a feasible target for immunotherapy using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (Mab). A murine Mab, NE150 (IgG1), reacts with the neural cell adhesion molecule, which is identical to cluster 1 antigen of SCLC. To estimate their therapeutic effects, NE150 and an isotype-matched control Mab were labeled with {sup 131}I and administered intravenously as a single dose into athymic mice inoculated with a NCI-H69 SCLC xenograft. The absorbed dose in organs was also examined based upon a long-term biodistribution study of {sup 131}I-NE150. Tumors initial volume 563.4 {plus_minus} 223.5 mm{sup 3} treated with 11.1 MBq (300 {mu}Ci) of {sup 131}I-NE150 diminished and became invisible at days 30-33, demonstrating a 60-day mean growth delay to reach a tripled initial volume compared with sham-treated tumors. Cumulative absorbed doses were estimated to be 2310, 410, 500, 330, and 790 cGy for the tumor, liver, kidney, spleen and lung, respectively. Iodine-131-NE150 had potent therapeutic effects against SCLC transplants in athymic mice, however, careful assessment of the side effects, improvement of radioiodination and chimerization of the Mab might be necessary to achieve efficient targeting in clinical therapeutic applications. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. CT-SPECT fusion plus conjugate views for determining dosimetry in iodine-131-monoclonal antibody therapy of lymphoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Koral, K.F.; Zasadny, K.R.; Kessler, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    A method of performing {sup 131}I quantitative SPECT imaging is described which uses the superimposition of markers placed on the skin to accomplish fusion of computed tomography (CT) and SPECT image sets. To calculate mean absorbed dose after administration of one of two {sup 131}I-labeled monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), the shape of the time-activity curve is measured by daily diagnostic conjugate views, the y-axis of that curve is normalized by a quantitative SPECT measurement (usually intra-therapy), and the tumor mass is deduced from a concurrent CT volume measurement. The method is applied to six B-cell non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma patients. For four tumors in three patients treated with the MB1 Mab, a correlation appears to be present between resulting mean absorbed dose and disease response. Including all dosimetric estimates for both antibodies, the range for the specific absorbed dose is within that found by others in treating B-cell lymphoma patients. Excluding a retreated anti-B1 patient, the tumor-specific absorbed dose during anti-B1 therapy is from 1.4 to 1.7 mGy/MBq. For the one anti-B1 patient, where quantitative SPECT and conjugate-view imaging was carried out back to back , the quantitative SPECT-measured activity was somewhat less for the spleen and much less for the tumor than that from conjugate views. The quantitative SPECT plus conjugate views method may be of general utility for macro-dosimetry of {sup 131}If therapies. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Iodine is found in: Amiodarone (Cordarone) Chemicals (catalysts) for photography and engraving Dyes and inks Lugol's solution Pima syrup Potassium iodide Radioactive iodine used for certain medical tests or the treatment ...

  12. Indium-111 T101 monoclonal antibody is superior to iodine-131 T101 in imaging of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasquillo, J.A.; Mulshine, J.L.; Bunn, P.A. Jr.; Reynolds, J.C.; Foon, K.A.; Schroff, R.W.; Perentesis, P.; Steis, R.G.; Keenan, A.M.; Horowitz, M.

    1987-03-01

    We have reported that (/sup 111/In)T101 is highly effective in the detection of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in nodal and cutaneous (erythroderma and tumor) sites. This study compares the biodistribution of (/sup 131/I)T101 (1 to 7.1 mg, 2 mCi) in four patients with CTCL; two of these patients also received (/sup 111/In)T101 (1 mg, 5 mCi). There was rapid clearance of (/sup 131/I)T101 from whole-body, spleen, liver, and bone marrow, with evidence of loss of /sup 131/I tracer from the T101. Lymph node uptake was minimal in three of four patients, and there was no localization in skin lesions. This contrasted with (/sup 111/In)T101 where there was prolonged retention of activity in these organs and excellent uptake in skin tumors, erythroderma, and lymph nodes. The study showed that (/sup 131/I)T101 was suboptimal for imaging CTCL patients and demonstrates that the isotope or labeling method can dramatically alter the apparent biodistribution and tumor targeting of a given monoclonal antibody.

  13. Iodine revisited.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rose A

    2007-06-01

    Iodine is an antiseptic that has been used in wound care for more than 150 years. Traditional formulations of iodine had serious limitations that were reduced in later products. Much has been written about iodine and opinions on its clinical efficacy are divided. There have been reviews of the chemical properties of iodine, its antimicrobial activity, human physiology, cytotoxicity and its clinical effectiveness, but few have addressed all these aspects. With the recent development of iodine-containing wound care products and the continued publication of laboratory and clinical studies, it seems timely to reassess the evidence relating to the effectiveness of iodine for treating wounds. This literature review attempts to provide an appropriate chemical and physiological background of the characteristics of iodine in order to provide a sound basis for understanding the available microbiological and clinical data. It will show that understanding the factors that contribute to the activity and potential cytotoxicity of iodine are important in evaluating the clinical evidence. Although definitive studies are needed, the sustained delivery of low doses of free iodine offers the potential to inhibit a broad range of microbial species without selecting for resistant strains or inducing cytotoxic effects.

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killington, R. A.; Powell, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have provided an exciting addition to the "armory" of the molecular biologist and immunologist. This article discusses briefly the concept of, techniques available for, production of, and possible uses of monoclonal antibodies. (Author)

  15. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlargement of the thyroid (goiter – see Goiter brochure ), hypothyroidism (see Hypothyroidism brochure ) and to mental retardation in infants and ... when lying down, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. HYPOTHYROIDISM – As the body’s iodine levels fall, hypothyroidism may ...

  16. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  17. Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Radioactive Iodine (Radioiodine) Therapy for Thyroid Cancer Your thyroid gland absorbs nearly all of the iodine in your body. When radioactive iodine (RAI), also ...

  18. Iodine in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Iodine is needed for the cells to convert food into energy. Humans need iodine for normal thyroid function, and for the production of thyroid hormones. Food Sources Iodized salt is table salt with iodine ...

  19. Iodine volatility. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  20. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark P

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and has adverse effects throughout life, particularly early in life as it impairs cognition and growth. Iodine deficiency remains a significant problem despite major national and international efforts to increase iodine intake, primarily through the voluntary or mandatory iodization of salt. Recent epidemiological data suggest that iodine deficiency is an emerging issue in industrialized countries, previously thought of as iodine-sufficient. International efforts to control iodine deficiency are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges.

  1. Iodine deficiency: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Niwattisaiwong, Soamsiri; Burman, Kenneth D; Li-Ng, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis and fetal neurodevelopment. Major dietary sources of iodine in the United States are dairy products and iodized salt. Potential consequences of iodine deficiency are goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, and impaired cognitive development. Although iodine status in the United States is considered sufficient at the population level, intake varies widely across the population, and the percentage of women of childbearing age with iodine deficiency is increasing. Physicians should be aware of the risks of iodine deficiency and the indications for iodine supplementation, especially in women who are pregnant or lactating.

  2. PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHLYER,D.J.

    2001-08-08

    Probably the most widely used cyclotron produced radiohalogen is I-123. It has gradually replaced I-131 as the isotope of choice for diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals containing radioiodine. It gives a much lower radiation dose to the patient and the gamma ray energy of 159 keV is ideally suited for use in a gamma camera. The gamma ray will penetrate tissue very effectively without excessive radiation dose. For this reason, it has in many instances replaced the reactor produced iodine-131 (Lambrecht and Wolf 1973). A great number of radiopharmaceuticals have been labeled using I-123 and the number is increasing. One of the most promising uses of I-123 is in the imaging of monoclonal antibodies to localize and visualize tumors. However, preclinical and clinical experiences with radiolabeled antibodies have not realized the expectations regarding specificity and sensitivity of tumor localization with these agents. It appears that much of the administered activity is not associated with the tumor site and only a small fraction actually accumulates there. Work continues in this area and tumor-associated antigens can be targets for specific antibody reagents.

  3. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Geskin, Larisa J

    2015-10-01

    Use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized cancer therapy. Approaches targeting specific cellular targets on the malignant cells and in tumor microenvironment have been proved to be successful in hematologic malignancies, including cutaneous lymphomas. mAb-based therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma has demonstrated high response rates and a favorable toxicity profile in clinical trials. Several antibodies and antibody-based conjugates are approved for use in clinical practice, and many more are in ongoing and planned clinical trials. In addition, these safe and effective drugs can be used as pillars for sequential therapies in a rational stepwise manner.

  5. Consequences of excess iodine

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 μg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent. PMID:24342882

  6. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  7. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  8. Radioactive iodine uptake

    MedlinePlus

    ... too much thyroid hormone medicine or supplements) Iodine overload Subacute thyroiditis (swelling or inflammation of the thyroid ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  9. Iodine Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a combination of solutions that can be used in the study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction. The combination slows down degradation of the prepared solutions and can be used successfully for several weeks. (JRH)

  10. Iodine Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  11. Positron emission tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    This research project is developing methods for utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). This report describes the development of methods for labeling MAbs and their fragments with positron-emitting halogen nuclides, fluorine-18 and iodine-124. These nulides were selected because of the widespread availability of F-18 and because of our extensive experience in the development of new protein radiohalogenation methods.

  12. Iodine deficiency in Europe.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1995-01-18

    Iodine is a trace element present in the human body in minute amounts (15-20 mg in adults, i.e. 0.0285 x 10(-3)% of body weight). The only confirmed function of iodine is to constitute an essential substrate for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, tetraiodothyronine, thyroxine or T4 and triiodothyronine, T3 (1). In thyroxine, iodine is 60% by weight. Thyroid hormones, in turn, play a decisive role in the metabolism of all cells of the organism (2) and in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially of the brain (3). Brain development in humans occurs from fetal life up to the third postnatal year (4). Consequently, a deficit in iodine and/or in thyroid hormones occurring during this critical period of life will result not only in the slowing down of the metabolic activities of all the cells of the organism but also in irreversible alterations in the development of the brain. The clinical consequence will be mental retardation (5). When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur (Table 1), including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute an hindrance to the development of the affected population, are grouped under the general heading of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, IDD (6). Broad geographic areas exist in which the population is affected by IDD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E

    2011-12-01

    Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.

  14. [Iodinated contrast media and iodine allergy: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Meunier, B; Joskin, J; Damas, F; Meunier, P

    2013-09-01

    The term "iodine allergy" is an old phrase that refers to a reaction to iodinated contrast media. After a brief review of definitions, pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of this clinical entity, management is urged immediate and delayed according to the most recent recommendations from the literature. We underline that iodine allergy, as such, does not really exist.

  15. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  16. [An acute monoclonal gammopathy?].

    PubMed

    Presle, Alexandra; Bertocchio, Jean-Philippe; Schneider, Nathalie; Maquart, François-Xavier; Ramont, Laurent; Oudart, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis is commonly used in case of acute or chronic renal failure. It can lead to the etiologic diagnosis by detecting monoclonal gammopathies which are frequently complicated by renal failure, such as cast nephropathy, Randall's disease or amyloidosis, or to explore an associated inflammatory syndrome. We report the occurrence of two monoclonal components in a patient without any monoclonal component 10 days earlier. The sudden appearance of these two monoclonal components associated to the context of sepsis of urinary origin suggested the diagnosis of transient monoclonal gammopathy. This hypothesis was confirmed by monitoring serum protein electrophoresis that showed a gradual decrease of these two monoclonal components few weeks after the resolution of the infectious disease. The main etiological factors of transient monoclonal gammopathies are infectious or autoimmune diseases. In this context, it is important to delay the achievement of serum protein electrophoresis after the acute episode, in order to avoid to falsely conclude to hematologic malignancy diagnosis. This can prevent costly biological examinations of these transient monoclonal gammopathies and invasive procedures like bone marrow examination.

  17. Iodine deficiency disorders in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, F.; Bürgi, H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data on iodine excretion in the urine of adults, adolescents and newborns and on the iodine content of breast milk indicate a high prevalence of iodine deficiency (moderate in many cases and severe in a few) in many European countries. These cases may manifest as subclinical hypothyroidism in neonates and as goitre in adolescents and adults. Lack of iodine causes not only goitre, but also mental deficiency, hearing loss and other neurological impairments, and short stature due to thyroid insufficiency during fetal development and childhood. Although iodinated salt is available theoretically in most countries where it is needed, its quality and share of the market are often unsatisfactory. In many countries where only household salt is iodinated the iodine content has been set too low owing to an overestimation of household salt consumption. Governments are therefore urged to pass legislation and provide means for efficient iodination of salt wherever this is necessary. PMID:2670299

  18. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiro, B. D.; Johnston, F. L.

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth medium, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute <0.1 % to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere.

  19. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Pannell, K.D.; Kirkland, O.L.

    1984-01-01

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO/sub 3//sup -/ + 2I/sup -/ + 3H/sup +/, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >10/sup 4/ has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Effect of dietary iodine on production of iodine enriched eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sumaiya, Shaikh; Nayak, Sunil; Baghel, R. P. S.; Nayak, Anju; Malapure, C. D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of iodine supplementation on iodine content of eggs in laying hens. Materials and Methods: In the experiment, 135 laying hens (White Leghorn) of 55 weeks age were randomly distributed to 5 dietary treatments; each group contained 27 laying hens distributed in three replicates of 9 birds each. Diet T1 was control basal layer diet without iodine enrichment in which iodine content (I2) was as per NRC recommendation. Basal diets were supplemented with calcium iodate (Ca (IO3)2) at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg in T2, T3, T4 and T5 groups, respectively. The iodine content in the calcium iodate is 65.21%, therefore, the diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 contained 3.25, 6.50, 9.75 and 13.0 ppm iodine, respectively. The laying hens were fed the respective experimental diets ad libitum during the experimental period of 10-week. The iodine content of egg yolk and albumen was analyzed at the end of 5th and 10th week of the experiment. Economics of feeding for the production of iodine enriched egg was calculated at the end of the experiment. Results: Increasing iodine levels in diet of hens from 0.45 to 13.0 ppm significantly increased egg iodine concentration, the highest concentration of egg iodine was observed in the group fed diet supplemented with 13.0 ppm iodine followed by those fed 9.75, 6.50, 3.25 and 0.45 ppm iodine in diet. There was no significant difference in the iodine levels of unboiled versus boiled eggs. Therefore, the consumers are ensured to receive the optimal levels of iodine from boiled iodine-enriched eggs. Among different diets, minimum and significantly lower feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was noticed in hens allotted T3 diet (6.50 ppm I2). However, feeding cost of hens receiving 3.25 and 9.25 ppm I2 was statistically (p<0.05) similar to control group (T1). Further, it was noticed that feeding cost (Rs. per dozen or per kg eggs) was significantly increased due to the inclusion

  1. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... like particles and fall to the ground. from nuclear weapons or reactor accidents can occur in particle form, which can be ingested in food or water. I-131 is often used to treat ... used in nuclear medicine. External exposure to large amounts of iodine ...

  2. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Reisfeld, R.A.; Sell, S.

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on the subject of monoclonal antibodies. Topics include: Monoclonal antibody, biochemical effects and cancer therapeutic potential of tunicamycin, use of monoclonal antibodies for detection of lymph node metastases, active specific immunotherapy, and applications of monoclonal antibodies to investigations of growth factors.

  3. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".

    PubMed

    Maggon, Krishan

    2007-01-01

    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  4. Comparison of the iodogen and the microelectrochemical techniques for the radioiodination of monoclonal antibody 140.240.

    PubMed

    Wong, Z M; Teare, F W; Bowen, B M; Liao, S K; Kwok, C S; Boxen, I

    1988-01-01

    The Iodogen technique was compared with the microelectrochemical technique for the radioiodination of submilligram quantities of monoclonal antibody 140.240. The titre of the antibody against cultured melanoma cells was decreased five-fold after iodination with 0.80-0.85 atoms of iodine per molecule of antibody with both techniques. The Iodogen technique resulted in 82.1% incorporation of iodine into the antibody, somewhat higher than the 78.0% obtained with the microchemical technique (P = 0.10). Therefore, the Iodogen technique is the preferred method based on efficiency and convenience.

  5. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  6. Neuropathy and monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The association of neuropathy with monoclonal gammopathy has been known for several years, even if the clinical and pathogenetic relevance of this association is not completely defined. This is not a marginal problem since monoclonal gammopathy is present in 1-3% of the population above 50 years in whom it is often asymptomatic, and in at least 8% of patients is associated with a symptomatic neuropathy, representing one of the leading causes of neuropathy in aged people. Monoclonal gammopathy may result from malignant lymphoproliferative diseases including multiple myeloma or solitary plasmocytoma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), other IgM-secreting lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and primary systemic amyloidosis (AL). In most instances it is not associated with any of these disorders and is defined monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) for its possible, though infrequent, evolution into malignant forms. Several data support the pathogenetic role of the monoclonal gammopathy in the neuropathy particularly when of IgM isotype where IgM reactivity to several neural antigens has been reported. Increased levels of VEGF have been implicated in POEMS syndrome. However, there are as yet no defined therapies for these neuropathies, as their efficacy has not been confirmed in randomized trials.

  7. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  8. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Radioiodine therapy is a nuclear ... thyroid cancer. When a small dose of radioactive iodine I-131 (an isotope of iodine that emits ...

  9. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  10. Hypothyroidism following iodine-131 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, M.T.

    1982-02-01

    A teaching editorial dealing with the hypothyroidism side effect of Iodine-131 radiotherapy is presented. The author reviews two articles in this issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine on the subject, discusses Graves' disease, Iodine 125 radiotherapy, and the patient-physician relationship when dealing with the problem. (JMT)

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies against Pectin

    PubMed Central

    Liners, Françoise; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Didembourg, Christian; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been produced that recognize a conformation of homopolygalacturonic acid (pectic acid) induced by an optimum concentration of calcium and sodium of about 1 and 150 millinormal, respectively. The epitope recognized is probably part of the dimers of pectin chains associated according to the `egg box' model. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667195

  12. Monoclonal antibodies against bacteria.

    PubMed

    Macario, A J; Conway de Macario, E

    1988-01-01

    Highlights are presented of most recent work in which monoclonal antibodies have been instrumental in the study of bacteria and their products. Topics summarized pertain to human and veterinary medicines, dentistry, phytopathology, ichthyology, and bacterial ecophysiology, differentiation, evolution and methanogenic biotechnology.

  13. Comparison of specific radioactivities of human alpha-lactalbumin iodinated by three different methods

    SciTech Connect

    Thean, E.T. )

    1990-08-01

    Radioiodination provides an extremely sensitive method for the detection of low levels of proteins. In the development of a sensitive radioimmunoassay for human alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), the protein was labeled to high specific activity (approaching 2000 Ci/mmol) with lactoperoxidase, chloramine-T, and Iodogen. Despite high specific activities of the labeled protein by each method, there was a considerable difference in their binding affinity with monoclonal anti-human alpha-LA antibodies due to varying degrees of protein damage. Iodination of human alpha-LA with Iodogen resulted in labels of the highest specific activity and immunoreactivity with the monoclonal antibodies used.

  14. Iodine-123 generator/iodination kit: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, P; Prach, T; Srivastava, S C; Meinken, G E

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary results are described of a xenon-123 filled device to serve as a combination iodine-123 generator/iodination kit. Xenon-123 is produced in the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) by the reaction /sup 127/I(p, 5n)/sup 123/Xe. The device consists of a small glass ampoule containing an internal glass breakseal and a flanged neck on which is crimped a multi-injection type septum. The ampoule contains a hydrogen sulfide atmosphere to assure that the iodine generated from the decay of the xenon is in the form of iodide. Following an adequate period for xenon-123 to decay (this period can be used for shipment), a needle is forced through the septum breaking the seal and residual gases are pumped off. The iodine-123 in the form of iodide can then be rinsed from the ampoule with any desired solvent or reagent added directly to the device to carry out an iodination in an enclosed environment. Preliminary results of both iodine recovery and iodinations have been promising.

  15. Monoclonal gammopathy and rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Ana; Peixoto, Daniela; Bogas, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    It is common to find monoclonal gammopathy in the investigation workout for an unrelated disorder. There are studies relating rheumatic diseases and therapies which show an increased risk of monoclonal gammopathy. The specific mechanisms are not well understood but chronic antigen stimulation assumes an important role. Specific rheumatic diseases have consistently been associated with lymphoproliferative disorders but less attention has been paid to the possible association between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma. We reviewed previous studies regarding monoclonal gammopathy and different rheumatic diseases and treatments associated focusing on prevalence, risk factors and possible pathogenic mechanisms. The clinical approach of a monoclonal gammopathy and its follow-up are explained.

  16. HIV, EBV, and monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Mailankody, Sham; Landgren, Ola

    2013-10-24

    In this issue of Blood, Ouedraogo et al have investigated the role of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication in the persistence of monoclonal gammopathy.1 It has been known for some time that patients with HIV infection have an increased incidence of monoclonal gammopathy and plasma cell dyscrasias.2,3 The exact mechanism of monoclonal gammopathy in patients with HIV infection is unknown, but in many patients the monoclonal gammopathy and other B-cell abnormalities can be reversed with antiretroviral therapy. However, a proportion of patients will have persistent monoclonal gammopathy.

  17. Capture of Aerosols by Iodinated Fiber Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    iodine. While iodine is an excellent antimicrobial agent, overexposure to iodine can cause adverse health effects . The National Research Council...recommends that exposure to iodine not exceed 150 micrograms per day (Rtg/day) (ASTDR, 2003). The major health effect of concern with excess iodine exposure by...of biological weaponry, methods for effective capture and neutralization of airborne microorganisms are of great interest. A new technology has been

  18. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  19. Facilities for radio-iodination.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, N W; Bhattacharyya, A K; Dunn, M J

    1980-02-01

    A fume cabinet with a sloping front, fitted with a chemical absorbing filter and extractor fan, but without exhaust ducting, appears to possess considerable advantages for radio-iodination work compared with standard fume cupboards.

  20. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    PubMed

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-09-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution.

  1. Lithium-iodine pacemaker cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.A.; Snyder, S.E.; DeVan, T.; Harney, M.J.; Harney, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium-iodine pacemaker cell is described as supplied by several manufacturers. The features of each design are discussed along with their effect on energy density, self-discharge and shape of the discharge curve. Differences in performance characteristics are related to morphology of the lithium iodine electrolyte and to the form of the cathode. A new, high-drain cell is mentioned which can supply 60 /mu/a/cm/sup 2/. 10 refs.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Place, D A; Scidmore, N C; McArthur, W P

    1988-01-01

    Murine hybridoma cell lines were developed which synthesized monoclonal antibodies against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-associated antigens. Monoclonal antibodies specific for an antigen(s) common to all A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates tested but not detected on other gram-negative oral plaque microorganisms or other Actinobacillus species were identified. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each serotype group of A. actinomycetemcomitans which did not bind to other Actinobacillus species or oral plaque microorganisms were also identified. PMID:3356470

  3. [Pitfalls of monoclonal gammopathy].

    PubMed

    Meuleman, N

    2013-09-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a frequent condition affecting at least 3% of the general population over 50 years. Usually, the diagnosis of MGUS is made accidentally during a biological assessment for other conditions. Although MGUS is most frequently a benign and asymptomatic disorder, it has well been described that MGUS could be a premalignant status and that the risk of transformation into myeloma or other lymphoproliferative disorders is estimated at 1% per year. MGUS can also be associated with other diseases than malignant disorders such as Infections, autoimmune diseases. In some case it could reflect rare but severe disorders that will be crucial not to miss the diagnosis.

  4. High-Performance Water-Iodinating Cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.

    1993-01-01

    High-performance cartridge contains bed of crystalline iodine iodinates water to near saturation in single pass. Cartridge includes stainless-steel housing equipped with inlet and outlet for water. Bed of iodine crystals divided into layers by polytetrafluoroethylene baffles. Holes made in baffles and positioned to maximize length of flow path through layers of iodine crystals. Resulting concentration of iodine biocidal; suppresses growth of microbes in stored water or disinfects contaminated equipment. Cartridge resists corrosion and can be stored wet. Reused several times before necessary to refill with fresh iodine crystals.

  5. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J; Jakubec, I

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  6. The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)

  7. Iodine deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Bucková, K; Klimes, I; Seboková, E

    2003-01-01

    Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative nutrition groups - 172 microg/l in vegetarians and 78 microg/l in vegans compared to 216 microg/l in subjects on a mixed diet. One fourth of the vegetarians and 80% of the vegans suffer from iodine deficiency (iodine excretion value below 100 microg/l) compared to 9% in the persons on a mixed nutrition. The results show that under conditions of alternative nutrition, there is a higher prevalence of iodine deficiency, which might be a consequence of exclusive or prevailing consumption of food of plant origin, no intake of fish and other sea products, as well as reduced iodine intake in the form of sea salt.

  8. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your treatment team. top of page What equipment is used? There is no equipment used during ... iodine therapy. top of page Who operates the equipment? There is no equipment used during radioactive iodine ...

  9. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  10. Dietary restriction causing iodine-deficient goitre.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Tim; Plumb, Emma; Callaghan, James; Jackson, Michael; Michaelis, Louise

    2015-08-01

    Iodine-deficient goitre was common in some parts of the UK prior to the introduction of salt iodisation. Many contemporary salt preparations do not contain much iodine, and there are renewed concerns about the iodine status of the population. We present a boy with severe allergy who developed goitre and significant thyroid dysfunction in association with an iodine-deficient 'food-restricted' diet. The case highlights the importance of a comprehensive nutritional assessment in all children on multiple food restrictions.

  11. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-06

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions' spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches).

  12. Sublimation of Iodine at Various Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenson, Ilya A.

    2005-01-01

    Various phenomena that are observed in the process of heating solid iodine in closed vessels at different pressures and temperatures are described. When solid iodine is heated in an evacuated ampoule where the pressure is less than 10(super -3), no noticeable color appears and immediate condensation of tiny iodine crystals is visible higher up on…

  13. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  14. Advanced prototype automated iodine monitor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The technique of detecting and measuring parts-per-million concentrations of aqueous iodine by direct spectrophotometric means is discussed, and development of a prototype Automated Iodine Monitoring/Controller System (AIMS) is elaborated. The present effort is directed primarily toward reducing the power requirement and the weight of the AIMS. Other objectives include determining the maximum concentration of iodine that can be dissolved in an alcohol solution, and in an aqueous potassium iodide solution. Also discussed are the effects of a no flow condition on iodine measurements and the effect of pH on spectrophotometric iodine determinations.

  15. Iodine deficiency, more than cretinism and goiter.

    PubMed

    Verheesen, R H; Schweitzer, C M

    2008-11-01

    Recent reports of the World Health Organization show iodine deficiency to be a worldwide occurring health problem. As iodine status is based on median urinary iodine excretion, even in countries regarded as iodine sufficient, a considerable part of the population may be iodine deficient. Iodine is a key element in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and as a consequence, severe iodine deficiency results in hypothyroidism, goiter, and cretinism with the well known biochemical alterations. However, it is also known that iodine deficiency may give rise to clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism without abnormality of thyroid hormone values. This led us to the hypothesis that iodine deficiency may give rise to subtle impairment of thyroid function leading to clinical syndromes resembling hypothyroidism or diseases that have been associated with the occurrence of hypothyroidism. We describe several clinical conditions possibly linked to iodine deficiency, a connection that has not been made thus far. In this paper we will focus on the relationship between iodine deficiency and obesity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), psychiatric disorders, fibromyalgia, and malignancies.

  16. Iodine biofortification of crops: agronomic biofortification, metabolic engineering and iodine bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2016-10-27

    Iodine deficiency is a widespread micronutrient malnutrition problem, and the addition of iodine to table salt represents the most common prophylaxis tool. The biofortification of crops with iodine is a recent strategy to further enrich the human diet with a potentially cost-effective, well accepted and bioavailable iodine source. Understanding how iodine functions in higher plants is key to establishing suitable biofortification approaches. This review describes the current knowledge regarding iodine physiology in higher plants, and provides updates on recent agronomic and metabolic engineering strategies of biofortification. Whereas the direct administration of iodine is effective to increase the iodine content in many plant species, a more sophisticated genetic engineering approach seems to be necessary for the iodine biofortification of some important staple crops.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies and neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miraldi, F. )

    1989-10-01

    Several antineuroblastoma monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have been described and two have been used in radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy in patients. MoAb 3F8 is a murine IgG3 antibody specific for the ganglioside GD2. Radioiodine-labeled 3F8 has been shown to specifically target human neuroblastoma in patients, and radioimmunoimaging with this agent has provided consistently high uptakes with tumor-to-background ratios of greater than or equal to 10:1. Radioimmunotherapy has been attempted with both MoAb 3F8 and MoAb UJ13A, and although encouraging results have been obtained, dosimetry data and tissue dose response information for these agents is lacking, which impedes the development of such therapy. 124I, a positron emitter, can be used with 3F8 in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to provide dosimetry information for radioimmunotherapy. The tumor radiation dose response from radiolabeled MoAb also can be followed with PET images with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scanning of neuroblastoma tumors. Results to date indicate that radioimmunoimaging has clinical use in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and the potential for radioimmunotherapy for this cancer remains high.48 references.

  18. Positron emission tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M.R.

    1990-12-01

    The overall objective for this research project is to develop methods for utilizing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). By labeling MAbs with positron-emitting nuclides, it should be possible to quantitate the dynamics of their three-dimensional distribution in vivo. Our long term goals are to apply this approach to investigate the following: normal tissue toxicity; radiation dose to the tumor; and early tumor imaging. The research plans of this proposal include the following specific aims: optimize labeling of MAbs with fluorine 18, bromine 76 and bromine 75; label MAb Mel-14 (reactive against human gliomas and melanomas) and its Fab and F(ab{prime}){sub 2} fragments while retaining immunoreactivity; determine the distribution of Mel-14 in athymic mice bearing human gliomas; determine pharmacokinetics of Mel-14 in nonhuman primates. Experiments with another MAb, TP-1, and iodine 124 and 131 are also planned. 8 figs.

  19. Positron emission tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies. Progress report, April 15, 1992--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    This research project is developing methods for utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). This report describes the development of methods for labeling MAbs and their fragments with positron-emitting halogen nuclides, fluorine-18 and iodine-124. These nulides were selected because of the widespread availability of F-18 and because of our extensive experience in the development of new protein radiohalogenation methods.

  20. Biologically available iodine in goitrogenic diets

    SciTech Connect

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1985-01-01

    Eight different sources of low-iodine diet (LID) were tested in mice over 14 years. The available iodine in each diet was measured by isotopic equilibration. Commercially prepared Remington diets contained 6.8 to 69.3 ng available iodine/g, and the results were usually different from shipment to shipment. Some samples produced greatly enlarged thyroids. The Remington diets from two sources were occasionally low in iodine but produced little thyroid enlargement. Between 1977 and 1980 only one shipment of Remington diet was found to contain less than 10 ng available I/g, and it resulted in large goiters. Since 1980 other compositions of LID have been used, but they caused additional abnormalities during breeding or chronic feeding. A low-iodine wheat diet produced goiter in mice more readily than in rats. In the course of testing for unavailable forms of dietary iodine, it was found that only 34.2% of thyroxine iodine was available to the thyroid iodine pool of mice. It is concluded that unidentified nutritional deficiency or dietary contaminants can alter the goitrogenic response to restricted iodine intake. Furthermore, at least one natural form of potential dietary iodine is incompletely available to mice.

  1. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  2. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  3. Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Vlasak, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentation is a degradation pathway ubiquitously observed in proteins despite the remarkable stability of peptide bond; proteins differ only by how much and where cleavage occurs. The goal of this review is to summarize reports regarding the non-enzymatic fragmentation of the peptide backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The sites in the polypeptide chain susceptible to fragmentation are determined by a multitude of factors. Insights are provided on the intimate chemical mechanisms that can make some bonds prone to cleavage due to the presence of specific side-chains. In addition to primary structure, the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have a significant impact in modulating the distribution of cleavage sites by altering local flexibility, accessibility to solvent or bringing in close proximity side chains that are remote in sequence. This review focuses on cleavage sites observed in the constant regions of mAbs, with special emphasis on hinge fragmentation. The mechanisms responsible for backbone cleavage are strongly dependent on pH and can be catalyzed by metals or radicals. The distribution of cleavage sites are different under acidic compared to basic conditions, with fragmentation rates exhibiting a minimum in the pH range 5–6; therefore, the overall fragmentation pattern observed for a mAb is a complex result of structural and solvent conditions. A critical review of the techniques used to monitor fragmentation is also presented; usually a compromise has to be made between a highly sensitive method with good fragment separation and the capability to identify the cleavage site. The effect of fragmentation on the function of a mAb must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis depending on whether cleavage sites are observed in the variable or constant regions, and on the mechanism of action of the molecule. PMID:21487244

  4. Overview of iodine generation for oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirásek, Vít.

    2012-01-01

    A review of the methods for generation of iodine for oxygen-iodine lasers (OIL) is presented. The chemical and physical methods for production of both atomic (AI) and molecular (MI) iodine have been searched in order to improve the efficiency and/or technology of OILs. These trials were motivated by the estimations that a substantial part of singlet oxygen (SO) could be saved with these methods and the onset of the laser active medium will be accelerated. Vapour of MI can be generated by the evaporation of solid or pressurized liquid I2, or synthesized in situ by the reaction of Cl2 with either HI or CuI2. The chemical methods of generation of AI are based on the substitution of I atom in a molecule of HI or ICl by another halogen atom produced usually chemically. The discharge methods include the dissociation of various iodine compounds (organic iodides, I2, HI) in the RF, MW, DC-pulsed or DC-vortex stabilized discharge. Combined methods use discharge dissociation of molecules (H2, F2) to gain atoms which subsequently react to replace AI from the iodine compound. The chemical methods were quite successful in producing AI (up to the 100% yield), but the enhancement of the laser performance was not reported. The discharge methods had been subsequently improving and are today able to produce up to 0.4 mmol/s of AI at the RF power of 500 W. A substantial enhancement of the discharge- OIL performance (up to 40%) was reported. In the case of Chemical-OIL, the enhancement was reported only under the conditions of a low I2/O2 ratio, where the "standard" I2 dissociation by SO is slow. The small-signal gain up to 0.3 %/cm was achieved on the supersonic COIL using the HI dissociated in the RF discharge. Due to the complicated kinetics of the RI-I-I2-SO system and a strong coupling with the gas flow and mixing, the theoretical description of the problem is difficult. It, however, seems that we can expect the major improvement of the OIL performance for those systems, where

  5. Effect of iodine disinfectant source and water quality parameters on soluble iodine speciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Joann; Hurst, Charles; Barkley, Robert; Dunham, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Investigations of iodine species distribution of various aqueous solutions of iodine disinfectants and water from equilibrated suspensions of triodide and pentaiodide resins were done at the University of Colorado for the Center for Space Environmental Health during 1992 and 1993. Direct measurements of three individual iodine species: I(-), I2 and I3(-), were made. In addition three measures of total titratable iodine species were used. It has been found that I2 and I3(-) solutions produce a significant fraction of the non-disinfecting species iodine I(-), ranging from 50 to 80% of added iodine, respectively, at pH values of approximately 5. Correspondingly, I2 solutions produce more than twice the concentration of disinfecting iodine species per mass iodine dose than I3(-) solutions. Both I(-) and I2 species were found in aqeuous extracts of pentaiodide resin, although no soluble species were detected with triiodide resin.

  6. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2016-12-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Current atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3+ HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed, with a rate coefficient calculated from statistical rate theory over the temperature range 260-300 K and at a pressure of 1000 hPa to be k(T) = 2.7 × 10-12 (300 K/T)2.66 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. This reaction is included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. The results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25 % of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. We suggest that active nighttime iodine can also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  7. Experimental investigation of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.L.; Babad, C.J.; Mulder, R.U.

    1985-11-01

    Short-term values of the iodine partition coefficient (IPC) were evaluated experimentally by an air/water system over the following ranges of conditions: temperature = 25 to 70/sup 0/C, pH = 5 to 9, and iodine concentration = 10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -2/ kg iodine/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/O. The experimental IPC values are relatively independent of temperature over the indicated range, but show a significant dependence on pH and iodine concentration. In basic solutions the short-term values are several orders of magnitude less than the true equilibrium values; in acid solutions, the differences are much less. These results are useful for predicting the disposition of iodine shortly (i.e., 1 to 10 h) after iodine has been released into an air/water environment.

  8. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Baidar, S.; Cuevas, C. A.; Koenig, T. K.; Fernandez, R. P.; Dix, B.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Campos, T. L.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (solar zenith angle < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer and a global atmospheric model with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 parts per trillion by volume), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, can be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modeled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent to, or even larger than, that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  9. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions.

    PubMed

    McFiggans, Gordon

    2005-02-10

    O'Dowd et al. describe the formation of marine aerosols from biogenic iodine and the growth of these aerosols into cloud-condensation nuclei (CCN). Based on chamber and modelling results, the authors suggest that biogenic organic iodine compounds emitted from macroalgae may be responsible for coastal particle bursts and that production of these compounds in the open ocean could increase CCN there too. It has since been shown that coastal particles are more likely to be produced from the photooxidation of molecular iodine. Moreover, I contend that open-ocean particle production and cloud enhancement do not result from emissions of organic iodine at atmospheric levels. For iodine particles to affect cloud properties over the remote ocean, an additional source of iodine is necessary as organic precursors cannot be responsible.

  10. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  11. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches). PMID:28067834

  12. Determining median urinary iodine concentration that indicates adequate iodine intake at population level.

    PubMed Central

    Delange, François; de Benoist, Bruno; Burgi, Hans

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urinary iodine concentration is the prime indicator of nutritional iodine status and is used to evaluate population-based iodine supplementation. In 1994, WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD recommended median urinary iodine concentrations for populations of 100- 200 micro g/l, assuming the 100 micro g/l threshold would limit concentrations <50 micro g/l to iodine in iodine-replete populations (schoolchildren and adults) and the proportion of concentrations <50 micro g/l. METHOD: A questionnaire on frequency distribution of urinary iodine in iodine-replete populations was circulated to 29 scientific groups. FINDINGS: Nineteen groups reported data from 48 populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >100 micro g/l. The total population was 55 892, including 35 661 (64%) schoolchildren. Median urinary iodine concentrations were 111-540 (median 201) micro g/l for all populations, 100-199 micro g/l in 23 (48%) populations and >/=200 micro g/l in 25 (52%). The frequencies of values <50 micro g/l were 0-20.8 (mean 4.8%) overall and 7.2% and 2.5% in populations with medians of 100-199 micro g/l and >200 micro g/l, respectively. The frequency reached 20% only in two places where iodine had been supplemented for <2 years. CONCLUSION: The frequency of urinary iodine concentrations <50 micro g/l in populations with median urinary iodine concentrations >/=100 micro g/l has been overestimated. The threshold of 100 micro g/l does not need to be increased. In populations, median urinary iodine concentrations of 100-200 micro g/l indicate adequate iodine intake and optimal iodine nutrition. PMID:12219154

  13. INACTIVATION OF PEPSIN BY IODINE AND THE ISOLATION OF DIIODO-TYROSINE FROM IODINATED PEPSIN

    PubMed Central

    Herriott, Roger M.

    1937-01-01

    In the presence of iodine at pH 5.0–6.0 a solution of pepsin absorbs iodine and the specific proteolytic activity of the solution decreases. The activity is less than 1 per cent of the original activity when the number of iodine atoms per mol of pepsin is 35–40. If the pH is 4.5 or less, iodine reacts very slowly and there is a correspondingly slower loss in activity. Glycyl tyrosine reacts with iodine in a manner similar to pepsin. Experiments were performed to determine the extent to which oxidation of pepsin by iodine occurs during iodination, and if such oxidation were responsible for the loss in enzymatic activity. Although the results were not absolutely decisive, there seems to be no appreciable oxidation taking place during iodination and no relationship between the slight oxidation and loss in peptic activity. From a dialyzed preparation of completely iodinated pepsin which was inactive and contained 13.4 per cent bound iodine, 82 per cent of the iodine was obtained in a solution which analyzed as a solution of diiodo-tyrosine. Because of the presence of a material which contained no iodine and prevented quantitative crystallization, only 53 per cent of the iodine containing substance could be crystallized. This 53 per cent was, however, identified as diiodo-tyrosine. The part of the titration curve which in pepsin and most proteins represents the phenolic group of tyrosine was, in the curve for iodinated pepsin, shifted toward the acid region as expected. From these results, it appears that the loss in proteolytic activity of pepsin, when treated with iodine under the specified conditions, is due to the reaction of the iodine with the tyrosine in pepsin. PMID:19872995

  14. Effect of chloramine-T labeling conditions on the stability of monoclonal antibodies and their fragments

    SciTech Connect

    DeNardo, G.L.; DeNardo, S.J.; Miyao, N.P.; Peng, J.S.; Epstein, A.L.; Cardiff, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Rapid in vivo degradation of radioiodinated monoclonal antibodies (MAb) has been reported. Conditions for radioiodination have varied. The purposes of this study were to compare the stability of MAb and their fragments when iodinated with chloramine-T (CT) under different conditions, and to compare methods for quality assessment of the radioiodinated molecules. A B-cell lymphoma MAb (Lym-1, IgG2a) and its FAb fragment, and a mammary cancer MAb(B6.01, IgG1) and its F(Ab')/sub 2/ fragment were iodinated with I-125 at CT:AB and I:Ab ratios of 1:1 and 1:10. Molecular sieving (TSK-3000) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE) at 11 and 45 minutes and solid phase immunoreactivity (IRA) were used to observe stability of the molecules when stored at 4/sup 0/C. Radiochemical yield was greater than 95% in all instances. Iodination at CT:Ab and I:Ab ratios of 1:1 induced progressive degradation in all species which was most marked for the fragments. Iodination at CT:Ab and I:Ab ratios of 1:10 resulted in no observable degradation over 21 days. There was no significant difference in degradation between the IgG2a and IgG1 antibody when iodinated under identical circumstances. HPLC, CAE for 11 minutes and IRA, but not CAE for 45 minutes, revealed comparable changes. The authors conclude that lesser amounts of chloramine-T can be used to iodinate MAb and their fragments without loss of radiochemical efficiency and with improved stability of the species. MAb fragments are more vulnerable to chloramine-T. These observations may explain, at least in part, rapid in vivo degradation of radioiodinated MAb.

  15. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER William A. Hargus, Jr. 5e. TASK NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Briefing Charts presented at Gaseous Electronics Conference; Raleigh, NC; 5 November 2014. PA#14517 14. ABSTRACT Iodine (I2) has been...discussed seriously as a propellant for Hall effect and other electrostatic thrusters as early as 2000. Atomic iodine has a mass of 126.9 amu, but as

  16. Disposal of radioactive iodine in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Defield, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of space disposal of iodine waste from nuclear power reactors is investigated. The space transportation system utilized relies upon the space shuttle, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen orbit transfer vehicle, and a solid propellant final stage. The iodine is assumed to be in the form of either an iodide or an iodate, and calculations assume that the final destination is either solar orbit or solar system escape. It is concluded that space disposal of iodine is feasible.

  17. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  18. Immunolocalization of neuroblastoma using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody UJ13A

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.; Vivian, G.; Gordon, I.; Pritchard, J.; Kemshead, J.

    1984-08-01

    The monoclonal antibody UJ13A, raised after immunization of mice with human fetal brain, recognized an antigen expressed on human neuroblastoma cell lines and fresh tumors. Antibody was purified and radiolabeled with iodine isotopes using chloramine-T. In preclinical studies, 125I-labeled UJ13A was injected intravenously into nude mice bearing xenografts of human neuroblastoma. Radiolabeled UJ13A uptake by the tumors was four to 23 times greater than that by blood. In control animals, injected with a similar quantity of a monoclonal antibody known not to bind to neuroblastoma cells in vitro (FD44), there was no selective tumor uptake. Nine patients with histologically confirmed neuroblastoma each received 100 to 300 micrograms UJ13A radiolabeled with 1 to 2.8 mCi 123I or 131I. Sixteen positive sites were visible on gamma scans 1 to 7 days after injection: 15 were primary or secondary tumor sites, and one was a false positive; there were two false negatives. In two of the 15 positive sites, tumor had not been demonstrated by other imaging techniques; these were later confirmed as areas of malignant infiltration. No toxicity was encountered.

  19. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Baidar, Sunil; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Koening, Theodore; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Dix, Barbara; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Campos, Teresa L.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    There are still many uncertainties about the influence of iodine chemistry in the stratosphere, as the real amount of reactive iodine injected to this layer the troposphere and the partitioning of iodine species are still unknown. In this work we report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (SZA < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer (TORERO campaign) and a 3D global chemistry-climate model (CAM-Chem) with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 pptv), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, could be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modelled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent or even larger than that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  20. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Sarma, Debajit; Malliakas, Christos; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-04-14

    Iodine (129I) is one of the radionuclides released in nuclear fuel reprocessing and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. In order to prevent the leaching of hazardous radioactive iodine into the environment, its effective capture and sequestration is pivotal. In the context of finding a suitable matrix for capturing radioactive iodine the chalcogels, NiMoS4, CoMoS4, Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx (x = 4-5) were explored as iodine sorbents. All the chalcogels showed high uptake, reaching up to 225 mass% (2.25 g/g) of the final mass owing to strong chemical and physical iodine-chalcogen interactions. Analysis of the iodine-loaded specimens revealed that the iodine chemically reacted with Sb4Sn4S12, Zn2Sn2S6, and CoSx to form metal complexes SbI3, SnI4, and, KI respectively. The NiMoS4 and CoMoS4 chalcogels did not appear to undergo a chemical reaction with iodine since iodide complexes were not observed with these samples. Once heated, the iodine-loaded chalcogels released iodine in the temperature range of 75 °C to 220 °C, depending on the nature of iodine speciation. In the case of Sb4Sn4S12 and Zn2Sn2S6 iodine release was observed around 150 °C in the form of SnI4 and SbI3, respectively. The NiMoS4, CoMoS4, and CoSx released iodine at ~75 °C, which is consistent with physisorbed iodine. Preliminary investigations on consolidation of iodine-loaded Zn2Sn2S6 with Sb2S3 as a glass forming additive showed the content of iodine in consolidated glass ingots at around 25 mass%.

  1. Automated iodine monitor system. [for aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of a direct spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water was established. An iodine colorimeter, was built to demonstrate the practicality of this technique. The specificity of this method was verified when applied to an on-line system where a reference solution cannot be used, and a preliminary design is presented for an automated iodine measuring and controlling system meeting the desired specifications. An Automated iodine monitor/controller system based on this preliminary design was built, tested, and delivered to the Johnson Space Center.

  2. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  3. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  4. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2013-04-09

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  5. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-22

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  6. Historical aspects of iodine deficiency control.

    PubMed

    Vanderpas, Jean-Baptiste; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.

  7. Atmospheric iodine levels influenced by sea surface emissions of inorganic iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Lucy J.; MacDonald, Samantha M.; Shaw, Marvin D.; Kumar, Ravi; Saunders, Russell W.; Parthipan, Rajendran; Wilson, Julie; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-02-01

    Naturally occurring bromine- and iodine-containing compounds substantially reduce regional, and possibly even global, tropospheric ozone levels. As such, these halogen gases reduce the global warming effects of ozone in the troposphere, and its capacity to initiate the chemical removal of hydrocarbons such as methane. The majority of halogen-related surface ozone destruction is attributable to iodine chemistry. So far, organic iodine compounds have been assumed to serve as the main source of oceanic iodine emissions. However, known organic sources of atmospheric iodine cannot account for gas-phase iodine oxide concentrations in the lower troposphere over the tropical oceans. Here, we quantify gaseous emissions of inorganic iodine following the reaction of iodide with ozone in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that the reaction of iodide with ozone leads to the formation of both molecular iodine and hypoiodous acid. Using a kinetic box model of the sea surface layer and a one-dimensional model of the marine boundary layer, we show that the reaction of ozone with iodide on the sea surface could account for around 75% of observed iodine oxide levels over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. According to the sea surface model, hypoiodous acid--not previously considered as an oceanic source of iodine--is emitted at a rate ten-fold higher than that of molecular iodine under ambient conditions.

  8. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  9. Modeling the complex bromate-iodine reaction.

    PubMed

    Machado, Priscilla B; Faria, Roberto B

    2009-05-07

    In this article, it is shown that the FLEK model (ref 5 ) is able to model the experimental results of the bromate-iodine clock reaction. Five different complex chemical systems, the bromate-iodide clock and oscillating reactions, the bromite-iodide clock and oscillating reactions, and now the bromate-iodine clock reaction are adequately accounted for by the FLEK model.

  10. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard B.; Muyskens, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Clock reactions based upon competing oxidation and reduction reactions of iodine and starch as the most popular type of chemistry example is presented to illustrate the redox phenomena, reaction kinetics, and principles of chemical titration. The examination of the photophysical principles underlying the iodine fluorescence quenching clock…

  11. Iodine concentration of organic and conventional milk: implications for iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Button, Suzanne; Rayman, Margaret P

    2012-04-01

    Iodine is required for adequate thyroid hormone production, which is essential for brain development, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Milk is the principal source of iodine in UK diets, and while small studies in Europe have shown organic milk to have a lower iodine concentration than conventional milk, no such study has been conducted in Britain. In view of the increasing popularity of organic milk in the UK, we aimed to compare the iodine concentration of retail organic and conventional milk and to evaluate regional influences in iodine levels. Samples of organic milk (n 92) and conventional milk (n 80), purchased from retail outlets in sixteen areas of the UK (southern England, Wales and Northern Ireland), were analysed for iodine using inductively coupled plasma MS. The region of origin of the milk was determined from information on the label. Organic milk was 42·1 % lower in iodine content than conventional milk (median iodine concentration 144·5 v. 249·5 ng/g; P < 0·001). There was no difference in the iodine concentration of either conventional or organic milk by area of purchase. However, a difference was seen in iodine concentration of organic milk by region of origin (P < 0·001). The lower iodine concentration of organic milk has public-health implications, particularly in view of emerging evidence of iodine deficiency in UK population sub-groups, including pregnant women. Individuals who choose organic milk should be aware that their iodine intake may be compromised and should ensure adequate iodine intake from alternative sources.

  12. Fluorescence analysis of iodinated acetophenone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Crivelaro, F; Oliveira, M R S; Lima, S M; Andrade, L H C; Casagrande, G A; Raminelli, C; Caires, A R L

    2015-03-15

    In the present paper the synthesis and optical characterization of iodinated acetophenone, 4-hydroxy-3-iodoacetophenone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodoacetophenone obtained from 4-hydroxyacetophenone, were carried out. The optical features of iodinated molecules were determined by performing the UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and thermal lens spectroscopies. The results showed that the optical properties of the 4-hydroxyacetophenone is altered when the iodine atom is inserted, as substituent, in the aromatic ring. Although it was determined that the optical feature was changed when one iodine atom was inserted in the aromatic ring (4-hydroxy-3-iodoacetophenone), the results revealed that emission behavior was strongly altered when two iodine atoms (4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodoacetophenone) were acting as substituents: the fluorescence quantum efficiency increases approximately 60%.

  13. Global modeling of tropospheric iodine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwen, Tomás. M.; Evans, Mat J.; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Chance, Rosie; Baker, Alex R.; Schmidt, Johan A.; Breider, Thomas J.

    2016-09-01

    Natural aerosols play a central role in the Earth system. The conversion of dimethyl sulfide to sulfuric acid is the dominant source of oceanic secondary aerosol. Ocean emitted iodine can also produce aerosol. Using a GEOS-Chem model, we present a simulation of iodine aerosol. The simulation compares well with the limited observational data set. Iodine aerosol concentrations are highest in the tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) averaging 5.2 ng (I) m-3 with monthly maximum concentrations of 90 ng (I) m-3. These masses are small compared to sulfate (0.75% of MBL burden, up to 11% regionally) but are more significant compared to dimethyl sulfide sourced sulfate (3% of the MBL burden, up to 101% regionally). In the preindustrial, iodine aerosol makes up 0.88% of the MBL burden sulfate mass and regionally up to 21%. Iodine aerosol may be an important regional mechanism for ocean-atmosphere interaction.

  14. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from April 1, 1985 to Sept. 30, 1985 under NASA grant NAS1-441 entitled direct solar pumped iodine laser amplifier. During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator was carried out before the amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period following completion of the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) the radiation characteristics of solar simulator and the parametric characteristics of photodissociation iodine laser continuously pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies in Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Thomas A.

    1991-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been applied clinically to the diagnosis and therapy of an array of human disorders, including cancer and infectious diseases, and have been used for the modulation of immune responses. Effective therapy using unmodified monoclonal antibodies has, however, been elusive. Recently, monoclonal antibody-mediated therapy has been revolutionized by advances such as the definition of cell-surface structures on abnormal cells as targets for effective monoclonal antibody action, genetic engineering to create less immunogenic and more effective monoclonal antibodies, and the arming of such antibodies with toxins or radionuclides to enhance their effector function.

  16. Site-specific covalent modification of monoclonal antibodies: in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

    PubMed Central

    Rodwell, J D; Alvarez, V L; Lee, C; Lopes, A D; Goers, J W; King, H D; Powsner, H J; McKearn, T J

    1986-01-01

    A strategy for covalent modification of monoclonal antibodies utilizing the oxidized oligosaccharide moieties on the molecule was evaluated and compared to more conventional methods. As judged by quantitative in vitro measurements, a monoclonal antibody conjugate prepared via the oligosaccharides retained the homogeneous antigen binding property and affinity of the unmodified antibody. In contrast, conjugates of the same antibody, modified to the same degree on either lysines or aspartic and glutamic acid side chains, were heterogeneous in their antigen binding and had lowered affinity. In vivo biodistribution and nuclear-imaging experiments were also performed with a second monoclonal antibody and a tumor xenograft model. Antibodies modified on the oligosaccharides with either a peptide labeled with iodine-125 or a diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid chelate with indium-111 localize into target tumors more efficiently than the same antibody radiolabeled on either tyrosines or lysines. These in vivo results, when compared to those reported in the literature for conventionally modified antibodies, suggest that oligosaccharide modification of monoclonal antibodies is a preferred method of preparing conjugates. Images PMID:3458222

  17. [Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and monoclonal B-lymphocytosis].

    PubMed

    Hübel, K; Hallek, M

    2013-06-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and monoclonal B lymphocytosis (MBL) are asymptomatic premalignant conditions which can progress to a symptomatic disease state requiring therapy. Considering the high prevalence rate of these disorders, precursor patients are often diagnosed during routine clinical examinations. Only a minor portion of cases progress to overt malignancies, which raises the question of how to identify patients with the probability of progression. In recent years improvements in the understanding of the pathogenesis of both disorders led to the development of risk models and the estimation of the individual risk of progression. The definition of high-risk and low-risk patients allows a tailored clinical management. This report provides information on the biology, risk stratification, diagnosis, and follow-up of patients with MGUS and MBL.

  18. Changes in the regulation of iodine crystals and chemical mixtures containing over 2.2 percent iodine. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-07-02

    This rulemaking changes the regulation of the listed chemical iodine under the chemical regulatory provisions of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) believes that this action is necessary to remove deficiencies in the existing regulatory controls, which have been exploited by drug traffickers who divert iodine (in the form of iodine crystals and iodine tincture) for the illicit production of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories. This rulemaking moves iodine from List II to List I; reduces the iodine threshold from 0.4 kilograms to zero kilograms; adds import and export regulatory controls; and controls chemical mixtures containing greater than 2.2 percent iodine. This rulemaking establishes regulatory controls that will apply to iodine crystals and iodine chemical mixtures that contain greater than 2.2 percent iodine. This regulation therefore controls iodine crystals and strong iodine tinctures/solutions (e.g., 7 percent iodine) that do not have common household uses and instead have limited application in livestock, horses, and for disinfection of equipment. Household products such as 2 percent iodine tincture/solution and household disinfectants containing iodine complexes will not be adversely impacted by this regulation. Additionally, the final rule exempts transactions of up to one-fluid-ounce (30 ml) of Lugol's Solution. Persons handling regulated iodine materials are required to register with DEA, are subject to the import/export notification requirements of the CSA, and are required to maintain records of all regulated transactions involving iodine regardless of size.

  19. [Evolution of monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Kubczak, Małgorzata; Rogalińska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Since late 90s of last century the new age of directed therapy began using mainly biological constructs produced in rodents called monoclonal antibodies. The side effects of monoclonal antibodies were a challenge for pharmaceutical companies to improve the biological properties of these biological drugs. The humanization of monoclonal constructs was an idea to improve monoclonal antibodies next generation activity cancer cell reduction in humans. Moreover for some other patients sensitive for monoclonal antibodies therapy could also potentially induce immunological differences that might imply on human health. The new idea related to monoclonal antibodies was to design a small molecule constructs of nanoantibodies with ability to enter into cells. Such small molecules could find their targets inside human cells, even in nuclei leading to differences in cancer cells expression. The existing knowledge on monoclonal antibodies as well as directed activity of nanoantibodies could improve anticancer treatment efficancy of diseases.

  20. Current Iodine Nutrition Status and Awareness of Iodine Deficiency in Tuguegarao, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Seok, Kwang-Hyuk; Lee, Andrew S.; Oak, Chul Ho; Kim, Ghi Chan; Jeong, Chae-Kyeong; Choi, Sung In; Afidchao, Pablo M.; Choi, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is one of the countries where adequate iodine status has been achieved. However, iodine deficiency still remains an important public health problem in this country. In this study, we evaluated iodine nutrition status and investigated an awareness status of iodine deficiency targeting high school students of Tuguegarao, Philippines. A total of 260 students provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, among which 146 students completed thyroid volume measurement by ultrasonography and answering the questionnaires. The median urinary iodine level was 355.3 µg/L and only 3.8% of the students were in the range of iodine deficiency status according to the ICCIDD criteria. Although 62.3% of students answered that they can list problems resulting from iodine deficiency, a majority of students (70.5%) were unable to identify problems other than goiter. They did not appreciate that adequate iodine levels are important during pregnancy and for development of children. 33.6% of students answered that they did not use iodized salt and the biggest reason was that they did not find it necessary. Based on these results, we suggest that a future strategy should be focused on vulnerable groups to completely eliminate iodine deficiency, including women at their reproductive ages and during pregnancy. PMID:25374598

  1. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-09

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries.

  2. Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, H; Hollowell, J

    2000-01-01

    Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. PMID:10964787

  3. The disorders induced by iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Delange, F

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews present knowledge on the etiology, pathophysiology, complications, prevention, and therapy of the disorders induced by iodine deficiency. The recommended dietary allowances of iodine are 100 micrograms/day for adults and adolescents, 60-100 micrograms/day for children aged 1 to 10 years, and 35-40 micrograms/day in infants aged less than 1 year. When the physiological requirements of iodine are not met in a given population, a series of functional and developmental abnormalities occur including thyroid function abnormalities and, when iodine deficiency is severe, endemic goiter and cretinism, endemic mental retardation, decreased fertility rate, increased perinatal death, and infant mortality. These complications, which constitute a hindrance to the development of the affected populations, are grouped under the general heading of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). At least one billion people are at risk of IDD. Iodine deficiency, therefore, constitutes one of the most common preventable causes of mental deficiency in the world today. Most of the affected populations live in mountainous areas in preindustrialized countries, but 50 to 100 million people are still at risk in Europe. The most important target groups to the effects of iodine deficiency from a public health point of view are pregnant mothers, fetuses, neonates, and young infants because the main complication of IDD, i.e., brain damage resulting in irreversible mental retardation, is the consequence of thyroid failure occurring during pregnancy, fetal, and early postnatal life. The main cause of endemic goiter and cretinism is an insufficient dietary supply of iodine. The additional role of naturally occurring goitrogens has been documented in the case of certain foods (milk, cassava, millet, nuts) and bacterial and chemical water pollutants. The mechanism by which the thyroid gland adapts to an insufficient iodine supply is to increase the trapping of iodide as well as the subsequent

  4. Current global iodine status and progress over the last decade towards the elimination of iodine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria; Takkouche, Bahi; Egli, Ines; Allen, Henrietta E.; de Benoist, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate worldwide iodine nutrition and monitor country progress towards sustained elimination of iodine deficiency disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on urinary iodine (UI) and total goitre prevalence (TGP) in school-age children from 1993-2003 compiled in the WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency were analysed. The median UI was used to classify countries according to the public health significance of their iodine nutrition status. Estimates of the global and regional populations with insufficient iodine intake were based on the proportion of each country's population with UI below 100 microg/l. TGP was computed for trend analysis over 10 years. FINDINGS: UI data were available for 92.1% of the world's school-age children. Iodine deficiency is still a public health problem in 54 countries. A total of 36.5% (285 million) school-age children were estimated to have an insufficient iodine intake, ranging from 10.1% in the WHO Region of the Americas to 59.9% in the European Region. Extrapolating this prevalence to the general population generated an estimate of nearly two billion individuals with insufficient iodine intake. Iodine intake was more than adequate, or excessive, in 29 countries. Global TGP in the general population was 15.8%. CONCLUSION: Forty-three countries have reached optimal iodine nutrition. Strengthened UI monitoring is required to ensure that salt iodization is having the desired impact, to identify at-risk populations and to ensure sustainable prevention and control of iodine deficiency. Efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency should be maintained and expanded. PMID:16175826

  5. Radioimmunoguided surgery using iodine 125 B72. 3 in patients with colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.M.; Martin, E.W. Jr.; Lavery, I.; Daly, J.; Sardi, A.; Aitken, D.; Bland, K.; Mojzisik, C.; Hinkle, G. )

    1991-03-01

    Preliminary data using B72.3 murine monoclonal antibody labeled with iodine 125 suggested that both clinically apparent as well as occult sites of colorectal cancer could be identified intraoperatively using a hand-held gamma detecting probe. We report the preliminary data of a multicenter trial of this approach in patients with primary or recurrent colorectal cancer. One hundred four patients with primary, suspected, or known recurrent colorectal cancer received an intravenous infusion of 1 mg of B72.3 monoclonal antibody radiolabeled with 7.4 x 10 Bq of iodine 125. Twenty-six patients with primary colorectal cancer and 72 patients with recurrent colorectal cancer were examined. Using the gamma detecting probe, 78% of the patients had localization of the antibody in their tumor; this included 75% of primary tumor sites and 63% of all recurrent tumor sites; 9.2% of all tumor sites identified represented occult sites detected only with the gamma detecting probe. The overall sensitivity was 77% and a predictive value of a positive detection was 78%. A total of 30 occult sites in 26 patients were identified. In patients with recurrent cancer, the antibody study provided unique data that precluded resection in 10 patients, and in another eight patients it extended the potentially curative procedure.

  6. History of U.S. Iodine Fortification and Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age. PMID:23201844

  7. Thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Laurent; Gaona, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    A critical evaluation has been made of the thermodynamic properties reported in the literature for 43 organic iodine compounds in the solid, liquid, or ideal gas state. These compounds include aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic iodides, iodophenols, iodocarboxylic acids, and acetyl and benzoyl iodides. The evaluation has been made on the basis of carbon number systematics and group additivity relations, which also allowed to provide estimates of the thermodynamic properties of those compounds for which no experimental data were available. Standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 °C and 1 bar and heat capacity coefficients are reported for 13 crystalline, 29 liquid, and 39 ideal gas organic iodine compounds, which can be used to calculate the corresponding properties as a function of temperature and pressure. Values derived for the standard molal Gibbs energy of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of these crystalline, liquid, and ideal gas organic iodine compounds have subsequently been combined with either solubility measurements or gas/water partition coefficients to obtain values for the standard partial molal Gibbs energies of formation at 25 °C and 1 bar of 32 aqueous organic iodine compounds. The thermodynamic properties of organic iodine compounds calculated in the present study can be used together with those for aqueous inorganic iodine species to predict the organic/inorganic speciation of iodine in marine sediments and petroleum systems, or in the near- and far-field of nuclear waste repositories.

  8. The way forward in Italy for iodine.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Antonella; DI Cosmo, Caterina; DE Angelis, Simona; DA Cas, Roberto; Stacchini, Paolo; Pastorelli, Augusto; Vitti, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Italy is dealing with iodine deficiency since ancient times. In 1848 an ad hoc committee appointed by the king of Sardinia, identified extensive areas afflicted by endemic goiter and endemic cretinism in Piedmont, Liguria and Sardinia. Since then many epidemiological studies have been conducted in our country. These showed that iodine deficiency was present not only in mountain areas but also in coastal areas. In 1972 the iodization of salt at 15 mg/kg was allowed by law and iodized salt was distributed on request to selected endemic areas. Five years later the distribution was extended to the whole country. However the sale of iodized salt was not mandatory at that time and only a small fraction of the Italian population started using iodized salt. In 1991 the content of iodine in the salt was raised to 30 mg/kg and in 2005 a nationwide salt iodization program was finally implemented. Some years later a nationwide monitoring program of iodine prophylaxis was also implemented. Since 2005 the sale of iodized salt in Italian supermarkets has increased (34% in 2006, 55% in 2012), although it has been observed that the use of iodized salt is still low in the communal eating areas and in the food industry. These data are coherent with recent epidemiological studies showing that some regions in our country are still characterized by mild iodine deficiency and a high frequency of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. This implies that further efforts should be made to successfully correct iodine deficiency in Italy.

  9. Method and apparatus for removing iodine from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing iodine-131 and iodine-125 from a liquid sodium reactor coolant. Non-radioactive iodine is dissolved in hot liquid sodium to increase the total iodine concentration. Subsequent precipitation of the iodine in a cold trap removes both the radioactive iodine isotopes as well as the non-radioactive iodine.

  10. Computation of iodine species concentrations in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Flanagan, David T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    During an evaluation of the use of iodine as a water disinfectant and the development of methods for measuring various iodine species in water onboard Space Freedom, it became necessary to compute the concentration of the various species based on equilibrium principles alone. Of particular concern was the case when various amounts of iodine, iodide, strong acid, and strong base are added to water. Such solutions can be used to evaluate the performance of various monitoring methods being considered. The authors of this paper present an overview of aqueous iodine chemistry, a set of nonlinear equations which can be used to model the above case, and a computer program for solving this system of equations using the Newton-Raphson method. The program was validated by comparing results over a range of concentrations and pH values with those previously presented by Gottardi for a given pH. Use of this program indicated that there are multiple roots to many cases and selecting an appropriate initial guess is important. Comparison of program results with laboratory results for the case when only iodine is added to water indicates the program gives high pH values for the iodine concentrations normally used for water disinfection. Extending the model to include the effects of iodate formation results in the computer pH values being closer to those observed, but the model with iodate does not agree well for the case in which base is added in addition to iodine to raise the pH. Potential explanations include failure to obtain equilibrium conditions in the lab, inaccuracies in published values for the equilibrium constants, and inadequate model of iodine chemistry and/or the lack of adequate analytical methods for measuring the various iodine species in water.

  11. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    SciTech Connect

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-07-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour /sup 123/I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women.

  12. [Sanitary and technological solutions of the elimination of iodine deficiency by iodination of drinking water].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Kir'ianova, L F; Mikhaĭlova, R I; Sevost'ianova, E M; Ryzhova, I N; Alekseeva, A B; Nedachin, A E

    2001-01-01

    Comprehensive studies of the sanitary standards provided research evidence for the maximum allowable concentrations of iodine in the drinking water by taking into account its daily allowances dose and the formation of transformation by-products due to iodine disinfection, drinking water preservation, and iodine deficiency prevention in the endemic areas. Techniques of water iodination have been devised and tested in the experimental and industrial setting, including those for packaging drinking water, as well as those by using portable water purifiers based on highly effective iodine-selective adsorptive compounds which make it possible to solve the task of administering iodine dosages into the water (with allowances born in mind), under domestic conditions as well.

  13. Modeling an Iodine Hall Thruster Plume in the Iodine Satellite (ISAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    An iodine-operated 200-W Hall thruster plume has been simulated using a hybrid-PIC model to predict the spacecraft surface-plume interaction for spacecraft integration purposes. For validation of the model, the plasma potential, electron temperature, ion current flux, and ion number density of xenon propellant were compared with available measurement data at the nominal operating condition. To simulate iodine plasma, various collision cross sections were found and used in the model. While time-varying atomic iodine species (i.e., I, I+, I2+) information is provided by HP Hall simulation at the discharge channel exit, the molecular iodine species (i.e., I2, I2+) are introduced as Maxwellian particles at the channel exit. Simulation results show that xenon and iodine plasma plumes appear to be very similar under the assumptions of the model. Assuming a sticking coefficient of unity, iodine deposition rate is estimated.

  14. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex.

  15. Method for immobilizing radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Babad, Harry; Strachan, Denis M.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive iodine, present as alkali metal iodides or iodates in an aqueous solution, is incorporated into an inert solid material for long-term storage by adding to the solution a stoichiometric amount with respect to the formation of a sodalite (3M.sub.2 O.3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. 6SiO.sub.2.2MX, where M=alkali metal; X=I.sup.- or IO.sub.3.sup.-) of an alkali metal, alumina and silica, stirring the solution to form a homogeneous mixture, drying the mixture to form a powder, compacting and sintering the compacted powder at 1073 to 1373 K (800.degree. to 1100.degree. C.) for a time sufficient to form sodalite.

  16. Stabilized Iodine Flow for Long Run Time Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    United States Government retains a nonexclusive royalty- free license to publish or reproduce the material contained herein, or allow others to do so, for...4 Flowchart of iodine control logic. 8 5 Variation of iodine flow on the RADICL device in the absence of active control. 11 6 Variation of iodine...flow on the RADICL device in the presence of active control. 11 7 The run helium purposely started low to observe the recovery of the control system. 13

  17. Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?

    PubMed

    Smyth, P P A; Burns, R; Huang, R J; Hoffman, T; Mullan, K; Graham, U; Seitz, K; Platt, U; O'Dowd, C

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary. Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I(2)) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method and iodine intake assessed by measuring urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Urine samples were obtained from female schoolchildren living in coastal seaweed rich and low seaweed abundance and inland areas of Ireland. Median I(2) ranged 154-905 pg/L (daytime downwind), with higher values (~1,287 pg/L) on still nights, 1,145-3,132 pg/L (over seaweed). A rough estimate of daily gaseous iodine intake in coastal areas, based upon an arbitrary respiration of 10,000L, ranged from 1 to 20 μg/day. Despite this relatively low potential I(2) intake, UI in populations living near a seaweed hotspot were much higher than in lower abundance seaweed coastal or inland areas (158, 71 and 58 μg/L, respectively). Higher values >150 μg/L were observed in 45.6% of (seaweed rich), 3.6% (lower seaweed), 2.3% (inland)) supporting the hypothesis that iodine intake in coastal regions may be dependent on seaweed abundance rather than proximity to the sea. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a significant role for iodine inhalation in influencing iodine status. Despite lacking iodized salt, coastal communities in seaweed-rich areas can maintain an adequate iodine supply. This observation brings new meaning to the expression "Sea air is good for you!"

  18. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    PubMed

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing.

  19. Critical evaluation of cadexomer-iodine ointment and povidone-iodine sugar ointment.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Kiori; Fujii, Satoshi

    2009-05-08

    Topical iodine forms are used for infected and necrotic pressure ulcers. Despite antimicrobial advantages several potential disadvantages were observed with controversial results. To clarify the controversy, the reactivity of povidone-iodine (PI) sugar ointment and cadexomer-iodine (CI) ointment toward biological components was investigated. L-Tyrosine as a component of proteins and egg lecithin as a component of lipid membranes were reacted with forms of iodine. Furthermore, water absorption abilities of ointments were investigated. The reactions of PI sugar ointment and CI ointment with L-tyrosine were reversely dependent on iodine concentrations. CI ointment reacted with lecithin in an iodine concentration dependent manner, while PI sugar ointment reacted with lecithin in an iodine concentration independent steady manner. However, at the clinically relevant iodine concentration (0.1, w/v%) PI sugar ointment reacted efficiently with L-tyrosine and less efficiently with lecithin, while CI ointment reacted efficiently with lecithin and less efficiently with L-tyrosine. Water absorption rate constant was 29.9 mg/cm(2)/min(0.5) for PI sugar ointment and 15.3 for CI ointment. Water absorption capacity per weight over 24 h was 26% forPI sugar ointment and 76% for CI ointment [corrected]. These results suggest that PI sugar ointment and CI ointment have different characteristics for iodine reactivity and water absorption.

  20. Single dose povidone-iodine on thyroid functions and urinary iodine excretion.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Teziç, H Tahsin; Zorlu, Pelin; Firat, Serap; Bilaloğlu, Eriş; Kutlu, Alev Oğuz

    2003-08-01

    The effect of single dose povidone-iodine on serum thyrotropin and thyroxine levels and urinary iodine excretion in 30 preterm, 40 full-term newborns and 50 infants at Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital was studied. There was no significant change of thyroid function in any of the groups (p>0.05). Urinary iodine excretion in preterm and full-term groups elevated significantly (p<0.05). The authors conclude that patients who receive single dose povidone-iodine for skin disinfection are not at risk for thyroid disorders.

  1. Recycling of iodine in fore-arc areas: evidence from the iodine brines in Chiba, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Fehn, Udo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of iodine in the Earth's crust is dominated by its accumulation in marine sediments. If fluxes between terrestrial and marine compartments are considered, however, a significant imbalance exists between known sources and sinks of iodine. We present here evidence from the fore-arc area near Chiba, Japan, the world's largest brine-iodine producing area, that iodine is mobilized from marine sediments during the early stages of subduction. Based on detailed chemical analyses of 22 brines and 129I dating of 13 of these samples collected from the Kazusa Formation, we show that iodine in these fluids is derived from organic-rich marine sediments with a minimum age of 50 Myr. Geochemical characteristics of the brines and the age of the iodine indicate that the iodine enrichment is caused by mobilization from subducting marine sediments and not by derivation from the host formation (age 1-2 Myr). The direct return of iodine from marine sediments into the oceans during the subduction of oceanic plates could provide the missing link in the iodine cycle and be an important pathway also in the marine cycle of carbon.

  2. Iodination and stability of somatostatin analogues: comparison of iodination techniques. A practical overview.

    PubMed

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Breeman, Wouter A P

    2012-01-01

    For iodination ((125/127)I) of tyrosine-containing peptides, chloramin-T, Pre-Coated Iodo-Gen(®) tubes and Iodo-Beads(®) (Pierce) are commonly used for in vitro radioligand investigations and there have been reliant vendors hereof for decades. However, commercial availability of these radio-iodinated peptides is decreasing. For continuation of our research in this field we investigated and optimized (radio-)iodination of somatostatin analogues. In literature, radioiodination using here described somatostatin analogues and iodination techniques are described separately. Here we present an overview, including High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) separation and characterisation by mass spectrometry, to obtain mono- and di-iodinated analogues. Reaction kinetics of (125/127)I iodinated somatostatin analogues were investigated as function of reaction time and concentration of reactants, including somatostatin analogues, iodine and oxidizing agent. To our knowledge, for the here described somatostatin analogues, no (127)I iodination and optimization are described. (Radio-)iodinated somatostatin analogues could be preserved with a >90% radiochemical purity for 1 month after reversed phase HPLC-purification.

  3. [Stable iodine as a prophylaxis therapy following exposure to radioactive iodines: pharmacological and pharmaceutical characteristics].

    PubMed

    Hosten, B; Rizzo-Padoin, N; Scherrmann, J-M; Bloch, V

    2012-03-01

    More or less rapid radio-induction of thyroidian cancers is the main pathological consequence of an accidental exposure to ingested or inhaled radioactive iodines following a nuclear power plant accident. The prophylactic administration of potassium iodine in a single oral dose has to be practiced as soon as possible after the nuclear accident. The efficacy of this therapy depends on pharmacokinetics of radioidines. Iodines are rapidly and completely absorbed as iodides. The radioactive iodines, mainly iodine 131, concentrate in the thyroid gland because of a carrier-mediated transport by the Na-I symporter. Administration of stable iodine results in the symporter blockade, which limits the uptake of radioactive iodines by the thyroid and the duration of the internal irradiation. This irradiation will never exceed 3days if the therapy is started between 6h before the accidental exposure and 1h after. The pharmacist asked to dispense the tablets of stable iodine has a important place because, besides his advices on the optimal modalities of taking stable iodine and the risks of unwanted effects, he extend these advices to information on the radioactive risk and on measures of civil and sanitary protection.

  4. Teaching the Rovibronic Spectroscopy of Molecular Iodine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2007-01-01

    The rovibronic spectroscopy of molecular iodine provides a clearer understanding of the electronic potential parameters of various systems to the undergraduate students. The technique also helps them to test the various other quantum mechanical concepts.

  5. The Electronic Spectrum of Iodine Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaught, Ian J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents equations and techniques for calculating and interpreting many of the spectroscopically important parameters associated with the ground and second excited states of the iodine molecule. (Author/CS)

  6. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about tositumomab and iodine I 131 tositumomab and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug combination, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  7. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator were carried out before amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period after completing the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) a 10 W CW iodine laser pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling to predict the time to lasing threshold, lasing time, and energy output of solar-pumped iodine laser; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  8. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle manually controlled readily automated to start and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is bed provides highly concentrated biocide source when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  9. The chlorate-iodine clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André P; Faria, Roberto B

    2005-12-28

    A clock reaction produced by mixing chlorate and iodine solutions in perchloric acid media is reported. This is the first example of a clock reaction using chlorate as a reagent. Increasing chlorate and acid concentration reduces the induction period. Changing the initial iodine concentration does not affect the length of the induction period. The discovery of this clock reaction opens the possibility that a new family of oscillation reactions can be built using chlorate as reagent.

  10. Monoclonal gammopathy-associated proliferative glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sanjeev; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy is characterized by circulating monoclonal immunoglobulin owing to clonal proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Clonal proliferation of B lymphocytes is seen in B-cell lymphoma/leukemia, and clonal plasma cell proliferation is seen in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. The monoclonal immunoglobulin in the setting of a B-cell or plasma cell disorder can cause a proliferative glomerulonephritis via 2 mechanisms: (1) glomerular deposition of the monoclonal immunoglobulin with activation of the classical pathway of complement (direct mechanism), resulting in an immunoglobulin-positive C3-positive glomerulonephritis, and (2) glomerular deposition of complement factors of the alternative and terminal pathway via inhibition of alternative pathway-regulating proteins by the monoclonal immunoglobulin (indirect mechanism), resulting in immunoglobulin-negative C3-positive glomerulonephritis (C3 glomerulopathy). Evaluation should include serum and urine electrophoresis and immunofixation as well as serum-free light-chain assay. If a monoclonal immunoglobulin is detected on these tests, bone marrow biopsy or imaging is needed to exclude more advanced plasma cell dyscrasia. Evaluation of alternative pathway of complement should be done in patients with Ig-negative C3-positive glomerulonephritis. If monoclonal gammopathy is due to an underlying malignant disease such as myeloma, lymphoma, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia, then specific treatment should be aimed at treating the malignant disease, with the goal of eradicating the clonal cells producing the immunoglobulin. In contrast, if monoclonal gammopathy is due to a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, treatment options include bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone for a non-IgM monoclonal immunoglobulin and rituximab alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone for an IgM monoclonal

  11. Modern and past volcanic degassing of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Auzende, A.-L.; Marocchi, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Munsch, P.; Testemale, D.; Mézouar, M.; Kubsky, S.; Carrière, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experiments have been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partition coefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1-1.8 GPa and 500-900 °C, range from 41 to 1.92, values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing with water is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicate melt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subduction related volcanism of 0.16-2.4 kt yr-1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, having possible consequences on the Earth's ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a process that may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depleted being iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early water degassing process from the magma ocean.

  12. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Karen; Probst, Yasmine; Kiene, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographical remoteness (N = 7735). The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements) was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496) and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772). The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488). Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001) for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001) compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001). Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required. PMID:27827915

  13. Iodine derivatives of chemically modified gum Arabic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat A; Ali, Akbar; Mazumdar, Nasreen

    2015-09-20

    Acetylated gum Arabic (AGA) derivatives with different degrees of substitution (DS 0.97-2.74) were synthesized using acetyl chloride and a base under varying reaction conditions. The AGA derivatives were obtained in the form of microspheres and thereafter stable iodine products were prepared by doping the microspheres with an iodinating agent, iodine monochloride (ICl). The reaction between electrophilic iodine and polar carbonyl groups was studied by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, and UV-VIS spectroscopies. The products were also characterized by DSC, TGA and SEM studies. The incorporated iodine was released in aqueous medium as iodide ions (I(-)). A reaction scheme has been proposed for the iodination and de-iodination of the gum derivatives. This work suggests that the iodine derivatives of modified gum Arabic could be used as a source of iodide ions which is the nutritional form of iodine.

  14. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  15. Thyroid and iodine nutritional status: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanderpump, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition.

  16. Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dillman, R.O. )

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the current status of in-vivo use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Publications appearing between 1980 and 1988 were identified by computer searches using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT, by reviewing the table of contents of recently published journals, and by searching bibliographies of identified books and articles. More than 700 articles, including peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, were identified and selected for analysis. The literature was reviewed and 235 articles were selected as relevant and representative of the current issues and future applications for in-vivo monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy and of the toxicity and efficacy which has been associated with clinical trials. Approaches include using antibody alone (interacting with complement or effector cells or binding directly with certain cell receptors) and immunoconjugates (antibody coupled to radioisotopes, drugs, toxins, or other biologicals). Most experience has been with murine antibodies. Trials of antibody alone and radiolabeled antibodies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and the in-vivo trafficking of antibodies to tumor cells. However, tumor cell heterogeneity, lack of cytotoxicity, and the development of human antimouse antibodies have limited clinical efficacy. Although the immunoconjugates are very promising, heterogeneity and the antimouse immune response have hampered this approach as has the additional challenge of chemically or genetically coupling antibody to cytotoxic agents. As a therapeutic modality, monoclonal antibodies are still promising but their general use will be delayed for several years. New approaches using human antibodies and reducing the human antiglobulin response should facilitate treatment. 235 references.

  17. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  18. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  19. The uptake of elemental iodine vapour by bean leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, J. A.; Cox, L. C.

    Deposition of iodine vapour to leaves of phaseolus vulgaris was measured over a range of conditions of humidity, temperature and illumination. Transpiration measurements were used to deduce stomatal opening. The results showed that stomatal resistance controlled iodine absorption at relative humidities below 40 per cent, but that the rate of absorption of iodine increased by an order of magnitude when the relative humidity was raised to 80 per cent, presumably due to cuticular absorption. After exposure to iodine at high humidity, a substantial fraction of the iodine could be washed from the leaves. In Britain, cuticular uptake would probably dominate stomatal uptake of iodine on most occasions.

  20. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-10-15

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect.

  1. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  2. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  3. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  4. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  5. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  6. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine....

  7. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  8. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  9. Iodine toxicity and its amelioration.

    PubMed

    Baker, David H

    2004-06-01

    Iodine (I) toxicity is rare in animals and humans, but nuclear explosions that give off radioactive I and excessive stable I ingestion in parts of the world where seaweed is consumed represent specialized I toxicity concerns. Chronic overconsumption of I reduces organic binding of I by the thyroid gland, which results in hypothyroidism and goiter. Bromine can replace I on position 5 of both T(3) and T(4) with no loss of thyroid hormone activity. Avian work has also demonstrated that oral bromide salts can reverse the malaise and growth depressions caused by high doses of I (as KI) added as supplements to the diet. Newborn infants by virtue of having immature thyroid glands are most susceptible to I toxicity, whether of stable or radioactive origin. For the latter, the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Belarus has provided evidence that KI blockage therapy for exposed individuals 18 years of age and younger is effective in minimizing the development of thyroid cancer. Whether bromide therapy has a place in I toxicity situations remains to be determined.

  10. Single ionization of molecular iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dale L.; Tagliamonti, Vincent; Dragan, James; Gibson, George N.

    2017-01-01

    We performed a study of the single ionization of iodine, I2 over a range of wavelengths. Single ionization of I2 is unexpectedly found to have a contribution from inner molecular orbitals involving the 5 s electrons. The I+I+ dissociation channel was recorded through velocity map imaging, and the kinetic-energy release of each channel was determined with two-dimensional fitting of the images. Most of the measured kinetic-energy data were inconsistent with ionization to the X , A , and B states of I2 + , implying ionization from deeper orbitals. A pump-probe Fourier transform technique was used to look for modulation at the X - and A -state vibrational frequencies to see if they were intermediate states in a two-step process. X - and A -state modulation was seen only for kinetic-energy releases below 0.2 eV, consistent with dissociation through the B state. From these results and intensity-, polarization-, and wavelength-dependent experiments we found no evidence of bond softening, electron rescattering, or photon mediation through the X or A states to higher-energy single-ionization channels.

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies for Lipid Management.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Matthew J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, biochemical and genetic studies have identified proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) as a major mediator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and thereby a potential novel target for reducing risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). These observations led to the development of PCSK9 inhibitors, which lower LDL-c levels more than any other non-invasive lipid-lowering therapy presently available. The PCSK9 inhibitors furthest along in clinical trials are subcutaneously injected monoclonal antibodies. These PCSK9 inhibitors have demonstrated LDL-c-lowering efficacy with acceptable safety in phase III clinical trials and may offer a useful therapy in addition to maximally tolerated HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) in certain patient groups. Longer-term data are required to ensure sustained efficacy and safety of this new class of medications. This review provides an overview of the biology, genetics, development, and clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit PCSK9.

  12. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    PubMed

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (P< 0·001). The concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone increased from 1·5 (IQR 1·2-2·2) to 2·1 (IQR 1·3-2·9) mIU/l (P< 0·001), with two participants having concentrations exceeding the normal range after supplement ingestion (but normal free thyroxine concentrations). There was no change in the concentrations of other thyroid hormones after supplement ingestion. The seaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  13. Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Aishwarya; Go, Ronald S; Fervenza, Fernando C; Sethi, Sanjeev

    2017-03-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a rare disease comprising of a diverse set of disorders linked by a common histologic finding of endothelial injury. Monoclonal immunoglobulins may act as a potential trigger in the pathogenesis of TMA. To determine the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy and clinicopathological features of TMA associated with monoclonal immunoglobulin, we performed a retrospective study in adults (18 and older) with a clinical diagnosis of TMA. Of 146 patients with TMA, we detected monoclonal immunoglobulin in 20 patients (13.7%). Among patients 50 and older, the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy was 21%, which is approximately five-fold higher than the 4.2% expected rate in this population. Fifteen patients had monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, one had multiple myeloma, one with smoldering myeloma, two had POEMS syndrome, and one had T-cell lymphocytic leukemia. Renal biopsy was performed in 15 cases, of which six showed thrombi, 11 showed mesangiolysis, and all showed double contours along glomerular capillary walls. Acute tubular injury was present in 12 cases. Treatment options were varied and included therapeutic plasma exchange in 11 patients. Ten patients progressed to end-stage renal disease, of which two received kidney transplant. Thus, our study shows an unexpectedly high prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy in patients with TMA, suggesting a potential pathogenetic mechanism. This study underscores the importance of evaluating for a monoclonal gammopathy in patients with TMA as well as the potential for targeting the underlying hematologic disorder as an approach to treating TMA.

  14. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  15. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-15

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  16. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant women. Women living in a population with a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at or above 100 µg/l are not in need of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. On the other hand, if the population median UIC is below 100 µg/l, pregnant women should take iodine-containing supplements until the population in general has been iodine sufficient for at least 2 years by way of universal salt iodization. PMID:27099837

  17. Monoclonal antibodies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Multiple options are now available for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Over the last 10 years, monoclonal antibodies have become an integral part of the management of this disease. Alemtuzumab has received approval for use in patients with fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Rituximab has been investigated extensively in chronic lymphocytic leukemia both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy and other monoclonal antibodies. Epratuzumab and lumiliximab are newer monoclonal antibodies in the early phase of clinical development. This article will review the monoclonal antibodies more commonly used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the results obtained with monoclonal antibodies as single agents and in combination with chemotherapy, and other biological agents and newer compounds undergoing clinical trials.

  18. Chamber studies of atmospheric iodine chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxmann, J.; Nájera, J.; Schmitt, S.; Bleicher, S.; Pöhler, D.; Horbanski, M.; Platt, U.; Zetzsch, C.; Bloss, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    Iodine chemistry has been shown to occur through much of the marine boundary layer (MBL). It leads to significant impacts upon atmospheric oxidising capacity, ozone levels and particle number concentration; however, there are major uncertainties in our knowledge of the iodine chemical reaction system, which limit our ability to accurately quantify these impacts using atmospheric models. In this work we report the results of novel atmospheric simulation chamber experiments, to study aspects of the fast gas-phase inorganic iodine oxide chemistry. We consider two specific issues here: First, in the presence of moderate levels of NO2, most current models predict that most active iodine should exist as INO3 (whose lifetime is controlled primarily by photolysis) and that levels of IO and OIO should be minimal. This is in contrast to observations from recent field measurements from semi-polluted coastal MBL locations which find significant levels of IO in the presence of NOx. Explanations include possible reactions of INO3 with I or O3 regenerating IO, or errors in the INO3 photochemical parameters. Second, while ozone loss is almost universally cited as a reason to study atmospheric iodine chemistry, calculations of the actual ozone destruction rate which results from a given iodine source term are rather uncertain - as we do not have quantitative understanding of the fate of the many potential iodine oxide species formed. This limits our ability to predict the steady state IO levels which will exist in equilibrium with a given iodine source term, and the resulting ozone loss rate. Recent field measurements in the MBL struggle to reconcile the observed IO with the measured iodine sources - indicating that additional sources exist, or alternatively that the model representation of the gas-phase iodine sink via higher iodine oxides is incorrect. We report the results from experiments performed in a 3.5 m3 indoor PTFE atmospheric simulation chamber located at Bay

  19. A comparative study on the effects of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on thyroid oxidative stress in iodine-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tianshu; Shi, Rui; Qi, Tengche; Yin, Huisi; Mei, Lan; Han, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of excess iodine and herbs with excess iodine on treating iodine deficiency-induced goiter from the perspective of oxidative stress and to measure selenium values in Chinese herbs. One hundred twenty 4-week-old Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups after inducing iodine-deficiency goiter: normal control group (NC), model control group (MC), iodine excess group (IE), and herbs with iodine excess group (HIE). The activities of oxidative enzymes and levels of oxidative products were measured using biochemical tests. The expression of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in the thyroid was detected by immunohistochemistry and the expression of peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) by the Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs were measured by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The herbs with iodine excess were tested to contain rich selenium. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and PRDX5 increased markedly, and the values of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-HNE decreased significantly in the HIE group. In conclusion, compared with excess iodine, herbs with excess iodine damaged thyroid follicular cells less, which may be related to the increase of antioxidant capacity and rich selenium values in iodine-excessive herbs.

  20. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation-induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light-water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled, and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 16 refs.

  2. IODINE NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY IN TORONTO, CANADA

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Pamela M.; Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Tomlinson, George; He, Xuemei; Vertes, Jaclyn; Okun, Nan; Walfish, Paul G.; Feig, Denice S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the status of iodine nutrition among pregnant women presenting for routine antenatal care in Toronto, Canada, as determined by the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of this population. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted involving 142 pregnant women recruited from four low-risk antenatal outpatient clinics in Toronto, Canada. Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a spot urine sample for the measurement of iodine concentration. Results Mean maternal age was 33.8 ± 4.3 years. Mean gestational age was 29.3 ± 7.8 weeks. The median UIC was 221 μg/L (interquartile range, 142 to 397 μg/L). Six women (4.2%) had urine iodine levels <50 μg/L, and 36 women (25.4%) had levels between 50 and 150 μg/L. Conclusion This cohort of primarily Caucasian, well-educated, and relatively affluent pregnant women in Toronto, Canada, are iodine sufficient, perhaps due to universal salt iodization and/or other dietary and lifestyle factors. PMID:23186967

  3. Effects of organic impurities on the partitioning of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, J.B.; Kelly, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    For the purpose of iodine source term calculations, a knowledge of the time dependence of iodine partitioning and the composition of the volatile iodine species may be very important. This study demonstrates the disposition of iodine in a water-air system subjected to gamma radiation can be significantly affected by the presence of organics in the liquid and/or vapor phases. The presence of methanol in a gamma-irradiated water-air-iodine system tends to increase the total iodine partition coefficient over that which would be observed in the absence of methanol. In contrast to methanol, the presence of methane tends to lower the IPC of an irradiated water-air-iodine system, because gaseous molecular iodine (I/sub 2/)and methane react to form highly volatile organic iodides.

  4. Iodination of organic compounds via organoborane intermediates: new methods

    SciTech Connect

    Gooch, E.E. III

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation of iodine into organic molecules can be accomplished through the use of organoboranes as synthetic intermediates. However, the iodination of organoboranes with molecular iodine is not suitable for the efficient incorporation of radioiodine into organic molecules since one-half of the radionuclide is lost as iodide. The iodination of organoboranes, vinylboronic acids and arylboronic acids was studied, using iodine monochloride or sodium iodide/chloramine-T. Both synthetic methods were rapid and efficient methods for iodinating organic substrates, including those with functional groups. The reactions provided maximum utilization of radioiodine in the synthesis of iodine-125 labeled compounds, both in preliminary tracer studies, and in experiments using carrier-free iodine-125.

  5. Iodine Propulsion Advantages for Low Cost Mission Applications and the Iodine Satellite (ISAT) Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Science and Technology Office is continuously exploring technology options to increase performance or reduce cost and risk to future NASA missions including science and exploration. Electric propulsion is a prevalent technology known to reduce mission costs by reduction in launch costs and spacecraft mass through increased post launch propulsion performance. The exploration of alternative propellants for electric propulsion continues to be of interest to the community. Iodine testing has demonstrated comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density resulting in higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's unique properties also allow for unpressurized storage yet sublimation with minimal power requirements to produce required gas flow rates. These characteristics make iodine an ideal propellant for secondary spacecraft. A range of mission have been evaluated with a focus on low-cost applications. Results highlight the potential for significant cost reduction over state of the art. Based on the potential, NASA has been developing the iodine Satellite for a near-term iodine Hall propulsion technology demonstration. Mission applications and progress of the iodine Satellite project are presented.

  6. Monoclonal corneal gammopathy: topographic considerations.

    PubMed

    Sekundo, W; Seifert, P

    1996-09-01

    Desposition of immunoglobulins in the cornea occasionally occurs in benign and malignant lymphoproliferative conditions. A 52-year-old woman with recently discovered monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was referred to our hospital. Slit-lamp and ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed bilateral deposits within all corneal layers. The precipitates were organized in a circle, leaving a perilimbal zone and the axial cornea clear. Light microscopy of a biopsy disclosed confluent subepithelial deposits and defects in Bowman's layer. Immunoperoxidase reaction was positive only for IgG and IgG-kappa. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of extracellular rectangular and arcuate immunoglobulin crystalloids with a 10-nm periodicity but a non-crystalline defraction pattern. A review of the literature showed that the circumferential pattern of immunoglobulin deposition is associated with short-term visual symptoms and good visual acuity. The present report supports a hypothesis of immunoglobulin deposition via the limbal arcade and contradicts the "tear theory."

  7. Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser: A Study for Scaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-03

    active components in the flow is small, resulting in a low gain coefficient . To produce a high- power oxygen iodine laser system it will be necessary... iodine laser: A study for scaling Sb. GRANT NUMBER F A9550-07-l-0529 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Michael C. Heaven Se...potentially limit scaling of the electric oxygen iodine laser (EOIL) were examined. Quenching of excited iodine atoms (I*) by atomic oxygen has been

  8. Measurement of the iodine partition coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Furrer, M.; Cripps, R.C.; Gubler, R.

    1985-08-01

    The hydrolysis of iodine is complicated because it involves a number of species that differ considerably in their individual volatilities. Large uncertainties exist in the thermodynamic data of some of the iodine species, especially at temperatures above 25C. Because of this, an experiment was undertaken to measure the partition coefficient under varying physical and chemical conditions. Measurements of P were made for a temperature range of 21 to 113C under well-defined conditions (liquid molar concentration, pH, and redox potential) for inorganic iodine. The experimental results are interpreted with the aid of an analytical model and published thermodynamic data. A good agreement between calculated and measured values was found. The experimental setup allows the determination of very high partition coefficients up to a value of 2.0 X 10W. This is demonstrated by adding cesium-iodide to the fuel pool water of a boiling water reactor.

  9. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The improvement on the collection system of the Tarmarack Solar Simulator beam was attemped. The basic study of evaluating the solid state laser materials for the solar pumping and also the work to construct a kinetic model algorithm for the flashlamp pumped iodine lasers were carried out. It was observed that the collector cone worked better than the lens assembly in order to collect the solar simulator beam and to focus it down to a strong power density. The study on the various laser materials and their lasing characteristics shows that the neodymium and chromium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nr:Cr:GSGG) may be a strong candidate for the high power solar pumped solid state laser crystal. On the other hand the improved kinetic modeling for the flashlamp pumped iodine laser provides a good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data on the laser power output, and predicts the output parameters of a solar pumped iodine laser.

  10. The Ozone-Iodine-Chlorate Clock Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T. P.; Monteiro, Emily V.; Pereira, Juliano R. T.; Faria, Roberto B.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions. PMID:24386257

  11. The ozone-iodine-chlorate clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T P; Monteiro, Emily V; Pereira, Juliano R T; Faria, Roberto B

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new clock reaction based on ozone, iodine, and chlorate that differs from the known chlorate-iodine clock reaction because it does not require UV light. The induction period for this new clock reaction depends inversely on the initial concentrations of ozone, chlorate, and perchloric acid but is independent of the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism considers the reaction of ozone and iodide to form HOI, which is a key species for producing non-linear autocatalytic behavior. The novelty of this system lies in the presence of ozone, whose participation has never been observed in complex systems such as clock or oscillating reactions. Thus, the autocatalysis demonstrated in this new clock reaction should open the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions.

  12. Particles and iodine compounds in coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, Howard K.; Jones, Anna E.; Brough, Neil; Weller, Rolf; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Schoenhardt, Anja; Burrows, John P.; Fleming, Zoe L.

    2015-07-01

    Aerosol particle number concentrations have been measured at Halley and Neumayer on the Antarctic coast, since 2004 and 1984, respectively. Sulphur compounds known to be implicated in particle formation and growth were independently measured: sulphate ions and methane sulphonic acid in filtered aerosol samples and gas phase dimethyl sulphide for limited periods. Iodine oxide, IO, was determined by a satellite sensor from 2003 to 2009 and by different ground-based sensors at Halley in 2004 and 2007. Previous model results and midlatitude observations show that iodine compounds consistent with the large values of IO observed may be responsible for an increase in number concentrations of small particles. Coastal Antarctica is useful for investigating correlations between particles, sulphur, and iodine compounds, because of their large annual cycles and the source of iodine compounds in sea ice. After smoothing all the measured data by several days, the shapes of the annual cycles in particle concentration at Halley and Neumayer are approximated by linear combinations of the shapes of sulphur compounds and IO but not by sulphur compounds alone. However, there is no short-term correlation between IO and particle concentration. The apparent correlation by eye after smoothing but not in the short term suggests that iodine compounds and particles are sourced some distance offshore. This suggests that new particles formed from iodine compounds are viable, i.e., they can last long enough to grow to the larger particles that contribute to cloud condensation nuclei, rather than being simply collected by existing particles. If so, there is significant potential for climate feedback near the sea ice zone via the aerosol indirect effect.

  13. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  14. Iodine stability in salt double-fortified with iron and iodine.

    PubMed

    Diosady, L L; Alberti, J O; Ramcharan, K; Mannar, M G Venkatesh

    2002-06-01

    Deficiencies in small quantities of micronutrients, especially iodine and iron, severely affect more than a third of the world's population, resulting in serious public health consequences, especially for women and young children. Salt is an ideal carrier of micronutrients. The double fortification of salt with both iodine and iron is an attractive approach to the reduction of both anemia and iodine-deficiency disorders. Because iodine is unstable under the storage conditions found during the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of salt in most developing countries, the effects of packaging materials and environmental conditions on the stability of salt double-fortified with iron and iodine were investigated. Salt was double-fortified with potassium iodide or potassium iodate and with ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate. The effects of stabilizers on the stability of iodine and iron were followed by storing the salt under three conditions that represent the extremes of normal distribution and sale for salt in developing countries: room temperature (25 degrees C) with 50%-70% relative humidity, 40 degrees C with 60% relative humidity, and 40 degrees C with 100% relative humidity. The effects of stabilizers, such as sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, and dextrose were investigated. None of the combinations of iron and iodine compounds was stable at elevated temperatures. Essentially all of the iodine was lost over a period of six months. SHMP effectively slowed down the iodine loss, whereas magnesium chloride, a typical hygroscopic impurity, greatly accelerated this process. Calcium carbonate did not have a sparing effect on iodine, despite contrary indications in the literature. Ferrous sulfate-fortified salts generally turned yellow and developed an unpleasant rusty flavor. Salt fortified with ferrous fumarate and potassium, iodide was reasonably stable and maintained its organoleptic properties, making it more likely to be

  15. Effects of organic impurities on the partitioning of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    For the purposes of iodine source term calculations a knowledge of the time-dependence of iodine partitioning and the composition of the volatile iodine species may be very important. This study demonstrates that the disposition of iodine in a water-air system subjected to gamma radiation can be significantly affected by the presence of organics in the liquid and/or vapor phases. A useful parameter for characterizing the distribution of iodine between the liquid and vapor phases is the time dependent iodine partition coefficient (IPC) defined by: IPC = (Total Iodine Concentration in Liquid Phase)/(Total Iodine Concentration in Vapor Phase). The addition of methanol to a gamma-irradiated water-air-iodine system tends to increase the IPC over that which would be observed in the absence of methanol. This increase in the IPC is attributed to the ability of methanol to inhibit the formation of volatile molecular iodine by scavenging the hydroxyl radicals necessary to initiate molecular iodine formation. In the presence of gamma radiation, gaseous molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) and methane may react to form volatile organic iodides (mainly methyl iodide) which tend to lower the IPC of a system. It is evident that the formation of volatile organic iodide species depends strongly on the specific organic present in the system.

  16. Recent data on iodine intake in Germany and Europe.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. These regulate metabolism, promote growth, development and maturation of all organs, especially the brain. Most iodine is found in oceans and most continental soil and ground water is deficient in iodine. Therefore, around 2 billion individuals are estimated to have insufficient iodine intake and are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The best carrier for save iodine supplementation is salt, as the daily intake of salt is mainly constant. Due to the collaboration between international and national organisations and the salt industry, many developing and developed countries introduced universal salt iodization (USI) or have mandatory or voluntary fortification programs. In Germany as in most European countries the use of iodized salt is voluntary not only in household but also in the food industry. Two recent epidemiological surveys in Germany revealed that 33% of children and 32% of adults are still suffering from mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The best surrogate parameter for iodine deficiency is goitre. The goitre prevalence is around 30% in children as well as in adults which is in accordance with the documented iodine deficiency. From other European countries epidemiological derived data on iodine intake are only available from Denmark and Poland. Further efforts are under way to reveal the iodine status with proper methods in all European countries. On this background it might be possible to establish adequate iodine fortification programs in all European countries.

  17. Iodine evolution from nuclear fuel dissolver solutions by air sparging

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.G.; Holland, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Iodine removal rates were measured from air-sparged nitric acid solutions in experiments designed to simulate part of the iodine recovery system in an advanced fuel reprocessing flowsheet. Variables studied were temperature, sparge rate, and iodine and acid concentrations. Experimental mass transfer coefficients were determined and compared to results based on correlations available in the literature.

  18. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b)...

  20. A quantitative model of the biogeochemical transport of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.; Ji, Z.; Weng, J.

    2010-12-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are among the world’s most prevalent public health problems yet preventable by dietary iodine supplements. To better understand the biogeochemical behavior of iodine and to explore safer and more efficient ways of iodine supplementation as alternatives to iodized salt, we studied the behavior of iodine as it is absorbed, accumulated and released by plants. Using Chinese cabbage as a model system and the 125I tracing technique, we established that plants uptake exogenous iodine from soil, most of which are transported to the stem and leaf tissue. The level of absorption of iodine by plants is dependent on the iodine concentration in soil, as well as the soil types that have different iodine-adsorption capacity. The leaching experiment showed that the remainder soil content of iodine after leaching is determined by the iodine-adsorption ability of the soil and the pH of the leaching solution, but not the volume of leaching solution. Iodine in soil and plants can also be released to the air via vaporization in a concentration-dependent manner. This study provides a scientific basis for developing new methods to prevent IDD through iodized vegetable production.

  1. The role of iodine in human growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-08-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones, and therefore iodine, are essential for mammalian life. Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem; globally, it is estimated that two billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. In the fetal brain, inadequate thyroid hormone impairs myelination, cell migration, differentiation and maturation. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy increases rates of spontaneous abortion, reduces birth weight, and increases infant mortality. Offspring of deficient mothers are at high risk for cognitive disability, with cretinism being the most severe manifestation. It remains unclear if development of the offspring is affected by mild maternal iodine deficiency. Moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency during childhood reduces somatic growth. Correction of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in primary school aged children improves cognitive and motor function. Iodine prophylaxis of deficient populations with periodic monitoring is an extremely cost effective approach to reduce the substantial adverse effects of iodine deficiency throughout the life cycle.

  2. Mysterious iodine-overabundance in Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.; Schultz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Halogen as well as other trace element concentrations in meteorite finds can be influenced by alteration processes on the Earth's surface. The discovery of Antarctic meteorites offered the opportunity to study meteorites which were kept in one of the most sterile environment of the Earth. Halogen determination in Antartic meteorites was compared with non-Antarctic meteorites. No correlation was found between iodine concentration and the weathering index, or terrestrial age. The halogen measurements indicate a contaminating phase rich in iodine and also containing chlorine. Possible sources for this contamination are discussed.

  3. [Overall child development: beyond pharmacological iodine supplementation].

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Enrique; Jiménez de Gracia, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is a factor that may compromise child development, but is not the only one. Other health determinants, some of them outside the healthcare system, are able to influence development. Fighting iodine deficiency may be a pragmatic and useful strategy if it is found to be not maleficent, beneficial to health, and cost-effective, and does not make us lose the notion that child development goes beyond psychomotor or cognitive performance. This article analyzes such constraints from a critical point of view.

  4. Regenerable Iodine Water-Disinfection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Jolly, Clifford D.

    1994-01-01

    Iodinated resin bed for disinfecting water regenerated to extend its useful life. Water flows through regeneration bed of crystalline iodine during regeneration. At other times, flow diverted around regeneration bed. Although regeneration cycle was manually controlled in demonstration, readily automated to start and stop according to signals and stop according to signals from concentration sensors. Further benefit of regeneration is that regeneration bed provides highly concentrated biocide source (200 mg/L) when needed. Concentrated biocide used to superiodinate system after contamination from routine maintenance or unexpected introduction of large concentration of microbes.

  5. Hydrolysis of iodine: equilibria at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Ramette, R.W.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrolysis (or disproportionation) of molecular iodine to form iodate and iodide ions has been studied by emf measurements over the temperature range, 3.8/sup 0/ to 209.0/sup 0/C. The interpretation of these results required a knowledge of the formation constant for triiodide ion and the acid dissociation constant of iodic acid, both of which were measured as a function of temperature. The resulting thermodynamic data have been incorporated into a general computer model describing the hydrolysis equilibria of iodine as a function of initial concentration, pH and temperature.

  6. Facile Oxidative Rearrangements Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Fateh V; Rehbein, Julia; Wirth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic substituents migrate in a novel oxidative cyclization mediated by iodine(III) reagents. 4-Arylbut-3-enoic acids are cyclized and rearranged to 4-arylfuran-2(5H)-ones by hypervalent iodine compounds in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Other ring sizes are also accessible. The mechanism of the reaction is described in detail, and calculations highlight the cationic nature of the intermediates in the rearrangement. The fast access to heavily substituted furanones is used for the synthesis of biologically active derivatives. PMID:24551514

  7. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    PubMed

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%).

  8. Tomato fruits: a good target for iodine biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Kiferle, Claudia; Gonzali, Silvia; Holwerda, Harmen T.; Ibaceta, Rodrigo Real; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2013-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element that is fundamental for human health: its deficiency affects about two billion people worldwide. Fruits and vegetables are usually poor sources of iodine; however, plants can accumulate iodine if it is either present or exogenously administered to the soil. The biofortification of crops with iodine has therefore been proposed as a strategy for improving human nutrition. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the possibility of biofortifying tomato fruits with iodine. Increasing concentrations of iodine supplied as KI or KIO3 were administered to plants as root treatments and the iodine accumulation in fruits was measured. The influences of the soil organic matter content or the nitrate level in the nutritive solution were analyzed. Finally, yield and qualitative properties of the biofortified tomatoes were considered, as well as the possible influence of fruit storage and processing on the iodine content. Results showed that the use of both the iodized salts induced a significant increase in the fruit’s iodine content in doses that did not affect plant growth and development. The final levels ranged from a few mg up to 10 mg iodine kg - 1 fruit fresh weight and are more than adequate for a biofortification program, since 150 μg iodine per day is the recommended dietary allowance for adults. In general, the iodine treatments scarcely affected fruit appearance and quality, even with the highest concentrations applied. In contrast, the use of KI in plants fertilized with low doses of nitrate induced moderate phytotoxicity symptoms. Organic matter-rich soils improved the plant’s health and production, with only mild reductions in iodine stored in the fruits. Finally, a short period of storage at room temperature or a 30-min boiling treatment did not reduce the iodine content in the fruits, if the peel was maintained. All these results suggest that tomato is a particularly suitable crop for iodine biofortification programs

  9. An iodine mass-balance for Lake Constance, Germany: Insights into iodine speciation changes and fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfedder, B. S.; Petri, M.; Wessels, M.; Biester, H.

    2010-06-01

    Lake Constance is one of Europe's largest oligotrophic lakes and provides a water source for more than 4.5 million people in Germany and Switzerland. We present here a 12 month study on iodine concentrations, speciation and fluxes to and from the lake to gain a quantitative understanding of the limnic iodine cycle. Monthly water samples were obtained from all major tributaries (14) and the outflow to construct a mass-balance model. Sediment traps were also deployed in the lake for two years at two different stations. Total soluble iodine (TSI) in aqueous samples were analysed by ICP-MS and speciation (iodide, iodate and soluble organically bound iodine, SOI) by ion chromatography-ICP-MS. Iodine concentrations in the Alpine tributaries (1-2 μg l -1) decreased over the summer months due to increasing proportions of snow and glacial melt water from the Alps, while iodine levels in the lowland rivers (˜2-10 μg l -1) increased over the summer. Deposition of TSI to the catchment (16,340 kg I yr -1) was similar to the TSI out-flux by rivers (16,000 kg I yr -1). By also including the particulate riverine iodine flux out of the catchment (˜12,350 kg I yr -1) it is shown that the catchment is a net source of iodine, with the highest particulate fluxes coming from the Alpine rivers. The total TSI flux to the lake was 16,770 kg I yr -1, the largest proportion coming from the Alpenrhein (43%), followed by the Schussen (8%) and Bregenzer Ach (7.7%). Overall the mass-balance for TSI in the lake was negative, with more iodine flowing out of the lake than in (-2050 kg I yr -1; 12% of TSI in-flux). To maintain mass-balance, 8.8 μg I m -2 d -1 from the Obersee and 23 μg I m -2 d -1 from the Untersee must be released from the sediments into the water column. Thus, in comparison with the total iodine flux to the sediments measured by the sediment traps (4762-8075 kg I yr -1), up to 39% of the deposited iodine may be mobilised back into the lake. SOI was the dominant iodine

  10. Iodine balance studies in protein-calorie malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ingenbleek, Yves; Malvaux, Paul

    1974-01-01

    In 12 malnourished Senegalese children iodine intake and excretion were measured on admission for 4 consecutive days. All subjects were in negative iodine balance, averaging -20·5 μg iodine/day. One month later, after nutritional rehabilitation, 7 children resubmitted to comparative balance study showed a strongly positive balance of +19·3 μg iodine/day. Protein-calorie malnutrition is characterized by a continuous impoverishment of the thyroid's iodine content, while clinical recovery is accompanied by a progressive restoration. PMID:4208456

  11. Source And Sink Of Iodine For Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed system for controlling concentration of iodine in potable water exploits temperature dependence of equilibrium partition of iodine between solution in water and residence in ion-exchange resin. Used to maintain concentration of iodine sufficient to kill harmful microbes, but not so great to make water unpalatable. Requires little attention, yet controls concentration of iodine more precisely than iodination and deiodination by manual techniques. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, system has terrestrial applications in regions where water must be kept potable, resupply difficult, and system must operate largely unattended.

  12. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  13. Severe Hypothyroidism From Iodine Deficiency Associated With Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Golekoh, Marjorie C; Cole, Conrad R; Jones, Nana-Hawa Yayah

    2016-11-01

    Parenteral nutrition is crucial for supply of nutrients in children who cannot tolerate a full enteral diet. In the United States, it is not standard of care to give iodine to children dependent on parenteral nutrition, hence iodine is not routinely included in the micronutrient package. Herein, we present a case of a boy with hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency after prolonged exclusive use of parenteral nutrition. Our case highlights the importance of screening for iodine deficiency and administering timely iodine supplementation in these at-risk children to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism.

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Palavra, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction in medical therapy, in the last quarter of the 20th century, monoclonal antibodies have gained an increasing importance in the treatment of various diseases. Neurology has been one of the medical specialties benefiting of the therapeutic potential of these monoclonal antibodies and certain neurological conditions may now contain such drugs in their therapeutic algorithms. Multiple sclerosis is one of these diseases and, in addition to the monoclonal antibodies already licensed for clinical use, several others are in development for future utilization in this specific area. The future will certainly pass through this kind of drugs and, in this article, a review of the most relevant data related to monoclonal antibodies already in use and also in clinical development for multiple sclerosis treatment will be performed.

  15. Iodine absorption cells quality evaluation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Holá, Miroslava; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du-Burck, Frédéric; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    The absorption cells represent an unique tool for the laser frequency stabilization. They serve as irreplaceable optical frequency references in realization of high-stable laser standards and laser sources for different brands of optical measurements, including the most precise frequency and dimensional measurement systems. One of the most often used absorption media covering visible and near IR spectral range is molecular iodine. It offers rich atlas of very strong and narrow spectral transitions which allow realization of laser systems with ultimate frequency stabilities in or below 10-14 order level. One of the most often disccussed disadvantage of the iodine cells is iodine's corrosivity and sensitivity to presence of foreign substances. The impurities react with absorption media and cause spectral shifts of absorption spectra, spectral broadening of the transitions and decrease achievable signal-to-noise ratio of the detected spectra. All of these unwanted effects directly influence frequency stability of the realized laser standard and due to this fact, the quality of iodine cells must be precisely controlled. We present a comparison of traditionally used method of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) with novel technique based on hyperfine transitions linewidths measurement. The results summarize advantages and drawbacks of these techniques and give a recommendation for their practical usage.

  16. Volcanic iodine monoxide observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species are injected into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions. Previous studies have reported observations of chlorine and bromine oxides in volcanic plumes. These emissions have a significant impact on the chemistry within the plume as well as on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere composition, e.g. through ozone depletion. Volcanic halogen oxides have been observed from different platforms, from ground, aircraft and from satellite. The present study reports on satellite observations of iodine monoxide, IO, following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Satellite measurements from the SCIAMACHY sensor onboard ENVISAT are used. In addition, the volcanic IO plume is also retrieved from GOME-2 / MetOP-A measurements. Largest IO column amounts reach up to more than 4×1013 molec/cm2, the results from both instruments being consistent. The IO plume has a very similar shape as the BrO plume and is observed for several days following the eruption. The present observations are the first evidence that besides chlorine and bromine oxides also iodine oxides can be emitted by volcanic eruptions. This has important implications for atmospheric composition and background iodine levels. Together with the simultaneous observations of BrO and SO2, iodine monoxide columns can possibly provide insights into the composition of the magma.

  17. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In H.; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser which was developed earlier for an iodine laser oscillator was modified in order to increase the output pulse energy of XeCl laser so that the iodine laser output energy could be increased. The electrical circuit of the XeCl laser was changed from a simple capacitor discharge circuit of the XeCl laser to a Marx system. Because of this improvement the output energy from the XeCl laser was increased from 60 mj to 80 mj. Subsequently, iodine laser output energy was increased from 100 mj to 3 mj. On the other hand, the energy storage capability and amplification characteristics of the Vortek solar simulator-pumped amplifier was calculated expecting the calculated amplification factor is about 2 and the energy extraction efficiency is 26 percent due to the very low input energy density to the amplifier. As a result of an improved kinetic modeling for the iodine solar simulator pumped power amplifier, it is found that the I-2 along the axis of the tube affects seriously the gain profile. For the gas i-C3F7I at the higher pressures, the gain will decrease due to the I-2 as the pumping intensity increases, and at these higher pressures an increase in flow velocity will increase the gain.

  18. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  19. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  20. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

    1990-01-01

    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  1. Solar-pumped photodissociation iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Weaver, W. R.; Humes, D. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    The scientific feasibility of a solar-pumped iodine photodissociation laser for space applications is under investigation. Recently, a 2-W CW output for more than one hour was achieved using n-C3F7I vapor as the laser material and a vortex-stabilized argon arc as the light source.

  2. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  3. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  4. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  5. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  6. 21 CFR 558.295 - Iodinated casein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.295 Iodinated casein. (a) Approvals. See 017762 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  7. Determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in waters with a new total organic iodine measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2013-11-01

    The dissolved iodine species that dominate aquatic systems are iodide, iodate and organo-iodine. These species may undergo transformation to one another and thus affect the formation of iodinated disinfection byproducts during disinfection of drinking waters or wastewater effluents. In this study, a fast, sensitive and accurate method for determining these iodine species in waters was developed by derivatizing iodide and iodate to organic iodine and measuring organic iodine with a total organic iodine (TOI) measurement approach. Within this method, organo-iodine was determined directly by TOI measurement; iodide was oxidized by monochloramine to hypoiodous acid and then hypoiodous acid reacted with phenol to form organic iodine, which was determined by TOI measurement; iodate was reduced by ascorbic acid to iodide and then determined as iodide. The quantitation limit of organo-iodine or sum of organo-iodine and iodide or sum of organo-iodine, iodide and iodate was 5 μg/L as I for a 40 mL water sample (or 2.5 μg/L as I for an 80 mL water sample, or 1.25 μg/L as I for a 160 mL water sample). This method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine in a variety of water samples, including tap water, seawater, urine and wastewater. The recoveries of iodide, iodate and organo-iodine were 91-109%, 90-108% and 91-108%, respectively. The concentrations and distributions of iodine species in different water samples were obtained and compared.

  8. The Iodine Content in Urine, Faeces and Selected Organs of Rats Fed Lettuce Biofortified with Iodine Through Foliar Application.

    PubMed

    Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Foliar application of micronutrients is successfully used in order to increase the concentration of essential elements in vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine absorption in the rat organism fed foliar biofortified lettuce. The presented study was consisted of the vegetative and animal experiment. In the vegetative experiment with lettuce, two combinations of foliar application were used: (1) control-without iodine application and (2) iodine application in the potassium iodide (KI) form. In the animal experiment, Wistar rats were divided to four groups, which received one of four diets: (1) C-control diet containing iodine in the KI form, (2) D-diet deficient in iodine, (3) D + BL-diet containing biofortified lettuce, and (4) D + CL-diet containing control lettuce (as the only source of iodine in diet, respectively). The diets contained 0.260, 0.060, 0.254 and 0.075 mg I/kg, respectively. In order to determine the iodine absorption in the rat organisms, the content of this trace element was measured in urine, faeces and in selected organs with the use of the ICP-OES technique. Foliar application of the KI increased the content of iodine in lettuce. The rats from the D + BL group excreted significantly less iodine in their urine and faeces and also accumulated more iodine in the organs than the rats from the C group. Iodine with biofortified lettuce was much bioavailable for rodents than iodine from control diet. Biofortified lettuce can be a source of iodine in a diet of human and can improve iodine nutrition.

  9. Metabolic engineering of the iodine content in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Landini, Martina; Gonzali, Silvia; Kiferle, Claudia; Tonacchera, Massimo; Agretti, Patrizia; Dimida, Antonio; Vitti, Paolo; Alpi, Amedeo; Pinchera, Aldo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2012-01-01

    Plants are a poor source of iodine, an essential micronutrient for human health. Several attempts of iodine biofortification of crops have been carried out, but the scarce knowledge on the physiology of iodine in plants makes results often contradictory and not generalizable. In this work, we used a molecular approach to investigate how the ability of a plant to accumulate iodine can be influenced by different mechanisms. In particular, we demonstrated that the iodine content in Arabidopsis thaliana can be increased either by facilitating its uptake with the overexpression of the human sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) or through the reduction of its volatilization by knocking-out HOL-1, a halide methyltransferase. Our experiments show that the iodine content in plants results from a balance between intake and retention. A correct manipulation of this mechanism could improve iodine biofortification of crops and prevent the release of the ozone layer-threatening methyl iodide into the atmosphere.

  10. Additional studies for the spectrophotometric measurement of iodine in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Previous work in iodine spectroscopy is briefly reviewed. Continued studies of the direct spectrophotometric determination of aqueous iodine complexed with potassium iodide show that free iodine is optimally determined at the isosbestic point for these solutions. The effects on iodine determinations of turbidity and chemical substances (in trace amounts) is discussed and illustrated. At the levels tested, iodine measurements are not significantly altered by such substances. A preliminary design for an on-line, automated iodine monitor with eventual capability of operating also as a controller was analyzed and developed in detail with respect single beam colorimeter operating at two wavelengths (using a rotating filter wheel). A flow-through sample cell allows the instrument to operate continuously, except for momentary stop flow when measurements are made. The timed automatic cycling of the system may be interrupted whenever desired, for manual operation. An analog output signal permits controlling an iodine generator.

  11. Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance: Diagnostic workup.

    PubMed

    Correia, Sofia O; Santos, Sofia; Malheiro, Jorge; Cabrita, António; Martins, La Salete; Santos, Josefina

    2017-03-06

    The clinical spectrum of diseases associated with monoclonal gammopathies is wide and they are most commonly the consequence of renal deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin or its components. The differential diagnosis is difficult and renal biopsy is essential. To distinguish many of these pathologies is necessary to use techniques that are not always available, even in tertiary central hospitals. This review will discuss the clinical presentation, pathologic features, treatment, prognosis and common diagnostic difficulties of these entities.

  12. Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance: Diagnostic workup

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Sofia O; Santos, Sofia; Malheiro, Jorge; Cabrita, António; Martins, La Salete; Santos, Josefina

    2017-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of diseases associated with monoclonal gammopathies is wide and they are most commonly the consequence of renal deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin or its components. The differential diagnosis is difficult and renal biopsy is essential. To distinguish many of these pathologies is necessary to use techniques that are not always available, even in tertiary central hospitals. This review will discuss the clinical presentation, pathologic features, treatment, prognosis and common diagnostic difficulties of these entities. PMID:28316940

  13. Iodine Revolatilization in a Grand Gulf Loca

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    The TRENDS models are applied at each time step to each control volume. Significant amounts of water occur only in the wetwell and drywell sump (the refueling pool is not a factor, as discussed earlier). In Fig. 2, we show the radiolytic acid production feeding into each of these pools. Since the water is initially neutral and no chemical additives are present, the acid additions are the major factors affecting pH. In Fig. 3, we see the downward trend of pH resulting from these acid additions. The conversion of iodide (I{sup {minus}}) to molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) is most noticeable in the wetwell, since this is the repository of most iodide and HCl. Gradually, during the transient small amounts of more volatile iodine are formed. While iodide remains the dominant form, noticeable amounts of I{sub 2} and intermediate species are created. Once produced in water, some I{sub 2} is free to evaporate into airspace. Fig. 4 indicates the increase in all airborne iodine throughout the transient. This is compared to the MELCOR result for CsI aerosol, which decreases dramatically due to containment sprays. The I{sub 2} in the airspace can be vented to the enclosure building or the environment. In the present accident sequence, the only path to the environment was through the SGTS, which was assumed to operate as in MELCOR. However, both are dwarfed by the MELCOR gaseous release during the first 12 h because MELCOR does not model spray washout of gaseous iodine. Steadily increasing throughout the transient, the revolatilization release is eventually more than an order-or-magnitude higher than the MELCOR aerosol release. Also, 99% of iodine flowing directly through the SGTS was retained in filters. The remaining 1% was released to the environment. In addition, a small flow bypassing the SGTS filters vented directly into the environment. The total released from these two paths is shown in Fig. 5.

  14. Improved monoclonal antibodies to halodeoxyuridine

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, M.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.; Thomas, C.B.

    1983-10-18

    The development, method of production, characterization and methods of use of two hybridomas, CIdU-1 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8321) and CIdU-2 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8320), are described. These secrete IgG/sub 1/(K) immunoglobulins that react with halodeoxyuridine (HdU or halodU) such as bromo, chloro, fluoro and iodo deoxyuridine (BrdU, CldU, FdU and IdU), whether these are free in solution or incorporated into single stranded DNA in whole cells. The antibodies do not react with naturally occurring free nucleic acids or with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymers. These antibodies are suitable for use in enzyme immunoassays for free CldU, FdU, IdU and BrdU and for detecting cells with these nucleotides incorporated into them. The monoclonal antibodies are useful in the detection of the sensitivity of tumor cells to specific chemotherapeutic agents, in the measurement of the rate of cellular DNA synthesis, in the measurement of the rate of proliferation of normal and malignant cells and in the detection of HPRT deficiency in cells. 1 tab.

  15. [The pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Keizer, R J; Huitema, A D R; Damen, C W N; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2007-03-24

    Monoclonal antibodies (MOABs) are, due to their specificity, increasingly being deployed for therapeutic purposes. MOABs are derived from immunoglobulins and are fully or partially of murine or human origin. They are administered parenterally: mostly intravenously, but subcutaneous or intramuscular administration is also possible, in which case absorption probably occurs through the lymphatic system. The distribution of MOABs from the bloodstream into the tissues is slow and is hampered by the high molecular size of the MOABs, which is a lesser problem for fragments of antibodies (Fab fragments). MOABs are metabolised to peptides and amino acids. This process takes place in many tissues of the body, but probably predominantly in epithelial cells. As a consequence of the saturable binding of the MOAB to its target, a dose-dependent (non-linear) elimination is often observed. Immune reactions can accelerate the elimination of antibodies, partially depending on the degree ofhumanisation of the antibody. Antibodies and endogenous immunoglobulins are protected from elimination by binding to protective receptors (neonatal Fc-receptor; FcRn), which explains their long half-lives (up to 4 weeks). Metabolic pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs have not been reported and are not expected. It is expected that in the years to come, new MOABs directed towards new targets will appear on the market, as well as existing antibodies with improved pharmacokinetic properties.

  16. Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dillman, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Potential uses of monoclonal antibodies in anti-cancer treatment include passive serotherapy, radioisotope conjugates, toxin-linked conjugates, and chemotherapy-monoclonal antibody conjugates. The bases for these applications have been founded in research with heterologous antisera, and in some cases with monoclonal antibodies in animal tumor models. Human trials with passive serotherapy have already begun in both hematopoietic and solid tumor malignancies. Promising results have been reported in cutaneous T cell lymphoma with anti-T cell monoclonal antibody, and in nodular lymphoma with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody. Radioisotope conjugate work appears promising for imaging in both animals and humans, and this work will lay the foundation for possible therapeutic application of radio-immunotherapy. Toxin-linked conjugates are promising in vitro and may have application in autologous bone marrow transplantation. Research with chemotherapy conjugates is also underway. Preliminary results suggest that murine monoclonal antibodies will be well tolerated clinically except in the setting of circulating cells which bear the target antigen, where rapid infusions may be associated with intolerable side effects. In certain diseases, production of endogenous anti-mouse antibodies may also limit application. Advances in the technology for human-human hybridoma production may help solve some of these problems. 132 references.

  17. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid on human health.

    PubMed

    Koukkou, Eftychia G; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Markou, Kostas B

    2017-04-01

    The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 250 μg for pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin. The non-organic intrathyroidal iodine is usually low, but significantly greater compared to plasma. Large doses of iodine reduce both the uptake and the organification (Wolff-Chaikoff effect) and cause partial inhibition of Tg proteolysis. The thyroid gland has several protective mechanisms resulting on the maintenance of normal thyroid function despite wide fluctuations of the daily iodine intake. Ingestion of several commonly used drugs and food conservatives results in acute or chronic excessive iodine intake. Failure to escape from the iodine induced organification inhibition can cause hypothyroidism, which is temporary and subsides after iodine exposure ceases. Iodine excess may also establish a status of excessive thyroid hormone synthesis and release, thus inducing autonomic thyroid function in iodopenic areas or can contribute to the development of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in iodine abundant areas. The anti-arrhythmic Amiodarone, is a benzofuranic product with a very high iodine content, is associated with either hypo- or hyperthyroidism development. In the presence of defective auto-protective mechanisms, excessive iodine ingestion can divert the normal thyroid function.

  18. Long-term migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks based on iodine speciation and 129I/127I ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Amano, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Iwatsuki, T.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] 129I is one of the available indexes of long-term migration of groundwater solutes, because of its long half-life (15.7 million years) and low sorption characteristics. The Horonobe underground research center (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), at which are conducted research and development of fundamental techniques on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is an appropriate site for natural analogue studies, because iodine concentration in groundwater is high in this area. To predict iodine behavior in natural systems, speciation of iodine is essential because of different mobility among each species. In this study, we determined iodine speciation and129I/127I isotope ratios of rock and groundwater samples to investigate long term migration of iodine. [Methods] All rock and groundwater samples were collected at Horonobe underground research center. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, the Wakkanai Formation (Wk Fm, siliceous mudstones), and the overlying Koetoi Formation (Kt Fm, diatomaceous mudstones). Iodine species in rock samples were determined by iodine K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (SPring-8 BL01B1). Thin sections of rock samples were prepared, and iodine mapping were obtained by micro-XRF analysis (SPring-8 BL37XU). Iodine species (IO3-, I-, and organic I) in groundwater were separately detected by high performance liquid chromatography connected to ICP-MS. The 129I/127I ratios in groundwater and rock samples were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (MALT, Univ. of Tokyo). Iodine in rock samples were separated by pyrohydrolysis and water extraction. [Results and discussion] Concentration of iodine in groundwater varied widely and was much higher than that of seawater showing a high correlation with that of chlorine (R2 = 0.90). Species of iodine in groundwater was mainly I-. Iodine in rock samples decreased near the boundary between Wk and Kt Fms. Iodine K-edge XANES

  19. Metabolism of radio-iodinated IgG in patients with abnormal serum IgG levels. I. Hypergamma-globulinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J. V.; Fudenberg, H. H.

    1971-01-01

    Metabolic turnover studies were performed with radio-iodinated IgG in twelve patients with a serum IgG level greater than 1600 mg/100 ml (six with monoclonal gammopathy and six with a polyclonal increase in IgG associated with liver disease). The six patients with an IgG monoclonal protein comprised four multiple myeloma, one benign monoclonal gammopathy and one biclonal gammopathy presenting as Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. The six patients with liver disease comprised two patients with cirrhosis, two with infective hepatitis and two with chronic active hepatitis. The injected IgG was either autologous normal IgG (five cases), autologous monoclonal IgG (five cases), homologous normal IgG (one case) or therapeutic intravenous HGG (two cases). The plasma volume was increased in six patients; the plasma IgG pool in nine; and the total body IgG pool in seven. The plasma T½ was normal in one patient with monoclonal and one patient with polyclonal gammopathy but shortened in the other ten studies with mean values of 11·3 and 11·0 days in monoclonal and polyclonal gammopathy respectively. The fractional turnover rate was normal in two studies in polyclonal gammopathy and increased in the other ten with mean values of 13·6% per day in both groups of patients. The IgG synthesis rate was significantly increased in all studies except for a reduced synthesis of normal IgG in one patient with multiple myeloma. The mean synthesis rates in monoclonal and polyclonal gammopathy were respectively 6·7 and 4·1 times the mean synthesis rate in normal controls. The pattern of increased synthesis and increased catabolism in such patients confirms published reports in some diseases and demonstrates a similar pattern in chronic active hepatitis. The findings are consistent with the `concentration-catabolism' effect. PMID:5003444

  20. Chloramine-T radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies with NaI-123 (p,5n)

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, S.L.; DeNardo, S.J.; DeNardo, G.L.; Schlom, J.; Epstein, A.; Lagunas-Solar, M.

    1984-01-01

    I-123 has been proposed by many investigators as a radionuclide with appropriate physical and radiochemical properties for imaging using monoclonal (MAB) antibodies. However, since no carrier added I-123 contains approximately 100 fold iodine atoms than comparable amounts of no carrier added I-125, several laboratories have expressed difficulty obtaining usable yields of I-123 MAB with high specific activity and immunoreactivity. The authors have evaluated the parameters necessary using the flexibility of Chloramine-T. Labeling yields have been optimized by adjusting reaction conditions based on the volume in which the NaI-123 is supplied. Minimum concentrations of immunoglobulin appears to be 0.4 ..mu..g per ..mu..l of total reaction volume below which there was increase in the iodate byproduct. Chloramine-T concentrations below 0.6 ..mu..g per ..mu..l of total reaction volume results in inadequate oxidation of I-123, while concentrations above 2.5 ..mu..g per ..mu..l of total reaction volume results in denatured protein. Labeling yields were best between pH 7 and 8 with the least amount of protein aggragation. Analysis of reaction products was performed by column chromatography, cellulose acetate electrophoresis, HPLC-TSK3000, and radioimmunoassay. Effective labeling yields of 0.1 to 1.0 iodine atoms per antibody molecule, have been achieved with minimum loss of immunoreactivity when concentrations of reactants are kept within these narrow guidelines. Radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies by chloramine-T has therefore been done with millicurie amounts, 80% labeling yields and 90% I-123 antibody immunoreactivity.

  1. Results of experiments on iodine dissociation in active medium of oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagidullin, Marsel V.; Khvatov, Nickolay A.; Malyshev, Mikhail S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of experiments on dissociation of iodine molecules in the presence of singlet oxygen molecules are presented for wide range of oxygen-iodine media composition. Rate constants values have been obtained: 4.3ṡ10-17cm3/s for the reaction O2(1Δ)+O2(1Δ)->O2(1Σ) +O2(3Σ) - (1), 2.8ṡ10-13 cm3/s for the reactionO2(1Δ)+I(2P1/2)->O2(1Σ)+I(2P3/2) - (4) and 8.3ṡ10-11 cm3/s for the reaction O2(1Σ) +I2->O2(3Σ)+2I - (2). Analysis of experiments shows that for the wide range of oxygen-iodine medium composition the dissociation occurs via the chain of reactions (1), (2), O2(1Δ)+I(2P3/2)->O2(3Σ)+I(2P1/2), (4) and via cascade process I2+I(2P1/2)->I2(v)+I(2P3/2), I2(v)+O2(1Δ)→2I+O2(3Σ). Contributions of each mechanism in the dissociation of the iodine are comparable for the typical composition of the active medium of the supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser. The experiments did not reveal the contribution of vibrationally excited oxygen molecules in the dissociation of iodine. Thus, the experiments and the following conclusions are fully confirmed iodine dissociation mechanism previously proposed by Heidner et al. (J. Phys. Chem., 87, 2348 (1983)).

  2. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose.

  3. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6–12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  4. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  5. [Is iodination of cooking salt still necessary? Current studies on iodine supply in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Supersaxo, Z; Selz, B; Hasler, P; Wespi, H J; Abelin, T; Bürgi, H

    1991-03-09

    Salt with 3.75 mg iodide per kg was introduced in Switzerland stepwise in the individual cantons between 1922 and 1952. The iodide content was raised to 7.5 mg in 1962 and to 15 mg per kg in 1980. 92% of retail salt and 78% of all salt for human consumption (including salt used in industrial food processing) was iodized in 1989. Under this measure, prevalence of grade 1b or larger goiter dropped continuously to a present value of 1.3% in school-children and 0.3% in male army recruits. Endemic cretinism has disappeared completely. Urinary iodine has reached the desired range of 150 +/- 77 (SD) micrograms per g creatinine. The following facts prove that iodization of salt (and not other changes of food habits) have corrected the iodine deficiency in Switzerland: 1. Urinary iodine is highly correlated with urinary sodium. Backward extrapolation yields a theoretical urinary iodine of 30 micrograms per g creatinine in the absence of iodized salt, a value typical of severe deficiency. 2. Goiter prevalence declined later in those cantons which introduced iodized salt last. 3. Surrounding countries without iodized salt (France, Italy, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain) suffer from considerable iodine deficiency with areas of high goiter prevalence and even endemic cretinism. The new data underscore the absolute and continued need for iodized salt in Switzerland.

  6. Relationship between Virucidal Efficacy and Free Iodine Concentration of Povidone-Iodine in Buffer Solution.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hideki; Nojima, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Satoko; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Sugiyama, Noriyoshi; Kajiura, Takumi; Ueda, Tomofumi; Morimoto, Shota; Yokota, Katuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Povidone-iodine solutions prepared to various concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%) with 0.2M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) (PVP-I PB) were analyzed to determine their free iodine concentrations using membrane permeation cells, and their inactivation effects on three viruses (influenza A virus, poliovirus type 1 and adenovirus type 3) were examined. The free iodine concentrations in the 0.01-10% PVP-I PB were determined to be 1.84, 4.88, 1.58 and 0.17 ppm (approximate values), respectively, with the maximum obtained for the 0.1% solution. The virucidal efficacy of these PVP-I PB against poliovirus type 1 and adenovirus type 3 was found to be generally dependent on free iodine concentration, with the 0.1% solution being the most effective. Influenza A virus was inactivated with an action time of 15 s at all four concentrations examined. The results of this study suggested an association between free iodine concentration and virucidal efficacy for the 0.01-10% PVP-I PB.

  7. Systemic iodine absorption after preoperative antisepsis using povidone-iodine in cataract surgery-- an open controlled study.

    PubMed

    Below, H; Behrens-Baumann, W; Bernhardt, C; Völzke, H; Kramer, A; Rudolph, P

    2006-01-01

    After preoperative conjunctival and periorbital antisepsis with povidone-iodine (PVP-I), the systemic absorption of iodine after cataract surgery was measured to evaluate the risk of thyroid side effects. Five different combinations of PVP-I alone or in combination with PVP-I-free antiseptics were applied to the conjunctiva and periorbital skin. An iodine-free product served as control. Iodide and creatinine in urine were analyzed before intervention and 24 and 48 h postoperatively. Depending on the concentration and application site, 0.3-4.5% of the total applied iodine or 3.6-45.4% of the free iodine were absorbed. The range of urine iodine excretion was between 11.7 and 71.0 mug iodine/g creatinine, depending on the PVP-I concentration and the site of application. The increase in iodine excretion was significant at 24 h postoperatively in trials receiving PVP-I both periorbitally and conjunctivally, depending of the concentration used. Because the iodine absorption is only slight and of doubtful clinical relevance, presurgical conjunctival antisepsis can be achieved with 1.25% PVP-I; so far clinically manifest anamnestic thyroid disorders are excluded. Presently, periorbital skin antisepsis with PVP-I cannot be recommended until data on thyroid metabolism in the population have been collected and evaluated, especially in a region currently or previously deficient in iodine.

  8. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations.

  9. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats’ hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations. PMID:27043135

  10. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  11. Battelle review cuts iodine release estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-04-22

    A new study has concluded that radioactive iodine released from the Energy Department's Hanford complex in the 1940s and 1950s was more widely dispersed than previously believed, prompting researchers to lower their estimates of likely radiation doses to those living near the nuclear weapons facility. However, despite the lowered doses, the study found those living closest to Hanford still suffered radiation doses to the thyroid gland more than 1,000 times higher than those resulting from natural radiation in the environment. Researchers said the highest doses probably were received by infants and children who drank milk from cows that grazed in local pastures heavily contaminated by the Hanford releases. Milk from cows was found to be the biggest pathway for contamination by iodine-131, the contaminate estimated to account for 98 percent of the radioactivity released into the air at Hanford during its plutonium production period from 1944-1951.

  12. Optically pumped oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagidullin, Marsel V.; Malyshev, Mikhail S.

    2017-01-01

    A novel optical pumping scheme considering a two-step irradiation by light at wavelengths near 500 nm and 1315 nm is proposed in this work. Radiation at 500 nm is used to dissociate about 1% of iodine molecules. The radiation at 1315 nm excites atomic iodine to the 2P1/2 state. Singlet oxygen molecules are produced via the energy exchange process I(2P1/2)+O2(X3Σ)-> I(2P3/2)+O2(a1Δ), while I(2P1/2)+O2(a1Δ) energy pooling produces b1Σ oxygen. I(2P3/2) and O2(1Σ) then accelerate the dissociation of I2. After gas dynamic cooling in supersonic nozzle, active medium may reach 100 W cm-2 and small signal gain of 0.01 cm-1.

  13. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  14. An Iodine Fluorescence Quenching Clock Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Richard B.

    2007-05-01

    A fluorescent clock reaction is described that is based on the principles of the Landolt iodine reaction but uses the potent fluorescence quenching properties of triiodide to abruptly extinguish the ultraviolet fluorescence of optical brighteners present in liquid laundry detergents. The reaction uses easily obtained household products. One variation illustrates the sequential steps and mechanisms of the reaction; other variations maximize the dramatic impact of the demonstration; and a variation that uses liquid detergent in the Briggs Rauscher reaction yields a striking oscillating luminescence. The iodine fluorescence quenching clock reaction can be used in the classroom to explore not only the principles of redox chemistry and reaction kinetics, but also the photophysics of fluorescent pH probes and optical quenching.

  15. Diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance.

    PubMed

    Bridoux, Frank; Leung, Nelson; Hutchison, Colin A; Touchard, Guy; Sethi, Sanjeev; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Picken, Maria M; Herrera, Guillermo A; Kastritis, Efstathios; Merlini, Giampaolo; Roussel, Murielle; Fervenza, Fernando C; Dispenzieri, Angela; Kyle, Robert A; Nasr, Samih H

    2015-04-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) regroups all renal disorders caused by a monoclonal immunoglobulin (MIg) secreted by a nonmalignant B-cell clone. By definition, patients with MGRS do not meet the criteria for overt multiple myeloma/B-cell proliferation, and the hematologic disorder is generally consistent with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). However, MGRS is associated with high morbidity due to the severity of renal and sometimes systemic lesions induced by the MIg. Early recognition is crucial, as suppression of MIg secretion by chemotherapy often improves outcomes. The spectrum of renal diseases in MGRS is wide, including old entities such as AL amyloidosis and newly described lesions, particularly proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal Ig deposits and C3 glomerulopathy with monoclonal gammopathy. Kidney biopsy is indicated in most cases to determine the exact lesion associated with MGRS and evaluate its severity. Diagnosis requires integration of morphologic alterations by light microscopy, immunofluorescence (IF), electron microscopy, and in some cases by IF staining for Ig isotypes, immunoelectron microscopy, and proteomic analysis. Complete hematologic workup with serum and urine protein electrophoresis, immunofixation, and serum-free light-chain assay is required. This review addresses the pathologic and clinical features of MGRS lesions, indications of renal biopsy, and a proposed algorithm for the hematologic workup.

  16. Monoclonal antibodies to leukotoxin of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    DiRienzo, J M; Tsai, C C; Shenker, B J; Taichman, N S; Lally, E T

    1985-01-01

    Hybridoma cell lines which produce monoclonal antibodies to a leukotoxin from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were prepared. The monoclonal antibodies were selected for their ability to neutralize the cytotoxic activity of the leukotoxin and recognize the toxin on nitrocellulose blots. The antibodies belonged to either the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) or IgG2 subclass and differed in their ability to bind to the leukotoxin on nitrocellulose blots. However, only slight differences in neutralization titers were observed. Use of the monoclonal antibodies revealed that polymyxin B-extracted or osmotic shock-released leukotoxin could be separated into several high-molecular-weight polypeptides by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblot analysis with the monoclonal antibodies also demonstrated that the leukotoxin was present in eight oral strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans that had been previously classified by a biological assay as leukotoxic. The availability of these monoclonal antibodies should facilitate and expand studies concerning the role of the leukotoxin in the pathogenicity of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Images PMID:3965404

  17. Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear stuctures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

  18. Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear structures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

  19. Amylose-iodine complex. I. Sedimentation behavior.

    PubMed

    Dintzis, F R; Beckwith, A C; Babcock, G E; Tobin, R

    1976-01-01

    Sedimentation measurements are reported on solutions of blue amylose-iodine complexes in the range of 0.001 to 0.007% amylose. Amylose fractions B and F2, of weight average molecular weight average molecular weight 4.0 X 10(5) and 3.4 X 10(4), respectively, were used in this study. Iodine complexes of these fractions formed polydisperse solutions of limited solubility and stability. Sedimentation coefficients increased as a function of potassium iodide concentration. Values for fraction B complexes varied from (16.3 +/- 1.0) X 10(-13) at 1.2 X 10(-3) M KI to (57.2 +/- 7.5) X 10(-13) at 8.3 X 10(-3) M KI; values for fraction F2 complexes varied from (10.0 +/- 1.2) X 10(-13) at 1.2 X 10(-13) M KI to (24.8 +/- 3.9) X 10(-13) at 9.5 X 10(-3) M KI. At constant potassium iodide concentration, sedimentation coefficients, within our experimental error of 10 to 15% standard deviation, are independent of amylose concentration. Time dependence of sedimentation coefficient values was observed for solutions either saturated or unsaturated with respect to the iodine-binding capacity of amylose. For iodine-saturated complex solutions, sedimentation coefficients extrapolated to zero potassium iodide concentration were two to three times greater than for the parent amylose. Measurements are evaluated in terms of possible polyelectrolytic charge effects and aggregation. Under conditions used in these experiments, aggregation of amylose-iodide complexes appears to be the mechanism responsible for the large increase in sedimentation coefficients.

  20. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1987-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from March 1, 1987 to September 30, 1987 under NASA grant NAG1-441 entitled 'Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier'. During this period Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals have been tested for the solar-simulator pumped cw laser, and loss mechanisms of the laser output power in a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser also have been identified theoretically. It was observed that the threshold pump-beam intensities for both Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals were about 1000 solar constants, and the cw laser operation of the Nd:Cr:GSGG crystal was more difficult than that of the Nd:YAG crystal under the solar-simulator pumping. The possibility of the Nd:Cr:GSGG laser operation with a fast continuously chopped pumping was also observed. In addition, good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data on the loss mechanisms of a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser at various fill pressures and various lasants was achieved.

  1. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

    PubMed Central

    Watts, M. J.; Joy, E. J. M.; Young, S. D.; Broadley, M. R.; Chilimba, A. D. C.; Gibson, R. S.; Siyame, E. W. P.; Kalimbira, A. A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg−1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg−1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg−1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg−1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d−1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d−1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L−1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d−1 based on consumption of 2 L d−1. PMID:26503697

  2. Iodination of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean O.; Harris, J. Ieuan

    1970-01-01

    1. A high degree of homology in the positions of tyrosine residues in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from lobster and pig muscle, and from yeast, prompted an examination of the reactivity of tyrosine residues in the enzyme. 2. Iodination of the enzyme from lobster muscle with low concentrations of potassium tri-[125I]-iodide led to the identification of tyrosine residues of differing reactivity. Tyrosine-46 appeared to be the most reactive in the native enzyme. 3. When the monocarboxymethylated enzyme was briefly treated with small amounts of iodine, iodination could be confined almost entirely to tyrosine-46 in the lobster enzyme; tyrosine-39 or tyrosine-42, or both, were also beginning to react. 4. These three tyrosine residues were also those that reacted most readily in the carboxymethylated pig and yeast enzymes. 5. The difficulties in attaining specific reaction of the native enzyme are considered. 6. The differences between our results and those of other workers are discussed. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:5530750

  3. Iodine source apportionment in the Malawian diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, M. J.; Joy, E. J. M.; Young, S. D.; Broadley, M. R.; Chilimba, A. D. C.; Gibson, R. S.; Siyame, E. W. P.; Kalimbira, A. A.; Chilima, B.; Ander, E. L.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg-1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg-1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg-1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg-1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d-1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d-1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L-1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d-1 based on consumption of 2 L d-1.

  4. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  5. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  6. Electrolytic trapping of iodine from process gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Horner, Donald E.; Mailen, James C.; Posey, Franz A.

    1977-01-25

    A method for removing molecular, inorganic, and organic forms of iodine from process gas streams comprises the electrolytic oxidation of iodine in the presence of cobalt-III ions. The gas stream is passed through the anode compartment of a partitioned electrolytic cell having a nitric acid anolyte containing a catalytic amount of cobalt to cause the oxidation of effluent iodine species to aqueous soluble species.

  7. Automated Iodine Monitoring System Development (AIMS). [shuttle prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The operating principle of the automated iodine monitoring/controller system (AIMS) is described along with several design modifications. The iodine addition system is also discussed along with test setups and calibration; a facsimile of the optical/mechanical portion of the iodine monitor was fabricated and tested. The appendices include information on shuttle prototype AIMS, preliminary prime item development specifications, preliminary failure modes and effects analysis, and preliminary operating and maintenance instructions.

  8. Trends in Malignant Glioma Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chekhonin, Ivan; Gurina, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Although new passive and active immunotherapy methods are emerging, unconjugated monoclonal antibodies remain the only kind of biological preparations approved for high-grade glioma therapy in clinical practice. In this review, we combine clinical and experimental data discussion. As antiangiogenic therapy is the standard of care for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we analyze major clinical trials and possible therapeutic combinations of bevacizumab, the most common monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Another humanized antibody to gain recognition in GBM is epidermal growth factor (EGFR) antagonist nimotuzumab. Other antigens (VEGF receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, hepatocyte growth factor and c-Met system) showed significance in gliomas and were used to create monoclonal antibodies applied in different malignant tumors. We assess the role of genetic markers (isocitrate dehydrogenase, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransnsferase) in GBM treatment outcome prediction. Besides antibodies studied in clinical trials, we focus on perspective targets and briefly list other means of passive immunotherapy.

  9. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  10. Medical effects of iodine disinfection products in spacecraft water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Various iodination products (IDPs), including iodinated and iodine-induced new compounds, will be present in the iodine-disinfected water that is expected to be used by crews on the NASA Space Station and on long duration missions. The metabolic intermediaries created by such a process may be more important to crew health than the parent IDPs, and reclamation and recycling may be expected to produce additional products. These medical effects may be expressed in crews as hypersensitivity, allergic, acute toxic, and chronic toxic reactions, as well as modifications of immune system response.

  11. Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Brough, Louise; Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane; Jin, Ying; Thomson, Jasmine S; Mauze, Mathilde; Kruger, Marlena C

    2017-03-09

    Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50-70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%-55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand.

  12. The regioselective iodination of quinolines, quinolones, pyridones, pyridines and uracil.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Uttam; Deb, Arghya; Lupton, David W; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-12-28

    A radical based direct C-H iodination protocol for quinolines, quinolones, pyridones, pyridines, and uracil has been developed. The iodination occurs in a C3 selective manner for quinolines and quinolones. Pyridones and pyridines undergo C3 and C5 iodination, while dimethyl uracil undergoes C5 iodination. Scope of the method was demonstrated through the rapid synthesis of both electron rich as well as electron poor heteroaromatic iodides. The protocol was found to be scalable and general, while a mechanism has been proposed.

  13. Assessment of iodine nutrition in populations: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Andersson, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Iodine status has been historically assessed by palpation of the thyroid and reported as goiter rates. Goiter is a functional biomarker that can be applied to both individuals and populations, but it is subjective. Iodine status is now assessed using an objective biomarker of exposure, i.e., urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) in spot samples and comparison of the median UIC to UIC cut-offs to categorize population status. This has improved standardization, but inappropriate use of the crude proportion of UICs below the cut-off level of 100 µg/L to estimate the number of iodine-deficient children has led to an overestimation of the prevalence of iodine deficiency. In this review, a new approach is proposed in which UIC data are extrapolated to iodine intakes, adjusted for intraindividual variation, and then interpreted using the estimated average requirement cut-point model. This may allow national programs to define the prevalence of iodine deficiency in the population and to quantify the necessary increase in iodine intakes to ensure sufficiency. In addition, thyroglobulin can be measured on dried blood spots to provide an additional sensitive functional biomarker of iodine status.

  14. A model for a continuous-wave iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In H.; Tabibi, Bagher M.

    1990-01-01

    A model for a continuous-wave (CW) iodine laser has been developed and compared with the experimental results obtained from a solar-simulator-pumped CW iodine laser. The agreement between the calculated laser power output and the experimental results is generally good for various laser parameters even when the model includes only prominent rate coefficients. The flow velocity dependence of the output power shows that the CW iodine laser cannot be achieved with a flow velocity below 1 m/s for the present solar-simulator-pumped CW iodine laser system.

  15. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (<1kW) and high power (>10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  16. Recent experiences with iodine water disinfection in Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Randall E.; Flanagan, David T.; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.; Slezak, Terry N.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial proliferation in the STS potable water system is prevented by maintaining a 2-5 ppm iodine residual. The iodine is added to fuel cell water by an iodinated ion exchange resin in the Microbial Check Valve (MCV). Crew comments indicated excessive iodine in the potable water. To better define the problem, a method of in-flight iodine analysis was developed. Inflight analysis during STS-30 and STS-28 indicated iodine residuals were generally in the 9-13 ppm range. It was determined that the high iodine residual was caused by MCV influent temperatures in excess of 120 F. This is well above the MCV operating range of 65-90 F. The solution to this problem was to develop a resin suitable for the higher temperatures. Since 8 months were required to formulate a MCV resin suitable for the higher temperatures, a temporary solution was necessary. Two additional MCV's were installed on the chilled and ambient water lines leading into the galley to remove the excess iodine. These reduced the iodine residual to 3-4 ppm during STS-33, STS-34, STS-36 and STS-32. A high-temperature resin was formulated and initially flown on STS-31.

  17. Iodine and Selenium Intakes of Postmenopausal Women in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Louise; Gunn, Caroline A.; Weber, Janet L.; Coad, Jane; Jin, Ying; Thomson, Jasmine S.; Mauze, Mathilde; Kruger, Marlena C.

    2017-01-01

    Iodine and selenium are required for thyroid function. This study investigated iodine and selenium intakes in healthy, women aged 50–70 years (n = 97) from three cities in the North Island of New Zealand, after mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt. Iodine and selenium concentrations were determined in 24-h urine samples; daily intakes were extrapolated from amounts in urine (90% and 55% of daily intake, respectively). Three day diet diaries (3DDD) also estimated selenium and iodine (excluding iodised salt) intake. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 57 (41, 78) µg/L, indicating mild iodine deficiency. Estimated median iodine intake based on urine was 138 (100, 172) µg/day, below Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) (150 µg/day) with 25% below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) (100 µg/day). Estimated median selenium intake was 50 (36, 71) µg/day based on urine and 45 (36, 68) µg/day using 3DDD, below RDI (60 µg/day) with 49%–55% below EAR (50 µg/day). Median bread intakes were low at 1.8 (1.1, 2.7) serves/day; 25% consumed ≤1 serve/day. Although population iodine intakes improved following mandatory fortification, some had low intakes. Selenium intakes remain low. Further research should investigate thyroid function of low consumers of iodine fortified bread and/or selenium in New Zealand. PMID:28282932

  18. Iodine accumulation in sea urchin larvae is dependent on peroxide.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley E M; Heyland, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Iodine has many important biological functions and its concentrations vary with the environment. Recent research has provided novel insights into iodine uptake mechanisms in marine bacteria and kelp through hydrogen peroxide-dependent diffusion (PDD). This mechanism is distinct from sodium-dependent mechanisms known from vertebrates. In vertebrates, iodine accumulates in the thyroid gland by the action of the apical iodide transporter (AIT) and the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). Neither of these proteins has, thus far, been identified outside of the chordates, and PDD (as an iodine uptake mechanism) has never been studied in animals. Using (125)I as a marker for total iodine influx, we tested iodine uptake via sodium-dependent transport versus PDD in embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We found that iodine uptake in S. purpuratus is largely independent of NIS/AIT. Instead, we found that uptake is dependent on the presence and production of hydrogen peroxide, indicating that sea urchin larvae use PDD as a mechanism for iodine acquisition. Our data, for the first time, provide conclusive evidence for this mechanism in an animal. Furthermore, our data provide preliminary evidence that sodium-dependent iodine uptake via active transporter proteins is a synapomorphy of vertebrates.

  19. Monoclonal Antibodies against the Drosophila Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shinobu C.; Zipursky, Stephen L.; Benzer, Seymour; Ferrus, Alberto; Shotwell, Sandra L.

    1982-12-01

    A panel of 148 monoclonal antibodies directed against Drosophila neural antigens has been prepared by using mice immunized with homogenates of Drosophila tissue. Antibodies were screened immunohistochemically on cryostat sections of fly heads. A large diversity of staining patterns was observed. Some antigens were broadly distributed among tissues; others were highly specific to nerve fibers, neuropil, muscle, the tracheal system, cell nuclei, photoreceptors, or other structures. The antigens for many of the antibodies have been identified on immunoblots. Monoclonal antibodies that identify specific molecules within the nervous system should prove useful in the study of the molecular genetics of neural development.

  20. Preparation of astatine-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Milesz, S.; Norseev, Yu.V.; Szucs, Z. |

    1995-07-01

    In the cationic state astatine forms a stable complex with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Thanks to this complex, astatine can be bound to monoclonal antibodies of the RYa{sub 1} type. The most favorable conditions for preparing astatine-labeled antibodies are established. The chromatographic analysis and electromigration experiments showed that astatine is firmly linked to a biomolecule in vitro and it did not escape from labeled monoclonal antibodies even under treatment with such highly effective astatine-complexing agent as thiourea. The immune activity of astatine-labeled antibodies did not change even after 20 h.

  1. Characterization of monoclonal gammopathies, a new approach.

    PubMed

    Nerenberg, S T; Mallin, J

    1975-08-01

    A new approach to the characterization (typing) of L- and H-chains of monoclonal immunoglobulins and Bence-Jones protein utilizing elution of a monoclonal immunoglobulin in conjunction with solid-support electrophoresis and the reverse Mancini procedure of radial immunodiffusion on Mylar-backed cellulose acetate membranes is described. A number of benefits are derived, particularly the use of only a fraction (1/200) of the antisera used with agar immunoelectrophoresis. The importance of "standardizing" commercial antisera (and a method for carrying this out) with the techniques described is emphasized.

  2. Monoclonal Antibody That Defines Human Myoepithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dairkee, Shahnaz Hashmi; Blayney, Carlene; Smith, Helene S.; Hackett, Adeline J.

    1985-11-01

    We have isolated a mouse monoclonal antibody that, upon immunohistochemical localization in frozen sections, displays specificity for human myoepithelial cells in the resting mammary gland, sweat glands, and salivary glands. Furthermore, this antibody was strongly and homogeneously reactive with frozen sections of 3 of 60 breast carcinoma specimens. Using immunolocalization techniques in conjunction with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we have determined that the reactivity of this monoclonal antibody is directed toward a 51,000-dalton keratin polypeptide. The potential uses of this antibody in the prognosis of human mammary carcinoma and in understanding the role of the myoepithelium in development and differentiation are discussed.

  3. An evaluation of the effectiveness of water iodinator system to supply iodine to selected schools in Terengganu, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, K K; Siti Rohana, D; Zawiah, A; Wan Nazaimoon, W M

    2006-12-01

    This is a cross-sectional study conducted from January to September 2004 in a group of school children aged 8 -10 years old. The schools and study subjects were selected using stratified systematic sampling technique. A total of 44 schools and 1100 subjects were selected from schools with iodinator and schools without iodinator. Samples collected were spot urine and drinking water. Dietary and iodised water consumption data were obtained from interviews. A total of 931 subjects (84.6%) responded; 558 (50.7%) from schools with iodinator and 373 (33.9%) from schools without iodinator. Results showed that in more than half (53.8%) of the schools with iodinators, mean water iodine level was below 25 microg/L. The study population in Terengganu was found to be mildly iodine deficient with an overall median urine iodine concentration (uIC) of 74 microg/L. Based on WHO criteria, 4.1% with uIC <20 microg/L (severe), 19.5% with uIC between 20-49 microg/L (moderate), 49.2% with uIC between 50-99 microg/L (mild) and 27.2% was iodine sufficient with uIC >100 microg/L. Majority of the study subjects were found to have high seafood intake (> 90%) and low in goitrogen food intake. This study suggests water iodinator system may not be a suitable method of supplying iodine and an alternative is needed in order to eradicate the iodine deficiency problem seen in some parts of Malaysia.

  4. Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

  5. Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-06-28

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended.

  6. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C.; Shockley, William E.

    1990-07-03

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  7. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Beahm, Edward C.; Shockley, William E.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  8. A Resonance Raman/Iodine Moessbauer Investigation of the Starch-Iodine Structure: Aqueous Solution and Iodine Vapor Preparations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-05

    was then evaporated in a stream of prepurified nitrogen to yield solid 󈧗I. For a source of I, the basic Na 9I solution from Oak Ridge was neutralized...depletion of pentaiodide to form triiodide (eq. (2)). 14 I 5I 3 + 12 (2) Iodine Mdssbauer Studies Further efforts to quantitatively investigate the I...populations 1:1:1 (e.g. distorted triiodide , as in CsI3 2 4 ’ 33) also resulted in poor agreement with the experimental spectrum, i. e., an increase

  9. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

  10. Controlled iodine release from polyurethane sponges for water decontamination.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Oren; Laout, Natalia; Ratner, Stanislav; Harik, Oshrat; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Domb, Abraham J

    2013-12-28

    Iodinated polyurethane (IPU) sponges were prepared by immersing sponges in aqueous/organic solutions of iodine or exposing sponges to iodine vapors. Iodine was readily adsorbed into the polymers up to 100% (w/w). The adsorption of iodine on the surface was characterized by XPS and SEM analyses. The iodine loaded IPU sponges were coated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), in order to release iodine in a controlled rate for water decontamination combined with active carbon cartridge, which adsorbs the iodine residues after the microbial inactivation. The EVA coated IPU were incorporated in a water purifier and tested for iodine release to water and for microbial inactivation efficiency according to WQA certification program against P231/EPA for 250l, using 25l a day with flow rate of 6-8min/1l. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against Escherichia coli and MS2 phage. Bacterial results exceeded the minimal requirement for bacterial removal of 6log reduction throughout the entire lifespan. At any testing point, no bacteria was detected in the outlet achieving more than 7.1 to more than 8log reduction as calculated upon the inlet concentration. Virus surrogate, MS2, reduction results varied from 4.11log reduction under tap water, and 5.11log reduction under basic water (pH9) to 1.32 for acidic water (pH5). Controlled and stable iodine release was observed with the EVA coated IPU sponges and was effective in deactivating the bacteria and virus present in the contaminated water and thus, these iodinated PU systems could be used in water purification to provide safe drinking water. These sponges may find applications as disinfectants in medicine.

  11. Generation of a monoclonal antibody against Mycoplasma spp. following accidental contamination during production of a monoclonal antibody against Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong-Min; Lee, Ji-Hye; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2012-03-01

    This report describes Mycoplasma contamination of Lawsonia intracellularis cultures that led to the unintended acquisition of a monoclonal antibody against Mycoplasma spp. during the attempted generation of a monoclonal antibody against L. intracellularis.

  12. Production of monoclonal antibodies to plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies in plant pathology has improved the quality and specificity of detection methods for diseases. Hybridoma technology allows the limitless production of highly specific antibodies which can be used to identify pathogens to the species or even sub-species level.

  13. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Advanced Neuroblastoma

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is sponsoring two clinical trials of a monoclonal antibody called ch14.18, in combination with other drugs, to see if the antibody may be helpful for children or young adults (up to age 21) with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma.

  14. Monoclonal antibody technologies and rapid detection assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel methodologies and screening strategies will be outlined on the use of hybridoma technology for the selection of antigen specific monoclonal antibodies. The development of immunoassays used for diagnostic detection of prions and bacterial toxins will be discussed and examples provided demonstr...

  15. Iodine nutritional status in Uttarakhand State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Neha; Kapil, Umesh; Nambiar, Vanisha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Khenduja, Preetika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Uttarakhand (UK) state is a known endemic region to iodine deficiency (ID). Objective: To assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of UK. Methodology: Three districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar (USN), Nainital (N), and Pauri Garhwal (PG) were selected. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing the population proportional to size cluster sampling methodology. Total of 6143 school age children (SAC) (USN; 1807, N; 2269, PG: 2067), 5430 adolescent girls (AGs) (USN; 1823, N; 1811, PG: 1796), 1727 pregnant mothers (PMs) (USN; 632, N; 614, PG: 481), and 2013 Neonates (USN; 649, N; 670, PG: 694), were included in the study. Clinical examination of thyroid of each child, AG and PM was conducted. Spot urine and salt samples were collected from children, AGs and PMs. Cord blood samples were collected from neonates for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Results: In SAC, total goiter rate (TGR) was 13.2% (USN), 15.9% (N), and 16.8% (PG). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) level was 150 μg/l (USN), 125 μg/l (N), and 115 μg/l (PG). In AGs, TGR was 6.8% (USN), 8.2% (N) and 5.6% (PG). Median UIC level was 250 μg/l (USN), 200 μg/l (N), and 183 μg/l (PG). In PMs, TGR was 16.1% (USN), 20.2% (N), and 24.9% (PG). Median UIC level was 124 μg/l (USN), 117.5 μg/l (N) and 110 μg/l (PG), respectively. In Neonates, TSH levels of >5 mIU/L were found in 55.3 (USN), 76.4 (N) and 72.8 (PG) percent of neonates. Conclusion: UIC level in PMs and TSH levels among neonates indicate the prevalence of ID in three districts surveyed. PMID:27042411

  16. Iodinated Contrast Media and the Alleged "Iodine Allergy": An Inexact Diagnosis Leading to Inferior Radiologic Management and Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ingrid; Nairz, Knud; Morelli, John N; Keller, Patricia Silva Hasembank; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that the incomplete diagnosis "iodine allergy" is a possibly dangerous concept for patients under routine radiologic conditions. Materials and Methods 300 patients with a history of an "iodine allergy" were retrospectively screened and compared with two age-, sex-, and procedure-matched groups of patients either diagnosed with a nonspecific "iodine contrast medium (ICM) allergy" or an allergy to a specific ICM agent. For all groups, the clinical symptoms of the most recent past adverse drug reaction (ADR), prophylactic actions taken for subsequent imaging, and ultimate outcome were recorded and analyzed. Results The diagnosis "iodine allergy" was not otherwise specified in 84.3 % patients. For this group, in most cases, the symptoms of the previous ADRs were not documented. In contrast, the type of ADR was undocumented in only a minority of patients in the comparison groups. In the group of patients with an "iodine allergy" the percentage of unenhanced CT scans was greater than within the other two groups (36.7 % vs. 28.7 %/18.6 %). ADRs following prophylactic measures were only observed in the "iodine allergy" group (OR of 9.24 95 % CI 1.16 - 73.45; p < 0.04). Conclusion This data confirms the hypothesis that the diagnosis "iodine allergy" is potentially dangerous and results in uncertainty in clinical management and sometimes even ineffective prophylactic measures. Key points  · The term "iodine allergy" is imprecise, because it designates allergies against different substance classes, such as disinfectants with complexed iodine and contrast media containing covalently bound iodine.. · There is a clear correlation between the exactness of the diagnosis - from the alleged "iodine allergy" to "contrast media allergy" to naming the exact culprit CM - and the quality of documentation of the symptoms.. · Management of patients diagnosed with "iodine allergy" was associated with uncertainty leading to

  17. The effects of iodine level and source on iodine carry-over in eggs and body tissues of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Röttger, Anna S; Halle, Ingrid; Wagner, Hubertus; Breves, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven; Flachowsky, Gerhard

    2012-10-01

    In the presented study the effect of different iodine (I) levels and sources in hen feed on the iodine concentration of different tissues, blood serum, and eggs of laying hens was studied. For this purpose, two experiments were conducted with 30 laying hens each. In these experiments feed was enriched with KI and Ca(IO(3))(2), respectively, at 0 (Control), 0.25, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 mg I/kg feed, resulting a analysed iodine level from 0.44 to 4.20 mg/kg feed. After four weeks experimental feeding the iodine concentrations of thyroid glands, blood, meat, liver, abdominal fat and eggs were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The experimental treatment did not affect hen performance. The iodine supplementation significantly increased the iodine concentration of eggs (144-1304 μg/kg), thyroid glands (3367-5975 μg/g), blood serum (16-67 μg/kg) and liver (13-43 μg/kg). Meat (about 14 μg I/kg) and abdominal fat (about 12 μg I/kg) were not significantly affected by iodine treatment. Comparative regression analyses showed that at a similar iodine intake, the supply via KI resulted in significantly higher iodine deposition into eggs than Ca(IO(3))(2). Due to the high carry-over of iodine into eggs, eggs may considerably contribute to the iodine supply of the consumers.

  18. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A.; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  19. Iodine Deficiency in Australia: Be Alarmed. Opinions & Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElduff, Aidan; Beange, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency, the leading preventable cause of intellectual impairment in the world (World Health Organization, 1999), has reappeared in Australia. Recently, we identified the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Sydney (Gunton, Hams, Fiegert & McElduff, 1999). This has been confirmed locally (Li, Ma, Boyages & Eastman, 2001) and…

  20. Optimization studies on GCM for iodine waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2014-09-01

    We are purusing an understand of the durability and materials processability of the low temperature sintering Bi-Si oxide Glass Composite Material (GCM)1 Waste Form for iodine capture materials. The chemical and physical controls over iodine release from candidate 129I waste forms must be quantified to predict long-term waste form effectiveness.

  1. Iodine, a Mild Reagent for the Aromatization of Terpenoids.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Victoriano; Prieto, Consuelo; Silva, Lucia; Rodilla, Jesús M L; Quílez del Moral, José F; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2016-04-22

    Efficient procedures based on the use of iodine for the aromatization of a series of terpenoids possessing diene and homoallylic or allylic alcohol functionalities are described. Different examples are reported as a proof-of-concept study. Furthermore, iodine also proved to mediate the dehydrogenation of testosterone.

  2. Povidone iodine skin absorption: an ex-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Nesvadbova, Martina; Crosera, Matteo; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-06-15

    Povidone iodine is a water-soluble complex used to disinfect the skin surface and it exerts prolonged germicidal action against a broad spectrum of germs. Indeed, it is often applied on burned skin, large wounds, deep tissues or mucosa. Notably some surgical hand-scrub solutions, which are considered safe antiseptics, contain large amounts of iodine that can be absorbed by skin. The aim of present study was to study the skin absorption of iodine after the application on the skin of povidone-iodine solution, used by health care workers during surgical procedure. We use Franz diffusion static cells with human skin. After 24h from the beginning of our measurement the iodine concentration in the receiving compartment was 11.59±6.3μg/cm(2). The medium flux calculated was 0.73±0.33μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 8.9±1.5h. These in vitro results confirmed that povidone iodine could pass through the skin in a relevant amount that can explain the clinical findings in burned or surgically treated patients. In professional use the repetitive contact with povidone iodine, also as soap, can cause iodine skin permeation that must be considered when the washing procedures are repeated more than 20 times a day.

  3. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.

    1953-01-01

    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  4. Viscosity of high-temperature iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Steve H.; Kunc, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    The viscosity coefficient of iodine in the temperature range 500 - 3000 K is calculated. Because of the low dissociation energy of the I2 molecules, the dissociation degree of the gas increases quickly with temperature, and I + I2 and I + I collisions must be taken into account in calculation of viscosity at temperatures greater than 1000 deg. Several possible channels for atom-atom interaction are considered, and the resulting collision integrals are averaged over all the important channels. It is also shown that the rigid-sphere model is inaccurate in predictions of the viscosity.

  5. Neurocognitive outcomes of children secondary to mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide. During pregnancy, severe iodine deficiency causes endemic cretinism, whereas mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency impairs neurocognitive function of the offspring. Numerous reports demonstrate the impact of iodine supplementation on prevention of cretinism, and recent studies evaluate the effects of iodine prophylaxis on neurocognitive development in children of women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis is generally well tolerated without side effects for the pregnant women and the offspring. In France, the iodine status was recently considered as satisfactory in children and adult population, but regional studies conducted during the last two decades have shown that healthy women are mild-to-moderately iodine deficient during pregnancy. According to recent World Heath Organization guidelines, systematic iodine prophylaxis is recommended in women planning a pregnancy, during gestation and lactation in order to prevent maternal, neonatal and infantile consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency.

  6. Characterization of Human Macrophage Antigens Identified by Monoclonal Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Total extracts of iodinated glycoproteins or iodinated surface proteins were dis- solved in 50 pLl O’Farrell Buffer A [9,5 M urea. 2% (w,’v) nonidet -P...the c:ll surface labeled by vectorial iodination. p40 skas not immunoprecipitable from an iodinated concanavalin A-glycoprotein fraction of U937...of U937 cells. T cell clone. B cell clone, and peripheral blood granulocytes and monocytes. but not lymphocytes (Table 3). p40 was also detected in

  7. The radiolysis of iodine in aqueous solutions containing methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquette, Jean; Ford, Beverly L.

    The γ-radiolysis of iodine, iodine, iodate and periodate solutions containing methane has been investigated. Iodoalkanes are produced in these solutions upon irradiation. In the case of unbuffered iodine, iodate and periodate solutions at an initial concentration of 1.0 × 10 -4 mol dm -3, nearly all of the initial iodine is transformed into iodoalkanes after the absorption of a 4 kGy radiation dose. The yield of iodoalkanes is lower for iodine solutions and for iodide solutions buffered at neutral pH. It is concluded that the main reactions leading to the formation of iodoalkanes are CH 3+I 2→CH 3I+I and CH 3+I→CH 3I. In the case of iodate and periodate, these reactions could be preceeded by reactions involving the methyl radical and oxyiodine species: CH 3+IO x→CH 2O+HIO x-1.

  8. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  9. Use of Lugol's iodine in oral cancer diagnosis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, Massimo; Lucchese, Alberta; Baldoni, Edoardo; Grassi, Felice Roberto; Serpico, Rosario

    2010-11-01

    Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) still represents an important challenge for clinicians and patients. Vital staining such as toluidine blue and Lugol's iodine solution, are routinely used in the OSCC detection but few data exist about the last one. A literature review is made to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Lugol's iodine solution in OSCC detection and in its margins demarcation. A review was made of the studies published between 1990 and 2010 in relation to the application of Lugol's iodine for OSCC detection and a better definition of its margins. Data obtained point to the utility and the safety of Lugol's iodine when employed for detection and margins delineation of OSCC and dysplasia. All the studies consulted found the Lugol's iodine to be effective, cheap and easy to use and they emphasized its importance in clinical practice. There is need for larger controlled, randomized studies with carefully selected and standardized outcome measures and patients.

  10. [Dietary iodine provision of the population in the Krasnoyarsk Territory].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, I Iu

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the time course of changes in the intake of staple foods in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in 1998-2005. It is shown that the ingestion of iodine-rich foods has not increased greatly and it is low and does not provide the population with this essential micronutrient. The actual content of iodine in the study samples of food and its raw material is several times less than the tabulated values. The contribution of the staple foods to the provision of the Krasnoyarsk Territory's population with iodine is assessed. The total level of dietary iodine deficiency is estimated. Iodine-fortified salt and foods should be widely used under special conditions providing the transportation and storage of biologically value foods, during which there are inevitable losses of the trace element occur.

  11. Serial thyroid iodine content in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.S.; Sandler, M.P.; Patton, J.A.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-02-01

    X-ray fluorescent scanning was used to measure initial thyroidal iodine content in 64 patients diagnosed as being hyperthyroid and selected for I-131 therapy, and serially in 48 of these patients after therapy in an attempt to determine those patients that were at high risk of becoming hypothyroid. Iodine content fell rapidly after therapy, reaching a nadir at about three months. Based on the population studied, the chance of early hypothyroidism (within 12 months) is about 80% if the iodine content measured at three months is less than 2 mg. If the iodine content is greater than 2 mg, the chance is only about 14%. The serial measurement of thyroidal iodine content (with x-ray fluorescent scanning) may allow early identification of those patients at high risk of developing permanent hypothyroidism following a therapeutic dose of I-131.

  12. Simulation of total dietary iodine intake in Flemish preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lin, Y; Moreno-Reyes, R; Huybrechts, I

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the distribution of total iodine intake among Flemish preschoolers and to identify the major sources contributing to iodine intake. A simulation model using a combination of deterministic and probabilistic techniques was utilised. Scenario analyses were performed to assess iodine intake via dairy products, industrially added iodised salt in bread and discretionarily added iodised household salt. Relevant data from 3-d estimated dietary records of 696 preschoolers 2·5-6·5 years old were used. Usual iodine intakes were calculated using the Iowa State University method. With a more generalised utilisation of iodised salt in bread (44 % of the bakers in 2011 instead of 12 % in 2002), mean iodine intake increased from 159 to 164 μg/d using the McCance and Widdowson's food composition table and from 104 to 109 μg/d using the German food composition table. The percentage of preschoolers with an iodine intake below the estimated average requirement (65 μg/d) decreased from 5-12 to 4-9 %, while the percentage of preschoolers with an iodine intake above the tolerable upper intake level (300 μg/d) remained constant (0·3-4 %). Mean iodine intake via food supplements was 4·2 μg/d (total population) and 16·9 μg/d (consumers only). Both in 2002 and 2011, sugared dairy products, milk and iodised salt (21·4, 13·1, and 8·7 %, respectively in 2011) were the main contributors to total iodine intake. In conclusion, dietary iodine intake could still be improved in Flemish preschoolers. The use of adequately iodised household salt and the more generalised use of iodised salt by bakers should be further encouraged.

  13. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737

  14. Excessive iodine intake during pregnancy in Somali refugees.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Ismail A R; Ruth, Laird J; Creeke, Paul I; Gnat, Danielle; Abdalla, Fathia; Seal, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and excess are both associated with adverse health consequences, with fetuses, children and pregnant women being most vulnerable to the devastating effects of severe deficiency. It is often assumed that the iodine status of a population if displaced or in a remote or emergency situation is low. However, there is little evidence available to support this assumption, especially among long-term food-aid-dependent pregnant women. An effectiveness trial of a prenatal multiple-micronutrient supplement that contained 150 µg day(-1) iodine was conducted in two refugee camps in the North Eastern Province of Kenya in 2002. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a subsample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dagahaley (control camp) (n = 74) and Ifo (intervention camp) (n = 63). There was no significant difference in median UIC between the two camps (P = 0.118). The combined median UIC was 730 µg L(-1) (interquartile range, 780) (5.77 µmol L(-1)) and exceeded the upper safe limit of 500 µg L(-1) (3.95 µmol L(-1)) for pregnant women (P < 0.001), indicating excessive iodine intake. About 20% of the study subjects had 'more than adequate' urinary iodine, while over 71% had excessive UIC. Salt iodine content varied between 5.1 and 80.1 ppm in the five market salt samples analysed. In conclusion, excessive iodine intake was evident in the Dadaab refugee camps. Further research needs to be conducted to investigate the source of excess iodine, to determine the measures needed to address excessive iodine intake and to reconsider the World Health Organization/World Food Programme/United Nations Children's Fund guidance on supplementation of vulnerable groups in emergencies.

  15. Incorporation of iodine in polymeric microparticles and emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Markina, Natalia E.; Markin, Alexey V.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.

    2016-04-01

    Application of different methods for formation of microcontainers containing iodine is proposed in this paper. Two types of microcontainers: microemulsions and microparticles have been investigated, conditions and methods for obtaining microcontainers were optimized. Microparticles were formed by layer-by-layer method with cores of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as templates. Incorporation of complexes of iodine with polymers (chitosan, starch, polyvinyl alcohol) into core, shell and hollow capsules was investigated and loadings of microparticles with iodine were estimated. It was found that the complex of iodine with chitosan adsorbed at CaCO3 core is the most stable under physiological conditions and its value of loading can be 450 μg of I2 per 1 g of CaCO3. Moreover, chitosan was chosen as a ligand because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as very low toxicity while its complex with iodine is very stable. A small amount of microparticles containing a iodine-chitosan complex can be used for prolonged release of iodine in the human body since iodine daily intake for adults is around 100 μg. "Oil-in-water" emulsions were prepared by ultrasonication of iodinated oils (sunflower and linseed) with sodium laurilsulfate (SLS) as surfactant solution. At optimal conditions, the homogenous emulsions remained stable for weeks, with total content of iodine in such emulsion being up to 1% (w/w). The oil:SLS ratio was equal to 1:10 (w/w), optimal duration and power of ultrasound exposure were 1.5 min and 7 W, correspondingly. Favorable application of iodized linseed oil for emulsion preparation with suitable oil microdroplets size was proved.

  16. Revisiting History: Encountering Iodine Then and Now--A General Chemistry Laboratory to Observe Iodine from Seaweed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, M. Farooq

    2009-01-01

    The history of the discovery of iodine is retold using brown-colored seaweed found commonly along the ocean shore. The seaweed is ashed at a low temperature and the iodides are extracted into boiling water. The iodides are oxidized in acidic medium. Solvent extraction of iodine by oxidation of iodides as well as simple aqueous extraction of iodide…

  17. Optically (solar) pumped oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, O. B.; Zhevlakov, A. P.; Yur'ev, M. S.

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of theoretical and experimental studies demonstrating the possibility of developing an oxygen-iodine laser (OIL) with direct optical pumping of molecular oxygen involving inter-molecular interaction with charge transfer from donor molecule (buffer gas) to acceptor molecule (oxygen). This interaction lifts degeneracy of the lower energy states of molecular oxygen and increases its absorption cross section in the visible spectral region and the UV Herzberg band, where high quantum yield of singlet oxygen is achieved (QY ˜ 1 and QY ˜ 2, respectively) at the same time. A pulse-periodic optical pump sources with pulse energy of ˜50 kJ, pulse duration of ˜25 μs, and repetition rate of ˜10 Hz, which are synchronized with the mechanism of singlet oxygen generation, are developed. This allows implementation of a pulse-periodic oxygen-iodine laser with an efficiency of ˜25%, optical efficiency of ˜40%, and parameter L/ T ˜ 1/1.5, where T is the thermal energy released in the laser active medium upon generation of energy L. It is demonstrated that, under direct solar pumping of molecular oxygen, the efficiency parameter of the OIL can reach L/ T ˜ 1/0.8 in a wide range of scaling factors.

  18. Iodine waste form summary report (FY 2007).

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; McMahon, Kevin A.; Gao, Huizhen; Rajan, Ashwath Natech

    2007-11-01

    This new program at Sandia is focused on Iodine waste form development for GNEP cycle needs. Our research has a general theme of 'Waste Forms by Design' in which we are focused on silver loaded zeolite waste forms and related metal loaded zeolites that can be validated for chosen GNEP cycle designs. With that theme, we are interested in materials flexibility for iodine feed stream and sequestration material (in a sense, the ability to develop a universal material independent on the waste stream composition). We also are designing the flexibility to work in a variety of repository or storage scenarios. This is possible by studying the structure/property relationship of existing waste forms and optimizing them to our current needs. Furthermore, by understanding the properties of the waste and the storage forms we may be able to predict their long-term behavior and stability. Finally, we are working collaboratively with the Waste Form Development Campaign to ensure materials durability and stability testing.

  19. Iodination of Fab fragments: Effect of I/Fab molar ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore, R.; Eary, J.F.; Beaumier, P.L.; Hellstrom, K.E.; Hellstrom, I.; Nelp, W.B.

    1985-05-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine covalently coupled to antibodies have formed the standard against which other radiolabeled antibody tracers are compared. Since the use of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) for the diagnosis and therapy of malignant diseases is increasing rapidly the authors wished to investigate radiolabeling variables which affect the immunointegrity of radioiodinated antibodies. The authors studied the electrophilic (chloramine-T) iodination of the Fab fragment of a murine MoAb against the high molecular weight proteoglycan antigen of human melanoma. The immunoreactivity of the iodianted Fab was assessed using a cell binding assay with formaldehyde-fixed cells of a selected cell line (number 2669). The in vitro stability of the labeled fragment was studied electrophoretically. The results indicate that the reaction time and concentrations of chloramine-T were not critical within broad limits. On the other hand immunoreactivity and deiodination over time (shelf-life) were inversely related and very sensitive to I/Fab molar ratio even at concentrations below -0.1 atom of I per Fab molecule. This has important implications for the radiotherapy of malignant tumors using I-131 labeled immunoglobulins which often have higher I/Fab molar ratios (100 mCi I-131/10 mg Fab approx. = 0.5 I atoms/Fab) versus diagnostic preparations (10 mCi I-131/5 mg Fab approx. = 0.1 I atoms/Fab). Thus the authors conclude that to maintain high immunointegrity the I/Fab molar ratio should be kept low, especially for therapeutic preparations, by using correspondingly higher amounts of Fab.

  20. Earth's Volatiles History and Cycles: the Case of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, H.; Marocchi, M.; Munsch, P.; Auzende, A.; Raepsaet, C.; Mezouar, M.; Testemale, D.; Kubsky, S.; Carriere, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2011-12-01

    Among the volatile elements present in our solar system, iodine is involved in mechanisms of primary importance during planet's evolution. The different isotopic signatures of 129Xe/132Xe for mantle and atmosphere between the Earth and Mars may reflect an early fractionation of xenon with respect to iodine. The role of fluids and more especially water is seriously envisaged to generate such a fractionation because whereas iodine is hydrophilic, xenon is not. Therefore iodine's early degassing with a water-rich fluid from a magma ocean is a good hypothesis to explain iodine, but also chlorine and bromine losses during early differentiation stages of the Earth. It was also shown that iodine is involved in natural ozone destruction in the Earth's atmosphere. Today we are able to detect iodine in volcanic emissions. The intensive subduction-zones volcanic degassing may explain the presence of iodine in the atmosphere if degassed together with water. The combination of synchrotron X-Ray characterization with diamond anvil cells, applied as magmatic and mantelic reactors to simulate pressure and temperature conditions of the planet interiors allows: (1) the characterization of fluids (aqueous, melt, supercritic) existing in the Earth; (2) element transfers via such fluids from depths to planets surfaces. Here, we have experimentally monitored iodine degassing from high pressure hydrous melts in situ in diamond anvil cells DAC by measuring iodine partitioning between aqueous fluids and hydrous melts during decompression. DAC experiments have been combined with high energy Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence at the beam lines Id27 and FAME from ESRF. Partition coefficients (D(I)fluid/melt = (I)fluid/(I)melt ) have been measured in situ from 500 to 900 °C and from 0.1 to 1.8 GPa. First results show that they are ranging from 1.9 (1.4 GPa) to 60 (0.1 GPa) and seem to tend to unity close to total miscibility between melts and aqueous fluids. At low pressure conditions (lower than

  1. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care

  2. Comparison of free iodine as a function of the dilution of two commercial povidone-iodine formulations.

    PubMed

    Atemnkeng, M A; Plaizier-Vercammen, J A

    2006-01-01

    Binding studies by means of equilibrium dialysis on two different Povidone-lodine-solutions reveal that the amount of available iodine and free iodine is very different as such and after dilution. The free iodine concentration in the Braunol concentrate was found to be ca. 22 mg/L and in the iso-Betadine concentrate only ca. 2.1 mg/L, despite the total amount of available iodine in iso-Betadine being higher than that of Braunol. As the bactericidal level of free iodine is characterised by concentrations >5 ppm, Braunol can be employed as a disinfectant as such, iso-Betadine has to be diluted before use. In both concentrates more than 99% of available iodine is present as reservoir for free iodine. Concerning the results as a function of dilution, it was demonstrated that, for both solutions, free iodine reaches a maximum after a 50-fold dilution (ca. 31 mg/L and ca. 51 mg/L for iso-Betadine and Braunol respectively). After dilution, a more constant level of free iodine was observed in the Braunol than in the iso-Betadine solution, and this is attributed to the present molar ratio of I(2)/I- and the addition of iodate in the former. The pH for both solutions approximates that of the skin, as such and after dilution. In summary, it can be stated that Braunol is superior to iso-Betadine as to the release of free iodine in both the undiluted as well as in the diluted form.

  3. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Next generation and biosimilar monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation and Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies: Essential Considerations Towards Regulatory Acceptance in Europe workshop, organized by the European Centre of Regulatory Affairs Freiburg (EUCRAF), was held February 3–4, 2011 in Freiburg, Germany. The workshop attracted over 100 attendees from 15 countries, including regulators from 11 agencies, who interacted over the course of two days. The speakers presented their authoritative views on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as attractive targets for development, the experience to date with the regulatory process for biosimilar medicinal products, the European Medicines Agency draft guideline on biosimilar mAbs, as well as key elements in the development of mAbs. Participants engaged in many lively discussions, and much speculation on the nature of the quality, non-clinical and clinical requirements for authorization of biosimilar mAbs. PMID:21487235

  5. Innovative Monoclonal Antibody Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kieseier, Bernd C.

    2008-01-01

    The recent years have witnessed great efforts in establishing new therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis (MS), especially for relapsing–remitting disease courses. In particular, the application of monoclonal antibodies provide innovative approaches allowing for blocking or depleting specific molecular targets, which are of interest in the pathogenesis of MS. While natalizumab received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in 2006 as the first monoclonal antibody in MS therapy, rituximab, alemtuzumab, and daclizumab were successfully tested for relapsing-remitting MS in small cohorts in the meantime. Here, we review the data available from these recent phase II trials and at the same time critically discuss possible pitfalls which may be relevant for clinical practice. The results of these studies may not only broaden our therapeutic options in the near future, but also provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. PMID:21180564

  6. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1640 - Protein-bound iodine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protein-bound iodine test system. 862.1640 Section... Systems § 862.1640 Protein-bound iodine test system. (a) Identification. A protein-bound iodine test system is a device intended to measure protein-bound iodine in serum. Measurements of...

  11. Iodine Species in the Marine Boundary Layer: a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldanova, J.; Sander, R.

    2003-04-01

    Multiphase chemical reactions of iodine species in marine boundary layer (MBL) were simulated using the box Model Of Chemistry Considering Aerosols (MOCCA). The chemical mechanism considers reactions both in the gas phase and in deliquesced sea-salt and sulfate aerosols. Photochemical reaction rates vary as a function of solar declination. In addition to the standard tropospheric HOx, CH4, and NOx chemistry, the reaction mechanism includes S, Cl, Br, and I compounds. A new version of the model that evaluates chemical processes involving different aerosol size fractions was developed. The particle population was partitioned into 8 monodispersed size bins with median diameters equal to the corresponding size interval of the modelled continuous distribution. Further information about the model is available at http://www.mpch-mainz.mpg.de/˜sander/mocca/. Source of the iodine in the modelled MBL was photolysis of biogenic iodinated hydrocarbons. Some of the gas phase iodine species are soluble and iodine recycles through the deliquescent aerosol particles where it interacts with other halogen species. Both the gas-phase and aqueous-phase reaction mechanism of iodine includes numerous uncertainties. Distribution of the inorganic iodine species between the gas and aqueous phase and its sensitivity to the unknown or not well defined reaction rates and equilibria is presented.

  12. Aging and iodine loading of silver-functionalized aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, S.H.; Jubin, R.T.; Anderson, K.K.; Walker, J.F.

    2013-07-01

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their potential application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine-capture capacity, high porosity, and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high-humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine-capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41 wt% to 32 wt%. (authors)

  13. AGING AND IODINE LOADING OF SILVER-FUNCTIONALIZED AEROGELS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, Stephanie H; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Anderson, Kaara K; Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Silver-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine capture capacity, high porosity and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag0-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41wt% to 32wt%.

  14. Reduction of iodinated contrast medium in CT: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasirudin, Radin A.; Mei, Kai; Kopp, Felix K.; Penchev, Petar; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Fiebich, Martin; Noël, Peter B.

    2015-03-01

    In CT, the magnitude of enhancement is proportional to the amount of contrast medium (CM) injected. However, high doses of iodinated CM pose health risks, ranging from mild side effects to serious complications such as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). This work presents a method that enables the reduction of CM dosage, without affecting the diagnostic image quality. The technique proposed takes advantage of the additional spectral information provided by photon-counting CT systems. In the first step, we apply a material decomposition technique on the projection data to discriminate iodine from other materials. Then, we estimated the noise of the decomposed image by calculating the Cramér-Rao lower bound of the parameter estimator. Next, we iteratively reconstruct the iodine-only image by using the decomposed image and the estimation of noise as an input into a maximum-likelihood iterative reconstruction algorithm. Finally, we combine the iodine-only image with the original image to enhance the contrast of low iodine concentrations. The resulting reconstructions show a notably improved contrast in the final images. Quantitatively, the combined image has a significantly improved CNR, while the measured concentrations are closer to the actual concentrations of the iodine. The preliminary results from our technique show the possibility of reducing the clinical dosage of iodine, without affecting the diagnostic image quality.

  15. Experiment poseidon: Elemental iodine retention in water pools

    SciTech Connect

    Guentay, S.

    1990-01-01

    Although gaseous fraction of iodine is expected to be small in quantity compared with its other forms such as CsI, because of its radiological consequence, removal of elemental iodine vapor from the gas bubbles in water pools defines an important boundary condition for the severe-accident scenarios that involve water pools. The Muehleberg nuclear power plant (a boiling water reactor Mark 1 type) in Switzerland has a unique feature, namely, a second suppression pool surrounding the reactor building in addition to the regular pressure suppression pool. For those hypothetical accident scenarios that involve the second pool, scrubbing in the second suppression pool would ultimately determine the magnitude and constitution of the release. An experimental program, pool scrubbing effect on iodine decontamination (POSEIDON), was initiated at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland in 1987 to provide a data base on gaseous iodine scrubbing. Bubbles containing elemental iodine vapor and nitrogen as the carrier gas are generated using certain sized orifices immersed in a water pool. Objectives of the experimental program are defined as (a) to understand the iodine removal phenomena from bubbles and (b) to provide a data base for iodine retention under controlled boundary conditions for the development and verification of the BUSCA-PSI pool scrubbing code.

  16. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  17. Hyperparathyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy for Graves disease

    SciTech Connect

    Esselstyn, C.B. Jr.; Schumacher, O.P.; Eversman, J.; Sheeler, L.; Levy, W.J.

    1982-11-01

    The association of external ionizing radiation to the head and neck and the subsequent development of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands has been documented in recent years. This also has been demonstrated experimentally in animals. Despite the numbers of patients with Graves disease who have been treated with radioactive iodine, there are no reports in the literature of parathyroid surgery for hyperparathyroidism secondary to earlier treatment with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. This report describes the operative and pathologic findings in four patients with hyperparathyroidism. These patients had previously been treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease. The pathologic findings at surgery included in three cases a single enlarged hyperplastic gland consistent with a parathyroid adenoma. One patient had hyperplasia of all four glands. The two largest glands and halves of the two remaining glands were removed. In a long-term follow-up of children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine for Graves disease, Levy and Schumacher found calcium elevations in 10 of 159 patients. The increased incidence of hyperparathyroidism following radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease in children and adolescents would seem several times higher than normal. Whether adults who have radioactive iodine treatment for Graves disease have a similar increase incidence is not known. Meanwhile it would seem reasonable to suggest that patients whose hyperthyroidism is treated with radioactive iodine should have their serum calcium levels determined at 5-year intervals.

  18. Chemoenzymatic glyco-engineering of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Giddens, John P.; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are an important class of therapeutic glycoproteins widely used for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. Compelling data have shown that the presence and fine structures of the conserved N-glycans at the Fc domain can profoundly affect the effector functions of antibodies. However, mAbs are usually produced as mixtures of Fc glycoforms and the control of glycosylation to a favorable, homogeneous status in various host expression systems is still a challenging task. In this chapter, we describe a detailed procedure of chemoenzymatic glyco-engineering of monoclonal antibodies, using rituximab (a therapeutic monoclonal antibody) as a model system. The protocol includes the deglycosylation of a mAb by an endoglycosidase (such as wild type EndoS) to remove the heterogeneous Fc N-glycans, leaving only the innermost GlcNAc or the core-fucosylated GlcNAc at the glycosylation site. Then the deglycosylated IgG serves as an acceptor for an endoglycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation to add a desired N-glycan to the GlcNAc acceptor to reconstitute a defined, homogeneous natural glycoform of IgG, using a glycosynthase mutant as the enzyme and activated glycan oxazoline as the donor substrate. A semi-synthesis of sialylated and asialylated biantennary N-glycan oxazolines is also described. This detailed procedure can be used for the Fc glycosylation remodeling of other mAbs to provide homogeneous Fc glycoforms for various applications. PMID:26082235

  19. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

    PubMed

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are heavy plasma proteins, with sugar chains added to amino-acid residues by N-linked glycosylation and occasionally by O-linked glycosylation. The versatility of antibodies is demonstrated by the various functions that they mediate such as neutralization, agglutination, fixation with activation of complement and activation of effector cells. Naturally occurring antibodies protect the organism against harmful pathogens, viruses and infections. In addition, almost any organic chemical induces antibody production of antibodies that would bind specifically to the chemical. These antibodies are often produced from multiple B cell clones and referred to as polyclonal antibodies. In recent years, scientists have exploited the highly evolved machinery of the immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex molecules such as antibodies from a single B clone, heralding the era of monoclonal antibodies. Most of the antibodies currently in the clinic, target components of the immune system, are not curative and seek to alleviate symptoms rather than cure disease. Our group used a novel strategy to identify reparative human monoclonal antibodies distinct from conventional antibodies. In this chapter, we discuss the therapeutic relevance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

  20. Clostridium difficile infection: monoclonal or polyclonal genesis?

    PubMed

    Hell, M; Permoser, M; Chmelizek, G; Kern, J M; Maass, M; Huhulescu, S; Indra, A; Allerberger, F

    2011-10-01

    Clostridium difficile is considered to be a leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea. C. difficile (CDI) infection shows a high rate of recurrence. There would have to be a predominantly monoclonal mechanism of CDI within individual patients in order for molecular epidemiologic tools such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping to be useful in outbreak investigation or differentiation between infection relapse versus re-infection. It was the aim of our study to determine whether CDI is of monoclonal or of polyclonal genesis. Between December 2009 and June 2010, 11 patients with nosocomial CDI were chosen arbitrarily. Five individual colonies of C. difficile were picked from each of the primary culture plates. Of 55 isolates gained, 47 were available for PCR ribotyping (eight isolates failed attempts to re-culture). Among these 47 isolates, eight different PCR ribotypes were identified. Only one of the 11 patients had a stool sample that yielded more than one ribotype (PCR ribotypes 438 and 232); this 67-year-old female cancer patient was already suffering from recurring diarrhea prior to the fatal episode of colitis which was subsequently investigated. We conclude that polyclonal infections may occasionally occur in patients with CDI. Our findings of predominantly monoclonal origin of CDI within patients suggest that molecular epidemiologic investigations can be used reliably for outbreak investigations or discrimination between relapse and re-infection.

  1. Iodine in Rivers: Indicator of Geologic Effect on Iodine Deficiency Disorders?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Y.; Stewart, A.

    2003-12-01

    A contrast in goiter prevalence between populations living north and south of the Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) in northeastern Pakistan suggests that plate tectonics may be involved. We report ICP-MS measurements of the total dissolved iodine levels in the headwater tributaries of the Indus River draining either side of the MKT. For global geochemical context, we also analyzed samples from the Lena, Yana, Kolyma, Indigirka, and Anadyr in eastern Siberia, the Orinoco in tropical South America, and rivers in western China and Tibet. We find statistically significant difference in iodine concentration between the right bank tributaries of the Indus draining the Karakoram metamorphic complex north of the MKT and the left bank tributaries draining the Kohistan-Ladakh island arc south of the MKT. At least in these rivers, lithology and the tectonic exposure appear to be more important than atmospheric transport and deposition.

  2. THE REACTIONS OF IODINE AND IODOACETAMIDE WITH NATIVE EGG ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Anson, M. L.

    1940-01-01

    The following experimental results have been obtained. 1. Native egg albumin treated with iodine and then denatured no longer gives a nitroprusside test or reduces dilute ferricyanide in neutral Duponol PC solution. 2. More iodine is needed to abolish the ferricyanide reduction if the reaction between native egg albumin and iodine is carried out at pH 6.8 than if the reaction is carried out at pH 3.2. At pH 6.8 iodine reacts with tyrosine as well as with cysteine. 3. Cysteine and tryptophane are the only amino acids with reducing groups which are known to react with dilute iodine at pH 3.2 The reducing power of cysteine is abolished by the reaction with iodine, whereas the reducing power of tryptophane remains intact. Pepsin and chymotrypsinogen which contain tryptophane but not cysteine, do not react at all with dilute iodine at pH 3.2. 4. Native egg albumin treated with iodoacetamide at pH 9.0 and then denatured by Duponol PC reduces only 60 per cent as much dilute ferricyanide as egg albumin which has not been treated with iodoacetamide. 5. The SH group is the only protein reducing group which is known to react with iodoacetamide. The simplest explanation of the new observation that the SH groups of egg albumin can be modified by reactions with the native form of the protein is that the native egg albumin has free and accessible but relatively unreactive SH groups which can react with iodine and iodoacetamide despite the fact that they do not react with ferricyanide, porphyrindin, or nitroprusside. Preliminary experiments suggested by the results with egg albumin indicate that the tobacco mosaic virus is modified by iodine at pH 2.8 without being inactivated and that the tobacco mosaic and rabbit papilloma viruses are not inactivated by iodoacetamide at pH 8.0. PMID:19873158

  3. Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    proportional to the total I2 concentration ( HACH 2003; Lee et al., 2009). Ten mL of the collection medium was analyzed at a wavelength of 530 nm...using a DR⁄4000 V spectrophotometer ( HACH , Loveland, CO, USA). The detection limit of this spectrophotometer using HACH Program: 2100 provided in the...using HACH Program: 2100 with the DPD method was established; the R2 value was 0.9992 as shown in Figure 3. The iodine concentration of each test

  4. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    DOEpatents

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  5. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  6. The effects of organic impurities on the partitioning of iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, J.B.; Kelly, J.L.

    1988-03-01

    The effects of four common organic species (methanol, phenoxide, acetone, and methane) on the partitioning of iodine were studied over a range of concentrations, pHs, and radiation dose rates at --20/sup 0/C. The primary goal of the study was to identify conditions leading to the production of significant quantities of volatile organic iodides. For all of the conditions studied, only the case of irradiated methane-iodine-air-water systems yielded sufficient volatile organic iodides to bring about decreases in the iodine partition coefficient.

  7. Beware of parotitis induced by iodine-containing contrast media.

    PubMed

    Kohat, A K; Jayantee, K; Phadke, R V; Muthu, R; Singh, V; Misra, U K

    2014-01-01

    Carotid stenting is being increasingly used for revascularization of the moderate to severe carotid stenosis and thus its complications are increasingly being recognized. We report a rare complication of induced by iodine contrast in a patient undergoing carotid stenting. s. A 51 year old man after the second stenting developed multiple small infarcts in spite of the distal device. He also had painful parotid swelling which improved within a week. One should be aware of iodine parotitis s in the patients undergoing iodinated contrast study.

  8. A mechanism for biologically induced iodine emissions from sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Blaszczak-Boxe, C. S.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2015-09-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements have reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, ultimately accumulating in a thin brine layer (BL) on the surface of sea ice. Prior to reaching the BL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea ice is depth-dependent. The BL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest that iodine is released to the atmosphere via three possible pathways: (1) emitted from the BL and then transported throughout snow atop sea ice, from where it is released to the atmosphere; (2) released directly from the BL to the atmosphere in regions of sea ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. While a lack of experimental and observational data adds uncertainty to the model predictions, the results nevertheless show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e. I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during

  9. Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    divergence than Xe • High density – Stores at 2-3 times density of Xe – Modest heating to generate gas (sublimation) • Low feed system pressure – Tank ...point for Xe – 30 degrees encloses 86% of Xenon plume, 90% of Iodine plume • Tank pressure always lower with iodine Iodine 500 V, 2 A -90 -60 -30 0 30... pressure is 1000 times lower than Xe • Passive long term storage – I2 stores in the solid phase – No temperature control for inactive system • Low cost

  10. Fully automated production of iodine-124 using a vertical beam.

    PubMed

    Nagatsu, Kotaro; Fukada, Masami; Minegishi, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Kazutoshi

    2011-01-01

    A fully automated system for the production of iodine-124, based on techniques of vertical-beam irradiation and dry distillation, was developed. The system, coupled with a capsulated target, was able to irradiate the (124)TeO(2) target up to 29 μA for 1-4h, which yielded iodine-124 with an almost constant yield of 6.9 MBq/μAh at the end of bombardment. All procedures were performed automatically and repeatedly. The newly developed system would be suitable for routine, large-scale productions of iodine-124.

  11. Neutron activation analysis of total diet food composites for iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, M.; Boyer, K.W.; Tanner, J.T.

    1981-09-01

    The iodine content of Total Diet food composites was measured using neutron activation analysis. The interfering element chlorine was separated using a modified combustion and gas phase procedure. The average recovery was 94.8% (standard deviation 2.9) for the 10 matrices that were tested. In addition, iodine was measured in National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials, which have no certified values for this element. Preliminary findings of iodine content of adult Total Diet market baskets collected during Fiscal Year 1980 in different regions of the United States ranged from 292 to 901 ..mu..g/day for a 2900 kcal intake.

  12. Preparation, stability and antimicrobial activity of cationic cross-linked starch-iodine complexes.

    PubMed

    Klimaviciute, Rima; Bendoraitiene, Joana; Rutkaite, Ramune; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Zemaitaitis, Algirdas

    2012-12-01

    Cationic cross-linked starch (CCS)-iodine complexes containing different amounts of quaternary ammonium groups (different degrees of substitution (DS)) and iodine have been obtained by iodine adsorption on CCS from aqueous iodine potassium iodide solution. Equilibrium adsorption studies showed that with an increase of DS the amount of iodine adsorbed on CCS and the affinity of iodine to CCS increased linearly. The influences of the DS of CCS and the amount of adsorbed iodine on the stability of CCS-iodine complexes in a solution of 0.02M sodium acetate and reactivity toward l-tyrosine have been investigated. At the same DS, the stability of CCS-iodine complexes decreased with an increase of the amount of adsorbed iodine. With increasing the DS, the stability of CCS-iodine complexes increased. The iodine consumption in the reaction with l-tyrosine increased significantly with an increase of the amount of adsorbed iodine. The influence of DS on iodine consumption was lower and depended on the amount of adsorbed iodine. The antibacterial activity of CCS-iodine complexes against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli was determined by the broth-dilution and spread-plate methods. The obtained results have demonstrated that an appropriate selection of the CCS-iodine complex composition (the DS of CCS and the amount of adsorbed iodine) could ensure good antimicrobial properties by keeping a low concentration of free iodine in the system. The main advantage of using CCS-iodine complexes as antimicrobial agents is the biodegradability of the polymeric matrix.

  13. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion.

  14. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  15. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  16. High-performance iodine fiber frequency standard.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Anna; Baynes, Fred N; Anstie, James D; Light, Philip S; Benabid, Fetah; Stace, Thomas M; Luiten, Andre N

    2011-12-15

    We have constructed a compact and robust optical frequency standard based around iodine vapor loaded into the core of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). A 532 nm laser was frequency locked to one hyperfine component of the R(56) 32-0 (127)I(2) transition using modulation transfer spectroscopy. The stabilized laser demonstrated a frequency stability of 2.3×10(-12) at 1 s, almost an order of magnitude better than previously reported for a laser stabilized to a gas-filled HC-PCF. This limit is set by the shot noise in the detection system. We present a discussion of the current limitations to the performance and a route to improve the performance by more than an order of magnitude.

  17. The Rotational Spectrum of Iodine Dioxide, OIO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.; Cohen, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    The rotational spectra of OIO in its ground vibrational and first excited bending states have been observed for the first time. OIO was formed initially from the products of a microwave discharge in O2 passing over molecular iodine and later with greater yield in a DC discharge through a mixture of O2 and I2 vapor. OIO is an asymmetric prolate rotor (kappa = -0.690) with a (sup 2)B(sub 1) electronic ground state. Over 550 ground state transitions and over 160 transitions of the excited bending state have been included in the fits. The resulting parameters are well determined and will be compared to those recently published for OBrO and OClO. These will be interpreted in terms of the molecular geometry, harmonic force field, and electronic structure.

  18. Pediatric renal iodine-123 orthoiodohippurate dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, C.S.; Kuperus, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Radiation exposure to the kidney from iodine- ST orthoiodohippurate (( STI)OIH) and any associated ( SUI)OIH contamination may vary by a factor of several hundred depending upon the health of the kidney. Calculations of kidney dose were made for patients with the following renal states: normal, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), obstruction, and renal transplant. The dosimetry was based on a minimum practical administered activity (MPAA) of 200 microCi for pediatric patients and 500 microCi for adults. High-grade obstruction of recent onset and severe ATN are the only disease processes which could result in high exposures, and this is due primarily to the contribution of SUI. For selected cases, OIH labeled with pure STI should be very seriously considered.

  19. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Kim, Khong Hon; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator was developed which will be incorporated into the Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) system. The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of rate equations was improved to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the calculation. The improved algorithm was applied to explain the existing experimental data taken from a flashlamp pumped iodine laser for three kinds of lasants, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, and t-C4F9I. Various solid laser materials were evaluated for solar-pumping. The materials studied were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and Cr:Nd:GSGG crystals. The slope efficiency of 0.17 percent was measured for the Nd:YLF near the threshold pump intensity which was 211 solar constants (29W/sq cm). The threshold pump intensity of the Nd:YAG was measured to be 236 solar constants (32W/sq cm) and the near-threshold slope efficiency was 0.12 percent. True CW laser operation of Cr:Nd:GSGG was possible only at pump intensities less than or equal to 1,500 solar constants (203 W/sq cm). This fact was attributed to the high thermal focusing effect of the Cr:Nd:GSGG rod.

  20. Natural iodine-129 as an environmental tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabryka-Martin, J.; Bentley, H.; Elmore, D.; Airey, P. L.

    1985-02-01

    Iodine-129 ( t 1/2, 16 My) is a naturally-occurring tracer which can be used to study hydrologic and geologic processes on time scales up to 100 My. The pre-bomb atmospheric ratio 129I /I should have been constant in time and space and is the starting value in ground-water recharge. Subsequent ratio changes in ground water should be determined by isotope contributions from three sources: recharge water, iodine leached from the formation, and in situ uranium fission. The mathematical expression of these time-dependent processes forms the basis for dating and tracing applications. The expected behavior of natural 129I in ground water is compared to results from field studies. Ground-water samples from the Great Artesian Basin, Australia, provide an estimate of the atmospheric equilibrium ratio, 6 × 10 -13. Down-gradient changes in water up to 1 My old suggest that subsurface production can be significant. The usefulness of 129I as an indicator of brine source and age is verified in brines collected in and around Louisiana salt domes. The method leads to ages of 7 and 9 My for two brine pockets trapped within Jurassic salt, and 32 to >40 My for oil-field brines in Miocene sands adjacent to the domes. The results demonstrate the capability of tandem accelerator mass spectrometry to measure as few as 10 7 atoms of 129I in 10 mg I with 10% precision. Although such atom sensitivity can be achieved otherwise, the accelerator technique is necessary to measure naturally low pre-1945 cosmogenic isotope ratios.

  1. Work of the Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, and the model of iodine prophylaxis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szybiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (PCCIDD) was established in 1991 in Krakow at the Chair and Dept. of Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, following the example of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) in Charlottesville, USA. The PCCIDD co-operates with the European Co-ordinating Centre in Pisa, Italy. The PCCIDD comprises a group of experts in endocrinology, iodine prophylaxis, the technology of salt and food iodisation, and Polish representatives of several organisations: WHO, UNICEF, the Polish Consumers Federation, and the Spokesman for Children's Rights. The strategic goal of the Polish Council is to solve the problem of iodine deficiency in Poland realising the Programme for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency financed by the Ministry of Health. The Polish model of iodine prophylaxis contains obligatory iodisation of household salt (20-40 mg KI/1 kg) and neonates' formula (10 μg/100 mL of milk), and additional supplementation for pregnant and breastfeeding women with 150-200 μg of iodine as pharmacotherapy. The model is very effective: endemic goitre in schoolchildren has been eradicated, the prevalence of goitre in pregnant women has fallen from 80% to 19%, the frequency of transient hypothyroidism in neonates has dropped from 2.0% to 0.16%, and the observed increase of incidence rate of thyroid cancer in women over 40 years old has diminished markedly. In 2008, a WHO Collaborating Centre (WHOCC) for Nutrition was designated at the Department of Endocrinology, UJCM in Krakow. The main goal of the WHOCC is to sustain effective iodine prophylaxis in Poland in the light of the latest WHO recommendations on the necessary reduction of daily salt intake as a risk factor for hypertension and arteriosclerosis. Therefore, additional standardised carriers of iodine (milk, mineral water) have been introduced into the food market.

  2. Considerations in the radioiodination and chelation labeling of an antiplatelet monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Scudder, L.E.; Coller, B.

    1985-05-01

    Radiolabeling of antibodies in particular with iodine nuclides frequently alters their biological behavior and compromises the specificity of binding to the in vivo antigens. Sensitivity to labeling chemistry however, is quite variable for different antibodies. This study was carried out to investigate the various factors affecting the binding to platelets (P) of an anti-P monoclonal antibody, 7E3, following iodination with I-123, I-125, I-131 and chelation labeling with In-111 and Tc-99m. Parameters such as the nature and amount of oxidant, reaction times, substitution level, specific activity etc., were studied. Results showed that each factor in addition to affecting chemical labeling yields also affected the binding of labeled 7E3 to P in whole blood and their blood clearance and clot uptake. With increasing I/7E3 or DTPA/7E3 molar ratios, a progressive decrease in binding to P resulted. Chloramine T (5-10 ..mu..g/100 ..mu..g 7E3) was superior to other oxidizing agents but the reaction times had to be less than or equal to2 min (labeling yields 70 +- 10%). 7E3 appeared unaffected by specific activities of up to 40 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g (I-131 and In-111) and 300 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g (I-123). Satisfactory In-111-, I-131-, or I-123-7E3-P preparations were obtained that show considerable promise for localizing in vivo thrombi. Results of this study and prior experience with other antibodies indicate that in order to achieve maximum efficacy in imaging or therapy applications, individual antibodies may require a careful optimization of labeling procedures with different radionuclides.

  3. The incidental monoclonal protein: current approach to management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).

    PubMed

    Madan, Sumit; Greipp, Philip R

    2009-11-01

    'Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance' (MGUS) is a pre-malignant disorder characterized by limited clonal proliferation of the bone marrow plasma cells without any evidence of end-organ damage. A better understanding of the prevalence rates, natural history, and the risk factors for progression of MGUS, provides further insight into the clinical approach to management of this condition. The clinical implications of MGUS such as the risk of fracture, miscellaneous conditions associated with a monoclonal M-protein, and a practical approach to the management of MGUS patients based on a risk-stratification model are discussed in this review.

  4. Chemistry and mass transport of iodine in containment

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Shockley, W.E.; Daish, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    TRENDS is a computer code for modeling behavior of iodine in containment. It tracks both chemical and physical changes and features such as calculation of radiation dose rates in water pools , radiolysis effects, hydrolysis, and deposition/revaporization on aerosols and structural surfaces. Every attempt has been made to account for all significant processes. Reaction rate constants for iodine hydrolysis and radiolysis were obtained by a variable algorithm that gives values closely modeling experimental data. TRENDS output provides the distribution of iodine in containment and release from containment as a function of time during a severe accident sequence. Initial calculations with TRENDS have shown that the amount of volatile iodine released from containment is sensitive to the value of the liquid-gas (evaporation) mass transport coefficient for I/sub 2/. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 10 pounds of body weight (equivalent to 0.5 to 2.5 milligrams of iodinated casein per pound of body weight). (2) Indications for use. For dogs for apparent decreased thyroid activity where the signs...

  6. 1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  7. Volatilization of iodine from nitric acid using peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Cathers, G.I.; Shipman, C.J.

    1975-10-21

    A method for removing radioactive iodine from nitric acid solution by adding hydrogen peroxide to the solution while concurrently holding the solution at the boiling point and distilling hydrogen iodide from the solution is reported.

  8. Static electricity of polymers reduced by treatment with iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, A. M.; Landel, R. F.; Rembaum, A.

    1967-01-01

    Treating organic polymers with iodine improves the electrical conductivity. Diffusion enables products of desired properties to be custom formulated. This eliminates a buildup of static electricity and the need for fillers or bound metal salts.

  9. Postsurgical contact dermatitis due to povidone iodine: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J; Zaragozá-Ninet, V; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Alegre de Miquel, V

    2014-04-01

    We present 7 cases of postsurgical contact dermatitis due to povidone iodine. The diagnosis was based on the clinical manifestations, the history of exposure, the site of the lesions, and the results of patch tests. This type of dermatitis can develop in the area of surgery or at distant sites exposed to povidone iodine during the surgical intervention. Patch tests with 10% povidone iodine in petrolatum were positive in all patients. Based on the results of the same tests in a control group, we recommend the use of petrolatum rather than water as the vehicle for the diagnosis of this form of contact dermatitis. Repeated open application tests with a commercially available solution of povidone iodine were negative. We conclude that the presence of the solution under occlusion during surgery is necessary both for the symptoms to develop and for the diagnosis to be made. This condition may be underdiagnosed.

  10. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

    1981-06-01

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland.

  11. Treatment of non-toxic multinodular goiter with radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, T.W.; d'Emden, M.C.; Andrews, J.T.; Martin, F.I.

    1988-01-01

    Fourteen patients with large non-toxic multinodular goiters were treated with 20 to 100 mCi (740 to 3700 MBq) of radioactive iodine (iodine-131). In seven, the goiter had recurred after a partial thyroidectomy and four of these had had two operations. Eight had symptoms of respiratory obstruction, two had dysphagia, and the others sought treatment for cosmetic reasons. After administration of iodine-131, there was a significant decrease in goiter size in 11 of the 14 patients, and all those with obstructive symptoms showed improvement. No significant local side effects occurred, but hypothyroidism and Graves' disease each occurred once during follow-up from one to 13 years. Radioactive iodine in doses of 20 to 100 mCi is an effective, safe therapeutic alternative in patients with large non-toxic multinodular goiter, particularly when there is recurrence following surgery or when there are contraindications to surgery.

  12. Successful treatment of Graves disease in pregnancy with Lugol's iodine.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, A; Semple, C G

    2000-02-01

    We report a case of Grave's disease in pregnancy complicated by intolerance of standard antithyroid drug therapy. We describe the success of prolonged use of organic iodine as a primary treatment prior to surgical intervention.

  13. Ion exchange determines iodine-131 concentration in aqueous samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairman, W. D.; Sedlet, J.

    1967-01-01

    Inorganic radioiodide in aqueous media is analyzed by separating the radioactive iodine-131 as the iodide ion on a silver chloride column. The activity in the final precipitate may be determined by beta or gamma counting.

  14. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-05-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 μg/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P< 0·001). In the adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with the estimated 24 h urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required.

  15. Iodine Emissions from Seaweeds: Species-dependent and Seasonal Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Thomas; Ball, Stephen; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Emissions of iodine from macroalgae into the marine boundary layer (MBL) significantly impact tropospheric chemistry and the biogeochemical cycling of iodine. Gas-phase iodine chemistry perturbs the usual HOx and NOx radical cycles, provides additional sink reactions for tropospheric ozone, and modifies atmospheric oxidizing capacity. Iodine oxides (IxOywith x ≥ 2) formed through the reaction of iodine atoms with ozone nucleate new aerosol particles which, if they grow sufficiently, can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and so influence the local climate in coastal regions. Some seaweeds, such as brown algae, are important bio-accumulators of iodine. They specifically induce iodine metabolism to protect themselves against oxidative stress, both as a defence mechanism and when exposed to air around low tide. Indeed the dominant emission source of iodine into the atmosphere in coastal regions comes from intertidal macroalgal beds, particularly those of kelp species. We present results from an extensive laboratory study of molecular iodine (I2) emissions from five seaweed species (two Fucales, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, and three kelp species, Laminaria digitata, L. hyperborea and Saccharina latissima). Eighty-four incubation experiments were performed at the Station Biologique in Roscoff (Brittany, France) between September 2012 and June 2013 to quantify species-dependent I2 emission rates in response to progressive air exposure, mimicking low tide, and to investigate any seasonal differences. Measurements were conducted on 'fresh' biological samples: Ascophyllum and Fucus thalli were collected whilst still submerged on an ebbing tide, transported in seawater to the laboratory and analysed immediately; kelp samples were collected by boat, stored in an outside aquarium in running seawater and analysed within a few days. I2 emissions were quantified at high time resolution by broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometry (1σ detection limit

  16. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Robert A; San-Miguel, Jesus F; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is characterized by an M spike less than 3 g/dL and a bone marrow containing fewer than 10% plasma cells without evidence of CRAB (hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, or bone lesions). Light chain MGUS has an abnormal free light chain (FLC) ratio, increased level of the involved FLC, no monoclonal heavy chain, and fewer than 10% monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Smoldering multiple myeloma has an M protein of at least 3 g/dL and/or at least 10% monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow without CRAB features.

  17. Monoclonal gammopathy-associated pure red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Korde, Neha; Zhang, Yong; Loeliger, Kelsey; Poon, Andrea; Simakova, Olga; Zingone, Adriana; Costello, Rene; Childs, Richard; Noel, Pierre; Silver, Samuel; Kwok, Mary; Mo, Clifton; Young, Neal; Landgren, Ola; Sloand, Elaine; Maric, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare disorder characterized by inhibition of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow and normochromic, normocytic anaemia with reticulocytopenia. Among 51 PRCA patients, we identified 12 (24%) patients having monoclonal gammopathy, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or smouldering multiple myeloma, with presence of monoclonal protein or abnormal serum free light chains and atypical bone marrow features of clonal plasmacytosis, hypercellularity and fibrosis. Thus far, three patients treated with anti-myeloma based therapeutics have responded with reticulocyte recovery and clinical transfusion independence, suggesting plasma cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of this specific monoclonal gammopathy-associated PRCA.

  18. The Role of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Management of Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ameri, Ali; Cherry, Mohamad; Al-Kali, Aref; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This article will review the monoclonal antibodies more commonly used in leukemias. In the last three decades, scientists have made considerable progress understanding the structure and the functions of various surface antigens, such as CD20, CD33. The introduction of rituximab, an anti CD20 monoclonal antibody, had a great impact in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders. Gemtuzumab, an anti CD 33 conjugated monoclonal antibody has activity in acute mylegenous leukemia (AML). As this field is undergoing a rapid growth, the years will see an increasing use of monoclonal antibodies in hematological malignancies.

  19. Origin of electronic transport of lithium phthalocyanine iodine crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Noritake; Oda, Masato; Shinozuka, Yuzo

    2013-12-04

    The electronic structures of Lithium Phthalocyanine Iodine are investigated using density functional theory. Comparing the band structures of several model crystals, the metallic conductivity of highly doped LiPcI{sub x} can be explained by the band of doped iodine. These results reveal that there is a new mechanism for electronic transport of doped organic semiconductors that the dopant band plays the main role.

  20. Iodine Disinfection in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    affect the triiodide’s disinfection capability of viruses. Heavy organic matter loading could reduce the disinfection capability of an iodine resin...reference 20). However, a 10-fold reduction in organic matter (0.6 mg/ml or 600 mg/L) did not TIP #31-005-0306 9 appear to affect the triiodide...Provide additional contact time and/or increase iodine dose in more turbid waters. Affects disinfection capability. Heavy organic matter loading

  1. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  2. An improved method for total organic iodine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sayess, Rassil; Reckhow, David A

    2017-01-01

    A concise, rapid, and sensitive method is developed to measure organically-bound iodine in water. Total organic iodine (TOI) is used as an integrative surrogate that reflects the amount of iodinated organics in a water sample and is quantified using a refined method that builds on previous adsorption and detection approaches. The proposed method combines adsorption, combustion, and trapping of combustion products, with an offline inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for iodide detection. During method development, three analytical variables (factors) were varied across two levels each in order to optimize the method for iodine recovery: 1) the sample pH prior to adsorption on the granular activated carbon (GAC); 2) the amount of base addition to the trap solution; and 3) composition of the ICP-MS wash solution. These factors were tested with solutions of eight iodinated model organic compounds, two iodinated inorganic compounds, and field water samples using a full factorial experimental design. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and related statistical methods were deployed to identify the best combination of conditions (i.e., treatment) that results in the most complete recovery of iodine from the model compounds and the highest rejection of inorganic iodine. The chosen treatment for TOI measurement incorporates a sample pH of less than 1 prior to adsorption onto the GAC, a solution of 2% (v/v) tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) for trapping of combustion products, and a TMAH wash solution of 0.1% (v/v) for the ICP-MS.

  3. Separation of iodine from mercury containing scrubbing solutions

    DOEpatents

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive iodines can be recovered from a nitric acid scrub solution containing mercuric nitrate by passing a current through the scrub solution to react the iodine with the mercuric nitrate to form mercuric iodate which precipitates out. The mercuric iodate can then be reacted to recover the radioiodine for further processing into a form suitable for long-term storage and to recover the mercury for recycling.

  4. The story of iodine deficiency: An international challenge in nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Hetzel, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a risk factor for the growth and development of up to 800 million people living in iodine deficient environments throughout the world. The effects on growth and development, called the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), comprise goiter, stillbirths and miscarriages, neonatal and juvenile thyroid deficiency, dwarfism, mental defects, deaf mutism, and spastic weakness and paralysis, as well as lesser degrees of loss of physical and mental function. All these effects are due to inadequate thyroid hormone production because iodine is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormone. In the West, IDD has been largely eliminated by the addition of iodine to the diet through iodized salt or through changes in food distribution and technology. IDD still persists in certain areas of Europe where these dietary changes have not occurred. In the Third World, IDD is a major problem in many countries with large populations, such as China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Zaire. In these and other Third World countries, IDD is a significant barrier to social and economic progress which can be removed by correction of the deficiency. This book shows that elimination of iodine deficiency is feasible within the next decade, only requiring a modest financial and technical effort from the West. Part 1 reviews IDD in man and animals. Part 2 discusses the control of iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, and considers action at the national and international level. Part 3 presents a global review of the status of IDD control. There is a brief conclusion on the way forward to successful control programs.

  5. The Effects of Iodine Fortified Milk on the Iodine Status of Lactating Mothers and Infants in an Area with a Successful Salt Iodization Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Pantea; Mirmiran, Parvin; Tahmasebinejad, Zhale; Hedayati, Mehdi; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Iodine deficiency during the first two years of life may cause irreversible brain damage and mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of iodine fortified milk on the iodine status of lactating mothers and their infants. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 84 lactating mother-infant pairs from health care centers were randomly selected. After meeting the inclusion criteria, lactating mothers were randomly assigned to two groups: the iodine fortified milk group and the control group (n = 42 each). Maternal and infant urine and breast milk samples were collected at 3–5 (baseline), 7, 10, 14 days, and 1 month postpartum, for a measurement of the iodine concentration. A total of 84 lactating mothers, with a mean age of 28.2 ± 4.5 years, and 84 infants, with a mean age of 4.2 ± 0.7 days, were included in the study. Compared to mothers of the control group, mothers receiving iodine fortified milk had higher urinary (p < 0.001) and breast milk (p < 0.001) iodine concentrations. Urinary iodine levels in infants revealed no significant differences between the two groups. The findings of this study indicate that supplementation with daily iodine fortified milk provides iodine nutrition adequacy among lactating mothers. However, it had no effect on the iodine status of infants, who were previously iodine sufficient. PMID:28241419

  6. Immunoglobulin VH determinants defined by monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Hybridoma clones secreting antibodies against common VH determinants were readily produced by fusion of cells from mice immunized with isolated V mu fragments of human immunoglobulins (Ig), but not with intact Ig molecules or isolated heavy chains. Four monoclonal antibodies to the V mu fragments of different IgM paraproteins were selected for analysis: MH-44 (mu kappa), GB-24 (mu kappa), NF-11 (gamma 1 kappa), and SA-44 (gamma 1 kappa). Each antibody reacted with the homologous V mu fragment, homologous mu chain, and normal gamma chains, but not with the intact IgM molecules, intact IgG, or isolated light chains, as determined by radioimmunoassay. The VH reaction spectra with a panel of myeloma heavy chains showed overlapping but distinctive patterns for the four antibodies. Each of the four monoclonal anti-VH antibodies appeared to react with a different "hidden" VH determinant that is not exposed on undenatured, intact Ig molecules and differs from conventional VH subgroup determinants. In immunofluorescence studies, the monoclonal anti-VH antibodies did not bind to surface Ig on viable B lymphocytes, but visibly stained subpopulations of fixed B lymphocytes, pre-B cells, and normal plasma cells. The mean frequencies of VH+ plasma cells were 30% (MH-44), 17% (GB-24), 13% (NF-11), and 3% (SA-44), and similar frequencies were obtained for the VH+ B cell subpopulations. While subpopulations of B cells could be identified at all stages in differentiation by immunofluorescence with the anti-VH antibodies, neither resting nor activated T cells expressed these VH determinants in detectable amounts. PMID:6185604

  7. Gamma radiation effects on time-dependent iodine partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, P.W.; Lutz, J.B.; Kelly, J.L.

    1987-03-01

    A need for characterization of the iodine source term used in safety calculations for hypothesized light water reactor core disruptive accidents has motivated a study in iodine volatility. Previous experimental studies have been directed at evaluating volatility of iodine at a single time shortly (1 to 12 h) after introduction into the aqueous phase. The very important variables of time in solution and gamma radiation dose rate for a range of iodine concentrations (10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ gI/ml) and pHs (5, 9, and 11) are explored. All experiments were performed at --25/sup 0/C, first in the absence of a significant radiation field and later with a gamma radiation dose rate ranging from 0.003 to 0.06 Mrad/h. Iodine was introduced as either molecular I/sub 2/ or NaI with /sup 131/I (8.04-day half-life) as a tracer. Results of experiments with nonirradiated systems indicated very little volatility with NaI-initiated studies. The I/sub 2/-initiated systems at pH 5 were the most volatile whereas experiments at pH 9 and 11 showed decreasing iodine volatility with time. From the experiments at pH 9, it is inferred that the partition coefficient of HOI is -- 1000.

  8. Hypervalent Iodine with Linear Chain at High Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shubo; Wang, Jianyun; Deng, Shiyu; Zhang, Shoutao; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is an element of fascinating chemical complexity, and numerous hypervalent iodine compounds reveal vital value of applications in organic synthesis. Investigation of the synthesis and application of new type of hypervalent iodine compound has extremely significant meaning. Here, the formation of CsIn (n > 1) compounds is predicted up to 200 GPa using an effective algorithm. The current results show that CsI3 with space group of Pm-3n is thermodynamically stable under high pressure. Hypervalence phenomenon of iodine atoms in Pm-3n CsI3 with endless linear chain type structure appears under high pressure, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional understanding. Our study further reveals that Pm-3n CsI3 is a metallic phase with several energy bands crossing Fermi-surface, and the pressure creates a peculiar reverse electron donation from iodine to cesium. The electron-phonon coupling calculations have proposed superconductive potential of the metallic Pm-3n CsI3 at 10 GPa which is much lower than that of CsI (180 GPa). Our findings represent a significant step toward the understanding of the behavior of iodine compounds at extreme conditions. PMID:26399899

  9. Mechanisms of inactivation of poliovirus by chlorine dioxide and iodine.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, M E; O'Brien, R T

    1982-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide and iodine inactivated poliovirus more efficiently at pH 10.0 than at pH 6.0. Sedimentation analyses of viruses inactivated by chlorine dioxide and iodine at pH 10.9 showed that viral RNA separated from the capsids, resulting in the conversion of virions from 156S structures to 80S particles. The RNAs release from both chlorine dioxide- and iodine-inactivated viruses cosedimented with intact 35S viral RNA. Both chlorine dioxide and iodine reacted with the capsid proteins of poliovirus and changed the pI from pH 7.0 to pH 5.8. However, the mechanisms of inactivation of poliovirus by chlorine dioxide and iodine were found to differ. Iodine inactivated viruses by impairing their ability to adsorb to HeLa cells, whereas chlorine dioxide-inactivated viruses showed a reduced incorporation of [14C]uridine into new viral RNA. We concluded, then, that chlorine dioxide inactivated poliovirus by reacting with the viral RNA and impairing the ability of the viral genome to act as a template for RNA synthesis. PMID:6295277

  10. Iodine supplementation and drinking-water perchlorate mitigation.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Thomas A; Peterson, Michael K; Charnley, Gail

    2015-06-01

    Ensuring adequate iodine intake is important, particularly among women of reproductive age, because iodine is necessary for early life development. Biologically based dose-response modeling of the relationships among iodide status, perchlorate dose, and thyroid hormone production in pregnant women has indicated that iodide intake has a profound effect on the likelihood that exposure to goitrogens will produce hypothyroxinemia. We evaluated the possibility of increasing iodine intake to offset potential risks from perchlorate exposure. We also explored the effect of dietary exposures to nitrate and thiocyanate on iodine uptake and thyroid hormone production. Our modeling indicates that the level of thyroid hormone perturbation associated with perchlorate exposures in the range of current regulatory limits is extremely small and would be overwhelmed by other goitrogen exposures. Our analysis also shows that microgram levels of iodine supplementation would be sufficient to prevent the goitrogenic effects of perchlorate exposure at current regulatory limits among at risk individuals. The human health risks from supplementing drinking water with iodine are negligible; therefore, this approach is worthy of regulatory consideration.

  11. Hypervalent Iodine with Linear Chain at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shubo; Wang, Jianyun; Deng, Shiyu; Zhang, Shoutao; Li, Quan

    2015-09-01

    Iodine is an element of fascinating chemical complexity, and numerous hypervalent iodine compounds reveal vital value of applications in organic synthesis. Investigation of the synthesis and application of new type of hypervalent iodine compound has extremely significant meaning. Here, the formation of CsIn (n > 1) compounds is predicted up to 200 GPa using an effective algorithm. The current results show that CsI3 with space group of Pm-3n is thermodynamically stable under high pressure. Hypervalence phenomenon of iodine atoms in Pm-3n CsI3 with endless linear chain type structure appears under high pressure, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional understanding. Our study further reveals that Pm-3n CsI3 is a metallic phase with several energy bands crossing Fermi-surface, and the pressure creates a peculiar reverse electron donation from iodine to cesium. The electron-phonon coupling calculations have proposed superconductive potential of the metallic Pm-3n CsI3 at 10 GPa which is much lower than that of CsI (180 GPa). Our findings represent a significant step toward the understanding of the behavior of iodine compounds at extreme conditions.

  12. Detection of iodine monoxide in the tropical free troposphere

    PubMed Central

    Dix, Barbara; Baidar, Sunil; Bresch, James F.; Hall, Samuel R.; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Wang, Siyuan; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) is a radical that catalytically destroys heat trapping ozone and reacts further to form aerosols. Here, we report the detection of IO in the tropical free troposphere (FT). We present vertical profiles from airborne measurements over the Pacific Ocean that show significant IO up to 9.5 km altitude and locate, on average, two-thirds of the total column above the marine boundary layer. IO was observed in both recent deep convective outflow and aged free tropospheric air, suggesting a widespread abundance in the FT over tropical oceans. Our vertical profile measurements imply that most of the IO signal detected by satellites over tropical oceans could originate in the FT, which has implications for our understanding of iodine sources. Surprisingly, the IO concentration remains elevated in a transition layer that is decoupled from the ocean surface. This elevated concentration aloft is difficult to reconcile with our current understanding of iodine lifetimes and may indicate heterogeneous recycling of iodine from aerosols back to the gas phase. Chemical model simulations reveal that the iodine-induced ozone loss occurs mostly above the marine boundary layer (34%), in the transition layer (40%) and FT (26%) and accounts for up to 20% of the overall tropospheric ozone loss rate in the upper FT. Our results suggest that the halogen-driven ozone loss in the FT is currently underestimated. More research is needed to quantify the widespread impact that iodine species of marine origin have on free tropospheric composition, chemistry, and climate. PMID:23345444

  13. Iodine sorption on low-chromium alloy steel. [HTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, M.F.; Briggs, R.B.; Wichner, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of iodine sorption on low-alloy steel in helium atmosphere included both computer calculations and experimental measurements under conditions that could be related to the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Adsorption measurements provide data on the potentially releasable inventory of iodine (a major radiological hazard) stored on surfaces in the coolant circuit during normal operation. Measurements of the rate and extent of iodine desorption when test conditions were changed are useful for evaluating the consequences of accidents. The results of calculations with the SOLGASMIX-PV computer program indicated that HI is the dominant iodine species in the system and that the deposition of CrI/sub 2/(s) or FeI/sub 2/(s) in the cooler regions will effectively limit the amount of iodine in the gas phase. Experimental measurements were obtained on 2-1/4% Cr-1% Mo steel specimens at iodine burdens as low as 10/sup -6/ Pa (10/sup -11/ atm), about 100 times lower than any previous work.

  14. Detection of iodine monoxide in the tropical free troposphere.

    PubMed

    Dix, Barbara; Baidar, Sunil; Bresch, James F; Hall, Samuel R; Schmidt, K Sebastian; Wang, Siyuan; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-02-05

    Atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) is a radical that catalytically destroys heat trapping ozone and reacts further to form aerosols. Here, we report the detection of IO in the tropical free troposphere (FT). We present vertical profiles from airborne measurements over the Pacific Ocean that show significant IO up to 9.5 km altitude and locate, on average, two-thirds of the total column above the marine boundary layer. IO was observed in both recent deep convective outflow and aged free tropospheric air, suggesting a widespread abundance in the FT over tropical oceans. Our vertical profile measurements imply that most of the IO signal detected by satellites over tropical oceans could originate in the FT, which has implications for our understanding of iodine sources. Surprisingly, the IO concentration remains elevated in a transition layer that is decoupled from the ocean surface. This elevated concentration aloft is difficult to reconcile with our current understanding of iodine lifetimes and may indicate heterogeneous recycling of iodine from aerosols back to the gas phase. Chemical model simulations reveal that the iodine-induced ozone loss occurs mostly above the marine boundary layer (34%), in the transition layer (40%) and FT (26%) and accounts for up to 20% of the overall tropospheric ozone loss rate in the upper FT. Our results suggest that the halogen-driven ozone loss in the FT is currently underestimated. More research is needed to quantify the widespread impact that iodine species of marine origin have on free tropospheric composition, chemistry, and climate.

  15. Monoclonal Idiotope Vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Mary K.; Ward, Ronald E.; Kohler, Heinz

    1984-12-01

    A monoclonal anti-idiotope antibody coupled to a carrier protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice against a lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Vaccinated mice developed a high titer of antibody to phosphorylcholine, which is known to protect against infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Measurement of the median lethal dose of the bacteria indicated that anti-idiotope immunization significantly increased the resistance of BALB/c mice to the bacterial challenge. Antibody to an idiotope can thus be used as an antigen substitute for the induction of protective immunity.

  16. [Iodine deficiency in the world and in the Czech Republic--current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Zamrazil, V; Bílek, R; Cerovská, J; Dvoráková, M; Nemecek, J

    2010-12-01

    Iodopenia is importance world-wide problem--the cause of spectrum of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The "simple" way for its compensation is iodine supplementation--preferably by iodinization of salt: in the Czech Republic prevalence of IDD was very high in the past. The complex program for compensation of iodine deficiency realized in the CR includes improvement of salt iodization, supplementation of pregnant and lactating women, fortification of products for babies' nutrition and increasing use of iodinized salt in general population incl. food industry. Thus CR is country with compensated iodine deficiency according to criteria WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. In future, however, systematic interest should be focused on optimalization of iodine saturation, esp. in pregnant women and evaluation of possible risk of supranormal iodine intake (impairment of thyroid function, activation of thyroid autoimmunity). Taking in account, the changes of nutrition and life style systematic monitoring of quality of iodine supplementation seems to be essential.

  17. Determination of free iodine concentration in an X-ray contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kljubin, V. V.; Kljubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    Based on the analysis of the absorption spectra of solutions of iodine in ethanol, we propose a simple and sensitive (at a level of 1 μg/g) method for determination of the concentration of free (not bound to polymer) iodine in substances synthesized from ether oils and iodine. The method uses absorption of molecular iodine in the UV region. Iodine dissolved in alcohols has a rather large absorption cross section in the UV region. These absorption bands can be used to detect very small quantities of iodine. It is shown that, for iodine concentrations in the 1-50 μg/g range, the intensity of absorption band at a wavelength of 359 nm depends linearly on the iodine concentration, which allows one to use this band to determine the concentration of iodine not bound with the polymer in the X-ray contrast material.

  18. Formation of organic iodine supplied as iodide in a soil-water system in Chiba, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Yoko S; Takahashi, Yoshio; Terada, Yasuko

    2011-03-15

    Speciation of iodine in a soil-water system was investigated to understand the mechanism of iodine mobility in surface environments. Iodine speciation in soil and pore water was determined by K-edge XANES and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively, for samples collected at a depth of 0-12 cm in the Yoro area, Chiba, Japan. Pore water collected at a 0-6 cm depth contained 50%-60% of organic iodine bound to dissolved organic matter, with the other portion being I(-). At a 9-12 cm depth, 98% of iodine was in the form of dissolved I(-). In contrast, XANES analysis revealed that iodine in soil exists as organic iodine at all depths. Iodine mapping of soil grains was obtained using micro-XRF analysis, which also indicated that iodine is bound to organic matter. The activity of laccase, which has the ability to oxidize I(-) to I(2), was high at the surface of the soil-water layer, suggesting that iodide oxidizing enzymes can promote iodine organification. The distribution coefficient of organic iodine in the soil-water system was more than 10-fold greater than that of iodide. Transformation of inorganic iodine to organic iodine plays an important role in iodine immobilization, especially in a surface soil-water system.

  19. Iodine, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum levels in children aged between 6 and 12 years in the rural area with iodine deficiency and in the city center without iodine deficiency in Hatay

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Tanju; Savaş, Nazan; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Sangün, Özlem; Aydın, Zeki; Mustafa, Didin; Öztürk, Oktay Hasan; Mısırlıoğlu, Seher; Öktem, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Thyroid diseases related with iodine deficiency are observed commonly in our country and in the world. In this study, we aimed to investigate iodine deficiency in urine and selenium, zinc, copper or molybdenum deficiency which may accompany this in children aged between 6 and 12 years in two schools in the province of Hatay (endemic goitre region). Material and Methods: This study is a case-control field-study in which students aged between 6 and 12 years were included. One hundred fourteen subjects from the village of Tanışma related to the center of our province and 100 subjects from the city center of Hatay (Antakya) were included in the study. Iodine, selenium, zinc, copper and molybdenum levels were measured in the urine samples of the students included in the study. Results: Iodine deficiency was found with a severe (5%), moderate (18.4%) and mild degree (43%), respectively in the village of Tanışma. Mild iodine deficiency (7%) was found in the center of Hatay. No moderate and severe iodine deficiency was found in the control group. A significant difference was found between the groups in terms of urine iodine excretion (p<0.001). A significant correlation was found between the levels of iodine, selenium, zinc and molybdenum (p<0.05). A moderately positive correlation was found between iodine and selenium (p<0.001). A moderately positive correlation was found between iodine and zinc levels (p<0.001) and a weak correlation was found between iodine and molybdenum (p<0.01). No significant correlation was found between iodine level and copper level (p>0.05). Conclusions: Selenium and zinc deficiency may accompany iodine deficiency. Selenium and zinc deficiency should be considered in individuals who are found to have iodine deficiency especially in endemic goitre regions. PMID:26078645

  20. Iodine uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants grown in solution culture: effects of iodine species and solution concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y-G; Huang, Y-Z; Hu, Y; Liu, Y-X

    2003-04-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of iodine species and solution concentrations on iodine uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Five iodine concentrations (0, 1, 10, 50 and 100 microM) for iodate (IO(3)(-)) and iodide (I(-)) were used. Results show that higher concentrations of I(-) (> or =10 microM) had some detrimental effect on plant growth, while IO(3)(-) had little effect on the biomass production of spinach plants. Increases in iodine concentration in the growth solution significantly enhanced I concentrations in plant tissues. The detrimental effect of I(-) on plant growth was probably due to the excessively high accumulation of I in plant tissues. The solution-to-spinach leaf transfer factors (TF(leaf), fresh weight basis) for plants treated with iodide were between 14.2 and 20.7 at different solution concentrations of iodide; TF(leaf) for plants treated with iodate decreased gradually from 23.7 to 2.2 with increasing solution concentrations of iodate. The distribution coefficients (DCs) of I between leaves and roots were constantly higher for plants treated with iodate than those treated with iodide. DCs for plants treated with iodide increased with increasing solution concentrations of iodide, while DCs for plants treated with iodate (around 5.5) were similar across the range of solution concentrations of iodate used in this experiment. The implications of iodine accumulation in leafy vegetables in human iodine nutrition are also discussed.

  1. Age and speciation of iodine in groundwater and mudstones of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for the origin and migration of iodine during basin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Yoko S.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Amano, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Terada, Yasuko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kazumasa; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the concentration, speciation and isotope ratio (129I/127I) of iodine from both groundwater and host rocks in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, to clarify the origin and migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks deposited nearly horizontally in Tenpoku Basin and in the Horonobe area were uplifted above sea level during active tectonics to form folds and faults in the Quaternary. Samples were collected from the Pliocene Koetoi and late Miocene Wakkanai formations (Fms), which include diatomaceous and siliceous mudstones. The iodine concentration in groundwater, up to 270 μmol/L, is significantly higher than that of seawater, with the iodine enrichment factor relative to seawater reaching 800-1500. The iodine concentration in the rocks decreases from the Koetoi to Wakkanai Fms, suggesting that iodine was released into the water from the rocks of deeper formations. The iodine concentration in the rocks is sufficiently high for forming iodine-rich groundwater as found in this area. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis shows that iodine exists as organic iodine and iodide (I-) in host rocks, whereas it exists mainly as I- in groundwater. The isotope ratio is nearly constant for iodine in the groundwater, at [0.11-0.23] × 10-12, and it is higher for iodine in rocks, at [0.29-1.1] × 10-12, giving iodine ages of 42-60 Ma and 7-38 Ma, respectively. Some iodine in groundwater must have originated from Paleogene and even late Cretaceous Fms, which are also considered as possible sources of oil and gas, in view of the old iodine ages of the groundwater. The iodine ages of the rocks are older than the depositional ages, implying that the rocks adsorbed some iodine from groundwater, which was sourced from greater depths. The iodine concentration in groundwater decreases with decreasing chlorine concentration due to mixing of iodine-rich connate water and meteoric water. A likely scenario

  2. Simple, Efficient and Controllable Synthesis of Iodo/Di-iodoarenes via Ipsoiododecarboxylation/Consecutive Iodination Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Lijuan; Deng, Guo-Jun; Gong, Hang

    2017-01-01

    A practical, efficient, and operationally simple strategy for the ipsoiododecarboxylation and di-iodination of aromatic carboxylic acids using the low-cost commercial reagent succinimide (NIS) as iodine source is reported. This iodination or di-iodination process can be easily controlled through reaction conditions, thereby providing corresponding iodination or di-iodination products with high yields. Furthermore, these two reactions can be easily scaled up to gram-scale by using palladium catalyst (0.66 mol%), which provides high isolated yield.

  3. Simple, Efficient and Controllable Synthesis of Iodo/Di-iodoarenes via Ipsoiododecarboxylation/Consecutive Iodination Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Lijuan; Deng, Guo-Jun; Gong, Hang

    2017-01-01

    A practical, efficient, and operationally simple strategy for the ipsoiododecarboxylation and di-iodination of aromatic carboxylic acids using the low-cost commercial reagent succinimide (NIS) as iodine source is reported. This iodination or di-iodination process can be easily controlled through reaction conditions, thereby providing corresponding iodination or di-iodination products with high yields. Furthermore, these two reactions can be easily scaled up to gram-scale by using palladium catalyst (0.66 mol%), which provides high isolated yield. PMID:28091536

  4. Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Stanker, Larry H.; Watkins, Bruce E.; Bailey, Nina R.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.

  5. Immunochemical Characterization of Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Monoclonal Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    formation. This conformation was first proposed using studies with monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide mimicking the sequence of the...distinct antigenic determinants on dengue -2 virus using monoclonal antibodies, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 31 (1982) 548-555. 7 D. De la Hoz, B.P. Doctor

  6. First Observations of Iodine Oxide from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Sander, Stanley P.

    2007-01-01

    We present retrievals of IO total columns from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. We analyze data for October 2005 in the polar regions to demonstrate for the first time the capability to measure IO column abundances from space. During the period of analysis (i.e. Southern Hemisphere springtime), enhanced IO vertical columns over 3 x 10(exp 13) molecules cm(exp -2) are observed around coastal Antarctica; by contrast during that time in the Arctic region IO is consistently below the calculated instrumental detection limit for individual radiance spectra (2-4 x 10(exp 12) molecules cm(exp -2) for slant columns). The levels reported here are in reasonably good agreement with previous ground-based measurements at coastal Antarctica. These results also demonstrate that IO is widespread over sea-ice covered areas in the Southern Ocean. The occurrence of elevated IO and its hitherto unrecognized spatial distribution suggest an efficient iodine activation mechanism at a synoptic scale over coastal Antarctica.

  7. Guinea pig line 10 hepatocarcinoma model: characterization of monoclonal antibody and in vivo effect of unconjugated antibody and antibody conjugated to diphtheria toxin A chain.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, M I; Foon, K A; Oeltmann, T N; Key, M E; Hwang, K M; Clarke, G C; Christensen, W L; Hoyer, L C; Hanna, M G; Oldham, R K

    1983-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against the guinea pig line 10 (L10) hepatocarcinoma, and an IgG1-producing hybridoma (D3) was selected for further study. D3 is a true monoclonal antibody as demonstrated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Radioimmunoassays on live cells revealed no cross-reactivity with normal tissues or with the line 1 hepatocarcinoma which was used as a control. Membrane immunofluorescence assays demonstrated similar specificity. Immunoperoxidase staining of cryostat sections of tumor and normal tissues of both adult animals and fetuses showed that the D3 monoclonal antibody reacted primarily with the L10 tumor, but some cross-reactivity with smooth muscle, placenta, fetal skeletal muscle, and fetal liver was also demonstrated. Radioimmunoprecipitation of detergent extracts of iodinated L10 cells showed that the antigen is present on the cell surface as a dimer of Mr 290,000 (unit size, Mr 148,000). Therapy studies with unconjugated D3 antibody demonstrated a minor dose-dependent effect on tumor growth. D3 antibody conjugated to the A chain of diphtheria toxin (10(-7) M) was cytotoxic to 100% of L10 cells in vitro. Animals treated with a single 1-mg i.v. injection of this immunoconjugate on Day 7 following the intradermal injection of 10(5) tumor cells demonstrated a highly significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to control animals and those treated with unconjugated antibody.

  8. Iodine uptake and prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse model.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Caltzontzin, Paloma; Delgado, Guadalupe; Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda

    2013-11-08

    Iodine supplementation exerts antitumor effects in several types of cancer. Iodide (I⁻) and iodine (I₂) reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145). Both chemical species decrease tumor growth in athymic mice xenografted with DU-145 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake and effects of iodine in a preclinical model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate [TRAMP] mice/SV40-TAG antigens), which develops cancer by 12 wks of age. ¹²⁵I⁻ and ¹²⁵I₂ uptake was analyzed in prostates from wild-type and TRAMP mice of 12 and 24 wks in the presence of perchlorate (inhibitor of the Na⁺/I⁻ symporter [NIS]). NIS expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mice (6 wks old) were supplemented with 0.125 mg I⁻ plus 0.062 mg I₂/mouse/day for 12 or 24 wks. The weight of the genitourinary tract (GUT), the number of acini with lesions, cell proliferation (levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] by immunohistochemistry), p53 and p21 expression (by qPCR) and apoptosis (relative amount of nucleosomes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated. In both age-groups, normal and tumoral prostates take up both forms of iodine, but only I⁻ uptake was blocked by perchlorate. Iodine supplementation prevented the overexpression of NIS in the TRAMP mice, but had no effect on the GUT weight, cell phenotype, proliferation or apoptosis. In TRAMP mice, iodine increased p53 expression but had no effect on p21 (a p53-dependent gene). Our data corroborate NIS involvement in I⁻ uptake and support the notion that another transporter mediates I₂ uptake. Iodine did not prevent cancer progression. This result could be explained by a strong inactivation of the p53 pathway by TAG antigens.

  9. Mercury and Iodine systematics of volcanic arc fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Kading, T.; Fehn, U.; Lu, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The mantle has low Mercury and Iodine concentrations, but these elements occur in volcanic gases and hydrothermal fluids at ppb (Hg) and ppm (Iodine) levels. Possibly, the Hg and Iodine concentrations in volcanic fluids reflect subducted sediment sources in arc magmas. Iodine is a biophilic element, and I129/I values indicate that subducted sediment (especially organic matter) is an important Iodine source for arc magmas. It is uncertain if this is true for Hg as well, although in the surface environment Hg is commonly associated with organic matter. We present 60 new analyses of Hg and I in fluids from volcanoes in Central America, New Zealand, Japan, and the Cascades. A first assessment suggests that Iodine is released to some degree in the early stage of subduction in the forearc, whereas Hg may be released largely below the main volcanic arc. Isotope and trace element signatures of volcanic rocks of the investigated volcanoes show no simple correlation with Hg or Iodine abundances. The acid hot spring fluids of Copahue volcano (Argentina) carried ~ 200 ppt Hg in January 1999, ~80 ppt Hg in March 2008, and 90 ppt Hg in the crater lake in March 1997. The dissolved Hg fluxes from the Copahue hydrothermal system are ~300 gr Hg/year in 1999 and ~130 gr Hg/year in 2008. The bulk hydrothermal Hg flux (particle bound+dissolved) in 2008 was ~ 350 gr Hg/year. The potential Mercury evasion from these hydrothermal spring fluids into the air has not yet been incorporated in these estimates.

  10. Systematic review using meta-analyses to estimate dose-response relationships between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status in different population groups.

    PubMed

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Dullemeijer, Carla; Tepsić, Jasna; Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Popović, Tamara; Arsić, Aleksandra; Glibetić, Marija; Souverein, Olga W; Collings, Rachel; Cavelaars, Adriënne; de Groot, Lisette; van't Veer, Pieter; Gurinović, Mirjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify studies investigating iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status, to assess the data of the selected studies, and to estimate dose-response relationships using meta-analysis. All randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, nested case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies that supplied or measured dietary iodine and measured iodine biomarkers were included. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and the standard error of β were calculated by random-effects meta-analysis on a double-log scale, using the calculated intake-status regression coefficient (β) for each individual study. The results of pooled randomized controlled trials indicated that the doubling of dietary iodine intake increased urinary iodine concentrations by 14% in children and adolescents, by 57% in adults and the elderly, and by 81% in pregnant women. The dose-response relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status indicated a 12% decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone and a 31% decrease in thyroglobulin in pregnant women. The model of dose-response quantification used to describe the relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status may be useful for providing complementary evidence to support recommendations for iodine intake in different population groups.

  11. Tumor imaging by antineuroblastoma monoclonal antibody and its application to treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Etoh, T.; Takahashi, H.; Maie, M.; Ohnuma, N.; Tanabe, M.

    1988-10-01

    Antineuroblastoma monoclonal antibody (MoAb) was labeled with iodine-131 (/sup 131/I) and injected into transplantable human neuroblastoma-bearing nude mice in vivo. Imaging of the tumor by gamma camera was then attempted. At the fourth day after injection of the antibody, relatively heavy labeling was observed in the tumor. Principal organs were removed and their /sup 131/I uptake was determined. A high radioactivity count was detected in the tumor, indicating efficacy of this antibody in tumor imaging of neuroblastoma. This antibody was labeled with /sup 131/I and injected into transplantable human neuroblastoma-bearing mice. Apparent inhibition of tumor growth was observed in animals treated as such compared with animals of the control group, MoAb alone group, and /sup 131/I alone group (P less than 0.05). In addition, pathohistologic study showed binding of /sup 131/I to tumor cells and necrotic changes, suggesting the possibility of application of this MoAb to the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  12. Fragmentation, labeling and biodistribution studies of KS1/4, a monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, an IgG2a (KS1/4), a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific against a human lung adenocarcinoma (UCLA P-3) was successfully fragmented enzymatically to yield F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab by using pepsin and papain, respectively. The kinetic of fragmentation of the MoAb was compared to that of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). A similar pattern of fragmentation was observed with both antibodies with a higher percentage yield of the F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab obtained upon the fragmentation of the IgG by the enzymes. The KS1/4 and the two fragments were labeled with three different radionuclides, namely iodine-131, indium-111 and selenium-75. The radioiodination of the MoAb and the fragments was carried out by using a modified chloramine-T method. Radiometal labeling of the MoAb and the fragments with indium-111 was performed by using DTPA as a bifunctional chelating agent, while intrinsic labeling of the MoAb was done by culturing the hybridoma in the presence of /sup 75/Se-methionine. The biodistribution of the radiolabeled MoAb, F(ab')/sub 2/ and Fab fragments were performed by injecting the preparations intravenously into nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma.

  13. Discharge formation systems for generating atomic iodine in a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Aksinin, V I; Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Podlesnykh, S V; Firsov, K N; Antsiferov, S A; Velikanov, S D; Gerasimov, A Yu; Gostev, I V; Kalinovskii, V V; Konovalov, V V; Mikhalkin, V N; Sevryugin, I V

    2014-01-31

    Generation characteristics of a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser with the electro-discharge production of atomic iodine were compared with inductively stabilised edged or anisotropic- resistive cathodes used for ignition of the volume discharge. The discharge was initiated by the radiation of a barrier discharge from the side of a grid anode. It was found that at equal specific electrical energy depositions to the gas-discharge plasma, the system with the anisotropic-resistive cathode provides a more stable and uniform volume discharge with the possibility of varying the composition and pressure of working mixtures over a wide range and a greater specific extraction of laser energy is observed (up to 2.4 J L{sup -1}). At a high pulse repetition rate of laser pulses (50 – 100 Hz) and long duration of the pulse trains (longer than a minute) the surface of anisotropic-resistive cathode became eroded. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  15. The Iodine Status of Queensland Preschool Children After the Introduction of Mandatory Iodine Fortification in Bread: An Exploratory Study Using a Convenience Sample.

    PubMed

    Samidurai, A J; Ware, R S; Davies, P S W

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Appropriate dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, especially in young children. Following an iodine fortification in bread initiative, approximately 6 % of Australian preschool children were expected to have an excessive iodine status. The aim of this study was to document the current iodine status of preschool children using urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a biomarker of iodine intake. Methods A convenience sample of fifty-one preschool children, aged 2-3 years, were recruited from south east Queensland. UIC was ascertained from spot morning and afternoon urine samples collected on two consecutive days and food frequency questionnaires were completed for each participant. Dietary iodine intake was extrapolated from UIC assuming 90 % of dietary iodine is excreted in urine and a urine volume of 0.5 L/day. Results A median UIC of 223.3 μg/L was found. The calculated median dietary iodine intake was 124.8 μg/day (SD 47.0) with 9.8 % of samples above the upper level of 200 μg for dietary iodine for children within this age group. No foods were associated with UIC. Discussion Limited by sample size and recruitment strategies, no association was found between usual food intake and UIC. Extrapolated dietary iodine intake indicated that children within this cohort consumed adequate amounts of dietary iodine, although the number of children consuming above the upper limit of 300 μg/day was almost double of expected. The development of a UIC criteria to assess appropriate parameters for varying degrees of iodine status is required for the monitoring of iodine nutrition in this vulnerable age group.

  16. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging

  17. Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, Matthew George; Adamic, Mary Louise; Olson, John Eric; Baeck, D. L.; Fox, R. V.; Hahn, P. A.; Jenson, D. D.; Lister, T. E.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the project, New Paradigms for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Raising the Scientific Profile and Improved Performance for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), is to ensure that the ongoing isotope ratio determination capability within the U.S. Department of Energy complex is the world’s best for application to nonproliferation. This report spells out the progress of Task 4, Transition of TIMS to AMS for Iodine Analysis, of the larger project. The subtasks under Task 4 and the accomplishments throughout the three year project life cycle are presented in this report. Progress was made in optimization of chemical extraction, determination of a detection limit for 127Iodine, production of standard materials for AMS analysis quality assurance, facilitation of knowledge exchange with respect to analyzing iodine on an AMS, cross comparison with a world-leading AMS laboratory, supercritical fluid extraction of iodine for AMS analysis and electrodeposition of seawater as a direct method of preparation for iodine analysis by AMS--all with the goal of minimizing the time required to stand up an AMS capability for iodine analysis of exposed air filters at INL. An effective extraction method has been developed and demonstrated for iodine analysis of exposed air filters. Innovative techniques to accomplish the cathode preparation for AMS analysis were developed and demonstrated and published. The known gap of a lack of available materials for reference standards in the analysis of iodine by AMS was filled by the preparation of homogenous materials that were calibrated against NIST materials. A minimum limit on the amount of abundant isotope in a sample was determined for AMS analysis. The knowledge exchange occurred with fantastic success. Scientists engaged the international AMS community at conferences, as well as in their laboratories for collaborative work. The supercritical fluid extraction work has positive

  18. Gaseous iodine monitoring in Europe after the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Olivier; de Vismes-Ott, Anne; Manificat, Guillaume; Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Debayle, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    After the Fukushima accident and following the worldwide dispersion of contaminated air masses, many monitoring networks have reported airborne levels of emitted radionuclides, namely and mainly cesium isotopes and iodine 131. Most of the values focused on the particulate fraction (i.e. radionuclide-labeled aerosols) and were dedicated to cesium 137, cesium 134 and iodine 131. Iodine-131 was also found under gaseous form that accounted for most part of the total (gaseous + particulate)I-131 throughout the world. This gaseous predominance was also noticed after the Chernobyl accident despite differences in the type of accident. This predominance is due to the high iodine volatility and also by a rather low transfer from the gaseous form to the particulate one by adsorption on ambient airborne particles. Paradoxically, the number of gaseous determinations was rather low compared to the magnitude of data related to the particulate form (around 10 percent). Routine monitoring of airborne radionuclides species have been extensively based on aerosol sampling for decades as this allows the long term characterization of trace levels of remnant anthropogenic radionuclides. Moreover the capability of gaseous sampler equipped with activated charcoal to allow the quantification of 131I gaseous at trace level is limited by the contact time required for the sorption of iodine on the sorbent and thus by the low acceptable flow rate (usually between 3 and 5 m3/h, exceptionally 12 m3/h). In this context and despite the fact that airborne level outside Japan were of no concern for public health, this contribute to the lack of information on the actual levels of gaseous iodine. Other incidents involving iodine determination in the air have been reported in Europe in 2011 and 2012 without any relation with the Fukushima accident. For the same reason as previously mentioned, mainly, if not only, the particulate form was reported whereas it can be supposed that the predominant form was

  19. Drug-induced liver injury caused by iodine-131.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chei Won; Park, Ji Sun; Oh, Se Hwan; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shim, Hyun-Ik; Yoon, Jae Woong; Park, Jin Seok; Hong, Seong Bin; Kim, Jun Mi; Le, Trong Binh; Lee, Jin Woo

    2016-06-01

    Iodine-131 is a radioisotope that is routinely used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer after total or near-total thyroidectomy. However, there is some evidence that iodine-131 can induce liver injury . Here we report a rare case of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by iodine-131 in a patient with regional lymph node metastasis after total thyroidectomy. A 47-year-old woman was admitted with elevated liver enzymes and symptoms of general weakness and nausea. Ten weeks earlier she had undergone a total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma and had subsequently been prescribed levothyroxine to reduce the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Eight weeks after surgery she underwent iodine-131 ablative therapy at a dose of 100 millicuries, and subsequently presented with acute hepatitis after 10 days. To rule out all possible causative factors, abdominal ultrasonography, endoscopic ultrasonography (on the biliary tree and gall bladder), and a liver biopsy were performed. DILI caused by iodine-131 was suspected. Oral prednisolone was started at 30 mg/day, to which the patient responded well.

  20. Global model of an iodine gridded plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondein, P.; Lafleur, T.; Chabert, P.; Aanesland, A.

    2016-03-01

    Most state-of-the-art electric space propulsion systems such as gridded and Hall effect thrusters use xenon as the propellant gas. However, xenon is very rare, expensive to produce, and used in a number of competing industrial applications. Alternatives to xenon are currently being investigated, and iodine has emerged as a potential candidate. Its lower cost and larger availability, its solid state at standard temperature and pressure, its low vapour pressure and its low ionization potential make it an attractive option. In this work, we compare the performances of a gridded ion thruster operating separately with iodine and xenon, under otherwise identical conditions using a global model. The thruster discharge properties such as neutral, ion, and electron densities and electron temperature are calculated, as well as the thruster performance parameters such as thrust, specific impulse, and system efficiencies. For similar operating conditions, representative of realistic thrusters, the model predicts similar thrust levels and performances for both iodine and xenon. The thruster efficiency is however slightly higher for iodine compared with xenon, due to its lower ionization potential. This demonstrates that iodine could be a viable alternative propellant for gridded plasma thrusters.

  1. Summary of FY 2010 Iodine Capture Studies at the INL

    SciTech Connect

    Daryl R. Haefner; Tony L. Watson; Michael G. Jones

    2010-08-01

    Three breakthrough runs using silver mordenite sorbents were conducted and a dynamic sorption capacity estimated based on MeI analysis from a 2" bed. However, it is now believed the data for the first 2 runs is incomplete because the contributions from elemental iodine were not included. Although the only source of iodine was MeI, elemental iodine was generated within the sorbent bed, presumably from a recombination reaction likely catalyzed by silver mordenite. On-line effluent analysis with a GC was only capable of analyzing MeI, not I2. Scrub samples drawn during Run #3, which are specific for I2, show significant levels of I2 being emitted from a partially spent Ag-mordenite bed. By combining MeI and I2 analyses, a well defined total iodine breakthrough curve can be generated for Run #3. At the conclusion of Run #3 (IONEX Ag-900 was the sorbent) the effluent level from Bed 2 was approaching 70% of the feed concentration. The leading bed (Bed 1) had an estimated average loading of 66 mg I/g sorbent, Bed 2's was 52 mg I/g. The corresponding silver utilizations (assuming formation of AgI) were about 59% and 46%, respectively. The spent sorbents are being sent to Sandia National Laboratories for confirmatory analysis of iodine and silver utilization as well as source material for waste form development.

  2. Uptake mechanism for iodine species to black carbon.

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Min-Gyu

    2013-09-17

    Natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role in determining the fate and transport of iodine species such as iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) in groundwater system. Although NOM exists as diverse forms in environments, prior iodine studies have mainly focused on uptake processes of iodide and iodate to humic materials. This study was conducted to determine the iodide and iodate uptake potential for a particulate NOM (i.e., black carbon [BC]). A laboratory-produced BC and commercial humic acid were used for batch experiments to compare their iodine uptake properties. The BC exhibited >100 times greater uptake capability for iodide than iodate at low pH of ~3, while iodide uptake was negligible for the humic acid. The uptake properties of both solids strongly depend on the initial iodine aqueous concentrations. After uptake reaction of iodide to the BC, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy results indicated that the iodide was converted to electrophilic species, and iodine was covalently bound to carbon atom in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the BC. The computed distribution coefficients (i.e., Kd values) suggest that the BC materials retard significantly the transport of iodide at low pH in environmental systems containing even a small amount of BC.

  3. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  4. Uptake Mechanism for Iodine Species to Black Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Choung, Sungwook; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Min-Gyu

    2013-08-13

    Natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role in determining the fate and transport of iodine species such as iodide (I-) and iodate (IO3-) in groundwater system. Although NOM exists as diverse forms in environments, prior iodine studies have mainly focused on uptake processes of iodide and iodate to humic materials. This study was conducted to determine the iodide and iodate uptake potential for a particulate NOM (i.e., black carbon [BC]). A laboratory-produced BC and commercial humic acid were used for batch experiments to compare their iodine uptake properties. The BC exhibited >100 times greater uptake capability for iodide than iodate at low pH~3, while iodide uptake was negligible for the humic acid. The uptake properties of both solids strongly depend on the initial iodine aqueous concentrations. After uptake reaction of iodide to the BC, X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy results indicated that the iodide was converted to electrophilic species, and iodine was covalently bound to carbon atom in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the BC. The computed distribution coefficients (i.e., Kd values) suggest that the BC materials retard significantly the transport of iodide at low pH in environmental systems containing even a small amount of BC.

  5. Epidemiology of nodular goitre. Influence of iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Carlé, Allan; Krejbjerg, Anne; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-08-01

    More than one tenth of the world population is to some degree affected by goitre and most of these harbour nodules. The large differences in thyroid disease prevalence between populations may be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Among the latter, iodine deficiency seems by far to be the most important risk factor. Thus, nodular goitre is a condition predominantly seen in iodine deficient areas of the world. In the present review, we evaluated in detail autopsy and ultrasound studies of the thyroid gland. In autopsy studies, large thyroid volumes and high frequencies of goitres have been reported in countries affected by iodine deficiency. Many cross-sectional studies using thyroid ultrasound investigations have been performed world-wide and reported high thyroid volumes and goitre prevalences, and to some extent also high prevalences of thyroid nodules in iodine-deficient countries. Most of these goitres were classified as nodular goitres. On the other hand, few studies have shown that abundant iodine intake may lead to development of diffuse goitres, but world-wide this has been a minor problem compared with development of nodular goitres. In the past century we have observed a trend towards smaller thyroid glands, and hopefully less than 10% of the world population will experience goitre within a few decades.

  6. Protection of wood from microorganisms by laccase-catalyzed iodination.

    PubMed

    Schubert, M; Engel, J; Thöny-Meyer, L; Schwarze, F W M R; Ihssen, J

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I(-)) to iodine (I(2)) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection.

  7. Dietary iodine and bromine intakes in Ukrainian subjects.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kunio; Ko, Susumu; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Zamostyan, Pavlo V; Tsigankov, Nikolay Y

    2009-01-01

    Dietary iodine and bromine intakes in Ukrainian subjects were estimated in relation to the health effects on inhabitants after the Chernobyl accident. Two hundred and eighty-six total diets were collected from twenty-five regions for Ukrainians by a duplicate portion study. Iodine and bromine were rapidly determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after chemical separation. The range, median, and geometric mean of iodine intakes were 2.86-698, 44.7, and 48.1 microg per person per day, respectively. Those of bromine were 0.627-16.9, 2.97, and 2.92 mg per person per day, respectively. Daily intakes of both elements in Ukrainians were lower than previously reported values. The iodine intake in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident was lower than that in non-contaminated areas. The low iodine intake in both areas would be related to the high prevalence of goiters throughout the whole country. The low bromine intakes indicated Ukrainians were not exposed to bromine-containing foods.

  8. Iodine-doped polyvinylalcohol using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Blaise; Ranganath, M. R.; Chandran, T. S. G. Ravi; Venugopal Rao, G.; Ravindrachary, V.; Gopal, S.

    1999-06-01

    Iodine-doped polyvinylalcohol, doped up to 52 wt %, was studied using positron annihilation lifetime technique and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation. Three component, free fit analysis was used for the lifetime spectra. It is found that I3 drops sharply on initial iodine doping, whereas decrease in τ3 is small, indicating inhibition of positronium formation by the dopant. The S parameter, on iodine doping, initially shows a drastic increase due to the decrease in crystallinity of the doped sample. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction curves confirm that doping results in decreased crystallinity of the sample. τ3 increases beyond 23 wt % doping level due to structural changes induced by formation of polyiodide complexes, which is confirmed by UV-Vis spectra, for moderately and highly doped samples. The drop in τ3 at higher levels of doping (>44 wt %) suggests chemical quenching of positronium, probably due to iodine aggregation. DSC confirms formation of iodine aggregates, as revealed by a large endotherm at 185 °C, for doping levels beyond 47 wt %.

  9. Studies on the stability of iodine compounds in iodized salt.

    PubMed

    KELLY, F C

    1953-01-01

    Contributions made by five groups of investigators to the knowledge of the stability of different iodine compounds in salt, and of the extent of the losses of iodine which may occur when iodized salt is exposed to different conditions of storage and use, are discussed by the author.STABILITY OF THE IODINE COMPONENT IN IODIZED SALT IS DETERMINED BY: (1) moisture content of the salt and humidity of the atmosphere; (2) light, heat, and other meteorological factors; (3) impurities in the salt; (4) acidity or alkalinity of the mixture; and (5) the form in which iodine is present.When potassium iodide or sodium iodide is used as the iodizing agent, the iodide content of the salt will remain constant and its distribution will remain uniform for many months if the salt is packed dry in a container with an impervious lining and kept dry, preferably in a cool place and away from strong light. When these conditions cannot be met, it is desirable to iodize salt with potassium iodate. Under adverse conditions of moisture, heat, and sunlight, the iodine content of salt iodized with potassium iodate remains relatively constant.

  10. Studies on the stability of iodine compounds in iodized salt*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, F. C.

    1953-01-01

    Contributions made by five groups of investigators to the knowledge of the stability of different iodine compounds in salt, and of the extent of the losses of iodine which may occur when iodized salt is exposed to different conditions of storage and use, are discussed by the author. Stability of the iodine component in iodized salt is determined by: (1) moisture content of the salt and humidity of the atmosphere; (2) light, heat, and other meteorological factors; (3) impurities in the salt; (4) acidity or alkalinity of the mixture; and (5) the form in which iodine is present. When potassium iodide or sodium iodide is used as the iodizing agent, the iodide content of the salt will remain constant and its distribution will remain uniform for many months if the salt is packed dry in a container with an impervious lining and kept dry, preferably in a cool place and away from strong light. When these conditions cannot be met, it is desirable to iodize salt with potassium iodate. Under adverse conditions of moisture, heat, and sunlight, the iodine content of salt iodized with potassium iodate remains relatively constant. PMID:13094510

  11. Monoclonal antibodies specific for sickle cell hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Grabske, R.J.; Branscomb, E.W.; Bigbee, W.L.; Stanker, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    Two mouse hybridoma cell lines were isolated which produce monoclonal antibodies that bind hemoglobin S. The mice were immunized with peptide-protein conjugates to stimulate a response to the amino terminal peptide of the beta chain of hemoglobin S, where the single amino acid difference between A and S occurs. Immunocharacterization of the antibodies shows that they bind specifically to the immunogen peptide and to hemoglobin S. The specificity for S is high enough that one AS cell in a mixture with a million AA cells is labeled by antibody, and such cells can be analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunoblotting of electrophoretic gels allows definitive identification of hemoglobin S as compared with other hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic mobility. 12 references, 4 figures.

  12. Phase Separation in Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, George; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil

    2012-02-01

    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in a solution of humanized monoclonal antibodies, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant reduction of phase separation temperature in the presence of albumin, and a preferential partitioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic analysis of the antibody-albumin mixture phase diagram and relate its features to the magnitude of the effective inter-protein interactions. Our analysis suggests that additives (HSA in this report), which have moderate attraction with antibody molecules, may be used to forestall undesirable protein condensation in antibody solutions. Our findings are relevant to understanding the stability of pharmaceutical solutions of antibodies and the mechanisms of cryoglobulinemia.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies against metallothioneins and metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Talbot, B G; Bilodeau, G; Thirion, J P

    1986-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit metallothioneins (MT) were prepared by in vitro immunization of mouse lymphocytes with a mixture of the two forms of metallothionein MT1 and MT2. Six IgM antibodies (TN1,3,4,5,6,7) which bind to metallothionein were characterized. Antibody TN3 is specific for rabbit MT1 and does not react with any other MT's tested. TN5 is specific for both rabbit MT1 and MT2. TN7 is specific for rabbit MT2 but not MT1 and cross-reacts also with Chinese hamster, mouse and rat metallothioneins. The antibodies TN1, TN4 and TN6 bind not only to rabbit MT1 and MT2 but also to other metal binding proteins like alcohol dehydrogenase and carbonic anhydrase.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies in treatment of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rommer, P S; Dudesek, A; Stüve, O; Zettl, UK

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are used as therapeutics in a number of disciplines in medicine, such as oncology, rheumatology, gastroenterology, dermatology and transplant rejection prevention. Since the introduction and reintroduction of the anti-alpha4-integrin mAb natalizumab in 2004 and 2006, mAbs have gained relevance in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). At present, numerous mAbs have been tested in clinical trials in relapsing–remitting MS, and in progressive forms of MS. One of the agents that might soon be approved for very active forms of relapsing–remitting MS is alemtuzumab, a humanized mAb against CD52. This review provides insights into clinical studies with the mAbs natalizumab, alemtuzumab, daclizumab, rituximab, ocrelizumab and ofatumumab. PMID:24001305

  15. The birth pangs of monoclonal antibody therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the development and termination of nebacumab (Centoxin®), a human IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug frequently cited as one of the notable failures of the early biopharmaceutical industry. The non-approval of Centoxin in the United States in 1992 generated major concerns at the time about the future viability of any mAb therapeutics. For Centocor, the biotechnology company that developed Centoxin, the drug posed formidable challenges in terms of safety, clinical efficacy, patient selection, the overall economic costs of health care, as well as financial backing. Indeed, Centocor's development of the drug brought it to the brink of bankruptcy. This article shows how many of the experiences learned with Centoxin paved the way for the current successes in therapeutic mAb development. PMID:22531443

  16. Building better monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, George J.

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been a standard component of cancer therapy, yet there is still much room for improvement. Efforts continue to build better cancer therapeutics based on mAbs. Anti-cancer mAbs function via a variety of mechanisms including directly targeting the malignant cells, modifying the host response to the malignant cells, delivering cytotoxic moieties to the malignant cells or retargeting cellular immunity towards the malignant cells. Characteristics of mAbs that affect their efficacy include antigen specificity, overall structure, affinity for the target antigen and how a mAb component is incorporated into a construct that can trigger target cell death. This article reviews the various approaches to using mAb-based therapeutics to treat cancer, the strategies used to take advantage of the unique potential of each approach, and provides examples of current mAb-based treatments. PMID:25998715

  17. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with murine teratocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, P N; Levinson, J R; Williams, V E; McDevitt, H O

    1979-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were produced in vitro by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from a rat immunized with the C3H mouse teratocarcinoma C86-S1. After the fusion two clones were chosen for further analysis. The first clone, 3C4-10, produced an antibody recognizing an antigen with a distribution restricted to teratocarcinoma cell lines, an endoderm cell line, and a neuroblastoma. The second clone, 4A1-9, produced an antibody that reacted with all cultured murine cells tested and adult brain. Neither antibody reacted with preimplantation embryos. The 3C4-10 antibody recognized an antigen associated with proteins. The apparent molecular weight of the 3C4-10 antigen was greater than 100,000. PMID:284353

  18. Antibacterial monoclonal antibodies: the next generation?

    PubMed

    DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Sellman, Bret R

    2015-10-01

    There is a clear need for renewed efforts to combat the increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance. While the antibiotic resistance epidemic is due in part to the misuse of antibiotics, even proper empiric antibiotic therapy increases the selective pressure and potential for drug-resistance and spread of resistance mechanisms between bacteria. Antibiotic resistance coupled with the detrimental effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics on the healthy microbiome, have led the field to explore pathogen specific antibacterials such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Medical need along with advances in mAb discovery, engineering, and production have driven significant effort developing mAb-based antibacterials. If successful, they will provide physicians with precision weapons to combat bacterial infections and can help prevent a return to a pre-antibiotic era.

  19. Radioactive iodine capture in silver-containing mordenites through nanoscale silver iodide formation.

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Nenoff, T. M.; X-Ray Science Division; SNL

    2010-01-01

    The effective capture and storage of radiological iodine ({sup 129}I) remains a strong concern for safe nuclear waste storage and safe nuclear energy. Silver-containing mordenite (MOR) is a longstanding benchmark for iodine capture; however, the molecular level understanding of this process needed to develop more effective iodine getters has remained elusive. Here we probe the structure and distribution of iodine sorbed by silver-containing MOR using differential pair distribution function analysis. While iodine is distributed between {gamma}-AgI nanoparticles on the zeolite surface and subnanometer {alpha}-AgI clusters within the pores for reduced silver MOR, in the case of unreduced silver-exchanged MOR, iodine is exclusively confined to the pores as subnanometer {alpha}-AgI. Consequently, unreduced silver-containing zeolites may offer a more secure route for radioactive iodine capture, with the potential to more effectively trap the iodine for long-term storage.

  20. Iodine deficiency: Physiological, clinical and epidemiological features, and pre-analytical considerations.

    PubMed

    Doggui, Radhouene; El Atia, Jalila

    2015-02-01

    Low dietary intake is associated with severe pathologies (especially goiter and cretinism) that affect life quality. Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem worldwide. In fact, 246 million school-aged children have insufficient iodine intake (data from 2012). Extrapoling this value to general population leads to the estimation that 1.9 billion people have insufficient iodine intake. So, it is crucial to interpret correctly data from iodine status survey. The World Health Organization recommends urinary iodine as the main indicator for the assessment of iodine status in epidemiological surveys. To improve the result, some considerations can be taken into account by the biologist, epidemiologist or public health physician for the realization of epidemiological surveys. After a reminder about the physiological and physiopathological feature of iodine, a description of some useful parameters was made to improve the exploration of iodine status in epidemiological surveys.

  1. Iodine sorption by highly weathered soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, W. A.; Bruns, M. R.; Kaplan, D. I.; Murphy, T.; Roberts, K.; Thompson, A.; Seaman, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Radioactive iodine (I) isotopes such as I-129 are widely distributed throughout Department of Energy (DOE) and other nuclear sites as a result of past enrichment activities. While natural-abundance I serves an important role in thyroid function in human beings, anthropogenic I can cause thyroid cancer. Predominant I species are anionic and generally assumed to move conservatively through typical negatively-charged subsurface material with the mobile water phase. However, many of the 129I contaminated soils and subsurface materials on the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, contain significant positive charge, which could retain I-129. A series of batch and column experiments were performed in order to determine sorption of three different I species (iodide, iodate, and an organic I compound, 4-iodaniline) over a range of aqueous concentrations (10^-4 to 10^-8 M) onto surface and subsurface soils from SRS. Total aqueous I in solution after equilibration was measured using ICP-MS and used to calculate the partitioning coefficient (Kd). Kd values for all three species were much higher at lower dissolved I concentrations (i.e., non-linear partitioning), and correlated with CDB-extractable Fe and Al and well as soil organic matter content. For the species and concentrations that exhibited high Kd values (>5), we conducted column experiments to evaluate partitioning under dynamic advective systems, using tritium for comparison as a conservative hydrologic tracer. We tracked pH, EC, and hydraulic head in real-time, and the effluent was collected for I analysis as described above. The results indicate a complex pattern of I movement in the natural environment affected by isotope concentration, speciation, and soil characteristics.

  2. Trace nutrients. 4. Iodine in British food.

    PubMed

    Wenlock, R W; Buss, D H; Moxon, R E; Bunton, N G

    1982-05-01

    1. The amounts of iodine in nationally representative samples of prepared and cooked groups of foods and in a wide variety of individual foods and food products were determined colorimetrically. The amounts of erythrosine, a red food colour containing 577 mg I/g were also determined in selected foods and diets by high-performance liquid chromatography. 2. The average British diet was calculated to provide 323 micrograms I/d but only 255 micrograms if two fruit samples containing large amounts of glacé cherries were discounted. Of the total, 92 micrograms was derived from liquid milk. Meat and meat products provided 36 micrograms and cereal products 31 micrograms, but fresh fruits and sugars, vegetables and beverages provided little I. Fish and fish products, though rich in I, contributed only 5% to the total intake. 3. Milk was the most variable as well as the most important individual source of I. Summer milk samples contained 70 micrograms/kg and winter milk 370 micrograms/kg on average. Milk products, including butter and cheese, and eggs were also rich in I. 4. Some processed foods contained erythrosine, particularly glacé cherries and some pink or red confectionery items, biscuits, cherry cake, canned strawberries and luncheon meat. However, none of these are major foods in the average household diet and erythrosine would therefore contribute little more than 10 micrograms I/d to most diets. 5. The average daily intake of I was lower than in similar similar studies in the USA, but was twice the provisional UK recommended intake. This study provides no evidence that I intakes in the UK could be too low or too high for health.U

  3. Development of an online method for quantification of maritime molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine containing inorganic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Sven; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of iodine is important in multiple ways. The focus lies on the ability to influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, i.e. by destruction of ozone, and the formation of iodine oxide particles (IOP), i.e. the influence on condensation nuclei (CCN). Using a variation of techniques, like differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS), the reactive iodine species of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2), iodine monoxide (IO) and iodine dioxide (OIO) have all been detected in the atmosphere from Antarctica to the equatorial marine boundary layer (MBL). In the past few years there have been active research on IO, especially after revealing significant levels in open ocean measurements, OIO and higher iodine oxides. In addition to atmospheric measurements, significant developments in laboratory kinetics, photochemistry and heterogeneous chemistry of iodine species have been accomplished. [1] Here we introduce an online-method for detecting gaseous molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine-containing inorganic compounds such as HOI, which is a further development of the technique used by Carpenter et al. [2]. The method is based on selective photolytic dissociation of the analytes, followed by oxidization and particle formation of the iodine compounds. The particles are than size-segregated and detected by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system. Initial IOP forming is performed in a reaction chamber providing specific wavelengths according to corresponding bond dissociation thresholds. Atmospheric samples can also be pre concentrated by diffusion denuder (with α Cyclodextrin modified and immobilised silica coating) [3-5] and afterwards released by thermodesorption. First attempts of quantification are carried out by external calibration using an

  4. Factors influencing the study of peroxidase-generated iodine species and implications for thyroglobulin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Jack; Obinger, Christian; Eales, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    A key issue in the mechanism of thyroglobulin (Tg) iodination by thyroperoxidase (TPO) is whether a TPO-bound iodine intermediate directly iodinates Tg-incorporated tyrosines (specific iodination) or whether reactive iodine species released from TPO effectuate Tg iodination (nonspecific iodination). We addressed these alternatives by (a) determining the aqueous equilibria of the iodine species potentially involved in the kinetic studies of TPO-mediated iodination, and (b) reviewing the structure of the substrate channel in mammalian peroxidases. Redox-potentiometric analysis of aqueous iodine combined with integrated mathematical modelling demonstrates that I2 reacts with water to form several iodine species including hypoiodious acid (HOI). The HOI/I2 ratio depends on time, iodide concentration, buffering agents, and pH varying dramatically from pH 4 to 7.4. These factors may confound the use of Michaelis-Menten kinetics to determine the mechanism of TPO-catalyzed iodination since both I2 and HOI iodinate tyrosine but with different specificities and reaction rates. Consequently there is as yet no conclusive kinetic evidence that iodination occurs via formation of a TPO-bound iodinated intermediate. Furthermore, knowledge of TPO structure, gained from X-ray crystallographic studies indicates that access of Tg-bound tyrosyl groups to the active site of TPO is not possible. Thus the emerging conclusion is that the mechanism of Tg iodination is nonspecific. This is consistent with the occurrence of thyroid hormone formation in prevertebrate ascidians which exhibit TPO-like activity but lack the Tg gene.

  5. The produced waters of oil deposits in Tomsk region: its use for iodine industrial production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovskii, V. V.; Zippa, E. V.; Syskina, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    In world practice, groundwater is the main raw material for iodine production. In the current geopolitical conditions, a significant part of the traditional areas of iodine production is located outside the Russian Federation. As iodine is biogenic by its origin, it associates with oil and petroleum water. Therefore, the produced waters of oil deposits of Western Siberia acquire the leading role as the raw-material base for iodine production.

  6. Iodine deficiency in the U.K.: an overlooked cause of impaired neurodevelopment?

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2013-05-01

    This review describes historical iodine deficiency in the U.K., gives current information on dietary sources of iodine and summarises recent evidence of iodine deficiency and its association with child neurodevelopment. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones that are needed for brain development, particularly during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency is a leading cause of preventable brain damage worldwide and is associated with impaired cognitive function. Despite a global focus on the elimination of iodine deficiency, iodine is a largely overlooked nutrient in the U.K., a situation we have endeavoured to address through a series of studies. Although the U.K. has been considered iodine-sufficient for many years, there is now concern that iodine deficiency may be prevalent, particularly in pregnant women and women of childbearing age; indeed we found mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Surrey. As the major dietary source of iodine in the U.K. is milk and dairy produce, it is relevant to note that we have found the iodine concentration of organic milk to be over 40% lower than that of conventional milk. In contrast to many countries, iodised table salt is unlikely to contribute to U.K. iodine intake as we have shown that its availability is low in grocery stores. This situation is of concern as the level of U.K. iodine deficiency is such that it is associated with adverse effects on offspring neurological development; we demonstrated a higher risk of low IQ and poorer reading-accuracy scores in U.K. children born to mothers who were iodine-deficient during pregnancy. Given our findings and those of others, iodine status in the U.K. population should be monitored, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as pregnant women and children.

  7. Gain and temperature in a slit nozzle supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser with transonic and supersonic injection of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenwaks, Salman; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Bruins, Esther; Furman, Dov; Rybalkin, Victor; Katz, Arje

    2002-05-01

    Spatial distributions of the gain and temperament across the flow were studied for transonic and supersonic schemes of the iodine injection in a slit nozzle supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser as a function of the iodine and secondary nitrogen flow rate, jet penetration parameter and gas pumping rate. The mixing efficiency for supersonic injection of iodine is found to be much larger than for transonic injection, the maximum values of the gain being approximately 0.65 percent/cm for both injection schemes. Measurements of the gain distribution as a function of the iodine molar flow rate nI2 were carried out. For transonic injection the optimal value of nI2 at the flow centerline is smaller than that at the off axis location. The temperature is distributed homogeneously across the flow, increasing only in the narrow boundary layers near the walls. Opening a leak downstream of the cavity in order to decease the Mach number results in a decrease of the gain and increase of the temperature. The mixing efficiency in this case is much larger than for closed leak.

  8. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine.

  9. Space interferometry application of laser frequency stabilization with molecular iodine.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Volker; Camp, Jordan B

    2006-06-10

    A number of planned space interferometry missions, including the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave detector, require a laser system with high-frequency stability over long time scales. A 1064 nm wavelength nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) laser stabilized to a resonant transition in molecular iodine is suitable for these missions, providing high-frequency stability at an absolute reference frequency. The iodine stabilized laser also offers low sensitivity to temperature and alignment fluctuations and allows frequency tuning. We have evaluated the noise performance of a NPRO laser stabilized to iodine using frequency modulation spectroscopy and have found an Allan standard deviation of 10(-14) over 100 s. Simplified optical configurations and the radiation hardness of the frequency-doubling crystals have also been investigated.

  10. Experimental analysis of chemical oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, J.; David, D.; Georges, E.; Leporcq, B.; Pigache, D.; Verdier, C.

    The dissociation, excitation and quenching of iodine was examined in two lasers to build a data base for the kinetics of oxygen-iodine lasers. I2 mixed with Ar was pumped into a pyrex cavity in a small laser, and mixed with O2 in a larger laser. Measurements were made of the 1270 nm emission of O(2)1Delta in the larger laser. Excited I and I2 luminescence intensity profiles and the excited I emission profile in the presence of water vapor were obtained. Rising water vapor pressure decreased the luminescence and laser power by increasing the I2 dissociation time. In the larger laser, iodine, although injected, never reached the channel midplane, thus reducing the laser output to proportionally less than that of the smaller laser. A new injector will be tested in an attempt to achieve higher lasing powers.

  11. Inactivation of a model coliphage virus in water by iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brion, Gail M.; Silverstein, Joann

    1992-01-01

    Until now, NASA's space water reuse research program has not considered the transport of water-borne infectious enteric viruses; however, viral diseases probably are a signifficant concern in long-duration space missions. To simplify monitoring and prediction of pathogen distribution, model indicator strains historically have been used. In this research, the male specific RNA coliphage MS-2 is used as a model of enteric viruses due to their similar size and biochemical composition. Inactivation of some water-borne enteric viruses by iodine has previously been characterized. In this paper, iodine inactivation of the model coliphage MS-2 in buffered water is compared with earlier bench-scale disinfection survival data and with survival in iodinated simulated shower water used in a test water recycling system.

  12. Superconducting high-pressure phases composed of hydrogen and iodine

    DOE PAGES

    Shamp, Andrew; Zurek, Eva

    2015-09-25

    Evolutionary structure searches predict three new phases of iodine polyhydrides stable under pressure. Insulating P1-H5I, consisting of zigzag chains of (HI) δ+ and H 2 molecules, is stable between 30-90 GPa. Cmcm-H2I and P6/mmm-H4I are found on the 100, 150 and 200 GPa convex hulls. These two phases are good metals, even at 1 atm, because they consist of monoatomic lattices of iodine. At 100 GPa the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, of H2I and H4I are estimated to be 7.8 and 17.5 K, respectively. Lastly, the increase in Tc relative to elemental iodine results from a larger ωlog from themore » light mass of hydrogen, and an enhanced from modes containing H/I and H/H vibrations.« less

  13. An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Zhu, Wenming; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyang; Mao, Guangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150–249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy. PMID:28230748

  14. Chloroform extraction of iodine in seawater: method development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, H. B.; Glimme, A.; Tumey, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    While 129I poses little to no radiological health hazard, the isotopic ratio of 129I to stable iodine is very useful as a nearly conservative tracer for ocean mixing processes. The unfortunate disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant released many radioactive materials into the environment, including 129I. The release allows the studying of oceanic processes through the tracking of 129I. However, with such a low iodine (~0.5 micromolar) and 129I concentrations (<10-11) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is needed for accurate measurements. In order to prepare the samples of ocean water for analysis by AMS, the iodine needs to be separated from the various other salts in the seawater. Solvent extraction is the preferred method for preparation of seawater for AMS analysis of 129I. However, given the relatively low background 129I concentrations in the Pacific Ocean, we sought to optimize recovery of thismethod, which would minimize both the sample size and the carrier addition required for analysis. We started from a base method described in other research and worked towards maximum efficiency of the process while boosting the recovery of iodine. During development, we assessed each methodological change qualitatively using a color scale (I2 in CHCl3) and quantitatively using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The "optimized method" yielded a 20-40% increase in recovery of the iodine compared to the base method (80-85% recovery vs. 60%). Lastly, the "optimized method" was tested by AMS for fractionation of the extracted iodine.

  15. Low Urinary Iodine Concentrations Associated with Dyslipidemia in US Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-03-17

    Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone which plays crucial roles in healthy thyroid function and lipid metabolism. However, the association between iodine status and dyslipidemia has not been well established at a population level. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the odds of dyslipidemia including elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and lowered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL/LDL ratio are associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in a population perspective. Data of 2495 US adults (≥20 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012 were used in this study. Two subgroups (i.e., UIC below vs. above the 10th percentile) were compared of dyslipidemia as defined based on NCEP ATP III guidelines. The differences between the groups were tested statistically by chi-square test, simple linear regressions, and multiple logistic regressions. Serum lipid concentrations differed significantly between two iodine status groups when sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates were controlled (all, p < 0.05). Those with the lowest decile of UIC were more likely to be at risk for elevated total cholesterol (>200 mg/dL) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.23) and elevated LDL cholesterol (>130 mg/dL) (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11-2.23) and lowered HDL/LDL ratio (<0.4) (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18-2.33), compared to those with UIC above the 10th percentile. In US adults, low UIC was associated with increased odds for dyslipidemia. Findings of the present cross-sectional study with spot urine samples highlight the significant association between UIC and serum lipids at population level, but do not substantiate a causal relationship. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the causal relationship among iodine intakes, iodine status, and serum lipid profiles.

  16. The retention of iodine in stainless steel sample lines

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.J.; Deir, C.; Ball, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    Following an accident in a multi-unit CANDU nuclear generating station, decontamination of air vented from containment would play a critical role in minimizing the release of iodine to the environment. The concentration of gas phase iodine in containment air would be measured using the post accident radiation monitoring system, requiring that air samples be passed through a considerable length of tubing to a remote location where the desired measurements could safely be made. A significant loss of iodine, due to adsorption on the sample line surfaces, could greatly distort the measurement. In this study, the retention of I{sub 2}(g) on stainless steel was evaluated in bench scale experiments in order to evaluate, and if possible minimise, the extent of any such line losses. Experiments at the University of Toronto were performed using 6 inch lengths of 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing. Air, containing I-131 labelled I{sub 2}(g), ranging in concentration from 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}6} mol/dm{sup 3} and relative humidity (:RH) from 20 to 90 %, was passed through tubing samples maintained at temperatures ranging from 25 to 90{degrees}C. Adsorption at low gas phase iodine concentrations differed substantially from that at higher concentrations. The rate of deposition was proportional to the gas phase concentration, giving support to the concept of a first order deposition velocity. The surface loading increased with increasing relative humidity, particularly at low RH values, while the deposition rate decreased with increasing temperature. Surface water on the steel may play an important role in the deposition process. The chemisorbed iodine was located primarily in areas of corrosion. Furthermore, water used to wash the steel contained Fe, Mn and iodine in the form of iodide, suggesting that I{sub 2} reacted to form metal iodides. The deposition of I{sub 2} was also found to depend on the initial surface condition.

  17. Zero-valent iron pretreatment for detoxifying iodine in liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Cha, D K; Oh, Y K; Ko, K B; Song, J S

    2009-05-15

    This study investigated reductive transformation of iodine by zero-valent iron (ZVI), and the subsequent detoxification of iodine-laden wastewater. ZVI completely reduced aqueous iodine to non-toxic iodide. Respirometric bioassay illustrated that the presence of iodine increase the lag phase before the onset of oxygen consumption. The length of lag phase was proportional to increasing iodine dosage. The reduction products of iodine by ZVI did not exhibit any inhibitory effect on the biodegradation. The cumulative biological oxidation associated with iodine toxicity was closely fitted to Gompertz model. When iodine-laden wastewater was continuously fed to a bench-scale activated sludge unit, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from above 90% to below 80% along with a marked decrease in biomass concentration. On the other hand, the COD removal efficiency and biomass concentration remained constant in the integrated ZVI-activated sludge system. Respirometric bioassay with real iodine-laden LCD manufacturing wastewater demonstrated that ZVI was effective for detoxifying iodine and consequently enhancing biodegradability of wastewater. This result suggested that ZVI pretreatment may be a feasible option for the removal of iodine in LCD processing wastewater, instead of more costly processes such as adsorption and chemical oxidation, which are commonly in the iodine-laden LCD wastewater treatment facility.

  18. Elimination of Mental Defect Due to Iodine Deficiency by the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, Basil S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of iodine deficiency across the lifespan, with special reference to mental defect; discusses the magnitude of the problem; describes available iodine technology to control iodine deficiency disorders (IDD); and notes the status of national IDD control programs, to assess the likelihood of eliminating IDD by the year…

  19. Effect of Iodine Excess on Physical and Intellectual Growth of Chinese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupp, J. J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-six children from a high-iodine Chinese village were found to have higher goiter incidence, thyroid gland volume, and urinary/creatinine ratio than 51 children from an iodine-normal village. All children from both villages were euthyroid. Excess iodine did not substantially affect the children's physical or intellectual growth. (Author/JDD)

  20. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D.

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Use of a Mixture of Gadolinium and Iodinated Contrast for Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Badiola, Carlos M.

    2004-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the image quality of gadolinium digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can be improved by the addition of small quantities of iodinated contrast to gadolinium. The optical density (OD) of a mixture of four parts gadolinium-based contrast to one part iodinated contrast was measured through a phantom study and compared to that of full-strength gadolinium, full strength iodinated contrast, and a 20% solution of iodinated contrast. We also compared the clinical image quality of the mixture of gadolinium-based contrast and iodinated contrast relative to full-strength gadolinium and full strength iodinated contrast during DSA. The DSA image quality of the gadolinium-iodinated contrast mixture was significantly improved relative to images obtained with full-strength gadolinium and compared favorably to that obtained with full-strength iodinated contrast. The phantom data showed that the OD of the gadolinium-iodinated contrast mixture was much greater than that of full strength gadolinium and the 20% iodinated contrast solution. The increase in OD was greater than that expected from a simple additive effect of the OD of the contrast agents. Adding a small amount of iodinated contrast to gadolinium results in a significant improvement in the radiographic density and DSA image quality of gadolinium. This simple technique appears to overcome one of the major limitations of gadolinium-based angiography-poor radiographic density-while continuing to minimize the volume of administered iodinated contrast.

  2. Monoclonal gammopathy associated membranous glomerulonephritis: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Gowda, K K; Joshi, K; Ramachandran, R; Nada, R

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old male presented with nephrotic syndrome. Light microscopic analysis of the renal biopsy showed thickening of the glomerular capillary wall. Immunofluorescence examination revealed granular deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) G3-kappa and complement C3 along the glomerular basement membrane. Electron microscopy showed subepithelial electron dense deposits, thus confirming membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) with monoclonal gammopathy. MGN with monoclonal gammopathy is an extremely rare but distinctive entity. This patient was treated with a combination of bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone and showed partial remission of his nephrotic state and dysproteinemia.

  3. Simple method to quantitate iodine-124 contamination in iodine-123 radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.W.; Rao, S.A.

    1985-08-01

    Iodine-123 (/sup 123/I) produced by the /sup 124/Te(p,2n)/sup 123/I reaction contains several percent /sup 124/I radionuclidic contamination at the time of imaging. Since /sup 124/I degrades the quality of the images and causes unnecessary radiation absorbed dose to the patient, it is important to know the amount present in radiopharmaceuticals at the time of administration. A simple approach is described which uses a radionuclide dose calibrator and lead shield. The sample is assayed both shielded and unshielded and the ratio of readings depends uniquely upon the percent /sup 124/I present. The technique can be adopted for any type of dose calibrator, sample container, and Pb shield, but use of the numeric constants reported here should be restricted to the specified equipment.

  4. Structurally Defined Molecular Hypervalent Iodine Catalysts for Intermolecular Enantioselective Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Haubenreisser, Stefan; Wöste, Thorsten H.; Martínez, Claudio; Ishihara, Kazuaki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Molecular structures of the most prominent chiral non‐racemic hypervalent iodine(III) reagents to date have been elucidated for the first time. The formation of a chirally induced supramolecular scaffold based on a selective hydrogen‐bonding arrangement provides an explanation for the consistently high asymmetric induction with these reagents. As an exploratory example, their scope as chiral catalysts was extended to the enantioselective dioxygenation of alkenes. A series of terminal styrenes are converted into the corresponding vicinal diacetoxylation products under mild conditions and provide the proof of principle for a truly intermolecular asymmetric alkene oxidation under iodine(I/III) catalysis. PMID:26596513

  5. An automated water iodinating subsystem for manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, O. K.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Controlling microbial growth by injecting iodine (l2) into water supplies is a widely acceptable technique, but requires a specialized injection method for space flight. An electrochemical l2 injection method and l2 level monitor are discussed in this paper, which also describe iodination practices previously used in the manned space program and major l2 biocidal characteristics. The development and design of the injector and monitor are described, and results of subsequent experiments are presented. Also presented are expected vehicle penalties for utilizing the l2 injector in certain space missions, especially the Space Shuttle, and possible injector failure modes and their criticality.

  6. Chemistry of fission product iodine under nuclear reactor accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Bell, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The radioisotopes of iodine are generally acknowledged to be the species whose release into the biosphere as a result of a nuclear reactor accident is of the greatest concern. In the course of its release, the fission product is subjected to differing chemical environments; these can alter the physicochemical form of the fission product and thus modify the manner and extent to which release occurs. Both the chemical environments which are characteristic of reactor accidents and their effect in determining physical and chemical form of fission product iodine have been studied extensively, and are reviewed in this report. 76 refs.

  7. The chlorate-iodine-nitrous acid clock reaction.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T P; Faria, Roberto B

    2014-01-01

    A new clock reaction based on chlorate, iodine and nitrous acid is presented. The induction period of this new clock reaction decreases when the initial concentrations of chlorate, nitrous acid and perchloric acid increase, but it is independent on the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism is based on the LLKE autocatalytic mechanism for the chlorite-iodide reaction and the initial reaction between chlorate and nitrous acid to produce nitrate and chlorite. This new clock reaction opens the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions containing chlorate or nitrous acid, which in both cases has not been observed until now.

  8. The Chlorate-Iodine-Nitrous Acid Clock Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Rafaela T. P.; Faria, Roberto B.

    2014-01-01

    A new clock reaction based on chlorate, iodine and nitrous acid is presented. The induction period of this new clock reaction decreases when the initial concentrations of chlorate, nitrous acid and perchloric acid increase, but it is independent on the initial iodine concentration. The proposed mechanism is based on the LLKE autocatalytic mechanism for the chlorite-iodide reaction and the initial reaction between chlorate and nitrous acid to produce nitrate and chlorite. This new clock reaction opens the possibility for a new family of oscillating reactions containing chlorate or nitrous acid, which in both cases has not been observed until now. PMID:25313803

  9. Physiochemical Characterization of Iodine (V) Oxide: Hydration Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-15

    overall oxidation‐reduction reaction between aluminum and the various iodine (V) oxides. For comparative purposes, enthalpy of formation for HI3O8...from Reference 19. 14 Distribution A Scheme 2. Enthalpy of Reaction 10Al(s) + 3I2O5(s) → 5Al2O3(g) + 3I2(g); ΔHrxn = ‐6.04 kJ/g or... enthalpy for each of these reactions is similar when the iodine (V) oxides react with aluminum, however, the number of moles of gas produced varies

  10. Targeted treatments of radio-iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    de la Fouchardière, C

    2015-02-01

    Radio-iodine refractory metastatic thyroid cancers are rare and their management was until recently relatively complex. New therapeutic agents, kinase inhibitors, joined since the early 2000s the fight against these cancers with very promising results. These targeted agents showed for two of them (sorafenib; lenvatinib), in randomized phase III trials, a significant improvement in response rate and progressionfree survival when compared to placebo, leading to the first approval for radio-iodine refractory metastatic thyroid cancers. In parallel, patients also benefited from the development of interventional radiology techniques and organization of cares in oncology, with multidisciplinary management strengthened by the creation of a national network (TUTHYREF).

  11. Soil versus foliar iodine fertilization as a biofortification strategy for field-grown vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Patrick G.; Daum, Diemo; Czauderna, Roman; Meuser, Helmut; Härtling, Joachim W.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine (I) biofortification of vegetables by means of soil and foliar applications was investigated in field experiments on a sandy loam soil. Supply of iodine to the soil in trial plots fertilized with potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate directly before planting (0, 1.0, 2.5, 7.5, and 15 kg I ha-1) increased the iodine concentration in the edible plant parts. The highest iodine accumulation levels were observed in the first growing season: In butterhead lettuce and kohlrabi the desired iodine content [50–100 μg I (100 g FM)-1] was obtained or exceeded at a fertilizer rate of 7.5 kg IO3--I ha-1 without a significant yield reduction or impairment of the marketable quality. In contrast, supplying KI at the same rate resulted in a much lower iodine enrichment and clearly visible growth impairment. Soil applied iodine was phytoavailable only for a short period of time as indicated by a rapid decline of CaCl2-extractable iodine in the top soil. Consequently, long-term effects of a one-time iodine soil fertilization could not be observed. A comparison between the soil and the foliar fertilization revealed a better performance of iodine applied aerially to butterhead lettuce, which reached the desired iodine accumulation in edible plant parts at a fertilizer rate of 0.5 kg I--I ha-1. In contrast, the iodine content in the tuber of sprayed kohlrabi remained far below the targeted range. The results indicate that a sufficient spreading of iodine applied on the edible plant parts is crucial for the efficiency of the foliar approach and leafy vegetables are the more suitable target crops. The low iodine doses needed as well as the easy and inexpensive application may favor the implementation of foliar sprays as the preferred iodine biofortification strategy in practice. PMID:26157445

  12. Soil versus foliar iodine fertilization as a biofortification strategy for field-grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Patrick G; Daum, Diemo; Czauderna, Roman; Meuser, Helmut; Härtling, Joachim W

    2015-01-01

    Iodine (I) biofortification of vegetables by means of soil and foliar applications was investigated in field experiments on a sandy loam soil. Supply of iodine to the soil in trial plots fertilized with potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate directly before planting (0, 1.0, 2.5, 7.5, and 15 kg I ha(-1)) increased the iodine concentration in the edible plant parts. The highest iodine accumulation levels were observed in the first growing season: In butterhead lettuce and kohlrabi the desired iodine content [50-100 μg I (100 g FM)(-1)] was obtained or exceeded at a fertilizer rate of 7.5 kg IO3 (-)-I ha(-1) without a significant yield reduction or impairment of the marketable quality. In contrast, supplying KI at the same rate resulted in a much lower iodine enrichment and clearly visible growth impairment. Soil applied iodine was phytoavailable only for a short period of time as indicated by a rapid decline of CaCl2-extractable iodine in the top soil. Consequently, long-term effects of a one-time iodine soil fertilization could not be observed. A comparison between the soil and the foliar fertilization revealed a better performance of iodine applied aerially to butterhead lettuce, which reached the desired iodine accumulation in edible plant parts at a fertilizer rate of 0.5 kg I(-)-I ha(-1). In contrast, the iodine content in the tuber of sprayed kohlrabi remained far below the targeted range. The results indicate that a sufficient spreading of iodine applied on the edible plant parts is crucial for the efficiency of the foliar approach and leafy vegetables are the more suitable target crops. The low iodine doses needed as well as the easy and inexpensive application may favor the implementation of foliar sprays as the preferred iodine biofortification strategy in practice.

  13. Targeting radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma with iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection: Clinical Phase I/II trials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhinan . E-mail: chcerc2@fmmu.edu.cn; Mi Li; Xu Jing

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: HAb18G/CD147 is a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated antigen. We developed iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection (Licartin), a novel {sup 131}I-labeled HAb18G/CD147-specific monoclonal antibody F(ab'){sub 2} fragment, and evaluated its safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy on HCC in Phase I/II trials. Methods and Materials: In a Phase I trial, 28 patients were randomly assigned to receive the injection in 9.25-, 18.5-, 27.75-, or 37-MBq/kg doses by hepatic artery infusion. In a multicenter Phase II trial, 106 patients received the injection (27.75 MBq/kg) on Day 1 of a 28-day cycle. Response rate and survival rate were the endpoints. Results: No life-threatening toxic effects were found. The safe dosage was 27.75 MBq/kg. The blood clearance fitted a biphasic model, and its half-life was 90.56-63.93 h. In the Phase II trial, the injection was found to be targeted and concentrated to tumor tissues. Of the 73 patients completing two cycles, 6 (8.22%) had a partial response, 14 (19.18%) minor response, and 43 (58.90%) stable disease. The 21-month survival rate was 44.54%. The survival rate of progression-free patients was significantly higher than that of patients with progressive disease after either one or two cycles (p < 0.0001 or p 0.0019). Conclusion: Iodine ({sup 131}I) metuximab injection is safe and active for HCC patients.

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Nanobiology Program, Protein Interaction Group is seeking parties to license or co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize monoclonal antibodies against the insulin-like growth factor for the treatment of cancer.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) VITELLOGENIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have obtained a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against fathead minnow vitellogenin (Vtg) for use in sensitive ELISAs to quantify the response of exposure in vivo to estrogen or estrogen mimics.

  16. Adverse cardiac events to monoclonal antibodies used for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are currently used in the treatment of neoplastic, hematological, or inflammatory diseases, a practice that is occasionally associated with a variety of systemic and cutaneous adverse events. Cardiac adverse events include cardiomyopathy, ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, arrests, and acute coronary syndromes, such as acute myocardial infarction and vasospastic angina pectoris. These events generally follow hypersensitivity reactions including cutaneous erythema, pruritus chills, and precordial pain. Recently, IgE specific for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have been detected, pointing to the existence of hypersensitivity and Kounis hypersensitivity-associated syndrome. Therefore, the careful monitoring of cardiovascular events is of paramount importance in the course of monoclonal antibody-based therapies. Moreover, further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of cardiovascular adverse events elicited by monoclonal antibodies and to identify preventive, protective, and therapeutic measures. PMID:25340003

  17. [Povidone-iodine and isothiozolone for removing red tide algae Phaeoecystis globosa].

    PubMed

    Hong, Aihua; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Huang, Yunfeng; Qi, Yuzao; Xie, Longchu

    2003-07-01

    Studies on the removal and control of red tide algae Phaeoecystis globosa by povidone-iodine and isothiozolone algaecide showed that Phaeoecystis globosa could be killed and controlled by povidone-iodine and isothiozolone. The effective concentration of povidone-iodine was 30 mg.L-1, and that of isothiozolone was 0.30 mg.L-1. Using povidone-iodine and isothiozolone together could improve the effect, and the ideal composite ratio of povidone-iodine and isothiozolone was 1.0:0.15.

  18. The diffusion of iodine and caesium in the UO 2± x lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busker, G.; Grimes, R. W.; Bradford, M. R.

    2000-03-01

    The migration activation enthalpies of caesium and iodine in UO 2± x predicted using atomistic simulation methodology, depend greatly on fuel stoichiometry. The mechanisms for stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric fuel require uranium self-diffusion, with the exception of iodine in UO 2- x which employs an anion vacancy mechanism. The iodine post-irradiation results compare very well with the predicted activation enthalpy. In-pile iodine release experiments suggest a reduced activation enthalpy for iodine migration. The diffusion model presented allows for this result if uranium diffusion were greatly affected by the irradiation conditions.

  19. Thyroid Function Changes Related to Use of Iodinated Water in United States Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Dunn, John T.; Stanbury, John B.; Wear, Mary L.; Hamm, Peggy B.; Sauer, Richard L.; Billica, Roger D.; Pool, Sam L.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used iodination as a method of microbial disinfection of potable water systems in United States spacecraft and long-duration habitability modules. A review of the effects on the thyroid following consumption o iodinated water by NASA astronauts was conducted. Pharmacological doses of iodine consumed by astronauts transiently decreased thyroid function, as reflected in serum TSH values. Although the adverse effects of excess iodine consumption in susceptible individuals are well documented, exposure to high doses of iodine during space flight did not result in a statistically significant increase in long-term thyroid disease in the astronaut population.

  20. Iodine intake and status during pregnancy and lactation before and after government initiatives to improve iodine status, in Palmerston North, New Zealand: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brough, Louise; Jin, Ying; Shukri, Nurul Husna; Wharemate, Zirsha Roimata; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation may adversely affect fetal and infant development. Two initiatives were introduced in New Zealand to prevent deficiency: (1) mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt; and (2) provision of a subsidised iodine supplement (150 μg) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women. The aim of this study was to assess iodine intake and status among a self-selecting sample of pregnant and lactating women in Palmerston North, both before and after the two initiatives. Pregnant and breastfeeding women were recruited before (n = 25 and 32; 2009) and after (n = 34 and 36; 2011) the initiatives. Iodine concentration was determined in 24-h urine and breast milk samples using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Use of supplements and salt, knowledge of iodine deficiency, and awareness of the initiatives were determined by questionnaire. Median urine iodine concentration (UIC) was higher in 2011 compared with 2009 for both pregnant (85 and 47 μg L(-1) ) and breastfeeding (74 and 34 μg L(-1) ) participants; median UIC were below the cut-offs for adequate iodine status. However, in 2011, the estimated daily iodine intake during pregnancy was 217 μg day(-1) ; 74% of women achieved the Estimated Average Requirement. Knowledge of the initiatives was low, only 28-56% were aware of the need for iodine supplements and only 15-22% were aware of the mandatory addition of iodised salt to bread. Despite initiatives, UIC of these women indicates iodine deficiency, however, dietary intakes appear adequate. Ongoing surveillance of supplement use and iodine status among pregnant and lactating women throughout New Zealand is needed to fully assess the efficacy of the initiatives. Alternative strategies may require evaluation to ensure all women have adequate iodine during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  1. Estimation of habitual iodine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d diet records over four seasons with a newly developed food composition database for iodine.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Miura, Ayako; Todoriki, Hidemi; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-08-28

    Although habitual seaweed consumption in Japan would suggest that iodine intake in Japanese is exceptionally high, intake data from diet records are limited. In the present study, we developed a composition database of iodine and estimated the habitual intake of iodine among Japanese adults. Missing values for iodine content in the existing composition table were imputed based on established criteria. 16 d diet records (4 d over four seasons) from adults (120 women aged 30-69 years and 120 men aged 30-76 years) living in Japan were collected, and iodine intake was estimated. Habitual intake was estimated with the Best-power method. Totally, 995 food items were imputed. The distribution of iodine intake in 24 h was highly skewed, and approximately 55 % of 24 h values were < 300 μg/d. The median iodine intake in 24 h was 229 μg/d for women and 273 μg/d for men. All subjects consumed iodine-rich foods (kelp or soup stock) on one or more days of the sixteen survey days. The mean (median) habitual iodine intake was 1414 (857) μg/d for women and 1572 (1031) μg/d for men. Older participants had higher intake than younger participants. The major contributors to iodine intake were kelp (60 %) and soup stock (30 %). Habitual iodine intake among Japanese was sufficient or higher than the tolerable upper intake level, particularly in older generations. The association between high iodine intake as that observed in the present study and thyroid disease requires further study.

  2. From rabbit antibody repertoires to rabbit monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Justus; Peng, Haiyong; Rader, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we explain why and how rabbit monoclonal antibodies have become outstanding reagents for laboratory research and increasingly for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Starting with the unique ontogeny of rabbit B cells that affords highly distinctive antibody repertoires rich in in vivo pruned binders of high diversity, affinity and specificity, we describe the generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology, phage display and alternative methods, along with an account of successful humanization strategies. PMID:28336958

  3. Diffuse normolipemic plane xanthoma associated with monoclonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yoon K; Elpern, David J

    2015-10-01

    Diffuse normolipemic plane xanthoma (DNPX) was first described by Altman and Winkelmann in 1962. It is a rare and non-inherited form of xanthomatosis. Clinically, the dermatosis is characterized by the presence of symmetric yellowish-orange plaques that favor the neck, upper trunk, flexural folds and periorbital region. It has been recognized to be associated with hematological diseases, especially with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy. We present a patient with diffuse plane xanthoma, normal lipid level, and monoclonal gammopathy.

  4. Renal involvement of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease associated with an unusual monoclonal immunoglobulin A glycan profile.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Syuzou; Usui, Joichi; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Ito, Hiromi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Tsuruoka, Shuichi; Nagata, Michio; Yamagata, Kunihiro

    2010-08-01

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for the evaluation of proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and monoclonal IgA-kappa gammopathy. The initial renal pathological findings showed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with endocapillary proliferation, a necrotizing lesion, and cellular crescent formation accompanied by IgA1-kappa deposition in the mesangium. Neither typical immune-complex deposits nor organized-structure deposits were detected. We diagnosed the patient with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) associated with monoclonal IgA (mIgA). After the initiation of a monthly treatment with melphalan and predonisolone (MP therapy), the patient's serum IgA levels declined, and clinical remission was ultimately achieved. The follow-up renal biopsy showed reduced IgA-kappa staining, and both the endocapillary proliferation and the necrotizing lesion had disappeared. To elucidate the mechanism of IgA deposition, we investigated the glycan profile of the patient's serum mIgA using a mass spectrometry technique. The results revealed an unusual N-glycan profile compared to that of another patient with circulating mIgA lacking renal involvement and that of a healthy control. mIgA deposition in the mesangial area is a rare disease, and the glycan profiling of MIDD with renal involvement has not been reported previously. Thus, the present case suggests that any variation in Ig glycosylation may be a step in the pathogenesis of MIDD with renal involvement and/or contribute to some cases of IgA nephropathy.

  5. Transfers of iodine in the soil-plant-air system: Solid-liquid partitioning, migration, plant uptake adn volatilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human exposure to soil iodine depends upon the partitioning of the iodine into the, mobile, liquid and gaseous soil phases. From the liquid phase, iodine can be transported into surface- and ground-waters, plant roots, and, consequently, into the human diet. From the gaseous phase, iodine can be tra...

  6. Combating iodine deficiency: lessons from China, Indonesia, and Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chor-ching

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated the factors contributing to a successful and sustainable elimination of iodine-deficiency disorders, drawing from salt fortification experiences in China, Indonesia, and Madagascar. Government officials, salt farmers, salt producers, and wholesalers were interviewed to collect data during field visits. Analyses used in the study include simple correlation, and wherever data permit, regression. The study found that measures crucial for combating iodine deficiency include raising public awareness of the disorders, ensuring easy access to iodated salt, promoting compliance in the salt industry, and monitoring and enforcement. Factors that ensure a reliable supply of iodated salt are equally important as those that create the demand for it. Governments must ensure that surveillance and enforcement mechanisms are functioning right from the time that salt iodation is made compulsory. For sustainability during later years, the adequacy of iodine in iodated salt must be monitored, and incentives must be modified as needed to increase compliance rates in the salt industry. Once national coverage of iodated salt reaches over 90%, the government can concentrate on fine-tuning and targeting resources at areas with a low consumption of iodated salt. Elimination of micronutrient deficiencies has a long-term impact on public health; moreover, poorer segments of the population, who are more vulnerable to such deficiencies, have more to gain from fortification programs. Thus, lessons from the successful elimination of iodine-deficiency disorders are valuable for future similar micronutrient activities.

  7. Photovoltaic effect in organic polymer-iodine complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, A. M.; Rembaum, A.

    1967-01-01

    Certain charge transfer complexes formed from organic polymers and iodine generate appreciable voltages at relatively low impedances upon exposure to light. These films show promise in applications requiring chemically and electrically stable films as detectors of optical radiation and as energy converters in photovoltaic cells.

  8. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... alopecia, scaliness of the skin surface, loss of hair, seborrhea, thickening of the skin,...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... alopecia, scaliness of the skin surface, loss of hair, seborrhea, thickening of the skin,...

  10. Molecular Iodine Fluorescence Using a Green Helium-Neon Laser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Excitation of molecular iodine vapor with a green (543.4 nm) helium-neon laser produces a fluorescence spectrum that is well suited for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Application of standard evaluation techniques to the spectrum yields ground electronic-state molecular parameters in good agreement with literature…

  11. Iodine-Catalyzed Synthesis of Mixed Cellulose Esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel method for the preparation of cellulose mixed acetate is described herein, involving the concurrent use of iodine and mixed anhydride. The method is simple, rapid, efficient, and solvent-less. With this method, cellulose mixed esters has been synthesized. ...

  12. Alkynylation of heterocyclic compounds using hypervalent iodine reagent.

    PubMed

    Kamlar, M; Císařová, I; Veselý, J

    2015-03-14

    The alkynylation of various nitrogen- and/or sulphur-containing heterocyclic compounds using hypervalent iodine TMS-EBX by utilization of tertiary amines under mild conditions is described. The developed metal-free methodology furnishes the corresponding alkynylated heterocycles bearing quaternary carbon in high yields.

  13. Iodine in food and dietary supplement composition databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a number of years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their e...

  14. Labeling of indocyanine green with carrier-free iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Ansari, Azizullah N.; Lambrecht, Richard M.; Redvanly, Carol S.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1976-01-01

    The method of labeling indocyanine green (ICG) with carrier-free iodine-123 comprising the steps of condensing xenon-123 on crystals of ICG followed by permitting decay of the .sup.123 Xe a sufficient length of time to produce .sup.123 I-electronically excited ions and atoms which subsequently label ICG.

  15. A Molecular Iodine Spectral Data Set for Rovibronic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Kafader, Rachael A.

    2013-01-01

    A data set of 7,381 molecular iodine vapor rovibronic transitions between the X and B electronic states has been prepared for an advanced undergraduate spectroscopic analysis project. Students apply standard theoretical techniques to these data and determine the values of three X-state constants (image omitted) and four B-state constants (image…

  16. Amplified spontaneous emission in solar-pumped iodine laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Yong S.; Hwang, In H.; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1992-01-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from a long pulse, solar-simulating radiation pumped iodine laser amplifier is studied. The ASE threshold pump intensity is almost proportional to the inverse of the laser gain length when the gas pressure is constant in the laser tube.

  17. Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOEpatents

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-07-14

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  18. An economical method for the continuous production of iodine-123

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, J. W.; Smith, W. R.; Sodd, V. J.

    1968-01-01

    Simple and inexpensive method produces iodine 123, in a conventional cyclotron. Tellurium 122, a stable isotope available in enrichments exceeding 95 percent, is held on a porous metal plate by a flowing stream of helium and bombarded with either alpha particles or helium 3.

  19. Determination of iodine in human milk and infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, Luisa Maria; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Fraga-Bermudez, José Maria; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine iodine in human milk and infant formulas using ICP-MS. The milk samples were digested using an alkaline digestion (5% NH(3), 45 W, 2 min and 30s), and the method was validated using a certified reference material (CRM) BCR CRM151. On the other hand the milk was separated in three fractions, whey, fat and caseins using ultracentrifugation (15 min, 4 degrees C, 50,000 rpm) and the iodine was determined in the different fractions. About 27 samples of different infant formulas and 14 samples of human milk have been studied. In the human milk the values found were between 144+/-93.2 microg kg(-1), whereas in the infant formulas the values were 53.3+/-19.5. For both types of samples the bigger amount of iodine is in the whey fraction, between 80% and 90%, whereas in the fat there is about a 2% of the total iodine and in the casein fraction the levels are between 5% and 10% depending on the type of sample.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid using an iodinated derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Puizillout, J.J.; Delaage, M.A.

    1981-06-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the main catabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), was developed by using specific antibodies and iodinated derivative. The synthesis of a /sup 125/I-iodinated analog was performed by coupling 5-HIAA to (125I-)glycyl-tyrosine without any contact between 5-HIAA and iodine or chloramine T. It was purified on a G25 Sephadex column and diluted in citrate buffer up to 2.5 X 10(5) cpm/ml. Antibodies were obtained by coupling 5-HIAA to human serum albumin with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide and tested by equilibrium dialysis. After the third immunogen injection, the four rabbits gave antisera capable of binding 50% of iodinated 5-HIIA-glycyl-tyrosine at 1/2000 final dilution. A chemical conversion of the biological samples gives to the antigen molecules a better resemblance to the immunogen, thus conferring a 100-fold gain in specificity and sensitivity. This assay allows 5-HIAA to be determined in small amounts of tissue, blood, cerebrospinal fluid or perfusate without purification with a sensitivity threshold below 0.1 ng. Some applications in cat and rat are presented.